WorldWideScience

Sample records for refuse derived fuels

  1. Refuse derived fuel potential in DKI Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatmoko, H.

    2018-01-01

    Combustible waste fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) which can not be easily separated or sorted, reused or recycled, may have a high calorifiv value (CV) that can be used in a fuel for energy recovery. The objective of this study was to explore the Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) potential of municipal solid waste from DKI Jakarta to produce electricity and to promote it to be socially and politically acceptable. For this purpose, 24 sampels of RDF were taken from Bantargebang, cabonized, molded and pressed to be briquette. All samples were analized for moisture, ash, and calorific value in the physical and chemistry Laboratory of ITB Bandung. The analysis of calorific value (CV) shows the CV difference of 1815.8 cal/g between the briquettes (8051.25 cal/g) and the RDF (9867.12 cal/g. The total waste DKI which can be used as briquettes 5253 ton / day or equivalent with 49154115 kWh / day. If the efficiency of electricity production from RDF was 25%, then Jakarta is able to generate electricity from RDF of 12288529 kWh / day or as much as energy needed by 573,480 middle-class households with energy needs of 642.84 kWh/month.

  2. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  3. Power generation from refuse derived fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surroop, Dinesh; Mohee, Romeela

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The beginning of the third millennium has been characterized by a progressive increase in the demand for fossil fuels, which has caused a steep rise in oil price. At the same time, several environmental disasters have increased the sensitivity of world-wide public opinion towards the effect that environmental pollution has on human health and climate change. These conditions have fostered a renewed interest in renewable energy like solar energy, wind energy, biomass and solid wastes. In addition, the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a critical and costly problem. The traditional landfill method requires large amounts of land and contaminates air, water and soil. The increase in socio-economic condition during the past ten years has also significantly increased the amount of solid waste generated. There are around 1200 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated daily, of which the combustibles namely plastics, paper and textile waste represent 28%, and with the present generation rate, the landfill will be filled by 2012. The study was, therefore, initiated to assess the potential of power generation from refused derived fuels (RDF) from municipal solid waste (MSW) in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. There are 336 tons which is equivalent to 12 tons/ h of RDF that can be generated daily from the MSW and this would generate 19.2 MW power. There will be 312 kg/ h of ash that would be generated and the NO x and SO 2 concentration were found to be 395.5 and 43.3 mg/ Nm 3 respectively. It was also found that the amount of non-biogenic CO 2 produced was 471 g/ kWhe. (author)

  4. Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2013-09-01

    This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New techniques for the characterization of refuse-derived fuels and solid recovered fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Vera Susanne; Lehmann, Annekatrin; Marzi, Thomas; Möhle, Edda; Schingnitz, Daniel; Hoffmann, Gaston

    2011-02-01

    Solid recovered fuel (SRF) today refers to a waste-derived fuel meeting defined quality specifications, in terms of both origin (produced from non-hazardous waste) and levels of certain fuel properties. Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) nowadays is more used for unspecified waste after a basic processing to increase the calorific value and therefore this term usually refers to the segregated, high calorific fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial or industrial wastes. In comparison with conventional fuels, both types of secondary fuel show waste of inherently varying quality and an increased level of waste-specific contaminants.The transition from RDF to SRF in the emerging national and European market requires a quality assurance system with defined quality parameters and analytical methods to ensure reliable fuel characterization. However, due to the quality requirements for RDF and SRF, the current standardized analysis methods often do not meet these practical demands. Fast test methods, which minimize personnel, financial and time efforts and which are applicable for producers as well as users can be an important supporting tool for RDF- and SRF-characterization. Currently, a fast test system based on incineration and correlation analyses which enable the determination of relevant fuel parameters is under development. Fast test methods are not aimed at replacing current standardized test methods, but have to be considered as practical supporting tools for the characterization of RDF and SRF.

  6. Refuse derived fuels in Cement Kilns: Italian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Borghi, M.; Strazza, C.; Del Borghi, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the results of a year (2006) of air emissions gathering in the various Italian cement plants, and, in particular, on 73 kilns subdivided by production class, kiln type and alternative fuels use for type and quantity. The emission parameters considered have been: total dust, SO 2 , NOx, CO, TOC, HCl, HF, metals, PAH and PCDD/F. The work has involved a comparison between the results of the average concentrations detected for the various pollutants, separately for the plants using only traditional fuels and using also alternative fuels. The obtained results show that the use of alternative fuels by the 22 kilns investigated has not any influence on the emission values of the pollutants examined; on the contrary, in certain cases these emissions result less than the limits legally allowed for the use of traditional fuels. A comparison between the results obtained from the Italian kilns and those published by Cembureau from 200 European kilns, confirms that the emission performances of cement kilns appear independent for the use of alternative fuels with the percentages usually employed. This study also highlights the benefits on the global environmental balance for the use of RDF as alternative fuel. [it

  7. Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuels; Foerbraenning av utsorterade avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Christer; Myringer, Aase; Helgesson, Anna [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eskilsson, David; Ekvall, Annika [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this project was to increase the understanding of opportunities and problems connected with combustion of sorted waste fractions containing paper, wood and plastics (PWP-fuel) in fluidized bed boilers. An evaluation of the effect of sulphur containing additives in a PWP-fuel fired boiler was also performed within the project since this is not previously reported in open literature. The experience from two boilers at different plants, Johannes (BFB) and Hoegdalen P6 (CFB) during the firing season 2003/2004 was documented. In the Johannes boiler the main fuel is bark while Hoegdalen P6 combusts 100 % PWP-fuel. Analysis of the fuels shows that there are large differences between the two boilers. At Johannes the PWP-fuel contained low amounts of elements (chlorine, alkali and other metals) that are expected to result in increased operational problems or emissions. A large proportion of these unwanted elements came from the wood and paper fractions. The plastic fraction in Johannes had very low levels of unwanted elements. The fuel at Hoegdalen contained large amounts of elements such as chlorine, alkali and other metals that can cause operational problems. First of all the plastic fraction contained large amounts of chlorine, most likely from PVC, which results in a more corrosive atmosphere in the boiler. The fraction of fines in the Hoegdalen fuel contained larger concentrations of potassium and sodium compared with the other fuel fractions, substances that also are related to the formation of deposits. The fraction of fines in the fuel probably also results in combustion taking place high up in the boiler and to some extent continuing in the cyclones. The characterisation of the combustion behaviour performed in Johannes identified a maldistribution in O{sub 2}, CO and gas temperature over a cross-section of the furnace. This was not depending on the fuel mixture but is more likely depending on uneven fuel feeding or air distribution. A comparison between

  8. CO-COMBUSTION OF REFUSE DERIVED FUEL WITH COAL IN A FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. WAN AB KARIM GHANI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology which utilizes municipal solid waste-based refused derived fuel. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from refuse derived fuel was co-fired with coal in a 0.15 m diameter and 2.3 m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and carbon monoxide emissions were studied and compared with those from pure coal combustion. This study proved that the blending effect had increased the carbon combustion efficiency up to 12% as compared to single MSW-based RDF. Carbon monoxide levels fluctuated between 200-1600 ppm were observed when coal is added. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of biomass with coal can be achieved with minimum modification of existing coal-fired boilers.

  9. Fluidized bed combustion of refuse-derived fuel in presence of protective coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, Eduardo [CIRCE, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna, 3, Zaragoza (Spain); Aho, Martti [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Silvennoinen, Jaani; Nurminen, Riku-Ville [Kvaerner Power, P.O.Box 109, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) alone or together with other biomass leads to superheater fouling and corrosion in efficient power plants (with high steam values) due to vaporization and condensation of alkali chlorides. In this study, means were found to raise the portion of RDF to 40% enb without risk to boilers. This was done by co-firing RDF with coal and optimizing coal quality. Free aluminum silicate in coal captured alkalies from vaporized alkali chlorides preventing Cl condensation to superheaters. Strong fouling and corrosion were simultaneously averted. Results from 100 kW and 4 MW CFB reactors are reported. (author)

  10. Performance Analysis of Cofiring Densified Refuse Derived Fuel in a Military Boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Use of Waste Oils to Improve Densified Refuse-Derived Fuel 79 Study of the State of the Art of Dioxin from Corbustion Sour ,-es 81 Numerical...very large hammermills for shredu-,nt ii -et re C strean . Tne suitability of this technique has beer . : , 1:d aeauie of its undesirable proper- ,V.>- ir...oe iut- fraction while reducing the hrsepower requiie:: ,. ht uuty shredders have -c-en used as a pfre -. . :-r,der-s have not beer perfected wnich

  11. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvagno, S.; Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products

  12. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste by refuse derived fuel production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaz Saheri; Noorezlin Ahmad Baseri; Masoud Aghajani Mir; Malmasi Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) is so beneficial both for the energy and for the positive environmental implications. Mainly related to the saving of primary energy derived from fossil fuel. Malaysia as a fast growing population country has the average amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated around 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day and it has been increased to 1.7 kg/person/day in major cities. Regarding characterization exercise, the main parts of the Malaysian MSW were found to be food, paper and plastic, which made up almost 80 % of the waste by weight. Furthermore, the average moisture content of the MSW was about 55 %, making incineration a challenging mission. In addition waste sectors in Malaysia contributes to 1.3 million ton of CH 4 compare to total CH 4 emission which is 2.2 MT. In order to overcome waste problem considering other technical, environmental and economical methods seems to be necessarily. Resource recovery centers recovers the maximum proportion of recyclable and recoverable resources from the mixed municipal solid waste .The resource recovery process itself is one of the step-by-step segregation and elimination of all non-combustibles , and separation of the combustibles in the desired form of fuel for good combustion. Then, a further mechanical separation process converts combustible materials to refuse derived fuel (RDF) with moisture content between 20 and 30 % and an average calorific fuel value of about 3450 kcal/kg. So, the aim of this paper is taking into account resource recovery from waste using refuse derived fuel as a secondary resource with regarding advantages and disadvantages of this kind of energy production in Malaysia as a developing country. (author)

  13. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagland, S.T.; Kilgallon, P.; Coveney, R.; Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  14. Refuse-derived fuel as a secondary energy in Taiwan - Using Hotelling space allocation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwodong Wey; Sheueching Hong

    2006-01-01

    Most Taiwanese farmers usually blend rice straws into the soil after harvest. However, rice straws possess great thermal energy, which can be used to produce refuse-derived fuel (RDF-5). As Taiwan faces energy shortage, the development benefits of the RDF-5 industry are tempting. This study employs the Hotelling model to design the locations and the optimal numbers of RDF-5 plants. From the technology and material supply point of view, turning waste rice straws into RDF-5 is feasible in Taiwan. Nevertheless, from the business operation perspective, even if the RDF-5 plant is willing to lower its profit rate, its selling price is still hard to compete with imported RDF-5. If the Taiwanese government decides to pursue RDF-5 as an alternative energy, they might need to take a step further to subsidize entrepreneurs or provide appropriate tax benefits. Otherwise, the RDF-5 industry is hard to survive in Taiwan. (Author)

  15. Separation of harmful impurities from refuse derived fuels (RDF) by a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, B; Mrotzek, A; Wirtz, S

    2014-02-01

    In firing systems of cement production plants and coal-fired power plants, regular fossil fuels are increasingly substituted by alternative fuels. Rising energy prices and ambitious CO2-reduction goals promote the use of alternative fuels as a significant contribution to efficient energy recovery. One possibility to protect energy resources are refuse-derived fuels (RDF), which are produced during the treatment of municipal solid, commercial and industrial waste. The waste fractions suitable for RDF have a high calorific value and are often not suitable for material recycling. With current treatment processes, RDF still contains components which impede the utilization in firing systems or limit the degree of substitution. The content of these undesired components may amount to 4 wt%. These, in most cases incombustible particles which consist of mineral, ceramic and metallic materials can cause damages in the conveying systems (e. g. rotary feeder) or result in contaminations of the products (e. g. cement, chalk). Up-to-date separation processes (sieve machine, magnet separator or air classifier) have individual weaknesses that could hamper a secure separation of these particles. This article describes a new technology for the separation of impurities from refuse derived fuels based on a rotating fluidized bed. In this concept a rotating motion of the particle bed is obtained by the tangential injection of the fluidization gas in a static geometry. The RDF-particles experience a centrifugal force which fluidized the bed radially. The technical principle allows tearing up of particle clusters to single particles. Radially inwards the vertical velocity is much lower thus particles of every description can fall down there. For the subsequent separation of the particles by form and density an additionally cone shaped plate was installed in the centre. Impurities have a higher density and a compact form compared to combustible particles and can be separated with a high

  16. A preliminary evaluation of a combined tire- and refuse-derived fuel (TDF-RDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stessel, R.I.; Amari, T.; Themelis, N.J.; Wearnick, I.K.

    1999-07-01

    In dense urban areas of the US, it is now becoming clear that waste management is far from economically-optimum. Even with the popularity of inexpensive land disposal, hauling and recycling costs are driving up the average waste bill. An historic option has been refuse-derived fuel, or RDF. Difficulties included low energy content and difficulty obtaining uniformity. Today, many resource-recovery technologies used in RDF are finding their way into materials recovery facilities (MRFs), some of which are reviving the automated processing of waste. Any MRF, automated or not, will have residue streams. Currently, one of the most significant problems is waste tires. Local options are difficult to locate in dense urban areas. As fuels, tires typically have energy contents considerably above those for which most solid-fuel combustors are designed, leading to thermal imbalances and various forms of failure. This paper suggests a new fuel that can be either co-fired with coal, or used in its own right in a combustor primarily designed for coal: TDF-RDF. A preliminary examination is undertaken of thermal and emissions characteristics, and possible costs for a few applications of the fuel. Immediately, TDF is already cleaner-burning than many coals, even in sulfur emissions. RDF has been widely-regarded as being similarly cleanly. Posited MRF residue streams should be still cleaner, and more consistent, than RDF. Overall, there is quite a potential for developing a fuel that would allow old coal powerplants in historic urban centers to be better neighbors, while helping with a few problems in municipal waste management.

  17. Predicting the calorific value of refuse derived fuel from the characteristics of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Norasalwa Zakaria; Khaironie Mohd Takip; Rohyiza Ba'an

    2006-01-01

    The Imposing need to manage the municipal solid waste generated by society in a proper manner has urged municipalities to look into new management methods, which are not only environmentally friendly but also economically profitable. One such way is by converting this waste material into fuel. Currently, Kajang in the State of Selangor, Malaysia, generates about 700 tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) a day. Due to rapid development, lack of land area for new landfill and the environmental impact of raw landfills, the local municipal council has collaborated with a local company in the management of this waste. The company has proposed to convert the MSW to Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). In view of this, a pilot plant to convert MSW to RDF was erected by the company and begun operation in January 2002. This pilot plant has the capability of converting 15 tons of MSW to 5 tons of RDF. At the same time studies, have been carried out to assess the plant performance, the flue gas analysis, and also the MSW and RDF characteristic. This paper will highlight the findings of the MSW and RDF characterization work carried out over the past year. Sampling and analysis was carried in accordance with ASTM standards. Results of the waste analysis showed that the calorific value of the resulting RDF could be predicted from the physical characteristics as well as the moisture content. Regression analysis on the available data has been used to create equations relating the proximate composition and moisture content of the incoming municipal solid waste to the calorific value of the RDF

  18. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. Copyright

  19. Study of the feasibility of mixing Refuse Derived Fuels with wood pellets through the grey and Fuzzy theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.C.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J.; Patino, D.; Granada, E.; Collazo, J. [Universidad de Vigo E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n. Dpto. Ing. Mecanica Maquinas y Motores Termicos, 36200 Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents a combined grey relational and fuzzy analysis for the evaluation of the environmental feasibility of burning mixtures of pellet and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) in a small pellet boiler-stove. RDF is obtained from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and contains a biomass fraction and a non-organic fraction (plastic). As a first step, both fuels are characterized to define their properties. A special feeding system is also used to improve the stove plant and to facilitate pellet distribution, which maintains a constant rate between the two fuels. Small scale energy converters, such as chimneys, boilers, stoves, etc., which produce heat and/or hot water by burning biomass (wood, pellets, briquettes, etc.), are especially suited to domestic purposes. However, in common commercial combustion conditions, this kind of use still has some disadvantages: some emissions (volatile organic carbons, carbon monoxide or NO{sub x}) may still be high, and it is difficult to compare the quality and performance of equipment working in very different combustion conditions. The grey relational analysis of different energy and emission variables leads to the definition of a new single variable called the grey relational grade (GRG). Thus, evaluation and optimisation of complicated multiple responses can be converted into the optimisation of a standardised single variable. The aim of the work is to research the most feasible mixture of pellets according to a grey relational analysis, taking into consideration energy-related, financial and environmental aspects. (author)

  20. The combustion characteristics of refuse derived fuels using coke/waste tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M.H. [Dep. of Mechanical Eng., Samcheok Nat' l Univ., Samcheok (Korea); Shin, D.Y. [Research Center for Advanced Mineral Aggregate Composite Products, Kangwon Nat' l Univ., Chuncheon (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    Today every nation faces serious problems of energy supply. Reasonable technologies to make use of coal (including coke) can not only help the mining-related economy which is showing a downward trend but also may fit in with the governmental energy policy. In this research, we aim to supply heating systems in factories, homes, and farms with a substitute fuel by developing coke/waste tire compound fuel with high efficiency for rational use of energy and for recycling of industrial products. A coke/waste boiler was used for this experiment, and different kinds of fuel were experimented including coke, waste tire, coke/waste A and coke/waste B. Four kinds of exhaust gas were also sampled by a gas analyzer, including CO, CO{sub 2}, NO and NO{sub 2} at different temperatures. (orig.)

  1. Comparative Study on Characteristics and Potential of Rice Straws and Dry Leaves as a Binder in Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulhafizal Othman; Lias, K.; Hashim, N.H.; Clement, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated waste management systems are one of the greatest challenges in order to develop the green environment. In this research, two types of binder were chosen in producing of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) which is rice straws and dry leaves. The objective of the research is to identify which types of binder that can give the optimum performance. This two binder was mixed with paper and plastic waste with controlled mixing ratio which is 3:1 (ratio 1), 3:1.5(ratio 2) and 3:2 (ratio 3). In order to identify the optimum ratio of RDF, 45 number of samples was prepared and their properties such as moisture content, carbon content, sulfur content, chlorine content and calorific value were evaluated. Result indicated that samples with rice straw as a binder give the optimum result with the ratio of 3:1. The optimum values of the carbon content is 50.9 %, moisture content is 5.5 %, chlorine content is 0.0 %, sulfur content is 2.1 % and calorific value is 29.0 MJ/ kg. Hence, rice straws shows a great potential to be used as binder in production of RDF. (author)

  2. Production and characterization refuse derived fuel (RDF) from high organic and moisture contents of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianda, P.; Mahidin; Munawar, E.

    2018-03-01

    Many cities in developing countries is facing a serious problems to dealing with huge municipal solid waste (MSW) generated. The main approach to manage MSW is causes environmental impact associated with the leachate and landfill gas emissions. On the other hand, the energy available also limited by rapid growth of population and economic development due to shortage of the natural resource. In this study, the potential utilized of MSW to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) was investigate. The RDF was produced with various organic waste content. Then, the RDF was subjected to laboratory analysis to determine its characteristic including the calorific value. The results shows the moisture content was increased by increasing organic waste content, while the calorific value was found 17-36 MJ/kg. The highest calorific value was about 36 MJ/kg obtained at RDF with 40% organic waste content. This results indicated that the RDF can be use to substitute coal in main burning process and calcinations of cement industry.

  3. Potensi Material Sampah Combustible pada Zona Pasif TPA Jatibarang Semarang sebagai Bahan Baku RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Natasya Hutabarat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Peningkatan jumlah timbulan sampah menyebabkan meningkatnya kebutuhan lahan pada TPA Jatibarang. Untuk menghindari terjadinya kekurangan lahan perlu dilakukan penanganan pada sampah yakni dengan mengubah sampah menjadi sumber energi seperti bahan baku RDF (Refused Derived Fuel. RDF merupakan salah satu teknik penanganan sampah dengan mengubah sampah menjadi sesuatu yang bermanfaat yaitu bahan bakar. Sampah tersebut dapat dimanfaatkan menjadi bahan baku RDF dengan cara menganalisis nilai kalor yang dihasilkan. Untuk menganalisis nilai kalor pada sampah combustible zona pasif TPA Jatibarang dapat dilakukan dengan cara pengujian sampel sebanyak 100 gram dengan alat bom kalorimeter. Sampel tersebut diambil pada kedalaman 0-3 m dengan metode random sampling. Kemudian akan didapat nilai kalor tinggi yang dihasilkan sampel tersebut. Nilai Kalor Tinggi yang dihasilkan sampel tersebut sebesar 5,25 kkal/ton pada kedalaman 0-1 m, 5,76 kkal/ton pada kedalaman 1-2 m dan 6,31 kkal/ton pada kedalaman 2-3 m. Nilai kalor tinggi yang dihasilkan sampah combustible tersebut menunjukkan bahwa semakin rendah kedalaman sampah maka akan semakin tinggi nilai kalor yang dihasilkan dan sampah tersebut berpotensi sebagai bahan baku RDF.

  4. Effects of low-temperature pretreatment on enhancing properties of refuse-derived fuel via microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Han-Qing; Zhou, Yue-Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Jian-Wen

    2017-07-01

    The present study focuses on pretreatment of enhancing the properties of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) via low-temperature microwave irradiation. These improved properties include lower chlorine content, a more porous surface structure and better combustion characteristics. In this study, low-temperature microwave irradiation was carried out in a modified microwave apparatus and the range of temperature was set to be 220-300℃. We found that the microwave absorbability of RDF was enhanced after being partly carbonized. Moreover, with the increasing of the final temperature, the organochlorine removal ratio was greatly increased to 80% and the content of chlorine was dramatically decreased to an extremely low level. It was also interesting to find that the chlorine of RDF was mainly released as HCl rather than organic chloride volatiles. The finding is just the same as the polyvinyl chloride pyrolysis process. In addition, pores and channels emerged during the modifying operation and the modified RDF has better combustibility and combustion stability than traditional RDF. This work revealed that low-temperature modification of RDF via microwave irradiation is significant for enhancing the quality of RDF and avoiding HCl erosion of equipment substantially.

  5. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 'Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States', the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD 50 < 10 μg/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants

  6. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  7. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) plasma torch gasification as a feasible route to produce low environmental impact syngas for the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Fleiger, Kristina; Schäfer, Stefan; Antoñanzas, Javier; Irazustabarrena, Ane; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma torch gasification (PTG) is currently researched as a technology for solid waste recovery. However, scientific studies based on evaluating its environmental implications considering the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology are lacking. Therefore, this work is focused on comparing the environmental effect of the emissions of syngas combustion produced by refuse derived fuel (RDF) and PTG as alternative fuels, with that related to fossil fuel combustion in the cement industry. To obtain real data, a semi-industrial scale pilot plant was used to perform experimental trials on RDF-PTG.The results highlight that PTG for waste to energy recovery in the cement industry is environmentally feasible considering its current state of development. A reduction in every impact category was found when a total or partial substitution of alternative fuel for conventional fuel in the calciner firing (60 % of total thermal energy input) was performed. Furthermore, the results revealed that electrical energy consumption in PTG is also an important parameter from the LCA approach. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) production and gasification in a pilot plant integrated with an Otto cycle ICE through Aspen plus™ modelling: Thermodynamic and economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Násner, Albany Milena Lozano; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Rocha, Mateus Henrique; Restrepo, Julian Camilo; Venturini, Osvaldo José; Ratner, Albert

    2017-11-01

    This work deals with the development of a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification pilot plant using air as a gasification agent. A downdraft fixed bed reactor is integrated with an Otto cycle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Modelling was carried out using the Aspen Plus™ software to predict the ideal operational conditions for maximum efficiency. Thermodynamics package used in the simulation comprised the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model and the Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) equation of state. As expected, the results indicated that the Equivalence Ratio (ER) has a direct influence over the gasification temperature and the composition of the Raw Produced Gas (RPG), and effects of ER over the Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Cold Gasification Efficiency (CGE) of the RPG are also discussed. A maximum CGE efficiency of 57-60% was reached for ER values between 0.25 and 0.3, also an average reactor temperature values in the range of 680-700°C, with a peak LHV of 5.8MJ/Nm 3 . RPG was burned in an ICE, reaching an electrical power of 50kW el . The economic assessment of the pilot plant implementation was also performed, showing the project is feasible, with power above 120kW el with an initial investment of approximately US$ 300,000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Health and environmental effects of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production and RDF/coal co-firing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, J.J.; Wessels, T.E.; Lynch, J.F.; Fassel, V.A.; Lembke, L.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Norton, G.A.; Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.; Dekalb, E.L.; Dobosy, R.J.

    1981-10-01

    Six facilities, representing the scope of different co-firing techniques with their associated RDF production systems were reviewed in detail for combustion equipment, firing modes, emission control systems, residue handling/disposal, and effluent wastewater treatment. These facilities encompass all currently operational or soon to be operational co-firing plants and associated RDF production systems. Occupational health and safety risks for these plants were evaluated on the basis of fatal and nonfatal accidents and disease arising from the respective fuel cycles, coal and RDF. Occupational risks include exposure to pathogenic organisms in the workplace. Unusual events that are life threatening in the RDF processing industry (e.g., explosions) are also discussed and remedial and safety measures reviewed. 80 refs., 4 figs., 30 tabs.

  10. Process for producing a fuel suitable for degassing from refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzberger, J

    1975-11-20

    Utilization of the heat energy of refuse in waste incineration plants is time-consuming and expensive due to high investment and operation costs. The inventor recommends to process the refuse to a sterile, handy and storable fuel. For this propose the refuse should be crushed, kneaded and pressed. The briquettes produced in this way should be dried.

  11. The development of municipal solid waste treatment technology based on refuse derived fuel and bio-gasification integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2006-01-01

    The amount of MSW generated in big cities in Malaysia is very alarming. In Kuala Lumpur, the total waste generated is about 2,500 t/day. The existing landfills are being overused and should have been closed by now. However, till today, the solution is not really in place. The Government is planning to build a 1200 t/day Gasification and Ash Melting (GAMF) plant to partially resolve the above problem in Kuala Lumpur. However, even though environmentally rated as one of the best, technology is not cheap, thus failed to meet the BATNEEC concept. Currently, the Government, through the Strategic Master Plan, encourages the development of local technologies that are cheap and yet comply to international standards. As such, a private company, Recycle Energy Sdn Bhd (RESB), took the initiative to develop the RDF from Malaysian MSW. MINT Incineration and Renewable Energy Center (MIREC) has been commissioned to collaborate in the development of this technology, together with Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). A 15 t/day pilot scale RDF plant was established in 2001 in Kajang, to refine the concept as well as to establish more data. One year later, the company was given permission by the Government to set up a 700 t/day commercial facility in Semenyih, based on early success of the pilot testing done in Kajang. The integration of RDF, Anaerobic Digester and Fuel Cell Technology is adopted to generate in house power and export to the national grid, besides recycling a portion of the waste materials. This integration seems to be the best environmental as well as economic option that complies to BATNEEC concept. This paper highlights and discusses the issues and challenges in the process of developing RDF technology, both at the pilot scale R and D as well as the commercial scale plant planning

  12. Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage-sludge, saw-dust and refuse derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof; Weber, Roman [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology

    2008-07-01

    Blends of a South African bituminous ''Middleburg'' coal and three alternative fuels (a municipal sewage-sludge, a saw-dust and a refuse derived fuel) have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on slagging propensity of the mixtures. Two kinds of deposition probes have been used, un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes. Distinct differences in physical and chemical structures of the deposits collected using the un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes have been observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on un-cooled ceramic deposition probes were characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage-sludge with coal. Porous, sintered (not molten) but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probe during co-firing of coal/saw-dust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower surface temperatures (550-700 C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher temperatures (1100-1300 C) since the higher temperature ash agglomerated and sintered much faster than the low temperature deposit. (orig.)

  13. Effects of the preparation process on the quality of refuse-derived fuels: The example of chlorine; Einfluss der Aufbereitung auf die Qualitaet der Ersatzbrennstoffe am Beispiel von Chlor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, T.; Roetter, S.; Bilitewski, B. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The different interest groups (environmental authorities, licensing authorities, producers and users of refuse-derived fuels) have different guidelines, proposals and product specifications for quality assurance. While the limiting values for heavy metals reflect the controversial positions of the parties concerned, limiting values for chlorine are generally set at less than 1 percent by weight. This is not an ecological consideration but derives from the technical aspects of safe operation in the industries concerned. [German] Fuer die Guetesicherung von Ersatzbrennstoffen liegen von den beteiligten Interessengruppen (Umweltaemter, Genehmigungsbehoerden, Hersteller und Anwender von Ersatzbrennstoffen) verschiedene Grenzwerte als Richtlinien, Vorschlaege und Produktspezifikationen vor. Waehrend die Werte fuer Schwermetalle die teilweise kontraere Positionen der Beteiligten widerspiegeln, besteht fuer den Parameter Chlor dagegen eine einheitliche Spezifikation von <1 Gew.-% (wf). Dieser Wert ergibt sich nicht in erster Linie aus oekologischen Anforderungen, sondern ist vielmehr an technischen Aspekten der Betriebssicherheit beim Einsatz in den Anwenderindustrien orientiert. (orig.)

  14. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  16. Status quo of energy recovery from waste in special industrial facilities and evaluation of the environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) in cement kilns in Germany; Untersuchung der Umweltauswirkungen des Einsatzes von Abfaellen ausserhalb thermischer Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwast, H.; Marton, C.; Koepp, M.

    2001-10-01

    Within the study presented here the use of energy recovery from waste was analysed for several industrial facilities, focussing on cement plants, kilns in the lime and gypsum industry, steel works and plants for the production of non ferrous metals. 44 German cement plants dispose of an own clinker production. Presently 31 plants have a permit for recovering energy from waste. The total permitted capacity for energy recovery in German cement kilns amounts to nearly 2,6 Mio. t/a. Mainly waste oil, old tyres, fuel derived from processed production-specific and municipal waste, plastics, scrap wood and waste paper are co-incinerated. In 1998/99 a total amount of roughly 945.000 t refuse was processed in 30 units of the studied facilities. In five furnaces at three steel works waste can be used for energy or material recovery. The approved total capacity of high calorific waste for energy recovery comes to nearly 350,000 t/a. Especially industrial plastics and packaging waste from DSD, plastics processed in scrap mills and shreddered waste and granulated paint sludge are used. In 1998 the facilities processed only old plastic, representing a total amount of nearly 109.000 t. At present seven facilities in the non ferrous metal industry have a permit for energy recovery from waste. The maximum capacity amounts on national level to nearly 140.000 t/a. Especially waste oil, packaging waste, plastics and scrap wood can be processed. The analysis of respective applications of the 17th BImSchV shows an inconsistency within the amending permitting procedures. For the time to come a conformity between the respective regional permitting authorities would be recommendable. Moreover, the effects on air emission caused by using waste for energy recovery were analysed for cement kilns with own clinker production. Due to the amendment of the 17th BImSchV more stringent requirements regarding waste composition must be established. This is especially valid for the highly volatile

  17. Description of different techniques and their potentials of development for the reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of waste incinerators and refuse-derived fuel-fired power plants in terms of performance, cost and power consumption; Beschreibung unterschiedlicher Techniken und deren Entwicklungspotentiale zur Minderung von Stickstoffoxiden im Abgas von Abfallverbrennungsanlagen und Ersatzbrennstoff-Kraftwerken hinsichtlich Leistungsfaehigkeit, Kosten und Energieverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Michael [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    On 22nd July, 2002 the European Parliament passes the sixth Environmental Action Programme of the European Community. According to this Programme, the environmental pollution can be reduced to a level at which adverse effects on human health have to be reduced. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration describes various techniques and their development potential for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust of waste incinerators and refuse-derived fuel-fired power plants in terms of performance, cost and power consumption. Primary measures (air staging, flue gas recirculation) and secondary measures (SNCR, SCR process, combined procedure) were used as techniques.

  18. Refuse-derived fuel from municipal solid waste residuals : a feasibility study[Manure, biosolids, and organic industrial/commercial residuals in land applications programs : improving beneficial reuse and protection of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgess, C.; Johnson, R. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada). Environmental Technologies; Schubert, J. [EWMC Operations, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Edmonton's Waste Management Centre (EWMC) consists of a composting plant and a materials recovery facility, which accepts over 230,000 tonnes of residential waste per year. It removes 74,000 tonnes of residuals from these two facilities through a series of processing and refining stages and landfilling. Alternative waste management strategies are being considered to handle these residuals as the city's landfill site is approaching its maximum capacity. One option that takes advantage of the high calorific value of these residues is gasification. To ensure consistent and uniform gasification, the residuals have to be processed to a homogenous feedstock. This paper outlined the steps that were taken to characterize the four distinct residual streams, process them to a refuse-derived fluff and pelletize mixtures of these four streams with specific additives. The paper discussed pellet criteria; feedstock preparation; the physical and chemical properties of the fluff and pelletized mixture; pelletization; and, cost estimates of the processing stages involved. Last, a summary of the project was provided. The first phase of the project has been completed. The second phase of the project involves the development of the optimum business case, which includes further cost assessment of the feedstock preparation stage; leasing commercial scale equipment to establish efficiency and robustness of the process; assessing an alternative feeding system for the gasification system; and evaluating methanol production using a catalyst to convert the syngas to methanol. 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Frank A., E-mail: bender@isys.uni-stuttgart.de; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection.

  20. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Frank A.; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection

  1. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  2. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system (industrial refuse derived fuel and gas turbine combined type); Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (sangyo RDF GT fukugogata) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    High efficiency power generation, which is useful for promoting the environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community, is investigated by combining a steam turbine power generation system using the PS-RDF (paper sludge-refuse derived fuel) and a gas turbine (GT) combined cycle. Industrialization plan for processing PS in low cost has been made to ensure the profitability by participating the wholesale power supply under the law of electric power industry. This combined system is similar to the so-called super power generation using municipal garbage, but the lower temperature of steam from GT waste heat boilers (WHB) is super-heated by the flue gas from RDF boiler, which is called advanced power generation system (A.S.S.). The total power generation capacity is 149,000 kW, which consists of three 35,000 kW units of GT and one 44,000 kW unit of steam turbine. When comparing the combined system (A.S.S.) and usual one with the independent installation of the RDF steam power generation system and a GT combined cycle, the A.S.S. provides the repowering efficiency of 7,600 kW output with exactly the same quantity of fuel input as usual one. 71 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. States consider suit if DOE refuses spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyher, A.

    1994-01-01

    Michigan, Florida, and Minnesota were joined by Wisconsin on April 21 in the Nuclear Waste Strategy Coalition (NWSC), a group of utilities, state regulators, and state attorneys general that have banded together to decide what to do about the Department of Energy's apparent intention to renege on its obligation to begin taking title to spent nuclear fuel by January 31, 1998. According to Ronald Russell, a commissioner on the Michigan Public Service Commission and cofounder of the NWSC, another six states have expressed interest in joining the coalition. open-quotes We're looking at encouraging the DOE to step up to its legal responsibility to take nuclear spent fuel by 1998,close quotes Russell said. The objectives of the coalition include asking the DOE to support privatization of nuclear storage, to review the management of the final repository program in order to make it more efficient, and to identify legislative changes that the DOE might feel are necessary for it to accomplish its charge. The NWSC is also considering filing a lawsuit in response to the DOE's open-quotes anticipatory breach of an executory contract.close quotes The NWSC and others feel that the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the related standard contracts between the DOE and the utilities form a legal contract for the DOE to take the spent fuel on the agreed upon date

  4. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  6. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. ► Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. ► Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  7. Residue Derived Fuels as an Alternative Fuel for the Hellenic Power Generation Sector and their Potential for Emissions ReductionConstantinos S. Psomopoulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos S. Psomopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Landfill Directive (1999/31 EC promotes more environmental friendly waste management options, by reducing the amount of wastes and more specific of biodegradable wastes, disposed of in landfills. The EU member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment process for municipal solid waste and non-hazardous industrial wastes to comply with the abovementioned Directive's targets on landfill diversion, and produce waste derived fuels such as refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel. Waste derived fuels present high calorific values depending on their synthesis and are being used both in dedicated waste-to-energy plants and as fuel substitutes in industrial processes. In this paper the refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel production and utilisation options in European Union are presented, and the possibilities in Greece based on the waste production and National Plan for Waste Management of the Ministry of Environment is attempted. The existing and ongoing studies on co-combustion and co-gasification with brown coal support the use of refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel as fuel on Hellenic Power Sector, adopting in the existing lignite power plants adequate Air Pollution Control systems. If the co-combustion or co-gasification of these alternative fuels is adopted from the Hellenic Power Sector a reduction on emissions is expected that cannot be neglected.

  8. Environmental study for optimal sites selection for incineration plant of refuse derived fuel in Lucca Province, Tuscany (Italy); Metodologie e tecniche di analisi ambientale per l`ubicazione `sostenibile` di impianti di smaltimento rifiuti: l`esperienza della Provincia di Lucca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassoni, E; Cautilli, F; Polizzano, C; Andriola, L [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-04-01

    The present report describes the methodology and the main results of an environmental study aimed at the selection of the optimal sites for incineration plant of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and the associated waste disposal landfill, in a defined territory. The study was commissioned by a local administrative Authority (Province of Lucca, northern Tuscany, Italy), and was carried out according to the indications of the `EEC Political Program of Action in favour of the environment and of a sustainable development`. In essence, the methodology takes into account both the major and extant descriptive elements of the environment under scrutiny, and the project main elements of the proposed plant. Additionally, considerations were included regarding the location of all the segments of the entire disposal plant, particularly the disposal landfill which is usually responsible for the greatest environmental impact. Finally, the results were compared with the limits indicated by the present regulations. Similar methods, were previously applied to different territories, and are still in progress. In order to estimate the fate of the air bone discharges from the incinerator into the selected potential area, a meteorological and diffusive study was undertaken to calculate the average annual levels by depositions on ground through dry and wet mechanisms. By comparison with the regulatory limits imposed to the stack emissions by the EEC Directives, the calculated ground level depositions were considerably lower. By taking into account a number of environmental features (such as the subjection of water-bearing layers, low risk of modification of ecological processes, low impact on the agricultural activities), of logistic reasons (large average extension to allow the location of all plants), and socio-economic elements (presence of large industrial plants, lower density of housing distribution), 14 sub-areas were identified and selected, mainly concentrated in the central

  9. Designing the microturbine engine for waste-derived fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljak, Tine; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Presented paper deals with adaptation procedure of a microturbine (MGT) for exploitation of refuse derived fuels (RDF). RDF often possess significantly different properties than conventional fuels and usually require at least some adaptations of internal combustion systems to obtain full functionality. With the methodology, developed in the paper it is possible to evaluate the extent of required adaptations by performing a thorough analysis of fuel combustion properties in a dedicated experimental rig suitable for testing of wide-variety of waste and biomass derived fuels. In the first part key turbine components are analyzed followed by cause and effect analysis of interaction between different fuel properties and design parameters of the components. The data are then used to build a dedicated test system where two fuels with diametric physical and chemical properties are tested - liquefied biomass waste (LW) and waste tire pyrolysis oil (TPO). The analysis suggests that exploitation of LW requires higher complexity of target MGT system as stable combustion can be achieved only with regenerative thermodynamic cycle, high fuel preheat temperatures and optimized fuel injection nozzle. Contrary, TPO requires less complex MGT design and sufficient operational stability is achieved already with simple cycle MGT and conventional fuel system. The presented approach of testing can significantly reduce the extent and cost of required adaptations of commercial system as pre-selection procedure of suitable MGT is done in developed test system. The obtained data can at the same time serve as an input for fine-tuning the processes for RDF production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Refuse-fueled power generation introduction technology, etc. Part 2. Survey of general refuse-fueled power generation; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Haikibutsu hatsuden donyu gijutsu chosa to - Ippan haikibutsu hatsuden chosa Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys were conducted of the effect on waste quality of the Law for Promotion of Sorted Collection and Recycling of Containers and Packaging, diffusion of PFI (private finance initiative) involving refuse-fueled power generation, recycling of slag, etc. Questionnairing was conducted for the survey of the effect on waste of the effectuation of the recycling law, size of population supplying the waste and the amount actually incinerated, actually measured data of the composition of incinerated waste, assorted collection programs, amount reducing measures, and the like. Studies were made as to if the empirical formulas applied in the survey of the preceding fiscal year would remain applicable after the coming into force of the recycling law. In the survey of PFI popularization, it was found that the rate it was taken into account for concrete projects was so low as 13.8% though most of the autonomous bodies had cognizance of PFI. It was requested that it be clearly stipulated that 'the conventional subsidies and grants apply also to PFI projects.' In the survey of conversion of residue into molten slag in refuse-fueled power generation and its reuse, four kinds of slag specimens were examined for physical properties, elution, and analyzed for ingredients, and then it was found that they posed no problems like heavy metal elution. (NEDO)

  11. Interim nuclear spent fuel storage facility - From complete refusal to public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacena, Michal

    1998-01-01

    Full text: As usual in P.R., there was a complicated, politically sensitive situation we had to face at the beginning and it wasn't easy to create the right P.R. programme with the right targets: CEZ needed a new storage facility for the nuclear spent fuel from its two NPPs - Dukovany and Temelin. Firstly, CEZ preferred to build an on-site facility for the Dukovany NPP to last until the year 2004; secondly, a facility for the Temelin NPP several years later. But the Czech Government decided to limit Dukovany's storage capacity during a public discussion in 1992. Therefore, at the end of 1993, CEZ started the site selection process for a central storage facility targeted at ten regions in the country. In P.R. we decided on two main goals: 1. To gain public acceptance of a central storage facility at least at one site, and hopefully at more. 2. To change public opinion (especially around the Dukovany NPP) in order to create the proper atmosphere for changing the government's decision to limit storage capacity. We wanted to prove that we could choose the fight technical and economical solution without political limits. This obviously presented a challenge as it would be problematic for CEZ to be very visible in the campaign: We wanted people to know that the government had made a bad decision, but we also had to make it clear that our objections were based not on questions of momentary corporate advantage but instead on solid technical grounds. Most would only see self interest. We wanted to show them the facts. Of course, some times it wasn't easy to hit both targets at the same time. There was a lot of hard work in the middle. We gained new experience and we learned a lot trying to get public confidence in nuclear safety, in our company's reliability and in some local profits for a storage site: Firstly none of those regions was excited by the idea o a storage facility in its backyard. Most of them were very strongly and actively against it and did not want to

