WorldWideScience

Sample records for reforestation performance criteria

  1. Integrating climate change criteria in reforestation projects using a hybrid decision-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Gonzalez-Utrillas, Nuria; Canto-Perello, Julian; Martin-Utrillas, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    The selection of appropriate species in a reforestation project has always been a complex decision-making problem in which, due mostly to government policies and other stakeholders, not only economic criteria but also other environmental issues interact. Climate change has not usually been taken into account in traditional reforestation decision-making strategies and management procedures. Moreover, there is a lack of agreement on the percentage of each one of the species in reforestation planning, which is usually calculated in a discretionary way. In this context, an effective multicriteria technique has been developed in order to improve the process of selecting species for reforestation in the Mediterranean region of Spain. A hybrid Delphi-AHP methodology is proposed, which includes a consistency analysis in order to reduce random choices. As a result, this technique provides an optimal percentage distribution of the appropriate species to be used in reforestation planning. The highest values of the weight given for each subcriteria corresponded to FR (fire forest response) and PR (pests and diseases risk), because of the increasing importance of the impact of climate change in the forest. However, CB (conservation of biodiversitiy) was in the third position in line with the aim of reforestation. Therefore, the most suitable species were Quercus faginea (19.75%) and Quercus ilex (19.35%), which offer a good balance between all the factors affecting the success and viability of reforestation.

  2. Criteria for performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Weiss

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a cognitive task (mental calculation and a perceptual-motor task (stylized golf putting, we examined differential proficiency using the CWS index and several other quantitative measures of performance. The CWS index (Weiss and Shanteau, 2003 is a coherence criterion that looks only at internal properties of the data without incorporating an external standard. In Experiment 1, college students (n = 20 carried out 2- and 3-digit addition and multiplication problems under time pressure. In Experiment 2, experienced golfers (n = 12, also college students, putted toward a target from nine different locations. Within each experiment, we analyzed the same responses using different methods. For the arithmetic tasks, accuracy information (mean absolute deviation from the correct answer, MAD using a coherence criterion was available; for golf, accuracy information using a correspondence criterion (mean deviation from the target, also MAD was available. We ranked the performances of the participants according to each measure, then compared the orders using Spearman's rextsubscript{s}. For mental calculation, the CWS order correlated moderately (rextsubscript{s} =.46 with that of MAD. However, a different coherence criterion, degree of model fit, did not correlate with either CWS or accuracy. For putting, the ranking generated by CWS correlated .68 with that generated by MAD. Consensual answers were also available for both experiments, and the rankings they generated correlated highly with those of MAD. The coherence vs. correspondence distinction did not map well onto criteria for performance evaluation.

  3. Education Criteria for Performance Excellence, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

    The education criteria presented in this guide are designed to help organizations use an integrated approach to organizational performance management that results in delivery of ever-improving value to students and stakeholders. Implementation of the criteria will contribute to improvement of education quality, improvement of overall…

  4. Performance objectives and criteria for plant evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Maintenance organization and administration should ensure effective implementation and control of maintenance activities. The criteria are: A. The organizational structure is clearly defined. B. Staffing and resources are sufficient to accomplish assigned tasks. C. Responsibilities and authority of each management, supervisory, and professional position are clearly defined. D. Personnel clearly understand their authority, responsibilities, accountabilities, and interfaces with supporting groups. E. Administrative controls are employed for maintenance activities important to plant safety and reliability. F. Performance appraisals are effectively utilized to enhance individual performance

  5. Cleanliness criteria to improve steam generator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, T.; Bouecke, R.; Odar, S.

    2005-01-01

    High steam generator performance is a prerequisite for high plant availability and possible life time extension. The major opponent to that is corrosion and fouling of the heating tubes. Such steam generator degradation problems arise from the continuous ingress of non-volatile contaminants, i.e. corrosion products and salt impurities may accumulate in the steam generators. These impurities have their origin in the secondary side systems. The corrosion products generally accumulate in the steam generators and form deposits not only in the flow restricted areas, such as on top of tube sheet and tube support structure, but also build scales on the steam generator heating tubes. In addition, the tube scales in general affect the steam generator thermal performance, which ultimately causes a reduction of power output. The most effective ways of counteracting all these degradation problems, and thus of improving the steam generator performance is to keep them in clean conditions or, if judged necessary, to plan cleaning measures such as mechanical tube sheet lancing or chemical cleaning. This paper presents a methodology how to assess the cleanliness condition of a steam generator by bringing together all available operational and inspection data such as thermal performance and water chemistry data. By means of this all-inclusive approach the cleanliness condition is quantified in terms of a fouling index. The fouling index allows to monitor the condition of a specific steam generator, compare it to other plants and, finally, to serve as criterion for cleaning measures such as chemical cleaning. The application of the cleanliness criteria and the achieved field results with respect to improvements of steam generator performance will be presented. (author)

  6. Models and criteria for waste repository performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    A primary objective of the Waste Management Program is to assure that public health is protected. Predictive modeling, to some extent, will play a role in assuring that this objective is met. This paper considers the requirements and limitations of predictive modeling in providing useful inputs to waste management decision making. Criteria development needs and the relation between criteria and models are also discussed

  7. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary

  8. Models and criteria for LLW disposal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    A primary objective of the Low Level Waste (LLW) Management Program is to assure that public health is protected. Predictive modeling, to some extent, will play a role in meeting this objective. This paper considers the requirements and limitations of predictive modeling in providing useful inputs to waste mangement decision making. In addition, criteria development needs and the relation between criteria and models are discussed

  9. Models and criteria for LLW disposal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A primary objective of the Low Level Waste (LLW) Management Program is to assure that public health is protected. Predictive modeling, to some extent, will play a role in meeting this objective. This paper considers the requirements and limitations of predictive modeling in providing useful inputs to waste management decision making. In addition, criteria development needs and the relation between criteria and models are discussed

  10. Education Criteria for Performance Excellence, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society for Quality, Milwaukee, WI.

    The criteria described in this document are the basis for organizational self-assessments, for making awards, and for giving feedback to applicants. They are built upon the following values and concepts: visionary leadership; learning-centered education; organizational and personal learning; valuing faculty, staff, and partners; agility; focus on…

  11. Identifying the connective strength between model parameters and performance criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guse

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In hydrological models, parameters are used to represent the time-invariant characteristics of catchments and to capture different aspects of hydrological response. Hence, model parameters need to be identified based on their role in controlling the hydrological behaviour. For the identification of meaningful parameter values, multiple and complementary performance criteria are used that compare modelled and measured discharge time series. The reliability of the identification of hydrologically meaningful model parameter values depends on how distinctly a model parameter can be assigned to one of the performance criteria. To investigate this, we introduce the new concept of connective strength between model parameters and performance criteria. The connective strength assesses the intensity in the interrelationship between model parameters and performance criteria in a bijective way. In our analysis of connective strength, model simulations are carried out based on a latin hypercube sampling. Ten performance criteria including Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE, Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE and its three components (alpha, beta and r as well as RSR (the ratio of the root mean square error to the standard deviation for different segments of the flow duration curve (FDC are calculated. With a joint analysis of two regression tree (RT approaches, we derive how a model parameter is connected to different performance criteria. At first, RTs are constructed using each performance criterion as the target variable to detect the most relevant model parameters for each performance criterion. Secondly, RTs are constructed using each parameter as the target variable to detect which performance criteria are impacted by changes in the values of one distinct model parameter. Based on this, appropriate performance criteria are identified for each model parameter. In this study, a high bijective connective strength between model parameters and performance criteria

  12. 32 CFR 101.6 - Criteria for satisfactory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for satisfactory performance. 101.6..., MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PARTICIPATION IN RESERVE TRAINING PROGRAMS § 101.6 Criteria for satisfactory...) Shall require members to: (1) Meet the standards of satisfactory performance of training duty set forth...

  13. 78 FR 7820 - Notice of Intelligent Mail Indicia Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marlo Kay Ivey, Business Programs Specialist, Payment Technology, U.S. Postal... Performance Criteria and Security Architecture for Open Information Based Indicia (IBI) Postage Evidencing Systems and the Performance Criteria and Security Architecture for Closed Information Based Indicia (IBI...

  14. State-wide performance criteria for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budlong-Sylvester, K.W.; Pilat, Joseph F.; Stanbro, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has relied upon prescriptive criteria to guide safeguards implementation. The prospect of replacing prescriptive safeguards criteria with more flexible performance criteria would constitute a structural change in safeguards and raises several important questions. Performance criteria imply that while safeguards goals will be fixed, the means of attaining those goals will not be explicitly prescribed. What would the performance objectives be under such a system? How would they be formulated? How would performance be linked to higher level safeguards objectives? How would safeguards performance be measured State-wide? The implementation of safeguards under performance criteria would also signal a dramatic change in the manner the Agency does business. A higher degree of flexibility could, in principle, produce greater effectiveness and efficiency, but would come with a need for increased Agency responsibility in practice. To the extent that reliance on prescriptive criteria decreases, the burden of justifying actions and ensuring their transparency will rise. Would there need to be limits to safeguards implementation? What would be the basis for setting such limits? This paper addresses these and other issues and questions relating to both the formulation and the implementation of performance-based criteria.

  15. Performance Criteria of Nuclear Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, L. R.

    Future exploration of the solar system on a major scale will require propulsion systems capable of performance far greater than is achievable with the present generation of rocket engines using chemical propellants. Viable missions going deeper into interstellar space will be even more demanding. Propulsion systems based on nuclear energy sources, fission or (eventually) fusion offer the best prospect for meeting the requirements. The most obvious gain coming from the application of nuclear reactions is the possibility, at least in principle, of obtaining specific impulses a thousandfold greater than can be achieved in chemically energised rockets. However, practical considerations preclude the possibility of exploiting the full potential of nuclear energy sources in any engines conceivable in terms of presently known technology. Achievable propulsive power is a particularly limiting factor, since this determines the acceleration that may be obtained. Conventional chemical rocket engines have specific propulsive powers (power per unit engine mass) in the order of gigawatts per tonne. One cannot envisage the possibility of approaching such a level of performance by orders of magnitude in presently conceivable nuclear propulsive systems. The time taken, under power, to reach a given terminal velocity is proportional to the square of the engine's exhaust velocity and the inverse of its specific power. An assessment of various nuclear propulsion concepts suggests that, even with the most optimistic assumptions, it could take many hundreds of years to attain the velocities necessary to reach the nearest stars. Exploration within a range of the order of a thousand AU, however, would appear to offer viable prospects, even with the low levels of specific power of presently conceivable nuclear engines.

  16. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  17. The role of reforestation in carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, L. E.; Walters, B. F.; Hofmeister, K.; Perry, C. H.; Mishra, U.; Domke, G. M.; Swanston, C.

    2017-12-01

    In the United States (U.S.), the maintenance of forest cover is a legal mandate for federally managed forest lands. Reforestation is one option for maintaining forest cover on managed or disturbed lands, and as a land use change can increase forest cover on previously non-forested lands, enhancing carbon (C)-based ecosystem services and functions such as the production of woody biomass for forest products and the mitigation of atmospheric CO2 pollution and climate change. Nonetheless, multiple assessments indicate that reforestation in the U.S. lags behind its potential, with continued ecosystem services and functions at risk if reforestation is not increased. In this context, there is need for multiple independent analyses that quantify the role of reforestation in C sequestration. Here, we report the findings of a large-scale data synthesis aimed at four objectives: 1) estimate C storage in major pools in forest and other land cover types; 2) quantify sources of variation in C pools; 3) compare the impacts of reforestation and afforestation on C pools; 4) assess whether results hold or diverge across ecoregions. Our data-driven analysis provides four key inferences regarding reforestation and other land use impacts on C sequestration. First, soils are the dominant C pool under all land cover types in the U.S., and spatial variation in soil C pool sizes has less to do with land cover than with other factors. Second, where historically cultivated lands are being reforested, topsoils are sequestering significant amounts of C, with the majority of reforested lands yet to reach sequestration capacity (relative to forested baseline). Third, the establishment of woody vegetation delivers immediate to multi-decadal C sequestration benefits in biomass and coarse woody debris pools, with two- to three-fold C sequestration benefits during the first several decades following planting. Fourth, opportunities to enhance C sequestration through reforestation vary among

  18. Operator performance evaluation using multi criteria decision making methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Ruzanita Mat; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Razali, Siti Fatihah

    2014-06-01

    Operator performance evaluation is a very important operation in labor-intensive manufacturing industry because the company's productivity depends on the performance of its operators. The aims of operator performance evaluation are to give feedback to operators on their performance, to increase company's productivity and to identify strengths and weaknesses of each operator. In this paper, six multi criteria decision making methods; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy AHP (FAHP), ELECTRE, PROMETHEE II, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are used to evaluate the operators' performance and to rank the operators. The performance evaluation is based on six main criteria; competency, experience and skill, teamwork and time punctuality, personal characteristics, capability and outcome. The study was conducted at one of the SME food manufacturing companies in Selangor. From the study, it is found that AHP and FAHP yielded the "outcome" criteria as the most important criteria. The results of operator performance evaluation showed that the same operator is ranked the first using all six methods.

  19. A framework of performance criteria defining sustainable construction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturges, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    As our global culture encounters accelerating rates of resource depletion, environmental degradation, and societal inequality, it increasingly needs tools to rate building systems by environmental and socioeconomic criteria. By investigating light frame structural systems based on principles of ecological design, it is possible to not only identify the structures' potential impacts on the health of their site and larger community, but also to establish a framework of performance criteria for comparatively evaluating a variety of construction technologies. This paper summarizes the development and application of such a framework, based upon the ecosystems and culture of the Pacific Northwest's Cascadia Bioregion. The framework has been comparatively applied to solid-sawn lumber, trusses, and composite wood I-joists. These three framing technologies together represent traditional, contemporary, and progressive structural systems. Their individual and collective performance, based upon the application of the hypothesized criteria, offer insights into what might be a more ideal framing system of the sustainable future

  20. Seismic design and evaluation criteria based on target performance goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy utilizes deterministic seismic design/evaluation criteria developed to achieve probabilistic performance goals. These seismic design and evaluation criteria are intended to apply equally to the design of new facilities and to the evaluation of existing facilities. In addition, the criteria are intended to cover design and evaluation of buildings, equipment, piping, and other structures. Four separate sets of seismic design/evaluation criteria have been presented each with a different performance goal. In all these criteria, earthquake loading is selected from seismic hazard curves on a probabilistic basis but seismic response evaluation methods and acceptable behavior limits are deterministic approaches with which design engineers are familiar. For analytical evaluations, conservatism has been introduced through the use of conservative inelastic demand-capacity ratios combined with ductile detailing requirements, through the use of minimum specified material strengths and conservative code capacity equations, and through the use of a seismic scale factor. For evaluation by testing or by experience data, conservatism has been introduced through the use of an increase scale factor which is applied to the prescribed design/evaluation input motion

  1. Catalysis for biorefineries-performance criteria for industrial operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Past analyses of industrial processes for fuel and chemical manufacturing led to a few performance criteria that are critical for viable industrial operation. The present paper reviews these factors and provides a target window for each of them. It then illustrates their relevance for biorefineries

  2. EVALUATION OF SERVICE SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE CRITERIA WITH DANP METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZVERİ, Onur; GÜÇLÜ, Pembe; AYCİN, Ejder

    2018-01-01

    Despite the service industry composes large part of the world economy, the academic studies and applications on supply chain are mainly about production industry. Because of the different structure of services, the service supply chain and also performance criteria-metrics differ from the product supply chain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the supply chain performance metrics for restaurant sector. For this purpose in the first and second part of the paper the service supply chain conc...

