WorldWideScience

Sample records for refractario astm a-447

  1. Refractarios: un aspecto clave en la industria del cemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Neira, Percy

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available To sit in judgement values of the technic level reached in a cement plant, it is surprisingly objetive to analyse work, planning and control development about Refractories subject. Considering and recognizing the validity of this pragmatic axiom it will offer unexpected improvement perspectives of the productivity rates and production records. This work pretends to be a contribution for this purpose, bringing some theoretic and practical accounts about de conditions offered by the Kiln-Exchanger-Cooler most diffused system, analyzing the characteristics that refractory material must have, in accordance with each zone, and finally, including some appraisals and recommendations regarding some of the manifold aspects which belongs to one of the most interesting ad complex fields of cement industry.

    Para establecer un juicio de valor respecto al nivel técnico alcanzado en una planta cementera resulta sorprendentemente objetivo analizar el trabajo, planificación y control que se desarrolla alrededor del tema de Refractarios. Considerarlo y reconocer la validez de este axioma pragmático ofrecerá inusitadas perspectivas de superación de índices de productividad y récords de producción. En este trabajo se pretende un aporte a tal objetivo proporcionando algunas consideraciones teórico-prácticas sobre las condiciones que se presentan en el sistema Horno Intercambiador-Enfriador, más difundido, analizando las características que debe reunir el material refractario para cada zona y, finalmente, incluyendo algunas apreciaciones y recomendaciones principalmente de criterio, respecto a algunos de los múltiples aspectos que forman parte de uno de los campos más interesantes y complejos de la industria del cemento.

  2. 47 CFR 90.379 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard... Communications Service (dsrcs) § 90.379 ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard). Roadside Units... incorporated by reference: American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E2213-03, “Standard Specification...

  3. El refractario en la fabricación de acero inoxidable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer, F. J.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the steelmaking process on the quality and the performance of refractory materials used on stainless steel production was described. The most important technical and design parameters of the processing units were explained and related with the slag chemical composition and the qualities of the refractories used.

    Se describe la influencia del proceso siderúrgico sobre el tipo y rendimiento del material refractario utilizado en la producción de acero inoxidable. Tras describir las distintas unidades implicadas en el proceso metalúrgico se hace especial énfasis en la importancia que ejercen el diseño de las distintas unidades y el tipo y control de la escoria sobre la calidad del tipo de refractario a utilizar.

  4. Comparison of ASTM D613 and ASTM D6890

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    cetane values outside of the routine range of traditional CN testing by ASTM D613, this is an important advantage in fuel blending and disposition...Number testing. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluating fuels, and blends thereof, having cetane values outside of the normal range of the...interest covers both petroleum-based and synthetic-based, as well as blends thereof in order to improve the confidence in using DCN as a replacement

  5. Experiencias en el empleo de refractarios en la siderurgia No integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laraudogoitia, J. J.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available SIDENOR INDUSTRIAL S.L. is a steelmaking company producing special steel long products, devoted to a high extent for automotive applications. Production facilities at Sidenor Basauri plant include electric arc furnace, secondary metallurgy station (two ladle furnaces sharing a vacuum tank degasser and continuous casting process followed by direct rolling. The refractory consumption at Basauri plant facilities is concentrated in the steelmaking shop with 97% out of total consumption. Regarding the steelmaking shop, refractory consumption has the following distribution: 50% continuous casting, 35% ladle and 15% electric arc furnace and rest of applications. The refractory material suitability is defined in SIDENOR from three points of view: - Quality level aimed for final products - Total cost, taking into account purchase price, installation cost, running cost and energetic consumption associated to its use - Emissions environmental impact due to drying and preheating of refractory products The characterisation of the refractory material performance is done in three different levels: - Steady state working conditions (wearing, spalling, thermal insulation, air tightness… - Theoretical study and measurements from thermal and environmental point of view - Sudden and none predicted failures.

    SIDENOR INDUSTRIAL S.L. es una empresa siderúrgica fabricante de productos largos de acero especial, dirigidos en un alto porcentaje al mercado de automoción. En las instalaciones que SIDENOR posee en Basauri, el proceso de fabricación se desarrolla vía horno eléctrico de arco, metalurgia secundaria (horno cuchara y estación de vacío en tanque y colada continua, seguido de un proceso de laminación directa sin acondicionado previo. Para las instalaciones consideradas el empleo de material refractario se concentra fundamentalmente en la acería, con un 97% del refractario total. Considerando el consumo de acería, el 50% corresponde a colada

  6. Valvuloplastia mitral percutánea de emergencia en un paciente con edema pulmonar refractario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra I. de Zubiría

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La estenosis mitral usualmente es causada por fiebre reumática. A pesar de ser una patología poco frecuente en los países desarrollados, es prevalente en los países en vía de desarrollo, donde aproximadamente dos tercios de la población mundial vive, haciendo de esta condición, una enfermedad valvular común. Es importante considerar la estenosis mitral en el diagnóstico diferencial de los pacientes con edema agudo de pulmón cardiogénico refractario y la valvuloplastia mitral percutánea de emergencia como el tratamiento definitivo. Se presenta el caso de un paciente femenino de 21 años, con edema agudo de pulmón cardiogénico refractario, secundario a estenosis mitral muy severa de origen reumático, tratado con valvuloplastia percutánea con balón de urgencia. Se realiza una revisión sobre la estenosis mitral y se examina el tratamiento con especial énfasis en los casos publicados en la literatura de valvuloplastia mitral percutánea de emergencia.

  7. Aplicaciones del SiC biomórfico como reforzante estructural en hormigones refractarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepúlveda, R.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of the time and temperature dependence of the static grain growth in YTZP 4 mol %, with an average grain size within the submicrometric range (> 0.1 μm. Also, the mechanical response in the temperature interval between 1200 ºC and 1500 ºC is analysed. The grain growth is controlled by the yttria segregation at the grain boundaries, which plays a key role in the cationic diffusion processes. Microstructural characterization of both as-received and deformed samples allows to conclude that plastic deformation is due to grain boundary sliding (GBS, with stress exponents increasing with the flow stress, but in all cases they are lower than n = 2.

    Una posible aplicación del SiC biomórfico (bioSiC son los reforzante estructural en hormigones refractarios. En este caso se han fabricado piezas de bioSiC con forma de cilindros alargados, 3-4 mm de diámetro y 30-35 mm de longitud, mediante infiltración reactiva de Si líquido en piezas de carbón obtenidas por pirolización de madera de haya de calidad comercial. Hemos estudiado las características microestructurales y las propiedades mecánicas de los reforzantes, como paso previo al estudio de la aplicación mencionada, de la que se ofrece un avance en este trabajo. Para caracterizar la calidad del material y del proceso de fabricación, la microestructura de las piezas se ha estudiado mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los reforzantes de bioSiC fueron ensayados a compresión uniaxial y flexión en cuatro puntos a temperatura ambiente y a alta temperatura (1250-1400ºC para la determinación de sus propiedades mecánicas, y se realizaron estudios fractográficos en el segundo tipo de ensayos. Subsecuentemente, se prepararon ladrillos refractarios con un 3% en peso de reforzantes de bioSiC, que fueron curados a diferentes temperaturas (máx. 1600ºC. Estos ladrillos se han ensayado en compresión y flexión en tres puntos, a temperatura ambiente

  8. Mecanismos de desgaste en refractarios de colada continua asociados al efecto Marangoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandaleze, E.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Nozzle wear during continuous casting process is caused by physical and chemical reasons and also by refractory quality. A post mortem study on a sample of Al2O3 - graphite nozzle with a ZrO2 insert allows to identify the present wear mechanisms. Different cyclic stages are carried out due to recurrent changes of interfacial tension and fluid convection. When the surface tension promote the refractory wetting by the steel, graphite of the nozzle surface is lost. Then, grains of ZrO2 and of Al2O3 are dissolved by slag contact. This type of wear is associated with the Marangoni effect. Light and electronic microscopy was used to observe the refractory structure and by a cathodoluminiscence technique phases transformations under process conditions are determined.

    Las buzas sumergidas se erosionan durante el proceso de la colada continua, debido a causas físicas, químicas y a la calidad del refractario. El estudio post mortem de una buza de Al2O3 -grafito con inserto de ZrO2 permite identificar los mecanismos de desgaste presentes, que ocurren por etapas debido a cambios cíclicos de tensión interfacial y convección de fluidos. Cuando la tensión superficial favorece la mojabilidad del refractario por el acero, la buza pierde grafito de la superficie. Luego, los granos de ZrO2 y de Al2O3 se disuelven al ser mojados por la escoria. Este desgaste está asociado al efecto Marangoni. Se observa la microestructura mediante microscopía óptica y electrónica y, por catodoluminiscencia, se determinan las transformaciones de fases ocurridas en condiciones de proceso.

  9. ASTM reference radiologic digital image standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysnewski, R.; Wysnewski, D.

    1996-01-01

    ASTM Reference Radiographs have been essential in defining industry's material defect grade levels for many years. ASTM Reference Radiographs are used extensively as even the American Society for Metals Nondestructive Inspection and Quality Control Metals Handbook, Volume 11, eighth edition refers to ASTM Standard Reference Radiographs. The recently published E 1648 Standard Reference Radiographs for Examination of Aluminum Fusion Welds is a prime example of the on-going need for these references. To date, 14 Standard Reference Radiographs have been published to characterize material defects. Standard Reference Radiographs do not adequately address film-less radiologic methods. There are differences in mediums to content with. On a computer CRT defect indications appear differently when compared to indications viewed in a radiograph on a view box. Industry that uses non-film radiologic methods of inspection can be burdened with additional time and money developing internal standard reference radiologic images. These references may be deemed necessary for grading levels of product defects. Because there are no ASTM Standard Reference Radiologic data files for addressing this need in the industry, the authors of this paper suggested implementing a method for their creation under ASTM supervision. ASTM can assure continuity to those users making the transition from analog radiographic images to digital image data by swiftly addressing the requirements for reference digital image standards. The current status and possible future activities regarding a method to create digital data files is presented in this paper summary

  10. 46 CFR 163.003-3 - ASTM standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ASTM standard. 163.003-3 Section 163.003-3 Shipping...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-3 ASTM standard. The following standard of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is incorporated by reference into this subpart: ASTM D...

  11. PENETRACIÓN Y DISOLUCIÓN DEL REFRACTARIO DE CROMO-MAGNESIO POR ESCORIAS FAYALÍTCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANESA BAZÁN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los refractarios magnesia-cromo se han utilizado con éxito en diferentes procesos metalúrgicos a altas temperaturas, tales como hierro y acero, la industria del cemento y procesos pirometalúrgicos no ferrosos. En particular en la fundición, en los procesos de conversión de refino de cobre. Esos materiales tienen buenas características en relación con el uso y los requisitos de resistencia al choque térmico. Sin embargo, representan un problema importante en la contaminación del medio ambiente. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar las interacciones entre la escoria generada en el convertidor Peirce-Smith e cobre y los ladrillos refractarios de magnesia-cromo ladrillos. Los fenómenos de infiltración y ataques químicos en el material refractario causado por la escoria formada durante el proceso de conversión de cobre se han estudiado mediante el desarrollo de las diferentes pruebas de laboratorio a temperaturas de hasta 1300 ° C.

  12. Corrosión de refractarios: Puesta a punto de un ensayo de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro, I.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of refractories the characterisation of its behaviour faced with slag corrosive attacks that can appear during service has a great significance. However, satandarized laboratory tests for this characterization are not generally accepted by manufacturers and users of these refractories. The present report shows the development works for an inmersion type corrosion test. This test keeps the samples continuously moving inside the melt slag bath in order to accelerate (never modifying the corrosion mechanisms, since this motion avoids the generation of a “non-active” slag zone all around the samples. The results of the first proofs show the suitability of this test as a laboratory test. It allows to achieve high corrosion levels in a very short time. Also, the ability for testing several samples simultaneously allows to get comparative results with high rapidity and reliability.

    En el campo de los refractarios resulta de gran importancia la caracterización de su comportamiento ante el ataque corrosivo por escorias a que pueden estar sometidos en servicio. Sin embargo no existen ensayos de laboratorio normalizados que sean generalmente aceptados por los fabricantes y usuarios de estos refractarios. En este artículo se exponen los trabajos de puesta a punto de un ensayo de corrosión por inmersión. En dicho ensayo, las probetas se mantienen en continuo movimiento dentro del baño con objeto de acelerar los mecanismos de corrosión (nunca modificarlos que aparecen en servicio, al evitar la formación de un zona de escoria “inactiva” al rededor de dichas probetas. Los resultados de las pruebas realizadas muestran la idoneidad del ensayo propuesto como ensayo de laboratorio, ya que permite obtener grandes niveles de corrosión en tiempos muy cortos. Además la capacidad para ensayar varias probetas de manera simultánea permite obtener resultados comparativos muy rápidamente y de forma muy fiable.

  13. Tostación de un concentrado refractario de oro y plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coronado, J. H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In processing of precious metal ores with high pyrite content, refractory concentrates are obtained, which are difficult to process. A refractory gold and silver concentrate was leached with sodium cyanide. Results show low extraction percentages, being 34 % of gold and 40 % of silver. A roasting method to oxidize the concentrate was used, making it more susceptible to cyanidation, hence a more efficient way to extract precious metals. The variables include roasting temperature and roasting and cyanidation time. In addition, the hot calcine was added to the leaching solution at room temperature to analyze the effect on particle size and recovery. The best results, although not entirely satisfactory (50 % of gold and 61 % of silver were obtained by roasting the concentrate for 4 h at 600 °C, followed by cyanidation for 20 h. The lime consumption to raise the pH to about 11.3 was increased markedly to 25 kg/m3.

    En el procesamiento de minerales de metales preciosos con altos contenidos de pirita, se obtienen concentrados refractarios difíciles de procesar. En este estudio se lixivió un concentrado refractario de oro y plata con cianuro de sodio, obteniéndose extracciones de 34 % para oro y 40 % para plata. Se utilizó el método de tostación para oxidar el concentrado, haciéndolo más susceptible a la cianuración, y extraer más eficientemente el oro y la plata. Las variables analizadas fueron: temperatura de tostación y tiempos de tostación y cianuración. Además, la calcina caliente se agregó a la solución lixiviante a temperatura ambiente para analizar el efecto en el tamaño de partícula y recuperación. Los mejores resultados, aunque no del todo satisfactorios (50 % oro y 61 % plata, se obtuvieron mediante tostación del concentrado durante 4 h a temperaturas de 600 °C, seguido de una cianuración de 20 h. El consumo de cal para elevar el pH a 11,3, se incrementó notablemente hasta 25 kg/m3.

  14. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  15. Obtención tecnológica de mullita a partir de arcillas y caolines refractarios argentinos, y alúmina calcinada o alúminas hidratadas

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Erazo, Ángela Ximena

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo de investigación se busca mostrar la posibilidad de producir mullita de alta calidad en Argentina, utilizando materias primas nacionales y comodities internacionales con el objetivo de obtener un material confiable, de excelentes propiedades en el uso y con un costo razonable para ser incorporada en la producción de refractarios. El estudio de la obtención tecnológica de mullita a partir de arcillas y caolines refractarios argentinos, y alúmina calcinada ó alú...

  16. Planeamiento estratégico de la industria peruana del vidrio, cerámico, refractarios y afines

    OpenAIRE

    Alva Ayllón, Antonio; Ayala Abad, Jonathan; Muñoz Gálvez, Carlos; Ruiz Reynaga, Juan

    2017-01-01

    xv, 170 h. : il. ; 30 cm. El presente documento consiste en la elaboración del Planeamiento Estratégico de la Industria del Vidrio, Cerámica, Refractarios y afines. El Plan estratégico fue desarrollado tomando en cuenta información actual e histórica respecto a la industria, así como también los factores externos e internos que intervienen en su ciclo productivo. La empresa pertenece al sector manufactura, del rubro Minerales no metálicos y se tiene una amplia información re...

  17. ESTUDIO MULTICÉNTRICO LONGITUDINAL DE DEPLECIÓN DE LINFOCITOS B EN LUPUS ERITEMATOSO SISTÉMICO REFRACTARIO: ESTUDIO LESIMAB

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves-Martín, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Cohorte multicéntrica retrospectiva de pacientes con LES refractario a terapia estándar que fueron tratados con rituximab. Estudio de efectividad y seguridad tras uno o varios cursos de tratamiento. Así mismo análisis lipídico básico de los pacientes antes y después del tratamiento.

  18. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 23: Water; Atmospheric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

    Standards for water and atmospheric analysis are compiled in this segment, Part 23, of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) annual book of standards. It contains all current formally approved ASTM standard and tentative test methods, definitions, recommended practices, proposed methods, classifications, and specifications. One…

  19. 78 FR 1884 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Production Act of 1993--ASTM International Standards Notice is hereby given that, on December 12, 2012... seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with..., ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between...

  20. 76 FR 12370 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... Production Act of 1993--ASTM International Standards Notice is hereby given that, on February 4, 2011... seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International Standards (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications.... Specifically, ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities originating...

  1. 78 FR 35646 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... Production Act of 1993--ASTM International Standards Notice is hereby given that, on May 10, 2013, pursuant... seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with..., ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between...

  2. 77 FR 34069 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Production Act of 1993--ASTM International Standards Notice is hereby given that, on May 11, 2012, pursuant... seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with..., ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between...

  3. 77 FR 61786 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Production Act of 1993--ASTM International Standards Notice is hereby given that, on September 10, 2012... seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with..., ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between May...

  4. 78 FR 64248 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Production Act of 1993--ASTM International Standards Notice is hereby given that, on September 16, 2013... seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with..., ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between May...

  5. 76 FR 34252 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; ASTM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Production Act of 1993; ASTM International Standards Notice is hereby given that, on May 11, 2011, pursuant... seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International Standards (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications.... Specifically, ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities originating...

  6. 78 FR 14836 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Production Act of 1993--ASTM International Standards Notice is hereby given that, on February 11, 2013... seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with..., ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between...

  7. Soldadura cerámica: método de reparación de revestimientos refractarios de equipamientos industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato, H. E.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic welding process is a unique hot repair technique for refractory linings in industrial equipments. This process consists of projecting a weld mix in powder by means of a current of oxygen or oxygen/air onto the refractory surface to be restored. The weld mix content refractory particles chemically compatible with the refractory to be repaired and a solid combustible (oxidizable fine particles, metallic and/or non metallic as exotermic agent. When the combustible particles ignites at contact with the hot face (1000-1500°C, an exotermic reaction with oxygen occurs developing temperatures of the order of 2000-2500°C. The heat generated from this reaction is enough to melt the surface to be repaired and allowing a very close bond to be formed between the repaired area and the deposited material. There are limited data in literature about ceramic welding and the larger part of the information is protected by patents. Several differences between the available patents were detected. In this work, the principal aspects of researches about ceramic welding that had been relieved are present, including results and conclusions from a study accomplished about ceramic welding (design and set up of a test in laboratory, and evaluation of the reparations for the reparation of silica bricks employed to build coke ovens.

    El proceso de soldadura cerámica es un atractivo método para la reparación en caliente de revestimientos refractarios de equipamientos industriales. Consiste en la proyección a alta temperatura de una mezcla de soldadura en polvo mediante una corriente rica en oxígeno sobre el material refractario dañado. La mezcla contiene agregados refractarios gruesos compatibles con el sustrato a reparar y un combustible sólido (finas partículas oxidables, metálicas y/o no metálicas que actúa como agente exotérmico en el proceso. Cuando las partículas combustibles impactan en la superficie caliente del sustrato (1000-1500

  8. Los diagramas de equilibrio de fases como una herramienta para el diseño y comprensión del comportamiento en servicio de los materiales refractarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Aza, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Refractories are complex materials used at high temperature, in severely corrosive atmospheres and in contact with aggressive liquids. The high temperatures imply that such systems tend to equilibrium and this is frequently attained during service; at least local equilibrium is achieved. This allows the basic principles of phase diagrams to be used in this technology. Traditionally, refractories have been designed to be close to equilibrium so that in-service changes were restricted. Currently, additions of raw materials are often made that will react in use, in a controlled manner, to give favorable effects under the service conditions. Equilibrium diagrams are valid not only for determining the thermodynamic tendency but also for predicting the final equilibrium state and to know the way through which the material moves into the final state. In this context equilibrium diagrams become a powerful tool for a better understanding of the behavior of refractrories during service. After a general consideration on the importance of phase equilibrium diagrams in this field, criteria for using equilibrium diagrams, as a tool for improving traditional refractories and/or designing advanced or new refractories, will be given. Pertinent examples in different systems will be discussed. This paper compiles and reviews the last plenary lecture given by Professor Salvador De Aza on the subject.

    La aplicación de los diagramas de equilibrio de fases para diseñar materiales refractarios y también para comprender su comportamiento en servicio, ha sido, a lo largo del tiempo, un tema de controversia en el campo de la cerámica y de los refractarios. Sin embargo, en la tecnología refractaria moderna es posible obtener mezclas homogéneas a través de rutas sofisticadas de procesamiento. Como resultado, las velocidades de reacción son generalmente lo suficientemente altas para alcanzar el equilibrio o cuasi-equilibrio durante la cocción convencional

  9. La temperatura de la intercara arrabio/refractario como variable determinante de los mecanismos de corrosión del crisol del horno alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The wear of materials in the blast furnace could be carried out under the consideration of abrasion mechanisms or with the prevalence of the components chemistries and erosive resulting as of the circulation of flowing on the refractory. Nevertheless, although in determining situations the abrasion or the components chemistries could result the control mechanism, it is necessary to consider, that all the abrasion, erosion, chemical corrosion, adhesion and thermal waste-thermal shock "they cooperate" to the degradation of the refractory of blast furnace. For whatever the mechanisms that intervene in the wear of the materials, it results interesting to know the temperature boundary of the refractory with the solids, liquids or present gases in the furnace. In the report, it will be developed from specific form, the importance that has the temperature in the boundary refractory-pig iron on the wear of the materials of the hearth. The different hypothesis of transport (energy, quantity of movement and material more adequate for the obtaining of the boundary temperatures will be discussed.

    El desgaste de materiales en el horno alto puede realizarse bajo la consideración de mecanismos estrictamente abrasivos o con el predominio de las componentes químicas y erosivas resultantes de la circulación de fluidos sobre el refractario. No obstante, aunque en determinadas situaciones, la abrasión o las componentes químicas pueden resultar los mecanismos controlantes, es necesario considerar que todos ellos (abrasión, erosión, desgaste químico, adhesión y desgaste térmico-choque térmico "cooperan" en la degradación del refractario del horno, Para cualquiera de los mecanismos que intervenga en el desgaste de los materiales, resulta conveniente conocer el valor de la temperatura a lo largo de las intercaras del refractario con los sólidos, líquidos o gases presentes en el horno. En la ponencia será desarrollada de forma específica, la

  10. Avances en los métodos de recuperación de oro y plata de minerales refractarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parga, J. R.

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research work in hydrometallurgical processes for precious metals recovery from refractory ores is analyzed. Advantages and applications are discussed. Likewise, two methods, one stage direct pressure oxidation/cyanidation and pyrometallurgical recovery, are also described. In the first one, gold and silver oxidation and recovery can be carried out in the same reactor simultaneously. A higher than 96 % recovery in less than 90 min can be achieved. As for the pyrometallurgical recovery method, lead paste from automotive discharged batteries is use and no sulfur dioxide is generated. A precious metals recovery higher than 96 % is reached.

    En este artículo se analizan algunos de los avances introducidos en los procedimientos hidrometalúrgicos para la recuperación de los metales preciosos contenidos en minerales refractarios y se describen sus ventajas y aplicaciones específicas. Asimismo, se muestran dos procedimientos, la cianuración oxidante a presión en una etapa y la recuperación pirometalúrgica con plomo de metales preciosos. En el proceso de cianuración oxidante a presión, la oxidación y disolución del oro y de la plata se realizan simultáneamente en el mismo reactor, con recuperaciones de ambos superiores al 96 % en 90 min. Con respecto al método de recuperación pirometalúrgica, se emplea pasta de plomo de baterías de automóviles desechadas, sin que se genere dióxido de azufre, obteniéndose también elevados valores de recuperación de los metales preciosos (> 96 %.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of the ASTM color of diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Willian Emanuel Alves Santana; Marcelle Prates Sepulveda; Paulo Jorge Sanches Barbeira

    2007-03-15

    One of the parameters analyzed to determine the quality of diesel oil is its ASTM color. Changes in color may be indicative of problems in the production process, contamination, degradation or the oxidation of diesel. The methodology recommended for determining the color of automotive diesel oil samples is the colorimetry according to standard ASTM D1500, in which a sample is introduced into a glass cell and the color of the sample is compared with an optical filter color scale. Although it is very simple, the manual method requires good visual acuity from the operator. This procedure becomes somewhat subjective in some cases since different operators can make distinct evaluations of the same sample. In this way, this work proposes the development of a spectrophotometric analysis methodology to eliminate the subjectiveness in the determination of ASTM color of diesel oil samples by using operator-independent parameters and making quality assay more accurate and precise. Short communication. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. ASTM Standards for Reactor Dosimetry and Pressure Vessel Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRIFFIN, PATRICK J.

    1999-01-01

    The ASTM standards provide guidance and instruction on how to field and interpret reactor dosimetry. They provide a roadmap towards understanding the current ''state-of-the-art'' in reactor dosimetry, as reflected by the technical community. The consensus basis to the ASTM standards assures the user of an unbiased presentation of technical procedures and interpretations of the measurements. Some insight into the types of standards and the way in which they are organized can assist one in using them in an expeditious manner. Two example are presented to help orient new users to the breadth and interrelationship between the ASTM nuclear metrology standards. One example involves the testing of a new ''widget'' to verify the radiation hardness. The second example involves quantifying the radiation damage at a pressure vessel critical weld location through surveillance dosimetry and calculation

  13. Use of ASTM D5304 in assessing unstable diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, L.M.; Martin, C.J. [Defense Fuel Supply Center, Alexandria, VA (United States); Beal, E.J.; Hardy, D.R. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The storage stability, or the length of time a fuel can be stored, is of great concern to diesel fuel users. This paper reports on the use of the new ASTM accelerated test for storage stability by oxygen overpressure (D5304) to predict future storage life span of 63,000,000 gallons of a diesel fuel for US Naval vessel use. This paper demonstrates the use of ASTM D5304 at storage times of 16, 40 and 96 hours to accurately determine the length of time that this large quantity of diesel fuel could be stored at ambient temperatures before the maximum allowable amount of particulate contamination was reached.

  14. Characterization of ASTM round-robin tungsten-powder samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slettevold, C.A.; Biermann, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Particle Characterization Laboratory Group has participated in an industry-wide round-robin investigation on characterization of tungsten powder. sponsored by the ASTM Subcommittee on Refractory-Metal Powders (B-09.3). The analyses performed at the suggestion of the ASTM subcommittee included measurements of tap density, apparent density, true density, average particle size, and surface area. Determinations of particle-weight and size distributions were also performed and particle inspection conducted by microscopy. This report describes the equipment and procedures used and summarizes the results of these analyses. (9 tables, 17 fig) (U.S.)

  15. BENEFICIO DE UNA ARCILLA CAOLINÍTICA DE LA REGIÓN DE BARICHARA (SANTANDER PARA LA FABRICACIÓN DE REFRACTARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREYSI ZULAY PÉREZ AYALA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se benefició una arcilla caolinítica santandereana, con el fin de obtener una materia prima apta para la fabricación de refractarios sílicoaluminosos. Aplicando las operaciones metalúrgicas de tamizaje en húmedo, sedimentación y lixiviación se pretendió eliminar la mayor cantidad posible de cuarzo y hierro. El proceso de separación del cuarzo mediante tamizaje y sedimentación no fue eficiente, dado que éste presenta un tamaño de partícula muy fino, similar a la de las especies arcillosas¿ tan sólo se logró reducir la relación Si/Al en un 12% (de 1,52 a 1,35. Mediante lixiviación a 90°C, con solución de ácido oxálico 0,4 M, se eliminó casi la totalidad del hierro de la arcilla (cerca del 98%, lográndose el "blanqueo" de la misma. Finalmente, se determinó que es posible obtener refractarios con punto de ablandamiento de 1600°C a partir de la arcilla beneficiada.

  16. HACCP: Integrating Science and Management through ASTM Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    From a technical perspective, hazard analysis-critical control point (HACCP) evaluation may be considered a risk management tool suited to a wide range of applications. As one outcome of a symposium convened by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) in August, 2005, th...

  17. 75 FR 11196 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Production Act of 1993--ASTM International Notice is hereby given that, on February 16, 2010, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the..., ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between May...

  18. 75 FR 65657 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Production Act of 1993--ASTM International Notice is hereby given that, on September 23, 2010, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the..., ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between May...

  19. 77 FR 14046 - Amended Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM International Standards Notice is hereby given that, on February..., 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International Standards (``ASTM'') has filed written... circumstances. Specifically, ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities...

  20. 76 FR 63658 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; ASTM International

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Production Act of 1993; ASTM International Notice is hereby given that, on August 31, 2011, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the..., ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between May...

  1. 77 FR 1085 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... Production Act of 1993--ASTM International Notice is hereby given that, on December 5, 2011, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the..., ASTM has provided an updated list of current, ongoing ASTM standards activities originating between...

  2. Caracterización química y mineralógica de refractarios de Al2O3-MgO-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomba Martínez, A. G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Al2O3-MgO-C refractories, of great technological interest for its excellent properties, are used in a wide range of furnacelining applications such as iron and steel. These materials are composed of various grades of alumina, magnesia, graphite and metallic additives, which are added to a resin that acts as binder. The variety of components oxides, metals and polymers makes the study of these refractories a complex task. Considering this diversity to characterize these materials has been used several techniques: X-ray fluorescence, plasma emission spectroscopy and gravimetry, complemented by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry and reflected light optical microscopy. This paper provides a methodology for chemical and mineralogical characterization of these refractory materials. The results of chemical analysis together with the qualitative information on the crystalline phases and the raw materials with which they are formulated have been used to quantify the composition of the refractories using rational analysis. The data obtained by the different techniques validate the methodology developed.Los refractarios de l2O3-MgO-C, de gran interés tecnológico por sus excelentes propiedades, se utilizan mayoritariamente en las industrias del hierro y el acero. Estos materiales están constituidos por distintas calidades de corindón, periclasa y grafito a los que se añaden pequeñas cantidades de metales y un polímero que actúa como ligante. En este trabajo establece una metodología para la caracterización química y mineralógica de refractarios de Al2O3-MgO-C. Los resultados del análisis químico realizado por fluorescencia de rayos X, espectroscopia de emisión de plasma y gravimetría, junto con la información cualitativa acerca de las fases cristalinas (obtenida por difracción de rayos X, y el conocimiento de las materias primas con las que están formulados (obtenido por análisis t

  3. 76 FR 1459 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Production Act of 1993-ASTM International Notice is hereby given that, on December 6, 2010, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the...

  4. 47 CFR 95.1509 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard. 95.1509 Section 95... ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard. On-Board Units operating in the 5850-5925 MHz band shall comply with the... Materials (ASTM) E2213-03, Standard Specification for Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between...

  5. Verification of the ASTM G-124 Purge Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Katherine E.; Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2009-01-01

    ASTM G-124 seeks to evaluate combustion characteristics of metals in high-purity (greater than 99%) oxygen atmospheres. ASTM G-124 provides the following equation to determine the minimum number of purges required to reach this level of purity in a test chamber: n = -4/log10(Pa/Ph), where "n" is the total number of purge cycles required, Ph is the absolute pressure used for the purge on each cycle and Pa is the atmospheric pressure or the vent pressure. The origin of this equation is not known and has been the source of frequent questions as to its accuracy and reliability. This paper shows the derivation of the G-124 purge equation, and experimentally explores the equation to determine if it accurately predicts the number of cycles required.

  6. Isothermal Bainite Processing of ASTM A723 Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    4 List of Illustrations 1. Photograph of typical cylinders used in the present study ................................. 7 2. CCT diagram for... CCT ) diagram obtained by thermal and magnetic analyses for the high nickel (-3 percent) ASTM A723 steel. The bainite knee for the 2 percent nickel...block. Also shown is the slope giving the average cooling rate in the critical region of the CCT diagram . This average rate happens to approximately

  7. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

  8. The USCG/environment Canada/ASTM standards development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, H.

    1992-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Engineering Division (EED) has been charged, as a result of the Public Review Panel on Tanker Safety and Marine Emergency Response report, with increased R ampersand D in marine oil spills. This activity will, of necessity, include development of standards and guidelines for the testing and/or usage of oil spill cleanup equipment. The United States Coast Guard (USCG) has been charged with implementing the provisions of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90), as it pertains to marine transportation vessels and facilities. Among the provisions are requirements for vessel and facility owners and operators to develop comprehensive response plans that specifically match response resources to spill removal requirements. Meeting the response plan provisions of OPA-90 requires common standards for testing, selecting and assigning resources to anticipated response needs and objectively evaluating response plans for adequacy. In August of 1991, the USCG OPA-90 office approached ASTM to determine the feasibility of developing standards through that organizations procedures. Meetings were then held between the OPA-90 staff and members of the ASTM Committee F-20 on Hazardous Substances and Oil Spill Response. An agreement was reached to commence standards development in the areas of: Barriers, Skimmers, Treating Agents, Pumps, Beach Clean-up, Sorbents, Bioremediation, In-situ Burning, Temporary Storage Devices, Communications, Remote Sensing. It was recognized that ASTM and other organizational standards existed in several of these areas, but there were those where none were known to exist. Standards development was, therefore, expected to be a complicated and time-consuming process. Both the USCG OPA-90 and EC/EED offices required standards to be developed quickly, without subverting the ASTM process. Mechanical containment and recovery was considered to be the primary area of concern for both groups

  9. Aspectos experimentales de la determinacion de curvas esfuerzo-deformacion a alta temperatura y en atmosfera controlada: Refractarios Al2O3-MgO-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalieri, A. L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for the mechanical evaluation of refractory materials at high temperatures and controlled atmosphere, designed and implemented in the Structural Materials Laboratory of Ceramics Division of INTEMA, is described. The methodology includes the measurement of the specimen deformation by contact extensometry in compression tests to obtain stress-strain curves and the use of a gaseous flow as a system to control atmosphere. The determination of stress-strain curves of Al2O3-MgO-C commercial refractories used in steelmaking ladles at room temperature and 1260°C in different atmospheres is presented as an example of application of this methodology.Se presenta una metodología diseñada e implementada en el Laboratorio de Materiales Estructurales de la División Cerámicos del INTEMA para la evaluación del comportamiento mecánico de materiales refractarios a altas temperaturas y en atmósfera controlada. La metodología comprende la determinación de la deformación por extensometría de contacto en ensayos en compresión con el fin de obtener curvas esfuerzo-deformación y el uso de un sistema de control de atmósfera por desplazamiento a través del pasaje de una corriente gaseosa. La determinación de curvas esfuerzo-deformación de ladrillos refractarios comerciales Al2O3-MgO-C utilizados en cucharas de acería a temperatura ambiente y a 1260 °C en diferentes atmósferas se presenta como ejemplo de aplicación de esta metodología.

  10. Estudio a nivel laboratorio de la Degradación atípica en un refractario tipo SiO2 utilizado en hornos de inducción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zuno Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo de investigación se realizó un estudio de la degradación atípica que se produce en las paredes de los hornos de inducción. Para esto, se utilizó un material refractario base - SiO2 (98.8% con dos escorias de composición química diferente y se analizó su comportamiento mediante las pruebas experimentales del método de copa o crisol y el de inmersión, así como por un modelado asimétrico del metal líquido en el horno de inducción. La escoria, la estructura del material refractario y el mecanismo de penetración de la escoria fueron caracterizados por microscopia óptica, utilizando la técnica de luz reflejada. Los resultados demostraron que, con valores altos de frecuencia (240 Hz, para la operación del horno, se obtiene una fuerza de Lorentz muy alta (14.26 N pero con una velocidad del metal liquido baja (6 m/s la cual tiene un vector de dirección perpendicular a las paredes del horno, provocando presión sobre la escoria incrustada en los poros del refractario favoreciendo el proceso de degradación del material.

  11. ASTM International Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carl G.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The “Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds” was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active “guide” documents for educational purposes, but that few standard “test methods” or “practices” have been published. Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions also highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Finally, dialogue emphasized the needs to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization and to assess the use and impact of standards in the TEMPs community. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus should now turn to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. PMID:25220952

  12. ASTM standards for fire debris analysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Eric; Lentini, John J

    2003-03-12

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) recently updated its standards E 1387 and E 1618 for the analysis of fire debris. The changes in the classification of ignitable liquids are presented in this review. Furthermore, a new standard on extraction of fire debris with solid phase microextraction (SPME) was released. Advantages and drawbacks of this technique are presented and discussed. Also, the standard on cleanup by acid stripping has not been reapproved. Fire debris analysts that use the standards should be aware of these changes.

  13. 75 FR 30440 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM International

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Production Act of 1993--ASTM International Notice is hereby given that, on May 6, 2010, pursuant to Section 6... Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney... recovery of antitrust plaintiffs to actual damages under specified circumstances. Specifically, ASTM has...

  14. Recommendations for fluorescence instrument qualification: the new ASTM Standard Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, Paul C; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2010-03-01

    Aimed at improving quality assurance and quantitation for modern fluorescence techniques, ASTM International (ASTM) is about to release a Standard Guide for Fluorescence, reviewed here. The guide's main focus is on steady state fluorometry, for which available standards and instrument characterization procedures are discussed along with their purpose, suitability, and general instructions for use. These include the most relevant instrument properties needing qualification, such as linearity and spectral responsivity of the detection system, spectral irradiance reaching the sample, wavelength accuracy, sensitivity or limit of detection for an analyte, and day-to-day performance verification. With proper consideration of method-inherent requirements and limitations, many of these procedures and standards can be adapted to other fluorescence techniques. In addition, procedures for the determination of other relevant fluorometric quantities including fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes are briefly introduced. The guide is a clear and concise reference geared for users of fluorescence instrumentation at all levels of experience and is intended to aid in the ongoing standardization of fluorescence measurements.

  15. Overview (this manuscript is an overview of an ASTM ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Symposium on Developing Consensus Standards for Measuring Chemical Emissions from Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) Insulation was held on April 30th and May 1, 2015. Sponsored by ASTM Committee D22 on Air Quality, the symposium was held in Anaheim, CA, in conjunction with the standards development meetings of the Committee. ASTM D22.05 is developing tools to answer fundamental questions: what is emitted from SPF, how long do the emissions persist, how does ventilation impact concentrations and potential exposures? How can we model these processes to address the multiplicity of products, applications, and environmental conditions that may impact exposure to emissions over the life cycle of the material? These are complex and interrelated questions that have challenged the indoor environments research community for many years. Objectives of Symposium: Standardized methods are needed to assess the potential impacts of SPF insulation products on indoor air quality, establish re-entry times for trade workers or re-occupancy times for building occupants after product installation and to evaluate post-occupancy ventilation. The objective of the symposium was to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas from SPF manufacturers, regulatory agencies, indoor air quality professionals, testing labs, air quality consultants, instrument vendors and other stakeholders. Following the presentations on the current status of measuring emissions from SPF insulation, participants di

  16. Mecanismo de corrosión a refractarios de MgO-C y MgO-C-Al en horno eléctrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero Barranco, M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a post-mortem study of various MgO-C and MgO-C-Al pieces that are used in the electric furnaces at the Acerinox factory in Cádiz. From the chemical, thermal, mineralogical and microstructural characterization of the materials prior to use and post-mortem it has been established that, in both types of refractories, the corrosion has lead to the formation of reaction layers with different chemical and mineralogical composition, as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure, ranging from the hot to the cold face and strongly depending on the zone of the electric furnace where the piece is situated. Changes in graphite content have been observed in both types of materials by X-ray diffraction. These changes have been quantified by Differential Thermal Analysis. In MgO-C-Al refractories it has been observed the formation of small amounts of C3Al4 inside the pieces and MgAl2O4 in the refractories’ hot face. Keeping in mind the obtained results and the phase equilibrium diagram of Mg-C-Al-O it has been established a corrosion mechanism for both types of materials. It cannot be established by the present results that additions of Al (≈ 2 % in weight improve the performance of MgO-C materials.

    Se describen los resultados del estudio post-mortem de diversas piezas de MgO-C y MgO-C-Al utilizadas en los hornos eléctricos de la factoría de Acerinox en Cádiz. De la caracterización química, térmica, mineralógica y microestructural de los materiales sin usar y post-mortem se ha establecido que la corrosión ha dado lugar, en ambos tipos de refractarios, a la formación de capas de reacción con distinta composición química y mineralógica, en función de la temperatura y presión parcial de oxígeno en la pieza, que varían desde la cara caliente a la cara fría y dependen fuertemente de la zona del horno eléctrico en que está situada la pieza. En

  17. Standard guide for high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of soil samples. ASTM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-26 on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C26.05 on Methods of Test. The current edition was approved on Jul. 10, 1998. It was published in December 1998. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM

  18. Method for Estimating Evaporative Potential (IM/CLO) from ASTM Standard Single Wind Velocity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    IM/CLO) FROM ASTM STANDARD SINGLE WIND VELOCITY MEASURES DISCLAIMER The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the...USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T16-14 METHOD FOR ESTIMATING EVAPORATIVE POTENTIAL (IM/CLO) FROM ASTM STANDARD SINGLE WIND VELOCITY... ASTM STANDARD SINGLE WIND VELOCITY MEASURES Adam W. Potter Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental

  19. Evaluation of Instrumentation for Measuring Undissolved Water in Aviation Turbine Fuels per ASTM D3240

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Undissolved Water in Aviation Turbine Fuels per ASTM D3240 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Joel Schmitigal... water ) in Aviation Turbine Fuels per ASTM D3240 15. SUBJECT TERMS fuel, JP-8, aviation fuel, contamination, free water , undissolved water , Aqua-Glo 16...Michigan 48397-5000 Evaluation of Instrumentation for Measuring Undissolved Water in Aviation Turbine Fuels per ASTM D3240 Joel Schmitigal Force

  20. Modification of ASTM Standard E1681 on Environmental Cracking to Include Bolt-Load Specimen Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Underwood, Jean D. M

    1997-01-01

    Benet Laboratories experience with environmental cracking of cannon components has been combined with the technical expertise of various participants at ASTM technical meetings and symposia to develop...

  1. Mobile Robot and Mobile Manipulator Research Towards ASTM Standards Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Legowik, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Performance standards for industrial mobile robots and mobile manipulators (robot arms onboard mobile robots) have only recently begun development. Low cost and standardized measurement techniques are needed to characterize system performance, compare different systems, and to determine if recalibration is required. This paper discusses work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and within the ASTM Committee F45 on Driverless Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles. This includes standards for both terminology, F45.91, and for navigation performance test methods, F45.02. The paper defines terms that are being considered. Additionally, the paper describes navigation test methods that are near ballot and docking test methods being designed for consideration within F45.02. This includes the use of low cost artifacts that can provide alternatives to using relatively expensive measurement systems.

  2. Interpreting the ASTM 'content standard for digital geospatial metadata'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebert, Douglas D.

    1996-01-01

    ASTM and the Federal Geographic Data Committee have developed a content standard for spatial metadata to facilitate documentation, discovery, and retrieval of digital spatial data using vendor-independent terminology. Spatial metadata elements are identifiable quality and content characteristics of a data set that can be tied to a geographic location or area. Several Office of Management and Budget Circulars and initiatives have been issued that specify improved cataloguing of and accessibility to federal data holdings. An Executive Order further requires the use of the metadata content standard to document digital spatial data sets. Collection and reporting of spatial metadata for field investigations performed for the federal government is an anticipated requirement. This paper provides an overview of the draft spatial metadata content standard and a description of how the standard could be applied to investigations collecting spatially-referenced field data.

  3. Refractory hepatic hydrothorax: successful treatment with octreotide Hidrotórax hepático refractario: tratamiento eficaz con octreótido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barreales

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient that developed hepatic hydrothorax as the first complication of liver cirrhosis. Due to the lack of response to diuretics, pleurodesis and TIPS, treatment with octreotide was started with resolution of hydrothorax. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third reported case of refractory hepatic hydrothorax with complete and sustained response to octreotide.Describimos el caso de una paciente que presentó un hidrotórax como primera manifestación de una cirrosis hepática. Ante la ausencia de respuesta al tratamiento diurético, a la realización de una pleurodesis y a la colocación de una derivación portosistémica percutánea intrahepática, se inició tratamiento con octreótido con lo que se obtuvo la resolución del mismo. Se trata del tercer caso publicado en la literatura de hidrotórax hepático refractario con respuesta completa y mantenida al tratamiento con octreótido.

  4. Linfoma Nasal de Células T/Natural Killer Extranodal Refractario Mal Diagnosticado, Tratado de Manera Exitosa: Informe de Caso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra Ramírez, José Domingo

    2017-01-01

    El linfoma de células T/natural killer extranodal ("extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma", ENKL) nasal es un linfoma no Hodgkin (LNH) agresivo y poco común para el cual no se ha establecido un tratamiento de referencia claro, especialmente en el escenario de la enfermedad recidivante/refractaria. Debido a su rareza, no se han llevado a cabo ensayos aleatorizados específicamente en ENKL nasal; sin embargo, los informes de caso y las series de caso pequeñas ofrecen un conocimiento importante sobre nuevos tratamientos potenciales. Presentamos el informe de caso de un paciente con ENKL nasal (previamente mal diagnosticado como una sinusitis crónica recidivante) en quien la enfermedad progresó durante la quimioterapia con múltiples agentes pero respondió al tratamiento de segunda línea con pralatrexato como agente único. Analizamos opciones de tratamiento para el ENKL nasal recidivante/refractario y sugerimos que el pralatrexato se evalúe más a fondo en este escenario clínico.

  5. Innovaciones en la gestión y calidad de los revestimientos refractarios en la Compañía Siderúrgica Nacional (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus, S. M.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The work describes actions carried out in colaboration among the National Steel Company - (CSN-Brazil and the Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Electrochemistry and Ceramic - LIEC of the Federal University of Sao Carlos Brazil (UFSCar- Brazil, in the area of I&D, for integral management and improvement of the quality and performance of the refractory linings in the sintering areas, blast furnace, hot air pipe lines transferency to the blast furnace, pig-iron ladles, running channels, blast furnaces hearths, torpedo car, etc., as well as, the economic impact generated by the installation of the adopted measures.

    El trabajo describe acciones realizadas en conjunto entre la Compañía Siderúrgica Nacional – (CSN-Brasil y el Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Electroquímica y Cerámica – LIEC de la Universidad Federal de Sao Carlos Brasil (UFSCar - Brasil, en el área de I&D, para la gestión y mejora de la calidad de los revestimientos refractarios en las áreas de sinterización, hornos altos, líneas de trasferencia de aire caliente al horno alto, piqueras de arrabio, canales de colada, crisoles de horno alto, cucharas torpedo, etc., así como, el impacto económico generado por la implantación de las medidas adoptadas.