  12. Fiscal 2000 report on the development of high-efficiency refuse-fueled power generation technology; Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu 2000 nendo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts were made to develop a refuse gasification/fusion power generation technology to contribute to the effective utilization of unexploited energy and to reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Developed in the technology of elevating steam temperature were the evaluation of high-temperature corrosion of SH materials and a high temperature dust removing system, dechlorination technology for the thermolysis process, and a ceramic-made high-temperature air heater. For the avoidance of exhaust gas reheating, development was carried out for a low-temperature denitration unit, stable refuse feeding system for reduction in the self-heat melting critical calorific value, waste plastic injection technology for reduction in the amount of external fuel injection, and so forth. The effect of the developed element technologies were evaluated and a detailed feasibility study was conducted for a refuse gas conversion power generation system using gas engine power generation for minor-scale general waste treatment facilities. In the survey of the trend of refuse-fueled power generation technologies, trend in Japan and advanced refuse-fueled power generation systems and their introduction in Europe and America were investigated. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 2000 survey of refuse-fueled power generation introduction technology, etc. Survey of industrial refuse-fueled power generation (Industrial refuse-fueled power generation case study implementation - 1); 2000 nendo chosa haikibutsu hatsuden donyu gijutsu chosa to - Sangyo haikibutsu hatsuden chosa (Sangyo haikibutsu hatsuden case study no jisshi - 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Case studies were conducted of industrial refuse-fueled power generation using plastic waste, paper waste, and wood chips, and the same using the excretions of cattle. In the study of power generation fueled by mixed waste containing plastic waste, 325t/d, 220t/d, and 130t/d incinerators having the lower calorific value of 5,960-6,401 kcal/kg were taken up, and steam conditions, generator output, generating-end efficiency, station service power ratio, sending-end efficiency, etc., were tentatively calculated. As for cost efficiency, a manufacturer's estimate indicated that commercialization would be impossible in all the cases unless the construction cost was cut down. In the study of excretion-fueled power generation, cases were taken up where medium-temperature fermentation proceeded for the excretions of 620-29,853 dairy cows (32-1,576 t/d). A calculation was performed on conditions that the construction cost and maintenance/utility costs were as estimated by the manufacturer, that the excretion treatment and power generation facilities were covered by subsidies, and that personnel expenses of 6-million yen were necessary. It was then found that there would be commercial viability in case the yield was 790t/d or higher. (NEDO)

  14. Refuse recovered biomass fuel from municipal solid waste. A life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripa, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Giani, H.; Clausen, A.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative waste treatment process is proposed and evaluated by means of LCA. • The MARSS process produces a biomass fuel with a marketable quality for CHP plants. • The recovery of energy and metals generates significant environmental benefits. • Valuable resources can be recovered from waste and be feedback to the urban systems. - Abstract: Waste disposal is a controversial issue in many European countries: concerns about potential health effects and land value loss as well as the fulfillment of the European Landfill Directive and Waste Framework Directive have significantly changed the way waste should be managed. An appropriate management of municipal solid waste (MSW) may allow a significant enhancement of efficiency in resources use, by recovering both energy and materials from waste, otherwise landfilled, thus replacing fossil fuels and virgin materials with renewable sources. Separation and recovery of the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste is encouraged as a mean to produce bioenergy. Therefore, if not source segregated, innovative waste refining technologies may provide potential solutions for separation of organic fraction and improved energy and materials recovery. This paper presents a comprehensive system study of a recently developed technology aimed to improve the MSW management in order to decrease the demand for new landfill space and, at the same time, contribute to the urban energy needs. As part of a wider Life Plus Project entitled MARSS (Material Advanced Recovery Sustainable Systems), funded by European Community in 2012, the environmental assessment of an innovative and enhanced mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) demo plant installed in Mertesdorf (Germany) was performed by means of the SimaPro 8.0.5 LCA software, utilizing ReCiPe (H) Midpoint method for the impact assessment. The plant under study is designed to concentrate the biodegradable part of MSW in the <40 mm fraction, through a series

  15. Behaviour, capture and inertization of some trace elements during combustion of refuse-derived char from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilev, S.V.; Braekman-Danheux, C.; Laurent, P.; Thiemann, T.; Fontana, A. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Lab. of Mineralogy and Crystallography

    1999-08-01

    An investigation of refuse-derived char (RDC) generated by thermolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) was undertaken to elucidate the behaviour of some toxic and potentially toxic trace elements (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn) plus Fe during combustion of RDC. About 87% of Sb, 66% of Pb, 60% of Cu and significant parts of Fe{gt}Zn{gt}Ni{gt}Mn{gt}Cr from the RDC are volatile at 1200{degree}C, and their behaviour in the temperature interval 500-1200{degree}C is characterized. The use of sorbents (zeolite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, coals enriched in kaolinite and calcite, and lime plus portlandite) for capture, solidification and inertization of the most volatile elements during combustion of RDC is also described. Perspective sorbents and inertants for a retention of the most volatile Pb, Sb and Cu in RDC ash are kaolinite and montmorillonite or coals enriched in these minerals. In addition, when there is an effective RDC washing (dechlorination and desulphurization), the use of sorbents for capture of some metals could be reduced or even avoided. Recommendations are given for RDC utilization and improvisation of the collection, separation procedures and removal efficiency of some heavy-metal, chloride and sulphate compounds from MSW and RDC prior to their use. The results show that a long-term strategy based on detailed understanding of the source, formation, behaviour and fate of the elements and their modes of occurrence in MSW, RDC and combustion waste residues is required in order to validate a perspective waste pyrolytic processes development. 55 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. New developments in tire derived fuels (TDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, G. [Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Portland cement is a mixture of finely ground raw materials that are processed in a rotary kiln heated to 1500 degrees C by various fuels. Cooled clinker from the kiln is ground into portland cement. This presentation provided an overview of the role that tire-derived fuels is now playing in cement manufacturing. Data on the extent of TDF use in cement manufacturing processes were presented, as well as the results of air emissions monitoring programs conducted to assess the environmental impacts of TDF. During the cement manufacturing process, shredded and chipped tires are blown into the kiln to provide fuel, while whole tires are placed in the midpoint of long dry or wet kilns. For preheater and precalciner kilns, whole tires are added to raw material entering the kiln. The kiln's controlled combustion environment ensures the complete destruction of scrap tires. Approximately 130 million scrap tires were recycled in Portland cement plants in 2003. Forty-four portland cement plants are currently using TDF in North America. The United States Department of Energy has estimated that TDF produces less carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) per unit of energy than coal. Monitoring programs at Portland cement plants have indicated that the use of TDF in place of coal has resulted in moderate reductions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, slightly lower sulfuric oxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions and moderate reductions in carbon monoxide (CO). Some plants have reported slight reductions in particulate matter (PM) emissions. It was concluded that the use of scrap tires as a fuel reduces a waste stream and contributes to energy and raw material requirements. Moreover, plant air emissions are either reduced or are not impacted by TDF use. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  18. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agon, N.; Hrabovský, Milan; Chumak, Oleksiy; Hlína, Michal; Kopecký, Vladimír; Mašláni, Alan; Bosmans, A.; Helsen, L.; Skoblja, S.; Van Oost, G.; Vierendeels, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, January (2016), s. 246-255 ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-19444S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma waste treatment * gasification * syngas Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956053X15300313

  19. Fluidized-bed combustion of refuse-derived fuels; Verbrennung von Ersatzbrennstoff in der Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbrecht, D.; Wolff, H.-J.; Matzmohr, R. [Universitaet Rostock (Germany). Institut fuer Energie und Umwelttechnik

    2004-07-01

    The experiments in the SWSF DN 400 test facility were to prove that combustion in a stationary, bubbling fluidized bed is an economically and ecologically feasible technology for treating the high-calorific fractions of waste materials conditioned in a mechanical and biological treatment system. This comprised the following tasks: Proof of the long-term suitability and availability of the selected fluidized-bed process; Reduction or prevention of emissions by primary, in-process measures in accordance with the specifications of the German Nuisance Control Ordinance (17. BImSchV); No secondary (additive) off-gas purification stages apart from a mechanical dedusting stage. The combustion off-gas of the fluidized-bed combustor were used for heat and power generation in a steam generator connected in series with the furnace. (orig.)

  20. Nitrogen oxides from combustion of nitrogen-containing polymers in waste-derived fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M.; Elomaa, M.

    2000-01-01

    Usually, waste-derived fuels present nitrogen-containing fractions, which produce nitrogen oxides (NO) during combustion. This study was mainly concerned with poly amides (PA) (nylon), poly urethanes (PU), urea formaldehyde (UF) glue, sewage sludge and refuse-derived fuels (RDF). For control purposes, the authors chose a Polish sub-bituminous coal and a Finnish pine wood sample. An almost inverse trend between fuel nitrogen content and NO emissions was revealed through analysis of NO emissions at 850 Celsius, 1 bar, 7 per cent O 2 in N 2 . It was not possible to derive a clear correlation to the amount of ash generated by the samples. PU foam decomposed through a two-step process, as suggested by thermochromatography, and PA6-containing samples yielded epsilon-caprolactam as a major decomposition product. Important decomposition products from PU, PA6, PA6/PE, sewage sludge and UF glue samples were greenhouse gases as demonstrated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The work was carried out at Abo Akademi University and University of Helsinki, Finland. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Combustion tests in a solid fuel boiler to clarify the emissions when co-firing refuse; Proveldning i fastbraenslepanna foer att kartlaegga emissioner vid inblandning av olika avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet; Lundborg, Rickard; Wrangensten, Lars

    2002-04-01

    In this Vaermeforsk-project tests have been performed in a 60 MW moving grate steam boiler at Tekniska Verken in Linkoeping. The boiler plant has an electrostatic filter for dust reduction and also a flue gas condensing plant with heat recovery. Vaermeforsk has financed the project. During the tests the following fuel fractions have been injected into the reference fuel, a mix of recovered wood chips (70 %) and bark (30 %): Paper/plastic/wood fuel (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Meat powder (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Napkin waste (10 % injection on an energy basis); Leather waste (10 % injection on an energy basis). The highest lower heating value was noted for meat powder, approx. 24 MJ/kg with a moisture content of 3,4 %. The heating values for the other fuel fractions were on the same level or just beneath the corresponding heating value for the reference fuel. The highest chlorine content was found in the paper/plastic/wood fraction respectively the leather waste fraction with 1,2 and 1,4 % (weight) of chlorine. The meat powder had the highest nitrogen content but all the fuel mixes had a quite high content of nitrogen with values over 1 % (weight). Analyses of sulphur in the fuels showed that leather waste had the lowest content just over 0, 1 %, considered as a low sulphur level for fuels in general. However, there are problems to get balance between in- and output for sulphur and chlorine based on fuel analysis. Difficulties to take representative fuel samples, especially when it comes to chlorine, can be an explanation. Video camera recordings and flue gas analysis in the furnace showed that the injection of refuse fractions seems to improve the combustion conditions with better local combustion of CO and hydrocarbons. The results from the emission measurements in the chimney can be summarised as follows (emission values at 11 % O{sub 2}): the lowest CO emission was noted with 25 % meat powder injection (<50 mg/nm{sup 3

  2. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Obydenkova, SV; Kouris, P Panagiotis; Hensen, EJM Emiel; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, MD Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability....

  3. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the followup research on high-efficiency refuse-fueled power generation technology development; 2000 nendo kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu no follow up kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Followup research was conducted using a high-efficiency refuse-fueled power generation pilot plant for interpolating research and development results, improvement on refuse-fueled power generation efficiency, and for introduction and popularization of refuse-fueled power generation. Operation control and safety control were performed in compliance with the pilot plant operation program, when high-temperature high-pressure steam (500 degrees C, 100 atm) was stably generated for approximately 7,600 hours in this fiscal year recording a total of approximately 22,000 hours when counted from the beginning of the verification test. Plant operation data were examined and every part of the furnace was checked and measured while the furnace was at rest, and it was found that the plant satisfied the intended specifications as refuse-fueled power plant facilities. As for its environmental impact, it was confirmed that it fully satisfied the standard values for substances in exhaust gas, which involved soot and dust, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen chloride, and dioxins. Dioxins, in particular, were far below the most rigorous legal level of 0.1ng-TEQ/m{sup 3}N. In the test of superheater materials, long-term data covering three years were acquired. (NEDO)

  4. Soybean-derived biofuels and home heating fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrush, George W; Wynne, James H; Willauer, Heather D; Lloyd, Christopher L

    2006-01-01

    It is environmentally enticing to consider replacing or blending petroleum derived heating fuels with biofuels for many reasons. Major considerations include the soaring worldwide price of petroleum products, especially home heating oil, the toxicity of the petroleum-derived fuels and the environmental damage that leaking petroleum tanks afford. For these reasons, it has been suggested that domestic renewable energy sources be considered as replacements, or at the least, as blending stocks for home heating fuels. If recycled soy restaurant cooking oils could be employed for this purpose, this would represent an environmental advantage. Renewable plant sources of energy tend to be less toxic than their petroleum counterparts. This is an important consideration when tank leakage occurs. Home fuel oil storage tanks practically always contain some bottom water. This water environment has a pH value that factors into heating fuel stability. Therefore, the question is: would the biofuel help or exacerbate fuel stability and furnace maintenance issues?

  5. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V.; Kouris, Panos D.; Hensen, Emiel J. M.; Heeres, Hero J.; Boot, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative

  6. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pioch Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technical information including field trials about uses of palm oil as fuel has been available for more than half a century now. Several ways were investigated, from the simple mixture with petroleum Diesel fuel, to more sophisticated solutions. The quality of vegetable oils in natura as fuel is difficult to assess because of interferences between properties of the triacylglycerols – the main components – and those of the many minor components, their content varying significantly from sample to sample. A methodology set up at Cirad allowed to investigate separately natural triacylglycerols alone and the effect of minor components. In addition to these laboratory experiments, engine test at bench and field trials performed in palm oil producing countries, show that this oil is among the best oils as fuel; palm kernel oil whose chemical and physical properties are very close to those of the best of the series investigated, namely copra oil, should display also very interesting properties as Diesel biofuel. Both oils do require external adaptation of the engine when using an indirect injection type engine but even heavier adaptations for a direct injection model. Thus for use as Diesel fuel palm and palm kernel oils are suitable for captive fleets or for engine gensets, to balance the adaptation cost by a scale-up effect either on the number of identical engines or on the nominal vegetable oil consumption per set. Direct use of palm et palm kernel oils fits very well with technical and economical conditions encountered in remote areas. It is also possible to mix palm oil to Diesel fuel either as simple blend or as micro-emulsion. Out of the direct use, palm oil methyl or ethyl ester, often referred to as biodiesel, displays properties similar to those of petroleum Diesel fuel. This technical solution which is suitable to feed all kinds of standard compression ignited engines requires a chemical plant for carrying out the

  7. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V; Kouris, Panos D; Hensen, Emiel J M; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability. The first factor, the logistics scheme, exhibited the disadvantage of the centralized approach, owing to prohibitively expensive transportation costs of the low energy-dense lignin. Life cycle analysis (LCA) displayed the second critical factor related to alternative energy carrier selection. Natural gas (NG) chosen over additional biomass boosts well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions (WTW GHG) to a level incompatible with the reduction targets set by the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS). Adversely, the process' economics revealed higher profits vs. fossil energy carrier. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Why Do They Refuse to Use My Robot? : Reasons for Non-Use Derived from a Long-Term Home Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, Maartje; Ben Allouch, Somaya; Van Dijk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Research on why people refuse or abandon the use of technology in general, and robots specifically, is still scarce. Consequently, the academic understanding of people's underlying reasons for non-use remains weak. Thus, vital information about the design of these robots including their acceptance

  9. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  10. Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, S.

    2011-09-01

    Refuse haulers are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. By using fuels like natural gas, propane, or biodiesel, and technologies like hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid systems, the refuse-hauling sector could substantially decrease its petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Fleet managers should explore the benefits of the fuels and technologies available, as well as the individual fleet needs, before adoption.

  11. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  12. Soot and chemiluminescence in diesel combustion of bio-derived, oxygenated and reference fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Donkerbroek, A.J.; Vliet, A.P. van; Boot, M.D.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2009-01-01

    High-speed imaging, spectroscopy and thermodynamical characterization are applied to an optically accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine in order to compare sooting and chemiluminescence behaviour of bio-derived, oxygenated fuels and various reference fuels. The fuels concerned include the bio-derived

  13. The Derivation of Evaluation Criteria of Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Ko, W. I.

    2013-01-01

    This study suggests the evaluation criteria and evaluation indicators derived using a factor analysis. As a result of a factor analysis, 5 evaluation criteria (safety (technological feature), environmental impact, economic feasibility, sociality, institution) and 24 evaluation indicators were selected. Particularly, the level of legislation for the management of radioactive waste, the level of establishment of safety standards of the country, and the level of application of international safety standards were analyzed to be qualitative evaluation indicators that should be considered in the aspect of the institution. The purpose of an analysis on diverse nuclear fuel cycles is to select the optimum nuclear fuel cycle suitable for the environment of one's own country. Accordingly, diverse evaluation criteria and evaluation indicators are necessary. In addition, individual evaluation criteria can be explained with various evaluation indicators. For example, the evaluation criteria for economic feasibility can be explained with evaluation indicators such as the unit cost or total cost. However, if too many evaluation indicators are included in one evaluation criterion, the evaluation is not easy, and if too few evaluation indicators are established, the evaluation criteria cannot be explained sufficiently, and thus the evaluation can be distorted. Accordingly, not only should the evaluation indicators be composed of an appropriate number of units, but they should also not be overlapped, and ambiguous evaluation indicators should be dropped out and necessary evaluation indicators must be included

  14. Coal refuse reclamation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.

    1979-04-06

    A 13.8 ha abandoned coal refuse site in southwestern Illinois was reclaimed by recontouring the refuse material and covering it with a minimum 30 cm of soil. The reclamation procedure included determination of the site's final land use, collection of preconstruction environmental data, and development and implementation of engineering plans. The project is demonstrating methods that can be used to reclaim abandoned coal refuse sites, and a multidisciplinary approach is being used to evaluate postconstruction environmental and economic effects of the reclamation effort. Surface water quality has shown significant improvement and plant cover is becoming established on the site. Soil microbial populations are developing and wildlife habitats are forming. The economic value of the site and adjacent properties has increased substantially and the area's aesthetic value has been enhanced. This project is providing valuable design data for future reclamation efforts of this type.

  15. New developments in tire-derived fuels (TDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, G. [Kentucky Dept. for Environmental Protection, KY (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Public opinion on the use of tire derived fuels (TDF) has been influenced by images of the large, uncontrolled tire fires at landfills that fill the atmosphere with heavy black smoke. This presentation discussed some of the issues and challenges related to the introduction of TDF in communities. The United States Environmental Protection Agency currently supports the responsible use of tires in Portland cement kilns and other industrial facilities if they have a storage and handling plan and have secured a permit for all applicable state and federal environmental programs. The use of TDF falls within the EPA resource conservation challenge (RCC) which has initiated a scrap tire workgroup and a TDF committee. The RCC has asked industry using TDF to assemble and share air, water, and product data to assist new TDF users and permitting agencies. TDF is currently used in cement production, by utility boilers, and pulp and paper manufacturers. A recent comparison of TDF and coal characteristics has shown that TDF releases fewer sulphur emissions than coal and produces more energy. While hydrogen emissions are typically higher, nitrogen emissions are lower. An elemental ash analysis has shown that wire-free TDF contains less aluminum than bitumens, as well as less iron. Particulate matter (PM) emissions and volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from various plants using TDF are often lower than, or the same as, coal. It was concluded that in order to challenge preconceived notions about TDF, baseline compliance tests should be conducted before presenting data for a permit. Baseline tests should also be conducted with other fuels such as coal within the same timeframe. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Physicochemical determinations of petroleum, heavy fuel derivative and combustion nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias Bullain, Jorge; Padron Rodriguez, M.; Perez Barcala, B.; Lopez Guerra, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the investigation, a crude from Cuban Northern Heavy Oil Belt and its fuel oil fraction was characterized by chemical and physical techniques. Subsequent to the characterization of the derivative, MSI gas analyzer was performed, to identify and quantify concentrations of chemical species, in correspondence with EPA (2007) for external sources. Total suspended particles collected in filter holder were identified using the gravimetric method (ISO 9096). With the intention of knowing the magnitude of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reported in literature were chosen the higher and lower molecular mass and measured on the basis of its polar covalent radii. Total aromatic hydrocarbons were identified using activated charcoal with subsequent elution with nhexane for analysis by ultraviolet spectroscopy in a Genesys 10 UV spectrophotometer. Environmental pollution control in the oil sector, is evaluated in three states. The particles in the states mentioned above, whose dimensions are between (1-100) x10-9 meters are called nanoparticles. Nanotechnology currently offers firm steps in the development of different nanoparticles, which are applied directly to the mineralogical industry. Contributions stand out sharply operations: exploration, drilling and refining oil. (Author)

  17. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO 2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO 2 /MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from − 0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive. - Highlights: • LCA of camelina-derived biodiesel and jet fuel was based on the Canadian Prairies. • Overall, camelina-derived biodiesel had lower GHG emissions than is biojet fuel. • Camelina jet fuel had lower non-renewable energy (NRE) use than its biodiesel. • Camelina biofuels reduced GHG emissions and NRE use

  18. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund, E-mail: Edmund.Mupondwa@agr.gc.ca

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO{sub 2} equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO{sub 2}/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from − 0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive. - Highlights: • LCA of camelina-derived biodiesel and jet fuel was based on the Canadian Prairies. • Overall, camelina-derived biodiesel had lower GHG emissions than is biojet fuel. • Camelina jet fuel had lower non-renewable energy (NRE) use than its biodiesel. • Camelina biofuels reduced GHG emissions and NRE

  19. Refusal to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Children with pervasive refusal.

    OpenAIRE

    Lask, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; Tranter, M

    1991-01-01

    Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed.

  1. Combustion Characterization of Bio-derived Fuels and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid

    Climate change has become a serious concern nowadays. The main reason is believed to be the high emission of greenhouse gases, namely CO2 which is mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. At the same time, energy demand has increased exponentially while the energy supply mainly depends...... on fossil fuels, especially for transportation. The practical strategy to address such problems in medium term is to increase the efficiency of combustion-propelled energy-production systems, as well as to reduce the net release of CO2 and other harmful pollutants, likely by using nonconventional fuels....... Modern internal combustion engines such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are more efficient and fuel-flexible compared to the conventional engines, making opportunities to reduce the release of greenhouse and other polluting gases to the environment. Combustion temperature...

  2. St. Louis demonstration final report: refuse processing plant equipment, facilities, and environmental evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscus, D.E.; Gorman, P.G.; Schrag, M.P.; Shannon, L.J.

    1977-09-01

    The results are presented of processing plant evaluations of the St. Louis-Union Electric Refuse Fuel Project, including equipment and facilities as well as assessment of environmental emissions at both the processing and the power plants. Data on plant material flows and operating parameters, plant operating costs, characteristics of plant material flows, and emissions from various processing operations were obtained during a testing program encompassing 53 calendar weeks. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is the major product (80.6% by weight) of the refuse processing plant, the other being ferrous metal scrap, a marketable by-product. Average operating costs for the entire evaluation period were $8.26/Mg ($7.49/ton). The average overall processing rate for the period was 168 Mg/8-h day (185.5 tons/8-h day) at 31.0 Mg/h (34.2 tons/h). Future plants using an air classification system of the type used at the St. Louis demonstration plant will need an emissions control device for particulates from the large de-entrainment cyclone. Also in the air exhaust from the cyclone were total counts of bacteria and viruses several times higher than those of suburban ambient air. No water effluent or noise exposure problems were encountered, although landfill leachate mixed with ground water could result in contamination, given low dilution rates.

  3. Can lignocellulosic hydrocarbon liquids rival lignocellulose-derived ethanol as a future transport fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ding

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although transport fuels are currently obtained mainly from petroleum, alternative fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB have drawn much attention in recent years in light of the limited reserves of crude oil and the associated environmental issues. Lignocellulosic ethanol (LE and lignocellulosic hydrocarbons (LH are two typical representatives of the LB-derived transport fuels. This editorial systematically compares LE and LB from production to their application in transport fuels. It can be demonstrated that LH has many advantages over LE relative to such uses. However, most recent studies on the production of the LB-derived transport fuels have focused on LE production. Hence, it is strongly recommended that more research should be aimed at developing an efficient and economically viable process for industrial LH production.

  4. Methods for conversion of lignocellulosic-derived products to transportation fuel precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2017-10-03

    Methods are disclosed for converting a biomass-derived product containing levulinic acid and/or gamma-valerolactone to a transportation fuel precursor product containing diesel like hydrocarbons. These methods are expected to produce fuel products at a reduced cost relative to conventional approaches.

  5. EVALUATION OF TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR USE IN NITROGEN OXIDE REDUCTION BY REBURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire-derived fuel (TDF) was tested in a small-scale (44 kW or 150,000 Btu/hr) combustor to determine its feasibility as a fuel for use in reburning for control of nitrogen oxide (NO). TDF was gravity-fed into upward flowing combustion gases from a primary natural gas flame doped ...

  6. Shale-oil-derived additives for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raidma, E.; Leetsman, L.; Muoni, R.; Soone, Y.; Zhiryakov, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have shown that the oxidation, wearing, and anticorrosive properties of shale oil as an additive to liquid fuels and oils enable to improve the conditions of their use. Studies conducted by Institute of Oil Shale have shown that it is possible, on the basis of shale oil produced by Viru Keemia Grupp AS (Viru Chemistry Group Ltd.) and, particularly, on the basis of its fractions 230-320 and 320-360 deg C to produce efficient and stable additives for liquid fuels to improve their combustion and storage properties. In the production of additives from shale oil the prerequisite taken into account is its complexity of composition and high concentration of neutral and phenolic oxygen compounds. Additives produced from shale oil have multifunctional properties which enable to improve operational data of liquid fuels and to increase the power of diesel engines and boilers. (author)

  7. Diesel engine performance and emissions with fuels derived from waste tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Puneet; Zare, Ali; Jafari, Mohammad; Bodisco, Timothy A; Rainey, Thomas; Ristovski, Zoran D; Brown, Richard J

    2018-02-06

    The disposal of waste rubber and scrap tyres is a significant issue globally; disposal into stockpiles and landfill poses a serious threat to the environment, in addition to creating ecological problems. Fuel production from tyre waste could form part of the solution to this global issue. Therefore, this paper studies the potential of fuels derived from waste tyres as alternatives to diesel. Production methods and the influence of reactor operating parameters (such as reactor temperature and catalyst type) on oil yield are outlined. These have a major effect on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines when using tyre derived fuels. In general, tyre derived fuels increase the brake specific fuel consumption and decrease the brake thermal efficiency. The majority of studies indicate that NOx emissions increase with waste tyre derived fuels; however, a few studies have reported the opposite trend. A similar increasing trend has been observed for CO and CO 2 emissions. Although most studies reported an increase in HC emission owing to lower cetane number and higher density, some studies have reported reduced HC emissions. It has been found that the higher aromatic content in such fuels can lead to increased particulate matter emissions.

  8. Alternative fuels for multiple-hearth furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracket, B D; Lawson, T U

    1980-04-01

    Results are described of a feasibility study on the use of refuse-derived fuel, shredded paper, wood waste, coal, and waste oil in multiple-hearth furnaces at the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre in Australia. An assessment of waste fuel availability and characteristics is given, and a summary is made of the technical and economic aspects of using these alternative fuels and of minimizing furnace fuel requirements by reducing sludge moisture. The recommended method of reducing fuel oil consumption in the furnace is shown to be sludge drying, using process exhaust heat in a rotary dryer.

  9. Pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific value, fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J.; Hoppesteyn, P.D.J.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU-funded, international R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific flue fuel gas. The objects of the project are: To design, manufacture and test a pressurised, high temperature gas turbine combustor for biomass derived LCV fuel gas; to develop a steady-state and dynamic model describing a combustor using biomass-derived, low calorific value fuel gases; to gather reliable experimental data on the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the combustor; to study the steady-state and dynamic plant behaviour using a plant layout wich incorporates a model of a gas turbine suitable for operation on low calorific value fuel gas. (orig)

  10. Pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific value, fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Hoppesteyn, P D.J.; Hein, K R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU-funded, international R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific flue fuel gas. The objects of the project are: To design, manufacture and test a pressurised, high temperature gas turbine combustor for biomass derived LCV fuel gas; to develop a steady-state and dynamic model describing a combustor using biomass-derived, low calorific value fuel gases; to gather reliable experimental data on the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the combustor; to study the steady-state and dynamic plant behaviour using a plant layout wich incorporates a model of a gas turbine suitable for operation on low calorific value fuel gas. (orig)

  11. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of modified tyre derived fuel for compression ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilusa, T J

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated physical and chemical modification of tyre-derived fuel oil (TDFO) obtained from pyrolysis of waste tyres and rubber products for application as an alternative fuel for compression ignition engines (CIE's). TDFO collected from a local waste tyre treatment facility was refined via a novel "oxidative gas-phase fractional distillation over 13× molecular sieves" to recover the light to medium fractions of the TDFO while oxidising and capturing some sulphur compounds in a gas phase. This was followed by desulphurization and chemical modification to improve cetane number, kinematic viscosity and fuel stability. The resulting fuel was tested in an ADE407T truck engine to compare its performance with petroleum diesel fuel. It was discovered that gas phase oxidative fractional distillation reduces the low boiling point sulphur compounds in TDFO such as mercaptans. Using petroleum diesel fuel as a reference, it was observed that the produced fuel has a lower cetane number, flash point and viscosity. On storage the fuel tends to form fibrous microstructures as a result of auto-oxidation of asphaltenes present in the fuel. Mixtures of alkyl nitrate, vinyl acetate, methacrylic anhydride, methyl-tert butyl ether, n-hexane and n-heptane were used to chemically modify the fuel in accordance with the minimum fuel specifications as per SANS 342. The engine performance tests results did not show any sign of engine ceasing or knocking effect. The power-torque trend was very consistent and compared well with petroleum diesel fuelled engine. The levels of total sulphur are still considerably high compared to other cleaner fuel alternatives derived from zero sulphur sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Annex 34 : task 1 : analysis of biodiesel options : biomass-derived diesel fuels : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Aakko-Saksa, P; Nylund, N O [TransEnergy Consulting Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    Biofuels are derived from woody biomass, non-woody biomass, and organic wastes. The properties of vegetable oil feedstocks can have profound effects on the properties of the finished biodiesel product. However, all biodiesel fuels have beneficial effects on engine emissions. This report discussed the use of biodiesel fuels as replacements for part of the diesel fuel consumed throughout the world. Biodiesel fuels currently being produced from fatty acid esters today were reviewed, as well as some of the more advanced diesel replacement fuels. The report was produced as part of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement Annex 34, and was divided into 14 sections: (1) an introduction, (2) biodiesel and biomass, (3) an explanation of biodiesel, (4) properties of finished biodiesel fuels, (5) exhaust emissions of finished biodiesel fuels and blends, (6) life-cycle emissions and energy, (7) international biodiesel (FAME) technical standards and specifications, (8) growth in production and use of biodiesel fuels, (9) biofuel refineries, (10) process technology, (11) development and status of biorefineries, (12) comparison of options to produce biobased diesel fuels, (13) barriers and gaps in knowledge, and (14) references. 113 refs., 37 tabs., 74 figs.

  14. Hydrodeoxygenation processes: advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sudipta; Saha, Basudeb; Luque, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via C-C coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2018-04-17

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  16. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2017-05-23

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refuse Vehicles Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse

  18. Evaluation of next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsita, Katerina G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector, employing the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Eight different alternatives of fuels are considered in this paper: bio-hydrogen, bio-synthetic natural gas, bio-dimethyl ether, bio-methanol, hydro thermal upgrading diesel, bio-ethanol, algal biofuel and electricity from biomass incineration. The evaluation of alternative fuels is performed according to various criteria that include economic, technical, social and policy aspects. In order to evaluate each alternative fuel, one base scenario and five alternative scenarios with different weight factors selection per criterion are presented. After deciding the alternative fuels’ scoring against each criterion and the criteria weights, their synthesis gives the overall score and ranking for all alternative scenarios. It is concluded that synthetic natural gas and electricity from biomass incineration are the most suitable next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector. -- Highlights: •Eight alternative fuels for the transport sector have been evaluated. •The method of the AHP was used. •The evaluation is performed according to economic, technical, social and policy criteria. •Bio-SNG and electricity from biomass incineration are the most suitable fuels

  19. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  20. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  1. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  2. Waste-to-Fuel: A Case Study of Converting Food Waste to Renewable Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mintz, Marianne [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tomich, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This case study explores the production and use of renewable compressed natural gas (R-CNG)—derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste—to fuel heavy-duty refuse trucks and other natural gas vehicles in Sacramento, California.

  3. Tar removal from biomass derived fuel gas by pulsed corona discharges: chemical kinetic study II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, S.A.; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tar (heavy hydrocarbon or poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)) removal from biomass derived fuel gas is one of the biggest obstacles in its utilization for power generation. We have investigated pulsed corona as a method for tar removal. Our previous experimental results indicate the energy consumption

  4. Marketing of fuels - energy from refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tweedale, A W

    1986-03-01

    Ways of utilising low grade materials, achieving market acceptance and proving their technical and financial viability are discussed. Alternative ways in which wastes can be used to produce energy are outlined covering the incineration process whereby heat normally lost in the waste gases after the combustion of waste materials is recovered to produce heat and sometimes electricity, waste shredding and use in fluidised bed boilers, and combustion of waste pellets. Employment of utilities company and innovative and energetic approach to marketing are considered.

  5. Assesment of the energy quality of the synthesis gas produced from biomass derived fuels conversion: Part I: Liquid Fuels, Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga Perez, Luis E; Casas, Yannay; Peralta, Luis M; Granda, Daikenel; Prieto, Julio O

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels plays an important role to increase the efficiency and energetic safety of the energy processes in the world. The main goal of the present research is to study from the thermodynamics and kinetics the effect of the operational variables on the thermo-conversion processes of biomass derived fuels focused on ethanol reforming. Several models are developed to assess the technological proposals. The minimization of Gibbs free energy is the criterion applied to evaluate the performance of the different alternatives considering the equilibrium constraints. All the models where validated on an experimental data base. The gas composition, HHV and the ratio H2/CO are used as measures for the process efficiency. The operational parameters are studied in a wide range (reactants molar ratio, temperature and oxygen/fuel ratio). (author)

  6. North America markets for alcohol and alcohol-derived motor fuels and need for tax incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigwood, B.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. fuel alcohol and ether industry has grown from its infancy in 1979 to approximately 2.9 billion gallons of production capacity in 1991. With the emphasis on clean air, the uncertainties in the Middle East, and fluctuating oil prices, IRI believes the demand for alcohol-derived motor fuels is poised to begin a second phase of expansion. Historically, the two primary alcohol-derived motor fuels sold in the U.S. have been methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol. There is also a limited but growing use of methanol as 85% blendstock for gasoline. Since 1978, fuel ethanol has provided the U.S. petroleum industry with an additional source of supply, octane, and profit. Its price was based on the price of wholesale gasoline plus available federal and state tax incentives. These incentives allowed ethanol, with production costs of $1.00 to $1.25 per gallon, to compete with gasoline at prices of 40 to 65 per gallon. Without the federal and state tax incentives, it would not be economically feasible to sell or manufacture fuel ethanol. On the other hand, the largest consumption of methanol has been as a feedstock for the production of MTBE, the world's fastest growing chemical over the past seven years. MTBE prices are based on the cost of raising the octane level of gasoline, and this commodity does not receive subsidies. Beginning in 1992, IRI predicts the price relationship between ethanol, MTBE, and gasoline will change as U.S. refiners and marketers are required to include oxygenated fuels (alcohol-derived) in their gasoline. In total, over 60 billion gallons of gasoline will need to be reformulated by the year 2000. The increased demand for oxygen will result in a 2.5-billion gallon deficit of MTBE and 1.2-billion gallon deficit of ethanol by the year 2000. 2 tabs

  7. A life cycle assessment of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) -derived jet fuel and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Jiqing; Shonnard, David R.; Kalnes, Tom N.; Johnsen, Peter B.; Rao, Serin

    2013-01-01

    Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is a member of the mustard family and may be grown as a winter crop between traditional summer crops to produce renewable biomass for renewable diesel and jet fuel. This paper estimated total annual biofuel production potential of 15 million cubic metres from rotation between corn and soybeans on 16.2 million hectares in the Midwest without impact on food production. This study also investigated the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy balance of pennycress-derived Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) fuel and Renewable Diesel (RD). Both system expansion and allocation approaches were applied to distribute environmental impacts among products and co-products along the life cycle of each biofuel. The life cycle GHG emissions (excluding land use change) for RD and HRJ range from 13 to 41 g MJ −1 (CO 2 eq.) and −18 to 45 g MJ −1 (CO 2 eq.), respectively, depending on how the co-products are credited. The majority of the energy required for each biofuel product is derived from renewable biomass as opposed to non renewable fossil. The fossil energy consumptions are considerably lower than the petroleum fuels. Scenario analyses were also conducted to determine response to model assumptions, including nitrogen fertilizer application rate, nitrogen content in crop residues, and sources of H 2 . The results show that pennycress derived biofuels could qualify as advanced biofuels and as biomass-based diesel as defined by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). -- Highlights: ► Estimated total pennycress derived biofuel production potential of 15 GL y −1 ► Rotation between corn and soybeans without impact on food production. ► The GHG of RD and HRJ show over 50% of reductions compared to petroleum baseline. ► The majority of the energy required is from renewable biomass. ► The fossil energy consumptions are considerably lower than the petroleum fuels

  8. Gas Turbine High Temperature Gas (Helium) Reactor Using Pebble Bed Fuel Derived from Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Project goals: Build on the $1B investment spent during the NGNP Project for the only true Inherently Safe Small Modular Reactor Design – the only SMR design that can make this claim due to negative temperature coefficient of reactivity - no containment required – less construction cost. NPMC in Partnership with Pebble Bed Modular Group, a fully owned subsidiary of Eskom, RSA to Factory Build Complete Plant in Modular Sections at Factory Site in Oswego, NY for transport to site by rail or shipping for world wide export. NPMC will provide Project and Construction Management of all new builds from plant sites through construction, commissioning and startup using local labor. License and Construct ion of spent fuel processing facility in both NY and South Africa using Proven Technology. Ultimate goals of project: 1. Award of the 2013 US DOE Innovative SMR $452M cost share grant for US NRC License Certification 2.Build Full Scale Demonstration Plant at Koeburg, RSA with World Bank Funding managed by NPMC in collaboration with our legal firm, Haynes and Boone LLP 3. Take Plant Orders Immediately (10% Down Payment) 4. Form Strategic Alliance with Domestic and/or International Utility

  9. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina W.; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W.

    2014-04-01

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H+ source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O (`oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.

  10. Alternative Fuel News, Volume 4, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficker, C.

    2000-11-14

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News focuses on transit buses and refuse haulers. Many transit agencies and waste management companies are investigating alternatives to traditional diesel buses and refuse haulers.

  11. Potential of solid waste utilization as source of refuse derived fuel (RDF) energy (case study at temporary solid waste disposal site in West Jakarta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, D.; Lindu, M.; Denita, P.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to measure the volume of solid waste generated as well asits density, composition, and characteristics, to analyze the potential of waste in TPS to become RDF materials and to analyze the best composition mixture of RDF materials. The results show that the average of solid waste generation in TPS reaches 40.80 m3/day, with the largest percentage of its share is the organic waste component of 77.9%, while the smallest amount of its share is metal and rubber of 0.1%. The average water content and ash content of solid waste at the TPS is 27.7% and 6.4% respectively, while the average calorific potential value is 728.71 kcal/kg. The results of solid waste characteristics comparison at three TPS indicate thatTPS Tanjung Duren has the greatest waste potential to be processed into RDF materials with a calorific value of 893.73 kcal/kg, water content level of 24.6%, andlow ash content of 6.11%. This research has also shown that the best composition for RDF composite materials is rubber, wood, and textile mixtureexposed to outdoor drying conditions because it produced low water content and low ash content of 10.8% and 9.6%, thus optimizedthe calorific value of 4,372.896 kcal/kg.

  12. Feasibility study on energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emissions using RDF (refused derived fuel) at a Chinese cement plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a project in China for energy saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction by introducing the energy-saving and alternative energy technologies in cement plants. The cement plant selected for the feasibility study is Shanghai Plant of Shanghai Allied Cement Co., Ltd. (SAC), for RDF receive and supply facility, chlorine bypass facility, exhaust heat power generation facility and RDF production facility. The study results indicate that the exhaust power generation can save energy of 4,700 tons/y as crude, or energy saving rate of 25.5%, and that replacing part of coal by RDF and exhaust power generation can reduce CO2 emissions by 25,500 and 18,500 tons/y, respectively. For the investment recovery, it is estimated that the investment can be recovered in 9 years, and the project value is 81.399 million Yuan with the initial investment and project profit in each year discounted to the present value. These results fail to satisfy the SAC's investment standards. (NEDO)

  13. Feasibility study on energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emissions using RDF (refused derived fuel) at a Chinese cement plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a project in China for energy saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction by introducing the energy-saving and alternative energy technologies in cement plants. The cement plant selected for the feasibility study is Shanghai Plant of Shanghai Allied Cement Co., Ltd. (SAC), for RDF receive and supply facility, chlorine bypass facility, exhaust heat power generation facility and RDF production facility. The study results indicate that the exhaust power generation can save energy of 4,700 tons/y as crude, or energy saving rate of 25.5%, and that replacing part of coal by RDF and exhaust power generation can reduce CO2 emissions by 25,500 and 18,500 tons/y, respectively. For the investment recovery, it is estimated that the investment can be recovered in 9 years, and the project value is 81.399 million Yuan with the initial investment and project profit in each year discounted to the present value. These results fail to satisfy the SAC's investment standards. (NEDO)

  14. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  15. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  16. Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Feifei; Mullooly, John P; Goodman, Mike; McCarty, Maribet C; Hanson, Ann M; Crane, Bradley; Nordin, James D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilizat...

  17. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5 to...

  18. Characterization of pyrolytic oil obtained from pyrolysis of TDF (Tire Derived Fuel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banar, Müfide; Akyıldız, Vildan; Özkan, Aysun; Çokaygil, Zerrin; Onay, Özlem

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We pyrolyzed Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at different heating rates and temperatures. ► We determine convenient pyrolysis temperature for pyrolytic oil. ► The product can be used as fuel for combustion system in industry. ► TDF pyrolysis is advisable recycling system because of low hazardous constituents. - Abstract: In recent years, waste utilization before disposing to the land is the most important point about waste management. Due to the increasing emphasis on recycling, related to the two European Commission Directives (EC End of Life Vehicle Directive, EC Waste Landfill Directive) affecting the management of waste tires, there is interest in the development of alternative technologies for recycling waste tires. One of them is pyrolysis. For this purpose, a fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolysis of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at the temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C with the heating rates of 5 and 35 °C/min. The maximum pyrolytic oil yield (38.8 wt.%) was obtained at 400 °C with 5 °C/min heating rate. The yield of pyrolytic oil decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures whereas the yield of gases increased. The fuel properties of the pyrolytic oil including higher heating value (HHV), elemental composition, flash point, viscosity, distillation and density were determined. Pyrolytic oil was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) techniques and also, the amount of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and congener distribution characteristics were studied for determination of environmental effects. It was seen that the pyrolytic oils have similar fuel properties with the diesel. It was also found that pyrolytic oil contained 0.00118 I-TEQs/g at very low level. Finally, the pyrolytic oil can be evaluated for energy recovery according to Regulation

  19. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayton, David C

    2010-03-24

    Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested

  20. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  1. Performance effects of coal-derived contaminants on the carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Wilemski, G. [Physical Sciences, Inc., Andover, MA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Coal-derived contaminant studies have been pursued at ERC since the early 1980`s when the pace of carbonate fuel cell development began to markedly increase. Initial work was concerned with performance effects on laboratory and bench-scale carbonate fuel cells primarily due to sulfur compounds. Results have now also been obtained with respect to nine additional coal-gas contaminants, including volatile trace metal species. Thermochemical calculations, out-of-cell experiments, and cell performance as well as endurance testshave recently been conducted which have involved the following species: NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S [COS], HCl, AsH{sub 3}[As{sub 2}(v)], Zn(v), Pb(v), Cd(v), H{sub 2} Se, Hg(v), Sn(v). Employing thermochemically calculated results, thermogravimetric (TGA) and pre-, and post-test analytical data as well as fuel cell performance observations, it has been shown that there are four main mechanisms of contaminant interaction with the carbonate fuel cell. These have been formulated into performance models for six significant contaminant species, thus providing long-term endurance estimations.