  3. Quality improvement using the Baldrige Criteria for Organizational Performance Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Douglas J

    2009-06-01

    The criteria needed to achieve the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) are described. The MBNQA was created in 1987 to recognize quality and performance and to encourage excellence in American companies. In 2003, Saint Luke's Hospital, the largest hospital in the Saint Luke's Health System, received the MBNQA. In the years since, the hospital has continued to use the Baldrige approach and has pursued the award on the health-system level. The Baldrige Criteria for Organizational Performance Excellence provide a framework that focuses on obtaining the highest levels of organizational excellence. These criteria consist of seven categories-leadership; strategic planning; focus on patients, customers, and markets; measurement, analysis, and knowledge management; work-force focus; process management; and results. At Saint Luke's Hospital, a category leader was designated for each of the seven categories in order to fully apply the criteria to the organization. Pharmacy leaders worked closely with each category leader to ensure that the appropriate format was being followed and to contribute positively to the written application and the site visit conducted by MBNQA examiners. The MBNQA involves its own vernacular and pattern. Effort should be made to fully understand and embrace the path that the organization's leaders have chosen. Departmental activities should be placed in front of an individual's leadership so that he or she can play an active part in demonstrating quality-improvement success stories. The criteria for the MBNQA are structured around seven categories that form a framework by which any organization or department can structure its own pursuit of quality and excellence. Pharmacy leaders can play an important role in the successful pursuit of quality within their organization.

  4. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice

    2014-01-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  5. Chapter 1: The Appalachian regional reforestation initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Angel; Vic Davis; Jim Burger; Don Graves; Carl. Zipper

    2017-01-01

    The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) is a cooperative effort by the States of the Appalachian region with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) to encourage restoration of high-quality forests on reclaimed coal mines in the eastern United States. The goals of ARRI are to communicate...

  6. 54 ASSESSMENT OF AFFORESTATION AND REFORESTATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    ASSESSMENT OF AFFORESTATION AND REFORESTATION EFFORTS BY. FORESTRY ... Ministry of Environment with the use of data collected from both primary and secondary sources. Seventy copies ... maintenance of environmental stability which to large .... substantial forest plantations and/ or natural forest estates ...

  7. Does Residency Selection Criteria Predict Performance in Orthopaedic Surgery Residency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Tina; Alrabaa, Rami George; Sood, Amit; Maloof, Paul; Benevenia, Joseph; Berberian, Wayne

    2016-04-01

    More than 1000 candidates applied for orthopaedic residency positions in 2014, and the competition is intense; approximately one-third of the candidates failed to secure a position in the match. However, the criteria used in the selection process often are subjective and studies have differed in terms of which criteria predict either objective measures or subjective ratings of resident performance by faculty. Do preresidency selection factors serve as predictors of success in residency? Specifically, we asked which preresidency selection factors are associated or correlated with (1) objective measures of resident knowledge and performance; and (2) subjective ratings by faculty. Charts of 60 orthopaedic residents from our institution were reviewed. Preresidency selection criteria examined included United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 scores, Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores, number of clinical clerkship honors, number of letters of recommendation, number of away rotations, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) honor medical society membership, fourth-year subinternship at our institution, and number of publications. Resident performance was assessed using objective measures including American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) Part I scores and Orthopaedics In-Training Exam (OITE) scores and subjective ratings by faculty including global evaluation scores and faculty rankings of residents. We tested associations between preresidency criteria and the subsequent objective and subjective metrics using linear correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney tests when appropriate. Objective measures of resident performance namely, ABOS Part I scores, had a moderate linear correlation with the USMLE Step 2 scores (r = 0.55, p communication skills" subsection of the global evaluations. We found that USMLE Step 2, number of honors in medical school clerkships, and AOA membership demonstrated the strongest correlations with resident performance. Our

  8. Role of planting stock size and fertilizing in initial growth performance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L. reforestation in a mountain frost hollow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuneš

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study: (1 to compare the survival rate, growth performance and nutrition of large and common-sized planting stock of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L. on a frost-exposed site and (2 to assess whether fertilizing had any effect on the plantations.Area of study: The Jizera Mts., an area heavily disturbed by air pollution situated on the Czech-Polish border close to GermanyMaterials and methods: Two types of planting stock were tested in a mountain frost hollow on an acidic mountain humic podsol: (a the bare-rooted saplings 131–140 cm tall and (b common-sized containerized transplants 26–35 cm. One half of the saplings and common-sized transplants were left untreated and the other half were fertilized with a low dose (30 g per tree of a slow release fertilizer based on methylene urea and potassium magnesium phosphate. Growth performance and nutrition of plantations were investigated.Main results: Due to serious deformations and stem breakages inflicted by snow and frost, the prospects of common-sized transplants seem much worse than those of saplings. The height growth of saplings was significantly more rapid than that of common-sized transplants. As for growth, neither the saplings nor common-sized transplants did significantly respond to fertilizing. The effects of fertilizing on nutrition of rowans were unconvincing. The extreme temperature events during growth seasons and snow deformations in winters might be the decisive factors influencing growth performance of rowans under referred conditions.Research highlights: On the frost-exposed sites, the height of taller saplings might partly compensate for a missing shelter of forest stand since the terminal leaders are above ground-frost zone.Key words: mountain ash; sapling; common-sized transplants; nutritional status; temperature.Abbreviations: CS – Control Saplings; CT – Control Transplants; FS – Fertilized Saplings; FT – Fertilized Transplants

  9. The strategic selecting criteria and performance by using the multiple criteria method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Y. Chen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available As the increasing competitive intensity in the current service market, organizational capabilities have been recognized as the importance of sustaining competitive advantage. The profitable growth for the firms has been fueled a need to systematically assess and renew the organization. The purpose of this study is to analyze the financial performance of the firms to create an effective evaluating structure for the Taiwan's service industry. This study utilized TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method to evaluate the operating performance of 12 companies. TOPSIS is a multiple criteria decision making method to identify solutions from a finite set of alternatives based upon simultaneous minimization of distance from an ideal point and maximization of distance from a nadir point. By using this approach, this study measures the financial performance of firms through two aspects and ten indicators. The result indicated e-life had outstanding performance among the 12 retailers. The findings of this study provided managers to better understand their market position, competition, and profitability for future strategic planning and operational management.

  10. Reforestation feasibility in area formerly used for cattle rasing in the state of Rondônia, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Michelliny de Matos Bentes; Rocha, Rodrigo Barros; Salman, Ana Karina Dias; Mendes, Ângelo Mansur; Figueiró, Marivaldo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Little knowledge on initial behavior of native tree species in recovering landscapes in the Amazon is a current concern for expanding reforestation in the region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of native tree species that could be used for reforestation in area previously covered by a pasture of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha) destined for intensive cattle rasing in the State of Rondônia. For this, there were performed previous diagnostic of landscape ch...

  11. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for radiobioassay. Part 1: General principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    International Standard ISO 12790-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, Subcommittee SC 2, Radiation protection. ISO 12790 consists of the following parts, under the general title Radiation protection - Performance criteria for radiobioassay: Part 1: General principles; and Part 2: Rationale and specific applications This part of ISO 12790 provides criteria for quality assurance and control, evaluation of performance and the accreditation of radiobioassay service laboratories. Criteria and guidance for direct radiobioassay ( in vivo) and indirect radiobioassay ( in vitro) are given in separate clauses of this part of ISO 12790. This part of ISO 12790 addresses: a) the accuracy of direct ( in vivo) measurements of activity and quantities of selected important radionuclides in test phantoms and indirect ( in vitro) measurements of activity and quantities of selected important radionuclides in test samples; b) methods for determining the minimum detectable amount; c) minimum testing levels and testing ranges; d) requirements for reporting radiobioassay results by service laboratories; e) quality assurance in service laboratories; f) quality control in service laboratories; g) protocol for reporting test evaluations by service laboratories to the testing laboratory; h) default procedures when the service laboratory customer does not specify the performance criteria. The scope of this part of ISO 12790 does not include: a) detailed radiochemical methods for separating radionuclides from biological samples; b) detailed procedures for in vivo and in vitro radioactivity measurements; c) metabolic data and mathematical models for converting radiobioassay results into absorbed dose and dose equivalent; d) procedures for the preparation and distribution of test samples and phantoms by the testing laboratories. Analytical methods for radiobioassay are not currently standardized, but are available in the literature. Guidance for converting

  12. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  13. Performance Criteria for Capture and/or Immobilization Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, S. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Strata-G, LLC, Knoxville, TN (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spencer, B. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riley, B. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The capture and subsequent immobilization of the four volatile radionuclides (3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I) from the off-gas streams of a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility has been a topic of substantial research interest for the US DOE and international colleagues. Regulations set forth by the US EPA direct that some or all of these radionuclides (based upon fuel burnup, fuel type, cooling time, etc.) will require removal, to some extent, from the plant effluent streams prior to discharge to the environment. Upon removal, the radionuclide, as well as any associated sorbent, is destined for waste. Research of separation and capture methodologies has included a wide range of technologies including liquid caustic scrubbing systems, solid adsorbents, and cryogenic distillation. The studies of waste forms have been correspondingly diverse. In considering the technologies available for future development and implementation of both sorbents and waste forms, it will be necessary to use benchmarked measures of performance to objectively evaluate each sorbent system or waste form. This document is intended to provide initial guidance on the types of performance criteria for capture materials and waste forms intended for use in the recycling removal and disposal of UNF and, where possible, the minimum acceptable values for those criteria.

  14. Enhancing the role of MC and A through performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emeigh, C.W.; Smith, B.W.; Ehinger, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear material safeguards combines physical protection and material control and accounting (MCandA). Integration of these measures to optimize protection requires defining the role of each in the context of the potential threats. The NRC amended 10 CFR Parts 70 and 74 to reform the MCandA regulations. The Reform Amendments specify insider threats to protect against and the general goals for detection, response and assurance. The Reform Amendments use the graded safeguards concept and are performance oriented. They allow a facility flexibility in determining how to meet the goals. An element of the Reform Amendments is the use of process monitoring data to account for nuclear materials in-process. This paper reviews the evolution of the Reform Amendments and identifies some of the decisions to implement performance criteria

  15. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  16. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules

  17. Establishment and growth of container seedlings for reforestation: A function of stocktype and edaphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah R. Pinto; John D. Marshall; R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis; Douglas R. Cobos

    2011-01-01

    A properly selected stocktype can greatly enhance reforestation success through increased survival and growth following outplanting. Implementing a robust stocktype trial using stocktypes of equal quality can ensure results lead to the best choice. Six container types, differing primarily in depth and volume, were used to evaluate the performance of ponderosa pine (...

  18. MHA admission criteria and program performance: do they predict career performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J; Galfano, V J

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent admission criteria predict graduate school and career performance. The study also analyzed which objective and subjective criteria served as the best predictors. MHA graduates of the University of Minnesota from 1974 to 1977 were surveyed to assess career performance. Student files served as the data base on admission criteria and program performance. Career performance was measured by four variables: total compensation, satisfaction, fiscal responsibility, and level of authority. High levels of MHA program performance were associated with women who had high undergraduate GPAs from highly selective undergraduate colleges, were undergraduate business majors, and participated in extracurricular activities. High levels of compensation were associated with relatively low undergraduate GPAs, high levels of participation in undergraduate extracurricular activities, and being single at admission to graduate school. Admission to MHA programs should be based upon both objective and subjective criteria. Emphasis should be placed upon the selection process for MHA students since admission criteria are shown to explain 30 percent of the variability in graduate program performance, and as much as 65 percent of the variance in level of position authority.

  19. Performance Criteria of Spatial Development Projects Based on Interregional Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The search of efficient ways for the development of regional socio-economic space is a relevant problem. The authors consider the models of spatial organization according to the Spatial Development Strategy of the Russian Federation until 2030. We conduct the comparative analysis of scenarios for the polarized and diversified spatial growth. Many investigations consider the concepts of polarized and endogenous growth. This study proposes a methodology to assess the development of macroregions and to increase the viability of interregional integration projects. To develop this methodology, we formulate scientific principles and indirect criteria of the project performance conforming to the theory of regional integration. In addition to the territorial community and complementarity of the development potentials, regional integration in the country should be based on the principles of security, networking, limited quantity and awareness of the potential project participants. Integration should ensure synergetic effects and take into account cultural and historical closeness, that manifests in the common mentality and existing economic relations among regions. The calculation results regarding the indirect criteria are obtained using the methods of classification and spatial correlation. This study confirms the hypothesis, that the formation of the Western Siberian and Ural macro-regions is appropriate. We have concluded this on the basis of the criteria of economic development, economic integration, the similarity of regional spaces as habitats, and a number of participants for the subjects of the Ural Federal District. The projection of the patterns of international economic integration to the interregional level allows predicting the highest probability for the successful cooperation among the Western Siberian regions with a high level of economic development. The authors’ method has revealed a high synchronization between the economies of

  20. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The NWTS-33 series, of which this document is a part, provides guidance for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program in the development and implementation of licensed mined geologic disposal systems for solidified high-level and TRU wastes. Program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria are found in this document. At the present time final criteria have not been issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The criteria in these documents have been developed on the basis of DOE's judgment of what is required to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. It is expected that these criteria will be consistent with regulatory standards. The criteria will be re-evaluated on a periodic basis to ensure that they remain consistent with national waste management policy and regulatory requirements. A re-evaluation will be made when final criteria are promulgated by the NRC and EPA. A background section that briefly describes the mined geologic disposal system and explains the hierarchy and application of the NWTS criteria is included in Section 2.0. Secton 3.0 presents the program objectives, Section 4.0 functional requirements, Secton 5.0 the system performance criteria, and Section 6.0 quality assurance and standards. A draft of this document was issued for public comment in April 1981. Appendix A contains the DOE responses to the comments received. Appendix B is a glossary

  1. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills. Advances in Health Science Education, 15(4), 517-532.