  6. Biocompatibility of metal injection molded versus wrought ASTM F562 (MP35N) and ASTM F1537 (CCM) cobalt alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Sago, Alan; West, Shari; Farina, Jeff; Eckert, John; Broadley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis between biocompatibility test results of wrought and Metal Injection Molded (MIM) ASTM F562-02 UNS R30035 (MP35N) and F1537 UNS R31538 (CCM) alloy samples that have undergone the same generic orthopedic implant's mechanical, chemical surface pre-treatment, and a designed pre-testing sample preparation method. Because the biocompatibility properties resulting from this new MIM cobalt alloy process are not well understood, we conducted tests to evaluate cytotoxicity (in vitro), hemolysis (in vitro), toxicity effects (in vivo), tissue irritation level (in vivo), and pyrogenicity count (in vitro) on such samples. We show that our developed MIM MP35N and CCM materials and treatment processes are biocompatible, and that both the MIM and wrought samples, although somewhat different in microstructure and surface, do not show significant differences in biocompatibility.

  7. Developing the (ASTM) voluntary consensus standards required to help implement the National Energy Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The recommended guide is the first American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) matrix in a family of such documents that combined, will help manage the development of the ASTM standards considered necessary to implement the current National Plan for Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration. It is expected that the guide will provide a framework for standards development to complement the nation's research and development in support of critical energy needs. The recommended guide identifies the energy-critical areas that are to be developed, the master ASTM recommended guide for developing the standards required to help the National Plan, the section in which each energy-critical area is covered, and the suggested ASTM lead committee responsible for each area (fossil, solar, geothermal, conservation, fusion, and fission reactor development). A comprehensive matrix to identify the areas of need for which ASTM standards will be required to help implement the National Energy Plan is also presented

  8. Model of ASTM Flammability Test in Microgravity: Iron Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Theodore A; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is extensive qualitative results from burning metallic materials in a NASA/ASTM flammability test system in normal gravity. However, this data was shown to be inconclusive for applications involving oxygen-enriched atmospheres under microgravity conditions by conducting tests using the 2.2-second Lewis Research Center (LeRC) Drop Tower. Data from neither type of test has been reduced to fundamental kinetic and dynamic systems parameters. This paper reports the initial model analysis for burning iron rods under microgravity conditions using data obtained at the LERC tower and modeling the burning system after ignition. Under the conditions of the test the burning mass regresses up the rod to be detached upon deceleration at the end of the drop. The model describes the burning system as a semi-batch, well-mixed reactor with product accumulation only. This model is consistent with the 2.0-second duration of the test. Transient temperature and pressure measurements are made on the chamber volume. The rod solid-liquid interface melting rate is obtained from film records. The model consists of a set of 17 non-linear, first-order differential equations which are solved using MATLAB. This analysis confirms that a first-order rate, in oxygen concentration, is consistent for the iron-oxygen kinetic reaction. An apparent activation energy of 246.8 kJ/mol is consistent for this model.

  9. 77 FR 10358 - Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Chapter II Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory... have accepted the revised ASTM F963-11 standard titled, Standard Consumer Safety Specifications for Toy Safety. Pursuant to section 106 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, ASTM F963-11 will...

  10. Sources of Confusion in the Determination of ASTM Repetitive Member Factors for the Allowable Properties of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Verrill; D. Kretschmann

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that there should be an upward repetitive member allowable property adjustment. ASTM D245 (2011c) and ASTM D1990 (2011b) specify a 1.15 factor for allowable bending stress. This factor is also listed in ASTM D6555 (2011a, Table 1). In this technical note, sources of confusion regarding appropriate repetitive member factors are identified. This...

  11. 76 FR 78614 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-810, A-583-815] Welded ASTM A-312... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea (Korea... December 30, 1992, the Department published the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless...

  12. 76 FR 67673 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-810, A-583-815] Welded ASTM A-312... the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea and Taiwan... duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea and Taiwan pursuant to section...

  13. Hydrogen embrittlement of ASTM A 203 D nuclear structural steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravartty, J.K.; Prasad, G.E.; Sinha, T.K.; Asundi, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of ASTM A 203 D nuclear structural steel has been studied by tension, bend and delayed-failure tests at room temperature. While the tension tests of hydrogen charged unnotched specimens reveal no change in ultimate strength and ductility, the effect of hydrogen is manifested in notched specimens (tensile and bend) as a decrease in ultimate strength (maximum load in bend test) and ductility; the effect increases with increasing hydrogen content. It is observed that for a given hydrogen concentration, the decrease in bend ductility is remarkably large compared to that in tensile ductility. Hydrogen charging does not cause any delayed-failure upto 200 h under an applied tensile stress, 0.85 times the notch tensile strength. However delayed failure occurs in hydrogen charged bend samples in less than 10 h under an applied bending load of about 0.80 times of the uncharged maximum load. Fractographs of hydrogen charged unnotched specimens show ductile dimple fracture, while those of notched tension and bend specimens under hydrogen-charged conditions show a mixture of ductile dimple and quasi-cleavage cracking. The proportion of quasi-cleavage cracking increases with increasing hydrogen content and this fracture mode is more predominant in bend specimens. The changes in tensile properties and fracture modes can reasonably be explained by existing theories of hydrogen embrittlement. An attempt is made to explain the significant difference in the embrittlement susceptibility of bend and tensile specimens in the light of difference in triaxiality and plastic zone size near the notch tip. (orig.)

  14. Fracture toughness of welded joints of ASTM A543 steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susukida, H.; Uebayashi, T.; Yoshida, K.; Ando, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Fracture toughness and weldability tests have been performed on a high strength steel which is a modification of ASTM A543 Grade B Class 1 steel, with a view to using it for nuclear reactor containment vessels. The results showed that fracture toughness of welded joints of ASTM A543 modified high strength steel is superior and the steel is suitable for manufacturing the containment vessels

  15. Integration of Nanofluids into Commercial Antifreeze Concentrates with ASTM D15 Corrosion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Lockwood1 1 Valvoline New Product Development Laboratory, Ashland Consumer Markets , Lexington, Kentucky. 2 Tank Automotive Research, Development...Development Laboratory,Ashland Consumer Markets ,P.O. Box 14000,Lexington,KY,40512 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ; #23826 9. SPONSORING...Technology, Performance, and Life for Light-Duty Applications, Engine Coolant Testing: Fourth Volume, ASTM STP 1335, R.E. Beale ed., ASTM, Philadelphia

  16. ASTM standards associated with PWR and BWR power plant licensing, operation and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; McElroy, R.J.; Gold, R.; Lippincott, E.P.; Lowe, A.L. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers ASTM Standards that are available, under revision, and are being considered in support of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) licensing, regulation, operation, surveillance and life attainment. The current activities of ASTM Committee E10 and its Subcommittees E10.02 and current activities of ASTM Committee E10 and its Subcommittees E10.02 and E10.05 and their Task Groups (TG) are described. A very important aspect of these efforts is the preparation, revision, and balloting of standards identified in the ASTM E706 Standard on Master Matrix for Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessel (PV) Surveillance Standards. The current version (E706-87) of the Master Matrix identifies 21 ASTM LWR physics-dosimetry-metallurgy standards for Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and Support Structure (SS) surveillance programs, whereas, for the next revision 34 standards are identified. The need for national and international coordination of Standards Technology Development, Transfer and Training (STDTT) is considered in this and other Symposium papers that address specific standards related physics-dosimetry-metallurgy issues. 69 refs

  17. Combating Wear of ASTM A36 Steel by Surface Modification Using Thermally Sprayed Cermet Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Shibe, Vineet; Chawla, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Thermal spray coatings can be applied economically on machine parts to enhance their requisite surface properties like wear, corrosion, erosion resistance, and so forth. Detonation gun (D-Gun) thermal spray coatings can be applied on the surface of carbon steels to improve their wear resistance. In the present study, alloy powder cermet coatings WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr have been deposited on ASTM A36 steel with D-Gun thermal spray technique. Sliding wear behavior of uncoated ASTM A36 ste...

  18. Situación de la industria argentina de la cerámica, del vidrio y del refractario en el 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hevia, R.

    2001-02-01

    producción cerámica argentina está vinculada con ella. También se utilizó la información procedente de las empresas más relevantes y de las cámaras que las nuclean. En el caso de la producción de refractarios y vidrios, sólo se consideró la información proveniente de las empresas. La producción cerámica se clasificó de acuerdo con los siguientes submercados: cerámica roja, vajilla, pisos y revestimientos y artículos sanitarios. El análisis de las tres industrias citadas incluye la caracterización de la situación actual de cada una de ellas y permite vislumbrar las tendencias predominantes en cada caso.

  19. Comparing the Methodologies in ASTM G198: Is There an Easy Way Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    ASTM(1) G198, Standard test method for determining the relative corrosion performance of driven fasteners in contact with treated wood, was accepted by consensus and published in 2011. The method has two different exposure conditions for determining fastener corrosion performance in treated wood. The first method places the wood and embedded...

  20. Comparative field permeability measurement of permeable pavements using ASTM C1701 and NCAT permeameter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T

    2013-03-30

    Fully permeable pavement is gradually gaining support as an alternative best management practice (BMP) for stormwater runoff management. As the use of these pavements increases, a definitive test method is needed to measure hydraulic performance and to evaluate clogging, both for performance studies and for assessment of permeability for construction quality assurance and maintenance needs assessment. Two of the most commonly used permeability measurement tests for porous asphalt and pervious concrete are the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) permeameter and ASTM C1701, respectively. This study was undertaken to compare measured values for both methods in the field on a variety of permeable pavements used in current practice. The field measurements were performed using six experimental section designs with different permeable pavement surface types including pervious concrete, porous asphalt and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Multiple measurements were performed at five locations on each pavement test section. The results showed that: (i) silicone gel is a superior sealing material to prevent water leakage compared with conventional plumbing putty; (ii) both methods (NCAT and ASTM) can effectively be used to measure the permeability of all pavement types and the surface material type will not impact the measurement precision; (iii) the permeability values measured with the ASTM method were 50-90% (75% on average) lower than those measured with the NCAT method; (iv) the larger permeameter cylinder diameter used in the ASTM method improved the reliability and reduced the variability of the measured permeability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Status of silicosis in the world: Feedback on the ASTM Silica Symposium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The second ASTM Silica Symposium was held in Oct 2012 where speakers reported on the status of silicosis in their respective countries. Speakers reported on findings of research that they carried out on sampling equipment and analytical techniques...

  2. Deriving allowable properties of lumber : a practical guide for interpretation of ASTM standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Bendtsen; William L. Galligan

    1978-01-01

    The ASTM standards for establishing clear wood mechanical properties and for deriving structural grades and related allowable properties for visually graded lumber can be confusing and difficult for the uninitiated to interpret. This report provides a practical guide to using these standards for individuals not familiar with their application. Sample stress...

  3. Standard specification for tantalum and tantalum alloy plate, sheet, and strip. ASTM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-10 on Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B10.03 on Niobium and Tantalum. Current edition approved May 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as B 708-82. Last previous edition was B 708-92

  4. Comparing the Methodologies in ASTM G198 Using Combined Hygrothermal-Corrosion Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    ASTM G198, “Standard test method for determining the relative corrosion performance of driven fasteners in contact with treated wood,” was accepted by consensus and published in 2011. The method has two different exposure conditions for determining fastener corrosion performance in treated wood. The first method places the wood and embedded fasteners in a...

  5. ASTM Committee D-7 : Wood : promoting safety and standardization for 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert L. Ethington

    2004-01-01

    In October 2004, Committee D-7 on Wood of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is celebrating 100 years of contributions to the safe and efficient use of wood as a building material. Born during a period of rapid social, economic, and technological change, the Committee faced controversial issues and the challenge of a changing forest resource. This...

  6. An evaluation of efforts by nuclear power plants to use ASTM D3803-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.

    1995-01-01

    The number of nuclear power plants are now using ASTM D3803-89, open-quotes Standard Test Method for Nuclear-Grade Activated Carbonclose quotes for routine surveillance testing of adsorbents. In order to judge the impact of this change, we have gathered radioiodine removal test results from our data base on a system-by-system basis (i.e. control room, technical support center, and spent fuel pool) and compared test results obtained for the same kind of systems using the new and older test methods. Included in this comparison are systems with and without humidity control. Results are discussed from the standpoint of what to expect if a change to testing using ASTM D3803-89 is contemplated, especially regarding test results in light existing acceptance criteria. Additionally, the results are discussed from the standpoint of the sensitivity of the ASTM test method to detect when the performance of the carbon in air cleaning systems has been compromised (compared to the older methods). Finally, we offer some suggestions for how other plants might upgrade their carbon testing to incorporate testing to ASTM D3803-89

  7. Combating Wear of ASTM A36 Steel by Surface Modification Using Thermally Sprayed Cermet Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Shibe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal spray coatings can be applied economically on machine parts to enhance their requisite surface properties like wear, corrosion, erosion resistance, and so forth. Detonation gun (D-Gun thermal spray coatings can be applied on the surface of carbon steels to improve their wear resistance. In the present study, alloy powder cermet coatings WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr have been deposited on ASTM A36 steel with D-Gun thermal spray technique. Sliding wear behavior of uncoated ASTM A36 steel and D-Gun sprayed WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr coatings on base material is observed on a Pin-On-Disc Wear Tester. Sliding wear performance of WC-12% Co coating is found to be better than the Cr3C2-25% NiCr coating. Wear performance of both these cermet coatings is found to be better than uncoated ASTM A36 steel. Thermally sprayed WC-12% Co and Cr3C2-25% NiCr cermet coatings using D-Gun thermal spray technique is found to be very useful in improving the sliding wear resistance of ASTM A36 steel.

  8. Autogenous shrinkage of Ducorit S5R ASTM C 1698-09 test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    The report deals with experimental measurement of autogenous shrinkage of Ducorit S5R according to the test method ASTM C 1698-09. This test method measures the bulk strain of a sealed cementitious specimen, at constant temperature and not subjected to external forces, from the time of final...

  9. An evaluation of efforts by nuclear power plants to use ASTM D3803-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, W.P.

    1995-02-01

    The number of nuclear power plants are now using ASTM D3803-89, {open_quotes}Standard Test Method for Nuclear-Grade Activated Carbon{close_quotes} for routine surveillance testing of adsorbents. In order to judge the impact of this change, we have gathered radioiodine removal test results from our data base on a system-by-system basis (i.e. control room, technical support center, and spent fuel pool) and compared test results obtained for the same kind of systems using the new and older test methods. Included in this comparison are systems with and without humidity control. Results are discussed from the standpoint of what to expect if a change to testing using ASTM D3803-89 is contemplated, especially regarding test results in light existing acceptance criteria. Additionally, the results are discussed from the standpoint of the sensitivity of the ASTM test method to detect when the performance of the carbon in air cleaning systems has been compromised (compared to the older methods). Finally, we offer some suggestions for how other plants might upgrade their carbon testing to incorporate testing to ASTM D3803-89.

  10. PROPOSED ASTM METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ASBESTOS IN AIR BY TEM AND INFORMATION ON INTERFERING FIBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft of the ASTM Test Method for air entitled: "Airborne Asbestos Concentration in Ambient and Indoor Atmospheres as Determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy Direct Transfer (TEM)" (ASTM Z7077Z) is an adaptation of the International Standard, ISO 10312. It is currently...

  11. Standardization work by ASTM and DIN concerning test methods for metallic materials - comparative assessment with regard for practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerischer, K.

    1986-01-01

    The article explains the significant role of ASTM and marks out basic elements of the specification system of ASTM standards. Usefulness in practice is taken as the main criterion for the subsequent comparison of ASTM or DIN activities and procedures, and results, for standardization in the field of test methods for metallic materials. The main differences are shown to exist with regard to tropicality of test standards, presentation of useful information and background knowledge, and importance attached to formal questions. ASTM standardization work is shown to be more up-to-date, contain more information, and to be less concerned with formal matters. A closer cooperation between ASTM and DIN is strongly recommended. (orig.) [de

  12. Impact of heat treatment on HSS cutting tool (ASTM A600) and its behaviour during machining of mild steel (ASTM A36)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolalu, S. A.; Abioye, O. P.; Salawu, E. Y.; Okokpujie, I. P.; Abioye, A. A.; Omotosho, O. A.; Ajayi., O. O.

    2018-04-01

    Carburization is one the best heat treatment that responded well to hardening with Palm Kernel Shell giving the best hardness value. This work studied the influence of carburization on HSStool(ASTM A600) and its behaviour during machining of mild steel (ASTM A36). Composition of the samples (12 pieces of 180 × 12 × 12 mm) HSS tools were checked using UV-VIS spectrometer and the tools were carburized with PKS at holding temperatures and time of 800, 850, 900, 950 °C and 60,90 120 minutes using muffle furnance. The micro structural analysis, surface and core hardnessof the treated samples gave better results than the untreated samples when checked withsoft driven and optical microscope. It wasalso observed that increase in the feed rate and depth for length of cut of 50 mm significantly reduces the wear progression and thereby gave best machining time at maximum carburizing temperature and time(950 °C / 120 minutes) when it was used to cut mild steelon the lathe machine.

  13. Fretting-corrosion at the modular tapers interface: Inspection of standard ASTM F1875-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingley, Rachel; Martin, Alan; Manfredi, Olivia; Nejadhamzeeigilani, Mahdiyar; Oladokun, Abimbola; Beadling, Andrew Robert; Siddiqui, Sohail; Anderson, James; Thompson, Jonathan; Neville, Anne; Bryant, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Interest in the degradation mechanisms at the modular tapers interfaces has been renewed due to increased reported cases of adverse reactions to metal debris and the appearance of wear and corrosion at the modular tapers interfaces at revision. Over the past two decades, a lot of research has been expended to understand the degradation mechanisms, with two primary implant loading procedures and orientations used consistently across the literature. ASTM F1875-98 is often used as a guide to understand and benchmark the tribocorrosion processes occurring within the modular tapers interface. This article presents a comparison of the two methods outlined in ASTM F1875-98 as well as a critique of the standard considering the current paradigm in pre-clinical assessment of modular tapers.

  14. A new method to determine J0-integral values (ASTM E 813) without any auxiliary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, G.; Krompholz, K.

    1987-01-01

    In this contribution the path independent J-integral according to J.R. Rice, respective J.D. Landes and J.A. Begley due to ASTME 813 is calculated by the product J pl = d v J el for 3 point bend type specimen. Here d v is the load point displacement up to the point of the onset of stable crack growth V, which is taken from the load versus load point displacement diagram and J el a value which is equivalent to K 2 /E, where K is the stress intensity factor (ASTME 399) and E is Young's modulus. The advantage of the new procedure is the simplicity of the test arrangement and of the evaluation with the determination of initiation point V without computer or other auxiliary equipment. (orig.) [de

  15. Results of ASTM round robin testing for mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    The results are summarized of several interlaboratory 'round robin' test programs for measuring the mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of advanced fiber reinforced composite materials. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were conducted by participants in ASTM committee D30 on High Modulus Fibers and their Composites and by representatives of the European Group on Fracture (EGF) and the Japanese Industrial Standards Group (JIS). DCB tests were performed on three AS4 carbon fiber reinforced composite materials: AS4/3501-6 with a brittle epoxy matrix; AS4/BP907 with a tough epoxy matrix; and AS4/PEEK with a tough thermoplastic matrix. Difficulties encountered in manufacturing panels, as well as conducting the tests are discussed. Critical issues that developed during the course of the testing are highlighted. Results of the round robin testing used to determine the precision of the ASTM DCB test standard are summarized.

  16. Reactor pressure vessel steels ASTM A533B and A508 Cl.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelli, R.; Kemppainen, M.; Toerroenen, K.

    1979-11-01

    This report presents the tensile test results of steels ASTM A533B and A508 Cl.2 obtained in connection with a programme initiated to gather and create information needed for the assessment of the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessels. The tensile properties were studied between -196 and 300 degC varying austenitizing and tempering temperatures and having two different carbon contents for the heats of A533B. (author)

  17. An Evaluation of a Proposed Revision of the ASTM D 1990 Grouping Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve P Verrill; James W. Evans; David E. Kretschmann; Cherilyn A. Hatfield

    2013-01-01

    Lum, Taylor, and Zidek have proposed a revised procedure for wood species grouping in ASTM standard D 1990. We applaud the authors’ recognition of the importance of considering a strength distribution’s variability as well as its fifth percentile. However, we have concerns about their proposed method of incorporating this information into a standard. We detail these...

  18. CCR+: Metadata Based Extended Personal Health Record Data Model Interoperable with the ASTM CCR Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Rang; Yoon, Young Jo; Jang, Tae Hun; Seo, Hwa Jeong; Kim, Ju Han

    2014-01-01

    Extension of the standard model while retaining compliance with it is a challenging issue because there is currently no method for semantically or syntactically verifying an extended data model. A metadata-based extended model, named CCR+, was designed and implemented to achieve interoperability between standard and extended models. Furthermore, a multilayered validation method was devised to validate the standard and extended models. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Community Care Record (CCR) standard was selected to evaluate the CCR+ model; two CCR and one CCR+ XML files were evaluated. In total, 188 metadata were extracted from the ASTM CCR standard; these metadata are semantically interconnected and registered in the metadata registry. An extended-data-model-specific validation file was generated from these metadata. This file can be used in a smartphone application (Health Avatar CCR+) as a part of a multilayered validation. The new CCR+ model was successfully evaluated via a patient-centric exchange scenario involving multiple hospitals, with the results supporting both syntactic and semantic interoperability between the standard CCR and extended, CCR+, model. A feasible method for delivering an extended model that complies with the standard model is presented herein. There is a great need to extend static standard models such as the ASTM CCR in various domains: the methods presented here represent an important reference for achieving interoperability between standard and extended models.

  19. Ductile fracture toughness of heavy section pressure vessel steel plate. A specimen-size study of ASTM A 533 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.A.

    1979-09-01

    The ductile fracture toughness, J/sub Ic/, of ASTM A 533, Grade B, Class 1 and ASTM A 533, heat treated to simulate irradiation, was determined for 10- to 100-mm thick compact specimens. The toughness at maximum specimen load was also measured to determine the conservatism of J/sub Ic/. The toughness of ASTM A 533, Grade B, Class 1 steel was 349 kJ/m 2 and at the equivalent upper shelf temperature, the heat treated material exhibited 87 kJ/m 2 . The maximum load fracture toughness was found to be linearly proportional to specimen size, and only specimens which failed to meet ASTM size criteria exhibited maximum load toughness less than J/sub Ic/

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: ASTM [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term ASTM 名詞 一般 * * * * 米国材料試験協会 ベイコクザ...イリョウシケンキョウカイ ベイコクザイリョーシケンキョーカイ Thesaurus2015 200906091611619997 C IA02 UNKNOWN_1 ASTM

  1. ASTM international workshop on standards and measurements for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carl G; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A

    2015-07-01

    The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active "guide" documents for educational purposes, but few standard "test methods" or "practices." Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. ASTM STANDARD GUIDE FOR EVALUATING DISPOSAL OPTIONS FOR REUSE OF CONCRETE FROM NUCLEAR FACILITY DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Ann Marie; Meservey, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    Within the nuclear industry, many contaminated facilities that require decommissioning contain huge volumes of concrete. This concrete is generally disposed of as low-level waste at a high cost. Much of the concrete is lightly contaminated and could be reused as roadbed, fill material, or aggregate for new concrete, thus saving millions of dollars. However, because of the possibility of volumetric contamination and the lack of a method to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete, reuse is rarely considered. To address this problem, Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory teamed to write a ''concrete protocol'' to help evaluate the ramifications of reusing concrete within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document, titled the Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Site (1) is based on ANL-E's previously developed scrap metal recycle protocols; on the 10-step method outlined in DOE's draft handbook, Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material (2); and on DOE Order 4500.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (3). The DOE concrete protocol was the basis for the ASTM Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, which was written to make the information available to a wider audience outside DOE. The resulting ASTM Standard Guide is a more concise version that can be used by the nuclear industry worldwide to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. The bulk of the ASTM Standard Guide focuses on evaluating the dose and cost for each disposal option. The user calculates these from the detailed formulas and tabulated data provided, then compares the dose and cost for each disposal option to select the best option that meets regulatory requirements. With this information

  3. Systematic Approach to Design Tailor Made Fuel Blends That Meets ASTM Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree; H., Choudhury

    2015-01-01

    point, vapor pressure, and heat content were determined using analytical instruments according to their respective American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Most of the properties complied well with the industry standards. However, model gasoline had a comparatively low RVP....... On the other hand, model diesel had a significantly higher cloud point and pour point than what is recommended. This deviation will have an impact on the cold flow properties of the fuels. For both fuels, different additives along with their composition have also been determined using the same computational...

  4. Impact of ASTM Standard E722 update on radiation damage metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, Kendall Russell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The impact of recent changes to the ASTM Standard E722 is investigated. The methodological changes in the production of the displacement kerma factors for silicon has significant impact for some energy regions of the 1-MeV(Si) equivalent fluence response function. When evaluating the integral over all neutrons energies in various spectra important to the SNL electronics testing community, the change in the response results in an increase in the total 1-MeV(Si) equivalent fluence of 2 7%. Response functions have been produced and are available for users of both the NuGET and MCNP codes.

  5. Assessment of wrought ASTM F1058 cobalt alloy properties for permanent surgical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, C O; Jedwab, M R; Mayer, D W; Thompson, P J; Stinson, J S

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of the ASTM F1058 wrought cobalt-chromium-nickel-molybdenum-iron alloy (commonly referred to as Elgiloy or Phynox) is evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, magnetic resonance imaging, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. The data found in the literature, the experimental corrosion and biocompatibility results presented in this article, and its long track record as an implant material demonstrate that the cobalt superalloy is an appropriate material for permanent surgical implants that require high yield strength and fatigue resistance combined with high elastic modulus, and that it can be safely imaged with magnetic resonance.

  6. Glove powder's carrying capacity for latex protein: analysis using the ASTM ELISA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, D; Horton, K; Hickey, V; Daddona, J; Kostyal, D

    2003-01-01

    Glove donning powders carry latex proteins and disperse them into the workplace environment. We have used the ASTM D6499 ELISA to quantify the amount of latex antigen bound to and carried by glove powders. We could differentiate between a small amount of protein actually bound to the powders and a larger amount carried by the powder. Enhanced binding of a major allergen, Hev b 5, to the starch powders was demonstrated by Western blot. The D6499 ELISA is able to measure total latex antigen, soluble and powder bound, simultaneously without the need to centrifuge the samples.

  7. Application of ASTM E-1559 Apparatus to Study H2O Desorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Perry, Radford, III; Meadows, George A.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA James Webb Space Telescope project identified a need to measure water vapor desorption from cryogenic surfaces in order to validate predictions of spacecraft design performance. A review of available scientific literature indicated no such measurements had been reported below 131 K. Contamination control personnel at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center recognized the possibility they readily possessed the means to collect these measurements at lower temperatures using an existing apparatus commonly employed for making outgassing observations. This presentation will relate how the ASTM E-1559 Molekit apparatus was used without physical modification to measure water vapor sublimation down to 120 K and compare this data to existing equilibrium vapor pressure models.

  8. Data development for ASTM E24.06.02 round robin program on instability prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccabe, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Basis data for use in an ASTM E24.06.02 task group round robin activity was developed. Compact specimens were made of 2024-T351, 7075-T651 aluminum alloys, and 304 stainless steel. All were 12.7 mm thick and planar dimension variables incorporated were for 1T, 2T and 4T sizes. Representative raw data for each material and specimen size are contained herein. R-curves plotted in terms of delta a physical and delta a effective are plotted for each material.

  9. Mechanical behaviour of Astm A 297 grade Hp joints welded using different processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emygdio, Paulo Roberto Oliveira; Zeemann, Annelise; Almeida, Luiz Henrique de

    1996-01-01

    The influence of different arc welding processes on mechanical behaviour was studied for cast heat resistant stainless steel welded joints, in the as welded conditions. ASTM A 297 grade HP with niobium and niobium/titanium additions were welded following three different welding procedures, using shielded metal arc welding gas tungsten arc welding and plasma arc welding, in six welded joints. The welded joint mechanical behaviour was evaluated by ambient temperature and 870 deg C tensile tests; and creep tests at 900 deg C and 50 MPa. Mechanical test results showed that the welding procedure qualification following welding codes is not suitable for high temperature service applications. (author)

  10. Application of MCDM based hybrid optimization tool during turning of ASTM A588

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri Majumder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-criteria decision making approach is one of the most troublesome tools for solving the tangled optimization problems in the machining area due to its capability of solving the complex optimization problems in the production process. Turning is widely used in the manufacturing processes as it offers enormous advantages like good quality product, customer satisfaction, economical and relatively easy to apply. A contemporary approach, MOORA coupled with PCA, was used to ascertain an optimal combination of input parameters (spindle speed, depth of cut and feed rate for the given output parameters (power consumption, average surface roughness and frequency of tool vibration using L27 orthogonal array for turning on ASTM A588 mild steel. Comparison between MOORA-PCA and TOPSIS-PCA shows the effectiveness of MOORA over TOPSIS method. The optimum parameter combination for multi-performance characteristics has been established for ASTM A588 mild steel are spindle speed 160 rpm, depth of cut 0.1 mm and feed rate 0.08 mm/rev. Therefore, this study focuses on the application of the hybrid MCDM approach as a vital selection making tool to deal with multi objective optimization problems.

  11. A Knowledge- Based Computer System for UO2 Characterization According to ASTM Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, Y.K.; El-Hakim, E.

    2000-01-01

    The uranium dioxde (UO 2 ) powder properties and the pellets fabrication processes determine the characteristics of the sintered UO 2 pellets. The powder properties include chemical and physical characteristics. The physical and chemical properties of UO 2 powder are normally checked to ensure consistency and reproducibility of the sintered UO 2 pellets. Powder characteristics are known to influence the subsequent manufacturing performance or the fuel properties. The aim of this paper is to provide the nuclear industry with a program dealing with the processes and the related requirements to determine the specifications of UO 2 powder according to the American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM). This program covers the physical and chemical characteristics of UO 2 powder. A group of logic flow charts dealing with the data and information available in the ASTM for each step in the characterization of UO 2 powder process and the technical assistance are constructed. These logic flow charts are collected to form a module of the software to qualify the UO 2 powder. The program contains 8 modules, each one deals with one object. This program saves time, is also considered as a collective schema for all the required UO 2 powder characterization and the related processes, and could be used as a training tool for less skilled personnel involved in UO 2 powder characterization laboratories

  12. Relation between the national handbook of recommended methods for water data acquisition and ASTM standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Skinner, John V.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1950's, intense demands for water and growing concerns about declines in the quality of water generated the need for more water-resources data. About thirty Federal agencies, hundreds of State, county and local agencies, and many private organizations had been collecting water data. However, because of differences in procedures and equipment, many of the data bases were incompatible. In 1964, as a step toward establishing more uniformity, the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget, OMB) issued 'Circular A-67' which presented guidelines for collecting water data and also served as a catalyst for creating the Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC) within the U.S. Geological Survey. This paper discusses past, present, and future aspects of the relation between methods in the National Handbook and standards published by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Committee D-19 on Water's Subcommittee D-19.07 on Sediment, Geomorphology, and Open Channel Flow. The discussion also covers historical aspects of standards - development work jointly conducted by OWDC and ASTM.

  13. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  14. ASTM clustering for improving coal analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, J M; Bona, M T

    2006-11-15

    Multivariate analysis techniques have been applied to near-infrared (NIR) spectra coals to investigate the relationship between nine coal properties (moisture (%), ash (%), volatile matter (%), fixed carbon (%), heating value (kcal/kg), carbon (%), hydrogen (%), nitrogen (%) and sulphur (%)) and the corresponding predictor variables. In this work, a whole set of coal samples was grouped into six more homogeneous clusters following the ASTM reference method for classification prior to the application of calibration methods to each coal set. The results obtained showed a considerable improvement of the error determination compared with the calibration for the whole sample set. For some groups, the established calibrations approached the quality required by the ASTM/ISO norms for laboratory analysis. To predict property values for a new coal sample it is necessary the assignation of that sample to its respective group. Thus, the discrimination and classification ability of coal samples by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) in the NIR range was also studied by applying Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) techniques. Modelling of the groups by SIMCA led to overlapping models that cannot discriminate for unique classification. On the other hand, the application of Linear Discriminant Analysis improved the classification of the samples but not enough to be satisfactory for every group considered.

  15. Cavitation erosion - corrosion behaviour of ASTM A27 runner steel in natural river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tôn-Thât, L

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation erosion is still one of the most important degradation modes in hydraulic turbine runners. Part of researches in this field focuses on finding new materials, coatings and surface treatments to improve the resistance properties of runners to this phenomenon. However, only few studies are focused on the deleterious effect of the environment. Actually, in some cases a synergistic effect between cavitation erosion mechanisms and corrosion kinetics can establish and increase erosion rate. In the present study, the cavitation erosion-corrosion behaviour of ASTM A27 steel in natural river water is investigated. This paper state the approach which has been used to enlighten the synergy between both phenomena. For this, a 20 kHz vibratory test according ASTM G32 standard is coupled to an electrochemical cell to be able to follow the different corrosion parameters during the tests to get evidence of the damaging mechanism. Moreover, mass losses have been followed during the exposure time. The classical degradation parameters (cumulative weight loss and erosion rate) are determined. Furthermore, a particular effort has been implemented to determine the evolution of surface damages in terms of pitting, surface cracking, material removal and surface corrosion. For this, scanning electron microscopy has been used to link the microstructure to the material removal mechanisms

  16. Weldability examination of ASTM A 240 S41500 martensitic stainless steel by thermal cycles simulation testings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Velázquez-del Rosario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The weldability assets of ASTM A 240 S41500 (ASTM A 240/A 240M martensitic stainless steel are presented through the study of the effects of single and double thermal weld cycles on mechanical properties and microstructure of base metal (BM and the artificial heat affected zone (HAZ created by thermal weld simulations. For single cycles, separate peak temperatures of 1000 ºC/12 s and 1350 ºC/12 s (cooling times: 12 s in both cases were evaluated, whilst two combinations of peak temperatures: (1350 ºC/5 s + 1000 ºC/5 s ºC and (1350 ºC/12 s + 1000 ºC/12 s ºC (cooling times: 5 s and 12 s, were applied for double cycles. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT with short and long holding times were applied and Vickers hardness, impact toughness and metallographic examinations were used in order to assess mechanical and metallographic properties in the as-simulated (no heat treated and postweld heat treated conditions. Best properties of the welded joint for double thermal weld cycles with long holding times were reached, which reveals the good weldability and applicability of the tested material in post weld heat treated conditions.

  17. Chronic ankle pain and fibrosis successfully treated with a new noninvasive augmented soft tissue mobilization technique (ASTM): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melham, T J; Sevier, T L; Malnofski, M J; Wilson, J K; Helfst, R H

    1998-06-01

    This clinical case report demonstrates the clinical effectiveness of a new form of soft tissue mobilization in the treatment of excessive connective tissue fibrosis (scar tissue) around an athlete's injured ankle. The scar tissue was causing the athlete to have pain with activity, pain on palpation of the ankle, decreased range of motion, and loss of function. Surgery and several months of conventional physical therapy failed to alleviate the athlete's symptoms. As a final resort, augmented soft tissue mobilization (ASTM) was administered. ASTM is an alternative nonsurgical treatment modality that is being researched at Performance Dynamics (Muncip, IN). ASTM is a process that uses ergonomically designed instruments that assist therapists in the rapid localization and effective treatment of areas exhibiting excessive soft tissue fibrosis. This is followed by a stretching and strengthening program. Upon the completion of 6 wk of ASTM therapy, the athlete had no pain and had regained full range of motion and function. This case report is an example of how a noninvasive augmented form of soft tissue mobilization (ASTM) demonstrated impressive clinical results in treating a condition caused by connective tissue fibrosis.

  18. The role of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) in providing standards to support reliability technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    ASTM is an international society for managing the development of standards on characteristics and performance of materials, products, systems and services and the promotion of related knowledge. This paper provides on overview of ASTM, emphasizing its contribution to nuclear systems reliability. In so doing, the author, from his perspective as chairman of ASTM committee E 10 on ''Nuclear Applications and the Measurement of Radiation Effects and the Committee on Standards'', illustrates ASTM contributions to the understanding and control of radiation embrittlement of light-water reactor pressure vessels. Four major related taks are summarized and pertinent standards identified. These include: (1) surveillance practice (5 standards), (2) neutron dosimetry (8 standards), (3) specification for steels for nuclear service (7 standards) and (4) basic guidelines for thermal annealing to correct radiation embrittlement (1 standard). This illustration, a specific accomplishment using ASTM standards, is cited within the context of the broader nuclear-related activities of ASTM. (author)

  19. Summary: Update to ASTM guide E 1523 to charge control and charge referencing techniques in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    An updated version of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide E 1523 to the methods to charge control and charge referencing techniques in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been released by ASTM [Annual Book of ASTM Standards Surface Analysis (American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2004), Vol. 03.06]. The guide is meant to acquaint x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) users with the various charge control and charge referencing techniques that are and have been used in the acquisition and interpretation of XPS data from surfaces of insulating specimens. The current guide has been expanded to include new references as well as recommendations for reporting information on charge control and charge referencing. The previous version of the document had been published in 1997 [D. R. Baer and K. D. Bomben, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 754 (1998)

  20. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Louthan, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); PNNL, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  1. Hardness optimization of boride diffusion layer on Astm F-75 alloy using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguelles O, J. L.; Corona R, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de Materiales, San Luis Potosi 78000, SLP (Mexico); Marquez H, A.; Saldana R, A. L.; Saldana R, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Ingenieria Mecanica Agricola DICIVA, Irapuato, Guanajuato 36500 (Mexico); Moreno P, J., E-mail: amarquez@ugto.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Minas, Metalurgia y Geologia, Ex-Hacienda San Matias s/n, Guanajuato, Guanajuato 36020 (Mexico)

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the Response Surface Methodology (Rsm) and Central Composite Design (Ccd) were used to optimize the hardness of boride diffusion layer on Astm F-75 alloy (also called Haynes alloy). A boronizing thermochemical treatment was carried out at different temperatures and for different time periods. Hardness tests were conducted. The boride diffusion layer was verified by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicating the formation of Co B, Co{sub 2}B, Cr B and Mo{sub 2}B phases. An optimal hardness of 3139.7 Hv was obtained for the samples subjected to the boriding process for a duration of 6.86 h at 802.4 degrees Celsius. (Author)

  2. Corrosion resistance and microstructure of alloy 625 weld overlay on ASTM A516 grade 70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Mohammad J. [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Ketabchi, Mostafa [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Dept.

    2016-02-01

    Nickel-based alloys are a crucial class of materials because of their excellent corrosion resistance. In the present study, single layer and two layers alloy 625 weld overlays were deposited by GTAW process on A516 grade 70 carbon steel. The dilution in terms of Fe, Ni, Mo and Nb content was calculated in 30 points of weld overlay. Microstructure observations showed that alloy 625 had austenitic structure with two types of Laves and NbC secondary phases. The uniform and pitting corrosion resistance of alloy 625 weld overlay as casted and as forged were evaluated in accordance with ASTM G48-2011 standard at different temperatures to determine the weight loss and critical pitting temperature. For achieving a better comparison, samples from alloy 625 as casted and as forged were tested under the same conditions. The results point out that single layer alloy 625 weld overlay is not suitable for chloride containing environments, two layers alloy 625 weld overlay and alloy 625 as casted have acceptable corrosion resistance and almost the same critical pitting temperature. Alloy 625 as forged has the best corrosion resistance and the highest critical pitting temperature among all test specimens. Also, the corrosion behavior was evaluated in accordance with ASTM G28 standard. The corrosion rate of single layer weld overlay was unacceptable. The average corrosion rate of two layers weld overlay and in casted condition were 35.82 and 33.01 mpy, respectively. [German] Nickellegierungen sind aufgrund ihres exzellenten Korrosionswiderstandes eine bedeutende Werkstoffklasse. In der diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurden mittels WIG-Schweissens ein- und zweilagige Schweissplattierungen auf den Kohlenstoffstahl A516 (Grade 70) aufgebracht. Die Vermischung in Form des Fe-, Ni-, Mo- und Nb-Gehaltes wurde an 30 Punkten der Schweissplattierungen berechnet. Die mikrostrukturellen Untersuchungen ergaben, dass die Legierung 625 eine austenitische Struktur mit zwei Arten von

  3. Determination of CTOD C in Fibre Metal Laminates by ASTM and Schwalbe Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Castrodeza

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs have arisen as a demand of the aeronautical industry to use thin sheets with high resistance to fatigue crack growth, high damage tolerance, corrosion resistance and high specific strength. Considering these requirements, FMLs are an advantageous choice when compared to metal alloys currently used. In order to employ FMLs in aircraft structures, designers must hold a deep knowledge of a wide set of their properties including fracture toughness. The aim of this work was to evaluate the available methodologies to measure fracture toughness at instability (CTOD C in unidirectional fibre metal laminates reinforced with aramid fibres (ARALL®. To achieve this, tests were performed to obtain traditional and Schwalbe CTODs by using experimental ASTM based techniques, especially adapted to these laminates. Results achieved point out that Schwalbe method is more appropriate and also that there are differences between both CTOD parameters.

  4. Comparisons of ASTM standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ASTM standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC's Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review

  5. Comparative study between EDXRF and ASTM E572 methods using two-way ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummenauer, A.; Veit, H. M.; Zoppas-Ferreira, J.

    2018-03-01

    Comparison with reference method is one of the necessary requirements for the validation of non-standard methods. This comparison was made using the experiment planning technique with two-way ANOVA. In ANOVA, the results obtained using the EDXRF method, to be validated, were compared with the results obtained using the ASTM E572-13 standard test method. Fisher's tests (F-test) were used to comparative study between of the elements: molybdenum, niobium, copper, nickel, manganese, chromium and vanadium. All F-tests of the elements indicate that the null hypothesis (Ho) has not been rejected. As a result, there is no significant difference between the methods compared. Therefore, according to this study, it is concluded that the EDXRF method was approved in this method comparison requirement.

  6. ASTM and VAMAS activities in titanium matrix composites test methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.; Harmon, D. M.; Bartolotta, P. A.; Russ, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium matrix composites (TMC's) are being considered for a number of aerospace applications ranging from high performance engine components to airframe structures in areas that require high stiffness to weight ratios at temperatures up to 400 C. TMC's exhibit unique mechanical behavior due to fiber-matrix interface failures, matrix cracks bridged by fibers, thermo-viscoplastic behavior of the matrix at elevated temperatures, and the development of significant thermal residual stresses in the composite due to fabrication. Standard testing methodology must be developed to reflect the uniqueness of this type of material systems. The purpose of this paper is to review the current activities in ASTM and Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) that are directed toward the development of standard test methodology for titanium matrix composites.

  7. Heat treatment evaluation of steel ASTM A-131 grade A by X-Ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Francisco; Feio, Luciana Gaspar; Costa, Ednelson Silva; Rodrigues, Lino Alberto Soares; Braga, Eduardo Magalhaes, E-mail: juniorferrer93@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, PA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: This study evaluates the residual stress of naval steel ASTM A-131 grade A before and after heat treatment. Residual stresses were determined by the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD). Before heat treatment the residual stress measurements were made at 36 (thirty six) points distributed in a specimen with dimensions of 400 mm long, 200 mm wide and 95 mm thick, then the plate under analysis was brought to the oven for the implementation of heat treatment. To check the performance of the heat treatment, the plate was again subjected to XRD measurements of the same points previously measured in order to compare the residual stresses. As result, there was a reduction of residual stresses with the application of heat treatment. References: [1] COLPAERT, H. Metalografia dos Produtos Siderurgicos Comuns. 4 Edição. Editora Blucher. Saõ Paulo, SP, 2008. [2] HILL, R. Princípios de Metalurgia Física, 1992. (author)

  8. Designing cathodic protection systems for marine structures and vehicles. ASTM special technical publication 1370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, H.P. [ed.