  2. Performance effects of coal-derived contaminants on the carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A. (Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)); Wilemski, G. (Physical Sciences, Inc., Andover, MA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Coal-derived contaminant studies have been pursued at ERC since the early 1980's when the pace of carbonate fuel cell development began to markedly increase. Initial work was concerned with performance effects on laboratory and bench-scale carbonate fuel cells primarily due to sulfur compounds. Results have now also been obtained with respect to nine additional coal-gas contaminants, including volatile trace metal species. Thermochemical calculations, out-of-cell experiments, and cell performance as well as endurance testshave recently been conducted which have involved the following species: NH[sub 3], H[sub 2]S [COS], HCl, AsH[sub 3][As[sub 2](v)], Zn(v), Pb(v), Cd(v), H[sub 2] Se, Hg(v), Sn(v). Employing thermochemically calculated results, thermogravimetric (TGA) and pre-, and post-test analytical data as well as fuel cell performance observations, it has been shown that there are four main mechanisms of contaminant interaction with the carbonate fuel cell. These have been formulated into performance models for six significant contaminant species, thus providing long-term endurance estimations.

  3. Bio-derived fuels may ease the regeneration of diesel particulate traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Coda Zabetta; M. Hupa; S. Niemi [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Turku (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    Particulate is the most problematic emission from diesel engines. To comply with environmental regulations, these engines are often equipped with particulate traps, which must be regenerated frequently for the sake of efficiency. The regeneration is commonly achieved by rising the temperature in the trap till the particulate self-ignites. However, this method implies energy losses and thermal shocks in the trap. Alternatively, catalysts and additives have been recently considered for reducing the ignition temperature of particulate, but these techniques suffer from poisoning and undesirable byproducts. The present experimental study shows that the ignition temperature of particulate from seed-derived oils (SO) and from blends of SO with diesel fuel oil (DO) can be lower than that of particulate from neat DO. If substantiated by more extensive studies, such finding could have noteworthy implications on the future of fuels and traps. Short communication. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. New approach to derive linear power/burnup history input for CANDU fuel codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lac Tang, T.; Richards, M.; Parent, G.

    2003-01-01

    The fuel element linear power / burnup history is a required input for the ELESTRES code in order to simulate CANDU fuel behavior during normal operating conditions and also to provide input for the accident analysis codes ELOCA and SOURCE. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to derive 'true', or at least more realistic linear power / burnup histories. Such an approach can be used to recreate any typical bundle power history if only a single pair of instantaneous values of bundle power and burnup, together with the position in the channel, are known. The histories obtained could be useful to perform more realistic simulations for safety analyses for cases where the reference (overpower) history is not appropriate. (author)

  5. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catal, Tunc [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 97331, Corvallis, OR (United States); Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Fan, Yanzhen; Liu, Hong [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Li, Kaichang [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 97331, Corvallis, OR (United States); Bermek, Hakan [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains. (author)

  6. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Tunc; Fan, Yanzhen; Li, Kaichang; Bermek, Hakan; Liu, Hong

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains.

  7. Continuous-Flow Processes in Heterogeneously Catalyzed Transformations of Biomass Derivatives into Fuels and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. Romero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow chemical processes offer several advantages as compared to batch chemistries. These are particularly relevant in the case of heterogeneously catalyzed transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into valuable chemicals and fuels. This work is aimed to provide an overview of key continuous flow processes developed to date dealing with a series of transformations of platform chemicals including alcohols, furanics, organic acids and polyols using a wide range of heterogeneous catalysts based on supported metals, solid acids and bifunctional (metal + acidic materials.

  8. Production of wood derived fuels. Review of research projects; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The research and development work was very active on the area of wood derived fuels during the past year 1996. Totally some 40 projects were going on, and till the end of the year about 15 projects were completed. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. When new production methods and machinery was introduced earlier by demonstration projects, now they were investigated by follow up projects. The economical and quality results of logging residue harvesting and comminution seem quite satisfactory, but integrated methods and production chains still need research and development. (orig.)

  9. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  10. Moderate temperature gas purification system: Application to high calorific coal-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Shirai, H.; Nunokawa, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high-temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high-temperature (above 450{sup o}C) gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition. We suggest moderate temperature (around 300{sup o}C) operation of the gas purification system to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. Because the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal in the moderate temperature gas purification system, we evaluated the chemical removal processes; performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds was experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium aluminate sorbent had potential performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process with zinc ferrite sorbent was also applicable to the temperature range, though the reaction kinetics of the sorbent is essential to be approved.

  11. Moderate temperature gas purification system: application to high calorific coal derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Kobayashi; H. Shirai; M. Nunokawa [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Kanagawa (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high temperature gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition and slippage of contaminant of high vapor pressure. It was suggested that moderate temperature operation of the gas purification system is applied to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. To establish the moderate temperature gas purification system, the chemical-removal processes where the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal should be evaluated. Performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds were experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium based sorbent had potential good performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process was also applicable to the temperature range, although the improvement of the sulfidation reaction rate is considered to be essential. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL-1 and 0.91 g mL-1) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity.

  13. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's evaluation of the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year 2013) HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. Launched in March 2015, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data - fuel economy, maintenance costs, and drive cycles - from the HHVs and the conventional diesel vehicles. The fuel economy of heavy-duty vehicles, such as refuse trucks, is largely dependent on the load carried and the drive cycles on which they operate. In the right applications, HHVs offer a potential fuel-cost advantage over their conventional counterparts. This advantage is contingent, however, on driving behavior and drive cycles with high kinetic intensity that take advantage of regenerative braking. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs. Based on the field data, NREL will develop a validated vehicle model using the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator, also known as FASTSim, to study the impacts of route selection and other vehicle parameters. NREL is also analyzing fueling and maintenance data to support total-cost-of-ownership estimations and forecasts. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation compared to similar conventional vehicles and to provide unbiased technical information to interested stakeholders.

  14. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seokhwan; Lim, Byungran; Lee, Sookoo

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  15. School Refusal: Clinical Features, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Bahali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Children regularly and voluntarily go to school in order to fulfill the expectations of society from them to continue their education or schooling. School continuation has been made compulsory by laws. Nonetheless, contrary to popular belief, for some children it is distressing to go to school. These children have difficulty continuing school and/or refuse to go to school. Today school refusal is defined as a child’s inability to continue school for reasons, such as anxiety and depression. The prevalence of school refusal has been reported to be approximately 1% in school-age children and 5% in child psychiatry samples. The prevalence of school refusal is similar among boys and girls. School refusal can occur at any time throughout the child’s academic life and at all socio-economic levels. School refusal is considered a symptom rather than a clinical diagnosis and can manifest itself as a sign of many psychiatric disorders, with anxiety disorders predominant. Separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, and adjustment disorder with anxiety symptoms are the most common disorders co-occurring with school refusal. While separation anxiety disorder is associated with school refusal in younger children, other anxiety disorders, especially phobias, are associated with school refusal in adolescents. Children who have parents with psychiatric disorders have a higher incidence of school refusal, and psychiatric disorders are more frequently seen in adult relatives of children with school refusal, which supports a significant role of genetic and environmental factors in th etiology of school refusal. School refusal is a emergency state for child mental health. As it leads to detrimental effects in the short term and the long term, it should be regarded as a serious problem. The long-lasting follow-up studies of school refusing children have revealed that these children have a higher incidence of

  16. Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Satya P. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Garbark, Daniel B. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Peterson, Rick [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Battelle has demonstrated a novel and potentially breakthrough technology for a direct coal-to-liquids (CTL) process for producing jet fuel using biomass-derived coal solvents (bio-solvents). The Battelle process offers a significant reduction in capital and operating costs and a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, without requiring carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results of the project are the advancement of three steps of the hybrid coal/biomass-to-jet fuel process to the technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. The project objectives were achieved over two phases. In Phase 1, all three major process steps were explored and refined at bench-scale, including: (1) biomass conversion to high hydrogen-donor bio-solvent; (2) coal dissolution in biomass-derived bio-solvent, without requiring molecular H2, to produce a synthetic crude (syncrude); and (3) two-stage catalytic hydrotreating/hydrogenation of syncrude to jet fuel and other distillates. In Phase 2, all three subsystems of the CTL process were scaled up to a pre-pilot scale, and an economic analysis was carried out. A total of over 40 bio-solvents were identified and prepared. The most unique attribute of Battelle’s bio-solvents is their ability to provide much-needed hydrogen to liquefy coal and thus increase its hydrogen content so much that the resulting syncrude is liquid at room temperature. Based on the laboratory-scale testing with bituminous coals from Ohio and West Virginia, a total of 12 novel bio-solvent met the goal of greater than 80% coal solubility, with 8 bio-solvents being as good as or better than a well-known but expensive hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. The Battelle CTL process was then scaled up to 1 ton/day (1TPD) at a pre-pilot facility operated in Morgantown, WV. These tests were conducted, in part, to produce enough material for syncrude-upgrading testing. To convert the Battelle-CTL syncrude into a form suitable as a blending stock for jet

  17. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  18. Emissions from co-combustion of wood and household refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.J.; Peterson, F.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on the emissions produced in a 20 kW experimental boiler burning a combination of wood and household refuse. The wood content ranged form 10 to 50%. Direct sampling with Tenax adsorbent was used to cover a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The measurements also included unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and flue gas temperature. Combustion and emission parameters were recorded continuously with a multi-point data logger. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The main emphasis was placed on the effect of wood on VOC emissions. The results showed that as the wood content increased from 10 to 50%, there was a roughly linear increase in emissions of total VOCs. Carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions also increased. These results suggest that household refuse is a good substitute for wood as a boiler fuel, as it has a similar calorific value but fewer emissions. (Author)

  19. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  20. Review of the potential for utilizing washery refuse in N. S. W. and Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, K M

    1977-06-01

    The growing importance attached to the environment, coupled with the increasing quantities of coal refuse resulting from expanded coal production has highlighted the problem of coal refuse disposal and provided the necessary impetus to find uses for the by-product, which will eventually be regarded as a fuel and engineering material rather than a waste. Potential areas of use will be as a fuel; as a potential fuel replacement and raw material additive for brick manufacture; as a raw material for lightweight aggregate manufacture; as a construction material; for agricultural purposes, or a number of other areas of special use. The successful marketing of coal refuse will depend on an in-depth technical market analysis being carried out, followed by practical research and a comprehensive product examination and identification program being undertaken.

  1. Novel polybenzimidazole derivatives for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lixiang

    Recent advances have made polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) a leading alternative to internal combustion engines for both stationary and transportation applications. In particular, high temperature polymer electrolyte membranes operational above 120°C without humidification offer many advantages including fast electrode kinetics, high tolerance to fuel impurities and simple thermal and water management systems. A series of polybenzimidazole (PBI) derivatives including pyridine-based PBI (PPBI) and sulfonated PBI (SPBI) homopolymers and copolymers have been synthesized using polyphosphoric acid (PPA) as both solvent and polycondensation agent. High molecular weight PBI derivative polymers were obtained with well controlled backbone structures in terms of pyridine ring content, polymer backbone rigidity and degree of sulfonation. A novel process, termed the PPA process, has been developed to prepare phosphoric acid (PA) doped PBI membranes by direct-casting of the PPA polymerization solution without isolation or re-dissolution of the polymers. The subsequent hydrolysis of PPA to PA by moisture absorbed from the atmosphere usually induced a transition from the solution-like state to a gel-like state and produced PA doped PBI membranes with a desirable suite of physiochemical properties characterized by the PA doping levels, mechanical properties and proton conductivities. The effects of the polymer backbone structure on the polymer characteristics and membrane properties, i.e., the structure-property relationships of the PBI derivative polymers have been studied. The incorporation of additional basic nitrogen containing pyridine rings and sulfonic acid groups enhanced the polymer solubility in acid and dipolar solvents while retaining the inherently high thermal stability of the PBI heteroaromatic backbone. In particular, the degradation of the SPBI polymers with reasonable high molecular weights commenced above 450°C, notably higher than other

  2. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse piles. Runoff from the areas above the refuse...

  3. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse pile. Runoff from areas above the refuse pile...

  4. Permitting a tire-derived fuel system : a case study : Lafarge's Bath Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumming, R. [Lafarge North America, Herndon, VA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Details of a proposed automated tire-derived fuel (TDF) system for an Ontario cement plant using mid-kiln technology were presented. The TDF system will replace approximately 20 per cent of the coal currently used by the cement plant. TDF is a proven technology that is gaining wider acceptance in both North America and Europe. Recent European Union (EU) rulings have placed energy recovery from waste high within the waste management hierarchy. In order to obtain a permit to operate the TDF system in Ontario, owners of the cement plant were obliged to hold preliminary engineering sessions in addition to informal sessions, comment periods and government reviews. The plant is required to meet emission and operational standards and the Industry Emission Reduction Program regardless of the fuel type it uses. Issues complicating the permitting process included the public perception that TDF will result in higher air emissions. However, statistics from other plants using TDF have demonstrated that TDF lowers nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions compared to coal NO{sub x} emissions, and using TDF may result in fewer uncontained tire fires that pollute the atmosphere. The cement plant will use an electrostatic precipitator that is currently seen as the best available technology for controlling TDF emissions. Continuous emission monitoring will take place, and stack testing will be required when introducing alternative fuels. In order to engage with the public, the cement plant has promised to have a live, public display of emission levels, and has agreed to be monitored by a citizen's watch committee. A 2 year demonstration period will be established once TDF has been introduced, and annual reporting requirements will be fulfilled. It was concluded that the cement plant's emission standards will be stricter than any other cement plant in Ontario when TDF is introduced. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on the properties of sewage sludge derived solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Yan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available High moisture content along with poor dewaterability are the main challenges for sewage sludge treatment and utilization. In this study, the effect of hydrothermal treatment at various temperature (120-200 ˚C on the properties of sewage sludge derived solid fuel was investigated in the terms of mechanical dewatering character, drying character, calorific value and heavy metal distribution. Hydrothermal treatment (HT followed by dewatering process significantly reduced moisture content and improved calorific value of sewage sludge with the optimum condition obtained at 140˚C. No significant alteration of drying characteristic was produced by HT. Heavy metal enrichment in solid particle was found after HT that highlighted the importance of further study regarding heavy metal behavior during combustion. However, it also implied the potential application of HT on sewage sludge for heavy metal removal from wastewater.

  6. Activated carbon derived from chitosan as air cathode catalyst for high performance in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhao, Yong; Li, Kexun; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Pei; Liu, Di; Yang, Tingting; Wang, Junjie

    2018-02-01

    Chitosan with rich of nitrogen is used as carbon precursor to synthesis activated carbon through directly heating method in this study. The obtained carbon is activated by different amount of KOH at different temperatures, and then prepared as air cathodes for microbial fuel cells. Carbon sample treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C exhibits maximum power density (1435 ± 46 mW m-2), 1.01 times improved, which ascribes to the highest total surface area, moderate micropore and mesoporous structure and the introduction of nitrogen. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and powder resistivity state that carbon treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C possesses lower resistance. The other electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the best kinetic activity make the above treated sample to show the best oxygen reduction reaction activity. Besides, the degree of graphitization of samples increases with the activated temperature increasing, which is tested by Raman. According to elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, all chitosan samples are nitrogen-doped carbon, and high content nitrogen (pyridinic-N) improves the electrochemical activity of carbon treated with KOH at 850 °C. Thus, carbon materials derived from chitosan would be an optimized catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cell.

  7. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  8. Δ14C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO2 distribution across different regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, X.T.; Ding, X.F.; Fu, D.P.; Zhou, L.P.; Liu, K.X.

    2013-01-01

    The 14 C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO 2 in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The 14 C/ 12 C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO 2 was estimated by comparing the measured Δ 14 C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric Δ 14 C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO 2 concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low Δ 14 C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

  9. Personal values and cancer treatment refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert van Leeuwen; Marli Huijer

    2000-01-01

    This pilot study explores the reasons patients have for refusing chemotherapy, and the ways oncologists respond to them. Our hypothesis, generated from interviews with patients and oncologists, is that an ethical approach that views a refusal as an autonomous choice, in which patients are informed

  10. [Refusal of nursing care, the legal perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisman, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    The refusal of nursing care forms part of the freedom offered to anyone wanting to refuse, consciously and knowingly, any form of nursing care such as washing, the taking of medication or hospitalisation. However, limits are fixed by law as well as by case law. Are we totally free in the expression of our will? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Caregivers who refuse preventive care for their children: the relationship between immunization and topical fluoride refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine caregivers' refusal of preventive medical and dental care for children. Prevalence rates of topical fluoride refusal based on dental records and caregiver self-reports were estimated for children treated in 3 dental clinics in Washington State. A 60-item survey was administered to 1024 caregivers to evaluate the association between immunization and topical fluoride refusal. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). The prevalence of topical fluoride refusal was 4.9% according to dental records and 12.7% according to caregiver self-reports. The rate of immunization refusal was 27.4%. In the regression models, immunization refusal was significantly associated with topical fluoride refusal (dental record PRR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 1.96; P refuse both immunizations and topical fluoride (P refusal of immunizations is associated with topical fluoride refusal. Future research should identify the behavioral and social factors related to caregiver refusal of preventive care with the goal of developing multidisciplinary strategies to help caregivers make optimal preventive care decisions for children.

  12. Physico-Chemical Characterizations of Sawdust-Derived Bio char as Potential Solid Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Azlina Wan Ab Karim Ghani

    2014-01-01

    Characterization Malaysian rubber-wood sawdust derived bio char (MRWSB) produced in the fixed bed pyrolysis under different temperatures (450 to 850 degree Celsius) were studied for its applicability as a solid fuel. A range of analyses were carried out, including bio char oxidation reactivity , inorganic species, oxygen and hydrogen contents in the bio chars, release of heteroatoms in bio char as the gaseous product, and bio char structural evolution during pyrolysis process. The results show that the optimum temperature for carbonization to obtain a char having moderately high yield was found as 450 degree Celsius. Thermogravimetric analyses (TG) shows that temperatures induces a progressively more ordered carbonaceous structure and leads to a significant changes in the bio char reactivity. The process is coupled with the loss of heteroatoms, released as dominantly carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO). In addition, the elemental study of wood-derived bio char shows the higher carbon content but with low H/C and 0/C ratio suggested this material was dominated by highly aromatic structures and this were revealed in the Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR). More importantly, insignificant amount of inorganic species is evidenced in the samples. (author)

  13. Molecularly Engineered Azobenzene Derivatives for High Energy Density Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eugene N; Zhitomirsky, David; Han, Grace G D; Liu, Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-15

    Solar thermal fuels (STFs) harvest and store solar energy in a closed cycle system through conformational change of molecules and can release the energy in the form of heat on demand. With the aim of developing tunable and optimized STFs for solid-state applications, we designed three azobenzene derivatives functionalized with bulky aromatic groups (phenyl, biphenyl, and tert-butyl phenyl groups). In contrast to pristine azobenzene, which crystallizes and makes nonuniform films, the bulky azobenzene derivatives formed uniform amorphous films that can be charged and discharged with light and heat for many cycles. Thermal stability of the films, a critical metric for thermally triggerable STFs, was greatly increased by the bulky functionalization (up to 180 °C), and we were able to achieve record high energy density of 135 J/g for solid-state STFs, over a 30% improvement compared to previous solid-state reports. Furthermore, the chargeability in the solid state was improved, up to 80% charged from 40% charged in previous solid-state reports. Our results point toward molecular engineering as an effective method to increase energy storage in STFs, improve chargeability, and improve the thermal stability of the thin film.

  14. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  15. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  16. High performance liquid chromatographic hydrocarbon group-type analyses of mid-distillates employing fuel-derived fractions as standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, G. T.; Otterson, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods have been developed for the determination of saturates, olefins and aromatics in petroleum and shale derived mid-distillate fuels. In one method the fuel to be analyzed is reacted with sulfuric acid, to remove a substantial portion of the aromatics, which provides a reacted fuel fraction for use in group type quantitation. The second involves the removal of a substantial portion of the saturates fraction from the HPLC system to permit the determination of olefin concentrations as low as 0.3 volume percent, and to improve the accuracy and precision of olefins determinations. Each method was evaluated using model compound mixtures and real fuel samples.

  17. Designing a Surrogate Fuel for Gas-to-Liquid Derived Diesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, H. A.; Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2017-01-01

    loads, diesel fuel surpasses the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions for both the surrogate and the GTL fuel. No significant variation in CO and CO2 emissions for MI-5, GTL diesel and conventional diesel is observed. Analysis of combustion as well as emission behavior of the fuels helps to understand...

  18. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.

  19. Re-evaluating neptunium in uranyl phases derived from corroded spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortner, J. A.; Finch, R. J.; Kropf, A. J.; Cunnane, J. C.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms that may control radioelement release from corroded commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) has been heightened by the selection of the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as the repository for high-level nuclear waste in the United States. Neptunium is an important radionuclide in repository models owing to its relatively long half-life and its high aqueous mobility as neptunyl [Np(V)O+2]. The possibility of neptunium sequestration into uranyl alteration phases produced by corroding CSNF would suggest-a process for lowering neptunium concentration and subsequent migration from a geologic repository. However, there remains little experimental evidence that uranyl compounds will, in fact, serve as long-term host phases for the retention of neptunium under conditions expected in a deep geologic repository. To directly explore this possibility, we examined specimens of uranyl alteration phases derived from humid-air-corroded CSNF by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to better determine neptunium uptake in these phases. Although neptunium fluorescence was readily observed from as-received CSNF, it was not observed from the uranyl alteration rind. We establish upper limits for neptunium incorporation into CSNF alteration phases that are significantly below previously reported concentrations obtained by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). We attribute the discrepancy to a plural-scattering event that creates a spurious EELS peak at the neptunium-MV energy

  20. Chemical reagent and process for refuse disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somerville, R.B.; Fan, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    A process for treating refuse by mixing them with a reactive chemical and a puzzolana-type material. Said chemical includes a retarding agent which modifies the viscosity and an accelerating agent. (author)

  1. Using a Nonaversive Procedure to Decrease Refusals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A nonaversive technique was used to teach a severely handicapped woman to decrease her refusals. The technique employed precision teaching via precise daily measurement strategies, environmental analysis, and a focus on building appropriate behavior. (JDD)

  2. Deriving fuel-based emission factor thresholds to interpret heavy-duty vehicle roadside plume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, David C; Smith, Jeremy D; Ham, Walter A; Robertson, William H; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto; Hu, Shaohua

    2018-04-13

    Remote sensing devices have been used for decades to measure gaseous emissions from individual vehicles at the roadside. Systems have also been developed that entrain diluted exhaust and can also measure particulate matter (PM) emissions. In 2015, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) reported that 8% of in-field diesel particulate filters (DPF) on heavy-duty (HD) vehicles were malfunctioning and emitted about 70% of total diesel PM emissions from the DPF-equipped fleet. A new high-emitter problem in the heavy-duty vehicle fleet had emerged. Roadside exhaust plume measurements reflect a snapshot of real-world operation, typically lasting several seconds. In order to relate roadside plume measurements to laboratory emission tests, we analyzed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), oxides of nitrogen (NO X ), and PM emissions collected from four HD vehicles during several driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. We examined the fuel-based emission factors corresponding to possible exceedances of emission standards as a function of vehicle power. Our analysis suggests that a typical HD vehicle will exceed the model year (MY) 2010 emission standards (of 0.2 g NO X /bhp-hr and 0.01 g PM/bhp-hr) by three times when fuel-based emission factors are 9.3 g NO X /kg fuel and 0.11 g PM/kg using the roadside plume measurement approach. Reported limits correspond to 99% confidence levels, which were calculated using the detection uncertainty of emissions analyzers, accuracy of vehicle power calculations, and actual emissions variability of fixed operational parameters. The PM threshold was determined for acceleration events between 0.47 and 1.4 mph/sec only, and the NO X threshold was derived from measurements where aftertreatment temperature was above 200°C. Anticipating a growing interest in real-world driving emissions, widespread implementation of roadside exhaust plume measurements as a compliment to in-use vehicle programs may benefit from expanding this analysis to a larger

  3. One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

    2014-03-18

    The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

  4. When does food refusal require professional intervention?

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, Terence M.; Farrow, Claire V.; Martin, Clarissa I.; Isherwood, Elaine; Halford, Jason C.G.

    2009-01-01

    Food refusal can have the potential to lead to nutritional deficiencies, which increases the risk of a variety of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Deciding when food refusal requires professional intervention is complicated by the fact that there is a natural and appropriate stage in a child's development that is characterised by increased levels of rejection of both previously accepted and novel food items. Therefore, choosing to intervene is difficult, which if handled badly can ...

  5. Fossil Fuel-Derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Taiwan Strait, China, and Fluxes across the Air-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Miaolei; Xu, Li; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Zhao, Songhe; Wang, Xinhong

    2018-06-14

    On the basis of the application of compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) and air-water exchange models, the contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as their air-water transport were elucidated. The results showed that fossil fuel-derived PAHs (an average contribution of 89%) presented the net volatilization process at the air-water interface of the Taiwan Strait in summer. Net volatile fluxes of the dominant fluorene and phenanthrene (>58% of the total PAHs) were 27 ± 2.8 μg m -2 day -1 , significantly higher than the dry deposition fluxes (average 0.43 μg m -2 day -1 ). The Δ 14 C contents of selected PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene plus anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) determined by CSRA in the dissolved seawater ranged from -997 ± 4‰ to -873 ± 6‰, indicating that 89-100% (95 ± 4%) of PAHs were supplied by fossil fuels. The South China Sea warm current originating from the southwest China in summer (98%) and the Min-Zhe coastal current originating from the north China in winter (97%) input more fossil fuel PAHs than the Jiulong River estuary (90%) and Xiamen harbor water (93%). The more radioactive decayed 14 C of fluoranthene (a 4-ring PAH) than that of phenanthrene and anthracene (3-ring PAHs) represented a greater fossil fuel contribution to the former in dissolved seawater.

  6. Well-to-wheel life cycle assessment of transportation fuels derived from different North American conventional crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Canter, Christina; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of data-intensive bottom-up life cycle assessment model. • Quantification of well-to-wheel GHG emissions for five North American crudes. • Allocation of emissions to transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel). • California’s Kern County heavy oil is the most GHG intensive of the crudes. - Abstract: A life cycle assessment (LCA) is an extremely useful tool to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with all the stages of a crude oil’s life from well-to-wheel (WTW). All of the WTW life cycle stages of crude oil consume energy and produce significant amounts of GHG emissions. The present study attempts to quantify the WTW life cycle GHG emissions for transportation fuels derived from five North American conventional crudes through the development of an LCA model called FUNNEL-GHG-CCO (FUNdamental Engineering PrinciplEs-based ModeL for Estimation of GreenHouse Gases in Conventional Crude Oils). This model estimates GHG emissions from all the life cycle stages from recovery of crude to the combustion of transportation fuels in vehicle engines. The contribution of recovery emissions in the total WTW GHG emissions ranges from 3.12% for Mars crude to 24.25% for California’s Kern County heavy oil. The transportation of crude oil and refined fuel contributes only 0.44–1.73% of the total WTW life cycle GHG emissions, depending on the transportation methods and total distance transported. The GHG emissions for refining were calculated from the amount of energy use in the refining of crude oil to produce transportation fuels. All the upstream GHG emissions were allocated to gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Refining GHG emissions vary from 13.66–18.70 g-CO 2 eq/MJ-gasoline, 9.71–15.33 g-CO 2 eq/MJ-diesel, and 6.38–9.92 g-CO 2 eq/MJ-jet fuel derived from Alaska North Slope and California’s Kern County heavy oil, respectively. The total WTW life cycle GHG emissions range from 97.55 g-CO 2 eq

  7. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by the...

  8. Techno-Economic Analysis of Camelina-Derived Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuel and its Implications on the Aviation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shila, Jacob Joshua Howard

    Although the aviation industry contributes toward global economic growth via transportation of passengers and cargo, the increasing demand for air transportation causes concern due to the corresponding increase in aircraft engine exhaust emissions. Use of alternative fuels is one pathway that has been explored for reducing emissions in the aviation industry. Hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) (also known as Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids - HEFA) fuels have been approved for blending with traditional jet fuel up to 50% by volume to be used as drop-in fuels. However, limited information exists on the economic viability of these fuels. While techno-economic studies have been conducted on the HRJ production process using soybean oil, different vegetable oils possess different hydrocarbon structures that affect the yield of HRJ fuels. This study involves the techno-economic analysis of producing Camelina-derived HRJ fuel using the option of hydro-deoxygenation (HDO). The hydrodeoxygenation option requires extra hydrogen and hence affects the overall cost of HRJ fuel production. Similar studies have been conducted on the production of Camelina-derived HRJ fuels using the same path of hydrodeoxygenation with minor contributions from both decarbonylation and decarboxylation reactions. This study, however, employs the UOP Honeywell procedure using the hydrodeoxygenation chemical reaction to estimate the breakeven price of Camelina-derived HRJ fuel. In addition, the study treats the cultivation of Camelina oilseeds, extraction of oilseeds, and the conversion of HRJ fuel as separate entities. The production of Camelina oilseed, Camelina oil, and finally Camelina-derived HRJ fuel is modeled in order to estimate the breakeven price of the fuel. In addition, the information obtained from the techno-economic analysis is used to assess the breakeven carbon price. All costs are analyzed based on 2016 US dollars. The breakeven price of Camelina oilseeds is found to be 228

  9. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to

  10. Emissions of Jatropha oil-derived biodiesel blend fuels during combustion in a swirl burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwazan, A. R.; Mohd. Jaafar, M. N.; Sapee, S.; Farouk, Hazir

    2018-03-01

    Experimental works on combustion of jatropha oil biodiesel blends of fuel with high swirling flow in swirl burner have been studied in various blends percentage. Jatropha oil biodiesel was produced using a two-step of esterification-transesterification process. The paper focuses on the emissions of biodiesel blends fuel using jatropha oil in lean through to rich air/fuel mixture combustion in swirl burner. The emissions performances were evaluated by using axial swirler amongst jatropha oil blends fuel including diesel fuel as baseline. The results show that the B25 has good emissions even though it has a higher emission of NOx than diesel fuel, while it emits as low as 42% of CO, 33% of SO2 and 50% of UHC emissions with high swirl number. These are due to the higher oxygen content in jatropha oil biodiesel.

  11. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  12. Astrocytic glycogen-derived lactate fuels the brain during exhaustive exercise to maintain endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Omuro, Hideki; Liu, Yu-Fan; Soya, Mariko; Shima, Takeru; McEwen, Bruce S; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-06-13

    Brain glycogen stored in astrocytes provides lactate as an energy source to neurons through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to maintain neuronal functions such as hippocampus-regulated memory formation. Although prolonged exhaustive exercise decreases brain glycogen, the role of this decrease and lactate transport in the exercising brain remains less clear. Because muscle glycogen fuels exercising muscles, we hypothesized that astrocytic glycogen plays an energetic role in the prolonged-exercising brain to maintain endurance capacity through lactate transport. To test this hypothesis, we used a rat model of exhaustive exercise and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to observe comprehensive energetics of the brain (cortex and hippocampus) and muscle (plantaris). At exhaustion, muscle glycogen was depleted but brain glycogen was only decreased. The levels of MCT2, which takes up lactate in neurons, increased in the brain, as did muscle MCTs. Metabolomics revealed that brain, but not muscle, ATP was maintained with lactate and other glycogenolytic/glycolytic sources. Intracerebroventricular injection of the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol did not affect peripheral glycemic conditions but suppressed brain lactate production and decreased hippocampal ATP levels at exhaustion. An MCT2 inhibitor, α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamate, triggered a similar response that resulted in lower endurance capacity. These findings provide direct evidence for the energetic role of astrocytic glycogen-derived lactate in the exhaustive-exercising brain, implicating the significance of brain glycogen level in endurance capacity. Glycogen-maintained ATP in the brain is a possible defense mechanism for neurons in the exhausted brain.

  13. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Smith, R; Hill, D; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N J

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly ( approximately 2500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and approximately 1500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( 95 pounds/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  14. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Hill, D.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly (∼2500 g CO 2 eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and ∼1500 g CO 2 eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( Pounds 95/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  15. Medication Refusal: Resident Rights, Administration Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Danielle R; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2017-12-01

    Occasionally, residents actively or passively refuse to take medications. Residents may refuse medication for a number of reasons, including religious beliefs, dietary restrictions, misunderstandings, cognitive impairment, desire to self-harm, or simple inconvenience. This action creates a unique situation for pharmacists and long-term facility staff, especially if patients have dementia. Residents have the legal right to refuse medications, and long-term care facilities need to employ a process to resolve disagreement between the health care team that recommends the medication and the resident who refuses it. In some cases, simple interventions like selecting a different medication or scheduling medications in a different time can address and resolve the resident's objection. If the medical team and the resident cannot resolve their disagreement, often an ethics consultation is helpful. Documenting the resident's refusal to take any or all medications, the health care team's actions and any other outcomes are important. Residents' beliefs may change over time, and the health care team needs to be prepared to revisit the issue as necessary.

  16. Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myren HJ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.

  17. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2000 - December 31, 2000, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) executed a Cooperative Agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory to implement a major cofiring demonstration at the Willow Island Generating Station Boiler No.2. Willow Island Boiler No.2 is a cyclone boiler. Allegheny also will demonstrate separate injection cofiring at the Albright Generating Station Boiler No.3, a tangentially fired boiler. The Allegheny team includes Foster Wheeler as its primary subcontractor. Additional subcontractors are Cofiring Alternatives and N.S. Harding and Associates. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The second quarter of the project involved completing the designs for each location. Further, geotechnical investigations proceeded at each site. Preparations were made to perform demolition on two small buildings at the Willow Island site. Fuels strategies were initiated for each site. Test planning commenced for each site. A groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Willow Island site on October 18, with Governor C. Underwood being the featured speaker

  18. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  19. Experimental setup for combustion characteristics in a diesel engine using derivative fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andi Mulkan; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Reciprocating engines are normally run on petroleum fuels or diesel fuels. Unfortunately, energy reserves such as gas and oil are decreasing. Today, with renewable energy technologies petroleum or diesel can be reduced and substituted fully or partly by alternative fuels in engine. The objective of this paper is to setup the experimental rig using producer gas from gasification system mix with diesel fuel and fed to a diesel engine. The Yanmar L60AE-DTM single cylinder diesel engine is used in the experiment. A 20 kW downdraft gasifier has been developed to produce gas using cut of furniture wood used as biomass source. Air inlet of the engine has been modified to include the producer gas. An AVL quartz Pressure Transducer P4420 was installed into the engine head to measure pressure inside the cylinder of the engine. Several test were carried out on the downdraft gasifier system and diesel engine. The heating value of the producer gas is about 4 MJ/m 3 and the specific biomass fuel consumption is about 1.5 kg/kWh. Waste cooking oil (WCO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used as biomass fuel. The pressure versus crank angle diagram for using blend of diesel are presented and compared with using diesel alone. The result shows that the peak pressure is higher. The premixed combustion is lower but have higher mixing controlled combustion. The CO and NO x emission are higher for biomass fuel

  20. Alternative Bio-Derived JP-8 Class Fuel and JP-8 Fuel: Flame Tube Combustor Test Results Compared using a GE TAPS Injector Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert; Tedder, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests in a NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) flame tube facility, where a bio-derived alternate fuel was compared with JP-8 for emissions and general combustion performance. A research version of General Electric Aviation (GE) TAPS injector was used for the tests. Results include 2D, planar laser-based imaging as well as basic flow visualization of the flame. Four conditions were selected that simulate various engine power conditions relevant to NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Projects were tested.

  1. Current status of research on school refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido J. Inglés

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available School refusal behavior refers to the avoidance of a child attending school and/or persistent difficulty staying in the classroom throughout the school day. Based on a review of the scientific literature, the aim of this study is to describe the current state of research on school refusal, differentiating between the findings and progress made in Spain from those achieved in the international field. For this purpose, the significance of this phenomenon, in addition to associated risk factors and variables, will be reviewed in the child and youth population. In turn, the commonly used assessment methods and most recommended treatment proposals, mainly based on cognitive behavioral therapy, are discussed. The results reveal several gaps and subjects for debate in some areas of knowledge about school refusal behavior, with differences being found between Spanish and international studies. In conclusion, future studies and challenges in this field are required.

  2. Refusing The Choice: Balancing Life and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Choice The intellect of man is forced to choose perfection of the life, or of the work, And if it take the second must refuse A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark. When all that story's finished, what's the news? In luck or out the toil has left its mark: That old perplexity an empty purse, Or the day's vanity, the night's remorse. William Butler Yeats William Yeats put forward The Choice that I feel too many scientists feel they must make. Too often, many choose to leave science. How do we refuse this choice and find balance between life and our careers? While I don't know the answer, I will share choices that have lead to not perfection but satisfaction in science careers and lives. The role of mentors, supportive spouses, the luck of the job, and flexibility in research directions have all contributed to being able to refuse to choose.

  3. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the present study was to determine in detail the interaction effects of 10 simultaneously present, coal-gas contaminants, both on each other and on components of the Carbonate Fuel Cell. The primary goal was to assess underlying chemistries and reaction mechanisms which may cause decay in fuel cell performance or endurance as a result of both physics-chemical and/or mechanical interactions with the cell components and internal fuel cell parts. It was found, both from theory and cell test evidence, that trace contaminant interactions may occur with: Fuel-cell Electrodes (e.g., in this study with the Ni-anode), Lithium/Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte, Nickel and SS-Hardware, and by Mechanical Obstruction of Gas Flow in the Anode Plenum.

  4. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  5. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  6. Recent decreases in fossil-fuel emissions of ethane and methane derived from firn air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Murat; Verhulst, Kristal R; Saltzman, Eric S; Battle, Mark O; Montzka, Stephen A; Blake, Donald R; Tang, Qi; Prather, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Methane and ethane are the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere and they affect both atmospheric chemistry and climate. Both gases are emitted from fossil fuels and biomass burning, whereas methane (CH(4)) alone has large sources from wetlands, agriculture, landfills and waste water. Here we use measurements in firn (perennial snowpack) air from Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct the atmospheric variability of ethane (C(2)H(6)) during the twentieth century. Ethane levels rose from early in the century until the 1980s, when the trend reversed, with a period of decline over the next 20 years. We find that this variability was primarily driven by changes in ethane emissions from fossil fuels; these emissions peaked in the 1960s and 1970s at 14-16 teragrams per year (1 Tg = 10(12) g) and dropped to 8-10 Tg  yr(-1) by the turn of the century. The reduction in fossil-fuel sources is probably related to changes in light hydrocarbon emissions associated with petroleum production and use. The ethane-based fossil-fuel emission history is strikingly different from bottom-up estimates of methane emissions from fossil-fuel use, and implies that the fossil-fuel source of methane started to decline in the 1980s and probably caused the late twentieth century slow-down in the growth rate of atmospheric methane.

  7. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  8. Portland clinker production with carbonatite waste and tire-derived fuel: crystallochemistry of minor and trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. D. Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the composition of Portland clinkers produced with non-conventional raw-materials and fuels, focusing on the distribution of selected trace elements. Clinkers produced with three different fuel compositions were sampled in an industrial plant, where all other parameters were kept unchanged. The fuels have chemical fingerprints, which are sulfur for petroleum coke and zinc for TDF (tire-derived fuel. Presence of carbonatite in the raw materials is indicated by high amounts of strontium and phosphorous. Electron microprobe data was used to determine occupation of structural site of both C3S and C2S, and the distribution of trace elements among clinker phases. Phosphorous occurs in similar proportions in C3S and C2S; while considering its modal abundance, C3S is its main reservoir in the clinker. Sulfur is preferentially partitioned toward C2S compared to C3S. Strontium substitutes for Ca2+ mainly in C2S and in non-silicatic phases, compared to C3S.

  9. Environmental, Economic, and Scalability Considerations and Trends of Selected Fuel Economy-Enhancing Biomass-Derived Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Systems; Biddy, Mary [National; Jones, Susanne [Energy; Cai, Hao [Systems; Benavides, Pahola Thathiana [Systems; Markham, Jennifer [National; Tao, Ling [National; Tan, Eric [National; Kinchin, Christopher [National; Davis, Ryan [National; Dutta, Abhijit [National; Bearden, Mark [Energy; Clayton, Christopher [Energy; Phillips, Steven [Energy; Rappé, Kenneth [Energy; Lamers, Patrick [Bioenergy

    2017-10-30

    24 biomass-derived compounds and mixtures, identified based on their physical properties, that could be blended into fuels to improve spark ignition engine fuel economy were assessed for their economic, technology readiness, and environmental viability. These bio-blendstocks were modeled to be produced biochemically, thermochemically, or through hybrid processes. To carry out the assessment, 17 metrics were developed for which each bio-blendstock was determined to be favorable, neutral, or unfavorable. Cellulosic ethanol was included as a reference case. Overall, bio-blendstock yields in biochemical processes were lower than in thermochemical processes, in which all biomass, including lignin, is converted to a product. Bio-blendstock yields were a key determinant in overall viability. Key knowledge gaps included the degree of purity needed for use as a bio-blendstock as compared to a chemical. Less stringent purification requirements for fuels could cut processing costs and environmental impacts. Additionally, more information is needed on the blendability of many of these bio-blendstocks with gasoline to support the technology readiness evaluation. Overall, the technology to produce many of these blendstocks from biomass is emerging and as it matures, these assessments must be revisited. Importantly, considering economic, environmental, and technology readiness factors in addition to physical properties of blendstocks that could be used to boost fuel economy can help spotlight those most likely to be viable in the near term.