  2. Labs21 environmental performance criteria Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2002-10-01

    Laboratory facilities present a unique challenge for energy efficient and sustainable design, with their inherent complexity of systems, health and safety requirements, long-term flexibility and adaptability needs, energy use intensity, and environmental impacts. The typical laboratory is about five times as energy intensive as a typical office building and costs about three times as much per unit area. The Labs21 Environmental Performance Criteria (EPC) is a rating system for use by laboratory building project stakeholders to assess the environmental performance of laboratory facilities. Currently, the U.S. Green Building Council's LEED{trademark} Rating System is the primary tool used. However, LEED{trademark} was designed for U.S. commercial office buildings and as such, lacks some attributes essential to the sustainable design of this unique and complex building type. To facilitate widespread use and to avoid ''re-inventing the wheel'' this effort builds on the existing LEED{trademark} Rating System 2.0.

  3. Criteria of ‘authenticity’ in traditional Georgian musical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabisonia Tamaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today we often use term ‘authentic’ in relation to different appearances of Georgian folk music. Along with the unambiguous meaning ‘real’ this term also has other meanings: ‘ethnic’, ‘rural’, ‘old’, ‘function of usual environment’, ‘traditional-stylistic’, ‘authoritative’, or ‘reproductive’. In spite of some interconnections that arise from the term ‘authentic’ and its other meanings, the most relevant way to apply this popular term for performers and audiences of ‘real folklore’ is traditionality. This factor is manifested in the following contexts: a performer (receiver and distributor of tradition, unobtrusively and orally, b motivation/function (representative and spontaneous function, hereditary, utilitarian and aesthetic-daily motivation, c repertoire (compliance of musical and verbal text’s sample with its social function, eluding canonized versions, d expression (adequate articulation, performing regulation which is not determined by the stage, traditional instrument etc.. The problem of authenticity is more successfully regulated in traditional Georgian church music than in folk music. For the latter, in this regard the special difficulty is caused by identification of modern trends that contain folk motifs. The most popular among them is distinctive, with its stylistic reminiscent layer from the Eastern Georgian Mountains, which we refer as ‘para-folkore’. Notwithstanding the fact that Georgian folklore is not centrally authorized, modernization of folklore samples and also those manifestations of post-folklore that are further away from the traditional motifs attract a wide range of listeners. Essentially, the meaning of ‘authentic’ in the Georgian ethno-musical context is presented as performance of the traditional rural repertoire with traditional articulation. However, we think that it is convenient for the criteria of traditional, usual environment to be added to this

  4. 78 FR 38735 - Autopsy Performance Criteria: Standards, Guidelines and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1626] Autopsy Performance Criteria: Standards, Guidelines and Best Practices AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, DOJ. ACTION... entitled, ``Autopsy Performance Criteria: Standards, Guidelines and Best Practices''. The opportunity to...

  5. Performance objectives and criteria for conducting DOE environmental audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the Performance Objectives and Criteria (POC) that have been developed for environmental audits and assessments conducted by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. The Environmental POC can serve multiple purposes. Primarily, they are to serve as guidelines for the technical specialists conducted the audits and assessments, and for the team management. The POC can also serve as supporting documents for training of technical discipline specialists and Team Leaders and as bases for DOE programs and field offices and contractors conducting audit or assessment activities or improving environmental protection programs. It must be recognized that not all of the POC will necessarily apply to all DOE facilities. The users of this document must rely upon their knowledge of the facility and their professional judgment, or the judgment of qualified environmental professionals to determine the applicability of each POC. The POC cover eleven technical disciplines: air; surface water and drinking water quality; groundwater; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; radiation; quality assurance; inactive waste sites and releases; ecological and cultural resources; the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); and environmental management systems.

  6. Performance objectives and criteria for conducting DOE environmental audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the Performance Objectives and Criteria (POC) that have been developed for environmental audits and assessments conducted by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. The Environmental POC can serve multiple purposes. Primarily, they are to serve as guidelines for the technical specialists conducted the audits and assessments, and for the team management. The POC can also serve as supporting documents for training of technical discipline specialists and Team Leaders and as bases for DOE programs and field offices and contractors conducting audit or assessment activities or improving environmental protection programs. It must be recognized that not all of the POC will necessarily apply to all DOE facilities. The users of this document must rely upon their knowledge of the facility and their professional judgment, or the judgment of qualified environmental professionals to determine the applicability of each POC. The POC cover eleven technical disciplines: air; surface water and drinking water quality; groundwater; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; radiation; quality assurance; inactive waste sites and releases; ecological and cultural resources; the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); and environmental management systems

  7. The impact of multi-criteria performance measurement on business performance improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Kasie, Fentahun Moges; Belay, Alemu Moges

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between multi-criteria performance measurement (MCPM) practice and business performance improvement using the raw data collected from 33 selected manufacturing companies. In addition, it proposes modified MCPM model as an effective approach to improve business performance of manufacturing companies. Design/methodology/approach:Research paper. Primary and secondary data were collected using questionnaire survey, interview an...

  8. Basic considerations for the preparation of performance testing materials as related to performance evaluation acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, D.E.; Morton, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of performance testing (PT) materials for environmental and radiobioassay applications involves the use of natural matrix materials containing the analyte of interest, the addition (spiking) of the analyte to a desired matrix (followed by blending for certain matrices) or a combination of the two. The distribution of the sample analyte concentration in a batch of PT samples will reflect the degree of heterogeneity of the analyte in the PT material and/or the reproducibility of the sample preparation process. Commercial and government implemented radioanalytical performance evaluation programs have a variety of acceptable performance criteria. The performance criteria should take into consideration many parameters related to the preparation of the PT materials including the within and between sample analyte heterogeneity, the accuracy of the quantification of an analyte in the PT material and to what 'known' value will a laboratory's result be compared. How sample preparation parameters affect the successful participation in performance evaluation (PE) programs having an acceptance criteria established as a percent difference from a 'known' value or in PE programs using other acceptance criteria, such as the guidance provided in ANSI N42.22 and N13.30 is discussed. (author)

  9. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  10. Restoration of Benthic Macro-endofauna after Reforestation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oligochaetes dominated the natural and 10-year reforested sites, but in higher densities at the former. Polychaetes and nemertines dominated the 5-year reforested and degraded sites. PCA, MDS and ANOSIM indicated clear differences in physical characteristics of the sediment and macrofaunal composition between the ...

  11. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households. PMID:27598524

  12. Dynamic Performance Characteristic Tests of Real Scale Lead Rubber Bearing for the Evaluation of Performance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Jung-Han; Choi, In-Kil

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic characteristic tests of full scale lead rubber bearing were performed for the evaluation of performance criteria of isolation system for nuclear power plants. For the dynamic test for a full scale rubber bearing, two 1500mm diameter lead rubber bearings were manufactured. The viewpoints of this dynamic test are determination of an ultimate shear strain level of lead rubber bearing, behavior of rubber bearing according to static and dynamic input motion, sinusoidal and random (earthquake) motion, and 1-dimentional and 2-dimensional input motion. In this study, seismic isolation device tests were performed for the evaluation of performance criteria of isolation system. Through this test, it can be recognized that in the case of considering a mechanical property test, dynamic and multi degree of loading conditions should be determined. But these differences should be examined how much affect to the global structural behavior

  13. Impact of ANSI 2009 criteria for performance testing in TLD personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MeenaI, P.; Rakesh, R.B.; Srivastava, Kshama; KoIambe, D.H.; Sapra, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    External Quality Assurance in TLD Personnel Monitoring Service was initiated in 1985, for periodic performance evaluation of various TLD Laboratories through postal exercise. Presently, all the 16 laboratories involved in Personnel Monitoring Service are covered under QA exercise. Since beginning, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) criteria have been adopted for performance testing in QA exercise. Presently, ANSI 2001 performance criteria along with ISO trumpet curve analysis method are being used for performance evaluation. In 2009, ANSI modified the performance evaluation criteria and this study evaluates its impact and feasibility of implementation of ANSI 2009 criteria in the quality assurance program for personnel monitoring. The performance of some laboratories evaluated using both ANSI 2001 and ANSI 2009 criteria have been discussed. The study shows that the ANSI 2009 criteria is more stringent and encourages even distribution of bias and standard deviation. This can be implemented with suitable modifications for performance evaluation

  14. Progress towards the specification of embodied energy performance criteria for New Zealand buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, G.; Alcorn, A.; Wood, P.; Storey, J. B. [Victoria Univ., Wellington (New Zealand). School of Architecture; Jaques, R. [Building Research Association of New Zealand, Inc. (New Zealand)

    1998-11-01

    Incorporation of embodied energy performance criteria into New Zealand`s recently adopted performance-based building code is discussed. The paper also describes the concept of the Building Code and its energy related clauses and standards, work done to date to update the building materials` energy coefficients, and the progress made in using an embodied energy database. The purpose, desirability and likely pitfalls of such criteria, ways of specifying minimum performance, and relationships with operating energy criteria are also reviewed.

  15. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cytogenetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This International Standard provides criteria for quality assurance and quality control, evaluation of the performance and the accreditation of biological dosimetry by cytogenetic service laboratories. This International Standard addresses: a) the confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory, b) the laboratory safety requirements, c) the calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels, d) the scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry, e) the criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose, f) the reporting of results, g) the quality assurance and quality control, h) informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations and a sample report

  16. 77 FR 19391 - Notice of Proposed Intelligent Mail Indicia Performance Criteria With Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Notice of Proposed Intelligent Mail Indicia Performance Criteria With Request for... replacement of the current Information-Based Indicia Performance Criteria (IBI PC) with new Intelligent Mail... the Payment Technology office. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marlo Kay Ivey, Business Programs...

  17. Performance criteria for emergency medicine residents: a job analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Danielle; Dagnone, Jeffrey Damon

    2008-11-01

    A major role of admission interviews is to assess a candidate's suitability for a residency program. Structured interviews have greater reliability and validity than do unstructured ones. The development of content for a structured interview is typically based on the dimensions of performance that are perceived as important to succeed in a particular line of work. A formal job analysis is normally conducted to determine these dimensions. The dimensions essential to succeed as an emergency medicine (EM) resident have not yet been studied. We aimed to analyze the work of EM residents to determine these essential dimensions. The "critical incident technique" was used to generate scenarios of poor and excellent resident performance. Two reviewers independently read each scenario and labelled the performance dimensions that were reflected in each. All labels assigned to a particular scenario were pooled and reviewed again until a consensus was reached. Five faculty members (25% of our total faculty) comprised the subject experts. Fifty-one incidents were generated and 50 different labels were applied. Eleven dimensions of performance applied to at least 5 incidents. "Professionalism" was the most valued performance dimension, represented in 56% of the incidents, followed by "self-confidence" (22%), "experience" (20%) and "knowledge" (20%). "Professionalism," "self-confidence," "experience" and "knowledge" were identified as the performance dimensions essential to succeed as an EM resident based on our formal job analysis using the critical incident technique. Performing a formal job analysis may assist training program directors with developing admission interviews.

  18. Are regulation-driven performance criteria still acceptable? - The German point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    Performance criteria should be a challenge for the laboratories to improve their quality. In countries with mandatory proficiency testing, the definition of performance criteria is a particular issue. If the definition of performance criteria is mandated from the regulatory bodies to medico-scientific institutions, scientific approaches (i.e., based on biological variation), the state-of-the-art approach (i.e., based on technical feasibility) as well as medical needs can be used to set up performance criteria such as the Richtlinie der Bundesärztekammer (RiliBÄK; Guideline of the German Medical Association on Quality Assurance in Medical Laboratory Examinations) in Germany. The experiences with RiliBÄK show that these performance criteria have to be revised on an ongoing basis.

  19. The impact of multi-criteria performance measurement on business performance improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fentahun Moges Kasie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between multi-criteria performance measurement (MCPM practice and business performance improvement using the raw data collected from 33 selected manufacturing companies. In addition, it proposes modified MCPM model as an effective approach to improve business performance of manufacturing companies. Design/methodology/approach:Research paper. Primary and secondary data were collected using questionnaire survey, interview and observation of records. The methodology is to evaluate business performances of sampled manufacturing companies and the extent of utilization of crucial non-financial (lagging and non-financial (leading performance measures. The positive correlation between financial business performance and practice of MCPM is clearly shown using Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis. Findings –This research paper indicates that companies which measure their performance using important financial and non-financial measures achieve better business performance. Even though certain companies are currently using non-financial measures, the researchers have learned that these financial measures were not integrated with each other, financial measures and strategic objectives. Research limitations/implications: The limitation of this paper is that the number of surveyed companies is small to make generalization and they are found in a single country. Further researches which incorporate a large number of companies from various developing nations are suggested to minimize the limitation of this research.Practical Implication: The paper shows that multi-dimensional performance measures with the inclusion of key leading indicator are essential to predict the future environment. But cost-accounting based financial measures are inadequate to do so. These are shown practically using Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis. Originality/value: The significance of multi

  20. Establishing Pass/Fail Criteria for Bronchoscopy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Clementsen, Paul; Larsen, Klaus Richter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several tools have been created to assess competence in bronchoscopy. However, educational guidelines still use an arbitrary number of performed procedures to decide when basic competency is acquired. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to define pass/fail scores for two...... method. In the first we compared bronchoscopy performance scores of 14 novices with the scores of 14 experienced consultants to find the score that best discriminated between the two groups. In the second we asked an expert group of 7 experienced bronchoscopists to judge how a borderline trainee would...

  1. Performance Based Criteria for Ship Collision and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines a probabilistic procedure whereby the maritime industry can develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events and identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention...