    1999-07-01

    Cathodic protection is an important method of protecting structures and ships from the corrosive effects of seawater. Poor designs can be far more costly to implement than optimal designs, Improper design can cause overprotection, with resulting paint blistering and accelerated corrosion of some alloys, underprotection, with resultant structure corrosion, or stray current corrosion of nearby structures. The first ASTM symposium specifically aimed at cathodic protection in seawater was intended to compile all the criteria and philosophy for designing both sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems for structures and vehicles in seawater. The papers which are included in this STP are significant in that they summarize the major seawater cathodic protection system design philosophies. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  9. Phases Evolution of an ASTM 335 steel under continuous cooling P91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, D.A; Danon, C.A; Ramos, C.P

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of the cooling rate on phase transformations and the resulting microstructure in continuous cooling cycles for an ASTM A335 P91 steel, under fixed austenization conditions. The CCT (Continuous Cooling Transformation) diagram of this material is reported in the literature, so the main phase fields are known. The final structure of the samples depends on the austenitic grain size and the cooling rate. The studied samples were austenized at 1050 o C for 30 minutes and then cooled at different rates between 50 o C/h and 300 o C/h. The identification and characterization of the phases was carried out by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. From the results so obtained, additions to the CCT diagram of the material are proposed, providing new information to it

  10. Corrosion resistant properties and weldabilities of ASTM Grade 12 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumori, Yoshikatsu; Itoh, Hideo

    1988-01-01

    Plates, sheets, bars, wires and thinner seam-welded tubings were manufactured from large-scaled ingot of ASTM Grade 12 alloy (Ti-0.8Ni-0.3Mo). The processability of G-12 alloy has proved almost similar to that of conventional commercially pure titanium grades. It has been clarified that the G-12 alloy showed several advantageous features: Chlorides-Crevice corrosion resistance of the alloy was almost equals to G-7 and Pd0/TiO 2 coated titanium, and the maximum allowable stress was able to be designed higher than that of commercially pure titanium. This alloy has been in applications also offers where such environments as seawater, brines and moist chlorine, various oil refinery and chemical industries, and others. (author)

  11. Effects of heat treatment to the sound velocity and microstructural changes of ASTM A516 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasiah Abdul Kasim; Azali Muhammad; Amry Amin Abas; Zaiton Selamat

    2010-01-01

    Full-text: The used of ultrasonic testing as a thickness measurement for structural components (pipeline and pressure vessel) is among the popular inspection tool widely use in the industrial power plant such as at petrochemical and nuclear power plant. Currently, there are cases where the thickness grows and the result will affect the reliability of the test. There are many factors that can affect the reliability of measurement. One of it is the material under test itself. In the Malaysian Nuclear Agency, initial efforts are underway to study the understanding on the effects of heat treatment to the sound velocity and microstructure changes of ASTM A516 steel. Few samples of thin square shaped prepared were heat treated under the following conditions: austenitization at 9800 degree Celsius - 2 hours, quenching; tempering at various temperature 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000 degree Celsius. The results show that the microstructure changes and samples exhibit different sound velocity at different heat treatment. (author)

  12. Microstructure evolution of ASTM 335 P91 steel, subjected to continuous cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, D.A; Danon, C.A; Ramos, C.P

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of the cooling rate on an isothermal phase transformations in ASTM A335 P91 steel, by the analysis of the resulting microstructure after several continuous cooling cycles under fixed austenization conditions. The CCT (Continuous Cooling Transformation) diagram of this material has already been reported in the literature, so the main phase fields are known, and they depend on the austenitic grain size and the cooling rate. Five samples were tested in a dilatometer, they were austenized and then cooled at different rates between 50 o C/h and 300 o C/h. The identification and characterization of the resulting phases was carried out by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Mossbauer Spectroscopy. The obtained results allowed to add information about the presence of retained austenite and (Fe,Cr) 3 C - type carbides to the CCT diagram of the material (author)

  13. Determination of ASTM 1016 structural welded joints fracture toughness through J integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Geraldo de Paula; Villela, Jefferson Jose; Terra, Jose Lucio; Rabello, Emerson Giovani; Martins, Geraldo Antonio Scoralick; Carneiro, Jose Rubens Goncalves

    2009-01-01

    Fracture toughness is an important parameter for studies of materials behavior in nuclear and conventional industry. Crack propagation resistance is, in general, evaluate using one of the fracture mechanics parameters K IC , for the case of the materials that exhibits a linear elastic behavior, the CTOD (crack tip opening displacement) and J IC , the critical value of J Integral, for the case of materials with elastic-plastic behavior. On this work the fracture mechanics parameters of the ASTM 1016 structural steel welded joints were obtained, using the J Integral. Charpy V tests at several temperatures were also obtained, with the purpose to obtain the curves of ductile-brittle of the regions of the welded joints: Base Metal, (MB), and Melted Zone (MZ). The joints were welded by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) with V bevel for evaluation the MZ toughness properties. The tests were accomplished at temperatures varying from -100 deg C to 100 deg C using the technical of compliance variation for J IC determination, the critical value that defines the initial stable crack growth, that applies to brittle and ductile materials. The J Integral alternative specimens has square cross section 10mmX10mm, according ASTM E 1820, with notch localized respectively at the BM and MZ. After the tests, the specimens fractured were analyzed in a scanning microscopic electronic (SME) for verification of the fracture surface. The fractography of the specimens at elevated temperatures presented dimples at the region of stable crack growth, characteristic of ductile fracture. The results of J Integral and Charpy V presented a good correlation between these two parameters. From these correlations it can be concluded that in some applications, the use Charpy V energy to infer fracture toughness can be substitute the Integral J tests. (author)

  14. Effects of the normalizing time and temperature on the impact properties of ASTM A-516 grade 70 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, T.; Cescon, T.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of normalizing time and temperature, as well as the plate thickness, on the impact properties of ASTM A-516 grade 70 steel, is studied. Results show that different normalizing conditions may lead to equivalent microstructure with different impact properties. Normalizing conditions that cause low cooling rate in the critical zone exhibit banded microstructure with inferior impact properties. (Author) [pt

  15. Standard test method for compressive strength of grouts for preplaced-aggregate concrete in the laboratory. ASTM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    DoD adopted. This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-9 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C09.41 on Concrete for Radiation Shielding. Current edition approved Feb. 10, 1986 and published October 1998. Originally published as C 942-81. Last previous edition was C 942-86(1991)

  16. Standard test method for static leaching of monolithic waste forms for disposal of radioactive waste. ASTM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-26 on Nuclear Fuel Cycles and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C26.07 on Waste Materials. The current edition was approved July 10, 1998, and published in October 1998. It was originally published as C 1220-92. The last previous edition was C 1220-92

  17. Vacuum decay container/closure integrity testing technology. Part 1. ASTM F2338-09 precision and bias studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Heinz; Stauffer, Tony; Chen, Shu-Chen Y; Lee, Yoojin; Forster, Ronald; Ludzinski, Miron; Kamat, Madhav; Godorov, Phillip; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2009-01-01

    ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method is applicable for leak-testing rigid and semi-rigid non-lidded trays; trays or cups sealed with porous barrier lidding materials; rigid, nonporous packages; and flexible, nonporous packages. Part 1 of this series describes the precision and bias studies performed in 2008 to expand this method's scope to include rigid, nonporous packages completely or partially filled with liquid. Round robin tests using three VeriPac 325/LV vacuum decay leak testers (Packaging Technologies & Inspection, LLC, Tuckahoe, NY) were performed at three test sites. Test packages were 1-mL glass syringes. Positive controls had laser-drilled holes in the barrel ranging from about 5 to 15 microm in nominal diameter. Two different leak tests methods were performed at each site: a "gas leak test" performed at 250 mbar (absolute) and a "liquid leak test" performed at about 1 mbar (absolute). The gas leak test was used to test empty, air-filled syringes. All defects with holes > or = 5.0 microm and all no-defect controls were correctly identified. The only false negative result was attributed to a single syringe with a ASTM F2338-09 test method and the precision and bias study report are available by contacting ASTM International in West Conshohocken, PA, USA (www.astm.org).

  18. Oxidación cíclica de un acero refractario AISI 310 a alta temperatura en atmósferas con contenidos de oxígeno variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuera-Hidalgo, V.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available High temperature oxidation tests of an AISI 310 stainless steel was performed in two different environments: in an standard atmosphere (21 % oxygen at 704, 800, 884 and 1,000 °C and in the typical environment of a gas turbine and vapor generator of a combined-cycle electric generation unit (10 % oxygen at 800 and 1,000 °C. The oxidation kinetics was determined by means of the measurement of the weight gain per unit surface of the specimen and also determining the thickness of the oxide layer. Comparable results have been obtained using both methodologies and the effect of the oxygen content along with the other experimental differences were determined observing the oxidation kinetics in both environments. The cyclic oxidation of AISI 310 deteriorates at temperatures higher than 1,000 °C.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio experimental sobre la oxidación a altas temperaturas de un acero inoxidable refractario AISI 310, en dos ambientes diferentes: en una atmósfera convencional (21 % de O2, a 704, 800, 884 y 1.000 °C y en un ambiente simulativo de una turbina de gas y del generador de vapor de uña central eléctrica de ciclo combinado (10-11 % de O2, a 800 y 1.000 °C. La cinética de la oxidación del material se ha determinado a partir, tanto de la ganancia de peso por unidad de superficie experimentada por las probetas objeto de ensayo como por la determinación de los espesores de las capas de óxido formados. Se han obtenido resultados comparables con ambas metodologías y se ha puesto de manifiesto el efecto del contenido de oxígeno y de las demás diferencias experimentales a partir de la comparación de las cinéticas de oxidación del acero en los dos medios oxidantes analizados. La oxidación del acero AISI 310 en situaciones térmicas cíclicas empieza ya a ser importante a partir de una temperatura de 1.000 °C.

  19. European experiences of the proposed ASTM test method for crack arrest toughness of ferritic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jutla, T.; Lidbury, D.P.G.; Ziebs, J.; Zimmermann, C.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed ASTM test method for measuring the crack arrest toughness of ferritic materials using wedge-loaded, side-grooved, compact specimens was applied to three steels: A514 bridge steel, A588 bridge steel, and A533B pressure vessel steel. Five sets of results from different laboratories are discussed here. Notches were prepared by spark erosion, although root radii varied from ∝0.1-1.5 mm. Although fast fractures were successfully initiated, arrest did not occur in a significant number of cases. The results showed no obvious dependence of crack arrest toughness, K a , (determined by a static analysis) on crack initiation toughness, K 0 . It was found that K a decreases markedly with increasing crack jump distance. A limited amount of further work on smaller specimens of the A533B steel showed that lower K a values tended to be recorded. It is concluded that a number of points relating to the proposed test method and notch preparation are worthy of further consideration. It is pointed out that the proposed validity criteria may screen out lower bound data. Nevertheless, for present practical purposes, K a values may be regarded as useful in providing an estimate of arrest toughness - although not necessarily a conservative estimate. (orig./HP)

  20. Silicon Damage Response Function Derivation and Verification: Assessment of Impact on ASTM Standard E722

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depriest, Kendall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Unsuccessful attempts by members of the radiation effects community to independently derive the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) damage energy factors for silicon in ASTM standard E722-14 led to an investigation of the software coding and data that produced those damage energy factors. The ad hoc collaboration to discover the reason for lack of agreement revealed a coding error and resulted in a report documenting the methodology to produce the response function for the standard. The recommended changes in the NRT damage energy factors for silicon are shown to have significant impact for a narrow energy region of the 1-MeV(Si) equivalent fluence response function. However, when evaluating integral metrics over all neutrons energies in various spectra important to the SNL electronics testing community, the change in the response results in a small decrease in the total 1- MeV(Si) equivalent fluence of ~0.6% compared to the E722-14 response. Response functions based on the newly recommended NRT damage energy factors have been produced and are available for users of both the NuGET and MCNP codes.

  1. Simplification and transformation of ASTM F1292 measurement procedure for fall accident injury criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Maki; Shimodaira, Yoshie; Sato, Takeshi; Iida, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Protecting children from injuries caused by fall accidents from playground equipment is important. Therefore, measures toward minimizing the risk of fall accident injuries are required. The risk of injury can be evaluated using ASTM F1292. In this test, G-max and the HIC are used to estimate the risk of injury. However, the measurement procedure is too complicated for application to a large number of installed equipment. F1292 requires simplified by reducing the number of phases, even with a small risk of loss in accuracy. With this in mind, this study proposes a shortened measurement procedure and a transformation equation to estimate the risk as same as F1292. As the result of experiments, it was revealed that G-max and the HIC values for both procedures linearly increase with drop height. The differences in outcomes between the regression equations of the standardized procedure and those of the shortened procedure can be used as a correction value. They can be added to the value measured by the shortened procedure. This suggests that the combination of the shortened procedure and transformation equation would be equivalent to F1292, with the advantage of being more easily and efficiently applied to the evaluation of installed playground equipment.

  2. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Compression Strength Measurements Conducted According to ASTM E9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, William E.; Ma, Li; Graham, Stephen M.; Adler, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Ten commercial laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to establish the repeatability and reproducibility of compression strength tests conducted according to ASTM International Standard Test Method E9. The test employed a cylindrical aluminum AA2024-T351 test specimen. Participants measured elastic modulus and 0.2 % offset yield strength, YS(0.2 % offset), using an extensometer attached to the specimen. The repeatability and reproducibility of the yield strength measurement, expressed as coefficient of variations were cv(sub r)= 0.011 and cv(sub R)= 0.020 The reproducibility of the test across the laboratories was among the best that has been reported for uniaxial tests. The reported data indicated that using diametrically opposed extensometers, instead of a single extensometer doubled the precision of the test method. Laboratories that did not lubricate the ends of the specimen measured yield stresses and elastic moduli that were smaller than those measured in laboratories that lubricated the specimen ends. A finite element analysis of the test specimen deformation for frictionless and perfect friction could not explain the discrepancy, however. The modulus measured from stress-strain data were reanalyzed using a technique that finds the optimal fit range, and applies several quality checks to the data. The error in modulus measurements from stress-strain curves generally increased as the fit range decreased to less than 40 % of the stress range.

  3. OPTIMIZACION DE LAS PROPIEDADES DE TRANSPORTE IONICO DEL CONCRETO Y SIMULACION DEL ENSAYO ASTM C1202

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN LIZARAZO MARRIAGA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de la simulación computacional del flujo de los principales iones presentes (Cl-, OH-, Na+, y K+ en un ensayo ASTM C1202: "Indicación eléctrica de la resistencia del concreto a la penetración de Iones cloruro". Para la modelación se utilizó un esquema de diferencias finitas definido mediante la ecuación de Nernst - Plank con un campo eléctrico variable, la cual describe los movimientos iónicos en un material poroso saturado. Para lograr esto, los resultados de un nuevo ensayo electroquímico diseñado para medir el potencial de membrana, en compañía de la corriente eléctrica, fueron optimizados para obtener los coeficientes intrínsicos de difusión, la composición inicial de la solución de poros, la capacidad de fijación de cloruros y la porosidad de la mezcla de concreto.

  4. The new ASTM Manual for scrubber linings the evolution of a consensus guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spires, G.V.; Cavallo, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Faced with spiraling fuel oil costs, power utilities turned to abundant and inexpensive domestic coal and lignite. Conversions and new units designed to burn solid fossil fuels were pursued at a near crisis pace to get out from under the economic penalties associated with the continued use of oil. Coal contains much more sulfur than oil; EPA limitations on SO 2 necessitated costly flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems when burning coal. Scrubbed gas presented a particularly corrosive environment in and downstream from the FGD system. Problems which often accompany a new technology were soon evident. Materials and linings initially selected were often seen to be inadequate. Severe and rapid degradation was commonplace. This paper traces the development of the recently published ASTM Manual of Protective Linings From Flue Gas Desulfurization System. The scope of the Manual is outlined and some of the more commonly used FGD lining systems are reviewed. Finally some views on the impact of foreseeable changes in regulations and FGD technology on the use and maintenance of FGD system linings are discussed

  5. Characterization of ASTM A335 P92 steel in continuous cooling cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xaubet, M. N.; Danón, C. A.; Ramos, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    The operating conditions demanded by Generation IV reactors include high temperatures, higher radiation doses and highly corrosive environments. Among the structural materials proposed both for in-core and out-of-core applications, elevated-temperature P91/P92 ferritic/martensitic steels have been considered. This work studies the transformation behavior and microstructural evolution of ASTM A335 P92 steel in continuous cooling cycles (CCT). The material was austenized at 1050 ºC and afterwards cooled down at controlled rates (300, 50 and 15 ºC/h). The determination and characterization of the phases present in the samples was performed by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Samples whose cooling rates were on the limits of the studied range (300 and 15 ºC/h) presented completely martensitic and completely ferritic structures, respectively. The sample cooled down at intermediate rate exhibited, though, a mixed structure of martensite and ferrite. Second-phase precipitation has also been observed in all the samples. (author)

  6. Tekken tests in a steel 'ASTM A 514 GR B' to determine the preheating temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Hector Juan; Zalazar, Monica; Asta, Eduardo Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Cold fissure tests are used to determine the proper preheating temperature in order to prevent fissures during the steel welding process. Tekken tests were carried out on a quenched and tempered high resistance 25.4 mm thick steel (ASTM A514 Gr.B) used in structural applications. The welding was carried out using a FCAW semiautomatic process with gas protection and low hydrogen tubular electrode E110T5-K4. Similar parameters and splicing design were later applied in production. The microstructures of the base material and the welding were determined by optic and electron microscopy. The thermal cycles of the welding were recorded in order to relate the preheating temperature with the cooling time from 800 o C - 500 o C (t 8/5 ) and from 800 o C - 100 o C (tg/1) and the presence or not of fissures. Preheating at 150 o C and t 8/5 greater than 17 s was found to guarantee fissure free welding (CW)

  7. Tekken testing to determine the preheating temperature on ASTM A514 GR B steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asta, Eduardo; Zalazar, Monica; Quesada, Hector

    2003-01-01

    The cold cracking test methods are used to determine the preheating temperature in order to avoid cracking in steel welding.In this work Tekken tests on high strength quenching and tempering (ASTM A514 GrB) structural steel with a thickness of 25 mm have been made.The welds were done using a FCAW process with gas shielding and basic low hydrogen cored wire E 110T5-K4.The welding parameters and joint design applied in this work are similar to the ones used on site production.The base metal, HAZ and weld metal microstructure have been evaluated by optical and SEM microscopy.Thermal cycles records of each welding have been made to relate preheat temperature with the cooling time on the range of 800-500 degC (t8/5) or 800-100degC (t8/1) and the evidence of crack or no crack condition.Finally, a preheat temperature of 150degC and the cooling time larger than 17 s improve a welding integrity without cracks

  8. Heat treatment temperature influence on ASTM A890 GR 6A super duplex stainless steel microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Duplex and super duplex stainless steels are ferrous alloys with up to 26% chromium, 8% nickel, 5% molybdenum and 0.3% nitrogen, which are largely used in applications in media containing ions from the halogen family, mainly the chloride ion (Cl - ). The emergence of this material aimed at substituting Copper-Nickel alloys (Cupro-Nickel) that despite presenting good corrosion resistance, has mechanical properties quite inferior to steel properties. The metallurgy of duplex and super duplex stainless steel is complex due to high sensitiveness to sigma phase precipitation that becomes apparent, due to the temperatures they are exposed on cooling from solidification as well as from heat treatment processes. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of heat treating temperatures on the microstructure and hardness of ASTM A890/A890M Gr 6A super duplex stainless steel type. Microstructure control is of extreme importance for castings, as the chemical composition and cooling during solidification inevitably provide conditions for precipitation of sigma phase. Higher hardness in these materials is directly associated to high sigma phase concentration in the microstructure, precipitated in the ferrite/austenite interface. While heat treatment temperature during solution treatment increases, the sigma phase content in the microstructure decreases and consequently, the material hardness diminishes. When the sigma phase was completely dissolved by the heat treatment, the material hardness was influenced only due to ferrite and austenite contents in the microstructure

  9. Status on the selection and development of an embrittlement trend curve to use in ASTM standard guide E900

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, M.; Brian Hall, J.; Server, W.; Lucon, E.; Erickson, M.; Stoller, R.

    2015-01-01

    ASTM E900-07, Standard Guide for Predicting Radiation-Induced Transition Temperature Shift in Reactor Vessel Materials, includes an embrittlement trend curve. The trend curve can be used to predict the effect of neutron irradiation on the embrittlement of ferritic pressure vessel steels, as quantified by the shift in the Charpy V-Notch transition curve at 41 Joules of absorbed energy (ΔT 41J ). The current E900 trend curve was first adopted in the 2002 revision. In 2011 ASTM Subcommittee E10.02 undertook an extensive effort to evaluate the adequacy of the E900 trend curve for continued use. This paper summarizes the current status of this effort, which has produced a trend curve calibrated using a database of over 1800 ΔT 41J values from the light water reactor surveillance programs in thirteen countries. (authors)

  10. Estimation of improved productivity based on materials substitution in high temperature applications. Use of alloy ASTM A-335 P91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serna, J A; Afanador, W

    2001-01-01

    In ECOPETROL-ICP was carried out an evaluation of the mechanical and micro structural properties of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo alloy, ASTM A-335 Gr. P91, finding higher strength mechanical properties, allowable stresses and creep rupture strength, than the conventional 9 Cr-1 Mo alloy, ASTM A-335 Gr. P9, recommending the alloy P91 as substitute tube material in the radiation zone of the Visbreaking heater of Cartagena's refinery (furnace in revamping process). The results obtained permit a thickness reduction of radiation tubes of material P91 close to 25% and increase the internal volume tube over up 8%, which is a parameter to consider in improving productivity and efficiency process. Also would be obtained a significant savings cost in the material among 5 and 10%. Additionally, expectations of both design and remaining useful life would be seen extensively favored with this change of alloy

  11. Mechanical properties of ASTM A508 Class 4 steel used in the LWBR closure head and support flange (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.M.; Hall, J.F.

    1978-07-01

    The LWBR closure head and support flange are manufactured from forgings of ASTM A508 Class 4 steel rather than the ASTM A508 Class 2 forging material more commonly used in reactor vessels and closure heads. Forgings involved were approximately 300,000 pounds and 46,000 pounds. The extensive material test program conducted on ASTM A508 Class 4 LWBR forgings is described. The results of the tests confirm that the A508 Class 4 material used for the LWBR forgings has been quite good through thickness, fracture toughness, and strength properties and fully meet all specified requirements

  12. Standard specification for cobalt-chromium-nickel-molybdenum-tungsten alloy (UNS R31233) plate, sheet and strip. ASTM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt, and Alloys Containing Nickel or Cobalt or Both as Principal Constituents. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as B 818-91. Last previous edition was B 818-93

  13. Comparative Study of API 5L X60 and ASTM 572 Gr50 Steel Exposed to Crude Oil and Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy Viviana Chiquillo Márquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum industry, the biphasic conditions in storage and separation tanks allow that the material to remain exposed to two different environments, causing its deterioration. In this article, an evaluation is made of the corrosive behavior and Vickers microhardness (HV of two high strength low alloy (HSLA steels and how their surfaces are characterized. The ASTM 572 Gr50 steel showed a lower corrosion rate in all systems after being immersed for 720 and 1440 hours. Characterizing the surface by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM showed uniform and localized corrosion for the both steels, and revealed that the ASTM 572 Gr50 steel shows pitting corrosion in crude oil systems. The electrochemical results revealed that the corrosion potential of API X60 steel was more negative; however the ASTM 572 Gr50 steel had a higher current density and a lower polarization resistance when immersed in an oil/seawater mixture. It also observed that, after being immersed in the corrosive fluids, the microstructures of the steels were not modified and variations in their microhardness (HV were minute.

  14. Considerations on the ASTM standards 1789-04 and 1422-05 on the forensic examination of ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Cedric; Margot, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    The ASTM standards on Writing Ink Identification (ASTM 1789-04) and on Writing Ink Comparison (ASTM 1422-05) are the most up-to-date guidelines that have been published on the forensic analysis of ink. The aim of these documents is to cover most aspects of the forensic analysis of ink evidence, from the analysis of ink samples, the comparison of the analytical profile of these samples (with the aim to differentiate them or not), through to the interpretation of the result of the examination of these samples in a forensic context. Significant evolutions in the technology available to forensic scientists, in the quality assurance requirements brought onto them, and in the understanding of frameworks to interpret forensic evidence have been made in recent years. This article reviews the two standards in the light of these evolutions and proposes some practical improvements in terms of the standardization of the analyses, the comparison of ink samples, and the interpretation of ink examination. Some of these suggestions have already been included in a DHS funded project aimed at creating a digital ink library for the United States Secret Service. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Effects of Tempering Temperature and Path on the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of ASTM Gr.92 Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, C. H.; Baek, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, C. B.; Kim, Y. K.; Hong, S. I.

    2009-01-01

    SFR (Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor) is one of the prospective nuclear reactor for the next generation (Gen-IV) systems. The fuel claddings in the SFR are subject to a high fast nuclear irradiation and a high temperature. Fuel technology is a key aspect of an SFR system, with implications for reactor safety, reactor operations, fuel reprocessing technology, and overall system economics. ASTM Gr.92 steel has been considered as the one of the main candidate fuel cladding materials in the design of SFR in that it has higher thermal conductivity as well as dimensional stability under irradiation when compared as austenitic stainless steel. The changes in microstructure and heat-treatment varying M 23 C 6 , MX, M 2 X, and precipitation by ASTM Gr.92 steels to improve high temperature mechanical properties is the attention. According to several researchers, it plays an important role in the mechanical properties of precipitates V, Nb, Cr, C, N as a form of MX and M 2 X precipitates. These fine precipitates formed in the sub- grain by preventing the movement of dislocations in high-temperature mechanical properties will contribute effectively. This study investigated the effects of tempering temperature and heat-treatment path on microstructure and mechanical properties of ASTM Gr.92 steels

  16. Embrittlement of Intercritically Reheated Coarse Grain Heat-Affected Zone of ASTM4130 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liying; Han, Tao; Han, Bin

    2018-04-01

    In this investigation, a thermal welding simulation technique was used to investigate the microstructures and mechanical properties of the intercritically reheated coarse grain heat-affected zone (IR CGHAZ) of ASTM4130 steel. The effect of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the toughness of IR CGHAZ was also analyzed. The toughness of IR CGHAZ was measured by means of Charpy impact, and it is found that IR CGHAZ has the lowest toughness which is much lower than that of the base metal regardless of whether PWHT is applied or not. The as-welded IR CGHAZ is mainly composed of ferrite, martensite, and many blocky M-A constituents distributing along grain boundaries and subgrain boundaries in a near-connected network. Also, the prior austenite grains are still as coarse as those in the coarse grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ). The presence of the blocky M-A constituents and the coarsened austenite grains result in the toughness deterioration of the as-welded IR CGHAZ. Most of the blocky M-A constituents are decomposed to granular bainite due to the effect of the PWHT. However, PWHT cannot refine the prior austenite grains. Thus, the low toughness of IR CGHAZ after PWHT can be attributed to two factors, i.e., the coarsened austenite grains, and the presence of the remaining M-A constituents and granular bainite, which are located at grain boundaries and subgrain boundaries in a near-connected network. The absorbed energy of the IR CGHAZ was increased by about 3.75 times, which means that the PWHT can effectively improve the toughness but it cannot be recovered to the level of base metal.

  17. Fractionation and characterization of particles simulating wear of total joint replacement (TJR) following ASTM standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subrata; Musib, Mrinal

    2011-01-01

    Reactions of bone cells to orthopedic wear debris produced by the articulating motion of total joint replacements (TJRs) are largely responsible for the long-term failure of such replacements. Metal and polyethylene (PE) wear particles isolated from fluids from total joint simulators, as well as particles that are fabricated by other methods, are widely used to study such in vitro cellular response. Prior investigations have revealed that cellular response to wear debris depends on the size, shape, and dose of the particles. Hence, to have a better understanding of the wear-mediated osteolytic process it is important that these particles are well characterized and clinically relevant, both qualitatively, and quantitatively. In this study we have fractionated both ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and Ti particles, into micron (1.0-10.0 μm), submicron (0.2-1.0 μm), and nanoparticle (0.01-0.2 μm) fractions, and characterized them based on the following size-shape descriptors as put forth in ASTM F1877: i) equivalent circle diameter (ECD), ii) aspect ratio (AR), iii) elongation (E), iv) roundness (R), and v) form factor (FF). The mean (± SD) ECDs (in μm) for micron, submicron, and nanoparticles of UHMWPE were 1.652 ± 0.553, 0.270 ± 0.180, and 0.061 ± 0.035, respectively, and for Ti were 1.894 ± 0.667, 0.278 ± 0.180, and 0.055 ± 0.029, respectively. The values for other descriptors were similar (no statistically significant difference). The nanofraction particles were found to be more sphere-like (higher R and FF values, and lower E and AR values) as compared to larger particles. Future experiments will involve use of these well characterized particles for in vitro studies.

  18. Ensaios MSCR segundo as normas ASTM D7405-10a e AASHTO T350-14: um estudo de caso envolvendo ligantes asfálticos modificados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus David Inocente Domingos

    2016-12-01

    especially the AC+rubber and the AC+rubber+PPA. The AC+PPA showed low stress sensitivity and the best results for the parameters R and Jnr at 3,200 Pa either in the ASTM or the AASHTO protocols, which justifies its choice as the best formulation. The data from the modified asphalt binders suggest that the change from the ASTM protocol to the AASHTO one is recommended.

  19. ASTM and ASME-BPE Standards--Complying with the Needs of the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitt, William M

    2011-01-01

    Designing and building a pharmaceutical facility requires the owner, engineer of record, and constructor to be knowledgeable with regard to the industry codes and standards that apply to this effort. Up until 1997 there were no industry standards directed at the needs and requirements of the pharmaceutical industry. Prior to that time it was a patchwork effort at resourcing and adopting nonpharmaceutical-related codes and standards and then modifying them in order to meet the more stringent requirements of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 1997 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) published the first Bioprocessing Equipment (BPE) Standard. Through harmonization efforts this relatively new standard has brought together, scrutinized, and refined industry accepted methodologies together with FDA compliance requirements, and has established an American National Standard that provides a comprehensive set of standards that are integral to the pharmaceutical industry. This article describes various American National Standards, including those developed and published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and how they apply to the pharmaceutical industry. It goes on to discuss the harmonization effort that takes place between the various standards developers in an attempt to prevent conflicts and omissions between the many standards. Also included are examples of tables and figures taken from the ASME-BPE Standard. These examples provide the reader with insight to the relevant content of the ASME-BPE Standard. Designing and building a pharmaceutical facility requires the owner, engineer of record, and constructor to be knowledgeable with regard to the industry codes and standards that apply to this effort. Up until 1997 there were no industry standards directed at the needs and requirements of the pharmaceutical industry. Prior to that time it was a patchwork effort at resourcing and adopting nonpharmaceutical-related codes and

  20. ASTM E 1559 method for measuring material outgassing/deposition kinetics has applications to aerospace, electronics, and semiconductor industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, J. W.; Glassford, A. P. M.; Steakley, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials has published a new standard test method for characterizing time and temperature-dependence of material outgassing kinetics and the deposition kinetics of outgassed species on surfaces at various temperatures. This new ASTM standard, E 1559(1), uses the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) collection measurement approach. The test method was originally developed under a program sponsored by the United States Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) to create a standard test method for obtaining outgassing and deposition kinetics data for spacecraft materials. Standardization by ASTM recognizes that the method has applications beyond aerospace. In particular, the method will provide data of use to the electronics, semiconductor, and high vacuum industries. In ASTM E 1559 the material sample is held in vacuum in a temperature-controlled effusion cell, while its outgassing flux impinges on several QCM's which view the orifice of the effusion cell. Sample isothermal total mass loss (TML) is measured as a function of time from the mass collected on one of the QCM's which is cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the view factor from this QCM to the cell. The amount of outgassed volatile condensable material (VCM) on surfaces at higher temperatures is measured as a function of time during the isothermal outgassing test by controlling the temperatures of the remaining QCM's to selected values. The VCM on surfaces at temperatures in between those of the collector QCM's is determined at the end of the isothermal test by heating the QCM's at a controlled rate and measuring the mass loss from the end of the QCM's as a function of time and temperature. This reevaporation of the deposit collected on the QCM's is referred to as QCM thermogravimetric analysis. Isothermal outgassing and deposition rates can be determined by differentiating the isothermal TML and VCM data, respectively, while the evaporation rates of the species can be obtained as a

  1. Investigating the effect of coil model losses on computational electromagnetic exposure of an ASTM phantom at 64 MHz MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Mikhail; Horner, Marc; Kainz, Wolfgang; Angelone, Leonardo M

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of coil losses on the electromagnetic field generated in an ASTM phantom by a birdcage coil. The study was based on different numerical implementations of an RF body coil at 64 MHz, using the same 3D EM and RF circuit co-simulation procedure. The coil quality factor was evaluated with respect to losses due to power feed mismatch and to resistive losses of the coil components. The results of the study showed that the magnetic field at the coil iso-center, normalized to the square root of the whole body specific absorption rate, depends on the coil quality factor.

  2. The fatigue-crack propagation behavior of ASTM A533-B steel tested in vacuo at LWR operating temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fatigue-crack propagation (FCP) behavior of ASTM A533-B-1 steel was characterized in vacuo at 288 0 C. Tests were conducted at two stress ratios: R = 0.05 and R = 0.7. Results of these tests were compared with results from previous studies for the same type of steel tested in an air environment, and FCP rates in vacuo were generally lower than those in air. Stress ratio effects in vacuo were not as great as those in air, and both stress ratio effects and environmental effects are discussed from the standpoint of crack closure concepts

  3. Cor ASTM: um método simples e rápido para determinar a qualidade do biodiesel produzido a partir de óleos residuais de fritura ASTM color: a simple and fast method for determining quality of biodiesel produced from used cooking oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Santos de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 23 biodiesel samples were produced, 20 from used cooking oil and the remaining 3 from refined soybean oil. The following properties were determined in all of the samples (oil and its respective biodiesel: density; viscosity; total acid number and ASTM color. The results indicated high correlation (R > 0.6 between ASTM color of used cooking oil and total acid number of its resultant biodiesel. This high correlation allows prediction of the quality of the biodiesel produced using a simple and fast procedure such as ASTM color.

  4. Moessbauer spectroscopy study on the corrosion resistance of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 stainless steel in chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.D. de; Olzon-Dionysio, M.; Basso, R.L.O.; Souza, S. de

    2010-01-01

    Plasma nitriding of ASTM F138 stainless steel samples has been carried out using dc glow discharge under 80% H 2 -20% N 2 gas mixture, at 673 K, and 2, 4, and 7 h time intervals, in order to investigate the influence of treatment time on the microstructure and the corrosion resistance properties. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, besides electrochemical tests in NaCl aerated solution. A modified layer of about 6 μm was observed for all the nitrided samples, independent of nitriding time. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows broad γ N phase peaks, signifying a great degree of nitrogen supersaturation. Besides γ N, the Moessbauer spectroscopy results indicated the occurrence of γ' and ε phases, as well as some other less important phases. Corrosion measurements demonstrate that the plasma nitriding time affects the corrosion resistance and the best performance is reached at 4 h treatment. It seems that the ε/γ' fraction ratio plays an important role on the resistance corrosion. Additionally, the Moessbauer spectroscopy was decisive in this study, since it was able to identify and quantify the iron phases that influence the corrosion resistance of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 samples.

  5. Development of ASTM Standard for SiC-SiC Joint Testing Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, George [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Back, Christina [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    As the nuclear industry moves to advanced ceramic based materials for cladding and core structural materials for a variety of advanced reactors, new standards and test methods are required for material development and licensing purposes. For example, General Atomics (GA) is actively developing silicon carbide (SiC) based composite cladding (SiC-SiC) for its Energy Multiplier Module (EM2), a high efficiency gas cooled fast reactor. Through DOE funding via the advanced reactor concept program, GA developed a new test method for the nominal joint strength of an endplug sealed to advanced ceramic tubes, Fig. 1-1, at ambient and elevated temperatures called the endplug pushout (EPPO) test. This test utilizes widely available universal mechanical testers coupled with clam shell heaters, and specimen size is relatively small, making it a viable post irradiation test method. The culmination of this effort was a draft of an ASTM test standard that will be submitted for approval to the ASTM C28 ceramic committee. Once the standard has been vetted by the ceramics test community, an industry wide standard methodology to test joined tubular ceramic components will be available for the entire nuclear materials community.

  6. Measurement of susceptibility artifacts with histogram-based reference value on magnetic resonance images according to standard ASTM F2119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Teichgräber, Ulf K; Güttler, Felix V

    2015-12-01

    The standard ASTM F2119 describes a test method for measuring the size of a susceptibility artifact based on the example of a passive implant. A pixel in an image is considered to be a part of an image artifact if the intensity is changed by at least 30% in the presence of a test object, compared to a reference image in which the test object is absent (reference value). The aim of this paper is to simplify and accelerate the test method using a histogram-based reference value. Four test objects were scanned parallel and perpendicular to the main magnetic field, and the largest susceptibility artifacts were measured using two methods of reference value determination (reference image-based and histogram-based reference value). The results between both methods were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The difference between both reference values was 42.35 ± 23.66. The difference of artifact size was 0.64 ± 0.69 mm. The artifact sizes of both methods did not show significant differences; the p-value of the Mann-Whitney U-test was between 0.710 and 0.521. A standard-conform method for a rapid, objective, and reproducible evaluation of susceptibility artifacts could be implemented. The result of the histogram-based method does not significantly differ from the ASTM-conform method.

  7. An investigation of force components in orthogonal cutting of medical grade cobalt-chromium alloy (ASTM F1537).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Szymon; Ahearne, Eamonn

    2017-04-01

    An ageing population, increased physical activity and obesity are identified as lifestyle changes that are contributing to the ongoing growth in the use of in-vivo prosthetics for total hip and knee arthroplasty. Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloys, due to their mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, qualify as a class of materials that meet the stringent functional requirements of these devices. To cost effectively assure the required dimensional and geometric tolerances, manufacturers rely on high-precision machining. However, a comprehensive literature review has shown that there has been limited research into the fundamental mechanisms in mechanical cutting of these alloys. This article reports on the determination of the basic cutting-force coefficients in orthogonal cutting of medical grade Co-Cr-Mo alloy ASTM F1537 over an extended range of cutting speeds ([Formula: see text]) and levels of undeformed chip thickness ([Formula: see text]). A detailed characterisation of the segmented chip morphology over this range is also reported, allowing for an estimation of the shear plane angle and, overall, providing a basis for macro-mechanic modelling of more complex cutting processes. The results are compared with a baseline medical grade titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V ASTM F136, and it is shown that the tangential and thrust-force components generated were, respectively, ≈35% and ≈84% higher, depending primarily on undeformed chip thickness but with some influence of the cutting speed.

  8. Anodic Protection performance of Steels ASTM A 516-60 And JIS G 3131 SPHC In Concentrated Sulfuric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsisto; Ginting, Immanuel; Eddy, D.C

    2001-01-01

    One of the methods to protect a carbon steel material from corrosion attack of sulfuric acid environment is with anodic protection. This research was intended to investigate the effect of anodic protection quickened with potential polarization, The material under investigation were ASTM A 516 and JIS G 3131-SPHC in highly concentrated H 2 SO 4 solution. The results showed that potential that was effective for anodic protection in ASTM A 516-60 were at 236-436 mV for 75%, 276-476 mV for 80%, 264-514 mV for 85%,285-485 mV for 90%, and 231-431 mV for 97% H 2 SO 4 so that in JlS G 3131-SPHC were at 303 -503 mV for 75%, 290-490 mV for 80%, 269- 516 mV for 85%, 264-514 mV for 90%, and 287 -487 mV for 97% H 2 SO 4

  9. Experimental and numerical study of a modified ASTM C633 adhesion test for strongly-bonded coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardie, Raphaëlle; Berkouch, Reda; Valette, Stéphane; Absi, Joseph; Lefort, Pierre [University of Limoges, Limoges Cedex (France)

    2017-07-15

    When coatings are strongly bonded to their substrates it is often difficult to measure the adhesion values. The proposed method, which is suggested naming “silver print test”, consists in covering the central part of the samples with a thin layer of silver paint, before coating. The process used for testing this new method was the Air plasma spraying (APS), and the materials used were alumina coatings on C35 steel substrates, previously pre-oxidized in CO{sub 2}. The silver painted area was composed of small grains that did not oxidize but that significantly sintered during the APS process. The silver layer reduced the surface where the coating was linked to the substrate, which allowed its debonding, using the classical adhesion test ASTM C633-13, while the direct use of this test (without silver painting) led to ruptures inside the glue used in this test. The numerical modelling, based on the finite element method with the ABAQUS software, provided results in good agreement with the experimental measurements. This concordance validated the used method and allowed accessing to the values of adherence when the experimental test ASTM C633-13 failed, because of ruptures in the glue. After standardization, the “silver print test” might be used for other kinds of deposition methods, such as PVD, CVD, PECVD.

  10. Use of Bayesian Methods to Analyze and Visualize Content Uniformity Capability Versus United States Pharmacopeia and ASTM Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Jeffrey D; Rauk, Adam P

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a straightforward and robust approach to analyze and summarize the ability of content uniformity data to meet different criteria. A robust Bayesian statistical analysis methodology is presented which provides a concise and easily interpretable visual summary of the content uniformity analysis results. The visualization displays individual batch analysis results and shows whether there is high confidence that different content uniformity criteria could be met a high percentage of the time in the future. The 3 tests assessed are as follows: (a) United States Pharmacopeia Uniformity of Dosage Units , (b) a specific ASTM E2810 Sampling Plan 1 criterion to potentially be used for routine release testing, and (c) another specific ASTM E2810 Sampling Plan 2 criterion to potentially be used for process validation. The approach shown here could readily be used to create similar result summaries for other potential criteria. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of C content on the mechanical properties of solution treated as-cast ASTM F-75 alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, M; Espinoza, A; Méndez, J; Castro, M; López, J; Rendón, J

    2005-07-01

    The mechanical properties of solution treated ASTM F-75 alloys with various carbon contents have been studied. Alloys cast under the same conditions were subjected to solution treatment for several periods and then their tensile properties were evaluated. In the as-cast conditions, the alloys exhibited higher strength values with increasing carbon content whereas their ductility was not significantly affected. For the solution treated alloys, the variation of the strength was characterized by a progressive increase for short treatment times until a maximum value was achieved, which was followed by a diminution in this property for longer treatment times. This behavior was more accentuated for the case of the alloys with medium carbon contents, which also exhibited the highest values of strength. Furthermore, the alloy's ductility was enhanced progressively with increasing solution treatment time. This improvement in ductility was significantly higher for the medium carbon alloys compared with the rest of the studied alloys. Thus, high and low carbon contents in solution treated ASTM F-75 alloys did not produced sufficiently high tensile properties.

  12. Evaluation of ozonated water using ASTM E1174 for standardized testing of handwash formulations for healthcare personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Saito, K; Kashiwazaki, J; Aoyagi, T; Arai, K; Hara, Y; Kobari, S; Mori, H; Ohashi, K; Takano, Y; Kaku, M; Kanemitsu, K

    2018-02-13

    Removal of bacteria by handwashing with ozonated water was evaluated using the ASTM E1174 standard test method. Thirty healthy volunteers were assigned randomly to three groups: ozonated water, antimicrobial soap and water, and non-antimicrobial soap and water. A 3 log 10  cfu reduction was achieved by washing hands with ozonated water or antimicrobial soap and water. However, ozonated water was not significantly superior to non-antimicrobial soap and water. Ozonated water may remove bacteria from the hands to at least a similar extent as that by non-antimicrobial soap and water in the absence of visible dirt or body fluid contamination. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. COMPETITION BEETWEN DYNAMIC RECUPERATION AND RECRYSTALLIZATION OF ASTM F 138 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL UTILIZED IN MEDICAL DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Henrique Casarini Geronimo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ASTM F 138 austenitic stainless steel has being used in the manufacture of orthopedical devices by hot forging. In this work, the flow stress curves are determined by hot torsion tests in a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. With the observed microestrutural evolution by optical microscopy in different hot forming conditions in addiction with EBSD (Electron Backscatter Diffraction techniques it is possible to obtained the recrystallized volume fraction and the misorientation angles of the samples. Due to the intermediate level of stacking fault energy of this material, during the dynamic softening occurs a competition between recrystallization and recovery. The aim of this work is to identify the softening mechanisms in this stainless steel, as well as in which hot work conditions they become more active.

  14. Grazing incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy analyses of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Danilo Olzon Dionysio de; Ardisson, Jose Domingos, E-mail: dolzon@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Edilaine Honorio [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie (Belgium); Olzon-Dionysio, Maristela; Souza, Sylvio Dionysio de; Fabris, Jose Domingos [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil); Martinez, L.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: systematic investigation of samples of plasma-nitriding austenitic stainless steels ASTM F138 and AISI 316L is reported. The surface treatment of the steels through plasma-nitriding was used to improve further the hardness, wear and corrosion resistance of these stainless steels. The resulting layered crystallographic structure actually corresponds to several phases with close cell parameters, making their identification and quantification a real experimental challenge. The ASTM F138 and AISI 316L stainless steel disks were plasma nitrided for 4 h at 400 deg C in a 80% H{sub 2} -20% N2 atmosphere at 6 torr, using plasma current frequencies between 6 and 100 kHz. Data of Moessbauer (CEMS and CXMS) and grazing incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD-SR) were systematically collected. The nitrided layer thickness were not in general influenced by the plasma frequency, except at 12 kHz, which produced a layer thickness of approximately 8.0 mm, being in average 40% thicker than for the other samples. CXMS and CEMS Moessbauer spectra for this 12 kHz-sample show a much more pronounced magnetic resonance lines than for the other samples. The Fe{sub 4}N phase presents a single magnetic hyperfine interaction; the other two (Fe{sub 2-3}N and the expanded austenite) present both paramagnetic and magnetic components, even though their hyperfine parameters may not be safely separated. We also present the results of XRD-SR that were probed at several depths. The data from these techniques may be consistently correlated and this leads to an improved model to explain the structure of the nitrided layers. (author)

  15. Edema pulmonar refractario secundario a estenosis valvular aórtica severa - valvuloplastia aórtica como terapia puente a cirugía: Presentación de un caso Refractory pulmonary edema secondary to severe aortic valvular stenosis - aortic valvuloplasty as bridge therapy to surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La estenosis valvular aórtica es una entidad progresiva, que cuando es severa y produce síntomas, tiene un pronóstico sombrío que afecta de forma adversa la sobrevida. En estos casos el tratamiento de elección es la cirugía de cambio valvular, la cual, bajo determinadas circunstancias clínicas, puede ser de muy alto riesgo, y obliga así a considerar alternativas de manejo menos agresivas que permitan solucionar el problema. Se muestra el caso de un hombre de 65 años, con estenosis valvular aórtica severa, quien desarrolló edema pulmonar refractario al manejo médico, que se resolvió mediante valvuloplastia aórtica, como terapia puente a cirugía.Aortic valve stenosis is a progressive disease; when it is severe and symptomatic has a bleak prognosis that affects adversely the patient survival. In these cases, the treatment of choice is valve replacement surgery that under certain circumstances can bear a huge risk that forces the physician to consider less aggressive management alternatives to solve the problem. The case of a 65 years old male with severe aortic valve stenosis is reported. He developed pulmonary edema refractory to medical treatment that was solved by aortic valvuloplasty as bridge therapy to surgery.

  16. Empirical ranking of a wide range of WC-Co grades in terms of their abrasion resistance measured by the ASTM standard B 611-85 test

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Quigley, DGF

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a comprehensive investigation into the abrasion resistance of WC-Co alloys, as measured by the ASTM Standard B 611-85 test. The alloys ranged from 3 to 50 wt% and from 0.6 to 5 mu-m average grain size. Careful...

  17. Effect of increased fuel temperature on emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM jet-A fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1974-01-01

    An annular gas turbine combustor was tested with heated ASTM Jet-A fuel to determine the effect of increased fuel temperature on the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Fuel temperature ranged from ambient to 700 K. The NOx emission index increased at a rate of 6 percent per 100 K increase in fuel temperature.

  18. Spontaneous ignition in afterburner segment tests at an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM jet-A fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.; Branstetter, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    A brief testing program was undertaken to determine if spontaneous ignition and stable combustion could be obtained in a jet engine afterburning operating with an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM Jet-A fuel. Spontaneous ignition with 100-percent combustion efficiency and stable burning was obtained using water-cooled fuel spraybars as flameholders.

  19. An Experimental Copyright Moratorium: Study of a Proposed Solution to the Copyright Photocopying Problem. Final Report to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilprin, Laurence B.

    The Committee to Investigate Copyright Problems (CICP), a non-profit organization dedicated to resolving the conflict known as the "copyright photocopying problem" was joined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), a large national publisher of technical and scientific standards, in a plan to simulate a long-proposed…

  20. Standard practice for application of thermoluminescence-dosimetry (TLD) systems for determining absorbed dose in radiation-hardness testing of electronic devices. ASTM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-10 on Nuclear Technology and Applications and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E10.07 on Radiation Dosimetry for Radiation Effects on Materials and Devices. Current edition approved Jun. 10, 1997. Published May 1998. Originally published as E 668-78. Last previous edition E 668-93

  1. Studies on the welding of heavy-section ASTM A542 Cl. 1 steel for large-sized pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shigeki; Aota, Toshiichi; Kasahara, Masayuki

    1977-01-01

    ASTM A 542, Cl. 1 steel was developed and standardized recently, and is excellent in the high temperature strength and toughness as compared with conventionally used A 387, Grade 22 steel, accordingly the application to large pressure vessels is planned. This steel is a low alloy steel, and in case of large thickness, the possibility of cracking in the welded part is large. Also many times of annealing are required for the prevention of welding cracking, the relieving of residual stress, and the softening of hardened portion, but the possibility of cracking during stress-relieving annealing is large. In this study, Tekken type cracking test was carried out by coated electrode welding, and restricted cracking test was carried out by submerged arc welding of the A 542, Cl. 1 steel and A 387, Grade 22 steel, thus the welding cracking property was investigated, and the optimal welding conditions were selected. Also the test of cracking during the stress-relieving annealing of both steels was carried out, and the method of preventing the cracking was studied. The optimal conditions of stress-relieving annealing were selected, and the mechanism of the cracking was clarified. The mechanical properties of the joints welded and stress-relieved under the selected conditions were confirmed. (Kako, I.)

  2. Sensitization Behavior of Type 409 Ferritic Stainless Steel: Confronting DL-EPR Test and Practice W of ASTM A763

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Taís Campos; de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes; Sayeg, Isaac Jamil; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2014-06-01

    Stainless steels employed for manufacturing automotive exhaust systems must withstand severe thermal cycles, corrosive environment due to urea decomposition, and welding operations. AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel can be considered a low-cost alternative for this application. However, depending on the manufacturing conditions during welding cycles, this material can be sensitized due to the precipitation of chromium carbides at grain boundaries. In this work, the intergranular corrosion resistances of the AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel were evaluated after annealing at 300, 500, and 700 °C for 2, 4, and 6 h. Solution-annealed samples were also tested for comparison purposes. Two methodologies were used to assess the sensitization behavior of the 409 stainless steel samples: the first one was based on the ASTM A763 (practice W), while the second one was based on the double-loop electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation test. It was possible to identify that the annealing treatment performed at 500 °C was more critical to the occurrence of intergranular corrosion.