  10. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  11. Experimental investigation and mathematical modelling of the combustion of brown coal, refuse and mixed fuels in a circulating fluidized bed combustor; Experimentelle Untersuchung und mathematische Modellierung der Verbrennung von Braunkohle, Abfallstoffen und Mischbrennstoffen in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, W; Brunne, T; Hiller, A [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Albrecht, J [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Quang, N [Polytechnic Inst., Danang (Viet Nam)

    1998-09-01

    Extensive experiments on combustion of biological materials and residues in fluidized bed combustors and dust combustors have been carried out at the Department of Power Plant Engineering of Dresden University since the early nineties. Particular interest was taken in mixing brown coal with sewage sludge, sugar pulp and waste wood. The experiments were supplemented by modelling in a research project funded jointly by the BMBF and Messrs. Lurgi since early 1997. A combustion cell model designed by Siegen University is being modified for the new mixed fuels, and preliminary investigations were carried out on a batch reactor while the modelling work was continued. (orig.) [Deutsch] An dem Lehrstuhl fuer Kraftwerkstechnik der TU Dresden werden seit Anfang der 90-iger Jahre umfangreiche experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung von Bio- und Reststoffen in Wirbelschicht- und Staubfeuerungen durchgefuehrt. Dabei war vor allem die Zufeuerung dieser Stoffe in Waermeerzeugeranlagen auf Braunkohlenbasis von besonderem Interesse. Experimentell konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass sowohl Biobrennstoffe als auch Abfaelle in zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerungen umweltschonend zur Waermeerzeugung eingesetzt werden koennen. Als Beispiel wird das an Hand von Braunkohle-Klaerschlammgemischen sowie Bagasse- und Holz-Braunkohlegemischen gezeigt. Neben den experimentellen Untersuchungen bietet die Modellierung der Verbrennungsvorgaenge ein geeignetes Mittel um Voraussagen zu anderen Mischungsanteilen sowie anderen geometrischen Abmessungen machen zu koennen. Seit Anfang 1997 wird dazu ein vom BMBF und der Firma Lurgi gefoerdertes Forschungsvorhaben bearbeitet. Ein von der Universitaet Gesamthochschule Siegen fuer die Braunkohleverbrennung konzipiertes Zellenmodell wird auf die neuen Brennstoffgemische erweitert. Da grundsaetzlich andere Stoffzusammensetzungen vorliegen, wurden an einem Batch-Reaktor Voruntersuchungen zum Pyrolyseverhalten der Brennstoffe durchgefuehrt. Erste

  12. Refusing in a Foreign Language: An Investigation of Problems Encountered by Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuh-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the speech act of refusal is universal across language, the politeness value and the types of linguistic forms used to perform it vary across language and culture. The majority of the comparative pragmatic research findings were derived from one single source of data (i.e., either production data or perception data). Few attempts have been…

  13. 8. European sewage and refuse symposium. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The subject of the 8. European Sewage and Refuse Symposium is covered under the following headings: collection and control in sewers, industrial waste water management, pretreatment, combined treatment, special cases, industrial waste water sludges disposal and the European waste business. (orig./BBR)

  14. [Professionals' training and refusal of nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    A patient's refusal of nursing care concerns the caregivers. Future professionals must be prepared for it and student nurses are trained to deal with such situations. It is also important to empower patients and support them in their choice. This article presents the example of the Haute École Robert Schuman in Libramont, Belgium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of fouling in refuse waste incinerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van M.C.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Wijers, J.G.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Gas-side fouling of waste-heat-recovery boilers, caused mainly by the deposition of particulate matter, reduces the heat transfer in the boiler. The fouling as observed on the tube bundles in the boiler of a Dutch refuse waste incinerator varied from thin and powdery for the economizer to thick and

  16. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  17. System for manufacturing ash products and energy from refuse waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutin, G.L.; Mahoney, P.F.

    1996-01-04

    The present invention provides a system of manufacturing energy and ash products from solid waste. The system includes apparatus for receiving solid waste for processing, apparatus for shredding the received solid waste, apparatus for removing ferrous material from the shredded solid waste to create processed refuse fuel (PRF) and apparatus for efficiently combusting the PRF. A conveyor transfers the PRF to the combusting apparatus such that the density of the PRF is always controlled for continuous non-problematic flow. Apparatus for recovering residual combustion particulate from the combustion residual gases and for recovering solid ash residue provides the system with the ability to generate steam and electrical energy, and to recover for reuse and recycling valuable materials from the solid ash residue. (author) figs.

  18. Pd/activated carbon sorbents for mid-temperature capture of mercury from coal-derived fuel gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dekui; Han, Jieru; Han, Lina; Wang, Jiancheng; Chang, Liping

    2014-07-01

    Higher concentrations of Hg can be emitted from coal pyrolysis or gasification than from coal combustion, especially elemental Hg. Highly efficient Hg removal technology from coal-derived fuel gas is thus of great importance. Based on the very excellent Hg removal ability of Pd and the high adsorption abilities of activated carbon (AC) for H₂S and Hg, a series of Pd/AC sorbents was prepared by using pore volume impregnation, and their performance in capturing Hg and H₂S from coal-derived fuel gas was investigated using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of loading amount, reaction temperature and reaction atmosphere on Hg removal from coal-derived fuel gas were studied. The sorbents were characterized by N₂ adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the efficiency of Hg removal increased with the increasing of Pd loading amount, but the effective utilization rate of the active component Pd decreased significantly at the same time. High temperature had a negative influence on the Hg removal. The efficiency of Hg removal in the N₂-H₂S-H₂-CO-Hg atmosphere (simulated coal gas) was higher than that in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres, which showed that H₂ and CO, with their reducing capacity, could benefit promote the removal of Hg. The XPS results suggested that there were two different ways of capturing Hg over sorbents in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels cannot compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions which favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the final results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, direct combustion in dedicated mass burn, stoker and fluidized bed boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle-power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this approach is economically feasible only when the fuel is delivered at a deep discount relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. (author)

  20. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  1. Deriving Fuel Mass by Size Class in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Queen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Requirements for describing coniferous forests are changing in response to wildfire concerns, bio-energy needs, and climate change interests. At the same time, technology advancements are transforming how forest properties can be measured. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is yielding promising results for measuring tree biomass parameters that, historically, have required costly destructive sampling and resulted in small sample sizes. Here we investigate whether TLS intensity data can be used to distinguish foliage and small branches (≤0.635 cm diameter; coincident with the one-hour timelag fuel size class from larger branchwood (>0.635 cm in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii branch specimens. We also consider the use of laser density for predicting biomass by size class. Measurements are addressed across multiple ranges and scan angles. Results show TLS capable of distinguishing fine fuels from branches at a threshold of one standard deviation above mean intensity. Additionally, the relationship between return density and biomass is linear by fuel type for fine fuels (r2 = 0.898; SE 22.7% and branchwood (r2 = 0.937; SE 28.9%, as well as for total mass (r2 = 0.940; SE 25.5%. Intensity decays predictably as scan distances increase; however, the range-intensity relationship is best described by an exponential model rather than 1/d2. Scan angle appears to have no systematic effect on fine fuel discrimination, while some differences are observed in density-mass relationships with changing angles due to shadowing.

  2. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214... Installations § 77.214 Refuse piles; general. (a) Refuse piles constructed on or after July 1, 1971, shall be..., tipples, or other surface installations and such piles shall not be located over abandoned openings or...

  3. 30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180 days following written notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person owning...

  4. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the...

  5. 30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; reporting requirements. 77.215-2... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-2 Refuse piles; reporting requirements. (a) The proposed location of a new refuse pile shall be reported to and acknowledged in writing by the District Manager...

  6. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of air...

  7. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the said...

  8. Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

  9. Persian Speakers' Use of Refusal Strategies across Politeness Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the preferred refusal strategies in Persian. 3047 refusals collected by 108 field workers as well as 376 refusals collected through face to face interviews were analyzed and classified according to the descriptions proposed by Liao (1994) and Liao and Bresnahan (1996). The frequencies of the resulting direct and…

  10. Primary care pediatricians' perceptions of vaccine refusal in europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Zachi; van Esso, Diego; Del Torso, Stefano; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Drabik, Anna; Gerber, Andreas; Miron, Dan

    2011-03-01

    An electronic survey assessing primary care pediatricians' estimations and practices regarding parents' vaccination refusal was sent to 395 members of the European Academy of Pediatrics Research in Ambulatory Setting network, with a response rate of 87%. Of respondents who vaccinate in the clinic, 93% estimated the total vaccine refusal rate as refusing parents.

  11. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be...

  12. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to any...

  13. 19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release or refusal of delivery. 12.114 Section 12... delivery. If the completed Notice of Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment of... directs the port director to refuse delivery of the shipment, the shipment shall be refused delivery and...

  14. Hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived oxygenates to liquid alkanes for transportation fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An attractive approach for the production of transportation fuels from renewable biomass resources is to convert oxygenates into alkanes. In this paper, C5–C20 alkanes formed via the hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of the oligomers of furfuryl alcohol(FA can be used as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel fraction. The first step of the process is the oligomers of FA convert into hydrogenated products over Raney Ni catalyst in a batch reactor. The second step of the process converts hydrogenated products to alkanes via hydrodeoxygenation over different bi-functional catalysts include hydrogenation and acidic deoxidization active sites. After this process, the oxygen content decreased from 22.1 wt% in the oligomers of FA to 0.58 wt% in the hydrodeoxygenation products.

  15. Hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived oxygenates to liquid alkanes for transportation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaohui; Yang, Ruishu; Wang, Xin; Yan, Shaokang

    2018-04-01

    An attractive approach for the production of transportation fuels from renewable biomass resources is to convert oxygenates into alkanes. In this paper, C 5 -C 20 alkanes formed via the hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of the oligomers of furfuryl alcohol(FA) can be used as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel fraction. The first step of the process is the oligomers of FA convert into hydrogenated products over Raney Ni catalyst in a batch reactor. The second step of the process converts hydrogenated products to alkanes via hydrodeoxygenation over different bi-functional catalysts include hydrogenation and acidic deoxidization active sites. After this process, the oxygen content decreased from 22.1 wt% in the oligomers of FA to 0.58 wt% in the hydrodeoxygenation products.

  16. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  17. Highly efficient transition metal and nitrogen co-doped carbide-derived carbon electrocatalysts for anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratso, Sander; Kruusenberg, Ivar; Käärik, Maike; Kook, Mati; Puust, Laurits; Saar, Rando; Leis, Jaan; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2018-01-01

    The search for an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace platinum in fuel cell cathode materials is one of the hottest topics in electrocatalysis. Among the many non-noble metal catalysts, metal/nitrogen/carbon composites made by pyrolysis of cheap materials are the most promising with control over the porosity and final structure of the catalyst a crucial point. In this work we show a method of producing a highly active ORR catalyst in alkaline media with a controllable porous structure using titanium carbide derived carbon as a base structure and dicyandiamide along with FeCl3 or CoCl2 as the dopants. The resulting transition metal-nitrogen co-doped carbide derived carbon (M/N/CDC) catalyst is highly efficient for ORR electrocatalysis with the activity in 0.1 M KOH approaching that of commercial 46.1 wt.% Pt/C. The catalyst materials are also investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterise the changes in morphology and composition causing the raise in electrochemical activity. MEA performance of M/N/CDC cathode materials in H2/O2 alkaline membrane fuel cell is tested with the highest power density reached being 80 mW cm-2 compared to 90 mW cm-2 for Pt/C.

  18. Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrok, D.M.; Gieré, R.; Ren, M.; Landa, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and δ(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24‰ and +0.13‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The δ(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48‰ for coal and -0.81‰ for coal+TDF. The δ(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest δ(66)Zn in the system, +0.63‰ and +0.50‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process.

  19. Use for refuse of shale carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1917-09-25

    A process is disclosed for using the refuse from the carbonization of bituminous shales in the preparation of light building material, characterized in that the pulverized material is mixed wet with a light filler, formed in a mold, and burned with or without the addition of clay or with the addition of binding and preserving material, preparing the mold from the pulverized material in the cold.

  20. Assessment of musculoskeletal load in refuse collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Jóźwiak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to assess the load on the musculoskeletal system and its effects in the collectors of solid refuse. The rationale behind this study was to formulate proposals how to reduce excessive musculoskeletal load in this group of workers. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 15 refuse collectors aged 25 to 50 years. Data about the workplace characteristics and subjective complaints of workers were collected by the free interview and questionnaire. During the survey the photorecording of the workpostures, the distance and velocity by GPS recorders, measurements of forces necessary to move containers, energy expenditure (lung ventilation method, workload estimation using the Firstbeat system and REBA method and stadiometry were done. Results: The distance walked daily by the collectors operating in terms of 2 to 3 in urban areas was about 15 km, and in rural areas about 18 km. The most frequent musculoskeletal complaints concerned the feet (60% subjects, knees, wrists and shoulders (over 40% subjects. After work-shift all examined workers had vertebral column shorter by 10 to 14 mm (11.4 mm mean. Conclusions: The results of our study show that the refuse collectors are subjected to a very high physical load because of the work organization and the way it is performed. To avoid adverse health effects and overload it is necessary to undertake ergonomic interventions, involving training of workers to improve the way of their job performance, active and passive leisure, technical control of the equipment and refuse containers, as well as the renegotiation of contracts with clients, especially those concerning non-standard containers. Med Pr 2013;64(4:507–519

  1. Characterization of char derived from various types of solid wastes from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment before landfilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I.H.; Matsuto, T.; Tanaka, N.; Sasaki, Y.; Tanaami, K.

    2007-01-01

    Carbonization is a kind of pyrolysis process to produce char from organic materials under an inert atmosphere. In this work, chars derived from various solid wastes were characterized from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment of waste before landfilling. Sixteen kinds of municipal and industrial solid wastes such as residential combustible wastes, non-combustible wastes, bulky wastes, construction and demolition wastes, auto shredder residue, and sludges were carbonized at 500 deg. C for 1 h under nitrogen atmosphere. In order to evaluate the quality of char as fuel, proximate analysis and heating value were examined. The composition of raw waste had a significant influence on the quality of produced char. The higher the ratio of woody biomass in waste, the higher heating value of char produced. Moreover, an equation to estimate heating value of char was developed by using the weight fraction of fixed carbon and volatile matter in char. De-ashing and chlorine removal were performed to improve the quality of char. The pulverization and sieving method seems to be effective for separation of incombustibles such as metal rather than ash. Most char met a 0.5 wt% chlorine criterion for utilization as fuel in a shaft blast furnace after it was subjected to repeated water-washing. Carbonization could remove a considerable amount of organic matter from raw waste. In addition, the leaching of heavy metals such as chrome, cadmium, and lead appears to be significantly suppressed by carbonization regardless of the type of raw waste. From these results, carbonization could be considered as a pretreatment method for waste before landfilling, as well as for fuel recovery

  2. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  3. Geomorphic reclmation of a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, L. C.; Quaranta, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geomorphic reclamation is a technique that may offer opportunities to improve mine reclamation in Central Appalachia. The design approach is based on constructing a steady-state, mature landform condition and takes into account the long-term climatic conditions, soil types, terrain grade, and vegetation. Geomorphic reclamation has been applied successfully in semi-arid regions but has not yet been applied in Central Appalachia. This work describes a demonstration study where geomorphic landforming techniques are being applied to a coarse coal refuse pile in southern West Virginia, USA. The reclamation design includes four geomorphic watersheds that radially drain runoff from the pile. Each watershed has one central draining channel and incorporates compound slope profiles similarly to naturally eroded slopes. Planar slopes were also included to maintain the impacted area. The intent is to alter the hydrology to decrease water quality treatment costs. The excavation cut and fill volumes are comparable to those of more conventional refuse pile reclamation designs. If proven successful then this technique can be part of a cost-effective solution to improve water quality at active and future refuse facilities, abandoned mine lands, bond forfeiture sites, landfills, and major earthmoving activities within the region.

  4. Electrochemical Coupling of Biomass-Derived Acids: New C8 Platforms for Renewable Polymers and Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linglin; Mascal, Mark; Farmer, Thomas J; Arnaud, Sacha Pérocheau; Wong Chang, Maria-Angelica

    2017-01-10

    Electrolysis of biomass-derived carbonyl compounds is an alternative to condensation chemistry for supplying products with chain length >C 6 for biofuels and renewable materials production. Kolbe coupling of biomass-derived levulinic acid is used to obtain 2,7-octanedione, a new platform molecule only two low process-intensity steps removed from raw biomass. Hydrogenation to 2,7-octanediol provides a chiral secondary diol largely unknown to polymer chemistry, whereas intramolecular aldol condensation followed by hydrogenation yields branched cycloalkanes suitable for use as high-octane, cellulosic gasoline. Analogous electrolysis of an itaconic acid-derived methylsuccinic monoester yields a chiral 2,5-dimethyladipic acid diester, another underutilized monomer owing to lack of availability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Advancements in rationally designed PGM-free fuel cell catalysts derived from metal–organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Liu, Di-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived platinum group metal free (PGM-free) electrocatalysts have gained considerable attention due to their high efficiency and low cost as potential replacement for platinum in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this review, we summarize the recent advancements in design, synthesis and characterization of MOF-derived ORR catalysts and their performances in acidic and alkaline media. As a result, we also discuss the key challenges such as durability and activity enhancement critical in moving forward this emerging electrocatalyst science.

  6. Characterization of Korean solid recovered fuels (SRFs): an analysis and comparison of SRFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeon-Seok; Han, Soyoung; Choi, Hang-Seok; Kim, Seock-Joon

    2012-04-01

    To date, Korea has used four species of solid recovered fuels (SRFs) which have been certified by the Environmental Ministry of Korea: refuse-derived fuel (RDF), refused plastic fuel (RPF), tyre-derived fuel (TDF), and wood chip fuel (WCF). These fuels have been used in many industrial boilers. In this study, seven regulatory properties associated with each of the four species: particle size, moisture and ash content, lower heating value (LHV), total chlorine, sulfur, and heavy metals content (Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr) were analysed. These properties are the main regulation criteria for the usage and transfer of SRFs in Korea. Different properties of each SRF were identified on the basis of data collected over the last 3 years in Korea, and the manufacturing process problem associated with the production of SRFs were considered. It was found that the high moisture content of SRFs (especially WCF) could directly lead to the low LHV of SRFs and that the poor screening and sorting of raw materials could cause defective SRF products with high ash or chlorine contents. The information obtained from this study could contribute to the manufacturing of SRF with good quality.

  7. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine operated with fuel blends derived from a mixture of Pakistani waste tyre oil and waste soybean oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Hussain, Mazhar

    2017-10-18

    The waste tyre and waste cooking oils have a great potential to be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. The aim of this study was to convert light fractions of pyrolysis oil derived from Pakistani waste vehicle tyres and waste soybean oil methyl esters into valuable fuel and to reduce waste disposal-associated environmental problems. In this study, the waste tyre pyrolysis liquid (light fraction) was collected from commercial tyre pyrolysis plant and biodiesel was prepared from waste soybean oil. The fuel blends (FMWO10, FMWO20, FMWO30, FMWO40 and FMWO50) were prepared from a 30:70 mixture of waste tyre pyrolysis liquid and waste soybean oil methyl esters with different proportions of mineral diesel. The mixture was named as the fuel mixture of waste oils (FMWO). FT-IR analysis of the fuel mixture was carried out using ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine were carried out with various FMWO blends. It was observed that the engine fuel consumption was marginally increased and brake thermal efficiency was marginally decreased with FMWO fuel blends. FMWO10 has shown lowest NOx emissions among all the fuel blends tested. In addition, HC, CO and smoke emissions were noticeably decreased by 3.1-15.6%, 16.5-33.2%, and 1.8-4.5%, respectively, in comparison to diesel fuel, thereby qualifying the blends to be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

  8. The identification of metallic elements in airborne particulate matter derived from fossil fuels at Puertollano, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andres; Querol, Xavier; Font, Oriol [Institute of Earth Sciences ' ' Jaume Almera' ' , CSIC, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Gibbons, Wes [AP 23075, Barcelona 08080 (Spain)

    2007-07-02

    Puertollano is the largest industrial centre in central Spain, and includes fossil fuel burning power plants as well as petrochemical and fertilizer complexes. The coal-fired power plants use locally mined coal from extensive coal deposits which continue to be exploited and used locally. The coal deposits have a distinctive geochemistry, being particularly enriched in Sb and Pb, as well as several other metals/metalloids that include Zn and As. ICP-AES and ICP-MS chemical analysis of particulate matter samples (both PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}) collected at Puertollano over a 57-week period in 2004-2005 reveals enhanced levels of several metallic trace elements, especially in the finer (PM{sub 2.5}) aerosol fraction. Factor analysis applied to the data indicates that at least some of these metallic elements are likely to originate from hydrocarbon combustion: Sb and Pb are markers linked to the local coals, whereas V and Ni are, at least in the finer (PM{sub 2.5}) fraction, likely associated with other anthropogenic sources. Other factors measured are related to natural sources such as crustal/mineral and sea spray particles. Our study provides an example of how chemical analysis of large numbers of ambient PM samples, combined with statistical factor analysis and coal geochemistry, can reveal airborne emissions from the combustion of specifically identifiable fuels. (author)

  9. Halloysite-derived nitrogen doped carbon electrocatalysts for anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaxiang; Wang, Lianqin; Preuß, Kathrin; Qiao, Mo; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Varcoe, John; Cai, Qiong

    2017-12-01

    Developing the low-cost, highly active carbonaceous materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts has been a high-priority research direction for durable fuel cells. In this paper, two novel N-doped carbonaceous materials with flaky and rod-like morphology using the natural halloysite as template are obtained from urea nitrogen source as well as glucose (denoted as GU) and furfural (denoted as FU) carbon precursors, respectively, which can be directly applied as metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in alkaline electrolyte. Importantly, compared with a benchmark Pt/C (20wt%) catalyst, the as-prepared carbon catalysts demonstrate higher retention in diffusion limiting current density (after 3000 cycles) and enhanced methanol tolerances with only 50-60mV negative shift in half-wave potentials. In addition, electrocatalytic activity, durability and methanol tolerant capability of the two N-doped carbon catalysts are systematically evaluated, and the underneath reasons of the outperformance of rod-like catalysts over the flaky are revealed. At last, the produced carbonaceous catalysts are also used as cathodes in the single cell H2/O2 anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC), in which the rod-like FU delivers a peak power density as high as 703 mW cm-2 (vs. 1106 mW cm-2 with a Pt/C benchmark cathode catalyst).

  10. Research report. Environmentally friendly energy community research business for Fujieda district (Refuse energy utilization); Fujieda chiku kankyo chowagata energy community chosa jigyo (haikibutsu energy riyo shisetsu) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An environmentally friendly refuse energy utilizing business, for which RDF (refuse derived fuel) produced out of wastes discharged by industries belonging to a Fujieda city environmental protection council will provide the heat source, is proposed by the said council. The proposal is subjected to a study, a basic plan is drafted, and a decision is made on its profitability. In the study, surveys are conducted on the actualities of wastes and of demand for heat, and specifications are worked out relating to transportation and storage of RDF, production of steam by an RDF-fired boiler, routing of pipes for transmitting the steam to the industries in the district, facility costs, operating costs, etc. It is found that the amount of RDF produced out of the wastes discharged by the council member industries is so small that it can meet the demand of only one industry and that, even if more wastes are collected from a wider area, the increased amount will but meet the demand of two industries and a hot water pool. It is found that the system will be economically feasible, however, if the shortage of RDF-generated energy is covered by an oil-fired boiler and thereby impartiality is established in steam distribution and steam production unit price is reduced. In view of the intensification of control over dioxin, etc., the business will be gaining profit in 2002 and after. (NEDO)

  11. Flame blowout and pollutant emissions in vitiated combustion of conventional and bio-derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    The widening gap between the demand and supply of fossil fuels has catalyzed the exploration of alternative sources of energy. Interest in the power, water extraction and refrigeration (PoWER) cycle, proposed by the University of Florida, as well as the desirability of using biofuels in distributed generation systems, has motivated the exploration of biofuel vitiated combustion. The PoWER cycle is a novel engine cycle concept that utilizes vitiation of the air stream with externally-cooled recirculated exhaust gases at an intermediate pressure in a semi-closed cycle (SCC) loop, lowering the overall temperature of combustion. It has several advantages including fuel flexibility, reduced air flow, lower flame temperature, compactness, high efficiency at full and part load, and low emissions. Since the core engine air stream is vitiated with the externally cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream, there is an inherent reduction in the combustion stability for a PoWER engine. The effect of EGR flow and temperature on combustion blowout stability and emissions during vitiated biofuel combustion has been characterized. The vitiated combustion performance of biofuels methyl butanoate, dimethyl ether, and ethanol have been compared with n-heptane, and varying compositions of syngas with methane fuel. In addition, at high levels of EGR a sharp reduction in the flame luminosity has been observed in our experimental tests, indicating the onset of flameless combustion. This drop in luminosity may be a result of inhibition of processes leading to the formation of radiative soot particles. One of the objectives of this study is finding the effect of EGR on soot formation, with the ultimate objective of being able to predict the boundaries of flameless combustion. Detailed chemical kinetic simulations were performed using a constant-pressure continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) network model developed using the Cantera combustion code, implemented in C++. Results have

  12. Improving the performance of dual fuel engines running on natural gas/LPG by using pilot fuel derived from jojoba seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, UAE University, Jimmi, Al-Ain, P.O. Box 17555, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radwan, M.S.; Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-06-15

    The use of jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel was investigated for almost the first time as a way to improve the performance of dual fuel engine running on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at part load. The dual fuel engine used was Ricardo E6 variable compression diesel engine and it used either compressed natural gas (CNG) or LPG as the main fuel and jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel. Diesel fuel was used as a reference fuel for the dual fuel engine results. During the experimental tests, the following have been measured: engine efficiency in terms of specific fuel consumption, brake power output, combustion noise in terms of maximum pressure rise rate and maximum pressure, exhaust emissions in terms of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, knocking limits in terms of maximum torque at onset of knocking, and cyclic variability data of 100 engine cycles in terms of maximum pressure and its pressure rise rate average and standard deviation. The tests examined the following engine parameters: gaseous fuel type, engine speed and load, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass and compression ratio. Results showed that using the jojoba fuel with its improved properties has improved the dual fuel engine performance, reduced the combustion noise, extended knocking limits and reduced the cyclic variability of the combustion. (author)

  13. Combustion of biomass-derived, low caloric value, fuel gas in a gasturbine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Hoppesteyn, P D.J.; Hein, K R.G. [Technische Univ. Delf (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    The use of biomass and biomass/coal mixtures to produce electricity and heat reduces the net emissions of CO{sub 2}, contributes to the restructuring of the agricultural sector, helps to reduce the waste problem and saves finite fossil fuel reserves. Pressurised fluidised bed gasification followed by an adequate gas cleaning system, a gas turbine and a steam turbine, is a potential attractive way to convert biomass and biomass/coal mixtures. To develop and validate mathematical models, which can be used to design and operate Biomass-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) systems, a Process Development Unit (PPDU) with a maximum thermal capacity of 1.5 MW{sub th}, located at the Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands is being used. The combustor forms an integral part of this facility. Recirculated flue gas is used to cool the wall of the combustor. (orig.)

  14. The Comparison of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils With Respect to Petroleum Derived Fuels and the Effects of Transient Plasma Ignition in a Compression-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Content per Combustion J FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester FMEP Friction Mean Effective Pressure PSI or Bar FT Fischer-Tropsch h Heat...recently, algae-derived oils. Biodiesel has gained popularity in North America over the past decade, but the ester content of Fatty Acid Methyl ... Ester ( FAME ) fuel creates both cold weather and water- based operational issues. The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process produces liquid fuels from “syngas,” a

  15. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary. [using coal or coal derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A data base for the comparison of advanced energy conversion systems for utility applications using coal or coal-derived fuels was developed. Estimates of power plant performance (efficiency), capital cost, cost of electricity, natural resource requirements, and environmental intrusion characteristics were made for ten advanced conversion systems. Emphasis was on the energy conversion system in the context of a base loaded utility power plant. All power plant concepts were premised on meeting emission standard requirements. A steam power plant (3500 psig, 1000 F) with a conventional coal-burning furnace-boiler was analyzed as a basis for comparison. Combined cycle gas/steam turbine system results indicated competitive efficiency and a lower cost of electricity compared to the reference steam plant. The Open-Cycle MHD system results indicated the potential for significantly higher efficiency than the reference steam plant but with a higher cost of electricity.

  16. Combustion-derived substances in deep basins of Puget Sound: Historical inputs from fossil fuel and biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce E.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Wade, Terry L.; Crecelius, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructions of 250 years historical inputs of two distinct types of black carbon (soot/graphitic black carbon (GBC) and char-BC) were conducted on sediment cores from two basins of the Puget Sound, WA. Signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also used to support the historical reconstructions of BC to this system. Down-core maxima in GBC and combustion-derived PAHs occurred in the 1940s in the cores from the Puget Sound Main Basin, whereas in Hood Canal such peak was observed in the 1970s, showing basin-specific differences in inputs of combustion byproducts. This system showed relatively higher inputs from softwood combustion than the northeastern U.S. The historical variations in char-BC concentrations were consistent with shifts in climate indices, suggesting an influence of climate oscillations on wildfire events. Environmental loading of combustion byproducts thus appears as a complex function of urbanization, fuel usage, combustion technology, environmental policies, and climate conditions. - Research highlights: → We reconstructed the historical inputs of GBC and char-BC in Puget Sound, WA, USA. → Temporal trend of GBC was linked to human activities (urbanization, fuel usage). → Temporal trend of char-BC was more likely driven by regional climate oscillations. → Historical trends of combustion byproducts show the geographical heterogeneities. - Temporal trend of GBC was directly linked to human activities, while the input of char-BC in Puget Sound was more likely driven by regional climate oscillations.

  17. Particulate emissions from a stationary engine fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel and waste-cooking-oil-derived biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-10-01

    Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture.

  18. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  19. Vaccine refusal - what we need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes

    2018-04-12

    Opposition to vaccines is not a new event, and appeared soon after the introduction of the smallpox vaccine in the late 18th century. The purpose of this review is to educate healthcare professionals about vaccine hesitancy and refusal, its causes and consequences, and make suggestions to address this challenge. A comprehensive and non-systematic search was carried out in the PubMed, LILACS, and ScieLo databases from 1980 to the present day, using the terms "vaccine refusal," "vaccine hesitancy," and "vaccine confidence." The publications considered as the most relevant by the author were critically selected. The beliefs and arguments of the anti-vaccine movements have remained unchanged in the past two centuries, but new social media has facilitated the dissemination of information against vaccines. Studies on the subject have intensified after 2010, but the author did not retrieve any published studies to quantify this behavior in Brazil. The nomenclature on the subject (vaccine hesitancy) was standardized by the World Health Organization in 2012. Discussions have been carried out on the possible causes of vaccine hesitancy and refusal, as well as on the behavior of families and health professionals. Proposals for interventions to decrease public doubts, clarify myths, and improve confidence in vaccines have been made. Guides for the health care professional to face the problem are emerging. The healthcare professional is a key element to transmit information, resolve doubts and increase confidence in vaccines. They must be prepared to face this new challenge. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiological safety aspects in the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel elements. [Derived working limits in air and water for plutonium, enriched uranium and their mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthi, T.N.; Janardhanan, S.; Soman, S.D. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.)

    The problems of radiological safety in the fabrication of (U, Pu)O/sub 2/ fuel assemblies for fast reactors utilising high exposure plutonium are discussed. Derived working limits for plutonium as a function of the burn-up of RAPS (Rajasthan Atomic Power Station) fuel, external gamma and neutron exposures from feed product batches, finished fuel pins and assemblies are presented. Shielding requirements for the various glove box operations are also indicated. In general, high exposure plutonium handling calls for remote fabrication and automation at various stages would play a key role in minimising exposures to personnel in a large production plant.

  1. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Utilization of washery dirt and mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, D; Schieder, T

    1975-10-02

    Washery dirt and mine refuse may be used without processing as road ballast, embankments and dykes, and for filling gravel pits and subsidence areas. The properties required in road ballast are outlined. For the top portions of embankments and for frost protection layers, washery dirt must be processed to remove particles of the wrong size. Methods of heat treatment are listed, and the chemical composition of the dirt is discussed. Because of its different chemical composition, large particles are preferable to fine dirt for some applications, even if they have to be crushed. Tree planting experiments on spoilbanks are described.

  3. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  4. Differences between "refusers" and "non-refusers" in a psychological study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    1972-01-01

    Administered the ABV (Amsterdam Biographical Questionnaire) and the LOS (Leadership Concept Scale) to 98 students. The directions indicated that the Ss need not comply with the requirement to complete the LOS. 21 Ss failed to avail themselves of this permission and were labeled "refusers" (A). Their

  5. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Wreen, M J

    1991-01-01

    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assign...

  6. Fuel consumption and associated emissions from seagoing ships at berth derived from an on-board survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulskotte, J.H.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2010-01-01

    A methodology is presented to estimate the emissions of ships at berth based on their actual fuel consumption and the fuel quality. Accurate estimates of emissions from ships at berth demand reliable knowledge of the fuel consumption while at berth and associated fuel characteristics. However,

  7. Theoretical Derivation of Simplified Evaluation Models for the First Peak of a Criticality Accident in Nuclear Fuel Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi

    2000-01-01

    In a reprocessing facility where nuclear fuel solutions are processed, one could observe a series of power peaks, with the highest peak right after a criticality accident. The criticality alarm system (CAS) is designed to detect the first power peak and warn workers near the reacting material by sounding alarms immediately. Consequently, exposure of the workers would be minimized by an immediate and effective evacuation. Therefore, in the design and installation of a CAS, it is necessary to estimate the magnitude of the first power peak and to set up the threshold point where the CAS initiates the alarm. Furthermore, it is necessary to estimate the level of potential exposure of workers in the case of accidents so as to decide the appropriateness of installing a CAS for a given compartment.A simplified evaluation model to estimate the minimum scale of the first power peak during a criticality accident is derived by theoretical considerations only for use in the design of a CAS to set up the threshold point triggering the alarm signal. Another simplified evaluation model is derived in the same way to estimate the maximum scale of the first power peak for use in judging the appropriateness for installing a CAS. Both models are shown to have adequate margin in predicting the minimum and maximum scale of criticality accidents by comparing their results with French CRiticality occurring ACcidentally (CRAC) experimental data

  8. Marketization of refuse collection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

      Danish municipalities' outsourcing and contracting of refuse collection are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, besides regulation. Both at EU-level and at national level extreme demands for marketization of the public sector are counter-weighed by demands for social and envir......  Danish municipalities' outsourcing and contracting of refuse collection are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, besides regulation. Both at EU-level and at national level extreme demands for marketization of the public sector are counter-weighed by demands for social...... and environmental considerations associated with the superior goal of sustainable development. In the EU regulative complex developments in normative and legal regulation of social and environmental requirements to member-states' performance have co-existed with tough requirements to ensure open competition...... in public authorities contracting. In the latest edition of the procurement directive it has been clarified that public authorities' commitment of private service-providers to social and environmental requirements by contracting is perfectly legitimate. At national level the municipalities when contracting...

  9. Refusal to pay electricity bill is illegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    Pursuant to a judgement passed by the Lower Court of Hamburg, the author discusses probable legal arguments justifying the refusal to pay one's electricity bill, the so-called electricity bill boycott. Following an analysis of the power supply contract and of the content and the limits of the fundamental right of freedom of conscience, as well as of the concept of free enterprise and of the legal effect of licenses under the nuclear law, his point of view stated in the article is to agree with the decision of the court saying that the operation of a nuclear power plant licensed under the nuclear law does not mean an infringement of the right of freedom of conscience. It can further not be accepted to let people refuse to pay their electricity bill by referring to the right of freedom of speech, by alleging conduct against public policy on the part of the public utilities, or by referring to the right of opposition. (HSCH) [de

  10. Comparative techno-economic analysis and process design for indirect liquefaction pathways to distillate-range fuels via biomass-derived oxygenated intermediates upgrading: Liquid Transportation Fuel Production via Biomass-derived Oxygenated Intermediates Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Dagle, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gerber, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Sahir, Asad H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-09-27

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass to syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. Conversion of biomass-derived syngas to oxygenated intermediates occurs via three different pathways, producing: 1) mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst, 2) mixed oxygenates (a mixture of C2+ oxygenated compounds, predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate) using an Rh-based catalyst, and 3) ethanol from syngas fermentation. This is followed by the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to fuel-range olefins in two approaches: 1) mixed alcohols/ethanol to 1-butanol rich mixture via Guerbet reaction, followed by alcohol dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation, and 2) mixed oxygenates/ethanol to isobutene rich mixture and followed by oligomerization and hydrogenation. The design features a processing capacity of 2,000 tonnes/day (2,205 short tons) of dry biomass. The minimum fuel selling prices (MFSPs) for the four developing pathways range from $3.40 to $5.04 per gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE), in 2011 US dollars. Sensitivity studies show that MFSPs can be improved with co-product credits and are comparable to the commercial Fischer-Tropsch benchmark ($3.58/GGE). Overall, this comparative TEA study documents potential economics for the developmental biofuel pathways via mixed oxygenates.

  11. Phase 1, Background study results under the Council of Great Lake Governors program to perform stack sampling and analysis of emissions from densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-07

    This report covers the results of the first part of the study. Chapter 2 contains a summary of the d-RDF literature which was surveyed. Chapter 3 contains a compilation of existing and proposed regulation information from the seven participating Great Lakes States. Chapter 4 includes identification of pellet producers in the region. Chapter 5 contains a description of the pellet producers and test burn facilities selected for the experimental work to be undertaken in the second part of the program study. Chapter 6 contains a list of references. 27 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Results of combustion and emissions testing when co-firing blends of binder-enhanced densified refuse-derived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets and coal in a 440 MW{sub e} cyclone fired combustor. Volume 3: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, O.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains the data resulting from the co-firing of b-dRDF pellets and coal in a 440-MW{sub e} cyclone-fired combustor. These tests were conducted under a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The CRADA partners included the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Otter Tail Power Company, Green Isle Environmental, Inc., XL Recycling Corporation, and Marblehead Lime Company. The report is made up of three volumes. This volume contains other supporting information, along with quality assurance documentation and safety and test plans. With this multi-volume approach, readers can find information at the desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.

  13. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels can not compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies, and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions that favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the interim results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires, and tire-derived fuel, scrap tires, and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. In order to increase future use of biomass and waste fuels, a joint initiative, involving government, industry, and fuel suppliers, transporters, and users, is needed to develop low-cost and efficient energy crop production and power technology

  14. Life cycle assessment of the use of alternative fuels in cement kilns: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiopoulou, Martha; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2018-06-15

    The benefits of using alternative fuels (AFs) in the cement industry include reduction of the use of non-renewable fossil fuels and lower emissions of greenhouse gases, since fossil fuels are replaced with materials that would otherwise be degraded or incinerated with corresponding emissions and final residues. Furthermore, the use of alternative fuels maximizes the recovery of energy. Seven different scenaria were developed for the production of 1 ton of clinker in a rotary cement kiln. Each of these scenaria includes the use of alternative fuels such as RDF (Refuse derived fuel), TDF (Tire derived fuel) and BS (Biological sludge) or a mixture of them, in partial replacement of conventional fuels such as coal and pet coke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of the use of alternative fuels in relation to conventional fuels in the kiln operation. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to quantify the potential environmental impacts in each scenario. The interpretation of the results provides the conclusion that the most environmentally friendly prospect is the scenario based on RDF while the less preferable scenario is the scenario based on BS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  16. The Effect of Fuel Quality on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions, While Burning Biomass and RDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnacs, J.; Bendere, R.; Murasovs, A.; Arina, D.; Antipovs, A.; Kalnacs, A.; Sprince, L.

    2018-02-01

    The article analyses the variations in carbon dioxide emission factor depending on parameters characterising biomass and RDF (refuse-derived fuel). The influence of moisture, ash content, heat of combustion, carbon and nitrogen content on the amount of emission factors has been reviewed, by determining their average values. The options for the improvement of the fuel to result in reduced emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide have been analysed. Systematic measurements of biomass parameters have been performed, by determining their average values, seasonal limits of variations in these parameters and their mutual relations. Typical average values of RDF parameters and limits of variations have been determined.

  17. Review of best available techniques for the control of pollution from the combustion of fuels manufactured from or including waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report is a technical review of the techniques available for controlling pollution from combustion processes burning fuels (over 3 MW thermal input) manufactured from or including the following: Waste and recovered oil; Refuse derived fuel; Rubber tyres and other rubber waste; Poultry litter; Wood and straw. This review forms the basis for the revision of the Chief Inspector's Guidance Notes referring to the prescribed processes listed with special emphasis on recommending achievable releases to all environmental media. In formulating achievable releases account is taken of technologies in operation in the UK and overseas. (UK)

  18. Effects of subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from a diesel engine burning soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, G L; Hobbs, C H; Blair, L F; Barr, E B; Hahn, F F; Jaramillo, R J; Kubatko, J E; March, T H; White, R K; Krone, J R; Ménache, M G; Nikula, K J; Mauderly, J L; Van Gerpen, J; Merceica, M D; Zielinska, B; Stankowski, L; Burling, K; Howell, S

    2002-10-01

    There is increasing interest in diesel fuels derived from plant oils or animal fats ("biodiesel"), but little information on the toxicity of biodiesel emissions other than bacterial mutagenicity. F344 rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk to 1 of 3 dilutions of emissions from a diesel engine burning 100% soybean oil-derived fuel, or to clean air as controls. Whole emissions were diluted to nominal NO(x) concentrations of 5, 25, or 50 ppm, corresponding to approximately 0.04, 0.2, and 0.5 mg particles/m(3), respectively. Biologically significant, exposure-related effects were limited to the lung, were greater in females than in males, and were observed primarily at the highest exposure level. There was a dose-related increase in the numbers of alveolar macrophages and the numbers of particles in the macrophages, as expected from repeated exposure, but no neutrophil response even at the highest exposure level. The macrophage response was reduced 28 days after cessation of the exposure. Among the high-level females, the group mean lung weight/body weight ratio was increased, and minimal, multifocal bronchiolar metaplasia of alveolar ducts was observed in 4 of 30 rats. Lung weights were not significantly increased, and metaplasia of the alveolar ducts was not observed in males. An increase in particle-laden macrophages was the only exposure-related finding in lungs at the intermediate and low levels, with fewer macrophages and fewer particles per macrophage at the low level. Alveolar histiocytosis was observed in a few rats in both exposed and control groups. There were statistically significant, but minor and not consistently exposure-related, differences in body weight, nonpulmonary organ weights, serum chemistry, and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the brain. There were no significant exposure-related effects on survival, clinical signs, feed consumption, ocular toxicity, hematology, neurohistology, micronuclei in bone marrow, sister

  19. Hospital wastes management containing in radioactive refusals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, F.

    1999-01-01

    In large hospitals, featuring a nuclear medicine department, diagnostic examinations and metabolic therapies are performed using an amount of radio drugs per day averaging around some hundreds mCi. Part of these drugs are disposed in the conventional patient related waste and collected within the hospital itself. Before directing the wastes to the disposal, it is necessary verify that they do not contain radioactive materials. This article refers a study on the possibility to perform this verification by means of an automatic radio-metric system, in order to improve the efficiency, the speed and the safety of the control. Measures devoted to determined the minimum detectable activities for the main radionuclides used in the hospitals have been executed, and it has been designed a comprehensive device able to operate automatically, and unattended by any operator, the selection of radioactive refusals [it

  20. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because the...

  1. School Refusal: Assessment and Intervention within School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary B.

    Anxiety-based school refusal occurs in 2% of school-age children. The reasons why they refuse to go school range from mental illness and learning problems to general defiance and a desire for attention. Early identification and multi-faceted assessment and interventions are critical to addressing the problem. This book offers concise, practical…

  2. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of...

  3. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are...

  4. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See 412...