  2. An Empirical Investigation of MPA Student Performance and Admissions Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragothaman, Srinivasan; Carpenter, Jon; Davies, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The quality of a Master of Professional Accountancy (MPA) program, similar to other undergraduate and graduate programs in business and other disciplines, is typically directly related to the quality of its students. While there is a considerable published scholarly work on MBA student performance, there is very little research to predict student…

  3. Sources and performance criteria of uncertainty of reference measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Andrea; Paleari, Renata

    2018-05-29

    This article wants to focus on the today available Reference Measurement Procedures (RMPs) for the determination of various analytes in Laboratory Medicine and the possible tools to evaluate their performance in the laboratories who are currently using them. A brief review on the RMPs has been performed by investigating the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM) database. In order to evaluate their performances, we have checked the organization of three international ring trials, i.e. those regularly performed by the IFCC External Quality assessment scheme for Reference Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine (RELA), by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cholesterol network and by the IFCC Network for HbA 1c . Several RMPs are available through the JCTLM database, but the best way to collect information about the RMPs and their uncertainties is to look at the reference measurement service providers (RMS). This part of the database and the background on how to listed in the database is very helpful for the assessment of expanded uncertainty (MU) and performance in general of RMPs. Worldwide, 17 RMS are listed in the database, and for most of the measurands more than one RMS is able to run the relative RMPs, with similar expanded uncertainties. As an example, for a-amylase, 4 SP offer their services with MU between 1.6 and 3.3%. In other cases (such as total cholesterol, the U may span over a broader range, i.e. from 0.02 to 3.6%). With regard to the performance evaluation, the approach is often heterogenous, and it is difficult to compare the performance of laboratories running the same RMP for the same measurand if involved in more than one EQAS. The reference measurement services have been created to help laboratory professionals and manufacturers to implement the correct metrological traceability, and the JCTLM database is the only correct way to retrieve all the necessary important information to this end. Copyright © 2018

  4. A Model Of The Underlying Philosophy And Criteria For Effective Implementation Of Performance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Whitford

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a model that assists organisations in implementing performance management effectively. A model describing the philosophical paradigm underpinning best practice in performance management and the criteria for effective implementation of performance management was developed. The sample used in this study was a convenience sample of 615 employees. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three reliable philosophical dimensions. Moderate correlations were found between the three dimensions and some of the implementation criteria.

  5. 40 CFR 262.104 - What are the minimum performance criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... words “laboratory waste” or with the chemical name of the contents. If the container is too small to...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE University Laboratories... criteria? The Minimum Performance Criteria that each University must meet in managing its Laboratory Waste...

  6. Performance criteria for solidified high-level radioactive wastes. Environmental impact statement. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This draft Environmental Impact Statement on performance criteria for solidified high-level radioactive wastes (PCSHLW) covers: considerations for PCSHLW development, the proposed rulemaking, characteristics of the PCSHLW, environmental impacts of the proposed PCSHLW, alternatives to the PCSHLW criteria, and cost/benefit/risk evaluation. Five appendices are included to support the technical data required in the Environmental Impact Statement

  7. Research on performance-based seismic design criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢礼立; 马玉宏

    2002-01-01

    The seismic design criterion adopted in the existing seismic design codes is reviewed. It is pointed out that the presently used seismic design criterion is not satisfied with the requirements of nowadays social and economic development. A new performance-based seismic design criterion that is composed of three components is presented in this paper. It can not only effectively control the economic losses and casualty, but also ensure the building(s function in proper operation during earthquakes. The three components are: classification of seismic design for buildings, determination of seismic design intensity and/or seismic design ground motion for controlling seismic economic losses and casualties, and determination of the importance factors in terms of service periods of buildings. For controlling the seismic human losses, the idea of socially acceptable casualty level is presented and the (Optimal Economic Decision Model( and (Optimal Safe Decision Model( are established. Finally, a new method is recommended for calculating the importance factors of structures by adjusting structures service period on the base of more important structure with longer service period than the conventional ones. Therefore, the more important structure with longer service periods will be designed for higher seismic loads, in case the exceedance probability of seismic hazard in different service period is same.

  8. Strong stabilization servo controller with optimization of performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjaš, Andrej; Svečko, Rajko; Chowdhury, Amor

    2011-07-01

    Synthesis of a simple robust controller with a pole placement technique and a H(∞) metrics is the method used for control of a servo mechanism with BLDC and BDC electric motors. The method includes solving a polynomial equation on the basis of the chosen characteristic polynomial using the Manabe standard polynomial form and parametric solutions. Parametric solutions are introduced directly into the structure of the servo controller. On the basis of the chosen parametric solutions the robustness of a closed-loop system is assessed through uncertainty models and assessment of the norm ‖•‖(∞). The design procedure and the optimization are performed with a genetic algorithm differential evolution - DE. The DE optimization method determines a suboptimal solution throughout the optimization on the basis of a spectrally square polynomial and Šiljak's absolute stability test. The stability of the designed controller during the optimization is being checked with Lipatov's stability condition. Both utilized approaches: Šiljak's test and Lipatov's condition, check the robustness and stability characteristics on the basis of the polynomial's coefficients, and are very convenient for automated design of closed-loop control and for application in optimization algorithms such as DE. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 23 CFR 636.205 - Can past performance be used as an evaluation criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... indicator of an offeror's ability to perform the contract successfully. Past performance information may be... performance information regarding predecessor companies, key personnel who have relevant experience, or... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can past performance be used as an evaluation criteria...

  10. Admissions Criteria and Academic Performance in the AFIT Graduate Cost Analysis Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garwood, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    .... Using the cumulative graduate grade point average earned at AFIT as the measure of academic performance, comparisons were made between the predictive capability of the current criteria and other potential factors...

  11. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Hutchins, D.A.; Chodak, P. III

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide open-quotes proof-of-principleclose quotes data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.)

  12. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hutchins, D.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chodak, P. III [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.).

  13. Incorporating risk attitude into comparison of reforestation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, J.

    1994-01-01

    By using the approach presented in this paper, the decision-maker's risk can be ascertained and taken into account in the comparison of reforestation alternatives of a forest stand. Risks which reforestation alternatives include are described using distributions of outcomes. Cardinal utility values of five accumulation points of cumulative distributions of outcomes, calculated without considering risk preferences, are the variables included in a preference function. The parameters of that additive preference function represent the importance of the accumulation points in the choice of the reforestation alternatives. They indicate the decision-maker's attitude towards risk. The parameters are estimated on the basis of pairwise comparisons between the importance of variables, using Saaty's eigenvalue method. Estimation, application, and interpretation of preference function are simple to carry out, which is important for an approach applied to practical decision-making. The approach could be applied also, for example, to other forestry decision-making problems. 42 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  14. Technical evaluation of draft ANSI Standard N13.30, ''performance criteria for radiobioassay''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLellan, J.A.; Traub, R.J.

    1986-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a research program to evaluate the appropriateness of criteria in the ANSI draft Standard N13.30, ''Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay.'' The evaluation has progressed parallel with the preparation of the Standard by evaluating the performance of existing bioassay laboratories against the criteria specified. Recommendations for revision of the Standard and implementation of a testing/accreditation program have been formulated based on study results. The current performance testing program includes both in-vivo counting and in-vitro sample measurements. Test criteria specified in the Standard include relative bias, relative precision, and acceptable minimum detectable activity (AMDA). Results to date have indicated that the acceptance criteria in the Standard are appropriate for the existing state of the industry and are achievable by a majority of the participating laboratories. Specific conclusions are that the AMDA criteria are most difficult for the laboratories to achieve; the relative bias criterion is second in difficulty, and the precision criterion presents no problem for the laboratories; most of the participating laboratories can meet the Standard; and failure rates may decrease as the laboratories become more knowledgeable of the performance criteria. 3 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Evaluation of mangrove reforestation and the impact to socioeconomic-cultural of community in Lubuk Kertang village, North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Harahap, MA; Wati, R.; Slmaet, B.; Thoha, AS; Nuryawan, A.; Putri, LAP; Yusriani, E.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove forests in North Sumatera existed in the east coast of Sumatera Island and are rapidly threatened due to anthropogenic activities such as conversion for aquaculture, oil palm plantation, filling and use of mangrove for urban development. The present study describes the current and first-year evaluation on mangrove restoration and its impact to socio economic-cultural of community in Lubuk Kertang village, Langkat, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The rehabilitation was carried on December 2015 using direct planting of 6,000 Rhizophora apiculata propagules and May 2016 using 5,000 R. apiculata seedlings. The evaluation parameters of mangrove reforestation consist of seedling diameter and height, leaf thickness and number, and seedling growth rate. Ninety-two of 1,124 households were surveyed using Slovin formula to obtain community perspective on the socio-economic-cultural impact of reforestation. Results show that the growth rate for current and first-year evaluation was 93 and 86 %, respectively. By contrast, the height, diameter, and some leaves seedlings planting were shown better than the performance of propagules planting. No change in the green foliage plant thickness between both farming methods. The reforestation affected 71.74, 55.43 and 39.13% of economic, social, and cultural of Lubuk Kertang community, respectively. The data is likely to provide valuable information for mangrove reforestation in North Sumatra.

  16. Comparison between disign criteria and observed structural performance of underground openings at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.F.; Francke, C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the observed structural performance of the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in relation to design criteria. The criteria were established at an early stage of the project to define the functional and structural requirements that were to be addressed in the design of the facility. For the underground structural response, the criteria defined the requirements for the shaft and shaft liner design, mine design, waste emplacement, retrievability and instrumentation. The observed structural performance of the underground is determined by the field data that have been collected since excavations were started at the WIPP site. The observations include field measurements of rock and water conditions, as well as maintenance records. The data provide input to design confirmation, performance assessment and form the basis for the design of new underground structures. For this paper, the field data have been compared with the design criteria applicable to ground control to demonstrate that the requirements of the design are met

  17. Evaluation criteria for enhanced solar–coal hybrid power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yawen; Hong, Hui; Jin, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Attention has been directed toward hybridizing solar energy with fossil power plants since the 1990s to improve reliability and efficiency. Appropriate evaluation criteria were important in the design and optimization of solar–fossil hybrid systems. Two new criteria to evaluate the improved thermodynamic performances in a solar hybrid power plant were developed in this study. Correlations determined the main factors influencing the improved thermodynamic performances. The proposed criteria can be used to effectively integrate solar–coal hybridization systems. Typical 100 MW–1000 MW coal-fired power plants hybridized with solar heat at approximately 300 °C, which was used to preheat the feed water before entering the boiler, were evaluated using the criteria. The integration principle of solar–coal hybrid systems was also determined. The proposed evaluation criteria may be simple and reasonable for solar–coal hybrid systems with multi-energy input, thus directing system performance enhancement. - Highlights: • New criteria to evaluate the solar hybrid power plant were developed. • Typical solar–coal hybrid power plants were evaluated using the criteria. • The integration principle of solar–coal hybrid systems was determined. • The benefits of the solar–coal hybrid system are enhanced at lower solar radiation

  18. Evaluation of Flagging Criteria of United States Kidney Transplant Center Performance: How to Best Define Outliers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schold, Jesse D; Miller, Charles M; Henry, Mitchell L; Buccini, Laura D; Flechner, Stuart M; Goldfarb, David A; Poggio, Emilio D; Andreoni, Kenneth A

    2017-06-01

    Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients report cards of US organ transplant center performance are publicly available and used for quality oversight. Low center performance (LP) evaluations are associated with changes in practice including reduced transplant rates and increased waitlist removals. In 2014, Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients implemented new Bayesian methodology to evaluate performance which was not adopted by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). In May 2016, CMS altered their performance criteria, reducing the likelihood of LP evaluations. Our aims were to evaluate incidence, survival rates, and volume of LP centers with Bayesian, historical (old-CMS) and new-CMS criteria using 6 consecutive program-specific reports (PSR), January 2013 to July 2015 among adult kidney transplant centers. Bayesian, old-CMS and new-CMS criteria identified 13.4%, 8.3%, and 6.1% LP PSRs, respectively. Over the 3-year period, 31.9% (Bayesian), 23.4% (old-CMS), and 19.8% (new-CMS) of centers had 1 or more LP evaluation. For small centers (evaluations (52 vs 13 PSRs) for 1-year mortality with Bayesian versus new-CMS criteria. For large centers (>183 transplants/PSR), there were 3-fold additional LP evaluations for 1-year mortality with Bayesian versus new-CMS criteria with median differences in observed and expected patient survival of -1.6% and -2.2%, respectively. A significant proportion of kidney transplant centers are identified as low performing with relatively small survival differences compared with expected. Bayesian criteria have significantly higher flagging rates and new-CMS criteria modestly reduce flagging. Critical appraisal of performance criteria is needed to assess whether quality oversight is meeting intended goals and whether further modifications could reduce risk aversion, more efficiently allocate resources, and increase transplant opportunities.

  19. Rapid prediction of particulate, humus and resistant fractions of soil organic carbon in reforested lands using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Dinesh B; Baldock, Jeff A; Read, Zoe J; Murphy, Simon C; Cunningham, Shaun C; Perring, Michael P; Herrmann, Tim; Lewis, Tom; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; England, Jacqueline R; Paul, Keryn I; Weston, Christopher J; Baker, Thomas G

    2017-05-15

    Reforestation of agricultural lands with mixed-species environmental plantings can effectively sequester C. While accurate and efficient methods for predicting soil organic C content and composition have recently been developed for soils under agricultural land uses, such methods under forested land uses are currently lacking. This study aimed to develop a method using infrared spectroscopy for accurately predicting total organic C (TOC) and its fractions (particulate, POC; humus, HOC; and resistant, ROC organic C) in soils under environmental plantings. Soils were collected from 117 paired agricultural-reforestation sites across Australia. TOC fractions were determined in a subset of 38 reforested soils using physical fractionation by automated wet-sieving and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Mid- and near-infrared spectra (MNIRS, 6000-450 cm -1 ) were acquired from finely-ground soils from environmental plantings and agricultural land. Satisfactory prediction models based on MNIRS and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were developed for TOC and its fractions. Leave-one-out cross-validations of MNIRS-PLSR models indicated accurate predictions (R 2  > 0.90, negligible bias, ratio of performance to deviation > 3) and fraction-specific functional group contributions to beta coefficients in the models. TOC and its fractions were predicted using the cross-validated models and soil spectra for 3109 reforested and agricultural soils. The reliability of predictions determined using k-nearest neighbour score distance indicated that >80% of predictions were within the satisfactory inlier limit. The study demonstrated the utility of infrared spectroscopy (MNIRS-PLSR) to rapidly and economically determine TOC and its fractions and thereby accurately describe the effects of land use change such as reforestation on agricultural soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A study on the establishment of component/equipment performance criteria considering Heavy Water Reactor characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Kwon, Young Chul; Lee, Min Kyu; Lee, Yun Soo [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Seong Hoong; Ryo, Chang Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soong Pyung; Hwnag, Jung Rye; Chung, Chul Kee [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Foreign and domestic technology trends, regulatory requirements, design and researches for heavy water reactors are analyzed. Safety design guides of Canada industry and regulatory documents and consultative documents of Canada regulatory agency are reviewed. Applicability of MOST guidance 16 Revision 'guidance for technical criteria of nuclear reactor facility' is reviewed. Specific performance criteria are established for components and facilities for heavy water reactor.