  3. Effects of thermal treatments on protein adsorption of Co-Cr-Mo ASTM-F75 alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, L A; Labeed, F H; Abel, M-L; Kamali, A; Watts, J F

    2011-06-01

    Post-manufacturing thermal treatments are commonly employed in the production of hip replacements to reduce shrinkage voids which can occur in cast components. Several studies have investigated the consequences of these treatments upon the alloy microstructure and tribological properties but none have determined if there are any biological ramifications. In this study the adsorption of proteins from foetal bovine serum (FBS) on three Co-Cr-Mo ASTM-F75 alloy samples with different metallurgical histories, has been studied as a function of protein concentration. Adsorption isotherms have been plotted using the surface concentration of nitrogen as a diagnostic of protein uptake as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The data was a good fit to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm up to the concentration at which critical protein saturation occurred. Differences in protein adsorption on each alloy have been observed. This suggests that development of the tissue/implant interface, although similar, may differ between as-cast (AC) and heat treated samples.

  4. Influence of Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (ASTM F75) on Bone Ingrowth in an Experimental Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchuat, Jésica; Berli, Marcelo; Maldonado, Ysaí; Decco, Oscar

    2017-12-26

    Cr-Co-Mo (ASTM F75) alloy has been used in the medical environment, but its use as a rigid barrier membrane for supporting bone augmentation therapies has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, Cr-Co-Mo membranes of different heights were placed in New Zealand white, male rabbit tibiae to assess the quality and volume of new bone formation, without the use of additional factors. Animals were euthanized at 20, 30, 40, and 60 days. Bone formation was observed in all of the cases, although the tibiae implanted with the standard membranes reached an augmentation of bone volume that agreed with the density values over the timecourse. In all cases, plasmatic exudate was found under the membrane and in contact with the new bone. Histological analysis indicated the presence of a large number of chondroblasts adjacent to the inner membrane surface in the first stages, and osteoblasts and osteocytes were observed under them. The bone formation was appositional. The Cr-Co-Mo alloy provides a scaffold with an adequate microenvironment for vertical bone volume augmentation, and the physical dimensions and disposition of the membrane itself influence the new bone formation.

  5. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  6. High-cycle notch sensitivity of alloy steel ASTM A743 CA6NM used in hydrogenator turbine components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexander Araújo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of notches and other stress concentrations in turbine blades and other notch hydraulic components is a current problem in engineering. It causes a reduction of endurance limit of material. In that sense, specimens of the ASTM A743 CA6NM alloy steel using in several hydrogenator turbine components was tested. The specimens were tested under uniaxial fatigue loading with a load ratio equal to -1, and the considered stress concentration factors, Kt, values, calculated with respect to net area, were 1.55, 2.04 and 2.42. In order to determine the fatigue limit for such notch type, a reduction data method by Dixon and Mood, Staircase method was used. This approach is based on the assumed target distribution of the fatigue limit. For such geometry at least 8 specimens were tested. In addition, the Peterson and Neuber’s notch fatigue factor were compared through fatigue notch reduction factor, Kf, obtained from experimental data. According to results obtained it was possible to conclude that the tested material is less sensitive to notches than the prediction of the Peterson and Neuber’s empirical models.

  7. Influence of Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (ASTM F75 on Bone Ingrowth in an Experimental Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jésica Zuchuat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cr-Co-Mo (ASTM F75 alloy has been used in the medical environment, but its use as a rigid barrier membrane for supporting bone augmentation therapies has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, Cr-Co-Mo membranes of different heights were placed in New Zealand white, male rabbit tibiae to assess the quality and volume of new bone formation, without the use of additional factors. Animals were euthanized at 20, 30, 40, and 60 days. Bone formation was observed in all of the cases, although the tibiae implanted with the standard membranes reached an augmentation of bone volume that agreed with the density values over the timecourse. In all cases, plasmatic exudate was found under the membrane and in contact with the new bone. Histological analysis indicated the presence of a large number of chondroblasts adjacent to the inner membrane surface in the first stages, and osteoblasts and osteocytes were observed under them. The bone formation was appositional. The Cr-Co-Mo alloy provides a scaffold with an adequate microenvironment for vertical bone volume augmentation, and the physical dimensions and disposition of the membrane itself influence the new bone formation.

  8. Caracterização microestrutural de soldas dissimilares dos aços ASTM A-508 e AISI 316L Characterization of dissimilar metal weld between low alloy steel ASTM A-508 and 316L stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Iglésias Lourenço Lima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As soldas dissimilares (dissimilar metal welds - DMWs são utilizadas em diversos segmentos da indústria. No caso específico de usinas nucleares, tais soldas são necessárias para conectar tubulações de aço inoxidável com componentes fabricados em aços baixa liga. Os materiais de adição mais utilizados neste tipo de solda são as ligas de níquel 82 e 182. Este trabalho consistiu na soldagem de uma junta dissimilar de aço baixa liga ASTM A-508 G3 e aço inoxidável austenítico AISI 316L utilizando as ligas de níquel 82 e 182 como metais de adição. A soldagem foi realizada manualmente empregando os processos de soldagem ao arco SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding e GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. Os corpos de prova foram caracterizados microestruturalmente utilizando-se microscópio óptico e microscópio eletrônico de varredura com microanálise por dispersão de energia de raios X (EDS e ensaios de microdureza Vickers. Observou-se uma microestrutura constituída de dendritas de austenita com a presença de precipitados com formas e dimensões definidas pelo aporte térmico e pela direção de soldagem. Não houve variação significativa da dureza ao longo da junta soldada, demonstrando a adequação dos parâmetros de soldagem utilizados.The dissimilar metal welds (DMWs are used in several areas of the industries. In the nuclear power plant, this weld using nickel alloy welding wires is used to connect stainless steel pipes to low alloy steel components on the reactor pressured vessels. The filler materials commonly used in this type of weld are nickel alloys 82 and 182.. In this study, dissimilar metal welds composed of low alloy steel ASTM A-508 G3, nickel alloys 82 e 182 as weld metals, and austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L were prepared by manual shielded metal arc welding (SMAW and gas tungsten arc welding techniques (GTAW. Samples were microstructural characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy

  9. Effect of using the double layer technique on the microstructure, microhardness and residual stress of welded ASTM A516 GR70 structural steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, George Luiz Gomes de; Miranda, Helio Cordeiro de

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of using the double layer technique on the microstructure, microhardness and residual stresses of welded ASTM A516 Gr70 structural steel. Samples were welded with the same welding parameters and two types of chamfers, while the samples welded using the double layer technique underwent a buttering process on their chamfer face. Residual stress measurement was accomplished through x-ray diffraction, using a mini diffractometer for measurement in field. Metallographic analysis was accomplished in the transverse section of the welded joint, using optic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The double layer technique showed that can be used in the welding of ASTM A516 Gr70 steel, because, besides promote a refinement and a drawing back of the CG-HAZ, it increased compressive residual stress in the whole surface of the analyzed samples.(author)

  10. ASTM lights the way for tissue engineered medical products standards: jump start for combination medical products that restore biological function of human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G L; Stocum, D L

    2001-01-01

    Everybody hopes for better health and restoration of impaired bodily function, and now that hope is illuminated by the promise of powerful biological tools that make human cells grow and replace human tissue. ASTM Committee F04 on Medical and Surgical Materials and Devices is taking the lead by defining some of those tools as standards that can be used for the development, production, testing, and regulatory approval of medical products.

  11. MÉTODOS PARA CARACTERIZAR COMBUSTIBLES LÍQUIDOS Y GASEOSOS OBTENIDOS DE LLANTAS EN DESUSO A TRAVÉS DE LAS NORMAS ASTM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ALEJANDRO OSPINA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra la importancia de la caracterización de la energía de combustibles líquidos y gaseosos obtenidos del conocido tratamiento térmico de pirolisis a través de un microondas. La caracterización de estos combustibles tomará en cuenta los estándares técnicos tales como ASTM D3452 – 93 para la cromatografía de gases (GC, ASTM D2549 para cromatografía de gas/ espectrometría de masa (GC/MS y ASTM D6370 -99 para termogravimetría en el análisis de la composición de llantas.También muestra que estos combustibles y gases de pirolisis tiene una alta valor calorífico de 42 MJ / Kg y un contenido de azufre entre 0.8 y 1.65 Wt%, dependiendo en el tipo de llanta y las condiciones del proceso.

  12. Overview (this manuscript is an overview of an ASTM symposium. The authors, John Sebroski and Mark Mason, of the overview were the co-chairs of the symposium and co-editors of the manuscripts submitted for ASTM peer review and subsequent publication in the technical proceedings for the symposium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Symposium on Developing Consensus Standards for Measuring Chemical Emissions from Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) Insulation was held on April 30th and May 1, 2015. Sponsored by ASTM Committee D22 on Air Quality, the symposium was held in Anaheim, CA, in conjunction with the st...

  13. Microstructural evolution of ASTM P91 after 100,000 hours exposure at 550 C and 600 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipolla, L.; Venditti, D.; Di Gianfrancesco, A. [Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA, Rome (Italy); Caminada, S. [TenarisDalmine, Dalmine (Italy); Danielsen, H.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-07-01

    ASTM A335 P91 samples were investigated after creep testing at 550 C and 600 C for over 10{sup 5} h. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy were adopted to assess the microstructural evolution of the material in terms of precipitation changes during high temperature exposure. Mean equivalent diameters and average chemical compositions of MX and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates and Laves phases were assessed through the analysis of a large number of particles. Their growth and coarsening kinetics were determined at 600 C on many samples with increasing exposure times up to 100,000 hours. Also the presence of modified Z-phase, Cr(V, Nb)N, was investigated. The high microstructural stability of Grade 91 is related to the presence of fine and distributed MX carbonitrides, always present even after very long term temperature exposure. The mean size of MX carbonitrides remains almost constant and stays below 45 nm after 10{sup 5} h at 600 C. Although MX particles exhibit a Cr enrichment with increasing ageing times, indicating that they are absorbing Cr atoms from the surrounding matrix, their transformation into Z-phase is still at a very preliminary stage: only a few hybrid MX/Z particles and a few Z-phase precipitates were identified in the most aged sample after 10{sup 5} at 600 C. Coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} occurs during thermal exposure, but their average equivalent diameter, initially of 140 nm in the as-treated material, remains below 200 nm after 10{sup 5} h at 600 C. Laves particles form at grain boundaries after a relatively short time and soon become the largest precipitates. (orig.)

  14. Analysis and evaluation of the Electronic Health Record standard in China: a comparison with the American national standard ASTM E 1384.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Guan, Zhiyu; Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Haiyan; Lu, Min; Li, Tiejun

    2011-08-01

    To analyze and evaluate the newly issued Electronic Health Record (EHR) Architecture and Data Standard of China (Chinese EHR Standard) and identify areas of improvement for future revisions. We compared the Chinese EHR Standard with the standard of the American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Practice for Content and Structure of Electronic Health Records in the United States (ASTM E 1384 Standard). The comparison comprised two steps: (1) comparing the conformance of the two standards to the international standard: Health Informatics-Requirements for an Electronic Health Record Architecture (ISO/TS 18308), and showing how the architectures of the two standards satisfy or deviate from the ISO requirements and (2) comparing the detailed data structures between the two standards. Of the 124 requirement items in ISO/TS 18308, the Chinese EHR Standard and the ASTM E 1384 Standard conformed to 77 (62.1%) and 111 (89.5%), respectively. The Chinese EHR Standard conformed to 34 of 50 Structure requirements (68.0%), 22 of 24 Process requirements (91.7%), and 21 of 50 Other requirements (42.0%). The ASTM E 1384 Standard conformed to 49 of 50 Structure requirements (98.0%), 23 of 24 Process requirements (95.8%), and 39 of 40 Other requirements (78.0%). Further development of the Chinese EHR Standard should focus on supporting privacy and security mechanism, diverse data types, more generic and extensible lower level data structures, and relational attributes for data elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computer program for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of air and products of combustion of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Colladay, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl number, and entropy for air and a combustion gas mixture of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air over fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric, pressures from 1 to 40 atm, and temperatures from 250 to 2800 K.

  16. Fitting psychometric functions using a fixed-slope parameter: an advanced alternative for estimating odor thresholds with data generated by ASTM E679.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mei; Jaeger, Sara R; Hautus, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Psychometric functions are predominately used for estimating detection thresholds in vision and audition. However, the requirement of large data quantities for fitting psychometric functions (>30 replications) reduces their suitability in olfactory studies because olfactory response data are often limited (ASTM) E679. The slope parameter of the individual-judge psychometric function is fixed to be the same as that of the group function; the same-shaped symmetrical sigmoid function is fitted only using the intercept. This study evaluated the proposed method by comparing it with 2 available methods. Comparison to conventional psychometric functions (fitted slope and intercept) indicated that the assumption of a fixed slope did not compromise precision of the threshold estimates. No systematic difference was obtained between the proposed method and the ASTM method in terms of group threshold estimates or threshold distributions, but there were changes in the rank, by threshold, of judges in the group. Overall, the fixed-slope psychometric function is recommended for obtaining relatively reliable individual threshold estimates when the quantity of data is limited.

  17. Validation of standard ASTM F2732 and comparison with ISO 11079 with respect to comfort temperature ratings for cold protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuansi; Lin, Li-Yen; Halder, Amitava; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2015-01-01

    American standard ASTM F2732 estimates the lowest environmental temperature for thermal comfort for cold weather protective clothing. International standard ISO 11079 serves the same purpose but expresses cold stress in terms of required clothing insulation for a given cold climate. The objective of this study was to validate and compare the temperature ratings using human subject tests at two levels of metabolic rates (2 and 4 MET corresponding to 116.4 and 232.8 W/m(2)). Nine young and healthy male subjects participated in the cold exposure at 3.4 and -30.6 °C. The results showed that both standards predict similar temperature ratings for an intrinsic clothing insulation of 1.89 clo and for 2 MET activity. The predicted temperature rating for 2 MET activity is consistent with test subjects' thermophysiological responses, perceived thermal sensation and thermal comfort. For 4 MET activity, however, the whole body responses were on the cold side, particularly the responses of the extremities. ASTM F2732 is also limited due to its omission and simplification of three climatic variables (air velocity, radiant temperature and relative humidity) and exposure time in the cold which are of practical importance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Modeling of Postweld Heat Treatment Process in a Pressure Vessel Steel ASTM A516 Grade 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasura, Prachya

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the application of the response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) experiment in mathematical model and optimizes postweld heat treatment (PWHT). The material of study is a pressure vessel steel ASTM A516 grade 70 that is used for gas metal arc welding. PWHT parameters examined in this study included PWHT temperatures and time. The resulting materials were examined using CCD experiment and the RSM to determine the resulting material tensile strength test, observed with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that using a full quadratic model with the proposed mathematical model is YTS = -285.521 + 15.706X1 + 2.514X2 - 0.004X1(2) - 0.001X2(2) - 0.029X1X2. Tensile strength parameters of PWHT were optimized PWHT time of 5.00 hr and PWHT temperature of 645.75°C. The results show that the PWHT time is the dominant mechanism used to modify the tensile strength compared to the PWHT temperatures. This phenomenon could be explained by the fact that pearlite can contribute to higher tensile strength. Pearlite has an intensity, which results in increased material tensile strength. The research described here can be used as material data on PWHT parameters for an ASTM A516 grade 70 weld.

  19. ASTM Committee C28: International Standards for Properties and Performance of Advanced Ceramics-Three Decades of High-Quality, Technically-Rigorous Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties and performance of advanced ceramics and glasses are difficult to measure correctly without the proper techniques. For over three decades, ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics, has developed high-quality, technically-rigorous, full-consensus standards (e.g., test methods, practices, guides, terminology) to measure properties and performance of monolithic and composite ceramics that may be applied to glasses in some cases. These standards contain testing particulars for many mechanical, physical, thermal, properties and performance of these materials. As a result these standards are used to generate accurate, reliable, repeatable and complete data. Within Committee C28, users, producers, researchers, designers, academicians, etc. have written, continually updated, and validated through round-robin test programs, 50 standards since the Committee's founding in 1986. This paper provides a detailed retrospective of the 30 years of ASTM Committee C28 including a graphical pictogram listing of C28 standards along with examples of the tangible benefits of standards for advanced ceramics to demonstrate their practical applications.

  20. Evaluating the Sporicidal Activity of Disinfectants against Clostridium difficile and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Spores by Using the Improved Methods Based on ASTM E2197-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwamahoro, Marie Christine; Massicotte, Richard; Hurtubise, Yves; Gagné-Bourque, François; Mafu, Akier Assanta; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2018-01-01

    Spore-forming pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium difficile , are associated with nosocomial infection, leading to the increased use of sporicidal disinfectants, which impacts socioeconomic costs. However, C. difficile can be prevented using microorganisms such as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , a prophylactic agent that has been proven to be effective against it in recent tests or it can be controlled by sporicidal disinfectants. These disinfectants against spores should be evaluated according to a known and recommended standard. Unfortunately, some newly manufactured disinfectants like Bioxy products have not yet been tested. ASTM E2197-11 is a standard test that uses stainless steel disks (1 cm in diameter) as carriers, and the performance of the test formulation is calculated by comparing the number of viable test organisms to that on the control carriers. Surface tests are preferable for evaluating disinfectants with sporicidal effects on hard surfaces. This study applies improved methods, based on the ASTM E2197-11 standard, for evaluating and comparing the sporicidal efficacies of several disinfectants against spores of C. difficile and B. amyloliquefaciens , which are used as the test organisms. With the improved method, all spores were recovered through vortexing and membrane filtration. The results show that chlorine-based products are effective in 5 min and Bioxy products at 5% w/v are effective in 10 min. Although Bioxy products may take longer to prove their effectiveness, their non-harmful effects to hospital surfaces and people have been well established in the literature.

  1. ASTM Committee C28: International Standards for Properties and Performance of Advanced Ceramics, Three Decades of High-quality, Technically-rigorous Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties and performance of advanced ceramics and glasses are difficult to measure correctly without the proper techniques. For over three decades, ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics, has developed high quality, rigorous, full-consensus standards (e.g., test methods, practices, guides, terminology) to measure properties and performance of monolithic and composite ceramics that may be applied to glasses in some cases. These standards testing particulars for many mechanical, physical, thermal, properties and performance of these materials. As a result these standards provide accurate, reliable, repeatable and complete data. Within Committee C28 users, producers, researchers, designers, academicians, etc. have written, continually updated, and validated through round-robin test programs, nearly 50 standards since the Committees founding in 1986. This paper provides a retrospective review of the 30 years of ASTM Committee C28 including a graphical pictogram listing of C28 standards along with examples of the tangible benefits of advanced ceramics standards to demonstrate their practical applications.

  2. Kinetic and morphological differentiation of Ettringites in plain and blended Portland cements using Metakaolin and the ASTM C 452-68 test. Part I: kinetic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talero, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this first part of the study, the results obtained in prior research with XRD and SEM, as well as the Le Chatelier-Ansttet test were confirmed with the ASTM C 452-68 test. To this end, 20%, 30% and 40% metakaolin (MK was added to ten Portland cements, six OPCs and four SRPCs. Both the ten plain PCs and the 30 metakaolin (MK blends were tested for two years under ASTM C 452-68 specifications, determining not only the percentage increase in length, ΔL(%, of the specimens, but also the sulphate content in the curing water. Other parameters studied included: chemical analysis of the cementitious materials used and specific properties of some of the cements tested.The experimental results, ΔL(% versus time, re-confirmed that the formation rate of ettringite from the reactive alumina, Al2O3r-, present in the pozzolan must be substantially higher than the formation rate of ettringite from the C3A present in the PC. This was verified by the variation of the sulphate content in the specimen curing water throughout the test. In light of those findings, in this article these two types of ettringite are denominated rapid forming ettringite or ett-rf, and slow forming ettringite or ett-lf.En esta Parte I de la investigación, se han logrado verificar mediante el ensayo ASTM C 452-68, los resultados obtenidos en anteriores investigaciones realizadas con DRX y SEM y el ensayo Le Chatelier-Ansttet. Para ello, a 10 cementos Portland –6 CPO y 4 CPRS– se les añadió 20%, 30% y 40% de metakaolín (MK. Tanto los 10 CP como los 30 de sus mezclas con metakaolín (MK, se ensayaron durante 2 años, mediante dicho método ASTM C 452-68, y a sus probetas no sólo se les determinó su incremento porcentual de longitud, ΔL(%, sino además, el contenido de sulfatos de sus aguas de conservación. Otras determinaciones complementarias fueron: análisis químico de los materiales cementiceos utilizados y propiedades específicas de algunos cementos ensayados

  3. Stress corrosion (Astm G30-90 standard) in 08x18H10T stainless steel of nuclear fuel storage pool in WWER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, V.; Zamora R, L.

    1997-01-01

    At the water storage of the irradiated nuclear fuel has been an important factor in its management. The actual pools have its walls covered with inoxidable steel and heat exchangers to dissipate the residual heat from fuel. It is essential to control the water purity to eliminate those conditions which aid to the corrosion process in fuel and at related components. The steel used in this research was obtained from an austenitic inoxidizable steel standardized with titanium 08x18H10T (Type 321) similar to one of the two steel coatings used to cover walls and the pools floor. the test consisted in the specimen deformation through an U ply according to the Astm G30-90 standard. The exposition of the deformed specimen it was realized in simulated conditions to the chemical regime used in pools. (Author)

  4. International cooperative effort to establish ASTM [American Society for Testing and Materials] standards for the measurement of radiation dose for food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV.

    1987-01-01

    A task group has been formed within the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifically to develop standards for measuring radiation dose for food processing. The task group, which has 78 members, including 16 from Europe, consists of a broad cross section of food industry, government, regulatory, manufacturing, and university interests. The group is working on seven standards; three specifically for food irradiation applications, and four for using specific dosimeter types for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable methods of accomplishing the required irradiation treatment of food and other products, and will be available for adoption by regulatory agencies in food irradiation protocols. 1 tab

  5. Prediction methods for the calculation of the flammability properties of gases and vapors: CHETAH and ASTM software. Part 1. Esters and Ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigante, L.; Dellavedova, M.; Pasturenzi, C.; Lunghi, A.; Cardillo, P.

    2008-01-01

    After the law by decree of the 12. June 2003, N 233 (ATEX Directive) and REACH regulation (Regulation EC n. 2907/2006 of the European Parliament), several industrial fields, also not chemical, need the flammability data for the substances used. Perhaps, many of these data, especially for compounds with not common uses, are not easy to collect. It would be helpful to provide prediction methods in order to calculate these data without any experimentation that sometimes results time consuming, expensive and practically impossible for all the commercial compounds. In this research the ASTM software CHETAH (CHEmical Thermodynamic And Hazard evaluation) has been used in order to compute the lower flammability limit (L i ), the limiting oxygen concentration (LOC, using nitrogen as inert gas) as a function of temperature, the adiabatic flame temperature T flame , the fundamental burning velocity (S u ), the quenching distance (Q d ), the minimum ignition energy (MIE) for esters and ethers, substances highly used in industry. [it

  6. Oxidación a alta temperatura de un acero ASTM A335 P92 en contacto con una mezcla de sales de

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Rodríguez Pérez; Eduardo Santos Sánchez; Darío Yesid Peña Ballesteros; Anderson Sandoval Amador; Hugo Armando Estupiñán Durán

    2016-01-01

    En esta investigación se evaluó la oxidación del acero ASTM A335 P92 en una mezcla de sales 40% K2SO4 - 60% NaCl a temperaturas de 500ºC a 700ºC, a intervalos de 50°C con tiempos de exposición de 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 y 150 horas, utilizando la norma estandarizada por la Federación Europea de Corrosión. Se realizó análisis metalográfico y de dureza antes y después del ensayo para identificar el posible cambio estructural; se realizan pruebas de difracción de rayos X (DRX), microscopía electrónica...

  7. Localized corrosion evaluation of the ASTM F139 stainless steel marked by laser using scanning vibrating electrode technique, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Mott–Schottky techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieretti, Eurico F.; Manhabosco, Sara M.; Dick, Luís F.P.; Hinder, Steve; Costa, Isolda

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SEM image of pits found at the centred marked area, where the laser beam focused twice. - Highlights: • The effect of laser engraving on the corrosion resistance of the ASTM F139 was studied. • Scanning vibrating electrode technique was used to identify the anodic zone. • Laser engraving of austenitic stainless steels produces highly defective surfaces. • Laser engraving causes large chemical modification of the surface. • Pitting nucleates at the interface between laser affected and unaffected areas. - Abstract: The effect of laser engraving on the corrosion resistance of ASTM F139 stainless steel (SS) has been investigated by electrochemical techniques. The nucleation of localized corrosion on this biomaterial was evaluated by scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) in a phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS) of pH 7.4. The Mott–Schottky approach was used to determine the electronic properties of the passive film, also chemically characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SVET allowed the identification of the anodic zones on the surface of the SS marked by laser technique that were associated with the heat-affected areas. Metallic drops solidified on the laser marked surface dissolved actively at OCP and favoured the nucleation of crevice corrosion, while at the pitting potential, pits nucleate preferentially on the laser marks. XPS results showed that laser engraving caused large chemical modification of the surface. Mott–Schottky results indicated a more defective oxide layer with a larger number of donors on the laser marked surface comparatively to that without marks

  8. Damage characterization of an ASTM A 213 grade 91 tube after 116.000 h of service in a reforming plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonti, Andrea; Lega, Daniela; Antonini, Alessandra; Romitelli, Manuela; Alvino, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    ASTM A213 T91 steel is used in power plants and petrochemical industry, for long-term service components. The improved mechanical properties of grade 91 are strictly related to its specific microstructure: a tempered martensite matrix with fine precipitates embedded in. Despite low alloy heat resistant ferritic steels, that have a well known operational experience, T91 service performances are still faintly consolidated, because this material has serviced only in a limited number of plants, since the eighties. Most of the available data were obtained by laboratory tests on relatively short term creep strength and corrosion properties. The investigations reported in this paper represent an important opportunity to describe and better evaluate the damage evolution of the grade T91 steel after more than 100000 h of exposure in severe conditions (580 °C, 18–26 bar, combustion environment). Our results suggest that the steel suffered by different damage forms, which appear on definite portions of the tube cross section. The main degradation forms observed, in fact, into the tube bulk are both the martensite recovery and the microstructural evolution. This latter promoted mostly Laves phase precipitation and coarsening. On the other hand, both the outer and the inner wall side, suffered mainly by severe oxidation/carburization. Especially on the outer surface, the massive carbide precipitation has caused an evident loss of ductility so that the mechanical properties of the tube appear appreciably reduced. - Highlights: • ASTM A213 T91 steel is used in petrochemical industry, for long-term service components. • The investigations reported an evaluation of the damage evolution of the grade T91 steel. • Our results suggest that the steel suffered both the martensite recovery and the microstructural evolution. • The outer and the inner wall side, suffered mainly by severe oxidation/carburization. • Carbide precipitation caused loss of ductility so that the

  9. Effects of oxidation-nitridation in the presence of water vapor on ASTM A335 P92 steel using SEM-EDS and XPS characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, J. C.; Kafarov, V.; Y Peña, D.; Alviz, A.

    2017-12-01

    This research studies the physical and chemical changes in steel ASTM A335 P92, produced from a typical refinery corrosion environment. The environment evaluated was oxidation-nitridation with the presence of water vapor. In this study five (5) exposure times were selected: 1, 20, 50, 100 and 200 hours; As well as two (2) analysis temperatures: 450 and 550°C. The working pressure used was one (1) atmosphere. Bearing in mind the kinetic study, the behaviour shown in ASTM A335 P92 steel describes an accelerated growth until 50 hours, after this time growth is less. For the tests carried out at 450°C, the kinetic constant was 2x10-8g2mm-4h-1, as well as for 550°C the calculated kinetic constant was 3.1×10-7g2mm-4h-1 through the SEM-EDS characterization techniques, it was possible to appreciate a good adhesion and homogeneity of the layers formed on the metal matrix until a time of exposure of 100 hours at 450 and 550°C, different from that evidenced to 200 hours of exposure where the layer formed near to the substrate showed detachment, this is attributed to the formation of hydroxides product of water vapor. Among the results obtained are the elemental composition, the presence of nitrides such as Si3N4, also NSiO2 and NSi2O, molybdenum oxides: MoO2 and MoO3 and iron oxides: FeO and Fe2O3 can be evidenced.

  10. Infliximab en pacientes con enfermedad ocular inflamatoria, refractarios a DARMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmer R. García-Salazar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la experiencia con infliximab (anticuerpo monoclonal con una potente acción antiinflamatoria en el tratamiento de enfermedades oculares inflamatorias secundarias a patologías reumáticas y refractarias a drogas antirreumáticas modificadoras de la enfermedad (DARMES. Se evaluó el caso de una paciente de 50 años con artritis reumatoide (AR de fondo activo y una paciente de 37 años con vasculitis anticuerpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos especifico para mieloperoxidasa (ANCA MPO sin compromiso de órgano noble, ambas con escleritis bilateral y perforación con prolapso de iris del ojo izquierdo. Ellas recibieron infliximab EV en dosis de 3 a 5 mg/kg/dosis, según el esquema, a las 0, 2, 6 y 8 semanas. Infliximab resultó eficaz y seguro para el tratamiento de escleritis asociada a AR y vasculitis ANCA MPO positivo, refractaria a tratamiento con DARMES y corticoides en dosis altas. Los injertos de tejido esclerocorneal evolucionaron favorablemente con infliximab.

  11. Evaluation of Systemic Antioxidant Level and Oxidative Stress In Relation to Lifestyle and Disease Progression in Asthmatic Patients/ Evaluacija nivoa antioksidanasa i oksidativnog stresa u sistemu u odnosu na životni stil i progresiju bolesti kod obolelih od astme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Yadav Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uvod: Astma je hronično oboljenje disajnih puteva. Oksi- dativni stres čini važan deo u patogenezi astme. Ima pre­sudnu ulogu u pogoršanju bolesti i predstavlja važnu posle- dicu upale disajnih puteva.

  12. Znaczenie edukacji w terapii pacjentów z astmą oskrzelową = Importance of education in treatment of patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Czerwińska Pawluk

    2015-01-01

      Streszczenie   Edukacja pacjentów z astmą jest jednym z elementów warunkujących osiąganie celów leczenia, a w konsekwencji poprawia jakość życia chorych. Pośród wielu czynników warunkujących skuteczność edukacji prowadzonej wobec pacjentów z chorobą przewlekłą i / lub ich opiekunów na szczególną uwagę zasługują: partnerskie relacje między lekarzem a pacjentem/ jego opiekunem, dostosowanie zakresu wiedzy w zależności do wieku, poziomu wykształcenia oraz oczekiwań pacjentów/ opiekunów.  Istotna też jest ciągłość kształcenia, mająca na celu weryfikację zdobytej wiedzy  i nabytych umiejętności.  Chory na astmę musi zaakceptować chorobę i z pełnym przekonaniem podjąć zadanie współuczestnictwa w jej leczeniu. Edukacja jest podstawą interakcji między pracownikami opieki zdrowotnej a pacjentem. Może mieć charakter edukacji bezpośredniej,  szkoleń w małych grupach, seminariów, sympozjów, konferencji, dystrybucji materiałów edukacyjnych, kampanii medialnych,  portali internetowych.   Abstract   Education of patients with asthma is one of the prerequisites for achieving the goals of treatment and consequently improves the quality of life of patients. Among the many factors determining the effectiveness of education provided to patients with chronic disease and / or their carers deserve special attention: partnerships between doctor and patient / his guardian, adjust the scope of knowledge according to age, educational level and expectations of patients / caregivers. Also important is the continuity of education, in order to verify their knowledge and acquired skills. Suffering from asthma must accept the disease and confidently take on the task of participation in its treatment. Education is the basis of the interaction between health care professionals and patients. It may be of direct education, training in small groups, seminars, symposia, conferences, distribution of educational materials, media

  13. Changes of the mechanical properties of ASTM A 533 type B class 1 (JRQ) steel used in pressure vessels of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderrama, Juan J.; Iorio, Antonio F.

    1999-01-01

    The steels used in pressure vessels generally present a non-homogenous microstructure across the thickness of their walls due to their manufacturing process. Average thickness being between 200-250 mm also makes the problem more serious. These facts lead us to think that the variation affects not only microstructure, but also mechanical properties. For this reason the methodology for the evaluation of materials should be standardized for their use before and after radiation by means of a surveillance program which allows us to verify the conditions of the steel of the pressure vessel by using Charpy-v, tensile and fracto-mechanics specimens inside the reactor to obtain information about the condition of the pressure vessel material. In order to analyze these changes, tests were carried out using Charpy-v specimens with different orientation inside the block representing the wall thickness and the corresponding ductile-to-brittle transition curves were made for each direction. The orientations to be considered will be four in all and will be those called TL, LT, ST and LS by ASTM E 399 (1993). The conclusions reached arise from a comparative analysis of the results obtained for each orientation under study and confirm the recommendation by Standards regarding the selection of the TL orientation as the most conservative. (author)

  14. The Effects of Sn Addition on the Microstructure and Surface Properties of Laser Deposited Al-Si-Sn Coatings on ASTM A29 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoba, Olawale S.; Akinlabi, Stephen A.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2018-03-01

    Aluminium and its alloys have been successful metal materials used for many applications like commodity roles, automotive and vital structural components in aircrafts. A substantial portion of Al-Fe-Si alloy is also used for manufacturing the packaging foils and sheets for common heat exchanger applications. The present research was aimed at studying the morphology and surface analyses of laser deposited Al-Sn-Si coatings on ASTM A29 steel. These Fe-intermetallic compounds influence the material properties during rapid cooling by laser alloying technique and play a crucial role for the material quality. Thus, it is of considerable technological interest to control the morphology and distribution of these phases in order to eliminate the negative effects on microstructure. A 3 kW continuous wave ytterbium laser system (YLS) attached to a KUKA robot which controls the movement of the alloying process was utilized for the fabrication of the coatings at optimum laser parameters. The fabricated coatings were investigated for its hardness and wear resistance performance. The field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) was used to study the morphology of the fabricated coatings and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) for the identification of the phases present in the coatings. The coatings were free of cracks and pores with homogeneous and refined microstructures. The enhanced hardness and wear resistance performance were attributed to metastable intermetallic compounds formed.

  15. Disinfectant wipes are appropriate to control microbial bioburden from surfaces: use of a new ASTM standard test protocol to demonstrate efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, S A; Bradley, C; Kibbee, R; Wesgate, R; Wilkinson, M A C; Sharpe, T; Maillard, J-Y

    2015-12-01

    The use of disinfectant pre-soaked wipes (DPW) to decontaminate high-touch environmental surfaces (HTES) by wiping is becoming increasingly widespread in the healthcare environment. However, DPW are rarely tested using conditions simulating their field use, and the label claims of environmental surface disinfectants seldom include wiping action. To evaluate the new E2967-15 standard test specific to wipes, particularly their ability to decontaminate surfaces and to transfer acquired contamination to clean surfaces. ASTM Standard E2967-15 was used by three independent laboratories to test the efficacy of five types of commercially available wipe products. All data generated were pulled together, and reproducibility and repeatability of the standard were measured. All the commercial DPW tested achieved a >4log10 (>99.99%) reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumanii with 10s of wiping, but only one DPW containing 0.5% accelerated H2O2 prevented the transfer of bacteria to another surface. This newly introduced standard method represents a significant advance in assessing DPW for microbial decontamination of HTES, and should greatly assist research and development, and in making more relevant and reliable claims on marketed DPW. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Analytical modeling of the thermomechanical behavior of ASTM F-1586 high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel used as a biomaterial under multipass deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Fabiano R; Rodrigues, Samuel F; Silva, Eden S; Reis, Gedeon S; Silva, Mariana B R; Junior, Alberto M J; Balancin, Oscar

    2015-06-01

    Precipitation-recrystallization interactions in ASTM F-1586 austenitic stainless steel were studied by means of hot torsion tests with multipass deformation under continuous cooling, simulating an industrial laminating process. Samples were deformed at 0.2 and 0.3 at a strain rate of 1.0s(-1), in a temperature range of 900 to 1200°C and interpass times varying from 5 to 80s. The tests indicate that the stress level depends on deformation temperature and the slope of the equivalent mean stress (EMS) vs. 1/T presents two distinct behaviors, with a transition at around 1100°C, the non-recrystallization temperature (Tnr). Below the Tnr, strain-induced precipitation of Z-phase (NbCrN) occurs in short interpass times (tpass<30s), inhibiting recrystallization and promoting stepwise stress build-up with strong recovery, which is responsible for increasing the Tnr. At interpass times longer than 30s, the coalescence and dissolution of precipitates promote a decrease in the Tnr and favor the formation of recrystallized grains. Based on this evidence, the physical simulation of controlled processing allows for a domain refined grain with better mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of the sensitization of two coatings by steel welding 308l by the EPR-Dl and Astm A-262 practice A techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C. R.; Zenteno S, J. C.; Robles F, J. L.; Rodriguez M, E.; Vazquez P, A.

    2014-10-01

    A stainless steel 308l coating was deposited by the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) on steel A36 with a thickness of 4.726 mm in three layers. The sensitization was measured with the technique of Electrochemical Potentiodynamic Reactivation of Double-loop (EPR-Dl), using a portable cell and other of conventional window. The standard Astm A-262, practice A was used to verify the sensitization values. Two samples were used, a welding on a plate of 323 x 172 x 76.2 mm and the second welding on the end of a plate of 12.7 mm of thickness and 280 mm of longitude, with a post-welding process with gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with electrode ERNiCr 3 and a process SMAW with electrode ENICRFe 3 . The coating on the plate showed low values of sensitization grade (DOS) in all the points, indicating a very quick heat extraction and an inter dendritic structure type step. The second sample presented DOS values that are related with a structure of low sensitization and the influence of the heat of the post-welding process and a structure of recrystallized grains. (Author)

  18. Determinación de las causas de falla en la ZAC de un acero ASTM A36 soldado por proceso SMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Isabel Melgarejo Rincón

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el estudio de una junta de acero ASTM A36 utilizado para el transporte de hidrocarburos y unido por el proceso de soldadura SMAW. Para la detección de discontinuidades en el cordón de soldadura y evaluación del grado de afectación del material próximo a la soldadura y su incidencia en la aparición de discontinuidades se utilizó la técnica de ultrasonido Phased Array. Las soldaduras fueron aplicadas siguiendo los parámetros establecidos en WPS. La zona de análisis se caracterizó mediante microscopia óptica y microscopía electrónica de barrido con el fin de determinar cambios microestructurales que incidan en la formación de la discontinuidad encontrada. Las propiedades mecánicas fueron evaluadas mediante un ensayo de dureza Rockvell C. El estudio demuestra cambios microestructurales del material base debidos a la elevación de temperaturas por encima del límite aconsejado por códigos, lo cual trae como consecuencia la formación de una discontinuidad lineal.

  19. Stress corrosion (Astm G30-90 standard) in 08x18H10T stainless steel of nuclear fuel storage pool in WWER reactors; Corrosion bajo esfuerzo (Norma ASTM G30-90) en acero inoxidable 08x18H10T de piscinas de almacenamiento de combustible nuclear en reactores V.V.E.R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, V.; Zamora R, L. [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear (Cuba)

    1997-07-01

    At the water storage of the irradiated nuclear fuel has been an important factor in its management. The actual pools have its walls covered with inoxidable steel and heat exchangers to dissipate the residual heat from fuel. It is essential to control the water purity to eliminate those conditions which aid to the corrosion process in fuel and at related components. The steel used in this research was obtained from an austenitic inoxidizable steel standardized with titanium 08x18H10T (Type 321) similar to one of the two steel coatings used to cover walls and the pools floor. the test consisted in the specimen deformation through an U ply according to the Astm G30-90 standard. The exposition of the deformed specimen it was realized in simulated conditions to the chemical regime used in pools. (Author)

  20. Avaliação das propriedades termo-mecânicas de borracha nitrílica após ensaio de compatibilidade de acordo com ASTM D 3455 Thermal-mechanical properties evaluation of nitrilic rubber after compatibility test according to ASTM D 3455

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adailze L. Meyer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O copolímero butadieno - acrilonitrila - NBR é comumente aplicado na confecção de gaxetas e anéis de vedação para transformadores elétricos isolados a óleo mineral. Durante o uso esses materiais permanecem em contato com óleo em temperaturas próximas a 90 ºC provocando alterações físicas e químicas no material elastomérico e no óleo. Neste trabalho, estudou-se a variação das propriedades mecânicas do elastômero resultantes do ensaio de compatibilidade (ASTM D 3455[3]. A caracterização mecânica foi realizada por ensaios de resistência a tração, dureza e análise dinâmico-mecânica (DMA. A verificação da estabilidade térmica e a composição do NBR foram obtidas através de análise termogravimétrica (TGA.The copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene - NBR is commonly used to manufacture gaskets and seals to be used in electrical transformers insulated by mineral oil. During operation those materials are constantly in contact with oil at temperatures that can reach 90 ºC, causing physical and chemicals changes in both gaskets and oil. In this paper the changes in elastomer mechanical properties after the compatibility test were studied (ASTM D 3455[3]. This characterization was done by tension properties, hardness and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA. The evaluation of thermal stability and composition of the NBR was carried out through thermogravimetry analysis (TG.

  1. ASTM F739 method for testing the permeation resistance of protective clothing materials: critical analysis with proposed changes in procedure and test-cell design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, D H; Zellers, E T; Sulewski, R

    1998-08-01

    ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Method F739-96 specifies a test-cell design and procedures for measuring the permeation resistance of chemical protective clothing. Among the specifications are open-loop collection stream flow rates of 0.050 to 0.150 L/min for a gaseous medium. At elevated temperatures the test must be maintained within 1 degree C of the set point. This article presents a critical analysis of the effect of the collection stream flow rate on the measured permeation rate and on the temperature uniformity within the test cell. Permeation tests were conducted on four polymeric glove materials with 44 solvents at 25 degrees C. Flow rates > 0.5 L/min were necessary to obtain accurate steady-state permeation rate (SSPR) values in 25 percent of the tests. At the lower flow rates the true SSPR typically was underestimated by a factor of two or less, but errors of up to 33-fold were observed. No clear relationship could be established between the need for a higher collection stream flow rate and either the vapor pressure or the permeation rate of the solvent, but test results suggest that poor mixing within the collection chamber was a contributing factor. Temperature gradients between the challenge and collection chambers and between the bottom and the top of the collection chamber increased with the water-bath temperature and the collection stream flow rate. Use of a test cell modified to permit deeper submersion reduced the gradients to < or = 0.5 degrees C. It is recommended that all SSPR measurements include verification of the adequacy of the collection stream flow rate. For testing at nonambient temperatures, the modified test cell described here could be used to ensure temperature uniformity throughout the cell.

  2. Determination of crack arrest toughness in A508 CL.3 forging steel from ASTM E1221-88 procedure. Comparison with the values obtained from thermal loading tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frund, J.M.; Difant, M.; Bethmont, M.

    1994-01-01

    A crack arrest study is under way at Electricite de France as part of the analysis of the risk of fast fracture of PWR vessels in emergency conditions. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the toughness which characterizes crack arrest through tests on reduced-size specimens. Some of the tests on a forging steel (A508 Cl.3) were conducted in conformity with two experimental methods. One method recommended by the ASTM calls for the use of an imposed-displacement mechanical loading on specimens kept under homogeneous temperature. Since the stress intensity factor K applied to the outside loading decreases along the crack growth, we can observe the arrest of the crack. In order to obtain brittle crack initiations in cleavage in the whole studied range of temperature and crack propagation of a sufficient length, the application of a weld point at the top of the notch is done. The other experimental method is based on a thermal loading. It requires the use of a disk or a cylinder with a longitudinal initial crack of the external surface. We dip this specimen in liquid nitrogen and we heat its internal surface with inducing current. There is a temperature gradient in the thickness of the specimen which produces a stress field which tends to open the crack. When the value of K is reached the crack initiation takes place. Several phenomena act to oppose the crack growth, they even go as far as stopping it. First the value of K, after increasing, gets steady then decreases, then, the rate of energy dissipated by plasticity at the top of the crack increases because the crack meets warmer and warmer areas on its way. The arrest toughness values which were obtained were then analyzed and compared to one another and with values proposed by RCC-m code. (authors). 12 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Laboratory Study on Prevention of CaO-Containing ASTM "D-Type" Inclusions in Al-Deoxidized Low-Oxygen Steel Melts During Basic Slag Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Wang, Xin-Hua; Yang, Die; Lei, Shao-Long; Wang, Kun-Peng

    2015-12-01

    Present work was attempted to explore the possibility of preventing CaO-containing inclusions in Al-deoxidized low-oxygen special steel during basic slag refining, which were known as ASTM D-type inclusions. Based on the analysis on formation thermodynamics of CaO-containing inclusions, a series of laboratory experiments were designed and carried out in a vacuum induction furnace. During the experiments, slag/steel reaction equilibrium was intentionally suppressed with the aim to decrease the CaO contents in inclusions, which is different from ordinary concept that slag/steel reaction should be promoted for better control of inclusions. The obtained results showed that high cleanliness of steel was obtained in all the steel melts, with total oxygen contents varied between 0.0003 and 0.0010 pct. Simultaneously, formation of CaO-containing inclusions was successfully prohibited, and all the formed oxide inclusions were MgO-Al2O3 or/and Al2O3 in very small sizes of about 1 to 3 μm. And 90 pct to nearly 98 pct of them were wrapped by relative thicker MnS outer surface layers to produce dual-phased "(MgO-Al2O3) + MnS" or "Al2O3 + MnS" complex inclusions. Because of much better ductility of MnS, certain deformability of these complex inclusions can be expected which is helpful to improve fatigue resistance property of steel. Only very limited number of singular MnS inclusions were with sizes larger than 13 μm, which were formed during solidification because of. In the end, formation of oxide inclusions in steel was qualitatively evaluated and discussed.