  5. Lignin-derived electrospun carbon nanofiber mats with supercritically deposited Ag nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chuilin; Kolla, Praveen; Zhao, Yong; Fong, Hao; Smirnova, Alevtina L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun carbon nanofiber mats were prepared from a natural product of lignin. • The freestanding mats were flexible with BET specific surface area of ∼583 m 2 /g. • The mats were surface-deposited with Ag nanoparticles via the scCO 2 method. • Novel electrocatalytic systems of Ag/ECNFs exhibited high activities towards ORR. - Abstract: Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) (11, 15, and 25 wt.%) were deposited on the surface of the freestanding and mechanically flexible mats consisting of lignin-derived electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) by the supercritical CO 2 method followed by the thermal treated at 180 °C. The electrochemical activity of Ag/ECNFs electrocatalyst systems towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was studied in 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution using the rotating disk/rotating ring disk electrode (RDE/RRDE) technique. The SEM, TEM, and XRD results indicated that, the spherical AgNPs were uniformly distributed on the ECNF surface with sizes in the range of 2-10 nm. The electrocatalytic results revealed that, all of the Ag/ECNFs systems exhibited high activity in ORR and demonstrated close-to-theoretical four-electron pathway. In particular, the mass activity of 15 wt.% Ag/ECNFs system was the highest (119 mA mg −1 ), exceeding that of HiSPEC 4100™ commercial Pt/C catalyst (98 mA mg −1 ). This study suggested that the lignin-derived ECNF mats surface-deposited with AgNPs would be promising as cost-effective and highly efficient electrocatalyst for ORR in alkaline fuel cells

  6. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  7. Identification of prenatal toxic components of complex PAH mixtures derived from fossil fuel combustion employing rodent embryo culture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvin, T.R.; Akgerman, A.

    1991-01-01

    Many adverse health effects caused by combustion-generated toxins have been recognized for some time. Acute pulmonary toxicity among urban populations has been repeatedly recorded during periods of high smoke, soot, and organo-particulate pollution. The combustion of coals and petroleum-derived fuels results in emission of particulate and organic vapor-phase components to the atmosphere. Isolation of these particle-absorbed compounds and subsequent toxicological testing has further indicated the importance of chronic, low-level exposure to airborne combustion-generated toxins in the etiology of many forms of human cancer; particulate phases of these emissions have been found to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic organic compounds, absorbed onto the particle matrix, which possess potent carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. In this paper, the authors define a postimplantation rat embryo culture system constructed to identify prenatal toxic components of complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon soots. Employing this culture system, we also describe its application to identify prenatal toxic components of diesel soot particulates

  8. 20 CFR 401.70 - Appeals of refusals to correct records or refusals to allow access to records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeals of refusals to correct records or refusals to allow access to records. 401.70 Section 401.70 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... also inform you that you have a right to file a statement of disagreement with the decision. Your...

  9. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of humic substances from municipal refuse decomposing in a landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.H.; Theng, B.K.G.; Filip, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Municipal refuse was disposed of in simulated landfills and left for periods of more than 20 months. Three different 40 m 3 systems of disposals were studied, namely (i) where the refuse was compacted, (ii) where it was mixed with sewage sludge and left uncompacted, and (iii) where it was compacted with sewage sludge. At 2, 6, 12 and 20 months, the humic substances were extracted from each system, purified, and characterised by cross-polarisation 13 C NMR spectroscopy with 'magic-angle' sample spinning. The areas under the various signals were related to carbon percentages in different structural categories. The aromaticity of the humic acids increased with time of decomposition; those from refuse mixed with sewage sludge were particularly high in phenolic content. A signal at 174 p.p.m., assigned primarily to secondary amide linkages, reached maximum strength after 6 to 12 months decomposition. The carbohydrate contents of the humic acids showed only small variations as decomposition progressed. Polymethylene chains in lipids, particularly for the uncompacted system, accounted for a diminishing fraction of total carbon as time of refuse disposal increased. The spectrum of a soil humic acid showed features similar to those observed in spectra of humic acids derived from refuse, but the signals were less well resolved. 19 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-Biomass to Liquid Jet Fuel Compared to Petroleum-Derived JP-8 Jet Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    is a Metal Deactivator Additive (MDA) to prevent fuel oxidation with trace metals such as copper or zinc that may be in the jet fuel (MIL- HDBK-510-1...react in the FT synthesis process). The gasifier is of the slagging type and a direct contact water quench spray system is used to cool the syngas...exiting the gasifier. The quench also removes particulate matter and contaminants not removed in the slag . However, because the ash from biomass is

  11. Characteristics and Outcomes of Elderly Patients Refused to ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Consuelo Pintado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are few data regarding the process of deciding which elderly patients are refused to ICU admission, their characteristics, and outcome. Methods. Prospective longitudinal observational cohort study. We included all consecutive patients older than 75 years, who were evaluated for admission to but were refused to treatment in ICU, during 18 months, with 12-month followup. We collected demographic data, ICU admission/refusal reasons, previous functional and cognitive status, comorbidity, severity of illness, and hospital and 12-month mortality. Results. 338 elderly patients were evaluated for ICU admission and 88 were refused to ICU (26%. Patients refused because they were “too ill to benefit” had more comorbidity and worse functional and mental situation than those admitted to ICU; there were no differences in illness severity. Hospital mortality rate of the whole study cohort was 36.3%, higher in patients “too ill to benefit” (55.6% versus 35.8%, P<0.01, which also have higher 1-year mortality (73.7% versus 42.5%, P<0.01. High comorbidity, low functional status, unavailable ICU beds, and age were associated with refusal decision on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Prior functional status and comorbidity, not only the age or severity of illness, can help us more to make the right decision of admitting or refusing to ICU patients older than 75 years.

  12. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  13. Refusal of Emergency Medical Treatment: Case Studies and Ethical Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A; Brenner, Jay M; Kraus, Chadd K; McGrath, Norine A; Derse, Arthur R

    2017-11-01

    Informed consent is an important component of emergency medical treatment. Most emergency department patients can provide informed consent for treatment upon arrival. Informed consent should also be obtained for emergency medical interventions that may entail significant risk. A related concept to informed consent is informed refusal of treatment. Patients may refuse emergency medical treatment during their evaluation and treatment. This article addresses important considerations for patients who refuse treatment, including case studies and discussion of definitions, epidemiology, assessment of decisional capacity, information delivery, medicolegal considerations, and alternative care plans. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Performing coolness: smoking refusal and adolescent identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, E W; Fitzgerald, L J; Abel, G M

    2002-04-01

    The implications of smoking refusal for personal identity style were studied through conversations in six small focus groups or dyads of 13- and 14-year-old non-smokers from an urban New Zealand secondary school. The approach to analyzing their talk was informed by notions of 'performativity' and 'social space' to focus on the connections between identity and social relations. Smoking emerged as a key signifier of power and status. It was salient at both top and bottom ends of the social hierarchy depending upon the competence displayed in smoking as part of a larger ensemble of personal deportment and behavior. Being a non-smoker therefore inevitably carried connotations of being 'average' or 'in the middle', presenting non-smoking adolescents with the problem of accrediting themselves against superior 'smoker cool' groups. A discourse analytic approach was used to examine the resources and strategies participants brought to bear on this 'problem', which was then seen to be solved differently by boys and girls. Boys could establish alternatives to 'smoker cool' through physical activity, girls had little recourse but to accept their inferior status. The implications of this for health education and promotion are discussed.

  15. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials, APPENDIX A: Energy Use and Emissions from the Lifecycle of Diesel-Like Fuels Derived From Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark; Lipman, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    An Appendix to the Report, “A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materialsâ€

  16. 49 CFR 219.213 - Unlawful refusals; consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inconsistent with the employee's health, whether such refusal was made in good faith and based on medical..., as appropriate, also consider the following: (1) Whether the railroad made a good faith determination...

  17. Elemental composition of suspended particles released in refuse incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Suspended particles released in refuse incineration were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The analytical results were compared with the elemental concentrations observed in the urban atmosphere, and the contribution of the refuse incineration to the urban atmosphere was roughly estimated. Greenberg et al. pointed out on the basis of their analyses that the refuse incineration can account for major portions of the Zn, Cd and Sb observed on urban aerosols. According to our results, the contribution of the refuse incineration for Zn, Cd and Sb is not negligible, but not so serious as in U.S.A. big cities. In Japan big cities there must be other more important sources of these elements. (author)

  18. {Delta}{sup 14}C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} distribution across different regions of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, X.T.; Ding, X.F.; Fu, D.P. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhou, L.P. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Department of Geography, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, K.X., E-mail: kxliu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-01-15

    The {sup 14}C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} was estimated by comparing the measured {Delta}{sup 14}C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric {Delta}{sup 14}C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low {Delta}{sup 14}C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

  19. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (Δ14C), potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on Δ14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than -0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985-2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of Δ14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  20. Jehovah's Witnesses and autonomy: honouring the refusal of blood transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gregory L

    2012-11-01

    This paper explores the scriptural and theological reasons given by Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs) to refuse blood transfusions. Julian Savulescu and Richard W Momeyer argue that informed consent should be based on rational beliefs and that the refusal of blood transfusions by JWs is irrational, but after examining the reasons given by JWs, I challenge the claim that JW beliefs are irrational. I also question whether we should give up the traditional notion of informed consent.

  1. [The refusal of nursing care by the families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchod, Claude; Fisher, Marion

    2016-10-01

    Caregiving is complex. While it is not easy to admit that the process can be refused by the patient, it is no easier when it is refused by the patient's family. Accepting this fact is however an essential stage in the relational and care processes. The family must therefore be supported by professionals in order to be able to make an enlightened choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Refusal of treatments by an adult cancer patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchy, Sarah; Faivre, Jean-Christophe; Block, Véronique; Metzger, Maude; Salleron, Julia; Charles, Cécile; Adam, Virginie

    2018-03-01

    Refusal of treatment questions the treatment's adequacy as well as the quality of the care relationship. A rigorous analysis of these situations is necessary in order to respect the patient's fundamental right to decide for him/herself while preventing a potential loss of chance. This paper proposes practical guidelines for assessment and management of the refusal of treatment by adult cancer patients. The French Association for Supportive Care in Cancer and the French Society for Psycho-Oncology formed a task force that applied a consensus methodology to draft guidelines. We propose five guidelines: (1) be informed of the conditions most often associated with refusal of treatment so as to reinforce adequate support measures; (2) understand the complexity of the process of refusal and accurately identify what is precisely refused; (3) apply an approach of systematic analysis to refusal, to try and increase the possibilities of finding an agreement while reinforcing the respect of the patient's position; (4) establish a legal procedure to address refusal of treatment that safeguards the stakeholders when no accord can be found; and (5) know the indications for ethical collective decision-making. A systematic assessment procedure of treatment refusal is necessary in order to ensure that all the physical, psychological and contextual aspects of it are taken into account, and to provide patients with the best treatment possible. The setting of good care relationship, the improvement of communication skills training and of comprehensive multidisciplinary care are all crucial elements in the prevention of these situations. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF OTM SYNGAS PROCESS AND TESTING OF SYNGAS-DERIVED ULTRA-CLEAN FUELS IN DIESEL ENGINES AND FUEL CELLS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.T. Robinson; James P. Meagher; Ravi Prasad

    2001-01-01

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from January 1 through September 15, 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1--materials development; Task 2--composite element development; Task 3--tube fabrication; Task 4--reactor design and process optimization; Task 5--catalyst development; Task 6--P-1 operation; Task 8--fuels and engine testing; and Task 10--project management. OTM benchmark material, LCM1, exceeds the commercial oxygen flux target and was determined to be sufficiently robust to carry on process development activities. Work will continue on second-generation OTM materials that will satisfy commercial life targets. Three fabrication techniques for composite elements were determined to be technically feasible. These techniques will be studied and a lead manufacturing process for both small and large-scale elements will be selected in the next Budget Period. Experiments in six P-0 reactors, the long tube tester (LTT) and the P-1 pilot plant were conducted. Significant progress in process optimization was made through both the experimental program and modeling studies of alternate reactor designs and process configurations. Three tailored catalyst candidates for use in OTM process reactors were identified. Fuels for the International diesel engine and Nuvera fuel cell tests were ordered and delivered. Fuels testing and engine development work is now underway

  4. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  5. Factors related to treatment refusal in Taiwanese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ting-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yu-Fen; Chou, Shu-Lan; Wang, Ching-Ting; Juang, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Yung-Chang; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for cancer have increased dramatically in the recent 30 years in Taiwan. However, not all patients receive treatment. Treatment refusal might impair patient survival and life quality. In order to improve this situation, we proposed this study to evaluate factors that are related to refusal of treatment in cancer patients via a cancer case manager system. This study analysed data from a case management system during the period from 2010 to 2012 at a medical center in Northern Taiwan. We enrolled a total of 14,974 patients who were diagnosed with cancer. Using the PRECEDE Model as a framework, we conducted logistic regression analysis to identify independent variables that are significantly associated with refusal of therapy in cancer patients. A multivariate logistic regression model was also applied to estimate adjusted the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 253 patients (1.69%) refused treatment. The multivariate logistic regression result showed that the high risk factors for refusal of treatment in cancer patient included: concerns about adverse effects (prefuse treatment have poor survival. The present study provides evidence of factors that are related to refusal of therapy and might be helpful for further application and improvement of cancer care.

  6. Pervasive refusal syndrome. Three German cases provide further illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Thomas; Ball, Juliane; Preiss, Maike; Haberhausen, Michael; Warnke, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J

    2011-09-01

    Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) has been proposed as a new diagnostic entity among child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. It is characterized by a cluster of life-threatening symptoms including refusal of hood intake, decreased or complete lack of mobilization, and lack of communication as well as retreat from normal life activities. Active refusal to accept help as well as neglect of personal care have been core features of PRS in the limited number of cases reported in the last decade. There have, however; been cases with predominantly passive resistance, indicating the possibility that there may be a continuum from active refusal to passive resistance within PRS. Postulating this continuum allows for the integration of "depressive devitalization" -- a refusal syndrome mainly characterized by passive resistance -- into the concept of PRS. Here, three case vignettes of adolescent patients with PRS are presented. The patients' symptomatology can be allocated on this continuum of PRS. PRS and dissociative disorders are compared in greater detail and contrasted within this discussion of differential diagnoses at the poles of such a continuum. PRS is a useful diagnosis for cases involving symptoms of predominating refusal and retreat which cannot satisfactorily be classified by existing diagnostic categories, and which can mostly clearly be separated from dissociative disorder.

  7. Refusal of emergency caesarean section in Ireland: a relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the issue of emergency caesarean section refusal. This raises complex legal and ethical issues surrounding autonomy, capacity, and the right to refuse treatment. In Ireland, the situation is complicated further by the constitutional right to life of the unborn. While cases involving caesarean section refusal have occurred in other jurisdictions, a case of this nature has yet to be reported in Ireland. This article examines possible ways in which the interaction of a woman's right to refuse treatment and the right to life of the unborn could be approached in Ireland in the context of caesarean section refusal. The central argument of the article is that the liberal individualistic approach to autonomy evident in the caesarean section cases in England and Wales is difficult to apply in the Irish context, due to the conflicting constitutional rights of the woman and foetus. Thus, alternative visions of autonomy which take the interests and rights of others into account in medical decision-making are examined. In particular, this article focuses on the concept of relational consent, as developed by Alasdair Maclean and examines how such an approach could be applied in the context of caesarean section refusal in Ireland. The article explains why this approach is particularly appropriate and identifies mechanisms through which such a theory of consent could be applied. It is argued that this approach enhances a woman's right to autonomy, while at the same time allows the right to life of the unborn to be defended.

  8. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  9. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Topical report on thermochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the present study was to determine in detail the interaction effects of 10 simultaneously present, coal-gas contaminants, both on each other and on components of the Carbonate Fuel Cell. The primary goal was to assess underlying chemistries and reaction mechanisms which may cause decay in fuel cell performance or endurance as a result of both physics-chemical and/or mechanical interactions with the cell components and internal fuel cell parts. It was found, both from theory and cell test evidence, that trace contaminant interactions may occur with: Fuel-cell Electrodes (e.g., in this study with the Ni-anode), Lithium/Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte, Nickel and SS-Hardware, and by Mechanical Obstruction of Gas Flow in the Anode Plenum.

  10. Furfural and other furane-derivates as diesel fuel additives. Furfural und andere Furanderivate als Zusatz zum Dieselkraftstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemling, O.

    1982-01-01

    Alternative energies such as fuel additives or fuel-substitutes are on their way upwards as they may help to reduce the dependency on crude and crude-based fuels. A number of solutions has already been indicated for carburettor engines whereas a lot more of research and development is needed to find a safe alternative to diesel fuels. Possibilities of using furfural, furfuralcohol and furan-2-carbonic acid-methylester as additives to diesel or as a substitute were investigated. A survey on the characteristic properties of these substances is given, then several tests are set up in order to describe the properties of diesel additive mixtures at low temperatures. Based on these tests two mixtures are proposed both with a furfural/butanole mixture. Furfural is suitable as diesel additive, a solubilizer is needed though.

  11. Fuel Property Blend Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagnon, Scott J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhang, Kuiwen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kukkadapu, Goutham [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-12

    The object of this project is to develop chemical models and associated correlations to predict the blending behavior of bio-derived fuels when mixed with conventional fuels like gasoline and diesel fuels.

  12. Physical Characterisation and Quantification of Total Above Ground Biomass Derived from First Thinnings for Wood Fuel Consumption in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Mockler, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of wood fuel properties assists in the optimisation of operations concerned with the harvesting, seasoning, processing and conversion of wood to energy. This study investigated the physical properties of wood fuel. These properties included moisture content and basic density. The field work also allowed for the quantification of above ground biomass partitions. The species investigated were alder (Alnus glutinosa), ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), birch (Betula spp.), lodg...

  13. Sampling, characterisation and processing of solid recovered fuel production from municipal solid waste: An Italian plant case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Ionescu, Gabriela; Fedele, Arcangela; Palmieri, Eleonora; Ranieri, Ada Cristina; Campanaro, Vincenzo

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the classification of solid recovered fuel from the Massafra municipal solid waste treatment plant in Southern Italy in compliancy with the EN 15359 standard. In order to ensure the reproducibility of this study, the characterisation methods of waste input and output flow, the mechanical biological treatment line scheme and its main parameters for each stage of the processing chain are presented in details, together with the research results in terms of mass balance and derived fuel properties. Under this study, only 31% of refused municipal solid waste input stream from mechanical biological line was recovered as solid recovered fuel with a net heating value (NC=HV) average of 15.77 MJ kg -1 ; chlorine content average of 0.06% on a dry basis; median of mercury solid recovered fuel produced meets the European Union standard requirements and can be classified with the class code: Net heating value (3); chlorine (1); mercury (1).

  14. Determination of Vaporization Properties and Volatile Hazardous Components Relevant to Kukersite Oil Shale Derived Fuel Oil Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada TRAUMANN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate vaporization properties of shale fuel oil in relation to inhalation exposure. The shale fuel oil was obtained from kukersite oil shale. The shale oil and its light fraction (5 % of the total fuel oil were characterized by vapor pressure curve, molecular weight distribution, elemental composition and functional groups based on FTIR spectra. The rate of vaporization from the total fuel oil at different temperatures was monitored as a function of time using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. It is shown that despite its relatively low vapor pressure at room temperature a remarkable amount of oil vaporizes influencing air quality significantly. From the TGA data the changes in the vapor pressure during vaporization process were estimated. Although the shale fuel oil has a strong, unpleasant smell, the main hazards to workplace air quality depend on the vaporization rate of different toxic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, xylene or phenolic compounds. The presence of these hazardous substances in the vapor phase of shale fuel oil was monitored using headspace analysis coupled with selective ion monitoring (SIM and confirmed by the NIST Mass Spectral library and retention times of standards. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4549

  15. Ignition processes in the refuse bed of a refuse incineration plant. Gomi shokyakuro ni okeru gomi sonai no chakka katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goromaru, T; Onishi, K; Iwakawa, N; Yoshikuni, N [Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka, (Japan)

    1990-03-01

    The ignition process was studied in this paper, which was particularly connected with the drying process of refuse in the statical characteristics of refuse incinerators. Because of variety in refuse forms to be supplied to the incinerators, a physical model was composed, assuming that refuse was the layers of piled up refuse elements with uniform forms, and the ignition curves of the layers were drawn on the basis of the above model after a mathematical model was formed. The upper part of the curves was altered so that it suits to actual endothermic and heat velocity distribution on the assumption of temperature distribution in the incinerators at their inlet side. No particular alteration was made in their middle part, then the ignition curves were changed to almost straight lines inclined downward. Unburnt and refuse under firing were wrapped by ash and uncombustibles, so the lower part of the curves was only studied as a imaginary solid model by the two methods of finite element method and simple analytical one, and conversion was made into equivalent reduction in combustion temperature. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Situation testing: the case of health care refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, C; Couralet, P-E

    2011-04-01

    Situation testing to assess physicians' refusal to provide healthcare is increasingly used in research studies. This paper aims to explain the relevance and limits of this method. Conducted in 2008-2009, this study was designed to assess the rate of healthcare refusal among several categories of private practitioners toward patients covered by the French public means-tested complementary health insurance (CMUc) when they requested a first appointment by phone. The other objectives were to study the determinants of healthcare refusal and assess the method. The study was conducted on a representative sample of Paris-based dentists and physicians in five categories: general practitioners, medical gynecologists, ophthalmologists, radiologists, and dentists. The method was based on two protocols. In the first scenario, an actor pretended to be a CMUc beneficiary and, in the second one, he did not give information about his health coverage but hinted at a low socioeconomic status. The two protocols were compared and procedures checking the relation between refusal and CMUc coverage were implemented in each of them. In the scenario in which the patient declared being a CMUc beneficiary, the results showed different refusal rates depending on the type of practitioner, physician, or dentist, their specialty, and whether or not, they charge more than the standard set fee. In the second scenario, refusal rates were much lower. The comparison of the two protocols seems to confirm the existence of discrimination based on CMUc affiliation rather than patients' socioeconomic status. The discussion presents the limits of situation testing, which remains an experimental instrument because it does not observe reality but reveals behaviors in situation. The findings cannot be extrapolated and are limited in time. The statistical analysis is only valid if the procedure followed is precise and applied consistently using a preset scenario. In addition, the discriminatory nature of the

  17. Microstructural changes in NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics prepared with powders derived from different fuels in sol-gel auto-combustion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalita, E-mail: chauhan.lalita5@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Bokolia, Renuka

    2016-05-23

    Structural properties of Nickel ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ceramics prepared from powders derived from sol gel auto-combustion method using different fuels (citric acid, glycine and Dl-alanine) are compared. Changes in the structural properties at different sintering temperatures are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of single phase material with cubic structure. Ceramics prepared using the different powders obtained from different fuels show that that there are no significant changes in lattice parameters. However increasing sintering temperatures show significant improvement in density and grain size. The DL-alanine fuel is found to be the most effective fuel for producing NIFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders by the sol-gel auto combustion method and yields highly crystalline powders in the as-burnt stage itself at a low temperature (80 °C). Subsequent use of the powders in ceramic manufacturing produces dense NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics with a uniform microstructure and a large grain size.

  18. Microstructural changes in NiFe_2O_4 ceramics prepared with powders derived from different fuels in sol-gel auto-combustion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Lalita; Sreenivas, K.; Bokolia, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Structural properties of Nickel ferrite (NiFe_2O_4) ceramics prepared from powders derived from sol gel auto-combustion method using different fuels (citric acid, glycine and Dl-alanine) are compared. Changes in the structural properties at different sintering temperatures are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of single phase material with cubic structure. Ceramics prepared using the different powders obtained from different fuels show that that there are no significant changes in lattice parameters. However increasing sintering temperatures show significant improvement in density and grain size. The DL-alanine fuel is found to be the most effective fuel for producing NIFe_2O_4 powders by the sol-gel auto combustion method and yields highly crystalline powders in the as-burnt stage itself at a low temperature (80 °C). Subsequent use of the powders in ceramic manufacturing produces dense NiFe_2O_4 ceramics with a uniform microstructure and a large grain size.

  19. Microstructural changes in NiFe2O4 ceramics prepared with powders derived from different fuels in sol-gel auto-combustion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Lalita; Bokolia, Renuka; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Structural properties of Nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) ceramics prepared from powders derived from sol gel auto-combustion method using different fuels (citric acid, glycine and Dl-alanine) are compared. Changes in the structural properties at different sintering temperatures are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of single phase material with cubic structure. Ceramics prepared using the different powders obtained from different fuels show that that there are no significant changes in lattice parameters. However increasing sintering temperatures show significant improvement in density and grain size. The DL-alanine fuel is found to be the most effective fuel for producing NIFe2O4 powders by the sol-gel auto combustion method and yields highly crystalline powders in the as-burnt stage itself at a low temperature (80 °C). Subsequent use of the powders in ceramic manufacturing produces dense NiFe2O4 ceramics with a uniform microstructure and a large grain size.

  20. Organic reactions for the electrochemical and photochemical production of chemical fuels from CO2--The reduction chemistry of carboxylic acids and derivatives as bent CO2 surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Oana R; Fenwick, Aidan Q

    2015-11-01

    The present review covers organic transformations involved in the reduction of CO2 to chemical fuels. In particular, we focus on reactions of CO2 with organic molecules to yield carboxylic acid derivatives as a first step in CO2 reduction reaction sequences. These biomimetic initial steps create opportunities for tandem electrochemical/chemical reductions. We draw parallels between long-standing knowledge of CO2 reactivity from organic chemistry, organocatalysis, surface science and electrocatalysis. We point out some possible non-faradaic chemical reactions that may contribute to product distributions in the production of solar fuels from CO2. These reactions may be accelerated by thermal effects such as resistive heating and illumination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Burning characteristics and gaseous/solid emissions of blends of pulverized coal with waste tire-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Courtemanche, B.; Carlson, J.B. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

    1998-10-01

    The combustion behaviour and the emissions from blends of a pulverized bituminous coal and ground waste automobile tires were investigated. Combustion took place under steady flow conditions, in an electrically-heated drop-tube furnace in air at a gas temperature of 1150{degree}C and a particle heating rate of approximate to 10{sup 5}{degree}C/s. Combustion observations were conducted with simultaneous pyrometry and cinematography. Interparticle flame interactions were visually observed in the near-stoichiometric and fuel-rich regions. Volatile flame interactions were apparent at a lower phi for tire crumb particles than for coal particles and became progressively more intense with increasing phi until at sufficiently high phi`s large group flames formed for tire particles. As particle flame interactions increased, average maximum temperatures in the flame decreased. Coal particles resisted the formation of group flames, even at high phi`s. Such observations correlated with the trends observed for the PAH emissions of the two fuels, those of tire crumb being much higher than those of coal Some stratification in the combustion of blends of particles of the two fuels was observed. This kept the PAH emissions lower levels than expected. NO{sub x} emissions from tires were much lower than those of coal, while those of the blends were close to the weighted average emissions. SO{sub 2} emissions from the blends were close to the weighted average emissions of the two fuels. Blending coal with tire reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions of coal but increased the CO emissions. Particulate emissions (soot and ash), measured in the range of 0.4 to 8{mu}m, increased with phi. Generally, tire produced more mass of submicron particulates than coal. Particulate emissions of blends of the two fuels were close to those expected based on weighted average of the two fuels.

  2. Risk factors associated with treatment refusal in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Won Na; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Han, Yeji; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Su Hwan; Ryu, Yon Ju; Lee, Jin Hwa; Shim, Sung Shine; Kim, Yookyung; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is increasing with longer life expectancy. Refusal of active treatment for cancer is prone to cause patients to experience more severe symptoms and shorten survival. The purpose of this study was to define the factors related to refusal or abandonment of active therapy in lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 617 patients from medical records from 2010 to 2014. Two groups were formed: 149 patients who refused anti-cancer treatment and allowed only palliative care were classified into the non-treatment group, while the remaining 468 who received anti-cancer treatment were classified into the treatment group. The groups differed significantly in age, employment, relationship status, number of offspring, educational status, body mass index, presence of chest and systemic symptoms, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score, and tumor node metastasis stage ( P refusal of cancer treatment. Individual factors, such as old age, low educational status, low weight, and poor performance status can influence refusal of cancer treatment in patients with lung cancer, and should be considered prior to consultation with patients. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Characterization of size, number, concentration and morphology of particulate matter emitted from a high performance diesel combustion system using biomass derived fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Om Parkash; Krishnamurthy, Ketan; Kremer, Florian; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Combustion Engines; Berg, Angelika von; Roth, Georg [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Crystallography; Lueers, Bernhard; Kolbeck, Andreas; Koerfer, Thomas [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been identified as a major source of particulates. Although the low limits of particulate matter cause a need for a particulate trap in most of the present day diesel engines, the physical and chemical characterization of particles with the measures of size, number, volatility and reactivity etc. is of increasing interest with respect to the regeneration frequency and regeneration efficiency of a particulate trap. Within the Cluster of Excellence ''Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB)'' at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out a detailed investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel candidates for future combustion systems. The experiments for particulate measurements and analysis were conducted on a EURO 6 compliant High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System (HECS) with petroleum based diesel fuel as reference and today's biofuel (i.e. FAME) as well as a potential future biomass derived fuel candidate (i.e. 2-MTHF I DBE), being developed under TMFB approach. Soot samples collected on polycarbonate filters were analyzed using SEM; revealing vital informations regarding particle size distribution. Furthermore, thermophoretic sampling was also performed on copper grids and samples were analyzed using TEM to determine its graphitic micro-structure. In addition, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were also performed to get further quantitative information regarding crystal lattice parameters and structure of investigated soot. The results indicate more than 90% reduction in the mass and number concentrations of engine out particle emissions using future biomass derived fuel candidate. A good co-relation was observed between TEM micro-structure results and quantitative crystal lattice and structure information obtained from XRD studies, indicating higher reactivity for soot emitted from 2-MTHF/DBE. (orig.)

  4. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  5. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle

  6. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y. [Centre of Advanced Research on Energy, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  7. Responding to the refusal of care in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind; Davenport, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The emergency department (ED) serves as the primary gateway for acute care and the source of health care of last resort. Emergency physicians are commonly expected to rapidly assess and treat patients with a variety of life-threatening conditions. However, patients do refuse recommended therapy, even when the consequences are significant morbidity and even mortality. This raises the ethical dilemma of how emergency physicians and ED staff can rapidly determine whether patient refusal of treatment recommendations is based on intact decision-making capacity and how to respond in an appropriate manner when the declining of necessary care by the patient is lacking a basis in informed judgment. This article presents a case that illustrates the ethical tensions raised by the refusal of life-sustaining care in the ED and how such situations can be approached in an ethically appropriate manner.

  8. Sodium bicarbonate effects on the anaerobic digestion of refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasali, G.B.; Senior, E.; Watson-Craik, I.A. (Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (UK). Dept. of Applied Physics)

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory column and bottle cultures were used to examine the efficacy of NaHCO{sub 3}additions (1%, 2.5% and 5% w/v) to promote the solid-state refuse fermentation. Buffering capacity increase, by addition of 2.5% NaHCO{sub 3}, equivalent to 84 mg NaHCO{sub 3} g dry weight refuse{sup -1}, promoted both acidogenesis and methanogenesis, with the latter accelerating by a factor of six, compared with glass-distilled water controls. Increased addition, with 5% NaHCO{sub 3}, however, mediated partial suppression of methanogenesis and acidogenesis with cation toxicity the most likely cause. Promotion of the refuse fermentation by NaHCO{sub 3} addition, therefore, necessitates careful control of the concentration applied. (author).

  9. [Maternal refusal to consent to a cesarean delivery, stillbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defline, A; Obadia, M; El Djerbi, A; Plevy, P; Lepercq, J

    2014-01-01

    The doctor-lawyer perspective that we discuss is a maternal refusal to consent to a cesarean delivery for a fetal indication in June 2011. Despite repeated information of the risks during a three-week hospitalization for pre-eclampsia, after being assured of the proper understanding of the seriousness of the situation by the patient and spouse, and after consideration to transfer to another hospital, the reiterated refusal led to a late fetal extraction resulting in term stillbirth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of Acetone-Derived C6 , C9 , and C12 Carbon Scaffolds for Chemical and Fuel Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cameron M; Jenkins, Rhodri W; Janicke, Michael T; Kubic, William L; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Semelsberger, Troy A; Sutton, Andrew D

    2016-12-20

    A simple, inexpensive catalyst system (Amberlyst 15 and Ni/SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 ) is described for the upgrading of acetone to a range of chemicals and potential fuels. Stepwise hydrodeoxygenation of the produced ketones can yield branched alcohols, alkenes, and alkanes. An analysis of these products is provided, which demonstrates that this approach can provide a product profile of valuable bioproducts and potential biofuels. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Jet-Fuel Range Hydrocarbons from Biomass-Derived Sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Weng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons are the significant components of jet fuel with high energy-density. However, conventional technologies for bio-fuel production cannot produce these products without further aromatization and isomerization. In this work, renewable liquid fuel with high content of aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons was obtained through aqueous catalytic conversion of biomass sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 catalyst. Texture characteristics of the catalyst were determined by physisorption of N2, which indicated its bimodal pore structures were microporous (HZSM-5, pore width: 0.56 nm and mesoporous (SBA-15, pore width: 8 nm. The surface acidity included weak and strong acid sites, predominantly Lewis type, and was further confirmed by the NH3-TPD and Py-IR analysis. The catalytic performances were tested in a fixed-bed reactor under the conditions of 593 K, WHSV of 0.75 h−1, GHSV of 2500 h−1 and 4.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure, whereby oil yield of 40.4 wt. % with aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons content of 80.0% was obtained.

  12. The analysis of quantitative methods for renewable fuel processes and lubricant of materials derived from plastic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagukguk, J. R.

    2018-01-01

    Plastic has become an important component in modern life today. Its role has replaced wood and metal, given its advantages such as light and strong, corrosion resistant, transparent and easy to color and good insulation properties. The research method is used with quantitative and engineering research methods. Research objective is to convert plastic waste into something more economical and to preserve the environment surrounding. Renewable fuel and lubricant variables are simultaneously influenced significantly to the sustainable environment. This is based on Fh> Ft of 62.101> 4.737) and its significance is 0.000 sustainable, the value of correlation coefficient 0.941 or 94.1% which means there is a very strong relationship between renewable fuel variables and lubricants to the sustainable environment. And utilizing plastic waste after being processed by pyrolysis method produces liquid hydrocarbons having elements of compounds such as crude oil and renewable fuels obtained from calculations are CO2 + H2O + C1-C4 + Residual substances. Then the plastic waste can be processed by isomerization process + catalyst to lubricating oil and the result of chemical calculation obtained is CO2, H2O, C18H21 and the rest.

  13. Waste as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, T. M.; Lorimer, A. D.

    1979-07-01

    The methods of using the energy available in wastes to reduce the energy costs in processes are discussed. Special reference is made to the need for careful evaluation of the potential of the waste to reduce energy costs, before significant investment is made. Problems generally arise due to the effective balancing of the cost of the waste pretreatment with the disposal fee and prime fuel saving. Special reference is made to use of waste as a fuel in the cement industry. Municipal refuse is discussed as a typical successful application.

  14. Sludge, garbage may fuel California sewage plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieger, R B

    1977-01-01

    The combustion and pyrolysis of sewage sludge and refuse-derived fuel (RFD) in multiple-hearth furnaces were recommended as a means of generating energy to power the Central Contra Costa Sanitary District's 30 mgd wastewater treatment plant using an off-gas from the pyrolysis process. In a full-scale test, a furnace in Concord, once used for sewage sludge incineration, was operated under O/sub 2/-starved conditions by limiting air addition through the burners and air nozzles, resulting in partial combustion. Using temperature as the controlled variable, the process was regulated to form a fuel gas through composition of the organic feed matter. Just enough fuel gas was combusted to evaporate moisture in the feed solids and furnish heat for the decomposition process. During most of the testing the afterburner was maintained at a temperature > 1400/sup 0/F with pyrolysis gas. At this temperature, automatic ignition of the gas occurred. When the gas generated dropped to a low heat of combustion because of high feed moisture content, the afterburner burner was used to ignite the gas. Some test observations are discussed. Preparation of the solid waste for processing by the use of shredders, air classifiers, and magnetic separators is described.

  15. Individual- and regional-level determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine refusal: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV vaccine cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Olivia; Smith, Leah M; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz E; Colley, Lindsey; Lévesque, Linda E

    2014-10-08

    Studies on the determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use have generally focused on individual-level characteristics, despite the potentially important influence of regional-level characteristics. Therefore, we undertook a population-based, retrospective cohort study to identify individual- and regional-level determinants of HPV vaccine refusal (non-receipt) in Ontario's (Canada) Grade 8 HPV Immunization Program. Ontario's administrative health and immunization databases were used to identify girls eligible for free HPV vaccination in 2007-2011 and to ascertain individual-level characteristics of cohort members (socio-demographics, vaccination history, health care utilization, medical history). The social and material characteristics of the girl's region (health unit) were derived from the 2006 Canadian Census. Generalized estimating equations (binomial distribution, logit link) were used to estimate the population-average effects of individual- and regional-level characteristics on HPV vaccine refusal. Our cohort consisted of 144,047 girls, 49.3% of whom refused HPV vaccination. Factors associated with refusal included a previous diagnosis of Down's syndrome (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.63) or autism (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.34-1.90), few physician visits (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.35-1.55), and previous refusal of mandatory (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 2.07-2.40) and optional (OR = 3.96, 95% CI 3.87-4.05) vaccines. Refusal was highest among the lowest and highest income levels. Finally, a previous diagnosis of obesity and living in an area of high deprivation were associated with lower refusal (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.92 and OR = 0.82 95%, CI 0.79-0.86, respectively). Studies on HPV vaccine determinants should consider regional-level factors. Efforts to increase HPV vaccine acceptance should include vulnerable populations (such as girls of low income) and girls with limited contact with the healthcare system.

  16. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7714 and 7731). Neither the Department of Agriculture nor the inspector... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  18. Magnetometric Studies of Catalyst Refuses in Nanocarbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eklund Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIt is shown that magnetometry can be employed as an effective tool to control the content of a ferromagnetic constituent in nanocarbon materials. We propose a thermochemical treatment protocol to achieve extensive cleaning of the source nanocarbon materials from ferromagnetic refuses.

  19. [Refusal of personal hygiene care and nursing responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyé, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Situations of patients refusing personal hygiene care are frequent. Sources of difficulties and questioning for caregivers, they can lead to maltreatment. In order to avoid this pitfall, it is essential to support the teams in their approach around representations of caregiving and nursing responsibility.

  20. the development of new generation of solid waste refuse incinerators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from town refuse, there are wastes from agriculturally based industries especially ... depends on careful control of the 3T's (time, temperature and turbulence). ... These activities cause serious public health risks ... The modifications to the old bottle incinerators were developed by carefully assessing the failure modes.

  1. Ways to Say No: Refusal Skill Strategies among Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations among adolescents' generated verbal strategies (ie, Simple No, Declarative Statements, Excuse, Alternatives) and underlying nonverbal assertiveness in 2 refusal situations: smoking and shoplifting. Methods: Sixth-grade urban minority students (N = 454) participated in videotaped role-play assessments of peer…

  2. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wreen, M J

    1991-09-01

    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assigned it by strong anti-paternalists. This weight is sufficient, in their estimation, to justify honouring the patient's refusal. There is thus a tension between the strong anti-paternalist's commitment to the sufficiency of autonomy and our intuitions respecting such cases. Attempts can be made to relieve this tension, such as arguing that patients aren't really rational in the circumstances envisaged, or that other values, such as privacy or bodily integrity, if added to autonomy, are sufficient to justify an anti-paternalistic stance. All such attempts fail, however. But what does not fail is the addition of religious freedom, freedom respecting a patient's religious beliefs and values. Why religious freedom reduces the tension is then explained, and the specialness of religious beliefs and values examined.

  3. Problems and prospects of refuse disposal in nigerian urban centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refuse disposal is one of the major environmental problems that developing ... The problem of waste management has two parts, that of collection and that of disposal. ... Disposal methods such as dumping sites, incineration, recycling, shipping ... citizenry has roles to play in adopting more suitable solutions to this problem.

  4. [Refusal of care in the intensive care: how makes decision?].

    OpenAIRE

    Borel , Marie; Veber , Benoit; Villette-Baron , Karen; Hariri , S.; Dureuil , Bertrand; Hervé , Christian

    2009-01-01

    International audience; It is not a question of going towards a systematic admission in intensive care of any patient proposed, but to make sure that so if there is a refusal, it is carried out according to a step ethically acceptable.

  5. [Refusal of care and respect of the body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Marie-Fleur

    Patients receive numerous care procedures which they may refuse for physical and/or psychological reasons, even if, sometimes, the consequences for them can be dramatic. Faced with this situation, caregivers are helpless. Only ethical reflection centred on their responsibility and their humanity can guide them towards the suitable attitude to adopt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  7. Refuse Dumps And The Environment: A Case Study Of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refuse Dumps And The Environment: A Case Study Of Some Selected Cities In Nigeria. ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics ... This study assessed the level of environmental pollution in the nation by focusing on the degree of accumulation of house – hold wastes, industrial scraps or wastes, ...

  8. Bioethics and religious bodies: refusal of blood transfusions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtar, Małgorzata

    2013-12-01

    The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding Excessive School Absenteeism as School Refusal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Understanding excessive absenteeism is important to ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with the behavior. The present study examined behavioral reinforcement profiles of school refusal behavior: negative reinforcement (avoidance) and positive reinforcement (gaining parental attention or receiving tangible benefits from not attending…

  10. Othermotherwork: "Testimonio" and the Refusal of Historical Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Christine

    2018-01-01

    This paper is an "ofrenda" (offering), a "testimonio" (testimony) of the healing power of reconstituting severed relationships and reconstructing agentic creation stories in the pathology of soul-wounds where pictures and "cuentos" serve to mend genealogical traumas. This paper is a refusal of neglecting traumas, it…

  11. School Refusal Behavior: Classification, Assessment, and Treatment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses diagnostic and functional classification, assessment, and treatment approaches for school refusal behavior. Diagnostic classification focuses on separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, depression, and truancy. Functional classification focuses on the maintaining consequences of the behavior, such as avoidance of…

  12. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures

  13. Impact of interventions for patients refusing emergency medical services transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandro, J; Hollander, J E; Henry, M C; Sciammarella, J; Stapleton, E; Gentile, D

    1995-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a documentation checklist and on-line medical control contact on ambulance transport of out-of-hospital patients refusing medical assistance. Consecutive patients served by four suburban ambulance services who initially refused emergency medical services (EMS) transport to the hospital were prospectively enrolled. In phase 1 (control phase), all patients who initially refused medical attention or transport had an identifying data card completed. In phase 2 (documentation phase), out-of-hospital providers completed a similar data card that contained a checklist of high-risk criteria for a poor outcome if not transported. In phase 3 (intervention phase), a data card similar to that used in phase 2 was completed, and on-line medical control was contacted for all patients with high-risk criteria who refused transport. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients transported to the hospital. A total of 361 patients were enrolled. Transport rate varied by phase: control, 17 of 144 (12%); documentation, 11 of 150 (7%); and intervention, 12 of 67 (18%) (chi-square, p = 0.023). Transport of high-risk patients improved with each intervention: control, two of 60 (3%); documentation, seven of 70 (10%); and intervention, 12 of 34 (35%) (chi-square, p = 0.00003). Transport of patients without high-risk criteria decreased with each intervention: control, 15 of 84 (18%); documentation, four of 80 (5%); and intervention, 0 of 33 (0%) (p = 0.0025). Of the 28 patients for whom medical control was contacted, 12 (43%) were transported to the hospital, and only three of these 12 patients (25%) were released from the ED. Contact with on-line medical control increased the likelihood of transport of high-risk patients who initially refused medical assistance. The appropriateness of the decreased transport rate of patients not meeting high-risk criteria needs further evaluation.