  1. The development of reforestation options for dryland farmland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This zone is beset with land degradation problems, such as salinity and wind erosion, and there has been considerable effort in the last three decades to develop reforestation options to stabilise the landscapes. Traditional forestry approaches using pulp wood or sawlog production in this zone have been limited by ...

  2. Port-Orford-cedar—a poor risk for reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hunt; Edward J. Dimock

    1957-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.) has been the most widely used introduced species in reforestation projects in western Washington and Oregon. However, as a result of two recent and unrelated occurrences, a severe early cold wave and a destructive root disease, the advisability of continued planting of Port-Orford-cedar...

  3. Mangrove reforestation: greening or grabbing coastal zones and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Besides their important contribution to global biodiversity, mangroves provide many services. Nevertheless, due to an increase of human activities and to climate change, in less than 20 years these ecosystems have lost one fifth of their global surface area. In response to this decrease, mangrove reforestation incentives ...

  4. Lean Information Management: Criteria For Selecting Key Performance Indicators At Shop Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuga, Maria Virginia; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Rosca, Liviu-Ion

    2015-07-01

    Most successful organizations worldwide use key performance indicators as an important part of their corporate strategy in order to forecast, measure and plan their businesses. Performance metrics vary in their purpose, definition and content. Therefore, the way organizations select what they think are the optimal indicators for their businesses varies from company to company, sometimes even from department to department. This study aims to answer the question of what is the most suitable way to define and select key performance indicators. More than that, it identifies the right criteria to select key performance indicators at shop floor level. This paper contributes to prior research by analysing and comparing previously researched selection criteria and proposes an original six-criteria-model, which caters towards choosing the most adequate KPIs. Furthermore, the authors take the research a step further by further steps to closed research gaps within this field of study.

  5. Multi-criteria decision making under uncertainty in building performance assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopfe, C.J.; Augenbroe, G.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Building performance assessment is complex, as it has to respond to multiple criteria. Objectives originating from the demands that are put on energy consumption, acoustical performance, thermal occupant comfort, indoor air quality and many other issues must all be reconciled. An assessment requires

  6. Evaluation of reforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S.L.; Keeland, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    Only about 2.8 million ha of an estimated original 10 million ha of bottomland hardwood forests still exist in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) of the United States. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Forest Service, and state agencies initiated reforestation efforts in the late 1980s to improve wildlife habitat. We surveyed restorationists responsible for reforestation in the LMAV to determine the magnitude of past and future efforts and to identify major limiting factors. Over the past 10 years, 77,698 ha have been reforested by the agencies represented in our survey and an additional 89,009 ha are targeted in the next 5 years. Oaks are the most commonly planted species and bare-root seedlings are the most commonly used planting stock. Problems with seedling availability may increase the diversity of plantings in the future. Reforestation in the LMAV is based upon principles of landscape ecology; however, local problems such as herbivory, drought, and flooding often limit success. Broad-scale hydrologic restoration is needed to fully restore the structural and functional attributes of these systems, but because of drastic and widespread hydrologic alterations and socioeconomic constraints, this goal is generally not realistic. Local hydrologic restoration and creation of specific habitat features needed by some wildlife and fish species warrant attention. More extensive analyses of plantings are needed to evaluate functional success. The Wetland Reserve Program is a positive development, but policies that provide additional financial incentives to landowners for reforestation efforts should be seriously considered.

  7. Technical evaluation of draft ANSI Standard N13.30, ''Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLellan, J.A.; Traub, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the appropriateness of the draft Standard, a research program, entitled Technical Evaluation of Draft ANSI Standard N13.30, ''Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay,'' was initiated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This program incorporates a number of tasks including a nationwide, two-round intercomparison study to test the analytical performance of both in-vitro and in-vivo bioassay laboratories and determine their ability to meet the minimum performance criteria specified in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) draft Standard, and other tasks related to the establishment of an accreditation laboratory. Based on two rounds of in-vitro testing and the in-vivo pilot study, the project staff has concluded that the criteria selected are appropriate for the existing state of the industry and achievable by most participating laboratories. Specific conclusions are as follows: the AMDA criteria are most difficult for the laboratories to achieve, the relative bias criterion is second in difficulty, and the precision criterion presents no problem for the laboratories, most of the participating laboratories can meet the Standard, and failure rates may decrease as the laboratories become knowledgeable of the performance criteria

  8. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories

  9. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.

  10. Sensitivity of performance assessment of the engineered barriers to nuances of release rate criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, D.L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established criteria for the long-term performance of proposed high-level waste repositories. As with any regulation, the criteria may be interpreted in several ways. Due to the high capital costs and the emotional political climate associated with any high-level radioactive waste repository, it is important that there be an early consensus regarding interpretations of the criteria, and what assumptions may be used to demonstrate compliance with them. This work uses analytic solutions of mass transport theory to demonstrate how sensitive performance analyses are to various nuances of the NRC release rate criterion for the engineered barriers. The analysis is directed at the proposed repository in basalt at the Hanford site in Washington State

  11. Selection criteria for building performance simulation tools : contrasting architects' and engineers' needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, S.G.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Beltran, L.; De Herde, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article summarises a study undertaken to reveal potential challenges and opportunities for using building performance simulation (BPS) tools. The article reviews current trends in building simulation and outlines major criteria for BPS tool selection and evaluation based on analysing users'

  12. Drawing students' attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., Sluijsmans, D., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012). Drawing students’ attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 64(2), 185-198. doi:10.1080/13636820.2011.630537

  13. Interpolation in Time Series : An Introductive Overview of Existing Methods, Their Performance Criteria and Uncertainty Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepot, M.J.; Aubin, Jean Baptiste; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2017-01-01

    A thorough review has been performed on interpolation methods to fill gaps in time-series, efficiency criteria, and uncertainty quantifications. On one hand, there are numerous available methods: interpolation, regression, autoregressive, machine learning methods, etc. On the other hand, there are

  14. 22 CFR 96.6 - Performance criteria for designation as an accrediting entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other similar functions; (f) Except in the case of a public entity, that it operates independently of... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance criteria for designation as an accrediting entity. 96.6 Section 96.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1001 - Minimum performance criteria for rollover protective structures for designated scrapers, loaders...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... loaders, and motor graders. The vehicle and ROPS as a system shall have the structural characteristics... direction of the load application, measured at the ROPS top edge. Should the operator's seat be offcenter... Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practices: SAE J320a, Minimum Performance Criteria for Roll...

  16. Health system professionals, attitude towards necessary criteria for hospitals managers, performance assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali janati

    2012-09-01

    Materials and Methods: This study was a qualitative research with thematic analysis method. By using semi structured questionnaire with 2 health system experts interview was conducted and 20 experts participated in focus group discussion. After each interview and group discussion withdrawals were checked with participants. The initial interviews were analyzed by two faculty members and then were combined. Results: 7 main themes about necessary criteria for hospital managers, performance assessment were obtained from experts, views. These themes are: skills related to planning, organization and staff performance management, leadership, information management, clinical governance and performance indicators. Conclusion: All participants in the study had a history of hospital management therefore their comments will be an effective step in identifying the criteria for making hospital managers, performance assessment tool. In addition to Professionals, perspectives and studies done in other countries, in order to design this kind of tools, it is necessary to adjust the obtained findings according to the local hospital conditions.

  17. Interpolation in Time Series: An Introductive Overview of Existing Methods, Their Performance Criteria and Uncertainty Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lepot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A thorough review has been performed on interpolation methods to fill gaps in time-series, efficiency criteria, and uncertainty quantifications. On one hand, there are numerous available methods: interpolation, regression, autoregressive, machine learning methods, etc. On the other hand, there are many methods and criteria to estimate efficiencies of these methods, but uncertainties on the interpolated values are rarely calculated. Furthermore, while they are estimated according to standard methods, the prediction uncertainty is not taken into account: a discussion is thus presented on the uncertainty estimation of interpolated/extrapolated data. Finally, some suggestions for further research and a new method are proposed.

  18. Development of a business plan for women's health services, using Malcolm Baldrige Performance Excellence Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramanica, L; Maxwell, S; Curry, S

    2000-06-01

    A new process for business planning at Hartford Hospital was needed to achieve critical business results. This article describes the Hospital's use of the Malcolm Baldrige Performance Excellence Criteria as a way to standardize and improve business planning. Women's Health Services is one of Hartford Hospital's "centers for excellence" and one of the first to use these criteria to improve its service. Staff learned how to build their business plan upon a set of core values and concepts such as customer-driven quality, leadership that sets high expectations, continuous improvement and learning, valuing employees, faster response to market demands, management by fact, and a long-range view of the future.

  19. Comparison Criteria and Performance Levels for Soundproofing Panels Made in Different Constructive Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gheorghe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the performance lavels and comparison criteria for panels made from different soundproofing materials, in different constructive variants. Setting the performance level, on the basis of normative and regulatory documents, for soundproofing materials contained inside of noise reduction devices, is determined so that it can be defined, tested and established feasible technical solutions for sound absorbing protection, through a dissemination of obtained results as well for ensuring requirements for implementing the technology transfer for manufacturing.

  20. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  1. Isolation, Identification and Screening of Ectomycorrhizal fungi for reforestation purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, N. R.; Oliveira, R. s.; Castro, P. M. I.

    2009-07-01

    Pinus pinaster occupies almost 30% of Portuguese forest area and fire is one of its major threat. Pinus pinaster is resistant to low fire intensities, however, the frequency and intensity of the current fire regime cuases a disturbing reduction of its area of distribution. Ectomycorrhizal fungi can form symbiotic associations with P. pinaster improving among other factors, plant growth and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, which can be a useful tool for an efficient reforestation of burned areas. (Author)

  2. Isolation, Identification and Screening of Ectomycorrhizal fungi for reforestation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, N. R.; Oliveira, R. s.; Castro, P. M. I.

    2009-01-01

    Pinus pinaster occupies almost 30% of Portuguese forest area and fire is one of its major threat. Pinus pinaster is resistant to low fire intensities, however, the frequency and intensity of the current fire regime cuases a disturbing reduction of its area of distribution. Ectomycorrhizal fungi can form symbiotic associations with P. pinaster improving among other factors, plant growth and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, which can be a useful tool for an efficient reforestation of burned areas. (Author)

  3. A proposed framework for establishing integrated cost and performance criteria for environmental technologies: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This document presents a summary of results of a joint EPA/DOE project aimed at establishing a suite of standard cost and performance criteria for evaluating environmental cleanup technologies for DOE sites. Project findings include: (1) decisionmakers have quite different perspectives with interests and information needs varying among decisionmaker groups, (2) previous criteria development efforts may be too narrowly focused to apply to all decisionmakers, (3) criteria must include social/political/economic interests of decisionmakers as well as site-specific variations, and (4) there are 5 core questions that all decisionmakers are likely to ask when considering a technology for use at a site. The resource developed in the project offers decisionmakers a first-time comprehensive assessment of major technology evaluation issues

  4. Multiple Criteria and Multiple Periods Performance Analysis: The Comparison of North African Railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Karim; Colson, Gérard E.; Mbangala, Augustin M.

    2008-10-01

    Multi-period differences of technical and financial performances are analysed by comparing five North African railways over the period (1990-2004). A first approach is based on the Malmquist DEA TFP index for measuring the total factors productivity change, decomposed into technical efficiency change and technological changes. A multiple criteria analysis is also performed using the PROMETHEE II method and the software ARGOS. These methods provide complementary detailed information, especially by discriminating the technological and management progresses by Malmquist and the two dimensions of performance by Promethee: that are the service to the community and the enterprises performances, often in conflict.

  5. Preliminary indicators for restoration assessment in riparian reforestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nogueira dos Reis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration success in forest ecosystems can be adequately assessed by correct selection of indicators that represent the achievement of established goals. The discriminant analysis technique on indicators selection consists of separation and classification of new observations on pre-defined groups, reducing the number of variables that are discriminant functions linearly dependent of the original variables. This study aims to define an index composed by structural attributes (number of species and individuals planted, height, basal area, number of regenerant species and individuals and chemical and pedological soil attributes to classify riparian reforested environments regarding to restoration taking as reference reforestation around the the Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Eleven variables were used for previous classification of plots in partially restored or unrestored groups and also used for discriminant analysis. Variables selected by the discriminant function generated were: number of species and basal area of planted individuals, number of regenerant species and individuals litter accumulation and soil cation exchange capacity. Compatibility of 98% from previous plot classifications and after index formation, show the representativeness of the selected variables on evaluation of restoration of riparian reforestations.

  6. Reducing Reforestation Costs in Lebanon: Adaptive Field Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabet (Garo Haroutunian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon’s Ministry of Environment initiated a project in 2009 to determine low-cost reforestation techniques for stone pine (Pinus pinea and Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani for large-scale land rehabilitation activities in the arid Middle East. Irrigation (several techniques vs. no water, planting (8- to 18-month-old seedlings, seeding, and soil preparation methods were evaluated in three sets of adaptive management field trials. The aim was to reduce reforestation costs while still achieving sufficient regeneration. A key result for management was that non-irrigated seed planting of stone pine and possibly of Lebanon cedar showed promise for cost-effective reforestation and could be competitive with seedlings, given correct seed source and planting conditions. Stone pine seeds collected from nearby mother trees and planted without irrigation on sandy soil showed 35% survival for <600 USD/ha; seedlings planted without irrigation cost about 2500 USD/ha and achieved 50–70% survival (costs based on 800 seedlings/ha. Water supplements increased establishment costs over 2 years without concomitant improvements to survival. Future studies should evaluate how soil texture and soil preparation interact with other factors to affect seed germination and survival for each species.

  7. Benchmarking the Performance of Construction Procurement Methods against Selection Criteria in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Okunlola Ojo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study developed performance indices by the widely used procurement options in Nigeria on selection criteria. The traditional mean and standardized ratio were used to form the utility coefficients. Results revealed that performance by the procurement options depended on the respondents’ categorization and cost categorization of projects. Public clients ranked the lump sum contracts more able to achieve speed for projects up to N100 million (Naira while the private clients believe it is the design-build. As regards quality, public clients rated the Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT system as most able to achieve the quality criterion whereas private clients rated design-build for projects up to N100 million (Naira. The study then concluded that, in the Nigerian construction industry participants do not agree on the performance of the procurement options on selection criteria.