  4. Estimation of quasi-static J–R curves from Charpy energy and adaptation to ASTM E 1921 reference temperature estimation of ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers had suggested a sort of scaling procedure for predicting the quasi-static J–R curves from dynamic J–R curves obtained from instrumented Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests using key-curve, compliance or other procedures. Chaouadi, based on extensive tests and literature data, had quantitatively formalized the method and suggested general applicability of his method for a class of steels. In this paper, first, the Chauoadi-procedure is tried on some selected data from the literature (including the data used by Chaouadi and other workers) and an adaptation of the method is suggested using Wallin's as well as Landes's lower bound methods for upper-shelf J–R curve estimation from CVN energy. Using Chaouadi and other data as the benchmark, suitable scaling factors have been determined that enable estimation of quasi-static J–R curves from CVN energy alone, without the need for dynamic CVN J–R curves. The final formulae are given. This new method can be called modified Wallin–Landes procedure. Then this method is applied to fracture toughness and reference temperature (T 0 – ASTM E-1921) estimation from the full Charpy-transition data. The results are compared with those from the author's IGC-procedure, and modifications, if any, are suggested. Based on the new results, it is suggested that the IGC-procedure may be modified as: final T Q-est = T Q-IGC for T Q-Sch dy ≤ 20 °C (in the IGC-procedure the dividing temperature was 60 °C); and for T Q-Sch dy > 20 °C, T Q-IGC = T Q-WLm (different from the IGC-procedre and subscript WLm indicating modified Wallin–Landes procedure). For the 59 or more steels examined (including highly irradiated steels), the T Q-WL estimates at higher temperatures are consistent and conservative; a few non-conservative values are acceptably less than 20 °C, whereas other predictions show non-conservatism of up to 40–50 °C. At lower temperatures, T Q-IGC is consistently conservative and not over

  5. Determination of the sensitization of two coatings by steel welding 308l by the EPR-Dl and Astm A-262 practice A techniques; Determinacion de la sensibilizacion de dos revestimientos por soldadura de acero 308L por las tecnicas EPR-DL y ASTM A-262 practica A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis J, C. R.; Zenteno S, J. C.; Robles F, J. L.; Rodriguez M, E.; Vazquez P, A., E-mail: carlos.arganis@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    A stainless steel 308l coating was deposited by the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) on steel A36 with a thickness of 4.726 mm in three layers. The sensitization was measured with the technique of Electrochemical Potentiodynamic Reactivation of Double-loop (EPR-Dl), using a portable cell and other of conventional window. The standard Astm A-262, practice A was used to verify the sensitization values. Two samples were used, a welding on a plate of 323 x 172 x 76.2 mm and the second welding on the end of a plate of 12.7 mm of thickness and 280 mm of longitude, with a post-welding process with gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with electrode ERNiCr{sub 3} and a process SMAW with electrode ENICRFe{sub 3}. The coating on the plate showed low values of sensitization grade (DOS) in all the points, indicating a very quick heat extraction and an inter dendritic structure type step. The second sample presented DOS values that are related with a structure of low sensitization and the influence of the heat of the post-welding process and a structure of recrystallized grains. (Author)

  6. Whole glove permeation of cyclohexanol through disposable nitrile gloves on a dextrous robot hand and comparison with the modified closed-loop ASTM F739 method 1. No fist clenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Airek R; Que Hee, Shane S

    2017-04-01

    The aim was to develop a whole glove permeation method for cyclohexanol to generate permeation parameter data for a non-moving dextrous robot hand (normalized breakthrough time t b , standardized breakthrough time t s , steady state permeation rate P s , and diffusion coefficient D). Four types of disposable powderless, unsupported, and unlined nitrile gloves from the same producer were investigated: Safeskin Blue and Kimtech Science Blue, Purple, and Sterling. The whole glove method developed involved a peristaltic pump for water circulation through chemically resistant Viton tubing to continually wash the inner surface of the test glove via holes in the tubing, a dextrous robot hand operated by a microprocessor, a chemically protective nitrile glove to protect the robot hand, an incubator to maintain 35°C temperature, and a hot plate to maintain 35°C at the sampling point of the circulating water. Aliquots of 1.0 mL were sampled at regular time intervals for the first 60 min followed by removal of 0.5 mL aliquots every hour to 8 hr. Quantification was by the internal standard method after gas chromatography-selective ion electron impact mass spectrometry using a non-polar capillary column. The individual glove values of t b and t s differed for the ASTM closed loop method except for Safeskin Blue, but did not for the whole glove method. Most of the kinetic parameters agreed within an order of magnitude for the two techniques. The order of most protective to least protective glove was Blue and Safeskin, then Purple followed by Sterling for the whole gloves. The analogous order for the modified F739 ASTM closed loop method was: Safeskin, Blue, Purple, and Sterling, almost the same as for the whole glove. The Sterling glove was "not recommended" from the modified ASTM data, and was "poor" from the whole glove data.

  7. Kinetic and morphological differentiation of ettringites in plain and blended Portland cements with metakaolin and the ASTM C 452-68 test. Part II: Morphological differentiation by SEM and XRD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talero, R.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The same cementitious materials (OPCs, SRPCs and matekaolin, MK, the same blended cements and the same ASTM C 452-68 test than in Part I, were used. Other complementary determinations were: chemical analysis of cementing materials, SEM and XRD analysis of ettringites and specific properties of some cement tested and of their pastes.The experimental results have also demonstrated that when 7.0% SO3, equivalent to 15.05% of gypsum, was added to the M pozzolan-containing Portland cement and tested with the ASTM C 452-68 method, it was not found to behave aggressively but rather as “setting regulator ”, because the increase in mechanical strengths over time and setting times in these mixes were, therefore, similar to the pattern observed in any PC. However, when the gypsum content was raised to triple than that amount (21.0% SO3, it behaved aggressively. In both cases, logically, ettringite from both origins were involved in the resulting beneficial or adverse behavior.En esta Parte II se utilizaron los mismos materiales cementíceos (CPO, CPRS, y metakaolín, MK, los mismos cementos de mezcla y el mismo método de ensayo ASTM C 452-68 que en la Parte I. Otras determinaciones complementarias fueron: análisis químico de los materiales cementíceos, análisis por DRX y SEM de ettringitas y propiedades específicas de algunos cementos ensayados y de sus pastas.Los resultados experimentales obtenidos han demostrado también que, el 7.0% de SO3 presente en los 30 cementos de mezcla con MK, ensayados conforme el método ASTM C 452-68, no se comporta como agresivo sino como ”regulador de fraguado”, porque los tiempos de fraguado y el aumento de resistencias mecánicas fueron como los de cualquier CP. De aquí que algunos de esos cementos de mezcla puedan ser considerados “cementos hidráulicos expansivos”, el resto, no. Sin embargo, cuando la cantidad de yeso aportada fue el triple (21,0% SO3, se comportó como agresivo, motivo por el cual

  8. Estimation of quasi-static J–R curves from Charpy energy and adaptation to ASTM E 1921 reference temperature estimation of ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasan, P.R., E-mail: sreeprs@yahoo.co.in

    2014-04-01

    Many researchers had suggested a sort of scaling procedure for predicting the quasi-static J–R curves from dynamic J–R curves obtained from instrumented Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests using key-curve, compliance or other procedures. Chaouadi, based on extensive tests and literature data, had quantitatively formalized the method and suggested general applicability of his method for a class of steels. In this paper, first, the Chauoadi-procedure is tried on some selected data from the literature (including the data used by Chaouadi and other workers) and an adaptation of the method is suggested using Wallin's as well as Landes's lower bound methods for upper-shelf J–R curve estimation from CVN energy. Using Chaouadi and other data as the benchmark, suitable scaling factors have been determined that enable estimation of quasi-static J–R curves from CVN energy alone, without the need for dynamic CVN J–R curves. The final formulae are given. This new method can be called modified Wallin–Landes procedure. Then this method is applied to fracture toughness and reference temperature (T{sub 0} – ASTM E-1921) estimation from the full Charpy-transition data. The results are compared with those from the author's IGC-procedure, and modifications, if any, are suggested. Based on the new results, it is suggested that the IGC-procedure may be modified as: final T{sub Q-est} = T{sub Q-IGC} for T{sub Q-Sch}{sup dy} ≤ 20 °C (in the IGC-procedure the dividing temperature was 60 °C); and for T{sub Q-Sch}{sup dy} > 20 °C, T{sub Q-IGC} = T{sub Q-WLm} (different from the IGC-procedre and subscript WLm indicating modified Wallin–Landes procedure). For the 59 or more steels examined (including highly irradiated steels), the T{sub Q-WL} estimates at higher temperatures are consistent and conservative; a few non-conservative values are acceptably less than 20 °C, whereas other predictions show non-conservatism of up to 40–50 °C. At lower temperatures

  9. Estudo de Procedimentos de Soldagem MIG/MAG para Aplicação de Revestimentos de Liga de Níquel Inconel 625 em Aço Estrutural ASTM A387 Gr.11

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante, Nathália Escóssio; Andrade, Tathiane Caminha; Pinheiro, Pedro Helton Magalhães; Miranda, Hélio Cordeiro de; Motta, Marcelo Ferreira; Aguiar, Willys Machado

    2016-01-01

    Resumo O presente trabalho objetiva o estudo de técnicas de soldagem aplicadas a reparo de componentes fabricados em aço ASTM A387 Gr.11, largamente utilizado em aplicações da indústria do petróleo e gás. Devido ao regime de trabalho e necessidade de utilização de materiais com boa resistência mecânica e à corrosão, utilizou-se como metal de adição a liga UNS N06625 (Inconel 625). O processo de soldagem utilizado foi o MIG/MAG e a técnica de soldagem aplicada foi a dupla camada. A metodologia...

  10. Forsmark site investigation. Microorganisms in groundwater from boreholes KFM10A, KFM11A and KFM08D - numbers, viability, and metabolic diversity. Results from five sections 298.0-305.1 m and 478.0-487.5 m in KFM10A, 447.5-454.6 m in KFM11A, and 669.7-676.8 m and 828.4-835.5 m in KFM08D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (SE))

    2007-09-15

    Microorganisms and their characteristic features were investigated while geochemically characterizing the groundwater, as part of the site investigation programme at Forsmark. The investigation consists of determining the total numbers of microorganisms, the concentration of adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP), and the number of culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB); also included is a method for determining the numbers of organisms belonging to different physiological groups, the most probable number (MPN) method. This investigation covered eight different groups, namely, nitrate-, iron-, manganese-, and sulphate-reducing bacteria, auto- and heterotrophic acetogens, and auto- and heterotrophic methanogens. The reproducibility of the MPN method was tested using groundwater from a depth of 450 m at the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory and was found to be excellent. Samples were taken from boreholes KFM10A at 298.305 m and 478.487 m, KFM11A at 447.454 m, and KFM08D at 669.676 m and 828.835 m; the sampling dates were 2006-11-28, 2006-10-31, 2007-03-13, 2007-06-19, and 2007-05-02, respectively. The total number of cells (TNC) found in KFM10A groundwater was the highest so far found in a total of 19 analysed sections in the Forsmark area. In contrast, KFM08D-828 m and KFM11A-447 m had among the lowest numbers of cells found thus far. A large amount of ATP per cell indicates large, active cells. The average of all previous ATP/TNC ratios (n approx = 100) in deep groundwater was determined to be 0.43. The analysed groundwater samples from KFM10A-478 m and KFM08D-669 m had ATP/TNC ratios exceeding the overall average of 0.43 for deep groundwater. This suggests that the microorganisms in these groundwaters possessed viability and activity levels above the average for deep groundwater microorganisms. The ratios between the CHAB and NRB numbers found here suggest that there was no surface water contamination. The percentages of TNC culturable using the MPN method were in the 1

  11. Forsmark site investigation. Microorganisms in groundwater from boreholes KFM10A, KFM11A and KFM08D - numbers, viability, and metabolic diversity. Results from five sections 298.0-305.1 m and 478.0-487.5 m in KFM10A, 447.5-454.6 m in KFM11A, and 669.7-676.8 m and 828.4-835.5 m in KFM08D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2007-09-01

    Microorganisms and their characteristic features were investigated while geochemically characterizing the groundwater, as part of the site investigation programme at Forsmark. The investigation consists of determining the total numbers of microorganisms, the concentration of adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP), and the number of culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB); also included is a method for determining the numbers of organisms belonging to different physiological groups, the most probable number (MPN) method. This investigation covered eight different groups, namely, nitrate-, iron-, manganese-, and sulphate-reducing bacteria, auto- and heterotrophic acetogens, and auto- and heterotrophic methanogens. The reproducibility of the MPN method was tested using groundwater from a depth of 450 m at the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory and was found to be excellent. Samples were taken from boreholes KFM10A at 298.305 m and 478.487 m, KFM11A at 447.454 m, and KFM08D at 669.676 m and 828.835 m; the sampling dates were 2006-11-28, 2006-10-31, 2007-03-13, 2007-06-19, and 2007-05-02, respectively. The total number of cells (TNC) found in KFM10A groundwater was the highest so far found in a total of 19 analysed sections in the Forsmark area. In contrast, KFM08D-828 m and KFM11A-447 m had among the lowest numbers of cells found thus far. A large amount of ATP per cell indicates large, active cells. The average of all previous ATP/TNC ratios (n ≅ 100) in deep groundwater was determined to be 0.43. The analysed groundwater samples from KFM10A-478 m and KFM08D-669 m had ATP/TNC ratios exceeding the overall average of 0.43 for deep groundwater. This suggests that the microorganisms in these groundwaters possessed viability and activity levels above the average for deep groundwater microorganisms. The ratios between the CHAB and NRB numbers found here suggest that there was no surface water contamination. The percentages of TNC culturable using the MPN method were in the 1

  12. Comparison of the corrosion resistance of DIN W. Nr. 1.4970 (15%Cr-15%Ni-1.2%Mo-Ti and ASTM F-138 (17%Cr-13%Ni-2.5%Mo austenitic stainless steels for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Terada

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The resistance to localised corrosion of the full austenitic 15%Cr-15%Ni-1.2%Mo titanium stabilized stainless steel (DIN W. Nr. 1.4970 was investigated by electrochemical methods including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic polarization measurements in a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS. The low carbon and non-stabilized austenitic stainless steel, AISI 316L (ASTM F-138, widely used for surgical implants, was also tested for comparison. The tests were conducted at room temperature after a stable potential had been reached. After the electrochemical measurements, the surfaces of the specimens were observed using SEM to evaluate the presence of pits. Potentiodynamic polarization results showed that both steels are prone to localized corrosion. Larger pits were found on the surface of AISI 316L specimens after the electrochemical tests. EIS response has indicated the duplex structure of the passive oxides. The results showed that the electrochemical behaviour of the DIN W. Nr. 1.4970 is better than of AISI 316L steel. Therefore, their application as an implant material may be considered.

  13. Estudo de Procedimentos de Soldagem MIG/MAG para Aplicação de Revestimentos de Liga de Níquel Inconel 625 em Aço Estrutural ASTM A387 Gr.11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Escóssio Cavalcante

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente trabalho objetiva o estudo de técnicas de soldagem aplicadas a reparo de componentes fabricados em aço ASTM A387 Gr.11, largamente utilizado em aplicações da indústria do petróleo e gás. Devido ao regime de trabalho e necessidade de utilização de materiais com boa resistência mecânica e à corrosão, utilizou-se como metal de adição a liga UNS N06625 (Inconel 625. O processo de soldagem utilizado foi o MIG/MAG e a técnica de soldagem aplicada foi a dupla camada. A metodologia do presente trabalho foi dividida em etapas, sendo a primeira a realização de ensaios exploratórios para definir a relevância dos fatores de controle estudados. A segunda etapa consistiu na aplicação do critério de dureza e de microestrutura para definir as melhores relações de energia para aplicação da técnica da dupla camada. A técnica da dupla camada se mostrou eficaz na melhora das propriedades da microestrutura da ZAC-GG dos revestimentos, verificou-se intenso refinamento de grão. Houve também redução nas medidas de dureza e microdureza. Para ambos os gases de proteção utilizados (Ar+25%He e Ar+4%CO2 foi possível obter relações de energia com afastamentos positivos. Em todas essas relações a energia da segunda camada foi maior que a energia da primeira camada.

  14. Quality-by-design (QbD): effects of testing parameters and formulation variables on the segregation tendency of pharmaceutical powder measured by the ASTM D 6940-04 segregation tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lin; Wu, Huiquan; Shen, Meiyu; Augsburger, Larry L; Lyon, Robbe C; Khan, Mansoor A; Hussain, Ajaz S; Hoag, Stephen W

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of testing parameters and formulation variables on the segregation tendency of pharmaceutical powders measured by the ASTM D 6940-04 segregation tester using design of experiments (DOE) approaches. The test blends consisted of 4% aspirin (ASP) and 96% microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with and without magnesium stearate (MgS). The segregation tendency of a blend was determined by measuring the last/first (L/F) ratio, the ratio of aspirin concentrations between the first and last samples discharged from the tester. A 2(2) factorial design was used to determine the effects of measurement parameters [amount of material loaded (W), number of segregation cycles] with number of replicates 6. ANOVA showed that W was a critical parameter for segregation testing. The L/F value deviated further from 1 (greater segregation tendency) with increasing W. A 2(3) full factorial design was used to assess the effects of formulation variables: grade of ASP (unmilled, milled), grade of MCC, and amount of lubricant, MgS. MLR and ANOVA showed that the grade of ASP was the main effect contributing to segregation tendency. Principal Component Regression Analysis established a correlation between L/F and the physical properties of the blend related to ASP and MCC, the ASP/MCC particle size ratio (PSR) and powder cohesion. The physical properties of the blend related to density and flow were not influenced by the grade of ASP and were not related to the segregation tendency of the blend. The direct relationship between L/F and PSR was determined by univariate analysis. Segregation tendency increased as the ASP to MCC particle size increased. This study highlighted critical test parameters for segregation testing and identified critical physical properties of the blends that influence segregation tendency. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  15. Psychologiczne aspekty chorób alergicznych: trudności dorosłych pacjentów z astmą oskrzelową i atopowym zapaleniem skóry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Albińska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Celem pracy jest zaprezentowanie przeglądu badań na temat psychologicznego funkcjonowania dorosłych cierpiących na choroby alergiczne. Artykuł koncentruje się na dorosłych ze względu na istnienie małej liczby prac naukowych dotyczących zmiany manifestacji symptomów u pacjentów z wyżej wymienionymi chorobami, która może być traktowana jako pierwsze i ostatnie stadium marszu alergicznego, ponieważ jego objawowa manifestacja u dzieci zwykle przybiera postać atopowego zapalenia skóry, podczas gdy u dorosłych jest znana jako astma oskrzelowa. Analiza odpowiada na pytanie, czy wspólnej, alergiczno-zapalnej etiologii tych schorzeń odpowiadają podobieństwa doświadczanych trudności psychologicznych. Omówienie odwołuje się do polskiej i zagranicznej literatury przedmiotu i uwzględnia kluczowe aspekty chorób psychosomatycznych – astmy i atopowego zapalenia skóry – czyli trudności ze snem, depresję, lęk, inne zaburzenia afektywne, zaburzenia zachowania i trudności poznawcze. Współwystępowanie zaburzeń psychicznych i somatycznych u chorych na alergię to niepodważalny dowód integralności somy i psyche, co rzadko dostrzegają osoby odpowiedzialne za system opieki zdrowotnej. Ignorują one tym samym ważny element procesu diagnostyczno-terapeutycznego, istotny dla wyzdrowienia pacjentów z astmą i atopowym zapaleniem skóry.

  16. Influência da refusão por plasma na microestrutura de um revestimento Fe-Mn-Cr-Si depositado por aspersão térmica arco elétrico sobre aço inoxidável ASTM A743-CA6NM Influence of plasma remelting on the microstructure of Fe-Mn-Cr-Si arc thermal spray coating deposited on ASTM A743-CA6NM stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Geraldo Marenda Pukasiewicz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ASTM A743-CA6NM é um aço inoxidável martensítico muito utilizado na fabricação de turbinas hidráulicas devido a sua elevada tenacidade, entretanto apresenta restrições com relação à regiões recuperadas por soldagem. Diferentes técnicas de deposição tem sido aplicadas com o intuito de reduzir ou eliminar a tensão residual. A deposição de revestimentos resistentes a cavitação é outra forma importante de aumentar a vida útil destes componentes. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a influência do tipo e intensidade de corrente de refusão por plasma na microestrutura, composição química e microdureza de um revestimento Fe-Mn-Cr-Si resistente a cavitação depositado por aspersão térmica arco elétrico sobre aço ASTMA743-CA6NM. Observou-se que a adoção de menores valores de corrente média, assim como a utilização de corrente pulsada reduziram a formação de ferrita δ e a espessura final da ZTA, possibilitando a formação do revestimento com menores alterações na microestrutura do metal base. Verificou-se que a microestrutura e microdureza dos revestimentos refundidos não se mostraram muito sensível a variações na diluição do metal base. A utilização de corrente contínua promoveu um alinhamento da estrutura dendrítica no sentido da movimentação da tocha, entretanto este comportamento não foi observado em revestimentos refundidos com corrente pulsada.ASTM A743-CA6NM martensitic stainless steel have been used in hydraulic turbines manufacturing, but show some restrictions in welded recovered areas. Different techniques have been applied in order to reduce or eliminate residual stress, with life increase. The deposition of cavitation resistant coatings is another important way to increase the service life of these components. The objective of this study is evaluate the influence of type and intensity of plasma remelting current on the microstructure, chemical composition and microhardness of the Fe

  17. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedia...

  18. ASTM Data Banks and Chemical Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batik, Albert; Hale, Eleanor

    1972-01-01

    Among the data described are infrared indexes, mass spectral data, chromatographic data, X-ray emmission data, odor and taste threshold data, and thermodynamics data. This paper provides the chemical documentarian a complete reference source to a wide variety of analytical data. (Author/NH)

  19. 1991 annual book of ASTM standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains nuclear technology standards also features test methods and practices for solar and geotechnical energy. In the nuclear category, the primary emphasis of this volume is on analysis, dosimetry, and radiation effects in materials. Over eighty standards primarily test methods and practices are featured in this category

  20. COMPORTAMIENTO REFRACTARIO DE PROBETAS DE MORTEROS CONFORMADAS CON DIATOMITAS COMO AGREGADO MINERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodriguez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de las propiedades puzolánicas de algunos minerales, como las diatomitas, que potencialmente pueden reaccionar con la portlandita contenida en las pastas y morteros de cemento Portland. También se estudia si estas adiciones minerales pueden incrementar la resistencia térmica y la refractariedad de los morteros. En el comportamiento de estos agregados se sigue midiendo como parámetro el comportamientopuzolánico de las diatomitas en las pastas de cemento Portland, y las variaciones de la resistencia mecánica de probetas estandarizadas construidas con y sin agregado de diatomitas. El desarrollo experimental programado consta de tratamientostérmicos a las diatomitas, reducción de tamaño hasta compatibilidad con la granulometría del cemento Portland, ensayos de DRX, análisis de puzolanidad, construcción de probetas de morteros con y sinagregado, y finalmente la medición de sus propiedades mecánicas residuales después de haber sido sometidas a elevadas temperaturas.Del análisis de los resultados experimentales se puede informar que las diatomitas estudiadas si le confieren propiedadespuzolánicas al cemento Portland, y como consecuencia mejoran la resistencia mecánica residual de las probetas de mortero cuando son sometidas a altas temperaturas.

  1. Roasting of refractory gold and silver concentrate; Tostacion de un concentrado refractario de oro y plata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coraonado, J. H.; Encinas, M. A.; Leyva, M. A.; Valenzuela, J. L.; Valenzuela, A.; Munive, G. T.

    2012-11-01

    In processing of precious metal ores with high pyrite content, refractory concentrates are obtained, which are difficult to process. A refractory gold and silver concentrate was leached with sodium cyanide. Results show low extraction percentages, being 34 % of gold and 40 % of silver. A roasting method to oxidize the concentrate was used, making it more susceptible to cyanidation, hence a more efficient way to extract precious metals. The variables include roasting temperature and roasting and cyanidation time. In addition, the hot calcine was added to the leaching solution at room temperature to analyze the effect on particle size and recovery. The best results, although not entirely satisfactory (50 % of gold and 61 % of silver) were obtained by roasting the concentrate for 4 h at 600 degree centigrade, followed by cyanidation for 20 h. The lime consumption to raise the pH to about 11.3 was increased markedly to 25 kg/m{sup 3}. (Author) 11 refs.

  2. [Comparison of susceptibility artifacts generated by microchips with different geometry at 1.5 Tesla magnet resonance imaging. A phantom pilot study referring to the ASTM standard test method F2119-07].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengg, S; Kneissl, S

    2013-01-01

    Ferromagnetic material in microchips, used for animal identification, causes local signal increase, signal void or distortion (susceptibility artifact) on MR images. To measure the impact of microchip geometry on the artifact's size, an MRI phantom study was performed. Microchips of the labels Datamars®, Euro-I.D.® and Planet-ID® (n  =  15) were placed consecutively in a phantom and examined with respect to the ASTM Standard Test Method F2119-07 using spin echo (TR 500 ms, TE 20 ms), gradient echo (TR 300 ms, TE 15 ms, flip angel 30°) and otherwise constant imaging parameters (slice thickness 3 mm, field of view 250 x 250 mm, acquisition matrix 256 x 256 pixel, bandwidth 32 kHz) at 1.5 Tesla. Image acquisition was undertaken with a microchip positioned in the x- and z-direction and in each case with a phase-encoding direction in the y- and z-direction. The artifact size was determined with a) a measurement according to the test method F2119-07 using a homogeneous point operation, b) signal intensity measurement according to Matsuura et al. and c) pixel counts in the artifact according to Port and Pomper. There was a significant difference in artifact size between the three microchips tested (Wilcoxon p = 0.032). A two- to three-fold increase in microchip volume generated an up to 76% larger artifact, depending on the sequence type, phase-encoding direction and chip position to B0. The smaller the microchip geometry, the less is the susceptibility artifact. Spin echoes (SE) generated smaller artifacts than gradient echoes (GE). In relation to the spatial measurement of the artifact, the switch in phase-encoding direction had less influence on the artifact size in GE- than in SE-sequences. However, the artifact shape and direction of SE-sequences can be changed by altering the phase. The artifact size, caused by the microchip, plays a major clinical role in the evaluation of MRI from the head, shoulder and neck regions.

  3. Porównanie stężeń tlenku azotu w powietrzu wydychanym i pH kondensatu powietrza wydychanego u dzieci chorych na astmę i zdrowych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolesław Kalicki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Istotą astmy jest proces zapalny toczący się w śluzówce drzewa oskrzelowego. Parametry oceniające nasilenie tego procesu stosowane do tej pory są mało obiektywne i trudne do uzyskania, zwłaszcza u dzieci. Możliwość rzetelnej oceny intensywności tego procesu wpłynęłaby na dokładniejszą diagnozę pacjenta i zobiektywizowałaby postępowanie lecznicze. W ostatnim okresie ukazało się wiele prac poświęconych poszukiwaniu takich narzędzi, które w łatwy, nieinwazyjny i tani sposób odzwierciedlą stan zapalny w układzie oddechowym. Za jeden z takich wykładników uznawany jest pomiar stężenia tlenku azotu (NO w wydychanym powietrzu. Jego stężenie zależy od aktywności iNOS – enzymu aktywowanego między innymi przez czynniki zapalne. Oznacza się go metodami chemiluminescencyjnymi. Wzrost stężenia sugeruje nasilenie zapalenia oskrzeli. Innym markerem stanu zapalnego branym pod uwagę w wielu badaniach jest pH kondensatu powietrza wydychanego (KPW, który jest pochodną płynu pokrywającego powierzchnię pęcherzyków płucnych. Spośród wielu substancji w nim rozpuszczonych oznaczanie jego pH jest najłatwiejszą metodą analizy KPW. Zauważono, że pH tego płynu spada w chorobach przebiegających z nasileniem stanu zapalnego w płucach. Obie wymienione metody są stosunkowo tanie i proste do zastosowania (również w populacji dziecięcej. Celem niniejszego badania była ocena stężeń NO w powietrzu wydychanym i pH KPW u dzieci z rozpoznaną astmą w okresie zaostrzenia choroby i porównanie tych wyników z wartościami uzyskanymi w grupie dzieci zdrowych. Do badań włączono 26 dzieci w wieku od 8 do 17 lat. Pomiędzy obiema grupami dzieci – zdrowych i chorych, uzyskano statystycznie znamienną różnicę wyników zarówno stężenia NO w powietrzu wydychanym, jak i pH KPW. W przypadku zaostrzenia astmy stężenie NO rosło, a pH KPW malało, oba parametry korelowały ze sobą. Wyniki te pozostają w zgodzie

  4. Terlipresina en el shock séptico refractario a catecolaminas: Presentación de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrero, Hilario A; Pérez, Augusto; Eulmesekian, Pablo; Minces, Pablo; Díaz, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    El shock séptico puede causar hipotensión refractaria al tratamiento con líquidos endovenosos o altas dosis de catecolaminas; estos niños tienen peor pronóstico. En este escenario pueden resultar beneficiosas las terapias alternativas capaces de revertir el estado de vasodilatación grave. La terlipresina es un análogo sintético de la vasopresina de vida media prolongada que se utiliza en el tratamiento del sangrado por várices esofágicas. Su afinidad por los receptores vasculares es superior ...

  5. Avances en los métodos de recuperación de oro y plata de minerales refractarios

    OpenAIRE

    Parga, J. R.; Carrillo, F. R.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research work in hydrometallurgical processes for precious metals recovery from refractory ores is analyzed. Advantages and applications are discussed. Likewise, two methods, one stage direct pressure oxidation/cyanidation and pyrometallurgical recovery, are also described. In the first one, gold and silver oxidation and recovery can be carried out in the same reactor simultaneously. A higher than 96 % recovery in less than 90 min can be achieved. As for the pyrometallurgical recovery ...

  6. Infliximab como opción terapéutica en pioderma gangrenoso mamario bilateral postquirúrgico refractario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Castaño-González

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El pioderma gangrenoso es una rara enfermedad cutánea ulcerada no infecciosa, perteneciente a las dermatosis neutrofílicas. Su etiopatogenia no está bien definida hasta el momento, barajándose un mecanismo inmunológico. La localización mamaria de la afectación es inusual, apareciendo tras cirugía en la mayoría de casos en relación con el fenómeno de patergia, pero también puede ser de aparición espontánea. Presentamos un caso de paciente con carcinoma de mama izquierda sometida a mastectomía radical con reconstrucción que desarrolla un pioderma gangrenoso bilateral postquirúrgico. Se diagnosticó erróneamente como dehiscencia de herida quirúrgica, procediéndose a múltiples desbridamientos que exacerbaron el problema y retrasaron el diagnóstico más de un año. Tras múltiples tratamientos, se decide inicio de terapia con infliximab debido a la refractariedad del proceso, evolucionando satisfactoriamente. La presentación de este caso tiene como objetivo el reconocimiento y abordaje precoz de esta entidad para aprender a prevenir su morbilidad física y psicológica.

  7. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  8. New ASTM Standards for Nondestructive Testing of Aerospace Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Lack of consensus standards containing procedural detail for NDE of polymer matrix composite materials: I. Flat panel composites. II. Composite components with more complex geometries a) Pressure vessels: 1) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). 2) composite pressure vessels (CPVs). III. Sandwich core constructions. Metal and brittle matrix composites are a possible subject of future effort.

  9. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Biodiesel Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedi...

  10. Astmed ja hüpped / Meelis Friedenthal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Friedenthal, Meelis, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Dan Gordoni näidend "Vihmamees" (Rain Man) samanimelise filmi põhjal, filmistsenaariumi autorid Ronald Bass ja Barry Morrow, stsenaariumi aluseks Barry Morrow jutustus, lavastaja Georg Malvius. Esietendus 20. novembril Vanemuise väikeses majas

  11. Image analysis of corrosion pit initiation on ASTM type A240 stainless steel and ASTM type A 1008 carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine, H. M. Zulker

    The adversity of metallic corrosion is of growing concern to industrial engineers and scientists. Corrosion attacks metal surface and causes structural as well as direct and indirect economic losses. Multiple corrosion monitoring tools are available although those are time-consuming and costly. Due to the availability of image capturing devices in today's world, image based corrosion control technique is a unique innovation. By setting up stainless steel SS 304 and low carbon steel QD 1008 panels in distilled water, half-saturated sodium chloride and saturated sodium chloride solutions and subsequent RGB image analysis in Matlab, in this research, a simple and cost-effective corrosion measurement tool has identified and investigated. Additionally, the open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results have been compared with RGB analysis to gratify the corrosion. Additionally, to understand the importance of ambiguity in crisis communication, the communication process between Union Carbide and Indian Government regarding the Bhopal incident in 1984 was analyzed.

  12. 75 FR 29990 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Correction to Notice of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Materials (``ASTM'') ASTM-B42, ASTM- B68, ASTM-B75, ASTM-B88, ASTM-B88M, ASTM-B188, ASTM-B251, ASTM-B251M, ASTM-B280, ASTM-B302, ASTM-B306, ASTM-359, ASTM-B743, ASTM-B819, and ASTM-B903 specifications and...

  13. Estudio post-mortem de un hormigón refractario colocado en la línea de escorias de una cuchara de acería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Aza, A. H.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A high alumina concrete with synthetic spinel (MgAl2O4 addition, conformed as a brick, has been tested in the slag line of a secondary steel ladle. A post-mortem study allowed to establish the elements diffusion profile inside the refractory as well as its microstructural evolution. This study was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction, reflected optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. From the analysis of the obtained results, making use of the Al2O3-MgO-CaO-SiO2 quaternary system, it has been possible to establish the mechanism of corrosion, justifying, at the same time, the role that spinel and calcium hexaluminate (CaAl12O19 play. The spinel, that is the only stable solid phase in the slag - refractory interface, admits in its structure large amount of bivalent and trivalent elements (e.g. Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Cr3+.... Therefore, the slag becomes silica-rich and highly viscous, as CaAl12O19 is precipitated, decreasing the corrosion. The calcium hexaluminate grows from coarse and medium-sized grains of alumina to form a network of interlocked crystals that act as unions among the alumina grains. This microstructure together with that the CaAl12O19 also admits in solid solution large quantities of Fe2+ and Fe3+, provide a smaller, slower and more uniform wear of the refractory material.

    Se ha diseñado y preparado un hormigón de alta alúmina con espinela, el cual ha sido ensayado, en forma de piezas preconformadas, en la línea de escorias de una cuchara de acería secundaria. El estudio post-morten del material ha permitido establecer las reacciones químicas que tienen lugar durante el proceso de corrosión y determinar el mecanismo imperante durante este proceso haciendo uso del diagrama de equilibrio Al2O3-MgO-CaO-SiO2. Dicho estudio se ha llevado a cabo mediante difracción de rayos X, microscopía óptica de luz reflejada y microscopía electrónica de barrido con microanálisis mediante microsonda de dispersión de energías de rayos X. Se ha establecido que el ataque tiene lugar por difusión de la escoria a través de la porosidad abierta y de los bordes de grano de los agregados del hormigón. Esta fase líquida reacciona con la espinela (MgAl2O4, única fase estable en contacto con la escoria a la temperatura de trabajo, formando una solución sólida de formula [Fe0,3Mn0,1Mg0,6] [Al1,4Cr0,6]O4 disminuyéndo así la agresividad de la fase líquida y la corrosión. Así mismo, el hexaluminato de calcio, [Ca0,95Fe0,05][Al11,9Fe0,05]O19, formado por disolución-precipitación de la alúmina fina de la matriz (< 120 μm en la escoria, crea una tupida malla de cristales entrelazados que unen entre si los granos de alúmina impidiendo la penetración de la escoria y el avance de la corrosión.

  14. Gold recovery from refractory ores. The role of pressure oxidation. Recuperacion de oro de minerales refractarios. El papel de la oxidacion a presion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguacil, F.J.; Cobo, A.; Caravaca, C. (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas. Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. Madrid (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    Pressure oxidation is a hydrometallurgical technique that renders auriferous refractory materials, specially sulphides, amenable to cyanidation process. The effectiveness of the operation as a pretreatment to the recovery of refractory gold, is reflected by the succesful startup over the last ten years of seven commercial plants. Some factors affecting the selection of pressure oxidation as pretreatment for gold recovery are discussed. (Author)

  15. El sistema de gestión ambiental y su influencia en el mejoramiento de los impactos ambientales en una empresa de refractarios

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Vivas, Rodrigo Enrique; Chávez Vivas, Rodrigo Enrique; Chávez Vivas, Rodrigo Enrique

    2013-01-01

    La empresa es una organización privada bajo la denominación societaria de Sociedad responsabilidad limitada, esta empresa tiene como rubro la producción y comercialización de revestimientos cerámicos para pisos, paredes y complementos decorativos, ángulos y cenefas. Actualmente tiene el problema que la Municipalidad Provincial, la Dirección Regional de Salud (DIRESA), le han planteado que deben mejorar su proceso productivo y elaborar su estudio de impacto ambiental con la finalidad de red...

  16. Hornos para refractarios de D. José Orodea en las proximidades de la casa del Vétago, Valdemorillo (Madrid)

    OpenAIRE

    Puche Riart, Octavio; Mazadiego Martínez, Luis Felipe; Jordá Bordehore, Luis

    2004-01-01

    En el marco del Proyecto de Investigación: Conservación del Patrimonio MineroMetalúrgico madrileño (I1I) del Programa de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales, de la Consejería de Educación y Cultura de la Comunidad de Madrid, estamos reconociendo diversos hornos cerámicos de gran valor estético e histórico. En el área de Valdemorillo hemos trabajado con los de la fábricas de las Sociedad Aulencia, Falcó y Cía, más adelante Compañía Giralt-Laporra, así como con los de ÁNGEL GONZÁLEZ, ahora toca el ...

  17. Pioderma gangrenoso refractario: utilidad de la terapia combinada. Enfoque en beneficio de la terapia hiperbárica en su tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Segura Charry, Juan Sebastián; Jaimes, Diego Alejandro; Londoño, John Darío

    2013-01-01

    Resumen El Pioderma Gangrenoso (PG) es un tipo de dermatosis neutrofílica que tiene un componente idiopático, o puede tener asociación con patologías subyacentes sistémicas. Es el resultado de una respuesta exagerada contra estímulos específicos y no específicos. Su primera línea de terapia son los GC; sin embargo, en algunos pacientes, no se logra control de su patología con éste tratamiento (local o sistémico), y se debe recurrir al uso de medicamentos inmunomoduladores, agentes biológicos ...

  18. 77 FR 59178 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... (``ASTM'') ASTM-B42, ASTM-B68, ASTM- B75, ASTM-B88, ASTM-B88M, ASTM-B188, ASTM-B251, ASTM-B251M, ASTM-B280, ASTM-B302, ASTM-B306, ASTM-359, ASTM-B743, ASTM-B819, and ASTM-B903 specifications and meeting the...

  19. Fretting corrosion tests on orthopedic plates and screws made of ASTM F138 stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Claudio Teodoro dos; Barbosa,Cássio; Monteiro,Maurício de Jesus; Abud,Ibrahim de Cerqueira; Caminha,Ieda Maria Vieira; Roesler,Carlos Rodrigo de Mello

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although there has been significant progress in the design of implants for osteosynthesis, the occurrence of failures in these medical devices are still frequent. These implants are prone to suffer from fretting corrosion due to micromotion that takes place between the screw heads and plate holes. Consequently, fretting corrosion has been the subject of research in order to understand its influence on the structural integrity of osteosynthesis implants. The aim of this paper is t...

  20. ASTM Committee G-4 metals flammability test program - Data and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Homa, John M.; Williams, Ralph E.; Benz, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Results of metals flammability tests performed on twenty-six metals in the NASA/White Sands Test Facility are discussed together with the test systems. The promoted combustion and ignition characteristics of these metals are described, and the metals are ranked according to their suitability for use in oxygen systems. In general, alloys with high copper and nickel contents and low iron content were found to rank higher than those that had high iron content, while alloys that had high aluminum content were ranked the lowest.

  1. ASTM F1717 standard for the preclinical evaluation of posterior spinal fixators: can we improve it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, Luigi; Galbusera, Fabio; Villa, Tomaso; Costa, Francesco; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Preclinical evaluation of spinal implants is a necessary step to ensure their reliability and safety before implantation. The American Society for Testing and Materials reapproved F1717 standard for the assessment of mechanical properties of posterior spinal fixators, which simulates a vertebrectomy model and recommends mimicking vertebral bodies using polyethylene blocks. This set-up should represent the clinical use, but available data in the literature are few. Anatomical parameters depending on the spinal level were compared to published data or measurements on biplanar stereoradiography on 13 patients. Other mechanical variables, describing implant design were considered, and all parameters were investigated using a numerical parametric finite element model. Stress values were calculated by considering either the combination of the average values for each parameter or their worst-case combination depending on the spinal level. The standard set-up represents quite well the anatomy of an instrumented average thoracolumbar segment. The stress on the pedicular screw is significantly influenced by the lever arm of the applied load, the unsupported screw length, the position of the centre of rotation of the functional spine unit and the pedicular inclination with respect to the sagittal plane. The worst-case combination of parameters demonstrates that devices implanted below T5 could potentially undergo higher stresses than those described in the standard suggestions (maximum increase of 22.2% at L1). We propose to revise F1717 in order to describe the anatomical worst case condition we found at L1 level: this will guarantee higher safety of the implant for a wider population of patients. © IMechE 2014.

  2. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of ASTM A743 CA6NM Steel Welded by FCAW Process

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rafael de Paula; Faria, Maria Ismenia Sodero Toledo; Almeida, Luiz Fernando Cursino Briet de; Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Vieira, Décio; Borges Júnior, Wanderlei

    2017-01-01

    CA6NM steel is widely used in the manufacture of hydraulic turbines metallic parts, due to its resistance to corrosion and cavitation damage, combined with good weldability and fatigue properties. However, welding of this type of steel is complex and to ensure a minimum residual stress after welding it is necessary perform a post welding heat treatment (PWHT) of the part. This study aims to analyze the effect of a PWHT on the microstructure and mechanical properties of CA6NM steel weld joint ...

  3. Status report on activities of ASTM E10.05.01 Task Group on Uncertainty Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Stallman, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    Uncertainties in the field of reactor dosimetry are analyzed. A survey on uncertainty analysis as it is practiced at leading laboratories which are involved in reactor dosimetry is described. A questionnaire was prepared and mailed to about 45 installations and researchers. Nine replies were received, several of them were prepared by more than one author. Three of the nine came from installations outside the US. Results and the questionnaire are presented

  4. 78 FR 13243 - Updates to Standards Incorporated by Reference; Reapproved ASTM Standards; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Characteristics of Plastic Film 2009)[egr]1. and Sheeting. Standard Specification for F682-82a F682-82a 46 56.01-2... (Reapproved Standard Test Method for Determining Gas 2009)[egr]1. Permeability Characteristics of Plastic Film... Permeability Characteristics of Plastic Film and Sheeting (approved May 1, 2009), incorporation by reference...

  5. Microbiological corrosion of ASTM SA105 carbon steel pipe for industrial fire water usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, S.; Ashok, K.; Karthik, V.; Venkatakrishnan, P. G.

    2018-02-01

    The large number of metallic systems developed for last few decades against both general uniform corrosion and localized corrosion. Among all microbiological induced corrosion (MIC) is attractive, multidisciplinary and complex in nature. Many chemical processing industries utilizes fresh water for fire service to nullify major/minor fire. One such fire water service line pipe attacked by micro-organisms leads to leakage which is industrially important from safety point of view. Also large numbers of leakage reported in similar fire water service of nearby food processing plant, paper & pulp plant, steel plant, electricity board etc…In present investigation one such industrial fire water service line failure analysis of carbon steel line pipe was analyzed to determine the cause of failure. The water sample subjected to various chemical and bacterial analyses. Turbidity, pH, calcium hardness, free chlorine, oxidation reduction potential, fungi, yeasts, sulphide reducing bacteria (SRB) and total bacteria (TB) were measured on water sample analysis. The corrosion rate was measured on steel samples and corrosion coupon measurements were installed in fire water for validating non flow assisted localized corrosion. The sulphide reducing bacteria (SRB) presents in fire water causes a localized micro biological corrosion attack of line pipe.

  6. Prediction of long term crevice corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement behavior of ASTM grade-12 titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, T.M.; Jain, H.

    1984-01-01

    Crevice corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement are potential failure modes of Grade-12 titanium high-level nuclear waste containers emplaced in rock salt repositories. A method is presented to estimate the environment domains for which immunity to these failure modes will exist for periods of hundreds of years. The estimation is based on the identification and quantification of mechanisms involved. Macroscopic concentration cell formation is responsible for crevice corrosion. The cell formation is accompanied by oxygen depletion, potential drop, anion accumulation and acidification inside the crevice. This process is quantified by simple mass balance equations which show that the immunity domain is a function of the time the container is exposed to the corrosion environment. Strain induced hydride formation is responsible for hydrogen assisted crack initiation. A simple model for slow crack growth is developed using data on growth rates measured at various temperatures. The parameters obtained in the model are used to estimate the threshold stress intensity and hydrogen solubility limit in the alloy at infinite container service time. This value gives a crack size below which container failure will not occur for a given applied stress and hydrogen concentration, and a hydrogen concentration limit at a given stress intensity. 37 references, 5 figures, 4 tables

  7. Uusi momente tsiviilasja menetlemisel esimese astme kohtus / Donald Kiidjärv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiidjärv, Donald, 1962-

    1998-01-01

    Põhiseaduslikust õigusest olla oma kohtuasja lahendamise juures, asja õigest ja kiirest läbivaatamisest, kohtualluvusest, hagiavaldusest, hagi tagamisest, eelmenetlusest, kohtuistungist, kohtuotsusest ja -määrusest, tagaseljaotsusest ning hagita menetlusest, eelistungist

  8. 77 FR 50113 - ASTM International-Food and Drug Administration Workshop on Absorbable Medical Devices: Lessons...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... disability, please contact Cindy Garris, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, rm... that the implant must withstand and perform. Moreover, the optimal preclinical/bench testing paradigm...

  9. Estudio de tolerancia de daño de uniones soldadas de acero ASTM A36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Cepeda

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available La tolerancia de daño en una soldadura, evaluada como un tamaño de grieta admisible, depende de la combinación de las propiedades mecánicas de tenacidad de fractura y resistencia de la correspondiente zona metalúrgica de estudio. Para unas condiciones dadas de trabajo, la tolerancia de daño aumenta con el incremento de la tenacidad de fractura en el caso que el modo de falla sea por fractura, o con el aumento de la resistencia al flujo plástico, en el caso que la falla sea por colapso plástico. La falla por colapso plástico se ve favorecida por una tenacidad de fractura alta, una resistencia baja y un espesor de soldadura pequeño. Para los procesos y condiciones de soldadura empleados en este trabajo, se encuentra que a temperatura ambiente la zona de fusión y la zona afectada por el calor presentan mayor tenacidad de fractura que el metal base sin una variación sensible de la resistencia, lo cual se traduce en una tolerancia de daño mayor en esas zonas. En la región de la temperatura de transición para el proceso de arco manual, la tenacidad de fractura de la zona de fusión y de la zona afectada por el calor es mayor que la tenacidad de fractura del metal base, mientras que para el proceso de arco sumergido sucede lo contrario.

  10. Oxidación cíclica de un acero refractario AISI 310 a alta temperatura en atmósferas con contenidos de oxígeno variables

    OpenAIRE

    Higuera Hidalgo, Valentín; Belzunce Varela, Francisco Javier; Riba López, Julio Antonio

    2005-01-01

    High temperature oxidation tests of an AISI 310 stainless steel was performed in two different environments: in an standard atmosphere (21 % oxygen) at 704, 800, 884 and 1,000 °C and in the typical environment of a gas turbine and vapor generator of a combined-cycle electric generation unit (10 % oxygen) at 800 and 1,000 °C. The oxidation kinetics was determined by means of the measurement of the weight gain per unit surface of the specimen and also determining the thickness of the oxide laye...