  14. Refusal of dialysis amongst patients of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anees, M.; Khan, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the refusal of dialysis amongst patients of chronic kidney disease presenting for the first time for dialysis in uremic condition. Study Design: Cross sectional Study. Place and Duration of the Study: Outpatient department of Nephrology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore from 1 st Jan 2012 to 31 st December 2012. Patients and Methods: Patients of CKD due to any cause presenting with uremia for the first time for dialysis were included in the study. History and physical examination was done and demographic data was collected in pre designed form. Patients were offered for dialysis while explaining to them the advantages of getting and disadvantages of not getting dialysis. Patient's response on the offer was recorded and the reason for the refusal were noted. Results: According to the criteria 150 patients were included in the study. Most of the patients were male 92 (61.3%) and illiterate 78 (52.0%). Major cause of CKD was diabetes mellitus 58 (38.7%) followed by hypertension 38 (25.3%). Mean age of the patients was 42.59 ± 13.72 year and income of themost of the patients 126 (84%) was less than US$100/-month. Most of the patients 126 (77.0%) were asked about the need of dialysis in less than three months, 61 (41.3%) offered for the first time and amongst them 85 (54.0%) were offered dialysis already. Majority of the patients 101 (67.3%) refused dialysis when it was offered to them for the first time. Major reason of the refusal was fear of dialysis procedure in 76 (76%) patients followed by treatment by spiritual 14 (14%) and alternative ways and others 11 (11 %). Middle age persons refused dialysis significantly. (author)

  15. Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  16. A comparison of the environmental benefits of bagasse-derived electricity and fuel ethanol on a life-cycle basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, Tyron; Blottnitz, Harro von

    2006-01-01

    The energetic utilisation of agricultural residues is considered to be an important element in any strategy to achieve renewable energy targets. In the approximately 80 cane-sugar producing countries there is potential to make better use of the fibrous residue known as bagasse. Subject to improved energy efficiency, sugar producers could supply energy either as 'green', co-generated electricity, or as fuel ethanol through cellulose hydrolysis followed by fermentation. This paper compares their projected environmental benefits from a life-cycle perspective, using South African data. Mass and energy analyses were prepared for the two systems and a base case (producing sugar with current methods), relative to the annual sugarcane production on one hectare. In both cases, the environmental burdens avoided by replacing an equivalent amount of fossil energy were included. The results obtained confirm that for all the impact categories considered, both 'bioenergy' products result in environmental benefits. The co-generation option results in lower energy-related emissions (i.e. lower global warming, acidification and eutrophication potentials), whereas the fuel ethanol option is preferred in terms of resource conservation (since it is assumed to replace oil not coal), and also scores better in terms of human and eco-toxicity if assumed to replace lead-bearing oxygenates

  17. Fuels derived from starch digestion have different effects on energy intake and metabolic responses of cows in the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdrón-Duarte, Laura B; Allen, Michael S

    2018-03-07

    Absorbed fuels from the digestion of starch include propionic acid (PA) produced by ruminal fermentation and glucose (GLU) from intestinal digestion, which may be partially metabolized to lactic acid (LA) by intestinal tissues. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these fuels on dry matter intake (DMI) and feeding behavior of cows in the postpartum period. We hypothesized that these fuels affect feed intake differently and that their effects are related to differences in their hepatic metabolism. Glucose was expected to have little effect on feed intake because little or no GLU is extracted from the blood by the liver. Whereas both LA and PA are anaplerotic and can stimulate oxidation of acetyl CoA in hepatocytes, hepatic extraction of PA is greater than LA, which depends on cytosolic redox state. Continuous isoenergetic infusions (150 kcal of ME/h) of PA, LA, or GLU or no infusion were administered abomasally to 8 ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (12.4 ± 6.2 d postpartum) in a duplicate 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment, with four 1-d infusion periods, balanced for carry-over effects. Treatment sequences were assigned to cows randomly, and treatments included control (CON, no infusion), PA (0.41 mol/h), LA (0.46 mol/h), and GLU (0.22 mol/h). Solutions containing treatments were infused at 500 mL/h for 22 h/d and provided ~3.3 Mcal/d. Feeding behavior was recorded by a computerized data acquisition system. Gross energy digestibility of the diet was determined for each cow and used to calculate metabolizable energy intake (MEI) from the diet. Total MEI was calculated as the sum of MEI from the diet plus energy from infusions. Data were analyzed statistically with a mixed model including the fixed effect of treatment and random effects of block and cow within block. Each treatment was compared with CON by contrasts. Compared with CON, PA decreased DMI by 24% (14.3 vs. 18.9 kg/d) and total MEI by 13% (34.8 vs. 40.2 Mcal/d) with a tendency to

  18. 76 FR 29796 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Refuse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Refuse Piles and Impounding Structures, Recordkeeping and Reporting... Administration (MSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Refuse Piles and Impounding... to submit annual reports and certification on refuse piles and impoundments to the agency and to keep...

  19. Social Skills, Competence, and Drug Refusal Efficacy as Predictors of Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the extent to which assertiveness and related social skills, personal competence, and refusal efficacy predict alcohol involvement in adolescents. Males were at higher risk for poor refusal skills and reported higher alcohol involvement. Youth characterized by poor social skill development reported lower refusal efficacy, lower grades,…

  20. A plea for uniform European definitions for organ donor potential and family refusal rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, N.E.; Haase-Kromwijk, B.J.; Leiden, H.A. van; Weimar, W.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of potential organ donors to actual donors is negatively influenced by family refusals. Refusal rates differ strongly among countries. Is it possible to compare refusal rates in order to be able to learn from countries with the best practices? We searched in the literature for reviews of

  1. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than... refunded if the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than... refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1.295 Patents, Trademarks, and...

  2. Academic Self-Attributions for Success and Failure in Mathematics and School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, Carolina; Sanmartín, Ricardo; Vicent, María; Inglés, Cándido J.; Aparicio-Flores, M. Pilar; García-Fernández, José M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold: to analyze the mean differences scores in mathematic self-attributions based on school refusal and to verify its predictive capability on high scores in school refusal. The Sydney Attribution Scale and the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised were administered to 1078 Spanish students (50.8% boys) aged…

  3. Characterization of coal-derived liquids and other fossil-fuel-related materials employing mass spectrometry. Final report, September 30, 1976-September 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheppele, S E

    1982-05-01

    A document was prepared which assessed the state-of-the art in the mass spectrometric characterization of fossil fuel materials and the relevance of these data to the fossil fuel industry. A Kratos DS50 SM data system was successfully interfaced to a CEC 21-110B mass spectrometer. Communications between the NOVA 3/12 computer in the data system and the OSU central computer were established. A Grant Comparator/Microdensitometer was acquired and made operational. Plans were developed and hardware acquired for interfacing the densitometer to the NOVA 3/12 computer. A quartz direct introduction probe was acquired for the CEC 21-110B. A temperature controller for the probe was acquired and interfaced to the slow speed ADC on the auxillary board in the data system/mass spectrometer interface. The combined FI/EI source was modified to operate in the FD mode and an apparatus was fabricated for conditioning FD emitters. A CSI supergrater 3 was interfaced to the PE 3920 gas chromatograph. The upgraded facility was used to develop mass spectrometric methods for the characterization of fossil fuel materials and to apply methods to the characterization of these materials. Activities included: (1) initial development of field-ionization mass spectrometry for the characterization of saturated hydrocarbons, (2) computerization of the technique of probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry, (3) initation of the development of a new method for the computer assisted assignment of formulas to ion masses, (4) characterization of neutral fractions from a hydrotreated tar-sands oil, and (5) characterization of coal-derived oils and asphaltenes.

  4. Production of a refined biooil derived by fast pyrolysis of chicken manure with chemical and physical characteristics close to those of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal, Carlos M; Schnitzer, Morris

    2011-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of raw biooils prevent their direct use in combustion engines. We processed raw pyrolytic biooil derived from chicken manure to yield a colorless refined biooil with diesel qualities. Chemical characterization of the refined biooil involved elemental and several spectroscopic analyses. The physical measurements employed were viscosity, density and heat of combustion. The elemental composition (% wt/wt) of the refined biooil was 82.7 % C, 15.3 % H, 0.2 % N and 1.8 % O, no S. Its viscosity was 0.006 Pa.s and a heat of combustion of 43 MJ kg(-1). The refined biooil fraction contains n-alkanes, ranging from n-C(14) to n-C(27), alkenes varying from C(10:1) to C(22:1), and long-chain alcohols. The refined biooil makes a good diesel fuel due to its chemical and physical properties.

  5. Dissolved organic carbon in the precipitation of Seoul, Korea: Implications for global wet depositional flux of fossil-fuel derived organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ge; Kim, Guebuem

    2012-11-01

    Precipitation was sampled in Seoul over a one-year period from 2009 to 2010 to investigate the sources and fluxes of atmospheric dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The concentrations of DOC varied from 15 μM to 780 μM, with a volume-weighted average of 94 μM. On the basis of correlation analysis using the commonly acknowledged tracers, such as vanadium, the combustion of fossil-fuels was recognized to be the dominant source. With the aid of air mass backward trajectory analyses, we concluded that the primary fraction of DOC in our precipitation samples originated locally in Korea, albeit the frequent long-range transport from eastern and northeastern China might contribute substantially. In light of the relatively invariant organic carbon to sulfur mass ratios in precipitation over Seoul and other urban regions around the world, the global magnitude of wet depositional DOC originating from fossil-fuels was calculated to be 36 ± 10 Tg C yr-1. Our study further underscores the potentially significant environmental impacts that might be brought about by this anthropogenically derived component of organic carbon in the atmosphere.

  6. Graphene-derived Fe/Co-N-C catalyst in direct methanol fuel cells: Effects of the methanol concentration and ionomer content on cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Cheol; Choi, Chang Hyuck

    2017-08-01

    Non-precious metal catalysts (typically Fe(Co)-N-C catalysts) have been widely investigated for use as cost-effective cathode materials in low temperature fuel cells. Despite the high oxygen reduction activity and methanol-tolerance of graphene-based Fe(Co)-N-C catalysts in an acidic medium, their use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) has not yet been successfully implemented, and only a few studies have investigated this topic. Herein, we synthesized a nano-sized graphene-derived Fe/Co-N-C catalyst by physical ball-milling and a subsequent chemical modification of the graphene oxide. Twelve membrane-electrode-assemblies are fabricated with various cathode compositions to determine the effects of the methanol concentration, ionomer (i.e. Nafion) content, and catalyst loading on the DMFC performance. The results show that a graphene-based catalyst is capable of tolerating a highly-concentrated methanol feed up to 10.0 M. The optimized electrode composition has an ionomer content and catalyst loading of 66.7 wt% and 5.0 mg cm-2, respectively. The highest maximum power density is ca. 32 mW cm-2 with a relatively low PtRu content (2 mgPtRu cm-2). This study overcomes the drawbacks of conventional graphene-based electrodes using a nano-sized graphene-based catalyst and further shows the feasibility of their potential applications in DMFC systems.

  7. A detailed kinetic mechanism including methanol and nitrogen pollutants relevant to the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coda Zabetta, Edgardo; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2008-01-15

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the simulation of the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels was compiled by assembling selected reaction subsets from existing mechanisms (parents). The mechanism, here referred to as ''AaA,'' includes reaction subsets for the oxidation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), light hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}), and methanol (CH{sub 3}OH). The mechanism also takes into account reaction subsets of nitrogen pollutants, including the reactions relevant to staged combustion, reburning, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). The AaA mechanism was validated against suitable experimental data from the literature. Overall, the AaA mechanism gave more accurate predictions than three other mechanisms of reference, although the reference mechanisms performed better occasionally. The predictions from AaA were also found to be consistent with the predictions of its parent mechanisms within most of their range of validity, thus transferring the validity of the parents to the inheriting mechanism (AaA). In parametric studies the AaA mechanism predicted that the effect of methanol on combustion and pollutants is often similar to that of light hydrocarbons, but it also showed that there are important exceptions, thus suggesting that methanol should be taken into account when simulating biomass combustion. To our knowledge, the AaA mechanism is currently the only mechanism that accounts for the chemistry of methanol and nitrogen relevant to the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels. (author)

  8. Review of safety precautions derived from six-year experience of a spent fuel reprocessing plant - Centre de Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.

    1964-01-01

    In a center for the processing of irradiated fuels, as in any other factory, continuity of production can only be achieved through constant effort to maintain the standard of safety. The authors examine the safety elements inherent in the design of the installations, from the point of view of both radioactive and conventional protection. It is clear that in the nuclear industry it is not sufficient merely to adopt the usual precautions against the risks of explosion, fire, etc...; but great attention must be paid to the problems arising from the confinement of materials, radioactivity and the risks of criticality. The general principles of the technical prevention of radioactive risks are now well known. They must be applied as soon as the plans are drawn up for the installations, by taking into account : - the design and construction of the installations with respect to the risks mentioned above - the division of the plant into zones - the circulation of personnel and material - ventilation and purification of the air. The technical safety factors however, are not sufficient in themselves. However good the material and the degree of automation achieved, the smooth running of a factory depends on the man responsible for supervision and repair work or who takes initiatives. Technical safety is never definitive and must be continually maintained. The collaboration of the workers is necessary to its efficiency. Psychological measures must thus be taken as an addition to the technical precautions. This psychological prevention is based on: - education of the personnel - organization of the work and definition of the safety rules - checking on obedience to the rules and behaviour of the personnel - constant reminders of the necessity for the prevention of radioactive risks. Six years operation of the irradiated fuel processing plant at Marcoule have shown the importance of close collaboration between workers and technique. The authors analyse the results obtained from

  9. Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kevin P. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-02-13

    operation temperature up to 750°C, first distributed chemical measurements at the record high temperature up to 700°C, first distributed pressure measurement at the record high temperature up to 800°C, and the fiber laser sensors with the record high operation temperature up to 700°C. The research performed by this program dramatically expand the functionality, adaptability, and applicability of distributed fiber optical sensors with potential applications in a number of high-temperature energy systems such as fossil-fuel power generation, high-temperature fuel cell applications, and potential for nuclear energy systems.

  10. [Anorexia and refusal to eat in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Thomas, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The question of the links between anorexia and the refusal to eat in the elderly is often the cause of major difficulties with regard to therapeutic strategies within caregiving teams. Likewise, few studies have been carried out into the diachronic links between teenage anorexia and that of the elderly. The role of the multi-disciplinary team is essential. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Lime helps establish crownvetch on coal-breaker refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; Edward A. Sowa

    1976-01-01

    A study was begun in 1965 to determine the effect of lime fertilizer, and mulch on the establishment and growth of crownvetch crowns planted on anthracite coal-breaker refuse. After 7 years the lime application had by far the strongest effect. Both 2.5 and 5.0 tons per acre increased survival and ground cover manyfold, and both treatments were equally beneficial from...

  12. [Refusal of care in the intensive care: how makes decision?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, M; Veber, B; Villette-Baron, K; Hariri, S; Dureuil, B; Hervé, C

    2009-11-01

    Decision-making bringing to an admission or not in intensive care is complex. The aim of this study is to analyze with an ethical point of view the making decision process leading to the refusal and its consequences. It is proposed a setting in prospect through the principles of beneficence, non-maleficience, respect for autonomy, justice, and the Leonetti law. Prospective study in surgical reanimation at the University Hospital of Rouen over 9 months (November 2007-September 2008). Systematic collection for each non-admitted patient of the general characters, the methods of decision making, immediate becoming and within 48 h Constitution of two groups: patients for whom an admission in intensive care could be an unreasonable situation of obstinacy, and patients for whom an admission in reanimation would not be about unreasonable if it occurred. One hundred and fifty situations were analyzed. The potentially unreasonable character of an admission does not involve necessarily a refusal of care in intensive care. The question of the lack of place and equity in the access to the care is real but relative according to the typology of the patients. The research of the respect of the autonomy of the patient is difficult but could be facilitated. The Leonetti law does not appear to be able to be a framework with the situation of refusal of care in intensive care. It is not a question of going towards a systematic admission in intensive care of any patient proposed, but to make sure that so if there is a refusal, it is carried out according to a step ethically acceptable.

  13. A narrative review of studies of refusal of psychotropic medication in acute inpatient psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, J A; Bowers, L

    2011-09-01

    This paper offers a narrative review of the 22 studies of medication refusal in acute psychiatry. Because of varied definitions of medication refusal, diverse methodologies and few rigorous studies, it has not been possible to draw firm conclusions on the average rate of refusal of psychotropic medications in acute psychiatry. However, it is clear that medication refusal is common and leads to poor outcomes characterized by higher rates of seclusion, restraint, threats of, and actual, assaults and longer hospitalizations. There are no statistically significant differences between refusers and acceptors in gender, marital status and preadmission living arrangements. Although no firm conclusions on the influence of ethnicity, status at admission and diagnosis on refusal, the refusers are more likely to have higher number of previous hospitalizations and history of prior refusal. The review indicates that staff factors such as the use of temporary staff, lack of confidence in ward staff and ineffective ward structure are associated with higher rates of medication refusal. Comprehensive knowledge of why, and how, patients refuse medication is lacking. Research on medication refusal is still fragmented, of variable methodological quality and lacks an integrating model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  14. Mental health consequences of abortion and refused abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watter, W W

    1980-02-01

    There is no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis put forth by Dr. Philip Ney in a recent article published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry that induced abortion is associated with an increase in child abuse. There are, however, numerous studies which support the contention that mandatory motherhood adversely affects the mental health of both the mother and the offspring. Studies conducted in Sweden, Scotland, and Czechoslovakia revealed that women who were refused abortions frequently experienced serious psychosocial difficulties for long periods of time following abortion refusal. Case controlled follow-up studies, conducted in Sweden and Czechoslovakia, of offspring born to women who were refused abortions demonstrated that a higher proportion of the unwanted children required psychiatric services, engaged in criminal behavior, and did less well in school than the controlled children. These studies have implications for the current Canadian law which permits a woman to obtain an abortion if pregnancy continuation will endanger her health. In view of the above statistical evidence, and the fact that mortality and morbidity are known to be lower for abortion than for childbirth, any person who denies a woman the right to have an abortion is increasing the risk that the health of the woman will be endangered. By law, therefore, all abortion requests should be honored.

  15. Consent and assessment of capacity to decide or refuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Owena

    Consent protects the right of patients to decide what happens to them. Before any medical intervention, adults must give valid consent, which must be voluntary, informed and given free of undue influence. When consent is being obtained, patients must be informed about the intervention, why it is being done and its risks; information they are given must be recorded. Every effort should be made to explain the issues in terms that the patient can understand and by providing support and aids to communicate. Consent can be expressed, where patients say they consent or put it in writing, or implied, where a healthcare professional infers from their behaviour that they consent. While different types of consent are valid, some are evidence of stronger proof in court that valid consent has been given. Competent adults have the right to refuse treatment, regardless of the reasons they give for refusal and even if the refusal will result in death; clinicians must respect their decision. In some circumstances-such as when an unconscious person is admitted as an emergency-healthcare professionals can make decisions on behalf of patients, and must do so in patients' best interests.

  16. Delay and refusal of human papillomavirus vaccine for girls, national immunization survey-teen, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Stokley, Shannon; Fisher, Allison; Markowitz, Lauri; Smith, Philip J

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among girls is low. We used data reported by parents of 4103 girls, 13 to 17 years old, to assess associations with, and reasons for, delaying or refusing HPV vaccination. Sixty-nine percent of parents neither delayed nor refused vaccination, 11% delayed only, 17% refused only, and 3% both delayed and refused. Eighty-three percent of girls who delayed only, 19% who refused only, and 46% who both delayed and refused went on to initiate the vaccine series or intended to initiate it within the next 12 months. A significantly higher proportion of parents of girls who were non-Hispanic white, lived in households with higher incomes, and had mothers with higher education levels, delayed and/or refused vaccination. The most common reasons for nonvaccination were concerns about lasting health problems from the vaccine, wondering about the vaccine's effectiveness, and believing the vaccine is not needed.

  17. Large contribution of fossil fuel derived secondary organic carbon to water soluble organic aerosols in winter haze in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-L. Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC is a large fraction of organic aerosols (OA globally and has significant impacts on climate and human health. The sources of WSOC remain very uncertain in polluted regions. Here we present a quantitative source apportionment of WSOC, isolated from aerosols in China using radiocarbon (14C and offline high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer measurements. Fossil emissions on average accounted for 32–47 % of WSOC. Secondary organic carbon (SOC dominated both the non-fossil and fossil derived WSOC, highlighting the importance of secondary formation to WSOC in severe winter haze episodes. Contributions from fossil emissions to SOC were 61 ± 4 and 50 ± 9 % in Shanghai and Beijing, respectively, significantly larger than those in Guangzhou (36 ± 9 % and Xi'an (26 ± 9 %. The most important primary sources were biomass burning emissions, contributing 17–26 % of WSOC. The remaining primary sources such as coal combustion, cooking and traffic were generally very small but not negligible contributors, as coal combustion contribution could exceed 10 %. Taken together with earlier 14C source apportionment studies in urban, rural, semi-urban and background regions in Asia, Europe and the USA, we demonstrated a dominant contribution of non-fossil emissions (i.e., 75 ± 11 % to WSOC aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere; however, the fossil fraction is substantially larger in aerosols from East Asia and the eastern Asian pollution outflow, especially during winter, due to increasing coal combustion. Inclusion of our findings can improve a modelling of effects of WSOC aerosols on climate, atmospheric chemistry and public health.

  18. Large contribution of fossil fuel derived secondary organic carbon to water soluble organic aerosols in winter haze in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; El-Haddad, Imad; Huang, Ru-Jin; Ho, Kin-Fai; Cao, Jun-Ji; Han, Yongming; Zotter, Peter; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Slowik, Jay G.; Salazar, Gary; Prévôt, André S. H.; Szidat, Sönke

    2018-03-01

    Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) is a large fraction of organic aerosols (OA) globally and has significant impacts on climate and human health. The sources of WSOC remain very uncertain in polluted regions. Here we present a quantitative source apportionment of WSOC, isolated from aerosols in China using radiocarbon (14C) and offline high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer measurements. Fossil emissions on average accounted for 32-47 % of WSOC. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) dominated both the non-fossil and fossil derived WSOC, highlighting the importance of secondary formation to WSOC in severe winter haze episodes. Contributions from fossil emissions to SOC were 61 ± 4 and 50 ± 9 % in Shanghai and Beijing, respectively, significantly larger than those in Guangzhou (36 ± 9 %) and Xi'an (26 ± 9 %). The most important primary sources were biomass burning emissions, contributing 17-26 % of WSOC. The remaining primary sources such as coal combustion, cooking and traffic were generally very small but not negligible contributors, as coal combustion contribution could exceed 10 %. Taken together with earlier 14C source apportionment studies in urban, rural, semi-urban and background regions in Asia, Europe and the USA, we demonstrated a dominant contribution of non-fossil emissions (i.e., 75 ± 11 %) to WSOC aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere; however, the fossil fraction is substantially larger in aerosols from East Asia and the eastern Asian pollution outflow, especially during winter, due to increasing coal combustion. Inclusion of our findings can improve a modelling of effects of WSOC aerosols on climate, atmospheric chemistry and public health.

  19. Refusal of medical treatment in the pediatric emergency service: analysis of reasons and aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Ramiz Coşkun; Halil, Halit; Gürsoy, Cüneyt; Çifci, Atilla; Özgün, Seher; Kodaman, Tuğba; Sönmez, Mehtap

    2014-01-01

    Refusal of treatment for acutely ill children is still an important problem in the emergency service. When families refuse medical treatment for their acutely ill children, healthcare professionals may attempt to provide information and negotiate with the family concerning treatment refusal and its possible adverse outcomes, and request consent for refusal of medical treatment. There is insufficient data about refusal of treatment in our country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the causes of treatment refusal in the pediatric emergency service. We collected data recorded on informed consent forms. During a 2-year-study period, 215 patients refused treatment recommended by acute health care professionals. The majorty of patients were in the 0-2 year age group. Hospitalization was the type of treatment most commonly refused; restrictions regarding family members staying with their children during hospitalization and admission to another hospital were the major reasons for refusal of treatment. Clarifying the reasons for treatment refusal may help us to overcome deficiencies, improve conditions, resolve problems and build confidence between healthcare providers and service users, increasing users' satisfaction in the future.

  20. Fuel Supply Defaults for Regional Fuels and Fuel Wizard Tool in MOVES201X

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fuel supply report documents the data and methodology used to derive the default gasoline, diesel and fuel-blend fuel properties, and their respective fuel market share in MOVES. The default market share of the individual fuels varies by calendar year, seasons, and several do...

  1. Stop on construction of fast breeder at Kalkar refused

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The application of a plaintiff was refused by the verdict of the High Court for North Rhine-Westphalia of 16.6.1978, which would have restored the delaying effect of his application against the defendant Minister of the Land (his opponent) on the first part licence of the Kalkar nuclear power station. The plaintiff had to bear the costs of the proceedings, including extra legal costs of the co-defendant nuclear power company. The value of the object of the case was set at DM 10,000. This means that construction can continue. The most important reasons for turning down the application are given. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Vaccination refusal: ethics, individual rights, and the common good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L

    2011-12-01

    Among the obstacles to the success of vaccination programs is the apparent recent increase in hesitancy and outright resistance to the recommended vaccination schedule by some parents and patients. This article reviews the spectrum of patient or parental attitudes that may be described as vaccine refusal, explores related ethical considerations in the context of the doctor-patient relationship and public health, and evaluates the possible responses of physicians when encountering resistance to vaccination recommendations. Health care providers should view individuals hesitant about or opposed to vaccines not as frustrations or threats to public health, but as opportunities to educate and inform. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  4. Psychotropic Medication Refusal: Reasons and Patients′ Perception at a Secure Forensic Psychiatric Treatment Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide O Adelugba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor adherence to prescribed medication regimens can undermine the effectiveness of medications. This study was conducted to determine the demographic profile of forensic psychiatric inpatients refusing medications and to identify the reasons for refusal. Data were collected through interviews using a questionnaire including Drug Attitude Inventory-10. Medication refusal was more common among Aboriginals (68%, n = 34 than Caucasians (32%, n = 16 and was highest among the patients 21-30 years of age (44%, n = 22. Antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder featured prominently among patients refusing medications. The main reasons for medication refusal were inconvenience (34%, n = 17 followed by side effects (22%, n = 11, ineffective medication (20%, n = 10, illness-related (16%, n = 8, and no reasons (8%, n = 6. Antipsychotic medications topped the list of the major classes of medications refused followed by Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers.

  5. Removal potential of toxic 2378-substituted PCDD/F from incinerator flue gases by waste-derived activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2011-06-01

    The application of activated carbons has become a commonly used emission control protocol for the removal or adsorption of persistent organic pollutants from the flue gas streams of waste incinerators. In this study, the 2378-substituted PCDD/F removal efficiency of three types of activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of refuse derived fuel, textile waste and scrap tyre was investigated and compared with that of a commercial carbon. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor under a simulated flue gas at 275°C with a reaction period of four days. The PCDD/F in the solid matrices and exhaust gas, were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the absence of activated carbon adsorbent, there was a significant increase in the concentration of toxic PCDD/F produced in the reacted flyash, reaching up to 6.6 times higher than in the raw flyash. In addition, there was a substantial release of PCDD/F into the gas phase, which was found in the flue gas trapping system. By application of the different commercial, refuse derived fuel, textile and tyre activated carbons the total PCDD/F toxic equivalent removal efficiencies in the exhaust gas stream were 58%, 57%, 64% and 52%, respectively. In general, the removal of the PCDDs was much higher with an average of 85% compared to PCDFs at 41%. Analysis of the reacted activated carbons showed that there was some formation of PCDD/F, for instance, a total of 60.6 μg I-TEQ kg(-1) toxic PCDD/F was formed in the refuse derived fuel activated carbon compared to 34 μg I-TEQ kg(-1) in the commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of waste, therefore, showed good potential as a control material for PCDD/F emissions in waste incinerator flue gases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Refusal of Curative Radiation Therapy and Surgery Among Patients With Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizer, Ayal A., E-mail: aaaizer@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut (United States); Parekh, Arti [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Choueiri, Toni K. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kim, Simon P. [Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Martin, Neil E. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hu, Jim C. [Department of Urology, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Trinh, Quoc-Dien [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nguyen, Paul L. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Surgery and radiation therapy represent the only curative options for many patients with solid malignancies. However, despite the recommendations of their physicians, some patients refuse these therapies. This study characterized factors associated with refusal of surgical or radiation therapy as well as the impact of refusal of recommended therapy on patients with localized malignancies. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify a population-based sample of 925,127 patients who had diagnoses of 1 of 8 common malignancies for which surgery and/or radiation are believed to confer a survival benefit between 1995 and 2008. Refusal of oncologic therapy, as documented in the SEER database, was the primary outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with refusal. The impact of refusal of therapy on cancer-specific mortality was assessed with Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. Results: In total, 2441 of 692,938 patients (0.4%) refused surgery, and 2113 of 232,189 patients (0.9%) refused radiation, despite the recommendations of their physicians. On multivariable analysis, advancing age, decreasing annual income, nonwhite race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of surgery, whereas advancing age, decreasing annual income, Asian American race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of radiation (P<.001 in all cases). Refusal of surgery and radiation were associated with increased estimates of cancer-specific mortality for all malignancies evaluated (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-3.03; P<.001 and HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.78-2.18]; P<.001, respectively). Conclusions: Nonwhite, less affluent, and unmarried patients are more likely to refuse curative surgical and/or radiation-based oncologic therapy, raising concern that socioeconomic factors may drive some patients to forego potentially life

  7. Refusal of Curative Radiation Therapy and Surgery Among Patients With Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Parekh, Arti; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Kim, Simon P.; Martin, Neil E.; Hu, Jim C.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Surgery and radiation therapy represent the only curative options for many patients with solid malignancies. However, despite the recommendations of their physicians, some patients refuse these therapies. This study characterized factors associated with refusal of surgical or radiation therapy as well as the impact of refusal of recommended therapy on patients with localized malignancies. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify a population-based sample of 925,127 patients who had diagnoses of 1 of 8 common malignancies for which surgery and/or radiation are believed to confer a survival benefit between 1995 and 2008. Refusal of oncologic therapy, as documented in the SEER database, was the primary outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with refusal. The impact of refusal of therapy on cancer-specific mortality was assessed with Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. Results: In total, 2441 of 692,938 patients (0.4%) refused surgery, and 2113 of 232,189 patients (0.9%) refused radiation, despite the recommendations of their physicians. On multivariable analysis, advancing age, decreasing annual income, nonwhite race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of surgery, whereas advancing age, decreasing annual income, Asian American race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of radiation (P<.001 in all cases). Refusal of surgery and radiation were associated with increased estimates of cancer-specific mortality for all malignancies evaluated (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-3.03; P<.001 and HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.78-2.18]; P<.001, respectively). Conclusions: Nonwhite, less affluent, and unmarried patients are more likely to refuse curative surgical and/or radiation-based oncologic therapy, raising concern that socioeconomic factors may drive some patients to forego potentially life

  8. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  9. Predictors of intensive care unit refusal in French intensive care units: a multiple-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Montuclard, Luc; Timsit, Jean-François; Reignier, Jean; Desmettre, Thibault; Karoubi, Philippe; Moreau, Delphine; Montesino, Laurent; Duguet, Alexandre; Boussat, Sandrine; Ede, Christophe; Monseau, Yannick; Paule, Thierry; Misset, Benoit; Carlet, Jean

    2005-04-01

    To identify factors associated with granting or refusing intensive care unit (ICU) admission, to analyze ICU characteristics and triage decisions, and to describe mortality in admitted and refused patients. Observational, prospective, multiple-center study. Four university hospitals and seven primary-care hospitals in France. None. Age, underlying diseases (McCabe score and Knaus class), dependency, hospital mortality, and ICU characteristics were recorded. The crude ICU refusal rate was 23.8% (137/574), with variations from 7.1% to 63.1%. The reasons for refusal were too well to benefit (76/137, 55.4%), too sick to benefit (51/137, 37.2%), unit too busy (9/137, 6.5%), and refusal by the family (1/137). In logistic regression analyses, two patient-related factors were associated with ICU refusal: dependency (odds ratio [OR], 14.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.27-38.25; p refused patients, and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.28-1.75) for later-admitted patients. ICU refusal rates varied greatly across ICUs and were dependent on both patient and organizational factors. Efforts to define ethically optimal ICU admission policies might lead to greater homogeneity in refusal rates, although case-mix variations would be expected to leave an irreducible amount of variation across ICUs.

  10. Toilet refusal syndrome in preschool children: do different subtypes exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Justine; Equit, Monika; El Khatib, Diana; von Gontard, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Toilet refusal syndrome (TRS) is a common, benign disorder in toddlers defined by the use of diapers and refusal of toilet for defaecation, but has not been described systematically in preschool children yet. The aim of the study was to analyse and identify possible subgroups of TRS. Retrospective analysis of all of the consecutive children with TRS presented as outpatients in a clinic for elimination disorders. Patients had received a detailed paediatric and child psychiatric assessment, including the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire. Three typical case vignettes are presented of TRS with constipation, oppositional defiant disorder, and sibling rivalry. Twenty-five children (10 boys) with a mean age of 5.2 (3.4-7.3) years were included-representing 2.5% of all of the children (n = 1001) presented. They had high rates of constipation (60%) and elimination disorders (24%-44%). Child psychiatric International Classification of Diseases-10th Edition disorders were common (40%) and heterogeneous, with significantly more boys affected, but no differences between children with and without constipation. This study shows that TRS occurs also in older preschool (and even school) children. At this later age, it is associated with constipation and behavioural disorders. The case vignettes show differences in therapy and may represent different subgroups of TRS. TRS is associated with constipation, elimination disorders, and psychiatric disorders. Owing to this variety of comorbid disorders, different therapeutic approaches are needed. A general screening for behavioural symptoms is recommended.

  11. Energy from refuse by bioconversion, fermentation and residue disposal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, J T; Liebman, J C

    1976-01-01

    Bioconversion of organic refuse to CH/sub 4/ by anaerobic fermentation is 1 mechanism by which the energy in urban waste can be reclaimed. Laboratory studies were made to determine the rate and amount of gas production at various operating temperatures. The dewatering characteristics of the spent fermentation slurry were evaluated. The spent solids can be dewatered to a sufficiently low moisture content such that incineration is self-sustaining. The incineration system was evaluated to determine the possible energy recovery from the spent cake. A process for treating the liquid blowdown from the system was developed. A mathematical simulation of the total system was constructed to evaluate performance under various operating conditions. A plant processing 908 tons of refuse/day will produce 3905 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//hr. Recovery of just CH/sub 4/ provides a 32.6% efficiency of energy recovery. This efficiency can be increased to 63.4% if steam from the incinerator can be sold.

  12. Constructive and Destructive Aspects of Refusal from Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna A. Gulyaeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the phenomenon of refusal from communication in terms of its positive and negative impact, both on the communicative process, and interpersonal relationships in general. It has been analyzed several aspects of the failure to communicate with positive communication position. The identification of constructive or destructive potential was carried out on the basis of three parameters such as productivity/ unproductive conflict resolution with the help of avoiding communication, the choice of an optimum way of non-communication and its role in the communication process on the basis of the functions performed by them. Failure to communicate is often perceived negatively and is considered an inefficient form of communication, so it does not allow to solve interpersonal conflicts. This article discusses the circumstances where refusal from communication advocates an effective way to avoid conflict. In situations where the termination of communication is inevitable, a fundamental factor for the positive, harmonious form of communication acts interrupting the communication process. Functioning in the communicative space, failure to communicate can either destroy an interaction and relationship between the partners, and regulate the communication process by guiding in the right direction, coordinating the behavior of communication.

  13. Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S. D.; Carter, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is developing and evaluating new cost-effective methods for reclaiming refuse areas of this type. The program involved determining the final land use for the site, development of detailed engineering plans and specifications for the reclamation effort, a prereclamation environmental inventory, and implementation. Post-construction evaluation is now in process to determine the effectiveness of the reclamation effort. Detailed investigations are being conducted to determine surface water quality improvement, the amount of suitable surface cover and amendments required for revegetation, and field evaluation of candidate vegetation species for revegetation. Other research is examining soil microbial populations, soil fauna reactions, and changes in surface material characteristics at the reclamation site. Surveys are being conducted on groundwater quality, effects on the aquatic ecosystem, and wildlife use of the area. An economic evaluation is underway to determine the cost effectiveness of the total effort and of individual reclamation procedures. Preliminary results from the first year's environmental evaluation of various method tested will be described in detail. An economic assessment, including cost effectiveness, of the first year's work is given.

  14. Refusal of implant supported mandibular overdentures by elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Janice S; Levine, Alissa; Bedos, Christophe; Mojon, Phillippe; Rosberger, Zeer; Feine, Jocelyne; Thomason, J Mark

    2011-03-01

      The aim of this study was to gain greater in-depth understanding of why elderly patients who are currently dissatisfied with conventional dentures decline implant treatment.   There is strong evidence from high-quality randomised controlled trials to support the use of implant-supported overdentures for the restoration of the edentulous mandible. However, whilst recruiting for randomised clinical trials, researchers have found that a high proportion of potential subjects decline participation, despite the removal of financial constraints.   The study adopted a qualitative approach to provide a rich and deep understanding of people's reasons for refusal. Data were collected through focus group interviews in a two-centre study based in Montreal, Canada and Newcastle, UK. A semi-structured interview schedule was used and iteratively developed as analysis identified themes from previous focus groups. Transcripts of focus groups were coded and emergent themes determined.   Two main themes emerged; patients' fear and anxiety (relating to the pain of surgery, complications of the procedure and immediate post-surgical denture use), and the appropriateness of the procedure in an elderly person.   Fears of pain, complications and social embarrassment, exacerbated by age, are important factors that help explain refusal of implants by elderly patients. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Rationality, religion and refusal of treatment in an ambulance revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon-Parkes, Kate

    2013-09-01

    In their recent article, Erbay et al considered whether a seriously injured patient should be able to refuse treatment if the refusal was based on a (mis)interpretation of religious doctrine. They argued that in such a case 'what is important…is whether the teaching or philosophy used as a reference point has been in fact correctly perceived' (p 653). If it has not been, they asserted that this eroded the patient's capacity to make an autonomous decision and that therefore, in such cases, it is the role of the healthcare professional (HCP) to 'assist patients to think more clearly and rationally' (p 653). There are, however, a number of problems with the reasons why Erbay et al suggest we should help patients to rationalise their decisions and how HCPs should go about this. In this article, the author explores some of their main arguments regarding consent and rationality (particularly in relation to religious beliefs), as well as Erbay et al's normative claim that HCPs have an obligation to promote autonomy by helping patients to come to a 'rational' decision. Ultimately, the author agrees that the (temporary) solution to the dilemma presented in this scenario (which was to insert an intravenous cannula into the patient in order to allow an infusion of fluids in the event that he changed his mind) seemed both pragmatic and ethically permissible. However, it is suggested that the arguments which underpin this conclusion in Erbay et al's article are largely unsound.

  16. Characterisation of ashes produced by co-combustion of recovered fuels and peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenhaeuser, M. [Borealis Polymers Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The current project focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of refuse derived fuel with coal, peat, wood or bark, which could lead to slagging, fouling and corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced at fluidised bed (FB) combustion conditions in the 15 kW reactor at VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analysed by XRF at Outokumpu Geotechnical Laboratory, Outokumpu. The sintering behaviour of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at the Combustion Chemistry Research Group at Aabo Akademi University. The current extended programme includes a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark/coal (5 tests) and wood/coal (2 tests), a RF from Jyvaskyla (2 tests with peat/coal) and de-inking sludges co- combusted at full-scale with wood waste or paper mill sludge (4 ashes provided by IVO Power). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 deg C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1000 deg C. Ash from 100 % RDF combustion does not sinter, 25 % RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Contrary to the earlier hypothesis a 25 % coal addition seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows, that (again), in general, an increased level of alkali chlorides and sulphates gives increased sintering. Finally, some results on sintering tendency measurements on ashes from full-scale CFB co-combustion of deinking sludge with wood waste and paper mill sludge are given. This shows that these ashes show very little, if any, sintering tendency, which can be explained from ash chemistry

  17. Central Nervous System Disease, Education, and Race Impact Radiation Refusal in Pediatric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirayu G; Stavas, Mark; Perkins, Stephanie; Shinohara, Eric T

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the determinants of radiation therapy refusal in pediatric cancer, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry to identify 24,421 patients who met the eligibility criteria, diagnosed between 1974 and 2012. Patients had any stage of cancer, were aged 0 to 19, and received radiation therapy or refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. One hundred twenty-eight patients (0.52%) refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. Thirty-two percent of patients who refused radiation therapy ultimately died from their cancer, at a median of 7 months after diagnosis (95% confidence interval, 3-11 mo), as compared with 29.0% of patients who did not refuse radiation therapy died from their cancer, at a median of 17 months after diagnosis (95% confidence interval, 17-18 mo). On multivariable analysis, central nervous system (CNS) site, education, and race were associated with radiation refusal. The odds ratio for radiation refusal for patients with CNS disease was 1.62 (P=0.009) as compared with patients without CNS disease. For patients living in a county with ≥10% residents having less than ninth grade education, the odds ratio for radiation refusal was 1.71 (P=0.008) as compared with patients living in a county with education. Asian, Pacific Islander, Alaska Native, and American Indian races had an odds ratio of 2.12 (P=0.002) for radiation refusal as compared with black or white race. Although the radiation refusal rate in the pediatric cancer population is low, we show that CNS site, education level, and race are associated with a significant difference in radiation refusal.