  8. Social anxiety disorder diagnostic criteria perform equally across age, comorbid diagnosis, and performance/interaction subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crome, Erica; Baillie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is frequently higher in younger age groups and people with other anxiety or mood disorders; however, it is unclear whether these groups have a higher risk for developing SAD or are simply more likely to endorse diagnostic criteria than other people with similar levels of social anxiety. Explicitly testing the assumption all people respond to structured diagnostic interviews in comparable ways (measurement invariance) is essential in ensuring systematic response biases do not create spurious group differences. This research aims to systematically test whether age, comorbidity status, or types of social fears affect responses to a structured diagnostic interview. Responses from 1755 participants in a large-scale survey of mental health in Australia screening into the social phobia/SAD section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were used. Three series of multigroup confirmatory factor analyses for categorical data systematically tested for increasingly strict levels of measurement invariance. Overall, patterns of responding to diagnostic criteria were comparable across the groups, supporting assumptions of measurement invariance. Establishment of invariance supports the interpretation of differences between age, comorbidity status, and types of social situations feared as genuine differences in experience as opposed to measurement biases.

  9. Containment design, performance criteria and research needs for advanced reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdi, G.; Ali, S.; Costello, J

    2004-01-01

    This paper points out some important shifts in the basic expectations in the performance requirements for containment structures and discusses the areas where the containment structure design requirements and acceptance criteria can be integrated with ultimate test based insights. Although there has not been any new reactor construction in the United States for over thirty years, several designs of evolutionary and advanced reactors have already been certified. Performance requirements for containment structures under design basis and severe accident conditions and explicit consideration of seismic margins have been used in the design certification process. In the United States, the containment structure design code is the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NE-Class MC for the steel containment and Section III, Division 2 for reinforced and prestressed concrete reactor vessels and containments. This containment design code was based on the early concept of applying design basis internal pressure and associated load combinations that included the operating basis and safe shutdown earthquake ground motion. These early design criteria served the nuclear industry and the regulatory authorities in maintaining public health and safety. However, these early design criteria do not incorporate the performance criteria related to containment function in an integrated fashion. Research in large scale model testing of containment structures to failure from over pressurization and shake table testing using simulated ground motion, have produced insights related to failure modes and material behavior at failure. The results of this research provide the opportunity to integrate these observations into design and acceptance criteria. This integration process would identify 'gaps' in the present knowledge and future research needs. This knowledge base is important for gleaning risk-informed insights into

  10. Determination of performance criteria for high-level solidified nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.

    1979-05-07

    To minimize radiological risk from the operation of a waste management system, performance limits on volatilization, particulate dispersion, and dissolution characteristics of solidified high level waste must be specified. The results show clearly that the pre-emplacement environs are more limiting in establishing the waste form performance criteria than the post-emplacement environs. Absolute values of expected risk are very sensitive to modeling assumptions. The transportation and interim storage operations appear to be most limiting in determining the performance characteristics required. The expected values of risk do not rely upon the repositories remaining intact over the potentially hazardous lifetime of the waste.

  11. Determination of performance criteria for high-level solidified nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.

    1979-01-01

    To minimize radiological risk from the operation of a waste management system, performance limits on volatilization, particulate dispersion, and dissolution characteristics of solidified high level waste must be specified. The results show clearly that the pre-emplacement environs are more limiting in establishing the waste form performance criteria than the post-emplacement environs. Absolute values of expected risk are very sensitive to modeling assumptions. The transportation and interim storage operations appear to be most limiting in determining the performance characteristics required. The expected values of risk do not rely upon the repositories remaining intact over the potentially hazardous lifetime of the waste

  12. Wind turbine performance: Methods and criteria for reliability of measured power curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D.A. [Advanced Wind Turbines Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In order to evaluate the performance of prototype turbines, and to quantify incremental changes in performance through field testing, Advanced Wind Turbines (AWT) has been developing methods and requirements for power curve measurement. In this paper, field test data is used to illustrate several issues and trends which have resulted from this work. Averaging and binning processes, data hours per wind-speed bin, wind turbulence levels, and anemometry methods are all shown to have significant impacts on the resulting power curves. Criteria are given by which the AWT power curves show a high degree of repeatability, and these criteria are compared and contrasted with current published standards for power curve measurement. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Proposed waste form performance criteria and testing methods for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Fuhrmann, M.; Bowerman, B.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed waste form performance criteria and testing methods were developed as guidance in judging the suitability of solidified waste as a physico-chemical barrier to releases of radionuclides and RCRA regulated hazardous components. The criteria follow from the assumption that release of contaminants by leaching is the single most important property for judging the effectiveness of a waste form. A two-tier regimen is proposed. The first tier consists of a leach test designed to determine the net, forward leach rate of the solidified waste and a leach test required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second tier of tests is to determine if a set of stresses (i.e., radiation, freeze-thaw, wet-dry cycling) on the waste form adversely impacts its ability to retain contaminants and remain physically intact. In the absence of site-specific performance assessments (PA), two generic modeling exercises are described which were used to calculate proposed acceptable leachates

  14. Abiquiu Dam and Reservoir, Rio Grande Basin, Rio Chama, New Mexico. Embankment Criteria and Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    EMBANKMENT CRITERIA AND PERFORMANCE REPORT PERTINENT DATA 1. General Data. LOCATION: Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, on the Rio Chama at river mile 33. PURPOSE...is located across the Rio Chama, approximately 30 miles upstream from its confluence with the Rio Grande, in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. The dam is...6600- 4 i ’. 6600 65060- -60 6600- a + v6500s-go FA**v~w -6500 6300- 60 - ~ ~ ~ wo Ala filll------------------ EMBNKEN SECTION62 *LDN WOR SAFEL VAIE

  15. Forest Protection and Reforestation in Costa Rica: Evaluation of a Clean Development Mechanism Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subak

    2000-09-01

    / Costa Rica has recently established a program that provides funds for reforestation and forest protection on private lands, partly through the sale of carbon certificates to industrialized countries. Countries purchasing these carbon offsets hope one day to receive credit against their own commitments to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. Costa Rica has used the proceeds of the sale of carbon offsets to Norway to help finance this forest incentive program, called the Private Forestry Project, which pays thousands of participants to reforest or protect forest on their lands. The Private Forestry Project is accompanied by a monitoring program conducted by Costa Rican forest engineers that seeks to determine net carbon storage accomplished on these lands each year. The Private Forestry Project, which is officially registered as an Activity Implemented Jointly, is a possible model for bundled projects funded by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) established by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also serves as an interesting example for the CDM because it was designed by a developing country host-not by an industrialized country investor. Accordingly, it reflects the particular "sustainable development" objectives of the host country or at least the host planners. Early experience in implementing the Private Forestry Project is evaluated in light of the main objectives of the CDM and its precursor-Activities Implemented Jointly. It is concluded that the project appears to meet the criteria of global cost-effectiveness and financing from non-ODA sources. The sustainable development implications of the project are specific to the region and would not necessarily match the ideals of all investing and developing countries. The project may be seen to achieve additional greenhouse gas abatement when compared against some (although not all) baselines.

  16. [Analysis of microalbuminuria with immunonephelometry and high performance liquid chromatography. Evaluation of new criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markó, Lajos; Molnár, Gergo Attila; Wagner, Zoltán; Koszegi, Tamás; Matus, Zoltán; Mohás, Márton; Kuzma, Mónika; Szijártó, István András; Wittmann, István

    2008-01-13

    Hypertension as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major factor in population mortality. Both diseases damage the endothelium, the early sign of which is microalbuminuria, which can be screened by dipstick and can be diagnosed by using immuno-based and high performance liquid chromatography methods. Using high performance liquid chromatography, the non-immunoreactive albumin can be detected as well. The authors aimed at the examination of albuminuria in the case of immunonephelometrically negative patients with high performance liquid chromatography, in diabetic and hypertensive and non-diabetic hypertensive populations. The authors also wanted to compare the present (albumin-creatinine ratio: male: > or =2.5 mg/mmol, female: > or =3.5 mg/mmol) and a new criteria of the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation study (patients without diabetes: immunological method, > or =0.7 mg/mmol; high performance liquid chromatography, > or =3.1 mg/mmol; individuals with diabetes: immunological method, > or =1.4 mg/mmol; high performance liquid chromatography, > or =5.2 mg/mmol) of microalbuminuria. Examination of fresh urines of 469 microalbuminuria negative patients by dipstick were performed by immunonephelometry. Patients, who were microalbuminuria negative by immunonephelometry as well, were further analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography using the Accumintrade mark Kit, based on size-exclusion chromatography. Three times higher albuminuria were found with high performance liquid chromatography than with immunonephelometry. The intraindividual coefficient of variation did not differ in the two methods (37 +/- 31% vs. 40 +/- 31%, p = 0.869; immunonephelometry vs. high performance liquid chromatography; mean +/- standard deviation). Using the present criteria for microalbuminuria, 43% of immunonephelometrically negative patients proved to be microalbuminuric by high performance liquid chromatography. Using the new criteria of the Heart Outcomes Prevention

  17. Laboratory-performance criteria for in situ waste-stabilization materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Weidner, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is investigating a variety of in situ placement methods, grout materials, and characterization techniques for the stabilization of buried low-level transuranic-contaminated waste at Department of Energy sites. In situ stabilization involves underground injection or placement of substances to isolate, treat, or contain buried contaminants. Performance criteria were developed to evaluate various candidate stabilization materials for both long-term stabilization and interim stabilization or retrieval. The criteria are go/no-go, ready, and preliminary. The criterion go/no-go eliminates technologies that are not applicable for in situ treatment of buried waste. The criterion ready indicates that the technology is sufficiently developed and proven to be field demonstrated full-scale. The criterion preliminary indicates the prospective technologies to be potentially applicable to in situ buried waste stabilization, but further development is needed before the technology is ready for field-scale demonstration

  18. Channel changes following headwater reforestation: The Ganaraska river, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttle, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Reforestation of headwater slopes of the Ganaraska River basin in southern Ontario following World War II has resulted in decreased peak flows and has likely reduced sediment yields. Changes in channel morphology produced by these modifications to the hydrologic regime were examined for a 6.7 km section of river in the context of Schumm's (1977) qualitative model of channel response to reforestation. Flood channel width (measured from air photographs) has decreased since 1928, while cross-sectional measurements during stream gauging in the study section revealed a decrease in the channel's width/depth ratio between 1960 and 1975. Both of these trends agree with Schumm's model. Changes in channel planform were dominated by downstream translation of meander bends and by meander cutoffs. The model predicted an increase in channel sinuosity in response to decreased peak flows and bed-material yield from the basin. However, sinuosity for the entire river section decreased significantly between 1928 and 1988, and only one reach experienced an increase in sinuosity following reforestation. A possible explanation for the model's failure to describe temporal changes in the Ganaraska's sinuosity involves a negative feedback whereby the increased sinuosity produced by decreased flow and sediment yield enhances potential for ice jams and meander cutoffs, which in turn reduce sinuosity. This limited test of Schumm's model suggests that caution be used when applying the model and its variants to reconstructions of basin palaeohydrology, and predictions of channel response to anthropogenic and natural changes to the hydrologic regime. 31 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  19. Prevalence and Diagnostic Performance of Isolated and Combined NEXUS Chest CT Decision Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Ali S; Mower, William R; Nishijima, Daniel K; Hendey, Gregory W; Baumann, Brigitte M; Medak, Anthony J; Rodriguez, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    The use of chest computed tomography (CT) to evaluate emergency department patients with adult blunt trauma is rising. The NEXUS Chest CT decision instruments are highly sensitive identifiers of adult blunt trauma patients with thoracic injuries. However, many patients without injury exhibit one of more of the criteria so cannot be classified "low risk." We sought to determine screening performance of both individual and combined NEXUS Chest CT criteria as predictors of thoracic injury to inform chest CT imaging decisions in "non-low-risk" patients. This was a secondary analysis of data on patients in the derivation and validation cohorts of the prospective, observational NEXUS Chest CT study, performed September 2011 to May 2014 in 11 Level I trauma centers. Institutional review board approval was obtained at all study sites. Adult blunt trauma patients receiving chest CT were included. The primary outcome was injury and major clinical injury prevalence and screening performance in patients with combinations of one, two, or three of seven individual NEXUS Chest CT criteria. Across the 11 study sites, rates of chest CT performance ranged from 15.5% to 77.2% (median = 43.6%). We found injuries in 1,493/5,169 patients (28.9%) who had chest CT; 269 patients (5.2%) had major clinical injury (e.g., pneumothorax requiring chest tube). With sensitivity of 73.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 68.1 to 78.6) and specificity of 83.9 (95% CI = 83.6 to 84.2) for major clinical injury, abnormal chest-x-ray (CXR) was the single most important screening criterion. When patients had only abnormal CXR, injury and major clinical injury prevalences were 60.7% (95% CI = 52.2% to 68.6%) and 12.9% (95% CI = 8.3% to 19.4%), respectively. Injury and major clinical injury prevalences when any other single criterion alone (other than abnormal CXR) was present were 16.8% (95% CI = 15.2% to 18.6%) and 1.1% (95% CI = 0.1% to 1.8%), respectively. Injury and major clinical injury prevalences

  20. On the choice of performance assessment criteria and their impact on the overall system performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Green, Torben

    2010-01-01

    capacity gap issue in the supermarket refrigeration systems is used as a case study to elaborate on the problem through employment of both real life field data as well as simulation data. A performance function that can capture the compressor capacity gap problem is presented in the paper and used...... to evaluate both data from the real supermarket system and the data generated by the simulation model....

  1. Iranian Expert Opinion about Necessary Criteria for Hospitals Management Performance Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Dadgar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managers in the hospital should have enough managerial skill to be coordinated with the complex environment. Defining a competency framework assessment for hospital man-agement will help to establish core competencies for hospital managers. The aim of this study was to develop concrete and suitable performance assessment criteria using expert's view.Methods: In this qualitative study in total, 20 professionals participated in the interview and Fo-cus Group Discussions (FGD. Two of informants were interviewed and 18 professionals par-ticipants in three focus group discussions. Discussions and interviews were well planned, the FGD environments were suitable and after interviews completion the notes were checked with participant for completeness. Thematic analysis method was used for the analysis of qualitative data.Results: Findings from 3 FGDs and 2 semi structured interviews done with 20 professionals were categorized accordance to themes. The findings were classified in 7 major and 41 sub themes. The major themes include competency related to planning, organization and staff per-formance management, leadership, information management, and clinical governance and per-formance indicators.Conclusion: All participants had hospital administration experience; so their explanation impor-tant in identifying the criteria and developing hospital managers’ performance assessment tool. In addition to professional perspectives and studies done in other countries, in order to design this kind of tools, it is necessary to adopt the obtained findings to the local hospital conditions.