  11. The phase equilibrium diagrams as a tool for the design and use of refractories; Los diagramas de equilibrio de fases como una herramienta para el diseno y comprension del comportamiento en servicio de los materiales refractarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aza, A. H. de; Pena, P.; Caballero, A.; Aza, S. de

    2011-07-01

    Refractories are complex materials used at high temperature, in severely corrosive atmospheres and in contact with aggressive liquids. The high temperatures imply that such systems tend to equilibrium and this is frequently attained during service; at least local equilibrium is achieved. This allows the basic principles of phase diagrams to be used in this technology. Traditionally, refractories have been designed to be close to equilibrium so that in-service changes were restricted. Currently, additions of raw materials are often made that will react in use, in a controlled manner, to give favorable effects under the service conditions. Equilibrium diagrams are valid not only for determining the thermodynamic tendency but also for predicting the final equilibrium state and to know the way through which the material moves into the final state. In this context equilibrium diagrams become a powerful tool for a better understanding of the behavior of refractories during service. After a general consideration on the importance of phase equilibrium diagrams in this field, criteria for using equilibrium diagrams, as a tool for improving traditional refractories and/or designing advanced or new refractories, will be given. Pertinent examples in different systems will be discussed. This paper compiles and reviews the last plenary lecture given by Professor Salvador De Aza on the subject. (Author) 58 refs.

  12. Properties of High Performance Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Luma Ahamed Adia; ZainAbdeen Mohammed; Nada Mahdi Fawzi

    2010-01-01

    ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? . ???? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? .???? ????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????? 750 ?º ????? ???????? ????????? ASTM C-311/03)) ? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????...

  13. Historic case: analysis and mediation of mechanical stresses according to ASTM 837 in GASBOL pipelines in Curriola River; Caso historico: analise e medicao de tensao mecanica conforme ASTM 837 no gasoduto GASBOL no Rio Curriola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Joao C. [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Filippin, Carlo G.; Kapp, Walter A.; Horbatiuk, Borys D. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline with 2,600 kilometers of extension from Rio Grande City in Bolivia down to Canoas City, in Brazil s south. The pipeline crosses quite a few types of geological fields and topography. The pipeline's south section is quite interesting due of its bumpy topography combined with a variety of geological materials, such as, colluviums deposits and landslide areas. Curriola River at kilometer 408 of the pipeline, east region of Parana's State, crosses inclination slopes as steeply as 40 degrees. A superficial drainage system was built in order to prevent soil's motions. Every year, during the rainy season, that system was incapable of a properly drainage, generating tension cracks mainly because the embankment is more than 6 meters high. This paper's goal is to present a historical case including some site characterization, with all the mechanical investigation made, including mechanical stresses status, residual stresses assessment and a total combined stress decompose attempt into its components and how they were used to support the studies for the slope stabilization and gas pipeline integrity. (author)

  14. Modification of ASTM C666 for testing resistance of concrete to freezing and thawing in sodium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Since 1961 the Research Council has used equipment manufactured by Conrad, Inc. for exposing concrete specimens to rapid cycles of freezing and thawing. In addition, the Materials Division of the Virginia Department of Highways and Transportation sen...

  15. The application of an internal state variable model to the viscoplastic behavior of irradiated ASTM 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAnulty, Michael J., E-mail: mcanulmj@id.doe.gov [Department of Energy, 1955 Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Potirniche, Gabriel P. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Tokuhiro, Akira [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An internal state variable approach is used to predict the plastic behavior of irradiated metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model predicts uniaxial tensile test data for irradiated 304L stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is implemented as a user-defined material subroutine in the finite element code ABAQUS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results are compared for the unirradiated and irradiated specimens loaded in uniaxial tension. - Abstract: Neutron irradiation of metals results in decreased fracture toughness, decreased ductility, increased yield strength and increased ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. Designers use the most limiting material properties throughout the reactor vessel lifetime to determine acceptable safety margins. To reduce analysis conservatism, a new model is proposed based on an internal state variable approach for the plastic behavior of unirradiated ductile materials to support its use for analyzing irradiated materials. The proposed modeling addresses low temperature irradiation of 304L stainless steel, and predicts uniaxial tensile test data of irradiated experimental specimens. The model was implemented as a user-defined material subroutine (UMAT) in the finite element software ABAQUS. Results are compared between the unirradiated and irradiated specimens subjected to tension tests.

  16. Long term evaluation and identification of the proper testing program for ASTM Class C fly ash stabilized soils : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to further evaluate the characteristics of locally produced fly ash and to develop test procedures which would expedite the evaluation of fly ash stabilized soils. Because cement and lime stabilization techniques ...

  17. Analisis Pengaruh Cooling Rate pada Material ASTM A36 Akibat Kebakaran Kapal Terhadap Nilai Kekuatan, Kekerasan dan Struktur Mikronya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanus Arie Nugroho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemadaman api pada kasus kebakaran kapal biasanya menggunakan air laut. Proses pemadaman api menyerupai perlakuan panas dengan pendinginan cepat yaitu quenching. Quenching adalah salah satu perlakuan panas pada material dengan pendinginan dalam waktu yang singkat. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh laju pendinginan cepat (quench terhadap nilai kekuatan, kekerasan serta struktur mikro dari material dengan variasi waktu quenching 30, 60 dan 90 menit serta variasi suhu 750oC, 850oC, dan 950oC untuk masing-masing perlakuan quenching. Hasil dari penelitian ini didapat, material dengan perlakuan panas dan tanpa perlakuan panas memiliki nilai kuat tarik, kekerasan dan struktur yang berbeda. Didapatkan nilai kuat tarik berbanding lurus dengan nilai kekerasan namun berbanding terbalik dengan diameter butir. Nilai kuat tarik tertinggi dimiliki oleh pelat dengan perlakuan suhu 850oC dan quenching 30 menit dengan nilai 587.51 MPa sedangkan nilai kuat tarik terendah dimiliki oleh pelat tanpa perlakuan dengan nilai 294.817 MPa. Pelat dengan nilai kekerasan tertinggi dimiliki oleh pelat dengan perlakuan suhu 950oC dan quenching 30 menit dengan nilai kekerasan 167.07HV dan nilai kekerasan terendah dimiliki oleh pelat tanpa perlakuan dengan nilai 108.17HV. Pelat tanpa perlakuan memiliki diameter butir terbesar yaitu 85.99 μm dan pelat dengan perlakuan suhu 950oC dan quenching 30 menit memiliki diameter besar butir 44.83 μm. Tingginya kuat tarik pelat dengan perlakuan suhu 850oC juga disebabkan karena jumlah persentase Pearlite yang tinggi sebesar 64.56%.

  18. Development of an ASTM standard glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT), for high level radioactive waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The nation's first, and the world's largest, facility to immobilize high-level nuclear waste in durable borosilicate glass has started operation at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The product specifications on the glass wasteform produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) required extensive characterization of the glass product before actual production began and for continued characterization during production. To aid in this characterization, a glass durability (leach) test was needed that was easily reproducible, could be performed remotely on highly radioactive samples, and could yield results rapidly. Several standard leach tests were examined with a variety of test configurations. Using existing tests as a starting point, the DWPF Product Consistency Test (PCT was developed in which crushed glass samples are exposed to 90 ± 2 degree C deionized water for seven days. Based on extensive testing, including a seven-laboratory round robin and confirmatory testing with radioactive samples, the PCT is very reproducible, yields reliable results rapidly, and can be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples

  19. 76 FR 2056 - Incorporation of Revised ASTM Standards That Provide Flexibility in the Use of Alternatives to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... development of the nervous system, resulting in learning disabilities. Elemental mercury and other forms of... use of mercury- containing thermometers for certain temperature measurement applications. EPA seeks to... in high temperature applications, such as the use of thermometers in autoclaves, traditionally...

  20. KS-LAB Kontroll av hydrometer ASTM 152H : (prosess 14-433 i hb014 og NS8005)

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, El Hadj

    2007-01-01

    I forbindelse med kvalitetssikring av slemmeanalyser ved bruk av hydrometer har det vist seg å være behov for systematisk kontroll ved innkjøp og bruk av hydrometre. Rapporten beskriver registrerte avvik ved sammenligning av hydrometre og angir hvorledes kontroll av hydrometer skal foregå for å sikre at anvendt utstyr tilfredsstiller gjeldende krav.

  1. ASTM international symposium on small specimen test techniques and their applications to pressure vessel annealing and plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Heinisch, H.L.; Kumar, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Miniature sheet-type tensile specimens are currently being used in a variety of radiation damage studies conducted in a number of different reactors. Although these specimens are very small, they have proven successful in addressing issues encountered in both thermal reactors and anticipated fusion reactors. This paper reviews the results of a number of recent studies that illustrate the range of applicability of these small specimens. When combined with other types of specimens and other types of measurements made prior to tensile testing, miniature tensile specimens have been found to serve as very useful tools for application to both fundamental studies and alloy screening studies

  2. 77 FR 2456 - Incorporation of Revised ASTM Standards That Provide Flexibility in the Use of Alternatives to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... will be publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket materials are available in the electronic docket at http://www.regulations.gov , or, if only available in hard copy, at the OPPT... 40 CFR part 86. B. Formatting Changes to Final Rule The regulatory text of this final rule is...

  3. Effect of aging on impact properties of ASTM A890 Grade 1C super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo; Forti, Leonardo Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-01-01

    Super duplex stainless steels in the solution annealed condition are thermodynamically metastable systems which, when exposed to heat, present a strong tendency to 'seek' the most favorable thermodynamic condition. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the microstructure of a super duplex stainless steel in the as cast and solution annealed conditions, and to determine the influence of aging heat treatments on its impact strength, based on Charpy impact tests applied to V-notched test specimens. The sigma phase was found to begin precipitating at heat treatment temperatures above 760 deg. C and to dissolve completely only above 1040 deg. C, with the highest peak concentration of this phase appearing at close to 850 deg. C. Heat treatments conducted at temperatures of 580 deg. C to 740 deg. C led to a reduction of the energy absorbed in the Charpy impact test in response to the precipitation of a particulate phase with particle sizes ranging from 0.5 μm to 1.0 μm, with a chromium and iron-rich chemical composition

  4. ASTM B 117 Screening of Nonchromate Conversion Coatings on Aluminum Alloys 2024, 2219, 5083, and 7075 Using DOD Paint Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Placzankis, Brian

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the corrosion resistance of eight nonchromate conversion coatings versus hexavalent chromium-based Alodine 1200S controls on scribed coated test panels of aluminum alloys 2024, 2219, 5083, and 7075...

  5. 76 FR 39852 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ..., or equivalent, to the American Society for Testing and Materials (``ASTM'') A-53, ASTM A-106, ASTM A-333, ASTM A- 334, ASTM A-589, ASTM A-795, and the American Petroleum Institute (``API'') 5L... American Society of Mechanical Engineers (``ASME'') code stress levels. Alloy pipes made to ASTM A-335...

  6. 77 FR 13079 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... produced, or equivalent, to the American Society for Testing and Materials (``ASTM'') A-53, ASTM A-106, ASTM A-333, ASTM A- 334, ASTM A-589, ASTM A-795, and the American Petroleum Institute (``API'') 5L... American Society of Mechanical Engineers (``ASME'') code stress levels. Alloy pipes made to ASTM A-335...

  7. Irradiated dynamic fracture toughness of ASTM A533, Grade B, Class 1 steel plate and submerged arc weldment. Heavy section steel technology program technical report No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.A.; Ceschini, L.J.; Shogan, R.P.; Rao, G.V.

    1976-10-01

    As a result of the Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST), sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Westinghouse Electric Corporation conducted dynamic fracture toughness tests on irradiated HSST Plate 02 and submerged arc weldment material. Testing performed at the Westinghouse Research and Development Laboratory in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, included 0.394T compact tension, 1.9T compact tension, and 4T compact tension specimens. This data showed that, in the transition region, dynamic test procedures resulted in lower (compared to static) fracture toughness results, and that weak direction (WR) oriented specimen data were lower than the strong direction (RW) oriented specimen results. Irradiated lower-bound fracture toughness results of the HSST Program material were well above the adjusted ASME Section III K/sub IR/ curve. An irradiated and nonirradiated 4T-CT specimen was tested during a fracture toughness test as a preliminary study to determine the effect of irradiation on the acoustic emission-stress intensity factor relation in pressure vessel grade steel. The results indicated higher levels of acoustic emission activity from the irradiated sample as compared to the unirradiated one at a given stress intensity factor (K) level

  8. DEVELOPING STANDARDS FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS THROUGH ASTM COMMITTEE E47: A PAST FOUNDATION OF PROVEN STANDARDS, A FUTURE OF GREAT POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of standards associated with assessing the bioavailability of contaminants in sediment will be used as a case study for how standards have been developed through Committee E47. In 1987, Committee E47 established Subcommittee E47.03 on Sediment Assessment and Toxicity....

  9. Transferability of ASTM/NIST alanine-polyethylene recipe at ISS. American Society for Testing and Materials/National Institute for Standards and Technology. Istituto Superiore de Sanita

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis C; Fattibene; Onori; Petetti; Bartolotta; Sansone Santamaria A

    2000-05-01

    Alanine-polyethylene solid state dosimeters were prepared at Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) following the recipe proposed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with the goal of testing its transferability. Dosimeters were prepared using 95% alanine and 5% polyethylene, by weight. They are rugged and of increased sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility as respect to the ISS alanine-paraffin pellets. Reproducibility of about 1% was obtained at 10 Gy and at 3 Gy if one single pellet or a stack of five dosimeters were used, respectively.

  10. Studi Eksperimen perbandingan Laju Korosi pada Plat ASTM (American Society For Testing and Material A36 dengan Menggunakan Variasi Sudut Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amri Royan Hidayat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proses pembentukan plat baja dalam industri kelautan diketahui bervariasi proses pengerjaannya, tidak hanya pengelasan saja, namun dapat pula konstruksi bending (bengkok. Bending, mempunyai dua variasi metode yaitu hot bending dan cold bending. Untuk mengetahui metode mana yang lebih tepat digunakan pada industri kelautan, dilakukan penelitian dengan menggunakan perbandingan kedua metode bending tersebut menggunakan variasi sudut yakni 90° dan 135°. Masing-masing sudut yang digunakan dibagi menjadi tiga spesimen yang akan mempengaruhi laju korosi pada plat tersebut. Uji laboratorium dengan menggunakan NaCl 2% dilakukan untuk mengetahui berapa laju korosi dari metode hot bending dan metode cold bending. Perhitungan kemudian dilakukan setelah hasil laju korosi didapat, untuk menentukan grafik laju  korosi dari variasi bending tersebut. Hasil uji laju korosi pada metode cold bending dengan sudut bending 90° adalah 0,54 mm/year, dan untuk sudut bending 135° adalah 0,32 mm/year. Sedangkan hasil uji laju korosi pada metode hot bending dengan sudut bending 90° adalah 0,53 mm/year, dan untuk sudut bending 135° adalah 0,24 mm/year. Metode cold bending diketahui mempunyai nilai laju korosi lebih besar dibandingkan metode hot bending. Morfologi permukaan spesimen dianalisa dengan menggunakan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Permukaan spesimen dengan metode cold bending diketahui mengalami perubahan yang cukup besar dibanding spesimen dengan metode hot bending.

  11. Guidance Document for Alternative Diesel Fuels Proposed as Drop-In Fuels to Displace Diesel Fuels as Specified By ASTM Specification D975

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    includes both direct contact with the fuel and inhalation of fuel engine exhaust. The first source of information regarding the hazards associated...maintain its registration. Only gasoline and diesel fuel and fuel additives produced and commercially distributed for use in highway motor

  12. The effect of equal channel angular pressing on the tensile properties and microstructure of two medical implant materials: ASTM F-138 austenitic steel and Grade 2 titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Filho, A. de A.; Sordi, V. L.; Kliauga, A. M.; Ferrante, M.

    2010-07-01

    Titanium and F-138 stainless steel are employed in bone replacement and repair. The former material was ECAP-deformed at room temperature and at 300°C, followed in some cases by cold rolling. The steel was ECAP-deformed at room temperature only. Work-hardening behavior was studied by making use of the Kocks-mecking plots and microstructural evolution was followed by TEM. Conclusions show that for Ti, ECAP combined with cold rolling gives the best strength-ductility combination, whilst room temperature ECAP increases the tensile strength of the steel but caused substantial ductility loss.

  13. The effect of equal channel angular pressing on the tensile properties and microstructure of two medical implant materials: ASTM F-138 austenitic steel and Grade 2 titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, A de A Mendes; Sordi, V L; Kliauga, A M; Ferrante, M, E-mail: ferrante@ufscar.b [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Materials Engineering Department, Sao Carlos, 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Titanium and F-138 stainless steel are employed in bone replacement and repair. The former material was ECAP-deformed at room temperature and at 300{sup 0}C, followed in some cases by cold rolling. The steel was ECAP-deformed at room temperature only. Work-hardening behavior was studied by making use of the Kocks-mecking plots and microstructural evolution was followed by TEM. Conclusions show that for Ti, ECAP combined with cold rolling gives the best strength-ductility combination, whilst room temperature ECAP increases the tensile strength of the steel but caused substantial ductility loss.

  14. Fabrication history and mechanical properties for ASTM A-533 Grade-B Class-2 steel weld for fully welded nuclear pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachur, D.

    1979-01-01

    Till now pressure vessels for light water reactors were made from rolled plates and forgings connected with each other by welding. The optimal quality of plates and forgings are limited in principle by the foundry technology. It is well known that in this process decomposition and segregation zones occur. Besides the heat affected zone created by the welding process is a weak link. The heat affected zone is heterogeneous and can be harbinger of risks leading to cracks. The production of a pressure vessel through shape welding is an alternative. The cylindrical container is produced by the application of one layer of welding after the other in a preshaped form. During the welding process the previously applied layers are simultaneously being tempered. The undesirable chemical residual elements are evenly distributed and segregation zones do not occur. Since we have only welding material the disadvantages of a heat affected zone are avoided. Furthermore the mechanical properties are independent of location and orientation. This shape welding process proved to be highly economical already during the experimental stay. Besides this process is applicable for vessel of any desired dimension

  15. Creep and microstructural processes in a low-alloy 2.25%Cr1.6%W steel (ASTM Grade 23)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchařová, Květa; Sklenička, Václav; Kvapilová, Marie; Svoboda, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 109, NOV (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010260; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Bainitic steel * Low-alloy steel * Creep strength * Microstructural changes * Carbide precipitation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.383, year: 2015

  16. 20,000-hour stress-corrosion cracking tests on ASTM A36 and A387-9 steels in simulated Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    Modified WOL specimens were employed to evaluate the susceptibility of two candidate container materials, A36 and A387-9 steels, to SCC in simulated groundwater at 250 0 C. The test duration was 20,000 hours. Post-test measurements of specimen compliance were not possible because significant build-up of corrosion products and/or mineral deposits on the fracture faces prevented a linear relationship between load and displacement. Considerable load was ''lost'' due to time-independent plasticity, time-dependent deformation and crack-face wedging, but the amounts lost were comparable to similar short-term tests conducted earlier. A number of direct and indirect observations suggested that no crack extension occurred during the environmental exposure. One indirect observation, the initial pre-test compliance measurements, suggested a possibility of crack extension occurred, but it is believed that these measurements were in error because of the experimental test set-up used in the program

  17. Therapeutic effectiveness and safety parathyroid adenoma ablation with percutaneous ethanol injection under sonographic guidance in patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism refractory to medical treatment; Efectividad terapeutica y seguridad de la ablacion de adenomas paratiroideos con inyeccion percutanea de etanol bajo guia ecografica en pacientes con hiperparatiroidismo secundario refractario a tratamiento medico con insuficiencia renal cronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nubila, Eduardo; Vega, Jose; Luz, Garcia; Murillo, Marlyn; Mercado, Jaime

    2010-07-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism unresponsive to medical treatment is a common complication in patients with chronic renal failure and prolonged dialysis therapy, which requires surgery of the parathyroid glands, with the risks and costs of surgery. Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of ablation of parathyroid adenomas by percutaneous ethanol injection under ultrasound guidance. Method: After approval by the institutional medical ethics committee, informed written consent was obtained in 15 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Sonographically guided ethanol was injected consecutively into adenomas, with an interval of time less than six months. Results: Size, Doppler vascularity of adenomas, and the levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium and phosphorus were measured before and after ablation as criteria for treatment response in 15 patients. Of all patients, six (40%) had no therapeutic response. Therapeutic response was observed in nine patients (60%). In the latter group, five patients (33.3%) had successful response and symptomatic improvement, in two patients (13.3%), therapeutic response was suboptimal, and in two patients (13.3%), the response was unsatisfactory. The procedure was safe. Local pain, transient dysphonia and cough were considered minor complications and were the most common, with resolution in all cases. There were no major complications. Conclusion: Ablation of parathyroid adenomas with percutaneous ethanol injection and ultrasound guidance, in uremic patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism unresponsive to medical treatment is an effective and safe therapy. Studies involving more patients and longer follow up are needed in order to stablish more conclusive results

  18. Acceso inmediato de los pacientes de cáncer refractario de tiroides y medular de tiroides al tratamiento farmacológico aprobado por la Agencia Europea del Medicamento aunque aún en tramitación por la Administración Central o autonómica

    OpenAIRE

    García-González, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    El objeto del presente dictamen es dar respuesta a la consulta formulada por la Asociación Española de Cáncer de Tiroides (AECAT), organización independiente y sin ánimo de lucro, cuya misión, según es descrita en su página web, es la ayuda a los pacientes de cáncer de tiroides.

  19. Efeito da temperatura interpasse na microestrutura, tenacidade ao impacto e propagação de trinca por fadiga de uniões soldadas por GTAW do aço ASTM A743-CA6NM Interpass temperature influence on the microstructure, impact toughness and fatigue crack propagation in ASTM A743-CA6NM GTAW welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimar Rubens de Gouveia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente os aços inoxidáveis martensíticos tem sido utilizados para a fabricação de turbinas hidráulicas, devido principalmente a sua elevada tenacidade. Entretanto, estes aços apresentam algumas restrições com relação à regiões recuperadas por soldagem, principalmente em razão da formação de martensita não revenida, a qual gera redução na tenacidade. Considerando as aplicações de reparo de turbinas hidráulicas, há grande interesse em desenvolver procedimentos de soldagem que elevem a tenacidade ao impacto e evitem os tratamentos térmicos pós-soldagem (TTPS. O presente trabalho busca analisar a influência da temperatura de interpasse na microestrutura, tenacidade ao impacto e propagação de trincas por fadiga nas uniões soldadas multipasse do aço inoxidável martensitico CA6NM usando AWS410NiMo como metal de adição, e processo TIG (tungsten inert gas. Observou-se a influência da temperatura de interpasse na formação de ferrita d, com formação intergranular no campo bifásico δ+γ, na amostra com temperatura interpasse de 80ºC, enquanto que na amostra soldada a 150ºC a formação de ferrita d ocorreu principalmente no campo monofásico. A alteração na formação da ferrita d, com a menor temperatura, promoveu um aumento na tenacidade ao impacto e uma diminuição na velocidade de propagação de trinca, quando comparada com a amostra soldada com maior temperatura de soldagem. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o processo TIG apresenta-se como uma excelente alternativa para o reparo do aço CA6NM, observando-se também uma influência significativa da temperatura de interpasse.Martensitic stainless steels have been used for hydraulic turbines manufacturing, because its high toughness. However, these steels have some restrictions regarding regions recovered by welding, mainly by non-tempered martensite formation, promoting toughness reduction. Concerning hydraulic turbine repairs, there is a great interest in welding procedures development that promotes a better toughness, without post welding heat treatment (PWHT. The mainly objective of this paper is analyze the influence of interpass temperature on the microstructure, impact toughness and fatigue crack propagation in CA6NM martensitic stainless steel multipass welded joints, with AWS410NiMo filler metal, with GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding. It was observed the interpass temperature influence on ferrite δ formation, observing intergranular ferrite d formation on the d+g field in 80 ºC interpass temperature, while the sample welded at 150 ºC the formation of ferrite d occurs mainly in the δ monophase field. Ferrite d formation with the lowest temperature interpass promoted an increase in impact toughness and a decrease in the fatigue crack propagation when compared with 150ºC interpass temperature sample. It was observed that GTAW process can be an excellent alternative for CA6NM hydraulic turbine repair, it was also observed a significant interpass temperature influence.

  20. DISPLASIAS CORTICALES COMO CAUSA DE EPILEPSIA Y SUS REPRESENTACIONES EN LAS IMÁGENES

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvez M, Marcelo; Rojas C, Gonzalo; Cordovez M, Jorge; Ladrón de Guevara, David; Campos P, Manuel; López S, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    La epilepsia es una alteración neurológica crónica caracterizada por crisis convulsivas recurrentes y espontáneas, que clínicamente se clasifican como generalizadas o parciales, dentro de las cuales aproximadamente el 30% de los pacientes con epilepsia parcial son refractarios al tratamiento médico. Dentro del grupo refractario debemos descartar la presencia de una displasia cortical como causa subyacente de las crisis. Las displasias corticales son un tipo de malformaciones del desarrollo co...

  1. Interlaboratory Study (ILS) for F 548-01, The Standard Test Method for Intensity of Scratches on Aerospace Transparent Plastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan

    2003-01-01

    ...) as outlined in ASTM E 691. This report, which conforms to the ILS reporting format required by ASTM, describes the study that was conducted for ASTM test standard F 548-01, Intensity of Scratches on Aerospace Transparent Plastics...

  2. Correct cement analysis by atomic absorbtion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenoutasse, N.

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEn trabajos anteriores (1, (2 y (3 se han subrayado las posibilidades que ofrece la espectrofotometría de absorción atómica (E.A.A. para el análisis de los silicatos industriales (cementos, escorias, crudos de fabricación de cementos, refractarios, etc..

  3. Método de eliminación de trihalometanos y/o contaminantes emergentes mediante plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Erra Serrabasa, Pilar; Jover Comas, Eric; Molina Mansilla, Ricardo; Bertrán Serra, Enric; Bayona Termens, Josep María; Reyes Contreras, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    Método de eliminación de trihalometanos y/o contaminantes emergentes mediante plasma. Se describe un método de eliminación de trihalometanos y contaminantes refractarios en medios acuosos mediante la aplicación directa de plasma para conseguir la degradación de los compuestos contaminantes presentes en el agua.

  4. ECMO como puente a decisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Juvin-Bouvier

    2017-09-01

    La ECMO es una herramienta fundamental en el manejo del shock cardiogénico refractario para ganar tiempo con vistas a decidir una actitud definitiva pero puede condicionar situaciones de peligro vital como la hemorragia secundaria a la anticoagulación que requiere el dispositivo.

  5. Effect of long term thermal ageing on the mechanical properties of ASTM A533B and A508 steels in the quenched and tempered and simulated heat affected zone conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, S.G.; Gage, G.; Jordan, G.

    1985-04-01

    Manganese-molybdenum-nickel steels are used commonly in the fabrication of critical components in the PWR primary circuit operating at temperatures up to 345 C for periods up to several hundred thousand hours. Demonstration of structural integrity throughout service life requires quantification of the effects of thermal ageing on mechanical properties. Thermal ageing in the temperature range 300 to 550 C for durations up to 2000 h was studied in quenched and tempered A533B plate and simulated heat-affected-zone (HAZ) microstructures in A533B and A508 materials. A combination of tensile, hardness and Charpy impact tests were used to assess changes in rheological and toughness related properties. Quantitative fractography and Auger spectroscopy were used to characterize associated changes in fracture mode and grain boundary composition.

  6. Analysis of the biocompatibility of Ti6Al4V and stainless steel 316 LVM based on effects of pH, applying criteria of ASTM F2129 standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero Sarmiento, Jeniffer; Correa Munoz, Estefania; Estupinan Duran, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    The effect of pH on corrosion behaviour in stainless steel 316 LVM and alloy Ti6Al4V was studied by various electrochemical techniques such as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion rate was calculated with Tafel extrapolations and the pitting corrosion was also analysed for each material in different conditions of concentration 3% of NaCl and range pH (4.5-6-7.5-10-12). The results exhibited that the conditions of pH 4,5 has negative effect in the corrosion rate for both materials compared with other pH

  7. Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Control and Management Materials. A Symposium Sponsored by ASTM Committee E-35 on Pesticides, American Society for Testing and Materials, Monterey, California, March 8, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. B., Ed.; Marsh, R. E., Ed.

    The first symposium on "Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Management" was held in March, 1976. Much of the thrust was toward explaining and defining the "state of the art." Concerns included rodents and rabbits, predators, scavengers, and large game animals, and a variety of bird species. Environments were as restricted as a…

  8. Mejora del proceso productivo en la fabricación de ductos de acero ASTM A709 en una planta industrial, comparando procesos de soldadura SMAW y FCAW-G

    OpenAIRE

    Vilchez Aquino, Joel Ernesto; Vilchez Aquino, Joel Ernesto; Vilchez Aquino, Joel Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    En el presente informe se realiza el estudio de la mejora del proceso productivo en la fabricación de ductos de acero en un taller metal mecánico, en el que se determinaron varios indicadores de productividad para los procesos de soldadura manual SMAW y el proceso semiautomático FACW-G. El informe consta de cinco capítulos que se detallan a continuación: En el capítulo I se realiza la introducción al tema; abarcando los antecedentes, objetivos, alcances, limitaciones y la metodología de tr...

  9. Readecuación del laboratorío para análisis de materiales metalicos bajo la norma de calidad ISO 17025 y elaboración del manual de procedimientos basados en norma astm

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla Paredes, Carlos; Paredes V., Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo se fundamenta en la propuesta de un proyecto que consiste en desarrollar la readecuación del Laboratorio de Materiales - Área de Ensayos Metalográficos de la FIMCP bajo lineamientos de la norma ISO 17025. Para esto, se realizará una descripción clara del manejo y las características de cada uno de los equipos e instrumentos a utilizarse en el mencionado laboratorio, el cual nos permitirá complementar de manera práctica tanto la parte didáctica el estudio de los materiales ...

  10. Stress corrosion cracking (Standard Astm G 30-90) in stainless steel 08X18H10T of swimming-pool that contain nuclear fuel in reactors V.V.E.R.-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora R, L.; Herrera, V.

    1998-01-01

    The standard recommended practice for making and using 'U' bend stress corrosion test specimens; Designation G30-90 has been used as a laboratory tool to study the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels and the other materials of test of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The experiment has been development in a similar conditions of the chemical regime, the swimming-pool that containing nuclear fuel in borated water reactors VVER-440 in general this cladding by two films, one of carbon steel (04T26) and other with austenitic stainless steel 08X18HT (similar type 321) stabilized with titanium, the thickness of filler metals was to 4 to 8 mm. The specimens was prepare one plate with this characteristics, the welding was put in the part central with the following measurements of 160x15x5 mm. The specimens strips bent approximately 180 degrees around radius of curvature of R=14.5 mm and ε 1 = 17.2% and maintained in this plastically deformed condition during the test. And then preparing metallographically and exposure in environment of 12 and 40 gr./l of H 3 BO 3 70 Centigrade with or noting contaminants of NaCl. The results showed the initial cracks. (Author)

  11. Laboratory testing of hemolytic properties of materials that come in contact with blood: Comparative application testing method’s two variants according to the standard ASTM F756 in accordance with ISO 10993-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Katarina B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of hemolytic material in contact with blood may produce increased levels of blood cell lysis and increased levels of plasma hemoglobin. This may induce toxic effects or other effects which may stress the kidneys or other organs. In this paper two variants of in vitro method and obtained results’ comparison were presented for testing of hemolytic properties of six raw materials (Polipropylene Moplen EP 540 P, Policarbonate colorless 164 R-112, Policarbonate brown 164 R-51918, Polietylene NG 3026 K, Polietylene NG - Purell GB 7250, Polietylene VG - Hiplex 5502 for medical device manufacturing and one raw material (Polietylen NG granulate used for infusion solutions’s plastic bottles manufacturing. One of method’s variants relies on raw material direct contact with swine blood and the other on extract of the material contact with swine blood. Both method’s variants imply reading of the absorbance of the supernatant after tubes were incubated and centrifuged. According to values obtained and using the standard curve free hemoglobin concentration is determined and based on this percentage hemolysis of raw material. Positive and negative controls were used in both variants where water for injection (WFI was used as positive control in which partial or complete hemolysis of erythrocytes occurs due to osmotic shock and phosphate buffer saline was used as negative control with no hemolytic property. In this paper comparison of results obtained by both method’s variants for testing of seven raw materials was presented, while these conclusions can not be used neither for all materials, nor for all applications without preliminary testing using both variants and then choosing more sensitive and more reliable one. It was shown and stated in the paper as well that incubation time being 3, 15 or 24 h, had no impact on the variant’s with direct contact sensitivity. This comparative approach was used for drawing conclusions in terms of suitability for application of one or the other method’s variant, as well as for defining relevant incubation time and finally for choosing more sensitive and more reliable variant for assessment of hemolytic properties of raw materials. Variant with direct contact was chosen from the aspect of less complexity regarding necessary laboratory equipment which makes it economically more favorable and fit for the purpose.

  12. Development of More Cost-Effective Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using Quantitative Passive Diffusive-Adsorptive Sampling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    ASTM ASTM International ASU Arizona State University ATD automated thermal desorption BENZ Benzene C/Co passive sampler concentration...Protection Agency [USEPA], 1998a, b; California Department of Toxic Substance Control, 2011; ASTM International [ASTM] D7758, 2011). This demonstration... microporous sintered polyethylene, through which the vapors diffuse. Figure 1b. Radiello sampler with regular (white) and low-uptake rate

  13. 40 CFR 80.580 - What are the sampling and testing methods for sulfur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... [email protected] from the ASTM Web site of http://www.astm.org. (i) ASTM standard method D2622-05 (“ASTM... methods for sulfur? 80.580 Section 80.580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the sampling and testing methods for sulfur? The sulfur content of diesel fuel and diesel fuel...

  14. 40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure 94.108 ASTM D 93-02, Standard Test... Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method) 94.108 ASTM D 445-01... Viscosity) 94.108 ASTM D 613-01, Standard Test Method for Cetane Number of Diesel Fuel Oil 94.108 ASTM D...

  15. Investigating Groundwater/Surface Water Interaction at the Diversion Dam Site: Report Documentary 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Particle Size Distribution Analysis (ASTM D2487), the Hydrometer Analysis (ASTM D422-63) and the Atterberg Limits Analysis (ASTM D4318-98). The...Size Distribution (ASTM D2487) and Hydrometer Analysis (ASTM D422-63) Methods. Both methods cover the quantitative determination of the distribution...retained on the No. 200 sieve). Soil samples having 5 percent or greater passing the No. 200 sieve were tested with a hydrometer analysis. The

  16. On-Board Monitoring of Engine Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    methods involve potentiometric and colorimetric titrations , respectively. For both tests, a titration solvent is prepared and added to the oil. The...ASTM D 2896 and ASTM D 4739 [17]. Both methods involve potentiometric titrations . ASTM D 2896 uses a stronger acid and more polar solvent than ASTM D...Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration ASTM D 4739 Standard Test Method for Base Number Determination by Potentiometric Titration Gas

  17. Evaluation of Galvanized and Galvalume/Paint Duplex Coating Systems for Steel Building Panels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Race, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    ...) or silicone modified polyester (SMP). Specimens having these coating systems were subjected to ASTM B 117, conventional salt spray exposure testing and ASTM D 5894 Testing in the laboratory, which combines the environmental effects...

  18. 76 FR 13631 - Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997: Modifications to the List of Recognized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... (Reapproved 2008). Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Used in Surgical Implants. F. Nanotechnology 18-1... equipment. I. Tissue Engineering 15-25 ASTM F2312--10 Standard ASTM F2312-10. Terminology Relating to Tissue...

  19. Quantitative determination of grain sizes by means of scattered ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebbels, K.; Hoeller, P.

    1976-01-01

    The scattering of ultrasounds makes possible the quantitative determination of grain sizes in metallic materials. Examples of measurements on steels with grain sizes between ASTM 1 and ASTM 12 are given

  20. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products § 92.113 ASTM D 93-94, Standard Test Methods... API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method) § 92.113 ASTM D 445-94... Viscosity) § 92.113 ASTM D 613-95, Standard Test Method for Cetane Number of Diesel Fuel Oil § 92.113 ASTM D...

  1. Demonstration/Validation of Tertiary Butyl Acetate (TBAC) for Hand Wipe Cleaning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Visual Inspection Pass Materials Compatibility - Metals Total Immersion Corrosion – none Material Mg (AZ 31B-H24, SAE AMS...plated steel (ASTM A 153) Carbon steel (ASTM A 36) 4140 alloy steel (ASTM A 29) Al (6061, ASTM B 209...constructed from clad aluminum alloy 2024 (T3 temper) conforming to SAE -AMS-QQ-A-250/5, with dimensions of 6 by 3 by 0.025 inch (150 by 76 by 0.6 mm

  2. 46 CFR 175.600 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Vessels Under 61 Meters (200 feet) in Length, 1983 (“ABS Steel Vessel Rules (Meters)”) 177.300. Rules..., Standard Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus (“ASTM B 117”) 175.400. ASTM B 122/B 122M-95... (“ASTM D 93”) 175.400. ASTM D 635-97, Standard test Method for Rate of Burning and or Extent and Time of...

  3. Minimum Thickness of Concrete Pavement for the F-15 and C-17 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    laboratory compaction according to modified Proctor ASTM D1557 are summarized in Figure 15, which shows the clay moisture- density curve. Laboratory...16  Figure 15. Moisture- density curve for clay subgrade (ASTM 1557...subgrade. Figure 15. Moisture- density curve for clay subgrade (ASTM 1557). ERDC/GSL TR-13-34 17 Figure 16. Relationship for strength as

  4. Effects of Water Hardness on Spray Droplet Size Under Aerial Application Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Nonimaging Light‐Scattering Instruments (ASTM, 2003). Table 1. Spray formulations for water hardness levels. Hardness (ppm) Tank, L (gal) Kocide, kg (lb...characteristics in a spray using optical nonimaging light‐scattering instruments. W. Conshohocken, Pa.: ASTM Intl. ASTM. 2004. E1620‐97. Standard

  5. Collection Efficiencies of Various Airborne Spray Flux Samplers Used in Aerial Application Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    provided by ASTM Standard E1260: Standard Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light...Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Stan- dards, ASTM International, West

  6. Effects of Spray Mixtures on Droplet Size Under Aerial Application Conditions and Implications on Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light‐Scattering Instruments (ASTM Standards, 2003). The most common term used to...using optical nonimaging light‐scattering instruments. West Conshohocken, Pa.: ASTM Intl. ASTM Standards. 2004. E 1620. Standard terminology relating

  7. Evaluation of the EPA Drift Reduction Technology (DRT) Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering by ASTM Int’l (all rights reserved); Thu May 7 10:08:26 EDT 2009 ed/printed by itz...Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003. 9

  8. Effects of impregnation with boron compounds on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liebl.) which met the requirements of ASTM D 358 were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413 with boric acid (Ba) and borax (Bx) by vacuum technique. After impregnation, surfaces were coated with cellulosic, synthetic, polyurathane, water-based, acrylic and acid hardening varnishes in accordance with ASTM D 3023 ...

  9. Performance Concept in Buildings. Volume 1: Invited Papers. Proceedings of a Symposium Jointly Sponsored by the International Union of Testing and Research Laboratories for Materials and Structures (RILEM), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the International Council for Building Research Studies and Documentation (CIB) (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, May 2-5, 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Bruce E., Ed.

    Volume 1 contains all the invited papers accepted for the symposium. The subject matter covered in the papers includes physiological, anthropometrical, psychological, sociological, and economic human requirements and methods of evaluation; physical requirements and methods of evaluation in mechanical, acoustical, thermal, dimensional stability,…

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS FOR EVALUATING THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: FIERY DISCUSSIONS, COMMON PURPOSE, A PROVEN WIN-WIN PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND ASTM COMMITTEE E47 (NON-PEER REV'D. JOURNAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of standards through the consensus based process is often a long and arduous process even in the best of circumstances. The impetus to develop standards is a need to obtain high quality data for the evaluation of questions that often pertain to the development of...

  11. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

    Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

  12. Método simple para determinar el módulo de Young dinámico a partir de una excitación por impacto, aplicado a morteros de cal y cemento

    OpenAIRE

    Rosell, J. R.; Cantalapiedra, I. R.

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo muestra un método simple para determinar el módulo de Young dinámico (MOE) a partir de pequeñas perturbaciones mecánicas producidas a probetas de mortero de cal y de cemento, correlacionando los resultados obtenidos con las correspondientes mediciones realizadas con otras técnicas. El procedimiento sigue básicamente las instrucciones fijadas en la norma UNE-EN ISO 12680-1 de productos refractarios, pero aplicándolo a probetas normalizadas RILEM 4x4x16 de morteros confec...

  13. Frecuencia de las mutaciones más comunes del gen CFTR en pacientes peruanos con fibrosis quística mediante la técnica ARMS-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, Ruth; Protzel, Ana; Rivera, Juan; Abarca, Hugo; Dueñas, Milagros; Nestarez, Cecilia; Purizaga, Nestor; Diringer, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia de las diez mutaciones más comúnmente reportadas en América Latina del gen CFTR mediante Sistema de Mutación Refractario a la amplificación por PCR (ARMS-PCR) en los pacientes con fibrosis quística (FQ) de dos instituciones hospitalarias de referencia en el Perú durante el año 2014. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la frecuencia de las diez comúnmente reportadas más comúnmente reportadas del gen CFTR en los pacientes del Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati ...

  14. Los otros materiales de construccion

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Pérez, Benjamín

    2010-01-01

    Atención preferente a los materiales estructurales: cemento, hormigón, áridos, arcillas para ladrillos y tejas, piedra ornamental y yeso. Poca atención tradicional a otros materiales que suponen partes importantes de la obra civil y de la edificación. Casi todos los MRI tienen empleo en la construcción Pinturas, vidrios, refractarios, aislantes, aditivos para cementos, esmaltes, materias primas para plásticos, carbonato cálcico para moquetas, cargas inertes, estucos, cenizas volantes, ...

  15. Revisión sedación paliativa

    OpenAIRE

    González Calabaza, Marta; González Arnáiz, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Los Cuidados Paliativos en su acepción moderna surgen en Reino Unido en 1967, pero las primeras publicaciones sobre sedación paliativa no aparecen hasta 1990. La sedación paliativa es la disminución intencional del nivel de conciencia del paciente por medio de fármacos, con el fin de aliviar el sufrimiento físico o psíquico refractario a otras medidas terapéuticas. La diferencia entre sedación paliativa y eutanasia es clara. Divergen en la intención, procedimiento y resultado. Es vital conoce...

  16. Terapia asistida con perros en niños con autismo revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Isaza Narváez, Ana Milena; Muñoz Chilito, Doumer Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El autismo es un trastorno temprano y masivo del desarrollo en el cual se afecta la interacción social, el desarrollo del lenguaje, se presentan rituales y estereotipias. Hay evidencia que la interacción con un perro está asociada con efectos positivos en la salud del niño, lo cual se extiende al terreno terapéutico donde la compañía del perro estimula habilidades comunicativas para conectarse con el mundo exterior y romper el aislamiento que lo hace refractario a formas convenc...

  17. Innovación en educación universitaria: factibilidad de incorporar actividades virtuales según las competencias docentes

    OpenAIRE

    Malbernat, Lucía Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Para incorporar actividades virtuales en las carreras de grado, los docentes de las universidades deben innovar en sus prácticas docentes para lo cual deben desarrollar competencias vinculadas con su preparación y actitud para la virtualidad. En este trabajo se proponen herramientas administrativas para segmentar sistemáticamente a los docentes en innovadores, indiferentes y refractarios mediante técnicas propias del Data Mining, utilizando modelos matemáticos diseñados ad hoc para cuantifica...

  18. Standard Guide for Absorbed-Dose Mapping in Radiation Processing Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This document provides guidance in determining absorbed-dose distributions in products, materials or substances irradiated in gamma, X-ray (bremsstrahlung) and electron beam facilities. Note 1—For irradiation of food and the radiation sterilization of health care products, other specific ISO and ISO/ASTM standards containing dose mapping requirements exist. For food irradiation, see ISO/ASTM 51204, Practice for Dosimetry in Gamma Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing and ISO/ASTM 51431, Practice for Dosimetry in Electron and Bremsstrahlung Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing. For the radiation sterilization of health care products, see ISO 11137: 1995, Sterilization of Health Care Products Requirements for Validation and Routine Control Radiation Sterilization. In those areas covered by ISO 11137, that standard takes precedence. ISO/ASTM Practice 51608, ISO/ASTM Practice 51649, and ISO/ASTM Practice 51702 also contain dose mapping requirements. 1.2 Methods of analyzing the dose map data ar...

  19. Dosimetry-adjusted reactor physics parameters for pressure vessel neutron exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; Kellogg, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    The ASTM E706 master matrix standard describes a series of 20 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard practices, guides, and methods for use in the prediction of neutron-induced changes in light water reactor (LWR) pressure vessel (PV) and support structure steels throughout a PV's service life. Some of these are existing ASTM standards, some are ASTM standards that have been modified, and some are new ASTM standards. These standards are periodically revised to assume their applicability during the 40-yr (32 effective full-power years) design license period for a nuclear power plant. They are now under review by two new ASTM plant life extension task groups: E10.05.11 on physics dosimetry and E10.02.11 on metallurgy. A brief review on the current application of these standards and a discussion of the status of work to verify the accuracy of derived physics-dosimetry parameter values is presented in this paper

  20. Spectrophotometer-Based Color Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    equipment. There are several American Society for Testing and Materials ( ASTM ) chapters covering the use of spectrometers for color measurements (refs. 3...Perkin Elmer software and procedures described in ASTM chapter E308 (ref. 3). All spectral data was stored on the computer. A summary of the color...similarity, or lack thereof, between two colors (ref. 5). In this report, the Euclidean distance metric, E, is used and recommended in ASTM D2244

  1. Grain Refinement of Steels through Solidification Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    machined the tensile bar samples into 0.5 inch diameter tensile bars that met ASTM E8. Tensile testing occurred on a 450 kN hydraulic mechanical test...frame. The tests followed ASTM E8 guidelines and used gage marks for elongation measurement. An optical emission spectrometer (OES) analyzed the...emission spectrometer samples. Half-inch diameter tensile bars were turned on a Lathe in accordance with ASTM ES and tested on a hydraulic universal

  2. Improved Understanding of In Situ Chemical Oxidation. Technical Objective 2: Soil Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    UofW Specific gravity Specific surface area Selective dissolution analysis method Methods ASTM method D422-63 with a 152- hydrometer Nitrogen...grain size distribution was determined by ASTM Method D422-63 with a 152 hydrometer (Appendix A1). Specific gravity was characterized by ASTM Method...152 hydrometer . Figure A-1: Grain size distribution for the Borden and DNTS aquifer materials. 100 EGDY LAAP80 P er ce nt

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counter Contamination Limits for Aviation Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    assurance testing though conducting periodic fuel sampling for gravimetric analysis. The Army currently utilizes two methods for measuring particulate...contamination by gravimetric analysis: ASTM D2276 - Standard Test Method for Particulate Contaminant in Aviation Fuel by Line Sampling, and ASTM D5452...while filter effectiveness is checked every 30 days by gravimetric analysis (ASTM D2276). One of the problems with the gravimetric methods is the

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counters used to Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Army currently utilizes two methods for measuring particulate contamination by gravimetric analysis: ASTM D2276 - Standard Test Method for...is checked every 30 days by gravimetric analysis (ASTM D2276). One of the problems with the gravimetric methods is the poor repeatability and...ASTM D2276 testing is an artifact of that method . The correlation of particle counter data to the theoretical gravimetric concentration, and cross

  5. 46 CFR 56.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welded Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service (“ASTM A 268”), 56.60-1; (21) ASTM A 276-98, Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes (“ASTM A 276”), 56.60-2; (22... (27) ASME B36.19M-2004 Stainless Steel Pipe (2004) (“ASME B36.19M”), 56.07-5; 56.60-1. (28) ASME SA...