  18. Perceived Quality of Informed Refusal Process: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iranian Patients' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadeqi Jabali, Monireh

    2015-12-01

    Patients have the right to refuse their treatment; however, this refusal should be informed. We evaluated the quality of the informed refusal process in Iranian hospitals from patients' viewpoints. To this end, we developed a questionnaire that covered four key aspects of the informed refusal process including; information disclosure, voluntariness, comprehension, and provider-patient relationship. A total of 284 patients who refused their treatment from 12 teaching hospitals in the Isfahan Province, Iran, were recruited and surveyed to produce a convenience sample. Patients' perceptions about the informed refusal process were scored and the mean scores of the four components were calculated. The findings showed that the practice of information disclosure (9.6 ± 6.4 out of 22 points) was perceived to be moderate, however, comprehension (2.3 ± 1.4 out of 4 points), voluntariness (8.7 ± 1.5 out of 12 points) and provider-patient relationship (10.2 ± 5.2 out of 16 points) were perceived to be relatively good. We found that patients, who refused their care before any treatment had commenced, reported a lower quality of information disclosure and voluntariness. Patients informed by nurses and those who had not had a previous related admission, reported lower scores for comprehension and relationship. In conclusion, the process of obtaining informed refusal was relatively satisfactory except for levels of information disclosure. To improve current practices, Iranian patients need to be better informed about; different treatment options, consequences of treatment refusal, costs of not continuing treatment and follow-ups after refusal. Developing more informative refusal forms is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Use of pyrolysis gases from biogenic fuels as reductionfuels in coal dust furnaces; Einsatz von Pyrolysegasen aus biogenen Brennstoffen als Reduktionsbrennstoff in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruediger, H.; Greul, U.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion of refuse-derived fuels in the form of pyrolysis gases, with coal as primary fuel, has advantages in terms of fuel ash separation and nitric oxide emissions. Biomass or sewage sludge is degassed in a pyrolysis reactor, and the gas is used as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace. The authors investigated the influence of reaction temperature, fuel moisture and reaction atmosphere in the pyrolysis stage on the product fractions gas, tar, and residual fuel, as well as the suitability of the resulting pyrolysis gas as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace for the purpose of reducing nitric oxide emissions. (orig) [Deutsch] Ein am IVD betriebenes Konzept der Mitverbrennung von Brennstoffen in Form von Pyrolysegasen bietet Vorteile bezueglich der Trennung der Brennstoffaschen und Stickoxidemissionen bei der Feuerung des Primaerbrennstoffes Steinkohle. Biomasse oder Klaerschlamm wird hierbei in einem Pyrolysereaktor engast und gasfoermig als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung eingesetzt. Untersuchungsschwerpunkte in der Pyrolysestufe des Prozesses waren die Einfluesse von Reaktionstemperatur, Brennstofffeuchte und Reaktionsatmosphaere auf die Produktfraktionen Gas, Teer und Restbrennstoff sowie die Eignung des erzeugten Pyrolysegases als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung zur Senkung derKohlendioxidemissione. (orig)

  20. Use of pyrolysis gases from biogenic fuels as reductionfuels in coal dust furnaces; Einsatz von Pyrolysegasen aus biogenen Brennstoffen als Reduktionsbrennstoff in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruediger, H; Greul, U; Spliethoff, H; Hein, K R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1997-12-31

    Co-combustion of refuse-derived fuels in the form of pyrolysis gases, with coal as primary fuel, has advantages in terms of fuel ash separation and nitric oxide emissions. Biomass or sewage sludge is degassed in a pyrolysis reactor, and the gas is used as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace. The authors investigated the influence of reaction temperature, fuel moisture and reaction atmosphere in the pyrolysis stage on the product fractions gas, tar, and residual fuel, as well as the suitability of the resulting pyrolysis gas as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace for the purpose of reducing nitric oxide emissions. (orig) [Deutsch] Ein am IVD betriebenes Konzept der Mitverbrennung von Brennstoffen in Form von Pyrolysegasen bietet Vorteile bezueglich der Trennung der Brennstoffaschen und Stickoxidemissionen bei der Feuerung des Primaerbrennstoffes Steinkohle. Biomasse oder Klaerschlamm wird hierbei in einem Pyrolysereaktor engast und gasfoermig als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung eingesetzt. Untersuchungsschwerpunkte in der Pyrolysestufe des Prozesses waren die Einfluesse von Reaktionstemperatur, Brennstofffeuchte und Reaktionsatmosphaere auf die Produktfraktionen Gas, Teer und Restbrennstoff sowie die Eignung des erzeugten Pyrolysegases als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung zur Senkung derKohlendioxidemissione. (orig)

  1. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai Xiaoli [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail: xlchai@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Zhao Youcai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  2. Transfusion Refusal and the Shifting Limits of Multicultural Accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMichelis, Carey

    2017-12-01

    The refusal of blood products by Jehovah's Witness patients has provoked court proceedings, social science research, and contemporary fiction, all of which emphasize a seemingly intractable conflict between religious and secular ways of being. This article takes a different approach, focusing instead on the space that Witness patients have carved out for their accommodation in a major pediatric research hospital. Using discourse analysis and interview data, I map the way moralizing discourses surrounding Witness families have shifted over the past 70 years alongside advancements in bloodless medicine. I argue that Witnesses have helped to enable their present accommodation and recognition by marshaling particular forms of economic, human, and social capital, and consider whether their success might be attainable by other treatment-resisting patient groups. Thus, this article explores the shifting limits of multicultural accommodation and the conditions that make understanding, collaboration, and compromise possible.

  3. A case of pervasive refusal syndrome: a diagnostic conundrum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    A case is presented of an 11-year-old girl with pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) who ultimately recovered acutely and completely after an 18-month paediatric hospitalisation. There was an apparent absence of previously proposed important aetiological factors in PRS, such as family pathology and markedly traumatic or abusive experiences, and her recovery was sudden and complete. The authors consider the differential diagnoses of PRS paying particular attention to the possibility of a conversion disorder or catatonia, given the absence of PRS in the North American literature. Consideration of catatonia is important as it has a diagnostic test and responds rapidly to appropriate treatment, in contrast to conventional treatment for PRS and conversion disorder.

  4. Renouncement of renal replacement therapy: withdrawal and refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrade Moura Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract Renouncement of renal replacement therapy (RRT is a medical dilemma. This review covers the concept, the magnitude, the prognosis, and discusses strategies and management approaches about this subject in patients with CKD and AKI. Evidence suggests that refusal is more frequent and carries a more guarded prognosis than withdrawal of RRT. When RRT is not expected to be beneficial in terms of survival or quality of life, conservative treatment and palliative care are alternatives. We review the historical evolution of guidelines about renouncement of RRT and palliative care, and highlight the absence of specific recommendations in Brazil. However renouncement of RRT may be ethically and legally accepted in Brazil, as the right to a dignified death. Longer life expectancy, economic pressures, and greater awareness will require a more detailed discussion about indications and sustainable use of RRT, and possibly the elaboration of national guidelines.

  5. Social and legal dimensions discussion of conscientious refusal in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeniz ANBARLI BOZATAY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the discussion of conscientious objection, the refusal of military service due to individual’s moral values or religious beliefs, is new in Turkey, the subject has become the focus of intense interest. The discussion of conscientious objection in Turkey has come the to the fore with the heated debates between the glorification of the dynamics of Turkish social structure towards military service and the critique of militarism and conscientious objection’s legal dimensions, as well. Since the reduction of discussions in this context in Turkey to the legal dimension is the ignorance of social reality constituting basis to the legal dimension, the subject is examined with reference to the social and historical outlook on this issue and the study is built on dimensions.

  6. Treatment guidelines for primary nonretentive encopresis and stool toileting refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, B R; Marcus, B A; Pitner, S L

    1999-04-15

    Nonretentive encopresis refers to inappropriate soiling without evidence of fecal constipation and retention. This form of encopresis accounts for up to 20 percent of all cases. Characteristics include soiling accompanied by daily bowel movements that are normal in size and consistency. An organic cause for nonretentive encopresis is rarely identified. The medical assessment is usually normal, and signs of constipation are noticeably absent. A full developmental and behavioral assessment should be made to establish that the child is ready for intervention to correct encopresis and to identify any barriers to success, particularly disruptive behavior problems. Successful interventions depend on the presence of soft, comfortable bowel movements and addressing toilet refusal behavior. Daily scheduled positive toilet sits are recommended. Incentives may be used to reinforce successful defecation during these sits. A plan for management of stool withholding should be agreed on by the parents/caretakers and the family physician before intervention.

  7. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiaoli; Zhao Youcai

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic

  8. Treatment for School Refusal among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Heyne, David; Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Bulanda, Jeffery J.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: School refusal is a psychosocial problem associated with adverse short- and long-term consequences for children and adolescents. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with school refusal. Method: A comprehensive search process was used…

  9. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each...

  10. 24 CFR 3282.354 - Submittal of false information or refusal to submit information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submittal of false information or... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Primary Inspection Agencies § 3282.354 Submittal of false information or refusal to submit information. The submittal of false information or the refusal to submit information required...

  11. Making Sense of Iconic Symbols: A Study of Preschool Children Conducting a Refuse-Sorting Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth; Ottosson, Torgny; Beach, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article is part of a larger project focusing upon explanatory illustrations that children encounter in pre- and primary school education. The research questions concerned (a) how preschool children make sense of iconic symbols when placing items of refuse on illustrations of refuse bins in a sorting task and (b) what stumbling blocks they…

  12. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  13. Thinking through Moments of Sexual Refusal in "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kyra

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores two scenarios in which young women refuse the sexual advances of young men in the films "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake." The paper highlights the heteronormative nature of education around refusing sex, which reinstates gendered stereotypes of masculine as active and feminine as…

  14. Learned Helplessness and Learning Goals: Role played in School Refusal. A Study on Italian Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Sorrenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature on school refusal has shown a link between school refusal and poor school performance. However, there has been little investigation into the individual underlying factors, and specifically factors directly related to the learning process, such as the learning goals of students and their expectations of success and/or failure. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of Learned Helplessness (LH and learning goals on school refusal. We hypothesized that LH and learning goals exert a unique role in predicting school refusal above and beyond the roles of academic achievement, age, and gender. The sample consisted of 201 Italian students with an average age of 11.93, with both low (57.2 % of students and high (42.8 % academic achievement. School refusal, LH, and learning goals were measured by means of questionnaires. The results confirm the hypothesis of this study; in fact, we found that learning goals and, above all, LH play a more predictive role of school refusal than academic achievement. These results extend previous studies on school refusal and, for the first time, they provide additional knowledge about this problem, analyzing the relationship between school refusal, learning goals, and LH, still neglected in the literature. Implications on the psychological well-being of students are discussed.

  15. The Impact of Refuse Dump sites on the Physico-chemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Refuse Dump sites on the Physico-chemical and Microbial Properties of ground Water in some selected areas. ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development. Journal Home ... The pollution effect of refuse dumps on the quality of wells at Ojota, Lagos, Apete, Ibadan and Odopetu, Akure were studied.

  16. What happens after a request for euthanasia is refused? Qualitative interviews with patients, relatives and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasman, H Roeline W; Willems, Dick L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2013-09-01

    Obtaining in-depth information from both patient and physician perspectives about what happens after a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) is refused. In-depth interviews with nine patients whose EAS request was refused and seven physicians of these patients, and with three relatives of patients who had died after a request was refused and four physicians of these patients. Interviews were conducted at least 6 months after the refusal. A wish to die remained in all patients after refusal, although it sometimes diminished. In most cases patient and physician stopped discussing this wish, and none of the physicians had discussed plans for the future with the patient or evaluated the patient's situation after their refusal. Physicians were aware of patients' continued wish to die. Patients who are refused EAS may subsequently be silent about a wish to die without abandoning it. Open communication about wishes to die is important, even outside the context of EAS, because if people feel unable to talk about them, their quality of life may be further diminished. Follow up appointments after refusal could give patients the opportunity to discuss their feelings and physicians to support them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Can children aged 12 years or more refuse life-saving treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The best interests of the child are paramount, and should the child unreasonably refuse to consent to life-saving treatment, the Minister of Social Development may give consent for such treatment in terms of the Children's Act. Otherwise, should a parent, guardian, caregiver or healthcare provider believe that such a refusal ...

  18. Behavioural treatment of severe food refusal in five toddlers with developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young children with developmental disabilities are at risk of food refusal. In case of severe food refusal, children are being fed by nasal or gastrostomy tube. Behavioural treatment may be effective in establishing oral food intake. METHODS: A behavioural treatment package was

  19. Behavioral treatment of severe food refusal in five toddlers with developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Young children with developmental disabilities are at risk of food refusal. In case of severe food refusal, children are being fed by nasal or gastrostomy tube. Behavioural treatment may be effective in establishing oral food intake. Methods A behavioural treatment package was

  20. Behavioural treatment of severe food refusal in five toddlers with developmental disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, R.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young children with developmental disabilities are at risk of food refusal. In case of severe food refusal, children are being fed by nasal or gastrostomy tube. Behavioural treatment may be effective in establishing oral food intake. METHODS: A behavioural treatment package was

  1. What happens after a request for euthanasia is refused? Qualitative interviews with patients, relatives and physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, H.R.W.; Willems, D.L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Obtaining in-depth information from both patient and physician perspectives about what happens after a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) is refused. Methods: In-depth interviews with nine patients whose EAS request was refused and seven physicians of these

  2. Comparing the quality of life in insulin recipient and refusal patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Khalili

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Results showed that insulin refusal patients had a better QOL. It seems that QOL is associated with the acceptance or refusal of insulin therapy. Therefore, enhancement of QOL could be related to all aspects of the disease, especially its treatment method and solving the therapeutic problems.

  3. Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

  4. A plea for uniform European definitions for organ donor potential and family refusal rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Nichon E; Haase-Kromwijk, Bernadette J J M; van Leiden, Hendrik A; Weimar, Willem; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2009-11-01

    Conversion of potential organ donors to actual donors is negatively influenced by family refusals. Refusal rates differ strongly among countries. Is it possible to compare refusal rates in order to be able to learn from countries with the best practices? We searched in the literature for reviews of donor potential and refusal rates for organ donation in intensive care units. We found 14 articles pertinent to this study. There is an enormous diversity among the performed studies. The definitions of potential organ donors and family refusal differed substantially. We tried to re-calculate the refusal rates. This method failed because of the influence caused by the registered will on donation in the Donor Register. We therefore calculated the total refusal rate. This strategy was also less satisfactory considering possible influence of the legal consent system on the approach of family. Because of lack of uniform definitions, we can conclude that the refusal rates for organ donation can not be used for a sound comparison among countries. To be able to learn from well-performing countries, it is necessary to establish uniform definitions regarding organ donation and registration of all intensive care deaths.

  5. Obstetric Patients Who Select and Those Who Refuse Medical Students' Participation in Their Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrane, Diane; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 222 obstetrics patients assisted by medical clerkship students from the University of Vermont and 78 who refused student participation found privacy the primary motivation for refusal and a desire to contribute to students' education a primary reason for accepting student participation. Patients frequently erroneously anticipated the…

  6. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a) The...

  7. Strategie di rifuto in Italiano: uno studio etnografico (Refusal Strategies in Italian: An Ethnographic Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frescura, Marina

    1997-01-01

    After reviewing previous research on speech acts, this article describes a study that analyzed the behavior of speakers of standard Italian in refusing an offer of food. The importance of "face" is explained, and the refusal strategies are classified into four categories: explicit, tactical, decisive, and conclusive. (CFM)

  8. 13 CFR 115.18 - Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension and termination of PSB status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension and termination of PSB status. 115.18 Section 115.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND GUARANTEE Provisions for All Surety Bond Guarantees § 115.18 Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension...

  9. 75 FR 4565 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    .... Please cite OMB Control No. 9000-0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment, in all correspondence. Dated... ADMINISTRATION [OMB Control No. 9000-0114] Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning right of first refusal of employment. A...

  10. 29 CFR 1977.22 - Employee refusal to comply with safety rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Some Specific Subjects § 1977.22 Employee refusal to comply with safety rules. Employees who refuse to comply with occupational safety and health... Section 1977.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  11. 30 CFR 253.50 - How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR... can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? (a) If MMS determines that any OSFR evidence you submit... acceptable evidence without being subject to civil penalty under § 253.51. (b) MMS may immediately and...

  12. Denitrification capacity of bioreactors filled with refuse at different landfill ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingxu; Wu Songwei; Wu Weixiang; Sun Hua; Ding Ying

    2009-01-01

    The denitrification capacity of refuse at different landfill ages in bioreactor landfill system was studied. Three reactors filled with 1-year-old refuse (R1), 6-year-old refuse (R6) and 11-year-old refuse (R11), respectively, were operated in the experiment. Nitrate solution (1000 mg NO 3 - -N L -1 ) was added into each reactor. The results showed that the reactors were all able to consume nitrate. However, 1-year-old refuse in R1 had both a higher nitrate reduction rate and concentration of N 2 . In addition, vertical differences in nitrate removal along the depth of R1 were observed. The bottom-layer refuse and the middle-layer refuse both showed higher efficiency in nitrate depletion than the top layer. Furthermore, N 2 O accumulation was found in R11 with the concentration up to 19.3% of the released gas. These results suggested that 1-year-old refuse, which was partly degraded, was more suitable to use as denitrification medium.

  13. Relating N2O emissions from energy crops to the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO2 – a study on bioethanol and biogas produced from organically managed maize, rye, vetch and grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2010-01-01

    derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not account for farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co‐production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from...... fuel‐derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye‐vetch, vetch and grass‐clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2......) biogas production and 3) co‐production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas missions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel...

  14. Patient Experience Of Provider Refusal Of Medicaid Coverage And Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Neeraj; Shi, Yunfeng; Jung, Kyoungrae

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that many physicians do not accept new patients with Medicaid coverage, but no study has examined Medicaid enrollees' actual experience of provider refusal of their coverage and its implications. Using the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, we estimate provider refusal of health insurance coverage reported by 23,992 adults with continuous coverage for the past 12 months. We find that among Medicaid enrollees, 6.73% reported their coverage being refused by a provider in 2012, a rate higher than that in Medicare and private insurance by 4.07 (p<.01) and 3.68 (p<.001) percentage points, respectively. Refusal of Medicaid coverage is associated with delaying needed care, using emergency room (ER) as a usual source of care, and perceiving current coverage as worse than last year. In view of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Medicaid expansion, future studies should continue monitoring enrollees' experience of coverage refusal.

  15. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgwater, A V; Double, J M [Aston Univ. Birmingham (GB). Dept of Chemical Engineering

    1992-12-31

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels.

  16. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels

  17. Refusal of curative radiation therapy and surgery among patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Ayal A; Chen, Ming-Hui; Parekh, Arti; Choueiri, Toni K; Hoffman, Karen E; Kim, Simon P; Martin, Neil E; Hu, Jim C; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L

    2014-07-15

    Surgery and radiation therapy represent the only curative options for many patients with solid malignancies. However, despite the recommendations of their physicians, some patients refuse these therapies. This study characterized factors associated with refusal of surgical or radiation therapy as well as the impact of refusal of recommended therapy on patients with localized malignancies. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify a population-based sample of 925,127 patients who had diagnoses of 1 of 8 common malignancies for which surgery and/or radiation are believed to confer a survival benefit between 1995 and 2008. Refusal of oncologic therapy, as documented in the SEER database, was the primary outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with refusal. The impact of refusal of therapy on cancer-specific mortality was assessed with Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. In total, 2441 of 692,938 patients (0.4%) refused surgery, and 2113 of 232,189 patients (0.9%) refused radiation, despite the recommendations of their physicians. On multivariable analysis, advancing age, decreasing annual income, nonwhite race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of surgery, whereas advancing age, decreasing annual income, Asian American race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of radiation (PRefusal of surgery and radiation were associated with increased estimates of cancer-specific mortality for all malignancies evaluated (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-3.03; Prefuse curative surgical and/or radiation-based oncologic therapy, raising concern that socioeconomic factors may drive some patients to forego potentially life-saving care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative life cycle assessment of diesel and compressed natural gas powered refuse collection vehicles in a Canadian city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Lars; Hussain, Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed; Malek, Kourosh; Costanzo, Robert; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Consumers and organizations worldwide are searching for low-carbon alternatives to conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their impact on the environment. A comprehensive technique used to estimate overall cost and environmental impact of vehicles is known as life cycle assessment (LCA). In this article, a comparative LCA of diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) powered heavy duty refuse collection vehicles (RCVs) is conducted. The analysis utilizes real-time operational data obtained from the City of Surrey in British Columbia, Canada. The impact of the two alternative vehicles is assessed from various points in their life. No net gain in energy use is found when a diesel powered RCV is replaced by a CNG powered RCV. However, significant reductions (approximately 24% CO 2 -equivalent) in GHG and criteria air contaminant (CAC) emissions are obtained. Moreover, fuel cost estimations based on 2011 price levels and a 5-year lifetime for both RCVs reveal that considerable cost savings may be achieved by switching to CNG vehicles. Thus, CNG RCVs are not only favorable in terms of reduced climate change impact but also cost effective compared to conventional diesel RCVs, and provide a viable and realistic near-term strategy for cities and municipalities to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► Life cycle analysis is performed on two alternative refuse collection vehicle technologies. ► Real-time operational data obtained by the City of Surrey in British Columbia are utilized. ► The life cycle energy use is similar for diesel and CNG RCVs. ► A 24% reduction of GHG emissions (CO 2 -equivalent) may be realized by switching from diesel to CNG. ► CNG RCVs are estimated to be cost effective and may lead to reduced fuel costs.

  19. Combustion, Performance, and Emission Evaluation of a Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Like Fuel Blends Derived From a Mixture of Pakistani Waste Canola and Waste Transformer Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qasim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a 5.5 kW four-stroke single-cylinder water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine operated with blends of biodiesel-like fuel (BLF15, BLF20 & BLF25 obtained from a 50:50 mixture of transesterified waste transformer oil (TWTO and waste canola oil methyl esters (WCOME with petroleum diesel. The mixture of the waste oils was named as biodiesel-like fuel (BLF.The engine fuelled with BLF blends was evaluated in terms of combustion, performance, and emission characteristics. FTIR analysis was carried out to know the functional groups in the BLF fuel. The experimental results revealed the shorter ignition delay and marginally higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTE and exhaust gas temperature (EGT values for BLF blends as compared to diesel. The hydrocarbon (HC and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were decreased by 10.92–31.17% and 3.80–6.32%, respectively, as compared to those of diesel fuel. Smoke opacity was significantly reduced. FTIR analysis has confirmed the presence of saturated alkanes and halide groups in BLF fuel. In comparison to BLF20 and BLF25, the blend BLF15 has shown higher brake thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption values. The HC, CO, and smoke emissions of BLF15 were found lower than those of petroleum diesel. The fuel blend BLF15 is suggested to be used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines without any engine modification.

  20. Refuse derived bio-organics and immobilized soybean peroxidase for green chemical technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnacca, Giuliana; Laurenti, Enzo; Vigna, Erika

    2012-01-01

    in the reaction of hydrogen peroxide, 3-(dimethylamino)benzoic acid (DMAB) and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH), by comparison with the same reaction performed with native SBP in solution. The reaction performed in the presence of immobilized SBP was slower than that catalyzed by native SBP...... Peroxidase (SBP). Compared to the pristine powder, the monolith exhibited lower specific surface area (about 30% less), total pore volume and pore size (of about 200 Å of width), and bond less SBP under the same experimental conditions. The immobilized SBP products were tested for their catalytic activity...... in solution. However, in spite of its lower SBP content, monolith immobilized SBP (M-SBP) was found kinetically more active than the powder immobilized SBP (P-SBP). Also, M-SBP allowed to achieve the same reagents conversion as native SBP (95% of reagent conversion), although in longer time, whereas...

  1. The Refusal of Palliative Radiation in Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Its Prognostic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavas, Mark J; Arneson, Kyle O; Ning, Matthew S; Attia, Albert A; Phillips, Sharon E; Perkins, Stephanie M; Shinohara, Eric T

    2015-06-01

    Patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have limited survival. Population studies have evaluated the impact of radiation refusal in the curative setting; however, no data exist concerning the prognostic impact of radiation refusal in the palliative care setting. To investigate the patterns of radiation refusal in newly diagnosed patients with metastatic NSCLC. Patients with Stage IV NSCLC diagnosed between 1988 and 2010 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify predictors for refusal of radiation and the impact of radiation and refusal on survival in the palliative setting. A total of 285,641 patients were initially included in the analysis. Palliative radiation was recommended in 42% and refused by 3.1% of patients. Refusal rates remained consistent across included years of study. On multivariate analysis, older, nonblack/nonwhite, unmarried females were more likely to refuse radiation (P refusing radiation was three months vs. five months for those receiving radiation and two months for those whom radiation was not recommended. Patients with metastatic NSCLC who refuse recommended palliative radiation have a poor survival. Radiation refusal or the recommendation against treatment can serve as a trigger for integrating palliative care services sooner and contributes greatly to prognostic awareness. Further investigation into this survival difference and the factors behind refusal are warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are considered...

  3. Emissions of toxic pollutants from co-combustion of demolition and construction wood and household waste fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, Mar; Ortuño, Núria; Persson, Per-Erik; Conesa, Juan A; Jansson, Stina

    2018-07-01

    Four different types of fuel blends containing demolition and construction wood and household waste were combusted in a small-scale experimental set-up to study the effect of fuel composition on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), chlorobenzenes (PCBzs), chlorophenols (PCPhs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two woody materials, commercial stemwood (ST) and demolition and construction wood (DC) were selected because of the differences in their persistent organic pollutants (POPs), ash and metals content. For household waste, we used a municipal solid waste (MSW) and a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from MSW with 5-20 wt% and up to 5 wt% food waste content respectively. No clear effect on the formation of pollutants was observed with different food waste content in the fuel blends tested. Combustion of ST-based fuels was very inefficient which led to high PAH emissions (32 ± 3.8 mg/kg fuel ). The use of DC clearly increased the total PCDD and PCDF emissions (71 ± 26 μg/kg fuel ) and had a clear effect on the formation of toxic congeners (210 ± 87 ng WHO 2005 -TEQ/kg fuel ). The high PCDD and PCDF emissions from DC-based fuels can be attributed to the presence of material contaminants such as small pieces of metals or plastics as well as timber treated with chromated copper arsenate preservatives and pentachlorophenol in the DC source. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for medication-assisted treatment after inpatient detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Bailey, Genie L; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    An individual's self-efficacy to refuse using heroin in high-risk situations is believed to minimize the likelihood for relapse. However, among individuals completing inpatient heroin detoxification, perceived refusal self-efficacy may also reduce one's perceived need for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), an effective and recommended treatment for opioid use disorder. In the current study, we examined the relationship between heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for MAT following inpatient detoxification. Participants (N=397) were interviewed at the start of brief inpatient opioid detoxification. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of background characteristics, depressed mood, and perceived heroin refusal self-efficacy with preference for MAT. Controlling for other covariates, depressed mood and lower perceived refusal self-efficacy were associated with a significantly greater likelihood of expressing preference for MAT (versus no MAT). Perceived ability to refuse heroin after leaving detox is inversely associated with a heroin user's desire for MAT. An effective continuum of care model may benefit from greater attention to patient's perceived refusal self-efficacy during detoxification which may impact preference for MAT and long-term recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Fuels characterization studies. [jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, G. T.; Antoine, A. C.; Flores, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current analytical techniques used in the characterization of broadened properties fuels are briefly described. Included are liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatographic ground-type methods development is being approached from several directions, including aromatic fraction standards development and the elimination of standards through removal or partial removal of the alkene and aromatic fractions or through the use of whole fuel refractive index values. More sensitive methods for alkene determinations using an ultraviolet-visible detector are also being pursued. Some of the more successful gas chromatographic physical property determinations for petroleum derived fuels are the distillation curve (simulated distillation), heat of combustion, hydrogen content, API gravity, viscosity, flash point, and (to a lesser extent) freezing point.

  6. Effects of fractal grid on emissions in burner combustion by using fuel-water-air premix injector derived from biodiesel crude palm oil (CPO base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Mirnah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel is attracted good attention from worldwide especially for renewable and prevention energy such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of the hydrocarbon fuels and it has potential for external combustion. As one of the different solutions to these problems, rapid mixing of biodiesel-water-air technique is one of the most significant approaches to improve the combustion and reduce the emissions. The gas emission can be reduced by two methods. First is by improving an injector with fractal and the other is by using a biodiesel-water mixture as an alternative fuel. Mixing of water with fuel in the combustion process is a low cost and effective way. This research used biodiesel Crude Palm Oil (CPO as fuels in which blended with diesel. This study investigated the effects of water content and equivalence ratio on emissions with the rapid mixing injector. Fuels used are diesel, CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 and the exhausts gaseous tested are CO, CO2, HC and NOX. The gas emissions processes are tested by using the gas analyzer. In this research, water premix of percentage up to 15vol% and blending biodiesel ratio was varied from 5vom% - 15vol%. The result shows that increasing of water content will effected decrement of CO, CO2 and HC emissions but increasing the NOX emissions.

  7. The right to physical integrity and informed refusal: Just how far does a patient’s right to refuse medical treatment go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelize Nienaber

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a legal analysis of the right to physical integrity as guaranteed by the South African Constitution, 1996, and the subsequent right of a competent adult person to refuse medical treatment under South African law. We consider whether the right to refuse treatment is an absolute right and very briefly reflect on the application of the constitutional limitations clause to this right. Instances in which patients’ right to physical integrity is limited by factors, which detract from (patient autonomy, are considered: these represent a limitation of their right to refuse medical treatment. We conclude that forced medical interventions, for the most part, are not desirable but, indeed, necessary in some narrowly defined circumstances. When a person makes a decision to refuse a medical intervention, which may seem unusual or may be perceived as irrational, it does not mean that person does not warrant the protection of the constitution and the courts. Provided that the patient makes an informed refusal while of sound mind, generally there is no reason to discredit his/her decision, difficult as it may be for others to accept. At all times the right to bodily integrity is pivotal in any health-related context and should not be lightly disregarded.

  8. Microbial ecology studies at two coal mine refuse sites in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R. M.; Cameron, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the microflora associated with coal refuse at two abandoned mines in the midwestern United States. Information was gathered for both the edaphic and the biotic composition of the refuse material. Emphasis was placed on heterotrophic and autotrophic components as to numbers, kinds, and physiological groups. The presence of chemolithotrophs was also investigated. The relationship between abiotic and biotic components in regard to distribution of bacteria, fungi, and algae is discussed. Information presented in this report will be utilized in assessing trends and changes in microbial numbers and composition related to manipulations of the edaphic and biotic ecosystem components associated with reclamation of the refuse piles.

  9. [Refusal of care by a HIV-positive adolescent: role of the cross-cultural approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Nora; Titia Rizzi, Alice

    The refusal of treatment is frequent in human immunodeficiency virus-positive adolescents. The clinical history of a teenage girl presenting severe immunodepression secondary to the virus, a depressive disorder and a refusal of treatment, illustrates the benefit of combined paediatric, child psychiatric and cross-cultural care as proposed by the Cochin-Paris Adolescent Centre. Working on the meaning of the refusal was a prerequisite for the construction of a care project forming part of a life project, as the psychopathological work could only begin once somatic care ensuring the patient's protection was in place. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Turning refuse plastic into multi-walled carbon nanotube forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eugene; Lee, Jaegeun; Jung, Seung-Ho; Cho, Seungho; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Kun-Hong; Song, Kyong-Hwa; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Han, Do Suck

    2012-01-01

    A novel and effective method was devised for synthesizing a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forest on a substrate using waste plastic obtained from commercially available water bottles. The advantages of the proposed method are the speed of processing and the use of waste as a raw material. A mechanism for the CNT growth was also proposed. The growth rate of the CNT forest was ∼2.5 μm min−1. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the outer diameters of the CNTs were 20–30 nm on average. The intensity ratio of the G and D Raman bands was 1.27 for the vertically aligned CNT forest. The Raman spectrum showed that the wall graphitization of the CNTs, synthesized via the proposed method was slightly higher than that of commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We expect that the proposed method can be easily adapted to the disposal of other refuse materials and applied to MWCNT production industries. PMID:27877482

  11. Hygiene tests in the anaerobic digestion of household refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    In a pilot plant the disinfecting effect of composting the effluent of an anaerobic mesophilic digestion process of the organic fraction of household refuse was investigated. The dewatered effluent was mixed with straw as bulking material, put in not aerated windrows and aerobically composted. It was further investigated whether the influent of the digester could be disinfected with lime milk prior to the anaerobic mesophilic digestion process. For the evaluation of the disinfection salmonellas, enterococci, klebsiellas, parvo-, polio- and rotavirus were used as test agents. Temperature, total aerobic germ count, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were also considered. The effect of lime milk in the influent on the digestion process, survival of the test bacteria and gas production was also studied. Both treatments can result in a hygienically safe product. But composting under the conditions given should not be operated during the winter period. Lime treatment of the influent results in a disinfection of the effluent which immediately can be utilized as liquid sludge in agriculture. (orig.)

  12. Turning refuse plastic into multi-walled carbon nanotube forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Oh, Jaegeun Lee, Seung-Ho Jung, Seungho Cho, Hye-Jin Kim, Sung-Hyun Lee, Kun-Hong Lee, Kyong-Hwa Song, Chi-Hoon Choi and Do Suck Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and effective method was devised for synthesizing a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT forest on a substrate using waste plastic obtained from commercially available water bottles. The advantages of the proposed method are the speed of processing and the use of waste as a raw material. A mechanism for the CNT growth was also proposed. The growth rate of the CNT forest was ~2.5 μm min−1. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the outer diameters of the CNTs were 20–30 nm on average. The intensity ratio of the G and D Raman bands was 1.27 for the vertically aligned CNT forest. The Raman spectrum showed that the wall graphitization of the CNTs, synthesized via the proposed method was slightly higher than that of commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. We expect that the proposed method can be easily adapted to the disposal of other refuse materials and applied to MWCNT production industries.

  13. Negotiating refusal in primary care consultations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Alex; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Harrison, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    How GPs negotiate patient requests is vital to their gatekeeper role but also a source of potential conflict, practitioner stress and patient dissatisfaction. Difficulties may arise when demands of shared decision-making conflict with resource allocation, which may be exacerbated by new commissioning arrangements, with GPs responsible for available services. To explore GPs' accounts of negotiating refusal of patient requests and their negotiation strategies. A qualitative design was employed with two focus groups of GPs and GP registrars followed by 20 semi-structured interviews. Participants were sampled by gender, experience, training/non-training, principal versus salaried or locum. Thematic content analysis proceeded in parallel with interviews and further sampling. The setting was GP practices within an English urban primary care trust. Sickness certification, antibiotics and benzodiazepines were cited most frequently as problematic patient requests. GP trainees reported more conflict within interactions than experienced GPs. Negotiation strategies, such as blaming distant third parties such as the primary care organization, were designed to prevent conflict and preserve the doctor-patient relationship. GPs reported patients' expectations being strongly influenced by previous encounters with other health care professionals. The findings reiterate the prominence of the doctor-patient relationship in GPs' accounts. GPs' relationships with colleagues and the wider National Health Service (NHS) are particular of relevance in light of provisions in the Health and Social Care Bill for clinical commissioning consortia. The ability of GPs to offset blame for rationing decisions to third parties will be undermined if the same GPs commission services.

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  15. Study of combustion and emission characteristics of fuel derived from waste plastics by various waste to energy (W-t-E) conversion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrat, M. A.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.

    2016-07-01

    Reduction of plastic wastes by means of producing energy can be treated as a good investment in the waste management and recycling sectors. In this article, conversion of plastics into liquid fuel by two thermo-chemical processes, pyrolysis and gasification, are reviewed. The study showed that the catalytic pyrolysis of homogenous waste plastics produces better quality and higher quantity of liquefied fuel than that of non-catalytic pyrolysis process at a lower operating temperature. The syngas produced from gasification process, which occurs at higher temperature than the pyrolysis process, can be converted into diesel by the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction process. Conducive bed material like Olivine in the gasification conversion process can remarkably reduce the production of tar. The waste plastics pyrolysis oil showed brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of about 27.75%, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 0.292 kg/kWh, unburned hydrocarbon emission (uHC) of 91 ppm and NOx emission of 904 ppm in comparison with the diesel for BTE of 28%, BSFC of 0.276 kg/kWh, uHC of 57 ppm and NOx of 855 ppm. Dissolution of Polystyrene (PS) into biodiesel also showed the potential of producing alternative transport fuel. It has been found from the literature that at higher engine speed, increased EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) quantity based biodiesel blends reduces CO, CO2, NOx and smoke emission. EPS-biodiesel fuel blend increases the brake thermal efficiency by 7.8%, specific fuel consumption (SFC) by 7.2% and reduces brake power (Pb) by 3.2%. More study using PS and EPS with other thermoplastics is needed to produce liquid fuel by dissolving them into biodiesel and to assess their suitability as a transport fuel. Furthermore, investigation to find out most suitable W-t-E process for effective recycling of the waste plastics as fuel for internal combustion engines is necessary to reduce environmental pollution and generate revenue which will be addressed in this article.

  16. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotts, A.L.; Homan, F.J.; Balthesen, E.; Turner, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred in the development of HTGR fuel and fuel cycle. These accomplishments permit a wide choice of fuel designs, reactor concepts, and fuel cycles. Fuels capable of providing helium outlet temperatures of 750 0 C are available, and fuels capable of 1000 0 C outlet temperatures may be expected from extension of present technology. Fuels have been developed for two basic HTGR designs, one using a spherical (pebble bed) element and the other a prismatic element. Within each concept a number of variations of geometry, fuel composition, and structural materials are permitted. Potential fuel cycles include both low-enriched and high-enriched Th- 235 U, recycle Th- 233 U, and Th-Pu or U-Pu cycles. This flexibility offered by the HTGR is of great practical benefit considering the rapidly changing economics of power production. The inflation of ore prices has increased optimum conversion ratios, and increased the necessity of fuel recycle at an early date. Fuel element makeup is very similar for prismatic and spherical designs. Both use spherical fissile and fertile particles coated with combinations of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. Both use carbonaceous binder materials, and graphite as the structural material. Weak-acid resin (WAR) UO 2 -UC 2 fissile fuels and sol-gel-derived ThO 2 fertile fuels have been selected for the Th- 233 U cycle in the prismatic design. Sol-gel-derived UO 2 UC 2 is the reference fissile fuel for the low-enriched pebble bed design. Both the United States and Federal Republic of Germany are developing technology for fuel cycle operations including fabrication, reprocessing, refabrication, and waste handling. Feasibility of basic processes has been established and designs developed for full-scale equipment. Fuel and fuel cycle technology provide the basis for a broad range of applications of the HTGR. Extension of the fuels to higher operating temperatures and development and commercial demonstration of fuel

  17. How to justify enforcing a Ulysses contract when Ulysses is competent to refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John K

    2008-03-01

    Sometimes the mentally ill have sufficient mental capacity to refuse treatment competently, and others have a moral duty to respect their refusal. However, those with episodic mental disorders may wish to precommit themselves to treatment, using Ulysses contracts known as "mental health advance directives." How can health care providers justify enforcing such contracts over an agent's current, competent refusal? I argue that providers respect an agent's autonomy not retrospectively--by reference to his or her past wishes-and not merely synchronically--so that the agent gets what he or she wants right now-but diachronically and prospectively, acting so that the agent can shape his or her circumstances as the agent wishes over time, for the agent will experience the consequences of providers' actions over time. Mental health directives accomplish this, so they are a way of respecting the agent's autonomy even when providers override the agent's current competent refusal.

  18. Biometric identification with high frequency electrocardiogram: Unregistered user refusal method and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoso, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    As a new modality for biometric identification, electrocardiogram-based identification technique has been developed. We proposed a technique with high frequency component of electrocardiogram (HFECG) in QRS segment. In this report, an unregistered user refusal algorithm was combined with the artificial neural network based waveform classifier. The refusal function was realized by simple thresholding technique. HFECGs from twenty collaborators were used for supervised learning. Twenty HFECGs from the same collaborators were tested and false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) were evaluated. Ten HFECGs from other collaborators were also tested to find unregistered user refusal performance. The results show that FAR and FRR in the registrants can be kept within 1%, however, unregistered user refusal performance was not acceptable under the same condition.

  19. PATIENT’S CONSCIOUS REFUSAL OF TREATMENT AND REQUEST FOR ACTIVETREATMENT WHEN RECOVERY IS NOT POSSIBLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Černoga

    2008-01-01

    General practitioner and a specialist doctor are faced with difficult dilemma when there isa case of a competent but unwilling to consent patient refusing the timely treatment inspite of the predicted fatal consequences

  20. The right to physical integrity and informed refusal: Just how far does ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Provided that the patient makes an informed refusal while of sound mind, generally ... At all times the right to bodily integrity is pivotal in any health-related context and should ... choices regarding the body in an autonomous and independent.

  1. Right of a patient to refuse medical treatment: justification for judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper discusses the right of a patient to refuse medical treatment and juxtaposes ... This is achieved by an expository review of relevant case law and scholarly ...

  2. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  3. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:16346347

  4. School refusal associated with separation anxiety disorder; an adolescent case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yasin Irmak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In literature, there are lots of studies about separation anxiety disorder (SAD and school refusal. Of the patients in these studies, it is generally known to child age group. In this paper, we aimed to draw attention to an adolescent patient with SAD who admitted to our clinic with complaint of school refusal and there is SAD under his unwillingness to go to school. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 357-360

  5. [Nursing ethics in the face of the refusal of nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchy, Sarah; Charles, Cécile; Vérotte, Nelly; Block, Véronique; Adam, Virginie

    2016-10-01

    Caregivers can find themselves faced with a refusal of nursing care. A number of questions are then raised. While it is firstly important to understand the reasons for this refusal and what is at stake for the patient, there are a number of nursing strategies in place, not least of all dialogue and analysis. The role of the multi-disciplinary team is essential in such situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Insulin therapy refusal among type II diabetes mellitus patients in Kubang Pasu district, Kedah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Leong; Asahar, Siti Fairus; Harun, Noor Liani

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is a rising non-communicable disease in Malaysia. Insulin therapy refusal is a challenge for healthcare providers, as it results in delayed insulin initiation. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of insulin therapy refusal and its associated factors. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted at seven public health clinics in Kubang Pasu district of Kedah, Malaysia, from March to October 2012. A newly developed and validated questionnaire was used and participants were selected via systematic random sampling. Only patients diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and under the public health clinic care in Kubang Pasu were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression was used to study the association between insulin therapy refusal and its associated factors. RESULTS There were 461 respondents and the response rate was 100%. Among these 461 patients with T2DM, 74.2% refused insulin therapy. The most common reason given for refusal was a lack of confidence in insulin injection (85.4%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that respondents who had secondary education were 55.0% less likely to refuse insulin therapy than those who had primary education or no formal education (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25–0.82, p = 0.009). There was also a significant inverse association between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level and insulin therapy refusal (adjusted OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–1.00, p = 0.047). CONCLUSION Insulin therapy refusal is common in Kubang Pasu. Educational status and HbA1c level should be taken into consideration when counselling patients on insulin therapy initiation. PMID:25532511

  7. Aged refuse enhances anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Gui, Lin; Wang, Qilin; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-10-15

    In this work, a low-cost alternative approach (i.e., adding aged refuse (AR) into waste activated sludge) to significantly enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge was reported. Experimental results showed that with the addition dosage of AR increasing from 0 to 400 mg/g dry sludge soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased from 1150 to 5240 mg/L at the digestion time of 5 d, while the maximal production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 82.6 to 183.9 mg COD/g volatile suspended solids. Although further increase of AR addition decreased the concentrations of both soluble COD and VFA, their contents in these systems with AR addition at any concentration investigated were still higher than those in the blank, which resulted in higher methane yields in these systems. Mechanism studies revealed that pertinent addition of AR promoted solubilization, hydrolysis, and acidogenesis processes and did not affect methanogenesis significantly. It was found that varieties of enzymes and anaerobes in AR were primary reason for the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. Humic substances in AR benefited hydrolysis and acidogenesis but inhibited methanogenesis. The effect of heavy metals in AR on sludge anaerobic digestion was dosage dependent. Sludge anaerobic digestion was enhanced by appropriate amounts of heavy metals but inhibited by excessive amounts of heavy metals. The relative abundances of microorganisms responsible for sludge hydrolysis and acidogenesis were also observed to be improved in the system with AR addition, which was consistent with the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Informed consent for the administration of an intravenous contrast agent: importance and determinants of patient refusal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    We proposed to determine the proportion of patients who refuse to undergo intravenous contrast administration and the factors that influence their refusal. Our series consisted of 442 patients who were supposed to undergo imaging studies involving the intravenous injection of an iodine contrast. In a personal interview, the patients were issued a questionnaire specifically designed for this study. The following parameters were recorded: sex, age, inpatient or outpatient status, medical history available, person who informed them about the procedure, person signing the informed consent (patient or other) , highest academic degree, attitude toward receiving the information and degree of concern after reading and signing the consent form. In our series 8.6% of the patients (95% confidence interval: 6-11.2) refused to sign the informed consent form. In addition, there were a number of patients who delayed the procedure or hindered the daily work schedule by some other means. When the relationship between each of the variables studied and refusal to sign the consent form was assessed, significant associations were observed between the latter and the academic level of the patient, his or her degree of concern and having received the information from a trained person. There was also a nearly significant trend toward the association between refusal and the patient's background. Relatively few patients refuse to sign the informed consent to receive intravenous contrast administration but this negative decision interferes with the health care practice. It is possible to identify certain correctable factors that influence the patient in this respect. (Author) 13 refs

  9. Comparing the quality of life in insulin recipient and refusal patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Mitra; Sabouhi, Fakhri; Abazari, Parvaneh; Aminorroaya, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Better control of blood sugar and reduction of diabetes complications through insulin therapy could convince people to choose this method. However, patients might refuse insulin therapy due to its painful injection, limitations in daily activities, and hypoglycemia. Thus, insulin therapy could have both positive and negative effects on patients' quality of life (QOL). Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the QOL of insulin recipient and insulin refusal patients with type 2 diabetes. This study was a descriptive and comparative research conducted on 126 patients; 63 were insulin recipients and 63 had refused insulin therapy. Participants were under the care of the Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center of Isfahan, Iran. Data were gathered using the Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) questionnaire. In this tool, higher scores indicated lower QOL in patients. Data were analyzed using independent t-test, analysis of covariance, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and Pearson and Spearman's correlation. There was a significant difference (P refusal patients (mean = 1.74, SD = 0.41) in terms of mean QOL score. In addition, men and participants with higher educational levels reported a better QOL (P refusal patients had a better QOL. It seems that QOL is associated with the acceptance or refusal of insulin therapy. Therefore, enhancement of QOL could be related to all aspects of the disease, especially its treatment method and solving the therapeutic problems.