  2. Reforestation tax incentives under the American jobs creation act of 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Straka; John L. Greene

    2007-01-01

    The American jobs creation act of 2004 made significant changes in the reforestation tax incentives available to private forest owners. Owners can now deduct outright reforestation costs up to $10,000 per year for each qualifying timber property and amortize any additional amount over 8 tax years. to assess the financial benefit the new incentives provide to forest...

  3. Operations Research techniques in the management of large-scale reforestation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; D.E. Teeguarden

    1978-01-01

    A reforestation planning system for the Douglas-fir region of the Western United States is described. Part of the system is a simulation model to predict plantation growth and to determine economic thinning regimes and rotation ages as a function of site characteristics, initial density, reforestation costs, and management constraints. A second model estimates the...

  4. Integrated shape and material selection for single and multi-performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jasveer; Mirjalili, Vahid; Pasini, Damiano

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The method of shape transformers is extended to torsional stiffness and combined load design. → The method is generalized for multi-criteria selection of shape and material. → Performance charts are presented for single and multi-objective selection of cross-section shape and material. → A four quadrant performance chart is presented to visualize the relation between objective function space and design variable space. -- Abstract: A shape and material selection method, based on the concept of shape transformers, has been recently introduced to characterize the mass efficiency of lightweight beams under bending and shear. This paper extends this method to deal with the case of torsional stiffness design, and generalize it to single and multi-crieria selection of lightweight shafts subjected to a combination of bending, shear, and torsional load. The novel feature of the paper is the useful integration of shape and material to model and visualize multi-objective selection problems. The scheme is centered on concept selection in structural design, and hinges on measures that govern the shape properties of a cross-section regardless of its size. These measures, referred as shape transformers, can classify shapes in a way similar to material classification. The procedure is exemplified by considering torsional stiffness as a constraint. The performance charts are developed for single and multi-criteria to visualize in a glance the whole range of cross-sectional shapes for each material. Each design chart is explained with a brief example.

  5. Comparison of two approaches for establishing performance criteria related to Maintenance Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerng, Dong-Wook; Kim, Man Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) serves as a tool for systemically analyzing the safety of nuclear power plants. This paper explains and compares two approaches for the establishment of performance criteria related to the Maintenance Rule: (1) the individual reliability-based approach, and (2) the PSA importance measure-based approach. Different characteristics of the two approaches were compared in a qualitative manner, while a quantitative comparison was performed through application of the two approaches to a nuclear power plant. It was observed that the individual reliability-based approach resulted in more conservative performance criteria, compared to the PSA importance measure-based approach. It is thus expected that the PSA importance measure-based approach will allow for more flexible maintenance policy under conditions of limited resources, while providing for a macroscopic view of overall plant safety. Based on insights derived through this analysis, we emphasize the importance of a balance between reliability and safety significance, and propose a balance measure accordingly. The conclusions of this analysis are likely to be applicable to other types of nuclear power plants. (author)

  6. Decisive factors of the reforestation in the basin of the Purires River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarraga Florez, Liz Farleidy

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the comparative analysis between reforestations and non-reforestations, keeping in mind some socioeconomic factors, of use and production of their properties and institutional factors associated with the participation in reforestation. The information was obtained applying surveys and by means of models it was considered the influence of this factors in the decision of reforesting; the study was taken in the basin of the Purires River that presented some problems of floods, due to the deforestation on its high part in several years; for such a reason, the Cantonal Agricultural Center of the Valley of the Guarco began the reforestation program since the year 1992 using the incentives granted by the government from Costa Rica

  7. Estimate of the area occupied by reforestation programs in Rio de Janeiro state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Barbosa Amorim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was based on a preliminary survey and inventory of existing reforestation programs in Rio de Janeiro state, through geoprocessing techniques and collection of field data. The reforested area was found to occupy 18,426.96 ha, which amounts to 0.42% of the territory of the state. Much of reforestation programs consists of eucalyptus (98%, followed by pine plantations (0.8%, and the remainder is distributed among 10 other species. The Médio Paraíba region was found to contribute the most to the reforested area of the state (46.6%. The estimated volume of eucalyptus timber was nearly two million cubic meters. This study helped crystallize the ongoing perception among those militating in the forestry sector of Rio de Janeiro state that the planted area and stock of reforestation timber is still incipient in the state.

  8. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Assis Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10 had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48. We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth.

  9. Performance-based ECCS cladding acceptance criteria: A new simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoino, A.; Alfonsi, A.; Rabiti, C.; Szilard, R.H.; Giannetti, F.; Caruso, G.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology to demonstrate compliance with the new ECCS acceptance criteria is described. • A wide spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states can be analysed in the design phase. • The coupled suite PHISICS/RELAP5-3D has been used in the analyses. • A demo simulation of the equilibrium cycle, load-following and a LOCA analysis has been performed. - Abstract: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently proposing rulemaking to revise the Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and therefore the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) acceptance criteria, to include the effects of higher burnup on cladding performance as well as to address other technical issues. As motivated by the new rule, the need to use advanced cladding designs may be a result. A loss of operational margin may result due to the more restrictive cladding embrittlement criteria. Initial and future compliance with the rule may significantly increase vendor workload and licensee cost, as a spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states may need to be analyzed to demonstrate compliance. Consequently, there will be an increased focus on licensee decision making related to LOCA analysis to minimize cost and impact, and to manage margin. The study here presented has been part of a big project used to investigate technical issues and approaches for future industrial applications within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway. Specifically, the primary aim of this study is to lay out a roadmap to demonstrate the application of the new methodology. The present analysis shows a simplified version of the methodology of an industrial application on the Core Design and the Multi-Cycle Analysis.

  10. The future of reforestation programs in the tropical developing countries: insights from the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Reforestation against the rapid rate of deforestation and forest degradation is common in most tropical developing countries. The main objective of reforestation programs is to restore and/or enhance the degraded landscapes depreciated in environmental value. However due to changing socio-political contexts and increasing awareness on sustainable development and environmental issues such programs are becoming more challenging, particularly in the developing tropics. Like most tropical developing countries substantial deforestation has occurred in the Philippines followed by massive logging and slash-and-burn agriculture, resulting in severe social and environmental problems. The country is also one of the pioneer countries that introduces reforestation program to restore its degraded forests. Most recently the government of the Philippines has launched the National Greening Program (NGP), one of the largest reforestation projects so far, with an aim to reforest 1.5 million hectares of degraded forest in critical watersheds over a five year time period. This paper highlights the key challenges that might hinder the success of the reforestation program through National Greening Program. We found that it is unlikely to achieve the desired project goals if rural communities dependent on upland landscapes are excluded from the reforestation program through plantation establishment. Bringing larger amount of areas and greater number of people under community based forest management (CBFM) initiatives for reforestation programs, with clearly defined rights and responsibilities, as well as securing timely access to timber harvesting permits to the communities involved in maintaining the plantations could enhance the long term reforestation success in the country. The paper also tries to provide a critical review of the past reforestation efforts in the Philippines, and direction of possible research and development in order to achieve a win-win situation that will benefits

  11. Numerical simulations of crashworthiness performance of multi-cell structures considering damage evolution criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Quirino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper finite element software Abaqus was used to analyse the effect of cross-sectional shape on the crashworthiness performance of multi-cell profiles. An emphasis was placed on the modelling of the damage initiation criteria and its evolution during the crash event. The structures evaluated included square and circular multi-cell cross-sections fabricated with aluminium alloy EN AW-7108 T6. During the crash simulations, the structures were subjected to axial impact loads using a 500-kg rigid body striker with an initial velocity of 10 m/s. Accordingly to our results, profiles with circular cross-section base presented better crashworthiness performance than square profiles. An increase in crush force efficiency to 36.9% and specific energy to 35.4% was observed when a circular cross-section has been reinforced in the transversal and longitudinal directions. Finally, it was corroborated that the addition of the damage initiation criteria allowed for more reliable crash simulations of the structures.

  12. Performance criteria for EM rail launchers with solid or transition armatures and laminated rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Velocity limitations of EM Rail Launchers with solid armatures due to the velocity skin-effect are assessed for a range of homogeneous materials (copper, aluminium, molybdenum and tungsten). Performance criteria as limited by armature melting in the region adjacent to the rail/armature contact surface and by rail surface melting are deduced analytically based on defined electro-thermal reference conditions. The performance criteria predict the reference transition velocity at which the solid contact surface changes to mainly a melted contact surface which is shown to be a fundamental property of the materials. The paper shows that the critical factors in obtaining a high transition velocity are a relatively high resistivity armature material combined with high temperature rail surface coatings. For example a transition velocity of >2.0 km/s for a molybdenum armature and a tungsten rail surface coating on a copper rail are predicted compared with <0.5 km/s for the aluminium/copper combination frequently used

  13. Correlations between PANCE performance, physician assistant program grade point average, and selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gina; Imel, Brittany; Nelson, Alyssa; Hale, LaDonna S; Jansen, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between first-time Physician Assistant National Certifying Exam (PANCE) scores and pass/fail status, physician assistant (PA) program didactic grade point average (GPA), and specific selection criteria. This retrospective study evaluated graduating classes from 2007, 2008, and 2009 at a single program (N = 119). There was no correlation between PANCE performance and undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science prerequisite GPA, or health care experience. There was a moderate correlation between PANCE pass/fail and where students took science prerequisites (r = 0.27, P = .003) but not with the PANCE score. PANCE scores were correlated with overall PA program GPA (r = 0.67), PA pharmacology grade (r = 0.68), and PA anatomy grade (r = 0.41) but not with PANCE pass/fail. Correlations between selection criteria and PANCE performance were limited, but further research regarding the influence of prerequisite institution type may be warranted and may improve admission decisions. PANCE scores and PA program GPA correlations may guide academic advising and remediation decisions for current students.

  14. Fog water collection and reforestation at mountain locations in a western Mediterranean basin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Ja; Estrela, Mj; Corell, D.; Fuentes, D.; Valdecantos, A.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies carried out by the authors have shown the potential of fog water collection at several mountain locations in the Valencia region (western Mediterranean basin). This coastal region features typical conditions for a dry Mediterranean climate characterized by a pluviometric regime ranging from 400 to 600 mm with a strong annual dependence. Dry conditions together with land degradation that frequently results after recurrent fires occurred in the past make a difficult self-recovery for native forest vegetation so that some kind of human intervention is always recommended. In plots reforested with Mediterranean woody species, periods of more than 120 days without significant precipitation (>5 mm) result in mortality rates above 80% during the first summer in the field. The good potential of fog-water collection at certain mountain locations is considered in this study as an easily available water resource for the reforestation of remote areas where native vegetation cannot be reestablished by itself. A large flat panel made of UV-resistant HD-polyethylene monofilament mesh was deployed at a mountain location for bulk fog water harvesting. Water was stored in high-capacity tanks for the whole length of the experimental campaign and small timely water pulses localized deep in the planting holes were conducted during the summer dry periods. Survival rates and seedling performance of two forest tree species, Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex, were quantified and correlated to irrigation pulses in a reforestation plot that took an area of about 2500 m2 and contained 620 1-year-old plants. Before and concurrently to the flat panel deployment, a passive omnidirectional fog-water collector of cylindrical shape was set in the area in combination to other environmental instruments such as a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. Proper orientation of the large flat panel was possible once the direction of local winds

  15. Performance measurement for supply chain management and evaluation criteria determination for reverse supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongar, N. Elif

    2004-12-01

    Today, since customers are able to obtain similar-quality products for similar prices, the lead time has become the only preference criterion for most of the consumers. Therefore, it is crucial that the lead time, i.e., the time spent from the raw material phase till the manufactured good reaches the customer, is minimized. This issue can be investigated under the title of Supply Chain Management (SCM). An efficiently managed supply chain can lead to reduced response time for customers. To achieve this, continuous observation of supply chain efficiency, i.e., a constant performance evaluation of the current SCM is required. Widely used conventional performance measurement methods lack the ability to evaluate a SCM since the supply chain is a dynamic system that requires a more thorough and flexible performance measurement technique. Balanced Scorecard (BS) is an efficient tool for measuring the performance of dynamic systems and has a proven capability of providing the decision makers with the appropriate feedback data. In addition to SCM, a relatively new management field, namely reverse supply chain management (RSCM), also necessitates an appropriate evaluation approach. RSCM differs from SCM in many aspects, i.e., the criteria used for evaluation, the high level of uncertainty involved etc., not allowing the usage of identical evaluation techniques used for SCM. This study proposes a generic Balanced Scorecard to measure the performance of supply chain management while defining the appropriate performance measures for SCM. A scorecard prototype, ESCAPE, is presented to demonstrate the evaluation process.

  16. Performance of Different Diagnostic Criteria for Familial Mediterranean Fever in Children with Periodic Fevers : Results from a Multicenter International Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirkaya, Erkan; Saglam, Celal; Turker, Turker; Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Woo, Pat; Doglio, Matteo; Amaryan, Gayane; Frenkel, Joost; Uziel, Yosef; Insalaco, Antonella; Cantarini, Luca; Hofer, Michael; Boiu, Sorina; Duzova, Ali; Modesto, Consuelo; Bryant, Annette; Rigante, Donato; Papadopoulou-Alataki, Efimia; Guillaume-Czitrom, Severine; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmine; Neven, Bénédicte; Lachmann, Helen; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino; Gattorno, Marco; Ozen, Seza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to validate the pediatric diagnostic criteria in a large international registry and to compare them with the performance of previous criteria for the diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). METHODS: Pediatric patients with FMF from the Eurofever registry were used

  17. Performance analysis of irreversible quantum Stirling cryogenic refrigeration cycles and their parametric optimum criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bihong; Chen Jincan

    2006-01-01

    The influence of both the quantum degeneracy and the finite-rate heat transfer between the working substance and the heat reservoirs on the optimal performance of an irreversible Stirling cryogenic refrigeration cycle using an ideal Fermi or Bose gas as the working substance is investigated, based on the theory of statistical mechanics and thermodynamic properties of ideal quantum gases. The inherent regeneration losses of the cycle are analysed. Expressions for several important performance parameters such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate and power input are derived. By using numerical solutions, the cooling rate of the cycle is optimized for a given power input. The maximum cooling rate and the corresponding parameters are calculated numerically. The optimal regions of the coefficient of performance and power input are determined. In particular, the optimal performance of the cycle in the strong and weak gas degeneracy cases and the high temperature limit are discussed in detail. The analytic expressions of some optimized parameters are derived. Some optimum criteria are given. The distinctions and connections between the Stirling refrigeration cycles working with the ideal quantum and classical gases are revealed

  18. A GIS Approach to Prioritizing Habitat for Restoration Using Neotropical Migrant Songbird Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmueller, Eric J.; Gaskins, Michael D.; Mangun, Jean C.