  6. 40 CFR 761.19 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Products (General Bomb Method) § 761.71(b)(2)(vi) ASTM D 240-87 Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel by Bomb Calorimeter § 761.71(b)(2)(vi) ASTM D 482-87 Standard Test Method... in New and Used Petroleum Products (Bomb Method) § 761.71(b)(2)(vi) ASTM D 923-86 Standard Test...

  7. Síndromes epilépticos en niños y adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López S. Isabel Margarita, Dra.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En la edad pediátrica las epilepsias son frecuentes, con manifestaciones clínicas diversas y edad-dependientes. El reconocimiento preciso de los diferentes síndromes y epilepsias es importante para determinar un tratamiento y pronóstico adecuados. Cerca de un 70% de las epilepsias en niños tiene una buena respuesta a tratamiento médico o remisión espontánea y buen pronóstico en el largo plazo; se agrupan aquí las formas idiopáticas ya sea generalizadas como focales. Un grupo menor, pero no menos importante, es refractario a fármacos antiepilépticos, destacando las Encefalopatías Epilépticas que implican un mal pronóstico neurológico y un grupo de pacientes refractarios que serán candidatos a otras alternativas de tratamiento, como cirugía de la Epilepsia. Se revisan los principales conceptos que subyacen a la actual clasificación de Síndromes Electroclínicos y Epilepsias de ILAE y las características de algunos síndromes electro-clínicos atendiendo a su frecuencia, relevancia de un diagnóstico preciso y aportes recientes de significación

  8. 炭素繊維複合材料に対する無孔圧縮試験方法の相互比較と簡便な試験法(NAL-II法)の提案

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Toshio; Ishikawa, Takashi; 小笠原, 俊夫; 石川, 隆司

    2009-01-01

    A specific non-hole compressive (NHC) test method for advanced composite materials has not been widely authorized even now because of the essential difficulty of NHC tests. In this study, standard test methods such as SRM-1 (SACMA), Celanese (former ASTM D3410 A-method), ASTM D695, ASTM D6484 (SRM-3), ASTM D6641 (CLC), JIS K7076 (A method) were evaluated for three kinds of quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy composites (CFRP). Furthermore, two kinds of original compressive test methods, i.e.NAL-I, I...

  9. Material specification for ductile cast iron in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    The United States currently does not have formal design criteria for qualifying ductile cast iron (DCI) transportation casks. There is also no dedicated material standard for DCI for this particular application. A draft ASTM material specification has been written and is currently in the ASTM approval process. This paper reviews the brief history of the development of the specification, the technical basis for the material properties, the ASTM approval process and the current status of the draft specification. The expected implications of having an adopted ASTM specification on the licensing process are also discussed. (orig./DG)

  10. Light-water reactor pressure vessel surveillance standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The master matrix standard describes a series of standard practices, guides, and methods for the prediction of neutron-induced changes in light-water reactor (LWR) pressure vessel steels throughout a pressure vessel's service life. Some of these are existing American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards, some are ASTM standards that have been modified, and some are newly proposed ASTM standards. The current (1) scope, (2) areas of application, (3) interrelationships, and (4) status and time table of development, improvement, validation, and calibration for a series of 16 ASTM standards are defined. The standard also includes a discussion of LWR pressure vessel surveillance - justification, requirements, and status of work

  11. Halduskohtumenetluse seadustiku eelnõu olulisematest muudatustest menetluses / Kalle Merusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merusk, Kalle, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Protsessiosalistest, esimese astme menetlusest (sh. tuvastus- ja otsustusmenetlus), apellatsioonimenetlusest, kohtukuludest ning kohtulahendi täitmisest vastavalt halduskohtumenetluse seadustiku eelnõule

  12. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  13. 78 FR 21850 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... to the 1985 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 05.04, ``Test Methods for Rating Motor, Diesel... for Rating Motor, Diesel, Aviation Fuels, A2. Reference Materials and Blending Accessories, (``ASTM... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0185] RIN 2127-AL25 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by...

  14. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... ASTM D3231-89: Standard Test Method for Phosphorus in Gasoline Appendix A to subpart D, Table 3. ASTM D3606-92: Standard Test Method for Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Finished Motor and Aviation... 770141, Optimization of a Flame Ionization Detector for Determination of Hydrocarbon in Diluted...

  15. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Properties of HVOF-Sprayed Co-Cr-W Coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houdková, Š.; Smazalová, E.; Pala, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2016), s. 546-557 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ASTM * G-65ASTM * Co-Cr-W * heat treatment * HVOF * Stellite 6 * wear Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016

  16. Characterization of Al-Cu alloy reinforced fly ash metal matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Graphite crucible was used for melting of matrix alloy, and the addition and mixing of particulates were made into ... specimen was cut as per ASTM-E23 by diamond blade using CNC machine. ... there will be no change in the size of the flyash.

  17. Protocol for Cohesionless Sample Preparation for Physical Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Standard test method for consolidated drained triaxial compression test for soils . In Annual book of ASTM standards. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM...derived wherein uncertainties and laboratory scatter associated with soil fabric-behavior variance during sample preparation are mitigated. Samples of...wherein comparable analysis between different laboratory tests’ results can be made by ensuring a comparable soil fabric prior to laboratory testing

  18. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection,” and ASTM F... footwear that is constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be...

  19. 46 CFR 119.440 - Independent fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The letters “AWG” stand for “American Wire Gage” (or Brown and Sharpe Gage) for nonferrous sheet... methods in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D635, “Rate of Burning and/or Extent and Time of Burning of Self-Supporting Plastics in a Horizontal Position,” and ASTM D2863, “Measuring the...

  20. 77 FR 29757 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ...: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy ICP/MS: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry...): ``Determination of Trace Elements in Drinking Water by Axially Viewed Inductively Coupled Plasma--Atomic Emission... Committee, and ASTM International. Standard Methods and ASTM are available in printed or electronic...

  1. 77 FR 38523 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... technique offers high alpha counting efficiency since the electronic pulse shape discrimination reduces... Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428... Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA...

  2. 40 CFR 721.8160 - Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of noncontact during the intermittent cycle of dermal exposure in the workplace. If ASTM F1383 is... end of each work shift unless based on its review of data from the ASTM 1383 method, the company's... covered by this paragraph), (a)(2)(iii), (a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5)(iii) (if cartridge service life testing is...

  3. 78 FR 73415 - Safety Standard for Hand-Held Infant Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... modifications to the ASTM test procedure set forth in ASTM F2050-12 so that the test produces more repeatable... skills necessary for the preparation of reports or records; and a description of the steps the agency has... the Rule on Small Business There are at least 47 firms currently known to be marketing hand- held...

  4. 75 FR 43107 - Revocation of Requirements for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ...] Revocation of Requirements for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full- Size Baby Cribs AGENCY: Consumer Product... standards, and include ASTM F 1169-10, ``Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Full-Size Baby Cribs,'' and ASTM F 406-10, ``Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/Play Yards...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical... accordance with the most current version of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F739... current version of ASTM F1383 “Standard Test Method for Resistance of Protective Clothing Materials to...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical... accordance with the most current version of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F739... current version of ASTM F1383 “Standard Test Method for Resistance of Protective Clothing Materials to...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical... in accordance with the most current version of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM... most current version of ASTM F1383 “Standard Test Method for Resistance of Protective Clothing...

  8. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure” Appendix A to Subpart D. ASTM D93-97: “Standard... D287-92: “Standard Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products” (Hydrometer...: “Standard Test Method for Cetane Number of Diesel Fuel Oil” Appendix A to Subpart D. ASTM D1319-98...

  9. A comparison of three tests to detect feigned amnesia: The effects of feedback and the measurement of response latency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolan, Barbara; Foster, Jonathan K.; Schmand, Ben; Bolan, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments provided validation data for an English language version of the Amsterdam Short Term Memory Test (ASTM test) developed to detect feigned memory impairment. Using a simulation design, the ASTM test compared favourably with the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and appeared better

  10. A comparison of three tests to detect feigned amnesia: The effects of feedback and the measurement of response latency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolan, B.; Foster, J.K.; Schmand, B.; Bolan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments provided validation data for an English language version of the Amsterdam Short Term Memory Test (ASTM test) developed to detect feigned memory impairment. In all 3 experiments a total of 91 Ss (aged 17-66 yrs) participated. Using a simulation design, the ASTM test compared

  11. Filtration Effects Due to Bioassay Cage Design and Screen Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Optical Nonimaging Light- Scattering Instruments (ASTM, 2003). Droplet sizing data included volume median diam (DV50), and the 10% and 90% diam (DV10 and...optical nonimaging light-scattering instru- ments. In: Annual book of ASTM standards. West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials

  12. 27 CFR 21.114 - Kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Kerosene. (a) Distillation range. (For applicable ASTM method, see 1980 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part... for aviation turbine fuels and D 86-78 for distillation of petroleum products; for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) No distillate should come over below 340 °F. and none above 570 °F. (b) Flash...

  13. Experimental and finite element analysis of fracture criterion in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani 333 031, India. 2 Research and ... The prevention of failure in stressed structural components currently ..... propagates. In the present work, a similar principle is extended to predict fracture limits using ... ASTM 1991 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). E399-91 ...

  14. 75 FR 48593 - Pipeline Safety: Periodic Updates of Regulatory References to Technical Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... (ASTM): ASTM A53/A53M-07 (2007), ``Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless'' (September 1, 2007). Replaces IBR: 2004 edition; Referenced in 49 CFR 192...), we clarify that cast iron, malleable iron, or ductile iron may be used in the valve ball or plug...

  15. Impact of Clay DNAPL Interactions on Transport and Storage of Chlorinated Solvents in Low Permeability Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    the particle size distribution obtained with a hydrometer (151H) using ASTM D422-63 (ASTM, 2007a). The median grain diameter was 5 μm, a bit smaller...then sieving using a 106 μm sieve. Hydrometer test indicated 96% of the material was < 2 μm, and mineralogical analysis showed Na-montmorillonite to

  16. Accelerated weathering of fire-retardant-treated wood for fire testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White

    2009-01-01

    Fire-retardant-treated products for exterior applications must be subjected to actual or accelerated weathering prior to fire testing. For fire-retardant-treated wood, the two accelerated weathering methods have been Method A and B of ASTM D 2898. The rain test is Method A of ASTM D 2898. Method B includes exposures to ultraviolet (UV) sunlamps in addition to water...

  17. 77 FR 27428 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... (``ASME'') code stress levels. Alloy pipes made to ASTM A-335 standard must be used if temperatures and stress levels exceed those allowed for ASTM A-106. Seamless pressure pipes sold in the United States are..., or pressure pipe applications. B. Finished and unfinished oil country tubular goods (``OCTG''), if...

  18. 76 FR 66688 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... (``ASME'') code stress levels. Alloy pipes made to ASTM A-335 standard must be used if temperatures and stress levels exceed those allowed for ASTM A-106. Seamless pressure pipes sold in the United States are..., or pressure pipe applications. B. Finished and unfinished oil country tubular goods (``OCTG''), if...

  19. 76 FR 47555 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Engineers (``ASME'') code stress levels. Alloy pipes made to ASTM A-335 standard must be used if temperatures and stress levels exceed those allowed for ASTM A-106. Seamless pressure pipes sold in the United..., or pressure pipe applications. B. Finished and unfinished oil country tubular goods (``OCTG''), if...

  20. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 200 - Standards Incorporated by Reference in the Minimum Property Standards for Housing (HUD Handbook...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19103, Telephone (215) 299-5400. ASTM C 12-91 Standard Practice for Installing Vitrified Clay Pipe Lines... C 216-91c Standard Specification for Facing Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale) ASTM.../78 77a Cast Iron Sanitary Drainage System with Hubless Pipe and Fittings—3/28/80 78 Polyethylene (PE...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube, ASTM B88-93, or shall comply with ASTM B280... supply connection(s) shall be rigidly anchored to a structural member within 6 inches of the supply... shall be checked for oil leaks with fuel oil of the same grade that will be burned in the appliance. No...

  2. 46 CFR 56.60-15 - Ductile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ductile iron. 56.60-15 Section 56.60-15 Shipping COAST... Materials § 56.60-15 Ductile iron. (a) Ductile cast iron components made of material conforming to ASTM A... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (b) Ductile iron castings conforming to ASTM A 395...

  3. Effect of Decay on Ultrasonic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements in Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan McGovern; Adam Senalik; George Chen; Frank C. Beall; Henrique Reis

    2013-01-01

    The percentage mass loss of loblolly pine (pinus taeda) wood cube specimens exposed to Gloeophyllum fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) for increasing periods of time ranging from 1 to 12 weeks was recorded after being subjected to controlled decay following ASTM International standard ASTM D 1423-99. The specimens’ corresponding volume...

  4. 78 FR 79319 - Amendment to Standards and Practices for All Appropriate Inquiries Under CERCLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Standard? The ASTM E1527-13 standard is similar to the ASTM E1527-05 standard in format, process, and areas... under Section 553 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) for this revision to become effective immediately. Section 553(d)(3) of the APA allows an effective date less than 30 days after publication ``as...

  5. 46 CFR 193.01-3 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, it is... Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, telephone 610-832-9585, http://www.astm.org. (1) ASTM F 1121-87 (1993), Standard... Park, Quincy, MA 02269-9101, telephone 800-344-3555, http://www.nfpa.org. (1) NFPA 13-1996, Standard...

  6. 46 CFR 95.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, it is..., PA 19428-2959, telephone 610-832-9585, http://www.astm.org. (1) ASTM F 1121-87 (1993), Standard... Park, Quincy, MA 02269-9101, telephone 800-344-3555, http://www.nfpa.org. (1) NFPA 13-1996, Standard...

  7. 46 CFR 34.01-15 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030 or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code..., http://www.astm.org. (1) ASTM F 1121-87 (Reapproved 1993), Standard Specification for International...-9101, telephone 800-344-3555, http://www.nfpa.org. (1) NFPA 13-1996, Standard for the Installation of...

  8. 40 CFR 98.254 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (incorporated... methods. (1) ASTM D4809-06 Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb...) Method 18 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-6. (2) ASTM D1945-03 Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural...

  9. Data Processing and Measuring System for Studying the Cooling Capacity of Quenchants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaplin, S. V.; Bolychev, S. A.; Shemanaev, D. V.; Mishagin, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    A domestically produced device for determining the cooling capacity of quenchants is developed on the basis of the ISO 9001, ISO 9950, ASTM D6200-01, and ASTM D6482-01 standards. Acomparison of the results of a determination of the parameters of cooling environments obtained by means of the present device and a foreign counterpart is carried out.

  10. Spray Drift Reduction Evaluations of Spray Nozzles Using a Standardized Testing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 14-02, ASTM...Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Non- imaging Light-Scattering Instruments 22. AGDISP Model

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 238 - Test Methods and Performance Criteria for the Flammability and Smoke Emission Characteristics of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter. (x) ASTM E 1537-99, Standard Test Method for... Furniture for Use in Public Occupancies (January, 1991). (b) Definitions. As used in this appendix— Average... specified in the table, and (b) the ASTM E 662-01 smoke generation test procedure. Testing shall be at 50 kW...

  12. Analysis Techniques, Materials, and Methods for Treatment of Thermal Bridges in Building Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Proceedings of the 3rd ASTM Symposium on Insulation Materials: Testing and Applications, 3d vol. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) STP ...when the temperature of the material is shifted across its melting point. Currently, there many different PCMs on the market with a wide range of

  13. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringi, Gideon; Abolmaali, Ali; Aswath, Pranesh B.

    2015-01-01

    Tire derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA. PMID:26161440

  14. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringi, Gideon; Abolmaali, Ali; Aswath, Pranesh B

    2015-01-01

    Tire derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA.

  15. STUDY OF THE THERMAL CRACKING DURING THE VACUUM DISTILLATION OF ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE OF CRUDE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAOUAD ELAYANE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the study of the thermal cracking as undesirable phenomenon in the vacuum distillation of atmospheric residue of crude oil. In this point, we have sought to identify and characterize the effect of the increase in the temperature of vacuum distillation on the separation and the modification of the constituents of atmospheric residue of crude oil whose origin is Arabian Light. This study has been carried out by several techniques of analysis such as the density (ASTM D4052, distillation (ASTM D1160, determination of heavy metals nickel and vanadium (IFP9422, dosing of Conradson Carbon (ASTM D189, dosing of asphaltenes (ASTM D2549 and dosage of PCI (polycyclic aromatics (ASTM D 5186. The results showed a clear idea on the decomposition of the atmospheric residue and their influence on the performance of the vacuum distillation unit.

  16. Current and future neutron radiography standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenizer, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Only two organizations are actively producing standards which are used in neutron radiology (NR): the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Six ASTM standards exist that address the neutron radiography method. Two of the ASTM standards have been extensively used world-wide. ISO has a working group which is developing three standards that also address the neutron radiography method. Two of these are currently making their way through the ISO approval system. No ASTM or ISO standards exist for the neutron radioscopic method. Future ASTM standards will address the neutron radioscopic method and neutron radiologic system characterization. It is expected that similar efforts will be undertaken in ISO. Given the relatively small community providing neutron radiologic services, international cooperation and the need for ISO standards will most likely continue to grow.(author)

  17. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Siringi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tire derived aggregate (TDA has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA.

  18. Pensar a la intemperie: la crítica expuesta al riesgo de la experimentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pellejero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La experimentación en arte constituye un objeto refractario para la crítica, que ve sus categorías cuestionadas, desbordadas por la propia naturaleza de su objeto. Más allá de las formas consagradas de la historia del arte, el crítico que se aproxima de la experimentación artística es aquel que, sin reservas, pone a prueba la cultura, abriéndose a la multiplicidad de sus sentidos y a la imprevisibilidad de sus pulsiones. El presente trabajo pretende explorar las tensiones que, al nivel de la experiencia estética, la experimentación produce en nuestras subjetividades, a instancias de su apreciación, su interpretación o su crítica.

  19. Valoración del tratamiento mediante radiofrecuencia en dolor lumbar de orígen facetario

    OpenAIRE

    Correas Alguacil, Noemi; Muniesa Portoles, Josep Maria; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Medicina

    2012-01-01

    Evaluar la eficacia de la técnica de radiofrecuencia facetaria guiada por TAC en el síndrome facetario lumbar refractario a tratamiento conservador. II. Materiales y métodos. Analizamos la respuesta a la radiofrecuencia guiado por TAC en 32 pacientes. El análisis incluyo una evaluación clínica previa, al mes, a los 3, 6 meses y al año. III. Resultados y conclusiones. El análisis demuestra una disminución notable y significativa de la puntuación media del EVA y mejoría en la valoración funcion...

  20. A view on the European Refractory Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuels, N.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The author refers to the basic role of the Refractory Industry within the context from raw material to the use of products and outlines the major important political, economic and technical impact of the future.

    En el presente artículo se revisa la situación actual de la industria refractaria en Europa y se dan unas perspectivas de futuro para el sector, destacando su importancia política, económica y técnica. Dentro de este contexto se da una visión tanto de la situación de las materias primas como de los distintos uso de los productos refractarios y sus tendencias de futuro.

  1. Características físico-químicas de las dunitas serpentinizadas de la región de Moa-Baracoa (zonas Amores y Miraflores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Ramírez-Pérez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Los principales resultados de la caracterización físico-química y mineralógica de las dunitas serpentinizadas de las zonas de Amores y Miraflores en la región de Moa-Baracoa, se exponen en este trabajo. Se demuestra la presencia de minerales del grupo de la serpentina, principalmente antigorita, debido al proceso de serpentinización que ha afectado a estas rocas, y su transformación en fase forsterita luego de su calentamiento. Estos aspectos revisten especial importancia para las investigaciones que en la actualidad se realizan con estas litologías para su empleo como material refractario

  2. Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Steven, W.; Lundin, Carl, D.

    2005-09-30

    The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels) were the specifications utilized in conducting this work. An ASTM E562 industry round robin, ASTM A923 applicability study, ASTM A923 industry round robin, and an ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases were implemented. In the ASTM E562 study, 5 samples were extracted from various cast austenitic and DSS in order to have varying amounts of ferrite. Each sample was metallographically prepared by UT and sent to each of 8 participants for volume fraction of ferrite measurements. Volume fraction of ferrite was measured using manual point count per ASTM E562. FN was measured from the Feritescope{reg_sign} and converted to volume fraction of ferrite. Results indicate that ASTM E562 is applicable to DSS and the results have excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility. Also, volume fraction of ferrite conversions from the FN measured by the Feritescope{reg_sign} were similar to volume fraction of ferrite measured per ASTM E562. In the ASTM A923 applicability to cast DSS study, 8 different heat treatments were performed on 3 lots of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) castings and 1 lot of 2205 wrought DSS. The heat treatments were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates and hold times in order to study the suitability of ASTM A923 to the response of varying amounts on intermetallic phases [117]. The test parameters were identical to those used to develop ASTM A923 for wrought DSS. Charpy V-notch impact samples were extracted from the

  3. Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Steven, W.; Lundin, Carl, W.

    2005-09-30

    The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels) were the specifications utilized in conducting this work. An ASTM E562 industry round robin, ASTM A923 applicability study, ASTM A923 industry round robin, and an ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases were implemented. In the ASTM E562 study, 5 samples were extracted from various cast austenitic and DSS in order to have varying amounts of ferrite. Each sample was metallographically prepared by UT and sent to each of 8 participants for volume fraction of ferrite measurements. Volume fraction of ferrite was measured using manual point count per ASTM E562. FN was measured from the Feritescope® and converted to volume fraction of ferrite. Results indicate that ASTM E562 is applicable to DSS and the results have excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility. Also, volume fraction of ferrite conversions from the FN measured by the Feritescope® were similar to volume fraction of ferrite measured per ASTM E562. In the ASTM A923 applicability to cast DSS study, 8 different heat treatments were performed on 3 lots of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) castings and 1 lot of 2205 wrought DSS. The heat treatments were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates and hold times in order to study the suitability of ASTM A923 to the response of varying amounts on intermetallic phases [117]. The test parameters were identical to those used to develop ASTM A923 for wrought DSS. Charpy V-notch impact samples were extracted from the castings and wrought

  4. Láser de dióxido de carbono fraccionado asociado a corticoide tópico para el tratamiento del prurito en las secuelas cicatriciales del paciente quemado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. González-Porto

    Full Text Available El prurito en los pacientes quemados supone una secuela frecuente que puede ser incapacitante y difícilmente controlable mediante tratamiento médico. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con prurito grave resistente a tratamiento médico y los resultados tras el tratamiento con láser ablativo y liberación de corticoide local asistida por láser. Se trata de un paciente con quemaduras graves en el 70% de superficie corporal, con prurito refractario a tratamiento médico y lesiones por rascado que precisaron de sedorrelajación e intubación orotraqueal, y en el que realizamos una sola sesión de tratamiento con láser CO² fraccionado tras la que se aplicó cura oclusiva con triamcinolona acetónido disuelta en suero (20 mg/ml. La evaluación del resultado se realizó mediante valoración del prurito (escala Burn Itch Questionnaire y del resultado clínico y estético de la cicatriz (escalas Vancouver Scar Scale y Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Logramos un buen control del prurito y de las lesiones por rascado sin complicaciones asociadas. La liberación de fármacos asistida por láser fue la base del nuestro tratamiento, en el que el láser ablativo crea canales de comunicación transepidérmicos que favorecen la entrada del corticoide a la dermis y el efecto inmediato del mismo. Esta modalidad de tratamiento y este nuevo concepto clínico se presentan como una alternativa terapéutica importante en el tratamiento del prurito refractario en el paciente quemado.

  5. Soils Project Risk-Based Corrective Action Evaluation Process with ROTC 1 and ROTC 2, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick; Sloop, Christina

    2012-04-01

    This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process the NNSA/NSO Soils Activity uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process is used to establish FALs in accordance with the risk-based corrective action (RBCA) process stipulated in Chapter 445 of the Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) as described in the ASTM International (ASTM) Method E1739-95 (NAC, 2008; ASTM, 1995). It is designed to provide a set of consistent standards for chemical and radiological corrective actions.

  6. Effects of Head Size on the Performance of Twist-Off Bolts

    OpenAIRE

    Schnupp, Keith Otto

    2003-01-01

    This study examines a specific application of button-head type twist-off bolts. Currently, the Research Council on Structural Connections Specification (2000) removes the requirement for ASTM F436 washers (ASTM 2000a) under the bolt head of twist-off bolts where the head diameter equals or exceeds that of an ASTM F436 washer when oversized and slotted holes are used. The need for washers is also removed for A490 strength bolts used on steels with specified yield strengths less than 40 ksi p...

  7. Guide for use of radiation-sensitive indicators. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This guide covers the use of radiation-sensitive indicators in radiation processing. These indicators may be labels, papers, inks or packaging materials which undergo a color change or become colored when exposed to ionizing radiation. The purpose of these indicators is to determine visually whether or not a product has been irradiated, rather than to measure different dose levels. Such materials are not dosimeters and should not be used as a substitute for proper dosimetry. Information about dosimetry systems for ionizing radiation is provided in other ASTM and ISO/ASTM documents (see ISO/ASTM Guide 51261

  8. Síntesis de espumas rígidas de poliuretano obtenidas a partir de aceite de castor y poliglicerol empleando calentamiento por microondas Synthesis of rigid polyurethane foams obtained from castor oil and polyglycerol using microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mazo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realizó la síntesis de espumas rígidas de poliuretano utilizando un macropoliol sintetizado a partir de aceite de castor y poliglicerol, se optimizó mediante un análisis de superficie de respuesta, empleando un diseño factorial 32, los factores evaluados fueron: cantidad de agua y de ácido tartárico, el cual actúa como agente entrecruzante y catalizador; se evalúaron las propiedades mecánicas de las espumas como: densidad aparente (ASTM D1622-08, resistencia a la compresión (ASTM D1621, conductividad térmica (ASTM C177-04 y friabilidad (ASTM C421-8; se realizó Microscopia Electrónica de Barrido (SEM y Análisis de Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC. El macropoliol fue obtenido desde fuentes renovables, mediante la transesterificación de Aceite de Castor (CO ó Aceite de Castor Maleinizado (MACO con Poliglicerol (PG. Se evalúo el efecto de las microondas en las reacciones, donde se encuentra una disminución del tiempo; el seguimiento y la caracterización de los productos intermedios se realiza mediante la cuantificación de valor ácido por titulación (ASTM D4662-03 y número de hidroxilos (ASTM D4274-05.In this work we showed the polyurethane rigid foams synthesis using a macropolyol synthesized from castor oil and polyglycerol. This process is optimized employing a response surface analysis and using a 3² factorial design. The factors evaluated were: amount of water and tartaric acid, where tartaric acid acts as crosslinking agent and catalyst; mechanical properties of foams were evaluated as bulk density (ASTM D1622-08, compressive strength (ASTM D1621, thermal conductivity (ASTM C177-04, and friability (ASTM C421-8; scanning electronic microscopic (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The macropolyol was obtained from renewable sources by the transesterification of castor oil (CO or maleinized castor oil (MACO and polyglycerol (PG. The effect of microwaves on the reactions was

  9. Generator Set Durability Testing Using 25% ATJ Fuel Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 3 Table 1. Chemical & Physical Properties of Evaluated 25% ATJ Blend Test ASTM Method Units SwRI Sample ID...25% ATJ Blend Test ASTM Method Units SwRI Sample ID CL15-8613 Results Min Max Flash Point D93 °C 56.5 38 Density D4052 Test...Chemical & Physical Properties of Evaluated 25% ATJ Blend Test ASTM Method Units SwRI Sample ID CL15-8613 Results Min Max Fuel System Icing Inhibitor

  10. Microstructural evolution and response to double-loop reactivation testing of heat-treated PH 13-8 Mo martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Cieslak, M.J.; Hills, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Compared to the austenitic stainless steels, relatively few studies have been reported of the intergranular corrosion suceptibility of martensitic stainless steels, particularly those containing 0.05 corresponds to a ditch structure in ASTM A 262-A (oxalic acid)

  11. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption

  12. Joonatani triloogia : Joonatani teekond; Joonatani öö; Joonatani armastus / Karl Ristikivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ristikivi, Karl, 1912-1977

    1996-01-01

    Arvustus: Kangro, Bernard. Joonatan, kadunud veli. Lund : Eesti Kirjanike Kooperatiiv, 1971; Kangro, Bernard. Öö astmes X. Lund : Eesti Kirjanike Koopeatiiv, 1973; Kangro, Bernard. Puu saarel on alles. Lund : Eesti Kirjanike Kooperatiiv, 1973

  13. 21 CFR 177.1560 - Polyarylsulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for use in contact with food, at temperatures up to and including normal baking temperatures, in...-pyrrolidinone in accordance with ASTM method D2857-70 (Reapproved 1977), “Standard Test Method for Dilute...

  14. 40 CFR 80.46 - Measurement of reformulated gasoline fuel parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Method for Total Sulfur in Gaseous Fuels by Hydrogenolysis and Rateometric Colorimetry,” or (ii) ASTM... Total Sulfur in Gaseous Fuels by Hydrogenolysis and Rateometric Colorimetry. (2) [Reserved] [59 FR 7813...

  15. 77 FR 37587 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Z89.1-2003 as Appendix E, to the main text. Adds ``ASTM E1164-02 Colorimetry--Standard Practice for... National complete citations for standards on Standards Referred to in This colorimetry, headforms, and...

  16. 77 FR 37617 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Z89.1-2003 as Appendix E, to the main text. Adds ``ASTM E1164-02 Colorimetry--Standard Practice for... National complete citations for standards on Standards Referred to in This colorimetry, headforms, and...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 192 - Qualification of Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., “Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for High Pressure Service at... by reference, see § 192.7). ASTM D2517—Thermosetting plastic pipe and tubing, “Standard Specification...

  18. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-07-25

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption.

  19. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Microbiology Department, Anambra State University, Uli. Abstract. The effect ... physical parameters of crude oil (Atlas, 1981). It is known that ..... Ecology, ASTM, Philcidelphia, PA.pp. 196-204. ... Wang, X., X. Yu, and Bartha, R. (1990). Effect of.

  20. Laser surface melting of 304 stainless steel for pitting corrosion resistance improvement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seleka, TS

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) was utilized for chemical analysis. Changes in hardness were observed by using a Vickers microhardness tester. Pitting corrosion tests on laser treated and untreated samples were conducted according to ASTM G48...

  1. Surface resistivity test evaluation as an indicator of the chloride permeability of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Many agencies have adopted the standard tests for electrical : indication of concretes ability to resist chloride ion penetration : (AASHTO T 277 and ASTM C1202), commonly known as the rapid : chloride permeability test (RCPT), in their specificat...

  2. Investigation on mechanical properties of woven alovera/sisal/kenaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Sai Ram Institute of Technology, ... ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ... stress [9]. Naturally the sisal fibres have the characteristics of higher wear ... In this research work an effort.

  3. 40 CFR 264.1101 - Design and operating standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) in judging... they are exposed; climatic conditions; and the stresses of daily operation, including the movement of...

  4. 40 CFR 265.1101 - Design and operating standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industry such as the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM... wastes to which they are exposed; climatic conditions; and the stresses of daily operation, including the...

  5. Thermogravimetric and model-free kinetic studies on CO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785 006, Assam, India. ∗. Corresponding .... Automatic Bomb Calorimeter (ASTM 2011a, b, c), and Truspec CHN Macro ... C in order to reduce the unburned car- bon content.

  6. 75 FR 24711 - Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997: Modifications to the List of Recognized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Guanine Relevant guidance Phosphoribosyl Transferase Gene Mutation Assay 2-137 ASTM E1263-97 (Reapproved... Antifungal Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts 7-37 NCCLS I/LA06-A Detection and Quantitation of...

  7. Corrosion performance tests for reinforcing steel in concrete : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The existing test method used to assess the corrosion performance of reinforcing steel embedded in : concrete, mainly ASTM G 109, is labor intensive, time consuming, slow to provide comparative results, : and can be expensive. However, with corrosion...

  8. Corrosion performance tests for reinforcing steel in concrete : test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The existing test method to assess the corrosion performance of reinforcing steel embedded in concrete, mainly : ASTM G109, is labor intensive, time consuming, slow to provide comparative results, and often expensive. : However, corrosion of reinforc...

  9. Investigation of Grade E Cargo Flammability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alley, David

    1998-01-01

    .... Their flash points were obtained by the Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Method (ASTM Method D93). This was followed by tests to determine whether these oils could ignite at temperatures below their flash point...

  10. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action proposes to allow for an additional alternative test method for olefins in gasoline, ASTM D6550-05. The allowance of this additional alternative test method will provide more flexibility to the regulated industry.

  11. Freeze-thaw performance testing of whole concrete railroad ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Freezing and thawing durability tests of prestressed concrete ties are normally performed according to ASTM C666 specifications. Small specimens are cut from the shoulders of concrete ties and tested through 300 cycles of freezing and thawing. Saw-cu...

  12. 40 CFR 61.270 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specific gravity within the range of specific gravities specified in ASTM D836-84 for Industrial Grade... attached to motor vehicles such as trucks, rail cars, barges, or ships. (e) This subpart does not apply to...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.604 - Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Cellular Core—ASTM F628-91. Standard Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Hot... (ANSI-1982). Performance Requirements for Wall Hydrants, Frost Proof Automatic Draining, Anti-Backflow...

  14. Initial formulation results for in situ grouting of a waste trench at ORNL Site No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Spence, R.D.; Godsey, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted by the Chemical Technology Division to assist the Environmental Sciences Division in developing a grout formulation for use in testing in situ grouting in a waste trench at ORNL Site 6. This final report satisfies the milestone of Subtack 12 entitled, ''Low Level Waste (LLW) Trench Grouting Assessment,'' which was initially issued as RAP-86-7, December 31, 1985. Grouts prepared from dry-solid blends containing Type I Portland cement, ASTM Class C or Class F fly ash, and bentonite, mixed water at ratios of 10 to 15 lb/gal, were evaluated. The grouts prepared with ASTM Class C fly ash exhibited significantly better properties than those prepared with ASTM Class F fly ash. The grouts containing ASTM Class C fly ash satisfy tentative performance criteria for the project. 8 refs., 7 tabs

  15. Mechanical Properties of a High Lead Glass Used in the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Smith, Nathan A.; Ersahin, Akif

    2015-01-01

    The elastic constants, strength, fracture toughness, slow crack growth parameters, and mirror constant of a high lead glass supplied as tubes and funnels were measured using ASTM International (formerly ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials) methods and modifications thereof. The material exhibits lower Young's modulus and slow crack growth exponent as compared to soda-lime silica glass. Highly modified glasses exhibit lower fracture toughness and slow crack growth exponent than high purity glasses such as fused silica.

  16. Electromigration and Deposition of Micro-Scale Calcium Carbonate Structures with Controlled Morphology and Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    precipitation of calcium carbonate in structured templates including microporous polycarbonate membranes and polyethylene foams. Para- meters...polyethylene foam). Microporous polycarbonate membranes and Medium-Density PolyEthylene (MDPE) foam specimens were used as the porous organic...voids in hardened concrete. DOI:10.1520/C624-06. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International . www.astm.org. Bersa, L., and M. Liu. 2007. A review on

  17. Determination of MIL-H-6083 Hydraulic Fluid In-Service Use Limits for Self-Propelled Artillery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    determined using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D1744 Karl Fischer Reagent method . The specification limit is 0.05% (500 pans per...cazefully controlled. TOTAL ACID NUMBER The acid number was determined by the ASTM D664 potentiometric titration test method . Unfortunately, data were...fluid condition t results with AOAP tent date was found. The Navy Patch Kit method for particle contamination meamrement was evaluated as a possible

  18. Best Technical Approach for the Petroleum Quality Analysis (PQA) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    two test methods for determination of water content in a fuel. The Karl Fischer titration method (ASTM D 1744) measures for total water, both...difficult to automate. ASTM D 664, "Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration," is simple to automate...release. distribution unlimnied 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 2C3 words) Recent U.S. militar-y operations have identified a need for improved methods of fuel and

  19. Full-Scale Accelerated Testing of Multi-axial Geogrid Stabilized Flexible Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    a plastic limit (PL) of 27%, and a plasticity index (PI) of 37%, as determined by ASTM D4318. According to the Unified Soil Classification System...USCS), the soil was classified as a high- plasticity clay (CH) and an A-7-6 according to the American Association of State and Highway...Testing and Materials (ASTM). 2010. Standard test methods for liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index of soils . Designation: D 4318-10e1

  20. Corrosion Control of Central Vehicle Wash Facility Pump Components Using Alternative Alloy Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    bles near the metal/solution interface that is especially prevalent in pump impellers (Fontana 1986). When the bubbles implode due to high pressure...defective in total area). The coatings were nonsacrificial protective materials of the sort that ASTM B537 is in- tended to evaluate. In addition, cavitation...be considered detrimental, but not a protec- tion defect. The new pump coatings are protective, non-sacrificial coatings of the sort that ASTM B537 is

  1. Corrosion Prevention and Control Planning Guidebook Spiral 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    applications. Corrosion resistant 19-9DL and 431 steels should not be used for any applications. Series 400 martensitic grade cor- rosion resistant steels ...contact ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, Phone (610)832-9585, Fax (610)832-9555. ASTM A380, Stainless Steel Parts...drilling of holes in martensitic steels after hardening to strength lev- els of 180,000 psi and above should be avoided. When such drilling is

  2. Data Collection Protocols for Adhesive Testing Results Using the Materials Selection and Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    processing envelope will also be equally broad, as the Army employs thermosetting , thermoplastic, paste, and film adhesives cured using a variety of...Testing ASTM D 1002 13 was the basis standard used for the single-lap-joint testing. Aluminum adherends ( Alloy 2024-T3) were used with dimensions of...Surface Preparation of Aluminum Alloys to Be Adhesively Bonded in Honeycomb Shelter Panels." ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2001, DOI

  3. Fuel and Fuel System Materials Compatibility Test Program for A JP-8+100 Fuel Additive. Volume 1: Thermal Stability Additive Package BetzDearborn Spec Aid(Registered) 8Q462

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    SAE Rings, Sealing, Butadiene-Acrylonitrile ( NBR ), Rubber Fuel and Low Temperature Resistant 60 - 70 MIL-R-83248C Rubber , Fluorocarbon...KAPTON/TEFLON (COMPOSITE) WIRE I.I.10 34 VI. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS Non-Metallics MIL-HDBK-149B Military Standardization Hand Book Rubber ...ASTM D-1414 Standard Test Methods for Rubber O-Rings ASTM D-412 Type II Standard Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic

  4. Evaluation of Cement, Lime, and Asphalt Amended Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    the lime column over time ( Atlas & Bartha , 1987). Certainly, a more extensive evaluation of the lime amended residue’s microbial activity is required...4.02 ASTM D 1559 (1988) Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Road & Paving Materials; Traveled Surface Characteristics, Sec 4, Vol 4.03 Atlas , R. & R. Bartha ...1987) Microbial Ecology : Fundamentals & Applications, Benjamin-Cummings, Menlo, CA Barrow N., J. Bowden, A. Posner, & J. Quirk (1981) Describing the

  5. Coating and Interface Degradation of Coated steel, Part 2: Accelerated Laboratory Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambier, S.M.; Frankel, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, it was demonstrated that the measurement of cathodic delamination by the Scanning Kelvin Probe can assess the interface stability of poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) coated steel after field exposure. This technique was utilized to characterize the degradation of the polymer/metal interface in several outdoor climates. In this paper, the effects of environmental factors on the interface degradation were investigated in the laboratory. The mechanisms measured in the field were reproduced to provide input in the development of an appropriate accelerated test for PVB coated steel. The ASTM B117 and G154 standardized tests were investigated individually and sequentially. The interface stability improved after 24 h of ASTM G154 exposure. After 144 h of exposure to ASTM G154 exposure, polymer oxidation took place simultaneously with interface degradation. The condensation phase of the ASTM G154 test was responsible for the interface improvement while the ultraviolet radiation triggered the interface degradation. Pre-exposure to ASTM G154 delayed wet de-adhesion during ASTM B117 exposure. After wet de-adhesion caused by 6 h of ASTM B117, exposure to ASTM G154 for 24 h increased the interface stability. The effects of ultraviolet radiation, relative humidity, temperature and environment on interface degradation were investigated in a special chamber. Humidity was the primary factor found to influence the interface improvement during G154 exposure. A wet/dry salt fog cycle with irradiation by an ultraviolet or filtered xenon arc lamp around room temperature was suggested to reproduce the competition between the interface improvement and the interface degradation that takes place in the field

  6. USARCENT AOR Contingency Base Waste Stream Analysis: An Analysis of Solid Waste Streams at Five Bases in the U. S. Army Central (USARCENT) Area of Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    and Plastics Waste in As Bench Scale Combustor. University of Technology, Malaysia . http://eprints.utm.my/2854/1/75186.pdf. ASTMASTM...prevalent types of solid waste are food (19.1% by average sample weight), wood (18.9%), and plastics (16.0%) based on analysis of bases in...within the interval shown. Food and wood wastes are the largest components of the average waste stream (both at ~19% by weight), followed by plastic

  7. Demonstration of an In-Situ Friction-Sound Probe for Mapping Particle Size at Contaminated Sediment Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    sedimentation according to the Stokes Law through pipettes (Plumb, 1981) or hydrometer (ASTM, 1988). Various optical techniques, electro-resistance (Coulter...used by the contracting laboratory (ASTM, 1998) is a combined mechanical sieving and hydrometer method. The sieves are used to quantify particle sizes...in the sand range (> 63 µm) and larger, and a sedimentation- hydrometer technique is used to quantify the silt and clay size ranges (< 63 µm

  8. Light Obscuration Particle Counter Fuel Contamination Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-08

    two methods for measuring particulate contamination by gravimetric analysis: ASTM D2276 - Standard Test Method for Particulate Contaminant in Aviation...problems with the gravimetric methods is the poor repeatability and reproducibility of the methods , ASTM D2276 has a repeatability of 0.25 mg/L and...collected failing either the particle count or the gravimetric limit, 314 of which failed both methods . 245 false negatives were recorded where the

  9. Comparison of Hydraulic Conductivity Determinations in Co-located Conventional and Direct-Push Monitoring Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    and Development Center (ERDC) provided the funding for this project. We wish to thank our project monitors Tony Bednar (ERDC Environmental Laboratory...method for field determination of hy- draulic conductivity at contaminated sites (Butler 1997; Henebry and Robbins 2000; Bartlett et al. 2004). For a...ASTM International. www.astm.org Bartlett, Stephen A., Gary A. Robbins , J. Douglas Mandrick, Michael Barcelona, Wes McCall, and Mark Kram. 2004

  10. EJST V9N2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    liquid acids or solid base catalysts (Helwani et al., 2009). ... indicator, Sodium hydroxide, diethyl ether, sulfuric acid, ethanol, iodine, bromine ..... 890. 890. Kinematic viscosity at 40 0C mm2 /s. ASTM D 445. 1.9-6.0. 5.21. Refractive index at 40 0C. 1.451. Acid value. mgKOH/g ASTM D 664 max 0.8. 0.221. Saponification value.

  11. Impact properties of zinc die cast alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrems, Karol K.; Dogan, Omer N.; Manahan, M.P. (MPM Technologies, Inc.); Goodwin, F.E. (ILZRO)

    2005-01-01

    Alloys 3, 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were tested at five temperatures between -40 C and room temperature to determine impact properties. Izod impact energy data was obtained in accordance with ASTM D256. Unlike ASTM E23, these samples were tested with a milled notch in order to compare with plastic samples. In addition, flexural data was obtained for design use.

  12. U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Laboratory Sampling and Analysis Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Clay Sand Gravel Page | 63 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. Cleared, 88PA, # 2014-0577...solid/liquid, media will collect semi-liquid only. Not for high viscosity liquids. Dipper (or “pond sampler”) ASTM D5358 ASTM D5013 USEPA...decontamination may be difficult. Limited by length of sampler, small volume of sample collected, and viscosity of fluids. Page | 71

  13. Evaluation of the Air Void Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    concrete using image analysis: Petrography of cementitious materials. ASTM STP 1215. S.M. DeHayes and D. Stark, eds. Philadelphia, PA: American...Administration (FHWA). 2006. Priority, market -ready technologies and innovations: Air Void Analyzer. Washington D.C. PDF file. Germann Instruments (GI). 2011...tests and properties of concrete and concrete-making materials. STP 169D. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Magura, D.D. 1996. Air void

  14. Automated acid and base number determination of mineral-based lubricants by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: commercial laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfield, Craig; van de Voort, F R

    2014-12-01

    The Fluid Life Corporation assessed and implemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based methods using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-like stoichiometric reactions for determination of acid and base number for in-service mineral-based oils. The basic protocols, quality control procedures, calibration, validation, and performance of these new quantitative methods are assessed. ASTM correspondence is attained using a mixed-mode calibration, using primary reference standards to anchor the calibration, supplemented by representative sample lubricants analyzed by ASTM procedures. A partial least squares calibration is devised by combining primary acid/base reference standards and representative samples, focusing on the main spectral stoichiometric response with chemometrics assisting in accounting for matrix variability. FTIR(AN/BN) methodology is precise, accurate, and free of most interference that affects ASTM D664 and D4739 results. Extensive side-by-side operational runs produced normally distributed differences with mean differences close to zero and standard deviations of 0.18 and 0.26 mg KOH/g, respectively. Statistically, the FTIR methods are a direct match to the ASTM methods, with superior performance in terms of analytical throughput, preparation time, and solvent use. FTIR(AN/BN) analysis is a viable, significant advance for in-service lubricant analysis, providing an economic means of trending samples instead of tedious and expensive conventional ASTM(AN/BN) procedures. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. Sequestration Coating Performance Requirements for Mitigation of Contamination from a Radiological Dispersion Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.