  10. Legislation and refusal of blood transfusion by a minor Jehovah-Witness in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneyer, M; Matthys, D; Ramet, J; Michel, L; Holsters, D; Vandenplas, Y

    2011-01-01

    The refusal of blood transfusion by Jehovah's Witnesses in critical situations constitutes an ethical and juridical dilemma. The refusal to receive blood products by Jehovah's Witnesses is based on biblical verses. Recurring arguments to sustain this refusal regard the right to self-determination and the right to freedom of faith. If minors are involved, the problem is rendered even more difficult as the parental authority over young children needs to be taken into account. When adolescents are concerned, the situation if even more ambiguous since adolescents might be considered as mature enough to provide autonomous consent. On the basis of three cases, the most frequent bottlenecks that can come up in paediatric emergency services are highlighted: (1) the refusal of a blood transfusion by the parents of a young child; (2) the refusal by an adolescent and (3) prior refusal based on a "No Blood"-document. Regarding minors, the law on patients' rights in Belgium contains safety mechanisms concerning the preservation of physical integrity. Therefore, a key responsibility has been assigned to the physician. A step-by-step plan and a synoptic diagram are presented.

  11. Fuels and chemicals from equine-waste-derived tail gas reactive pyrolysis oil: technoeconomic analysis, environmental and exergetic life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horse manure, whose improper disposal imposes considerable environmental costs, constitutes an apt feedstock for conversion to renewable fuels and chemicals when tail gas reactive pyrolysis (TGRP) is employed. TGRP is a modification of fast pyrolysis that recycles its non-condensable gases and produ...

  12. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Final report, August 1981-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.I.; Tierney, J.W.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Huang, S.; Qamar, I.; Venkatadri, R.

    1984-12-01

    Fine coal in slurry form must be dewatered to minimize handling and transportation problems and be reduced to a desirable level for subsequent preparation of coal/water mixtures as a substitute utility fuel. The current practice is inadequate for the dewatering of fine coal, particularly for coal particles with sizes smaller than 400 mesh. Therefore, it is most desirable to develop improved mechanical methods for reducing the moisture content of fine coal. In the light of this, a fundamental study of the dewatering of fine coal/refuse was initiated in June 1979 and continued through 1984. The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of the basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and the microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal. During the past year, filter cakes from coals with widely varying size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. Modules of the network model for calculating single phase and two phase permeabilities were formulated and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for 1984-1985; detailed description of technical progress; and appendices. 21 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Effect of bio-column composed of aged refuse on methane abatement--a novel configuration of biological oxidation in refuse landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dan; Zhao, Youcai; Xue, Binjie; Chai, Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    An experimental bio-column composed of aged refuse was installed around the exhaust pipe as a new way to mitigate methane in refuse landfill. One of the objectives of this work was to assess the effect of aged refuse thickness in bio-column on reducing CH4 emissions. Over the study period, methane oxidation was observed at various thicknesses, 5 cm (small size), 10 cm (middle size) and 15 cm (large size), representing one to three times of pipeline diameters. The middle and large size both showed over 90% methane conversion, and the highest methane conversion rate of above 95% occurred in the middle-size column cell. Michaelis-Menten equation addressed the methanotrophs diffusion in different layers of the bio-columns. Maximum methanotrophic activity (Vmax) measured at the three thicknesses ranged from 6.4 x 10(-3) to 15.6 x 10(-3) units, and the half-saturation value (K(M)) ranged from 0.85% to 1.67%. Both the highest Vmax and K(M) were observed at the middle-size of the bio-column, as well as the largest methanotrophs population, suggesting a significant efficiency of methane mitigation happened in the optimum zone with greatest affinity and methanotrophic bacteria activities. Therefore, bio-column is a potential style for methane abatement in landfill, and the aged refuse both naturally formed and artificially placed in the column plays a critical role in CH4 emission.

  14. International experience with the bundle behavior of fuel elements of sodium cooled reactors; derivation of a figure of merit for the judgement of fuel pin bundle parameters with respect to abrasion due to thermoelastic pin-pin interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toebbe, H.

    1987-10-01

    The report describes the status of experience with respect to the abrasion behavior of bundles in standard fuel elements and test elements with wire or grid spacing in the reactors Rapsodie fortissimo, Phenix, DFR, PFR, EBR-II, FFTF, JOYO and KNK II. With the help of simple considerations concerning thermoelastic pin-pin interactions a figure of merit is deduced from the different bundle parameters, which allows a comparative judgement of the parameters of different bundle concepts [de

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  16. Realistic bandwidth estimation in the theoretically predicted radionuclide inventory of PWR-UO2 spent fuel derived from reactor design and operating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear energy for power generation produces heat-generating high- and intermediate level radioactive waste (HLW and ILW) for which a safe solution for the handling and disposal has to be found. Currently, many European countries consider the final disposal of HLW and ILW in deep geological formations as the most preferable option. In Germany the main stream of HLW and ILW include spent fuel assemblies from nuclear power plants (NPPs), the vitrified waste and compacted metallic waste of the fuel assembly structural parts originate from reprocessing plants. An important task that occurs within the framework of the Product Quality Control (PQC) of nuclear waste is the assessment of the compliance of any reprocessed waste product inventory with the prescribed limits for each relevant radionuclide (RN). The PQC task is to verify the required quality and safety of nuclear waste prior to transportation to a German repository and to avert the disposal of non-conform waste packages. The verification is usually based on comparing the declared radionuclide inventory of the waste with the presumed or expected composition, which is estimated, based on the known history of the waste and its processing. The difficulty of such estimations for radioactive components from nuclear fuel assemblies is that reactor design parameters and operating histories can have a significant influence on the nuclide inventory of any individual fuel assembly. Thus, knowledge of these parameters is a key issue to determine the realistic concentration ranges, or bandwidths, of the radionuclide inventory. As soon as a governmental decision on the construction of a high-level waste repository will be made, comprehensive radionuclide inventories of the wastes assigned for the deposition will be required. The list of final repository relevant radionuclide is based on the safety assessment for this particular repository, thus it is likely to comprise more-or-less the same radionuclides that need to be

  17. Realistic bandwidth estimation in the theoretically predicted radionuclide inventory of PWR-UO2 spent fuel derived from reactor design and operating data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Ivan

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear energy for power generation produces heat-generating high- and intermediate level radioactive waste (HLW and ILW) for which a safe solution for the handling and disposal has to be found. Currently, many European countries consider the final disposal of HLW and ILW in deep geological formations as the most preferable option. In Germany the main stream of HLW and ILW include spent fuel assemblies from nuclear power plants (NPPs), the vitrified waste and compacted metallic waste of the fuel assembly structural parts originate from reprocessing plants. An important task that occurs within the framework of the Product Quality Control (PQC) of nuclear waste is the assessment of the compliance of any reprocessed waste product inventory with the prescribed limits for each relevant radionuclide (RN). The PQC task is to verify the required quality and safety of nuclear waste prior to transportation to a German repository and to avert the disposal of non-conform waste packages. The verification is usually based on comparing the declared radionuclide inventory of the waste with the presumed or expected composition, which is estimated, based on the known history of the waste and its processing. The difficulty of such estimations for radioactive components from nuclear fuel assemblies is that reactor design parameters and operating histories can have a significant influence on the nuclide inventory of any individual fuel assembly. Thus, knowledge of these parameters is a key issue to determine the realistic concentration ranges, or bandwidths, of the radionuclide inventory. As soon as a governmental decision on the construction of a high-level waste repository will be made, comprehensive radionuclide inventories of the wastes assigned for the deposition will be required. The list of final repository relevant radionuclide is based on the safety assessment for this particular repository, thus it is likely to comprise more-or-less the same radionuclides that need to be

  18. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Thoovakkunon Moorkoth; Berkvens, Dirk; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Colebunders, Robert; Williams, Brian Gerard; Speybroeck, Niko

    2012-05-28

    This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT) were used for analysing two response variables 'ever used condom' and 'ever refused condom'. Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by 'knowledge of correct use of condom', condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. 'Perceived need' for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one's HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms). In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need for condom-use and improving skills for correct use. They should also incorporate

  19. An audit of consent refusals in clinical research at a tertiary care center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S J Thaker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: Ensuring research participants′ autonomy is one of the core ethical obligations of researchers. This fundamental principle confers on every participant the right to refuse to take part in clinical research, and the measure of the number of consent refusals could be an important metric to evaluate the quality of the informed consent process. This audit examined consent refusals among Indian participants in clinical studies done at our center. Materials and Methods: The number of consent refusals and their reasons in 10 studies done at our center over a 5-year period were assessed. The studies were classified by the authors according to the type of participant (healthy vs patients, type of sponsor (investigator-initiated vs pharmaceutical industry, type of study (observational vs interventional, level of risk [based on the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR "Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Participants"], available knowledge of the intervention being studied, and each patient′s disease condition. Results: The overall consent refusal rate was 21%. This rate was higher among patient participants [23.8% vs. healthy people (14.9%; P = 0.002], in interventional studies [33.6% vs observational studies (7.5%; P < 0.0001], in pharmaceutical industry-sponsored studies [34.7% vs investigator-initiated studies (7.2%; P < 0.0001], and in studies with greater risk (P < 0.0001. The most common reasons for consent refusals were multiple blood collections (28%, inability to comply with the study protocol (20%, and the risks involved (20%. Conclusion: Our audit suggests the adequacy and reasonable quality of the informed consent process using consent refusals as a metric.

  20. Refusal of hemodialysis by hospitalized chronic kidney disease patients in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Salman Tahir; Saleem, Mohammad; Anjum, Roshina; Abdullah, Wajid; Shafi, Tahir

    2018-01-01

    In Pakistan, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are commonly diagnosed at a late stage. There is little information about the refusal of hemodialysis by hospitalized CKD patients who need hemodialysis (HD) and reasons for acceptance and refusal among these patients. All patients with Stage V CKD who had medical indications to undergo HD and were hospitalized at a tertiary care facility over a six-month period were invited to participate in this study. Patients were surveyed regarding acceptance or refusing of HD and reasons for their decisions. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics of patients were compared between patients who accepted or refused HD. A total of 125 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 47.9 ±12.1 years. The mean duration of diagnosis of CKD was 2.5 ± 0.6 months. Of all patients, 72 (57.6%) agreed to do HD and 53 (42.4%) refused HD. Patients with arteriovenous fistula in place (27.1 vs. 9.1%, P 0.02) and those in the middle- or higher-income group (64.4% vs. 38.6%, p = 0.03) were more willing to undergo HD. Trust in doctor's advice (86.1%) was the most common reason for acceptance of HD. Frequency of HD per week (52.8%), lifelong and permanent nature of HD (50.9%), advice by family members or friends (37.7%), perception of poor quality of life on HD (35.8%), and fear of HD needles and complications during HD (33.9%) were the most common reasons for refusal. Refusal of HD is common among hospitalized CKD patients with medical indications to undergo HD, especially in lower income group.

  1. Synthetic fuels development in Kentucky: Four scenarios for an energy future as constructed from lessons of the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musulin, Mike, II

    The continued failure of synthetic fuels development in the United States to achieve commercialization has been documented through the sporadic periods of mounting corporate and government enthusiasm and high levels of research and development efforts. Four periods of enthusiasm at the national level were followed by waning intervals of shrinking financial support and sagging R&D work. The continuing cycle of mobilization and stagnation has had a corresponding history in Kentucky. To better understand the potential and the pitfalls of this type of technological development the history of synthetic fuels development in the United States is presented as background, with a more detailed analysis of synfuels development in Kentucky. The first two periods of interest in synthetic fuels immediately after the Second World War and in the 1950s did not result in any proposed plants for Kentucky, but the third and fourth periods of interest created a great deal of activity. A theoretically grounded case study is utilized in this research project to create four different scenarios for the future of synthetic fuels development. The Kentucky experience is utilized in this case study because a fifth incarnation of synthetic fuels development has been proposed for the state in the form of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) to utilize coal and refuse derived fuel (RDF). The project has been awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology program. From an examination and analysis of these periods of interest and the subsequent dwindling of interest and participation, four alternative scenarios are constructed. A synfuels breakthrough scenario is described whereby IGCC becomes a viable part of the country's energy future. A multiplex scenario describes how IGCC becomes a particular niche in energy production. The status quo scenario describes how the old patterns of project failure repeat themselves. The fourth scenario describes

  2. Preliminary Screening -- Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Dayton, D. C.

    2003-12-01

    In principle, syngas (primarily consisting of CO and H2) can be produced from any hydrocarbon feedstock, including: natural gas, naphtha, residual oil, petroleum coke, coal, and biomass. The lowest cost routes for syngas production, however, are based on natural gas, the cheapest option being remote or stranded reserves. Economic considerations dictate that the current production of liquid fuels from syngas translates into the use of natural gas as the hydrocarbon source. Nevertheless, the syngas production operation in a gas-to-liquids plant amounts to greater than half of the capital cost of the plant. The choice of technology for syngas production also depends on the scale of the synthesis operation. Syngas production from solid fuels can require an even greater capital investment with the addition of feedstock handling and more complex syngas purification operations. The greatest impact on improving the economics of gas-to liquids plants is through (1) decreasing capital costs associated with syngas production and (2) improving the thermal efficiency with better heat integration and utilization. Improved thermal efficiency can be obtained by combining the gas-to-liquids plant with a power generation plant to take advantage of the availability of low-pressure steam. The extensive research and development efforts devoted to syngas conversion to fuels and chemicals are documented in a vast amount of literature that tracks the scientific and technological advancements in syngas chemistry. The purpose of this report is to review the many syngas to products processes and summarize the salient points regarding the technology status and description, chemistry, catalysts, reactors, gas cleanliness requirements, process and environmental performances, and economics. Table 1 lists the products examined in this study and gives some facts about the technology as well as advantages and disadvantages. Table 2 summarizes the catalysts, process conditions, conversions, and

  3. Use of wet FGD material for revegetation of an abandoned acidic coal refuse pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafi, S.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Wet FGD material has a neutralizing potential of 15% CaCO 3 . These properties may make it a beneficial amendment for revegetation of hyper-acidic coal refuse. In greenhouse and field experiments, coal refuse (pH = 2.5) was amended with wet FGD (300, 500, and 700 tons/acre). Amendment with FGD was as effective as agricultural lime (AL) in increasing refuse pH and decreasing soluble Al and Fe. Addition of compost to the FGD further increased pH and decreased soluble Al and Fe. Downward transport of Ca was greater with FGD than AL, but FGD did not increase leachate concentrations of S. Amendment with FGD increased refuse, leachate and plant tissue concentrations of B. Other trace elements were not increased by FGD. In the greenhouse, plant growth was similar with AL and FGD except during the first three months when AL produced more growth than FGD. The initial growth suppression by FGD was likely due to high soluble salts, and possibly by high B concentrations. During the first year of the field experiment plant growth was greater with FGD than with AL. In both the field and greenhouse experiments compost increased plant growth when combined with FGD. These experiments show revegetation of toxic coal refuse and improvement in drainage water quality is possible by amendment with FGD. Revegetation success will be improved by combined amendment with FGD and compost

  4. Parental psychological symptoms and familial risk factors of children and adolescents who exhibit school refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahali, K; Tahiroglu, A Y; Avci, A; Seydaoglu, G

    2011-12-01

    To assess the levels of psychological symptoms in the parents of children with school refusal and determine the familial risk factors in its development. This study was performed on 55 pairs of parents who had children exhibiting school refusal and were compared with a control group. A socio-demographic data form, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist-90 revised were applied to these parents. Parents of the school refusal group had higher anxiety and depression scores than the controls. Among the risk factors for school refusal, physical punishment by the parents, a history of organic disease in the parents or children, and a history of psychiatric disorders in the parents or other relatives were found to be significant. Depending on genetic and environmental factors, parents with psychiatric disorders appeared to be associated with development of psychiatric disorders in their children. Moreover, psychiatric disorders in parents negatively affected the treatment of their children and adolescents who exhibited school refusal. It is therefore vital to treat psychiatric disorders of parents with the children having psychiatric disorders, and thus increase parent participation in their children's therapeutic process.

  5. Childhood vaccine refusal and hesitancy intentions in Croatia: insights from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repalust, Anja; Šević, Sandra; Rihtar, Stanko; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2017-10-01

    Considering that programmatic data suggest a recent rise in vaccine refusal in Croatia, this study, first of its kind in Southeast Europe, aimed to estimate the prevalence, and sociodemographic, and sociocultural determinants of childhood vaccine refusal and hesitancy (CVRH) intentions among Croatian adults. Multi-stage stratified population-based survey included 1000 individuals aged 18-88 years (M age  = 47.7, SD = 17.8), of whom 51.7% were women. The outcome, a categorical indicator, distinguished among individuals who would approve vaccinating their children (vaccine accepting), those who would approve some but not all vaccines (vaccine hesitant), and those who would refuse vaccination (vaccine refusing). A sizeable minority of participants was characterized by childhood vaccine refusal (10.6%) and hesitancy intentions (19.5%). In a multivariate assessment controlling for parenthood, the odds of vaccine hesitancy were significantly increased by a younger age (AOR = 1.96-3.03, p Croatia. Following the social contagion model, future research should move beyond individual-level approach and take into account social interaction and social network effects.

  6. Transitional paternalism: how shared normative powers give rise to the asymmetry of adolescent consent and refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Neil C

    2015-02-01

    In many jurisdictions, adolescents acquire the right to consent to treatment; but in some cases their refusals - e.g. of life-saving treatment - may not be respected. This asymmetry of adolescent consent and refusal seems puzzling, even incoherent. The aim here is to offer an original explanation, and a justification, of this asymmetry. Rather than trying to explain the asymmetry in terms of a variable standard of competence - where the adolescent is competent to consent to, but not refuse, certain interventions - the account offered here focuses more closely on the normative power to render actions permissible. Where normative powers are shared they can readily give rise to an asymmetry between consent and refusal. We then turn to why it is justifiable that normative powers be shared in adolescence. Transitional paternalism holds that the acquisition of normative powers by competent adolescents should not be an instant one, achieved in a single step, but that there should be a transitional period where paternalistic protection is rolled back, but not entirely withdrawn until a later date. Transitional paternalism could be implemented without generating the asymmetry between consent and refusal but, it is argued, the asymmetric version of transitional paternalism is to be preferred insofar as it offers a greater respect for the adolescent's decisions than the symmetrical alternative. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Are they really refusing to travel? A qualitative study of prehospital records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sarah

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refusal by the patient to travel after calling an emergency ambulance may lead to a preventable waste of scarce resources if it can be shown that an alternative more appropriate response could be employed. A greater understanding is required of the reasons behind 'refusal to travel' (RTT in order to find appropriate solutions to address this issue. We sought to investigate the reasons why patients refuse to travel following emergency call-out in a rural county. Methods Written records made by ambulance crews for patients (n = 397 who were not transported to hospital following an emergency call-out during October 2004 were retrospectively analysed. Results Twelve main themes emerged for RTT which included non injury or minor injury, falls and recovery after treatment on scene; other themes included alternative supervision, follow-up and treatment arrangements or patients arranging their own transport. Importantly, only 8% of the sample was recorded by ambulance crews as truly refusing to travel against advice. Conclusion A system that facilitates standardised recording of RTT information including social reasons for non-transportation needs to be designed. 'Refused to travel' disclaimers need to reflect instances when crew and patient are satisfied that not going to hospital is the right outcome. These recommendations should be considered within the context of the plans for widening the role of ambulance services.

  8. [Refusal of care faced by case manager from elderly persons in complex situation: cross perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvol, A; Balard, F; Moutel, G; Somme, D

    2014-01-01

    Case management is a new professional field in France. It is addressed to elderly persons living in community whose situation is regarded as particularly complex. Case managers have to assess needs and coordinate necessary services. One common criteria of complexity is refusal of care. The objective of this study is to compare the words of users with those of case managers about refusal of care, in order to understand its meaning, professionals' attitudes and ethical challenges. Two researchers have cooperated on this qualitative research: the first one, anthropologist, interviewed 19 individuals, and 11 of their caregivers. The second one, geriatrician and researcher in medical ethics, lead four focus groups gathering a total of 18 case managers. Refusal of care often is the result of the will of preserving one's identity, compromised by illness. Individuals seek control on their life. Facing this behaviour, case managers try to secure the individual, by establishing a personal relationship that respects their choices, even if care has to be delayed. Refusal of care may sometimes disclose a desire to vanish, in front of which professionals meet their own limits. To recognise an elderly person that refuses care as a unique individual who can make choices secure his identity, and allow him to change. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Outcomes of nighttime refusal of admission to the intensive care unit: The role of the intensivist in triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Nicholas; Borah, Amit; Yoo, Erika J

    2017-06-01

    To compare outcomes of patients refused medical intensive care unit (MICU) admission overnight to those refused during the day and to examine the impact of the intensivist in triage. Retrospective, observational study of patients refused MICU admission at an urban university hospital. Of 294 patients, 186 (63.3%) were refused admission overnight compared to 108 (36.7%) refused during the day. Severity-of-illness by the Mortality Probability Model was similar between the two groups (P=.20). Daytime triage refusals were more likely to be staffed by an intensivist (P=.01). After risk-adjustment, daytime refusals had a lower odds of subsequent ICU admission (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.95, P=.04) than patients triaged at night. There was no evidence for interaction between time of triage and intensivist staffing of the patient (P=.99). Patients refused MICU admission overnight are more likely to be later admitted to an ICU than patients refused during the day. However, the mechanism for this observation does not appear to depend on the intensivist's direct evaluation of the patient. Further investigation into the clinician-specific effects of ICU triage and identification of potentially modifiable hospital triage practices will help to improve both ICU utilization and patient safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  11. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

  12. Confusing criminal and civil law: when may a hospital refuse to release a dead body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Steven B

    2014-12-01

    A United Kingdom bereavement advice group has expressed concern that hospitals in Britain may be acting "illegally" in refusing to release dead bodies to relatives unless they provide evidence that funeral arrangements have been made. In some cases, hospitals may have refused to release a body to anyone other than an undertaker. The charity argues that this behaviour constitutes the common law offence of preventing the lawful burial of a body. This article considers the confusion that may occur between this offence and interference with the right to possession of a body for lawful burial. The conclusion is that it is extremely unlikely a hospital or its employees would fall foul of the criminal law in refusing to release a dead body and may be liable in the civil courts if they release a body to someone who does not have the duty and consequent right to possession of the body for lawful burial.

  13. Fundamental aspects of municipal refuse generated in Beirut and Tripoli: field studies 1994-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, G.M.; Acra, A.; Abdallah, R.; Merhebi, F.

    1996-01-01

    This study presents socio-economic survey on collection and analysis of data pertaining to the municipal refuse generated in Beirut and Tripoli, Two big cities of Lebanon.Although the collection process applied in Beirut has progressed immensely in the past two years, the unsatisfactory methods of disposal that have been employed until now has an impact on the environment:marine environment as well as the air pollution becoming problems in the city of Beirut. In this respect, solid wastes characterization and generation rates in both cities of Beirut and Tripoli are presented. Mapping of refuse collection and disposal services in the two cities is described. Sources of refuse like hospitals, industries, household,...are enumerated. Recycling potentials of plastics, paper and cardboard, glass wastes, metallic wastes, textile wastes are described

  14. The impacts of coal refuse/fly ash bulk bends on water quality and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewar, B.R.; Daniels, W.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the beneficial reuse of coal fly ash as a soil amendment on coal refuse piles. One method of application would be to blend the coal refuse and the fly ash before deposition in a refuse pile. A field experiment was initiated to measure the effects of bulk blending fly ash with coal refuse on water quality and plant growth parameters. Fly ash (class F) from three sources were used in the experiment. Two of the fly ashes were acidic and the third was alkaline. Trenches were excavated in a coal refuse pile to a depth of 2 m and the refuse was blended with fly ash and then returned to the trench. In other plots the ash was applied as a surface amendment. A treatment of a bulk blend of 5% (w/w) rock phosphate was also included in the experiment. Large volume lysimeters were installed in some trenches to collect the leachates. The fly ash treatments appear to improve the quality of the leachates when compared to the leachates from the untreated plots. The fly ash amended treatments have lower leachate concentrations of Fe and Al. Initially the fly ash treatments showed high levels of leachate B, however those levels have decreased with time. Millet (Setaria italica) yields from the first year of the experiment were highest n the alkaline fly ash and rock phosphate blended plots. In the second growing season, the two bulk blends with alkaline fly ash had the highest yields. In the third growing season all treatments had higher yield levels than the untreated control plots. The positive effects of the fly ash on leachate quality were attributed to the alkalinity of the ash, and the increase in yield was attributed to the increases in water holding capacity due to fly ash treatments.

  15. The Impact of Age and Sex on the Refusal Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One major problem for non-native speakers is using refusals and because of this, second language teachers and others who communicate in that language should have the cultural differences in mind. When the interlocutors say “no” to a request or invitation, either directly or indirectly, they use speech act of refusalRefusal is considered a face threatening act, as there exists a kind of contradiction in it and is always realized indirectly. Thus, a high level of pragmatic competence is needed to realize it. The aim of this study is to find out whether the age and sex of Iranian learners have any effect on their used refusal strategies and if the existence of such an effect was demonstrated which group is more native like in terms of content and form of used strategies. To achieve this end, graduated students (male/female of different age, sex and different fields of study were selected. Three groups of participants participated in this study. The first group includes 30 American English Speakers (A.E.S. The second group consists of participants whose ages were between 22-29 and the third group was a group of 30 participants of both sexes who speak English as a second language (sex is the only variable under study in this group. Using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT, a number of refusal situations were collected, responded by participants and analyzed. The results revealed that the age and sex of EFL learners does not have any significant effect on using refusal strategies.

  16. Why do some women refuse to allow male residents to perform pelvic exams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Julie I; Shapiro, Howard; Regensteiner, Judith G; Stotler, Jeanne K; Schmidt, Betty

    2002-10-01

    Many women who receive medical care in residency training clinics refuse to allow male residents to perform their pelvic exams. This study was conducted to identify which women were most likely to refuse and to learn their reasons for refusing. From January to March 1997, a questionnaire was given to all women entering a Tri-County Health office and a Planned Parenthood clinic, both in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area, who consented to participate in the study. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using a statistical software package. A total of 1,437 women entered the clinics during the study period. Of these patients, 1,078 consented to complete the questionnaire. Seven of these 1,078 women did not complete the questionnaire. Women who did not know the training level of the resident performing the pelvic exam were more likely to refuse than were women who knew the training level of the resident (p =.001), but many women preferred a female physician regardless of the physician's training level. Fifty-eight percent said they would allow a male resident to observe a female attending physician perform the exam, compared with 36% who said they would allow a male resident to observe if the attending physician was a man. Common statements from those who would refuse were: "I am just more comfortable with a female," "Women do not want men to examine their private body parts," and "Women explain things better." A woman's knowledge of the resident's training level correlates with her willingness to have a pelvic exam performed by a male resident. Women who said they would refuse a pelvic exam performed by a male resident gave specific reasons for their decision.

  17. Considerations for handling failed fuel at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Cholister, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    The impact of failed fuel receipt on reprocessing operations is qualitatively described. It appears that extended storage of fuel, particularly with advanced storage techniques, will increase the quantity of failed fuel, the nature and possibly the configuration of the fuel. The receipt of failed fuel at the BNFP increases handling problems, waste volumes, and operator exposure. If it is necessary to impose special operating precautions to minimize this impact, a loss in plant throughput will result. Hence, ideally, the reprocessing plant operator would take every reasonable precaution so that no failed fuel is received. An alternative policy would be to require that failed fuel be placed in a sealed canister. In the latter case the canister must be compatible with the shipping cask and suitable for in-plant storage. A required inspection of bare fuel would be made at the reactor prior to shipping off-site. This would verify fuel integrity. These requirements are obviously idealistic. Due to the current uncertain status of reprocessing and the need to keep reactors operating, business or governmental policy may be enacted resulting in the receipt of a negotiated quantity of non-standard fuel (including failed fuel). In this situation, BNFP fuel receiving policy based soley on fuel cladding integrity would be difficult to enforce. There are certain areas where process incompatibility does exist and where a compromise would be virtually impossible, e.g., canned fuel for which material or dimensional conflicts exist. This fuel would have to be refused or the fuel would require recanning prior to shipment. In other cases, knowledge of the type and nature of the failure may be acceptable to the operator. A physical inspection of the fuel either before shipment or after the cask unloading operation would be warranted. In this manner, concerns with pool contamination can be identified and the assembly canned if deemed necessary

  18. Pediatric Depression: When Does Parental Refusal for Treatment Constitute Medical Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Depression is a common disorder in youth, and 10% to 15% of individuals have a lifetime prevalence by 18 years of age. Youth who receive treatment typically have a positive outcome, but many remain undiagnosed and untreated. 1 There is a dearth of literature on parental refusal to consent to treatment for pediatric depression and the circumstances under which such refusal could be considered medical neglect. In general, it appears that mental health diagnoses are rarely reported in cases of medical neglect. 2 . Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Remaining a caregiver in the face of a refusal of nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Karine; Ménard, Rachel; Corvol, Aline

    2016-10-01

    Caregivers working with elderly people often find themselves in a difficult position when faced with the refusal of nursing care, whether or not the patient presents cognitive disorders. The nurses from the mobile geriatrics team of Rennes university hospital are regularly asked to help the caregiving teams in such situations. Refusals may concern washing, medication, eating, moving to an armchair, the organisation of physical aids or human assistance after discharge or transfer to a nursing home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain Distributed Generation Through Non-Conventional Fuels and Fuel Cells

    CERN Document Server

    McPhail, Stephen J; Moreno, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    As the availability of fossils fuels becomes more limited, the negative impact of their consumption becomes an increasingly relevant factor in our choices with regards to primary energy sources. The exponentially increasing demand for energy is reflected in the mass generation of by-products and waste flows which characterize current society’s development and use of fossil sources. The potential for recoverable material and energy in these ever-increasing refuse flows is huge, even after the separation of hazardous constituent elements, allowing safe and sustainable further exploitation of an otherwise 'wasted' resource.  Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain explores the concept of waste-to-energy through a 5 step process which reflects the stages during the transformation of  refuse flows to a valuable commodity such as clean energy. By providing selected, integrated alternatives to the current centralized, wasteful, fossil-fuel based infrastructure, Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain explores ho...

  1. Fuel cells: Trends in research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Various aspects of fuel cells are discussed. The subjects addressed include: fuel cells for electric power production; phosphoric acid fuel cells; long-term testing of an air-cooled 2.5 kW PAFC stack in Italy; status of fuel cell research and technology in the Netherlands, Bulgaria, PRC, UK, Sweden, India, Japan, and Brazil; fuel cells from the manufacturer's viewpoint; and fuel cells using biomass-derived fuels. Also examined are: solid oxide electrolye fuel cells; aluminum-air batteries with neutral chloride electrolyte; materials research for advanced solid-state fuel cells at the Energy Research Laboratory in Denmark; molten carbonate fuel cells; the impact of the Siemens program; fuel cells at Sorapec; impact of fuel cells on the electric power generation systems in industrial and developing countries; and application of fuel cells to large vehicles.

  2. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder. (a) This...

  3. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder. (a) This...

  4. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder. (a) This...

  5. Risk taking and refusal assertiveness in a longitudinal model of alcohol use among inner-city adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, J A; Griffin, K W; Botvin, G J

    2001-09-01

    Risk taking and refusal assertiveness have been shown to be important determinants of adolescent alcohol use. However, it remains unclear whether youth predisposed to risk taking would be less likely to assertively refuse. This study examined the relationships among risk taking, refusal assertiveness, and alcohol use in a sample of inner-city minority students (N = 1,459), using a cross-lagged longitudinal structural equation model. Data collectors administered the questionnaire to students following a standardized protocol during a 40-min class period. Based on the tested model, risk taking was more stable over time than refusal assertiveness. Furthermore, high risk takers reported less frequent subsequent refusal assertiveness, and less frequent refusal assertiveness predicted greater drinking. A predisposition toward risk taking appears to be an enduring characteristic that is associated with low refusal assertiveness and increased alcohol use. These findings suggest that alcohol prevention programs that emphasize refusal skills training may be less effective for high risk takers. But programs that focus on enhancing competence or reducing normative expectations for peer alcohol use might be more effective for high risk-taking youth.

  6. Risky procedures by nurses in hospitals: problems and (contemplated) refusals of orders by physicians, and views of physicians and nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bie, J.; Cuperus-Bosma, J.M.; van der Jagt, M.A.; Gevers, J.K.M.; van der Wal, G.

    2005-01-01

    Occurrence of problems with, refusals of orders and contemplated refusals of orders for risky procedures by nurses in Dutch hospitals and views on the safety of performance was studied using postal questionnaires (600 physicians and 3200 nurses, response 60-71%). Of the respondents, 11-30%

  7. Higher refusal rates for organ donation among older potential donors in the Netherlands: impact of the donor register and relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leiden, H.A. van; Jansen, N.E.; Haase-Kromwijk, B.J.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of donor organs is considerably reduced by relatives refusing donation after death. There is no previous large-scale evaluation of the influence of the Donor Register (DR) consultation and the potential donor's age on this refusal in The Netherlands. METHODS: This study

  8. Catalytic hydroprocessing of coal-derived gasification residues to fuel blending stocks: effect of reaction variables and catalyst on hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), and hydrodesulfurization (HDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

    2006-10-15

    Gas liquors, tar oils, and tar products resulting from the coal gasification of a high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch plant can be successfully refined to fuel blending components by the use of severe hydroprocessing conditions. High operating temperatures and pressures combined with low space velocities ensure the deep hydrogenation of refractory oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. Hydrodeoxygenation, particularly the removal of phenolic components, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation were obtained at greater than 99% levels using the NiMo and NiW on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Maximum deoxygenation activity was achieved using the NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst having a maximum pore size distribution in the range of 110-220{angstrom}. The NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, which also has a relatively high proportion of smaller pore sizes (35-60 {angstrom}), displays lower hydrogenation activity. 30 refs., 1 fig. 8 tabs.

  9. Inhibition of IgE-induced mast cell activation by ethyl tertiary-butyl ether, a bioethanol-derived fuel oxygenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Kouya; Yoshino, Shin

    2009-09-01

    The effect of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), which is widely used as a fuel oxygenate commonly produced from bioethanol, on immunoglobulin (Ig)E-dependent mast cell activation was investigated. The rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitised with monoclonal anti-ovalbumin IgE was challenged with ovalbumin in the presence or absence of ETBE, tert-butanol (TBA), which is the main metabolite of ETBE in humans, and ethanol. Degranulation of RBL2H3 was examined by the release of beta-hexosaminidase. To understand the mechanisms responsible for regulating mast cell function, the effects of ETBE, TBA and ethanol on the levels of intracellular calcium, phosphorylation of Akt (as a marker of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) and global tyrosine phosphorylation were also measured as indicators of mast cell activation. In the presence of ETBE, TBA or ethanol, IgE-induced release of beta-hexosaminidase was decreased. These compounds also attenuated the IgE-mediated increase in the levels of intracellular Ca(2+), phosphorylation of Akt and global tyrosine phosphorylation in RBL2H3 cells. ETBE, TBA and ethanol inhibited mast cell degranulation by inhibiting the increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein tyrosine kinase activation, suggesting that exposure to ETBE might affect immune responses, particularly in allergic diseases.

  10. Titanium carbide and its core-shelled derivative TiC-TiO2 as catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignaszak, Anna; Song, Chaojie; Zhu, Weimin; Zhang, Jiujun; Bauer, Alex; Baker, Ryan; Neburchilov, Vladimir; Ye, Siyu; Campbell, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Both TiC and core-shelled TiC-TiO 2 are investigated as catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). TiC is thermally stable, possesses both low solubility in sulphuric acid and high electronic conductivity. However, TiC undergoes irreversible electrochemical oxidation in dilute perchloric acid and the operating potential range of 0–1.2 V RHE . TiC-TiO 2 core–shell composite is found to be more stable than TiC. Both these materials are used as supports for Pt and Pt–Pd alloy catalysts (Pt/TiC, Pt 3 Pd/TiC and Pt 3 Pd/TiC-TiO 2 ) and are synthesized by microwave-assisted polyol process. The catalytic activities of both Pt 3 Pd/TiC and Pt 3 Pd/TiC-TiO 2 toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are much higher than those for Pt/TiC. Accelerated durability tests show that TiC supported catalysts are not electrochemically stable. The corresponding TiC-TiO 2 supported catalyst is more stable than that supported by TiC, indicating that with a protective oxide layer on the TiC core, TiC-TiO 2 is a promising PEMFC catalyst support.

  11. From biomass to advanced bio-fuel by catalytic pyrolysis/hydro-processing: hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil derived from biomass catalytic pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxin; He, Tao; Liu, Kaituo; Wu, Jinhu; Fang, Yunming

    2012-03-01

    Compared hydrodeoxygenation experimental studies of both model compounds and real bio-oil derived from biomass fast pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis was carried out over two different supported Pt catalysts. For the model compounds, the deoxygenation degree of dibenzofuran was higher than that of cresol and guaiacol over both Pt/Al(2)O(3) and the newly developed Pt supported on mesoporous zeolite (Pt/MZ-5) catalyst, and the deoxygenation degree of cresol over Pt/MZ-5 was higher than that over Pt/Al(2)O(3). The results indicated that hydrodeoxygenation become much easier upon oxygen reduction. Similar to model compounds study, the hydrodeoxygenation of the real bio-oil derived from catalytic pyrolysis was much easier than that from fast pyrolysis over both Pt catalysts, and the Pt/MZ-5 again shows much higher deoxygenation ability than Pt/Al(2)O(3). Clearly synergy between catalytic pyrolysis and bio-oil hydro-processing was found in this paper and this finding will lead an advanced biofuel production pathway in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alternative fossil-based transportation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    "Alternative fuels derived from oil sands and from coal liquefaction can cost-effectively diversify fuel supplies, but neither type significantly reduces U.S. carbon-dioxide emissions enough to arrest long-term climate change".

  13. Predicting risk of school refusal: Examining the incremental role of trait EI beyond personality and emotion regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippello Pina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has not yet been deepened in the link between personality factors and risk of school refusal. Furthermore, previous studies fail to verify the direct relation between trait EI and the risk of school refusal. The present study examined personality traits, emotion regulation and trait EI for the contributory role they may play in predicting the risk of school refusal. The sample consisted of 311 participants, 112 males (36% and 199 females (64% with an average age of 14.19 (SD = .60, from a high school in the city of Messina (Sicily, Italy. Results show that the risk of school refusal is positively related to neuroticism and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, while it is negatively related to the extroversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness and trait EI. Moreover, trait EI can be considered as a strong incremental negative predictor of risk of school refusal over and above personality traits and emotion regulation.

  14. 9 CFR 351.19 - Refusal of certification for specific lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal of certification for specific lots. 351.19 Section 351.19 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. Psychological Factors behind Truancy, School Phobia, and School Refusal: A Literature Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Hans; Eriksson, Rikard

    2013-01-01

    Truancy is a problem that normally leads to treatment interventions within different organizations. Within these organizations different perspectives on the causes and consequences of the above problem can be found. The purpose of this literature study is to map out and describe the current state of research within the fields of school refusal,…

  16. Mothers' reasons for refusing to give consent to HIV testing and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    under-five mortality rate by more than half since 1990. ... children in sub-Saharan Africa. ... In Limpopo Province, South Africa, the prevention of mother-to-child ... had attended antenatal care, 28 (93%) stated that their HIV results were negative ... (16%) mothers signed refusal of hospital treatment, three (12%) started ARV ...

  17. Electric equipment for Koto Refuse Incineration Plant; Tokyoto Koto seiso kojo muke denki setsubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    Meidensha Corporation, intending to enter into refuse disposal business, delivered electric equipment to a Koto Refuse Incineration Plant, Koto Ward, Tokyo, and the facilities came into operation in October, 1998. The plant is the largest in Japan in terms of refuse processing capacity (1800t/day), and efforts are exerted to harmonize the plant with the surroundings, which involve pollution measures and a building that images a cruising yacht. The power receiving facility consists of a 66kV nominal two-circuit gas insulated switch and gas insulated transformer arranged in a space saving design. Heat from refuse incineration is fed to a steam turbine generator (yielding 50MW, the largest in Japan, with the surplus offered for sale after 15MW fed to loads in the site) and to neighboring facilities. For the suppression of fluctuations in voltage at the power receiving point, reactive power is subjected to control which is done by controlling the generator magnetic field system. An 11kV distribution system is provided to match the steam turbine generator voltage, and the voltage is stepped down to 6.6kV with the intermediary of a 23MVA gas insulated transformer. The power is fed to high voltage motors such as the one used for the induced draft fan, electric equipment in the buildings, power facilities in the plant, etc. A power monitoring board is provided in the central control room for general supervision over the power related facilities. (NEDO)

  18. 37 CFR 1.47 - Filing when an inventor refuses to sign or cannot be reached.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reached. (a) If a joint inventor refuses to join in an application for patent or cannot be found or reached after diligent effort, the application may be made by the other inventor on behalf of himself or... PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National...

  19. Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship.

  20. Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship. PMID:20208027