    2009-01-01

    Immediate action would be necessary to minimize the effects of a radiological 'dirty bomb' detonation in a major city. After a dirty bomb has been detonated, vehicular and pedestrian traffic, as well as weather effects, would increase the spread of loose contamination, making control and recovery more difficult and costly. While contaminant migration and chemical binding into surface materials can be relatively rapid, the immediate treatment of surfaces with large quantities of an appropriate compound could alleviate much of the difficulty in decontamination. The EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), in collaboration with ASTM International, is currently developing performance standards for materials which could be applied to exterior surfaces contaminated by an RDD to mitigate the spread and migration of radioactive contamination. These performance standards are being promulgated via an ASTM Standard Specification to be published by ASTM International. Test methods will be developed to determine if candidate coatings meet the performance requirements stipulated in the ASTM performance standard. These test methods will be adapted from existing standard methods, or will be devised through laboratory research. The final set of test methods will be codified in an ASTM or other standard test method. The principal market for products described in the ASTM performance standard would be federal, state and local government emergency responders and response planners, decontamination service providers and those whose interests include protection and recovery of real estate potentially at risk from radiological terrorism. (authors)

  16. Brain activity is related to individual differences in the number of items stored in auditory short-term memory for pitch: evidence from magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimault, Stephan; Nolden, Sophie; Lefebvre, Christine; Vachon, François; Hyde, Krista; Peretz, Isabelle; Zatorre, Robert; Robitaille, Nicolas; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine brain activity related to the maintenance of non-verbal pitch information in auditory short-term memory (ASTM). We focused on brain activity that increased with the number of items effectively held in memory by the participants during the retention interval of an auditory memory task. We used very simple acoustic materials (i.e., pure tones that varied in pitch) that minimized activation from non-ASTM related systems. MEG revealed neural activity in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices that increased with a greater number of items effectively held in memory by the participants during the maintenance of pitch representations in ASTM. The present results reinforce the functional role of frontal and temporal cortices in the retention of pitch information in ASTM. This is the first MEG study to provide both fine spatial localization and temporal resolution on the neural mechanisms of non-verbal ASTM for pitch in relation to individual differences in the capacity of ASTM. This research contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms mediating the representation and maintenance of basic non-verbal auditory features in the human brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Arsenic transformation predisposes human skin keratinocytes to UV-induced DNA damage yet enhances their survival apparently by diminishing oxidant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yang; Kojima, Chikara; Chignell, Colin; Mason, Ronald; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic and UV, both human skin carcinogens, may act together as skin co-carcinogens. We find human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) are malignantly transformed by low-level arsenite (100 nM, 30 weeks; termed As-TM cells) and with transformation concurrently undergo full adaptation to arsenic toxicity involving reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress response to high arsenite concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage (ODD) is a possible mechanism in arsenic carcinogenesis and a hallmark of UV-induced skin cancer. In the current work, inorganic arsenite exposure (100 nM) did not induce ODD during the 30 weeks required for malignant transformation. Although acute UV-treatment (UVA, 25 J/cm 2 ) increased ODD in passage-matched control cells, once transformed by arsenic to As-TM cells, acute UV actually further increased ODD (> 50%). Despite enhanced ODD, As-TM cells were resistant to UV-induced apoptosis. The response of apoptotic factors and oxidative stress genes was strongly mitigated in As-TM cells after UV exposure including increased Bcl2/Bax ratio and reduced Caspase-3, Nrf2, and Keap1 expression. Several Nrf2-related genes (HO-1, GCLs, SOD) showed diminished responses in As-TM cells after UV exposure consistent with reduced oxidant stress response. UV-exposed As-TM cells showed increased expression of cyclin D1 (proliferation gene) and decreased p16 (tumor suppressor). UV exposure enhanced the malignant phenotype of As-TM cells. Thus, the co-carcinogenicity between UV and arsenic in skin cancer might involve adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure generally mitigating the oxidative stress response, allowing apoptotic by-pass after UV and enhanced cell survival even in the face of increased UV-induced oxidative stress and increased ODD. - Highlights: → Arsenic transformation adapted to UV-induced apoptosis. → Arsenic transformation diminished oxidant response. → Arsenic transformation enhanced UV-induced DNA damage.

  18. Microstructural features of alumina refractories with mullite-zirconia aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari, C. R.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Refractory materials are often subjected to high temperatures and loads and their performance depends on their microstructural evolution during use. In this context, microstructural changes were monitored in alumina-based refractories containing mullite-zirconia aggregates and heat-treated at 1400°C and 1500°C for 2, 6, and 18 days. With the purpose of inducing in situ mullite formation, bricks containing microsilica were also prepared and heat-treated at 1500°C for 6 days for the sake of comparison. These heat treatments allowed for an evaluation of the use of refractories from the standpoint of temperature and time. In this work, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were made to identify the phases in the materials. The Rietveld method was also used for quantitative phase analyses. Interfacial reactions occurred between alumina and aggregates and between alumina and microsilica, causing the system to become mullitized. The effect of in situ-formed mullite was particularly evident in the results of the modulus of rupture of the materials containing microsilica. Creep tests revealed a reduction in the creep rate of materials treated at 1500°C for 18 days.

    El comportamiento de los materiales refractarios, cuando sometidos a altas temperaturas y a grandes esfuerzos mecánicos, está íntimamente relacionado con la evolución microestuctural, durante su uso. En este contexto, fue realizado un estudio de la evolución microestructural de los materiales refractarios de alumina conteniendo diferentes porcentajes de agregado de mullita–circona, sometidos a tratamientos térmicos por 2, 6 y 18 días, en temperaturas de 1400 y 1500oC. Fueron confeccionados, algunos ladrillos conteniendo microsílice, con la idea de se introducir la formación de mullita en situ. Para la comparación de los ladrillos, fueron realizados tratamientos térmicos por un periodo de 6 días en 1500oC. Estos tratamientos térmicos permitieron

  19. Preparation and characterization of clay bonded high strength silica refractory by utilizing agriculture waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Bhardwaj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Clay bonded silica refractory was prepared by utilizing agriculture waste called rice husk ash (RHA and refractory grog. Various samples were prepared with different compositions based upon partial replacement of quartz by RHA. Rectangular samples were prepared by following semi dry process prior to pressing in a uniaxial hydraulic press and sintering at a temperature of 1200 °C in air atmosphere. Various physical, mechanical and thermal characterizations were done like X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, apparent porosity (AP, bulk density (BD, cold crushing strength (CCS, refractoriness and thermal conductivity measurement. The sample utilizing 30% of RHA was considered most optimum composition which produced cold crushing strength of 38 MPa and thermal conductivity of 2.08 W/m K at 800 °C with a considerable good refractoriness. Enhancement in the mechanical as well as thermal properties may be considered as attributed to the amorphous silica which has reacted more easily and efficiently with other material surrounding giving rise to the densification and produced stable crystalline phase to the refractory material. These promising characteristics suggests that the RHA may lead to be used as a potential material for the preparation of clay bonded high strength silica refractories. Resumen: Se preparó sílice refractaria unida a arcilla con residuos agrícolas conocidos como ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (rice husk ash [RHA] y grog refractario. Se prepararon varias muestras con diferentes composiciones basadas en la sustitución parcial de cuarzo por RHA. Las muestras rectangulares se prepararon siguiendo un proceso semiseco antes de prensarlas en una prensa hidráulica uniaxial y sinterizarlas a una temperatura de 1.200 °C en atmósfera de aire. Se realizaron diversas caracterizaciones físicas, mecánicas y térmicas, como la difracción de rayos X, el microscopio electrónico de barrido, la porosidad

  20. Reaction Sintering of Mexican Dolomite – Zircon Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Galicia, J. L.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been conducted aiming to develop additional phase [Ca3SiO5, Ca2SiO4 and/or Ca3Mg(SiO42]-bonded magnesia refractory materials via reaction sintering of dolomite-zircon mixtures, employing a Mexican dolomite containing an excess of 3 wt% of CaCO3. The study was based on phase equilibrium data extracted from the quaternary system CaO – MgO – SiO2 – ZrO2, to put it more precisely, base on the projection from the MgO-apex of the liquidus surface of the primary crystallization volume of MgO onto the opposite face of the above mentioned quaternary system. The refractory materials designed within this system were obtained by attrition milling, followed by cold isostatic pressing and high temperature reaction sintering. All initial and produced materials were characterized by ICP-AES, XRF, XRD, SEM-EDX, DTA and TG analyses. The results obtained indicated that reaction sintering of dolomite-zircon mixtures is an interesting route to produce MgO-CaZrO3-additional phase refractory materials.

    El propósito de este trabajo ha sido obtener materiales refractarios de magnesia, aglomerados con una fase adicional [Ca3SiO5, Ca2SiO4 y/o Ca3Mg(SiO42], mediante la sinterización reactiva de mezclas de dolomita-circón, empleando para ello una dolomita mexicana que contiene un exceso de 3% en peso de CaCO3. El estudio se basa en la información relativa al equilibrio de fases del sistema CaO – MgO – SiO2 – ZrO2. En concreto se usa la proyección, desde el vértice del MgO, de la superficie de liquidus del volumen de cristalización primaria de este, hacia la cara opuesta de sistema cuaternario. Los materiales refractarios diseñados se han obtenido por molienda de atrición, seguida de un prensado isostático en frío y sinterización reactiva a alta temperatura. Todos los materiales, iniciales y finales, han sido caracterizados mediante ICPAES, FRX, DRX, MEB-EDX, ATD y TG. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la sinterizaci

  1. Job Oriented Training ’Lessons Learned’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Job Oriented Training ’Lessons Learned’ Job Oriented Training (JOT), een vorm van trainen waarbij de cursist zelfstandig, zonder theorie vooraf...39 77 lnfo-DenV@tno.nl TNO-rapportnummer TNO-DV 2008 A447 Opdrachtnummer Datum november 2008 Auteur (s) drs. H.E. Stubbe dr. A.H. van der...onderlinge discussie over achterliggende overwegingen te stimuleren. Zij hebben op dat moment nog geen theorie aangeboden gekregen en zijn niet op de hoogte

  2. Análisis de los factores que determinan la adherencia terapéutica del paciente hipertenso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Zurera Delgado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La baja adherencia al tratamiento en enfermedades crónicas como la hipertensión arterial, sigue siendo actualmente un problema latente en nuestro país. A pesar de que la educación sanitaria se viene utilizando en los distintos niveles asistenciales para mejorar la adherencia al tratamiento farmacológico y la adquisición de hábitos de vida saludables, no existen muchas evidencias de su eficacia, especialmente en pacientes hipertensos, refractarios a modificar sus hábitos higiénico-dietéticos. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue conocer las motivaciones personales, que intervienen en la modificación de los hábitos, adherencia y conocimiento de la enfermedad, en un grupo de pacientes hipertensos. Metodología: Estudio fenomenológico realizado en el ámbito hospitalario, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas. La muestra fue de dieciocho pacientes con hipertensión arterial no controlada, asociada a síndrome metabólico y/u obesidad (con IMC>30, durante un periodo de 4 meses en la consulta de UGC Nefrología/HTA, del HURS de Córdoba. Resultados: Se hallaron tres categorías temáticas con las que dar respuesta a nuestros objetivos de estudio: Sensibilización acerca del riesgo cardiovascular al que están expuestos y conocimiento de la propia enfermedad, razonando los motivos que impulsan o retraen al paciente hipertenso a adherirse al tratamiento y relación entre cumplimiento del tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico. Conclusiones: La falta de adherencia al tratamiento, se manifiesta por una falta de voluntad entre los pacientes hipertensos refractarios, más que por un problema de información, siendo necesaria una intervención por parte del personal de enfermería enfocado a profundizar en la misma.

  3. La interacción de materiales del sistema sílice-alúmina con productos fluorados aluminosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to get a first approximation of the systematic study of the corrosion mechanisms of the silica-alumina, alumina and rich-alumina refractory by fluoride compounds and molten aluminum. The thermodynamic results support the main role of the chemical attack and the erosive mechanisms in the wear of the silica-alumina materials. The influence of the composition of the crystalline phases in the degree of the ceramic lining attack is also studied. The results suggest not to use either oxide or nitride high-value materials for the lining of furnaces and transport recipients containing molten aluminum, because of the chemical corrosion by compounds such as cryolite or aluminum fluoride and also, because of the avidity of aluminum towards oxygen. The study of corundum-based materials like the best refractory used in order to react with fluoride compounds and molten aluminum is an alternative to be considered. The study of the crusts adhesion like a protection mechanism of the refractory lining is also a possible approach.

    Este trabajo pretende contribuir al estudio sistemático de los mecanismos de corrosión que experimentan los refractarios sílico-aluminosos, aluminosos y de alta alúmina con productos fluorados y aluminio en estado líquido. Se aportan datos termodinámicos que confirman el papel preponderante del ataque químico y de los mecanismos erosivos en el desgaste de materiales del sistema sílice-alúmina. Se discute, asimismo, la influencia de la composición de las fases cristalinas encontradas en el grado de agresión a los revestimientos cerámicos. Se propone, ante la agresividad de agentes químicamente activos, como la criolita o el fluoruro de aluminio, y la gran afinidad del aluminio por el oxígeno, no aconsejar la utilización de materiales oxídicos y nitrurados de alto valor para el revestimiento de hornos y bolsas de transporte de aluminio. Se propone, como línea de trabajo a seguir, la

  4. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  5. Thermal modelling of a torpedo-car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja-González, L. F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional finite element model for computing the temperature distribution in a torpedo-car holding pig iron is described in this work. The model determines the temperature gradients in steady and transient conditions within the different parts that constitute the system, which are considered to be the steel casing, refractory lining, liquid iron, slag and air. Heat transfer within the main fluid phases (iron and air is computed assuming an apparent thermal conductivity term incorporating the contribution from convection and radiation, and it is affected by the dimensions of the vessel. Thermal gradients within the constituents of the torpedo-car are used to calculate heat losses during operation. It was found that the model required the incorporation of a region within the iron-refractory interface to reproduce thermographic data recorded during operation; the heat transfer coefficient of this interface was found to be equal to 30 Wm-2K-1.

    En este trabajo se describe un modelo bidimensional basado en el método del elemento finito para calcular la distribución de temperaturas en un carro torpedo lleno de arrabio. El modelo determina los gradientes térmicos en condiciones estacionarias y transitorias dentro de las partes que constituyen el sistema considerado, como son cubierta de acero, recubrimientos refractarios, arrabio líquido, escoria y aire. La transferencia de calor en las fases fluidas (arrabio y aire se calcula suponiendo un coeficiente de conductividad térmica aparente que incorpora las contribuciones por convección y radiación y está afectado por las dimensiones del recipiente. El conocimiento de los gradientes térmicos permite calcular las pérdidas de calor durante la operación del carro. Se encontró que el modelo requiere de la incorporación de una región en la intercara hierro-refractario para reproducir la información termográfica recopilada durante pruebas en planta. El

  6. An Elementary Overview of the Selection of Materials for Service in Oxygen-Enriched Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2012-01-01

    The process for selecting materials for use in oxygen or oxygen-enriched environments is one that continues to be investigated by many industries due to the importance to those industries of oxygen systems. There are several excellent resources available to assist oxygen systems design engineers and end-users, with the most comprehensive being ASTM MNL-36, Safe Use of Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Handbook for Design, Operation and Maintenance, 2nd Edition. ASTM also makes available several standards for oxygen systems. However, the ASTM publications are extremely detailed, and typically designed for professionals who already possess a working knowledge of oxygen systems. No notable resource exists, whether an ASTM or other organizational publication, which can be used to educate engineers or technicians who have no prior knowledge of the nuances of oxygen system design and safety. This paper will fill the void for information needed by organizations that design or operate oxygen systems. The information in this paper is not new information, but is a concise and easily understood summary of selecting materials for oxygen systems. This paper will serve well as an employee s first introduction to oxygen system materials selection, and probably the employee s first introduction to ASTM.

  7. A new U.S. film system classification and image quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knell, M.

    1996-01-01

    The last ASTM Standard E94 which classified Industrial Radiography films was published in 1984. Since that time inspection contracts in US and worldwide have continued to specify Type 1 and Type 2 films--although these no longer exist. From 1990 there was discussion within ASTM and work was done by ASTM Committee E07-01. The method proposed used data on graininess and gradient to produce an index to represent quality. In the early version the author found that it was possible to have a very fine grain low-contrast film with the same index as a fine grain film, with high contrast. The draft standard was then developed, so that it is possible to classify both types of film in separate groups. The first is the Classical type of film and the second is a Wide Latitude film. In a Classical film, the contrast increases over the useable density range. The range of application standards specify densities generally from D = 2.0 to D = 4.0. A radiologist would expect contrast to be higher at D = 4.0 compared with contrast at D = 2.0. The new ASTM film classification uses a signal to noise ratio--with minimum values for each class for contrast and a maximum value for graininess. The ASTM Classification System uses the same parameters as the European Standard EN584-1 and ISO CD

  8. State of the reactor vessel surveillance programs in Korea and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Kyu; Hwang, Jong Keun; Park, Keon Woo; Kim, Bum Sik; Jeong, Kyung Hoon

    1996-06-01

    ASTM standards are dominating all over the world in the field of the reactor vessel surveillance program. They are mainly used directly or that the national standards in use correspond quite well with ASTM. According to, however, increasing concerns about the protection of environment and safety of nuclear plant, various approaches to establish and reinforce the national standards are made actively in Europe. In addition, some methods to share the nuclear data by integrating the existing test, analysis procedures and units system are considered. For nuclear plants in Korea, MOST Notice No. 92-20 should be applied for all PWRs after UCN units 3 and 4 since it was promulgated at Dec. 1992. The notice almost reflects the contents of ASTM E 185. But, the notice has much to be desired to provide the technical back-ground for reactor vessel surveillance program because it is not a standard such as ASTM or ASME code but regulation such as CFR or RG. Several Korean Standards are also used in limited area of the surveillance program. Therefore, practical requirements and rules for surveillance program are in accordance with the ASTM and CFR. In this report, the state of application of the standards to the surveillance program in Korea and Europe are reviewed and their national standards re compared with US standards or regulations. Current level and the future prospect of surveillance technology for PWR vessel are discussed at this point of view. 15 tabs., 12 figs., 38 refs. (Author)

  9. Applying consensus standards to cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatham, J.; Abbott, D.G.; Warrant, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is procuring cask systems for transporting commercial spent nuclear fuel and is encouraging development of innovative cask designs and materials to improve system efficiency. New designs and innovative materials require that consensus standards be established so that cask designers and regulators have criteria for determining acceptability. Recent DOE experience in certifying three spent fuel shipping casks, NUPAC-125B, TN-BRP, and TN-REG, is discussed. Certification of the NUPAC-125B was expedited because it was made of conventional American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) materials and complied with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guides. The TN-BRP and TN-REG cask designs are still being reviewed because baskets included in the casks are made of borated stainless steel, which has no ASTM Specification or ASME Code approval. The process of developing and approving consensus standards is discussed, including the role of ANSI and ANSI N14. Specific procedures for ASTM and ASME are described. A draft specification or standard must be prepared and then approved by the appropriate body. For new material applications to the ASME Code, an existing ASTM Specification is needed. These processes may require several years. The status of activities currently in progress to develop consensus standards for spent fuel casks is discussed, including (1) ASME NUPAC, and (2) ASTM Specifications for ductile cast iron and borated stainless steel

  10. Material specification for ductile cast iron in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    The United States currently does not have formal design criteria for qualifying ductile cast iron (DCI) transportation casks. There is also no dedicated material standard for DCI for this particular application. Recognizing the importance of a material standard for this application, Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, in a report to the NRC, recommended that steps be taken to develop an ASTM material specification suitable for spent fuel shipping containers. A draft ASTM material specification has been written and is currently in the ASTM approval process. This paper reviews the brief history of the development of the specification, the technical basis for the material properties, the ASTM approval process and the current status of the draft specification. The expected implications of having an adopted ASTM specification on the licensing process are also discussed. The relationship of fracture toughness to composition, microstructure and tensile properties has been evaluated at Sandia National Laboratories. The first main conclusion reached is that static fracture toughness is essentially decoupled from tensile properties such as yield strength, tensile strength and ductility. The significance of this finding is that tensile properties provided for in existing DCI specifications should not be used as an indicator of a material's ability to resist crack initiation. A material specification which includes fracture toughness requirements is needed to address the brittle fracture concerns. Second, static fracture toughness was found to correlate well with material microstructure; specifically, graphite nodule count or nodule spacing

  11. Determination of the onset of ductile crack extension in 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel by multi-specimen J integral testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, S.G.

    1982-02-01

    Results obtained at AERE Harwell as part of the first phase of the European Group on Fracture round robin activity into ductile crack initiation detection are presented and discussed. Data are analysed using the current ASTM Jsub(IC) testing procedure and by an alternative procedure. Difficulties in the definition of 'initiation' are highlighted and deficiencies of the ASTM procedure exposed. The ASTM Jsub(IC) value for 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel was determined as 0.21 MN/m. The alternative procedure provides a more accurate evaluation of the 'initiation' value of J, that is, at the point of crack advance in excess of that due to crack tip blunting. Using this procedure the 'initiation' value, Jsub(i), was measured as 0.14 MN/m. (author)

  12. Interlaminar fracture toughness for composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Yong; Kwon, Soon Man

    1991-01-01

    The new equation of energy release rate for a double cantilever beam specimen is proposed within the framework of the higher order shear deformable plate theory. The interlaminar fracture toughnesses by present theory, ASTM round robin test method and acoustic emission method are compared for thermoset Graphite/Epoxy and thermoplastic AS4/PEEK composites. As a result, the interlaminar fracture toughness values by present theory show good agreement within 5% when compared with ones by ASTM method and it is shown that ones by acoustic emission method yield the lower values than ones by ASTM method. It is observed that the interlaminar fracture toughness of thermoplastic AS4/PEEK composite is about ten times larger than one of thermoset Graphite/Epoxy composite. (Author)

  13. Standard methods for sampling and sample preparation for gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaeva, M.; Taskaev, E.; Nikolov, P.

    1993-01-01

    The strategy for sampling and sample preparation is outlined: necessary number of samples; analysis and treatment of the results received; quantity of the analysed material according to the radionuclide concentrations and analytical methods; the minimal quantity and kind of the data needed for making final conclusions and decisions on the base of the results received. This strategy was tested in gamma spectroscopic analysis of radionuclide contamination of the region of Eleshnitsa Uranium Mines. The water samples was taken and stored according to the ASTM D 3370-82. The general sampling procedures were in conformity with the recommendations of ISO 5667. The radionuclides was concentrated by coprecipitation with iron hydroxide and ion exchange. The sampling of soil samples complied with the rules of ASTM C 998, and their sample preparation - with ASTM C 999. After preparation the samples were sealed hermetically and measured. (author)

  14. Report on the studies on the corrosion behaviour of the constructional materials for the gate cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elayathu, N.S.D.; Balachandra, J.

    1974-01-01

    The gate cooling system of the Trombay R-5 reactor, now under construction, is proposed to be a laminated gate designed to operate with 50 % KBO 2 solution within the temperature limits 30 deg C and 50 deg C. With a view to find suitable constructional materials for the gate, the corrosion behaviour of stainless steel 304 L(ASTM 240-69), lead (ASTM B-29), aluminium (as Boral), neoprene, perspex and carbon steel (ASTM A 302 grade B) has been investigated in 50 % KBO 2 solution at 45 deg C. After definite periods of exposure, their coupons were examined metallographically at different magnifications to assess the nature and extent of sub-surface attack. The results show that out of the materials studied, carbon steel, lead and aluminium are more liable to corrosion in the borate solution and hence their use should be avoided. (M.G.B.)

  15. Using thermal analysis techniques for identifying the flash point temperatures of some lubricant and base oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksam Abdelkhalik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The flash point (FP temperatures of some lubricant and base oils were measured according to ASTM D92 and ASTM D93. In addition, the thermal stability of the oils was studied using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA under nitrogen atmosphere. The DSC results showed that the FP temperatures, for each oil, were found during the first decomposition step and the temperature at the peak of the first decomposition step was usually higher than FP temperatures. The TGA results indicated that the temperature at which 17.5% weigh loss take placed (T17.5% was nearly identical with the FP temperature (±10 °C that was measured according to ASTM D92. The deviation percentage between FP and T17.5% was in the range from −0.8% to 3.6%. Keywords: Flash point, TGA, DSC

  16. Initial Assessment of CSA Group Niobium Boron Based Coatings on 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    1       2.3.   ASTM  Adhesion Testing...Model  Leptoskop 2040) on each coated plate. A minimum of five (5) measurements were taken on each side of  each plate.  2.3. ASTM  Adhesion Testing...Adhesion testing was conducted in accordance with  ASTM  B571, “Standard Practice for Qualitative  Adhesion Testing of Metallic Coatings”, using Method

  17. A study on the welding characteristics of Mn-Ni-Mo type A302-C steel plate for pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byoung Hyun; Chang, Woong Seong; Kweon, Young Gak

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop ASTM A302 grade C type steel plate with excellent weldability, several steels with different chemistry have been manufactured and evaluated their mechanical properties and weldability. Trial A302-C steels have revealed tensile strength in the range of 61-67kg/mm 2 and elongation in the range of 27∼32%, depending on chemical compositions within the ASTM specification range. In case of impact toughness, trial steels showed in the range of 58-70J at 0 .deg. C. From the weldability test, the minimum preheat temperature was found to be about 150 .deg. C, and automatic welding condition satisfied the requirements of both ASTM specification and users

  18. The Properties of Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Coatings on Armor-Grade Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Adamiak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an examination of the properties of arc-sprayed aluminum on alloyed armor-grade steel. Thermal arc spraying was conducted with a EuTronic Arc Spray 4 wire arc sprayer. Aluminum wire 1.6 mm in diameter was used to produce dense, abrasion- and erosion-resistant coatings approx. 1.0 mm thick with and without nickel/5% aluminum-buffered subcoating. Aluminum coatings were characterized in accordance with ASTM G 65-00 abrasion resistance test, ASTM G 76-95 erosion resistance tests, ASTM C 633-01 adhesion strength, HV0.1 hardness tests and metallographic analyses. Results demonstrate properties of arc-sprayed aluminum and aluminum-nickel material coatings that are especially promising in industrial applications where erosion-, abrasion- and corrosion-resistant coating properties are required.

  19. Development of metallic molds for the large volume plastic scintillator fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Vieira, Jose M.; Rela, Paulo R.; Bruzinga, Wilson A.; Araujo, Eduardo P.; Costa Junior, Nelson P.; Hamada, Margarida M.

    1997-01-01

    The plastic scintillators are radiation detectors made of organic fluorescent compounds dissolved in a solidified polymer matrix. The manufacturing process of large volume detectors (55 liters) at low cost, by polymerization of the styrene monomer plus PPO and POPOP scintillators, was studied in this paper. Metallic molds of ASTM 1200 aluminum and AISI 304 stainless steel were produced by TIG welding process since the polymerization reaction is very exothermic. The measurements of transmittance, luminescence, X-ray fluorescence and light output were carried out in the plastic scintillators made using different metallic molds. The characterization results of the detectors produced in an open system using ASTM 1200 aluminum mold show that there is not quality change in the scintillator, even with aluminum being considered as unstable for styrene monomer. Therefore, the ASTM 1200 aluminum was found to be the best alternative to produce the detector by an open system polymerization. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. Reliability performance testing of totally encapsulating chemical protective suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.; Swearengen, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The need to assure a high degree of reliability for totally encapsulating chemical protective (TECP) suits has been recognized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hazards Control Department for some time. The following four tests were proposed as necessary to provide complete evaluation of TECP suit performance: 1. Quantitative leak test (ASTM draft), 2. Worst-case chemical exposure test (conceptual), 3. Pressure leak-rate test (complete, ASTM F1057-87), and 4. Chemical leak-rate test (ASTM draft). This paper reports on these tests which should be applied to measuring TECP suit performance in two stages: design qualification tests and field use tests. Test 1, 2, and 3 are used as design qualification tests, and tests 3 and 4 are used as field use tests

  1. Status of Standardization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A5 B 942 943 943 ASM SA 69 D, 8115 056; ASTM D 5118 FABRICATION OF FIBERBOARD SM AS B 941 943 943 A SM SA 69 Di- N 8115 0562 ASTM D 5168 FAB AND...DR&E(AR)759 STANDARDIZATION PROJECTS REPORT - 1ST QTR FY 1994 PREPARING ACTIVITY LISTING PA AAPAA p BPP .A- G/ASA NC AC 21 RC G CSOL- Qý yqFyýFT7RL AL...941 943 943 A SM SA 69 DH N 8115 0562 ASTM D 5168 FAB AND CLOSURE TRIPLE WALL SM AS B 941 943 943 A SM SA 69 DH N 8125 0379 V’L-B-61000 BOTTLES

  2. Variability of chemical analysis of reinforcing bar produced in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, A.; Djavanroodi, F.

    2018-04-01

    In view of the importance and demanding roles of steel rebar’s in the reinforced concrete structures, accurate information on the properties of the steels is important at the design stage. In the steelmaking process, production variations in chemical composition are unavoidable. The aim of this work is to study the variability of the chemical composition of reinforcing steel produced throughout the Saudi Arabia and asses the quality of steel rebar’s acoording to ASTM A615. 68 samples of ASTM A615 Grade 60 from different manufacturers were collected and tested using the Spectrometer test to obtain Chemical Compositions. EasyFit (5.6) software is utilized to conducted statistical analysis. Chemical compositions distributions and, control charts are generated for the compositions. Results showed that some compositions are above the upper line of the control chart. Finally, the analyses show that less than 3% of the steel failed to meet minimum ASTM standards for chemical composition.

  3. Standards in capstone design courses and the engineering curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In 1990, I was the group leader of Research and Development for Surgitek, a urological device manufacturer in Racine, Wisconsin, which was the market leader in ureteral stents. I recognized the need for an industry standard for ureteral stents, felt that taking a leadership role in the development of a new standard would be a good professional development activity, and volunteered to serve as the chair of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, now known as ASTM International) Task Group on Ureteral Stents. After several years, the standard was approved, and I continue to serve as the chair of the ASTM Subcommittee on Urological Materials and Devices. This experience helped me understand the value of industry standards, expanded my professional network and visibility within the medical device industry, and helped develop my leadership skills.

  4. Standard Guide for Testing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the application of ASTM standard test methods (and other supporting standards) to continuous-fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite materials. The most commonly used or most applicable ASTM standards are included, emphasizing use of standards of Committee D30 on Composite Materials. 1.2 This guide does not cover all possible standards that could apply to polymer matrix composites and restricts discussion to the documented scope. Commonly used but non-standard industry extensions of test method scopes, such as application of static test methods to fatigue testing, are not discussed. A more complete summary of general composite testing standards, including non-ASTM test methods, is included in the Composite Materials Handbook (MIL-HDBK-17). Additional specific recommendations for testing textile (fabric, braided) composites are contained in Guide D6856. 1.3 This guide does not specify a system of measurement; the systems specified within each of the referenced standards shall appl...

  5. Estabilización química de suelos expansivos de san josé de cúcuta (colombia usando cenizas volantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto Florez-Gongora

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available It presents the results of the chemical stabilization of a zone of San Jose de Cucuta, where it have been observed some damages in light buildings as a consequence of the expansion-shrinkage of the soil because of the change in moisture. To achieve soil stabilization, it will be used as chemical additive: fly ashes, analyzing possible advantages and drawbacks. The ashes were given by Termotasajero S.A, a company of the city. The Atterberg limits carried out in agreement to the standard ASTM D 4318-95 [1], moisture measurement (ASTM D 2216, shrinkage factors of soil (ASTM D 427-93/4943-95, particle size analysis of soils (ASTM D 422-63, specific gravity ASTM D 854-92 and Proctor standard test (ASTM D-698. From de moisture data, it is possible to observe its descending behaviour. The document shows information of specific surface area according to the procedure of blue of methylene described by Santamarina [2]. It was found that the clays, in this study case, has high plasticity (CH with a cation exchange capacity until 37 meq/100 g and high magnesium (Mg content. According to the norm NSR 98 (Title H [3], the swelling potential of the clays, is from high to very high. The behavior of the plasticity index is diminishing in values that range from thirty to forty per cent, for a percentage of mixing of 30 % in volume of ashes. This behavior confirms to us the formation of hydrates by means of pozzolanic reactions with the clayey soil. It was concluded the necessity to implement analysis of X-rays diffraction (XRD and electronic microscopy to determine mineralogical exact composition and microscopic structure, which would help to confirm or to reject the nature of high expansivity

  6. EFFECT OF PALM EMPTY BUNCH ASH ON TRANSESTERIFICATION OF PALM OIL INTO BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Sibarani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel conversion from transesterification reaction palm oil with methanol was studied by using an ash of palm empty bunch as a base catalyst. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and indicator titration analysis were used as tools for characterization of ash sample. Chemical structure of biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of ash sample weight (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g immersed in 75 mL methanol and the methanol-palm oil mol ratio (3:1; 6:1; 9:1 and 12:1 toward the conversion of biodiesel were investigated. Biodiesel was prepared by refluxing palm oil and methanol containing ash sample. The reflux was done at room temperature for 2 h. Ester layer was distillated at 74 oC, extracted with aquadest and then dried using Na2SO4 anhydrous. The product was characterized by GC-MS, ASTM D 1298 (specific gravity 60/60 °F, ASTM D 97 (pour point, ASTM D 2500 (cloud point, ASTM D 93 (flash point, ASTM D 445 (kinematics viscosity 40 °C and ASTM D 482 (ash content. The result of GC-MS analysis showed that methyl palmitate is primary content of biodiesel product. A 15 g weight of ash sample gave the maximum biodiesel conversion. By increasing methanol mole quantity, biodiesel conversion increased progressively and maximum at 9:1 methanol-palm oil ratio (84.12 % and decreased on 12:1 ratio (75.58 %. Most of the biodiesel products were similar to those of the diesel physical characters.   Keywords: Biodiesel conversion, transesterification, palm oil, palm empty bunch

  7. Practice for dosimetry for a self-contained dry-storage gamma-ray irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This practice outlines dosimetric procedures to be followed with self-contained dry-storage gamma-ray irradiators. If followed, these procedures will help to ensure that calibration and testing will be carried out with acceptable precision and accuracy and that the samples processed with ionizing radiation from gamma rays in a self-contained dry-storage irradiator receive absorbed doses within a predetermined range. This practice covers dosimetry in the use of dry-storage gamma-ray irradiators, namely self-contained dry storage 137 Cs or 60 Co irradiators (shielded free-standing irradiators). It does not cover underwater pool sources, panoramic gamma-ray sources such as those raised mechanically or pneumatically to irradiate isotropically into a room or through a collimator, nor does it cover self-contained bremsstrahlung x-ray units. The absorbed dose range for the use of the dry-storage self-contained gamma-ray irradiators covered by this practice is typically 1 to 10 5 Gy, depending on the application. The absorbed-dose rate range typically is from 10 -2 to 10 3 Gy/min. This practice describes general procedures applicable to all self-contained dry-storage gamma-ray irradiators. For procedures specific to dosimetry in blood irradiation, see ISO/ ASTM Practice 51939. For procedures specific to dosimetry in radiation research on food and agricultural products, see ISO/ASTM Practice 51900. For procedures specific to radiation hardness testing, see ASTM Practice E 1249. For procedures specific to the dosimetry in the irradiation of insects for sterile release programs, see ISO/ASTM Guide 51940. In those cases covered by ISO/ASTM Practices 51939, 51900, 51940, or ASTM E 1249, those standards take precedence. In addition, this practice does not cover absorbed-dose rate calibrations of radiation protection instrumentation

  8. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel surveillance capsule examinations. Application of American Society for Testing and Materials Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    A series of pressure vessel surveillance capsules is installed in each commercial nuclear power plant in the United States. A capsule typically contains neutron dose meters, thermal monitors, tensile specimens, and Charpy V-notch impact specimens. In order to determine property changes of the pressure vessel resulting from irradiation, surveillance capsules are periodically removed during the life of a reactor and examined. There are numerous standards, regulations, and codes governing US pressure vessel surveillance capsule programmes. These are put out by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). A majority of the pertinent ASTM standards are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-10 on Nuclear Applications and Measurements of Radiation Effects. The standards, regulations, and codes pertaining to pressure vessel surveillance play an important role in ensuring reliability of the nuclear pressure vessels. ASTM E 185-73 is the Standard Recommended Practice for Surveillance Tests for Nuclear Reactors. This standard recommends procedures for both the irradiation and subsequent testing of surveillance capsules. ASTM E 185-73 references many additional specialized ASTM standards to be followed in specific areas of a surveillance capsule examination. A key element of surveillance capsule programmes is the Charpy V-notch impact test, used to define curves of fracture behaviour over a range of temperatures. The data from these tests are used to define the adjusted reference temperature used in determining pressure-temperature operating curves for a nuclear power plant. (author)

  9. Dolor neuropático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maritza Velasco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El dolor neuropático se define como un dolor crónico secundario a una lesión o enfermedad que afecta el sistema soma-tosensorial. Cerca del 20% del dolor crónico es neuropático. Lesiones del sistema nervioso periférico o central provocan cambios neuroplásticos que se traducen en síntomas y signos específicos característicos de este tipo de dolor. Estos síntomas deben ser reconocidos para un diagnóstico y un tratamiento analgésico adecuado. Con frecuencia se asocia a trastornos del sueño o alteraciones del ánimo. Suele ser más refractario que el dolor de origen nociceptivo. Existen grupos de medicamentos que suelen ser efectivos, entre los que se cuentan los antidepresivos tricíclicos, antidepresivos duales, neuromoduladores, anticonvulsivantes, lidocaína en parche o sistémica y algunos opioides que deben usarse si el dolor es muy intenso. El manejo se basa en una terapia multimodal y debe tratarse con equipo multidisciplinario, especialmente para los casos de dolor de difícil manejo.

  10. PRODUCCIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE PARTÍCULAS Y FIBRAS CORTAS DE β-SiC OBTENIDAS A PARTIR DE CÁSCARA DE ARROZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valencia

    Full Text Available El aprovechamiento de la cáscara de arroz (CA es mínimo en la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos y solo una pequeña porción se utiliza eficientemente como abono o combustible. Los productos obtenidos por pirólisis de CA son, sin embargo, útiles para la fabricación de productos abrasivos y refractarios a base de carburo de silicio (SiC. Hay aplicaciones de reciente desarrollo y de mayor exigencia que consisten en usar el SiC como refuerzo de aleaciones metálicas para la fabricación de composites metálicos. En esta investigación se han obtenido fibrillas cortas y partículas finas de SiC por pirólisis controlada de CA. La síntesis del SiC se llevó a cabo en un horno de gas diseñado y puesto a punto durante el desarrollo del proyecto. El proceso fue optimizado mediante un diseño experimental que incluyó como variables la temperatura, el tiempo de pirólisis, el tipo de catalizador y la atmósfera de proceso.

  11. Central de eliminación de basuras - Frankfort (Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Steinbüchel-Rheinwall, Rambald

    1972-02-01

    Full Text Available The plant described serves to incinerate the city refuse, and the energy generated is utilised for heating and electricity production, which is consumed by the city of Frankfurt. The article describes the process of total calcination of the refuse. Previously, the storing of this refuse was a severe municipal problem. This plant is made of reinforced concrete, refractory bricks and metal beams for the roof structure.En el artículo se describe la construcción de esta instalación singular, destinada a utilizar la combustión de las basuras de la ciudad para fines calefactores y productores de energía eléctrica al servicio de la propia ciudad. Se explica igualmente el proceso seguido para el aprovechamiento integral de residuos cuyo almacenamiento constituía, antiguamente, un verdadero problema en las grandes urbes. El edificio se ha realizado a base de hormigón armado, ladrillo refractario y vigas metálicas en la cubierta.

  12. Caracterización físico-química y mineralógica de la escoria de fundición de ferroníquel de Moa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaritza Ramírez-Cruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La escoria de fundición de ferroníquel obtenida a escala piloto a partir del mineral saprolítico del yacimiento Moa Occidental, se caracterizó desde el punto de vista físico, químico y mineralógico con el objetivo de evaluar sus posibilidades de utilización industrial. Mediante Espectrometría por Fluorescencia de Rayos X y Difracción de Rayos X se constató que en su composición existen fundamentalmente óxidos de silicio y magnesio, con valores promedios de 46% el primero y 37 % el segundo. El olivino, la forsterita y la clinoenstatita se identificaron como sus fases mineralógicas principales. La densidad es de 3,20 g/cm 3 ; temperatura de fusión de 1 650ºC y viscosidad de 6,5 poises. Estos resultados evidenciaron similitud con escorias de ferroníquel obtenidas en otras partes del mundo, que son usadas como material abrasivo, material de construcción y refractario

  13. EVALUACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN MINERALÓGICA DEL PROCESO DE BIOOXIDACIÓN EN UN REACTOR CONTINUO DE TANQUE AGITADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA ARROYAVE G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La biooxidación del mineral refractario de oro de la mina El Zancudo (TitiribíAntioquia se realizó en un reactor continuo de tanque agitado usando microorganismos nativos acidófilos compatibles con Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans y Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. El reactor se operó inicialmente en discontinuo para alcanzar la máxima concentración de hierro férrico en solución, antes de iniciar el proceso en continuo. La caracterización mineralógica se hizo a muestras recolectadas en discontinuo, estado transitorio y estacionario en continuo, usando Microscopia Electrónica de Barrido (SEM y Difracción de Rayos X (DRX. La caracterización mineralógica mostró una oxidación avanzada de la pirita y arsenopirita en discontinuo y parcial en continuo. Adicionalmente, se encontró la formación de silicatos, jarosita y brushita. Los resultados indican que el sistema alcanzó el estado estacionario después de 8 días de operación en continuo, logrando una concentración de hierro férrico en solución de 8.3 g/l, correspondiente a un porcentaje de extracción de oro y plata de 78 y 80 %, respectivamente.

  14. COOLING EFFICIENCY IN FURNACE DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO GONZÁLEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la fusión, la reducción o el tratamiento térmico de una carga de acero, es indispensable suministrar energía (ya sea química o eléctrica para garantizar la viabilidad del proceso. Bajo estas circunstancias será razonable diseñar el recubrimiento de los hornos de forma que la pérdida de calor a través de las paredes sea mínima. Sin embargo, se puede demostrar que, para algunas situaciones, es más eficiente retirar la mayor cantidad de calor posible de las paredes que intentar aislar térmicamente el sistema. El trabajo presenta recomendaciones para el diseño de paredes y sistemas de refrigeración en hornos, obtenidas mediante el análisis cuantitativo de las temperaturas que se alcanzan en posiciones específicas del horno y usando el modelo de desgaste nodal. El análisis indica que el mecanismo de degradación del refractario puede ser controlado si se conocen todos los elementos que intervienen en el fenómeno.

  15. Cirugía del Control de Daños. Fundamentos y Resultados. Revisión de 4 años en un hospital público de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Laguzzi

    2016-04-01

    Obtuvimos datos de 15 pacientes en los que se indicó cirugía de control de daños: 12 hombres (80%, y 3 mujeres (20%. La media de edad de presentación fue de 30,2 años. Todos presentaban inestabilidad hemodinámica al llegar a emergencia y fueron politransfundidos durante la cirugía. El cierre parietal se logró en 11 pacientes. El promedio de días en laparostomía fue de 12,6 días. La mortalidad global de la serie fue de 46,66%. La principal causa de muerte fue shock refractario y disfunción orgánica múltiple mantenido mientras que en 2 pacientes en los cuales se logró el cierre parietal, la mortalidad se debió a traumatismo encéfalo craneano grave asociado y sepsis mantenida por falla de sutura.

  16. LA CRISIS ECONÓMICA COMO OPORTUNIDAD PARA REPENSAR LAS RELACIONES DE GÉNERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Giménez Merino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las situaciones de crisis son poco propicias para sostener reivindicaciones igualitaristas, tanto por el lado de la desinversión en medidas reparadoras de la desigualdad como por el de la presión de sectores refractarios a la emancipación. Se revelan así algunos déficits sustanciales en la producción reciente de ciencia social y de políticas públicas desde la perspectiva del género, incapaces aún de aportar una cultura antidiscriminatoria consistente. Aquí se plantea una reflexión sobre el género que pueda basar nuevos discursos y nuevas políticas reorientadas hacia la igualdad, subrayándose la importancia de los movimientos sociales y de las alianzas horizontales en su seno. Abstract: Crisis situations are hardly conducive to sustain egalitarian claims, both by the hand of the divestiture of remedial measures of inequality and by the pressure of sectors opposed to emancipation. Well reveal some substantial deficits in the recent production of social science and public policy from the perspective of gender, wich have not provided a consistent anti-discriminatory culture. Here is a reflection on gender which to base new discourses and new policies reoriented towards equality, stressing the importance of social movements and horizontal alliances within it.

  17. HISTORIA DEL ECMO (OXIGENACIÓN POR MEMBRANA EXTRACORPÓREA O SOPORTE VITAL EXTRACORPÓREO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Díaz, Dr.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: EL ECMO u oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea, tiene una larga historia de desarrollo. Partiendo con el estudio del aparato circulatorio, transfusiones sanguíneas y circulación extracorpórea en el quirófano. Hay casos aislados reportados en la segunda mitad de la década de 1960, el primer paciente vivo se publicó en el NEJM en 1972. Existe suficiente evidencia para pensar que tiene un impacto positivo en la falla respiratoria neonatal y en la misma condición en adultos, si estos son transferidos a un centro ECMO. Más estudios están siendo llevados a cabo, para clarificar el impacto del ECMO en la falla respiratoria, cardiaca y en el paro cardiaco refractario. SUMMARY: ECMO (Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation has a long history of development. Starting with circulation, blood management and extracorporeal circulation in the operating room. ECMO, began its development in late 1960s, with some few cases, being the first reported alive patient, published in 1972 in the NETM. There is enough evidence to think it has a positive impact in catastrophic neonatal respiratory failure and in adults in the same condition, transferred to an ECMO center. More trials are ongoing to settle ECMO impact in respiratory, cardiac failure and cardiac arrest outcomes. Palabras clave: ECMO, circulación extracorpórea, falla respiratoria, falla cardiaca, Keywords: ECMO, extracorporeal circulation, respitatory failure, cardiac failure

  18. Régimen de Notificaciones Electrónicas y Ejercicio Profesional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Uriarte Audi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La implantación de sistema de notificaciones electrónicas enfrentó –y superó exitosamentedos grandes dificultades.La primera, somos los abogados, ya que seguramente constituimos uno de los sectores sociales mas conservadores y refractarios a los cambios en la forma de ejercer nuestra profesión.Vayan algunos ejemplos: la resistencia a la aprobación del Código General del Proceso, y los pronósticos apocalípticos que se hicieron respecto a su aplicación.Tampoco estuvo de acuerdo el colectivo de los curiales, con la implantación de la Oficina de Recepción y Distribución de Asuntos (ORDA y su sistema aleatorio y computarizado, ni cuando a la oficina Central de Notificaciones agregó la Sección Alguacilatos. También en ambos casos se hicieron terribles pronósticos que en poco tiempo la realidad se encargó de aventar.La segunda gran dificultad es propia de los uruguayos, es el “si, pero……”, el “está bien, pero…..”.

  19. Hipo, un desafío diagnóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pankl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El hipo es una contracción espasmódica involuntaria del diafragma que desencadena una inspiración súbita y cierre abrupto de la glotis originando un sonido característico. Según su duración se clasifica en ataque de hipo, hipo persistente o hipo intratable o rebelde. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 75 años de edad con hipo rebelde que le impedía conciliar el sueño, diurno y nocturno, asociado a eructos, de tres años de evolución, refractario al tratamiento con clorpromazina. Luego de una extensa evaluación se llegó al diagnóstico de tumor en seno etmoidal derecho. Se efectuó la resección del tumor y posterior radioterapia local con desaparición del hipo. Consideramos ésta una causa rara de hipo rebelde que generó un desafío diagnóstico y terapéutico.

  20. Estudio de las fallas de soldadura en el proceso de fabricación de cilindros de aluminio para g l p

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Villamar, Artemio; Wiesner Falconi, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    El desarrollo del presente trabajo de tesis: Estudio de las fallas de soldadura en el proceso de fabricación de cilindros de aluminio para gas licuado de petróleo, sirve para optimizar la operación de las diferentes etapas del proceso de soldadura, para el efecto se aplicaron técnicas ingenieriles, normas establecidas por el INSTITUTO ECUATORIANO DE NORMALIZACIÓN, como: INEN No. 117 e INEN No. 291 y normas internacionales como ASTM – B209 y ASTM – B211. Se realizaron análisis de fallas en...