    2011-07-01

    Restoration efforts to increase wildlife habitat quality in agricultural landscapes have limited funding and are typically done on a first come, first serve basis. In order to increase the efficiency of these restoration efforts, a prioritized ranking system is needed to obtain the greatest increase in habitat quality possible for the fewest amount of hectares restored. This project examines the use of a GIS based multi-criteria approach to prioritize lands for reforestation along the Kaskaskia River in Illinois. Loss of forested area and corresponding increase in forest fragmentation has decreased songbird habitat quality across the Midwestern United States. We prioritized areas for reforestation based on nine landscape metrics: available agricultural land, forest cover gaps, edge density, proximity to river, 200 m corridor area, total forest core area, fringe core area, distance to primary core value, and primary core area. The multi-criteria analysis revealed that high priority areas for reforestation were most likely to be close to the riparian corridor and existing large blocks of forest. Analysis of simulated reforestation (0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 10.0, 25.0, and 50.0% of highest priority parcels reforested) revealed different responses for multiple landscape metrics used to quantify forest fragmentation following reforestation, but indicated that the study area would get the greatest rate of return on reforestation efforts by reforesting 10.0% of the highest priority areas. This project demonstrates how GIS and a multi-criteria analysis approach can be used to increase the efficiency of restoration projects. This approach should be considered by land managers when attempting to identify the location and quantity of area for restoration within a landscape.

  19. [Effects of reforestation on tree pollen sensitization in inhabitants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Gómez, Samuel; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Amaro-Vivian, Laura Elizabeth; Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has implications for health, ecology and society. Urban green areas are a key element in the planning of cities, promoting citizen interaction with the environment, as well as health. Lack of planning and design of these areas as well as the selection of ornamental trees can be a trigger of pollen allergy in the surrounding population. Reforestation is among the programs implemented by the government that have an impact on allergy. Environmental reforestation programs do not take into account the allergenic potential of some species. In the last 4 years, the government of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, has planted nearly 18,000 Quercus species trees, in addition to an unknown number of Fraxinus species trees that are listed as tree species with high pollen production. To identify changes in tree pollen sensitization, based on environmental reforestation programs. A retrospective and descriptive study was done in which positive skin prick tests to pollen from trees in the interval of 2010-2014 were analyzed, correlating between tree species used for reforestation and increased sensitivity to the former. A statistically significant increase in pollen sensitization to species with which Nuevo Leon was reforested was found, along with a decrease in sensitization to the species that were not reforested. Reforestation contributes to some extent to the change in the pattern of positive skin tests and may result in more frequent exacerbations of respiratory diseases. It is an activity that should always be regulated and assisted by experts in the according field.

  20. Assessing the influence of reactor system design criteria on the performance of model colon fermentation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Arun S; Eberl, Hermann J

    2014-04-01

    Fermentation reactor systems are a key platform in studying intestinal microflora, specifically with respect to questions surrounding the effects of diet. In this study, we develop computational representations of colon fermentation reactor systems as a way to assess the influence of three design elements (number of reactors, emptying mechanism, and inclusion of microbial immobilization) on three performance measures (total biomass density, biomass composition, and fibre digestion efficiency) using a fractional-factorial experimental design. It was determined that the choice of emptying mechanism showed no effect on any of the performance measures. Additionally, it was determined that none of the design criteria had any measurable effect on reactor performance with respect to biomass composition. It is recommended that model fermentation systems used in the experimenting of dietary effects on intestinal biomass composition be streamlined to only include necessary system design complexities, as the measured performance is not benefited by the addition of microbial immobilization mechanisms or semi-continuous emptying scheme. Additionally, the added complexities significantly increase computational time during simulation experiments. It was also noted that the same factorial experiment could be directly adapted using in vitro colon fermentation systems. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Proposed waste form performance criteria and testing methods for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Fuhrmann, M.; Bowerman, B.; Bates, S.; Peters, R.

    1994-08-01

    This document describes proposed waste form performance criteria and testing method that could be used as guidance in judging viability of a waste form as a physico-chemical barrier to releases of radionuclides and RCRA regulated hazardous components. It is assumed that release of contaminants by leaching is the single most important property by which the effectiveness of a waste form is judged. A two-tier regimen is proposed. The first tier includes a leach test required by the Environmental Protection Agency and a leach test designed to determine the net forward leach rate for a variety of materials. The second tier of tests are to determine if a set of stresses (i.e., radiation, freeze-thaw, wet-dry cycling) on the waste form adversely impact its ability to retain contaminants and remain physically intact. It is recommended that the first tier tests be performed first to determine acceptability. Only on passing the given specifications for the leach tests should other tests be performed. In the absence of site-specific performance assessments (PA), two generic modeling exercises are described which were used to calculate proposed acceptable leach rates

  2. Chemical Technology Division Comprehensive Self-Assessment and Upgrade Program (CSAUP). Performance Objectives and Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has placed strong emphasis on a new way of doing business patterned on the lessons learned in the nuclear power industry after the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The new way relies on strict adherence to policies and procedures, a greatly expanded training program, and much more rigor and formality in operations. Another key element is more visible oversight by upper management and auditability by DOR Although the Chemical Technology Division (Chem Tech) has functioned in a safe manner since its beginning, the policies and methods of the past are no longer appropriate. Therefore, in accordance with these directives, Chem Tech is improving its operational performance by making a transition to greater formality in the observance of policies and procedures and a more deliberate consideration of the interrelationships between organizations at ORNL. This transition to formality is vitally important because both our staff and our facilities are changing with time. For example, some of the inventors and developers of the processes and facilities in use are now ''passing the torch'' to the next generation of Chem Tech staff. Our faculties have also served us well for many years, but the newest of these are now over 20 years old. All have increasing needs of refurbishment and repair, and some of the older ones need to be replaced. The Comprehensive Self-Assessment and Upgrade Program (CSAUP) has been patterned on a similar activity performed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor. Using the Draft DOE Performance Objectives and Criteria for Technical Safety Appraisals (May 1987) as a starting point, it was determined that 14 functional areas for evaluation listed in the report were suitable for Chem Tech use. An additional 5 functional areas were added for completeness since Chem Tech has a broader set of missions than a reactor facility. The Performance Objectives and Criteria (POC) for each functional area in the DOE report were

  3. Computerization of Hungarian reforestation manual with machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimber, Kornél; Gálos, Borbála; Mátyás, Csaba; Bidló, András; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Hungarian forests are highly sensitive to the changing climate, especially to the available precipitation amount. Over the past two decades several drought damages were observed for tree species which are in the lower xeric limit of their distribution. From year to year these affected forest stands become more difficult to reforest with the same native species because these are not able to adapt to the increasing probability of droughts. The climate related parameter set of the Hungarian forest stand database needs updates. Air humidity that was formerly used to define the forest climate zones is not measured anymore and its value based on climate model outputs is highly uncertain. The aim was to develop a novel computerized and objective method to describe the species-specific climate conditions that is essential for survival, growth and optimal production of the forest ecosystems. The method is expected to project the species spatial distribution until 2100 on the basis of regional climate model simulations. Until now, Hungarian forest managers have been using a carefully edited spreadsheet for reforestation purposes. Applying binding regulations this spreadsheet prescribes the stand-forming and admixed tree species and their expected growth rate for each forest site types. We are going to present a new machine learning based method to replace the former spreadsheet. We took into great consideration of various methods, such as maximum likelihood, Bayesian networks, Fuzzy logic. The method calculates distributions, setups classification, which can be validated and modified by experts if necessary. Projected climate change conditions makes necessary to include into this system an additional climate zone that does not exist in our region now, as well as new options for potential tree species. In addition to or instead of the existing ones, the influence of further limiting parameters (climatic extremes, soil water retention) are also investigated. Results will be

  4. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Renata Assis; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel de; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Nave, André; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Quecine, Maria Carolina

    Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000km 2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10) had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48). We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Key Performance Indicators Evaluation and Performance Measurement in Dry Port-Seaport System: A Multi Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimazahra BENTALEB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dry port-seaport services are key elements of a multimodal transport. They represent the needed infrastructure for its development. In this case, evaluating and improving their performance is necessary to achieve international competitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new model of performance measurement for the dry port-seaport system. To this aim, we have consolidated available researches and existing studies in order to identify and develop our proposed model framework. In this paper, a multi-criteria hierarchical model framework using MACBETH for dry port-seaport system has been developed. This framework can be used by managers at different levels of the system. The proposed model has been developed by exploring measurement gaps in multimodal transport field and by discovering prospective options from this area. The results and the methodology are practical. We obtain the global performance level of our involved system using our methodology, which can help managers in taken decisions and increase global performance of this system.

  6. Primary display latency criteria based on flying qualities and performance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, John D., Jr.; Beck, Corin P.; Johns, John B.

    1993-01-01

    With a pilots' increasing use of visual cue augmentation, much requiring extensive pre-processing, there is a need to establish criteria for new avionics/display design. The timeliness and synchronization of the augmented cues is vital to ensure the performance quality required for precision mission task elements (MTEs) where augmented cues are the primary source of information to the pilot. Processing delays incurred while transforming sensor-supplied flight information into visual cues are unavoidable. Relationships between maximum control system delays and associated flying qualities levels are documented in MIL-F-83300 and MIL-F-8785. While cues representing aircraft status may be just as vital to the pilot as prompt control response for operations in instrument meteorological conditions, presently, there are no specification requirements on avionics system latency. To produce data relating avionics system latency to degradations in flying qualities, the Navy conducted two simulation investigations. During the investigations, flying qualities and performance data were recorded as simulated avionics system latency was varied. Correlated results of the investigation indicates that there is a detrimental impact of latency on flying qualities. Analysis of these results and consideration of key factors influencing their application indicate that: (1) Task performance degrades and pilot workload increases as latency is increased. Inconsistency in task performance increases as latency increases. (2) Latency reduces the probability of achieving Level 1 handling qualities with avionics system latency as low as 70 ms. (3) The data suggest that the achievement of desired performance will be ensured only at display latency values below 120 ms. (4) These data also suggest that avoidance of inadequate performance will be ensured only at display latency values below 150 ms.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Five Different Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) Diagnostic Criteria for Predicting Mortality in Patients with Complicated Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sang Ook; Park, Sang Hyuk; Hong, Sang Bum; Jang, Seongsoo

    2016-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a major complication in sepsis patients. We compared the performance of five DIC diagnostic criteria, focusing on the prediction of mortality. One hundred patients with severe sepsis or septic shock admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) were enrolled. Routine DIC laboratory tests were performed over the first 4 days after admission. The overall ICU and 28-day mortality in DIC patients diagnosed from five criteria (International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis [ISTH], the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine [JAAM], the revised JAAM [R-JAAM], the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare [JMHW] and the Korean Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis [KSTH]) were compared. Both KSTH and JMHW criteria showed superior performance than ISTH, JAAM and R-JAAM criteria in the prediction of overall ICU mortality in DIC patients (odds ratio 3.828 and 5.181, P = 0.018 and 0.006, 95% confidence interval 1.256-11.667 and 1.622-16.554, respectively) when applied at day 1 after admission, and survival analysis demonstrated significant prognostic impact of KSTH and JMHW criteria on the prediction of 28-day mortality (P = 0.007 and 0.049, respectively) when applied at day 1 after admission. In conclusion, both KSTH and JMHW criteria would be more useful than other three criteria in predicting prognosis in DIC patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.

  8. Multi-criteria group decision making for evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Santoso; Deng, Hepu

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria group decision making approach for effectively evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs under uncertainty in an organization. Intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are used for adequately representing the subjective and imprecise assessments of the decision makers in evaluating the relative importance of evaluation criteria and the performance of individual e-waste recycling programs with respect to individual criteria in a given situation. An interactive fuzzy multi-criteria decision making algorithm is developed for facilitating consensus building in a group decision making environment to ensure that all the interest of individual decision makers have been appropriately considered in evaluating alternative e-waste recycling programs with respect to their corporate sustainability performance. The developed algorithm is then incorporated into a multi-criteria decision support system for making the overall performance evaluation process effectively and simple to use. Such a multi-criteria decision making system adequately provides organizations with a proactive mechanism for incorporating the concept of corporate sustainability into their regular planning decisions and business practices. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed approach in evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs in organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Survival, reproduction, and recruitment of woody plants after 14 years on a reforested landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N.; Schmalhofer, Victoria R.

    1992-03-01

    With the advent of modern sanitary landfill closure techniques, the opportunity exists for transforming municipal landfills into urban woodlands. While costs of fullscale reforestation are generally prohibitive, a modest planting of clusters of trees and shrubs could initiate or accelerate population expansions and natural plant succession from open field to diverse forest. However, among woody species that have been screened for use on landfills, these ecological potentials have not yet been investigated. We examined a 14-yr-old landfill plantation in New Jersey, USA, established to test tolerance of 19 species of trees and shrubs to landfill environments. We measured survivorship, reproduction, and recruitment within and around the experimental installation. Half of the original 190 plants were present, although survival and growth rates varied widely among species. An additional 752 trees and shrubs had colonized the plantation and its perimeter, as well as 2955 stems of vines. However, the great majority (>95%) of woody plants that had colonized were not progeny of the planted cohort, but instead belonged to 18 invading species, mostly native, bird-dispersed, and associated with intermediate stages of secondary plant succession. Based on this evidence, we recommend that several ecological criteria be applied to choices of woody species for the restoration of municipal landfills and similar degraded sites, in order to maximize rapid and economical establishment of diverse, productive woodlands.

  10. Criteria for Performing Cranial Computed Tomography for Chinese Patients With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Canadian Computed Tomography Head Rule or New Orleans Criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Feng; Meng, Yuan-Yuan; Wen, Liang; Wang, Hao

    2017-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides the primary diagnostic evidence for traumatic brain injury (TBI), but few positive traumatic findings are discovered in patients with mild TBI. In China, there are no existing criteria for selecting patients with mild TBI to undergo CT, and almost all of these patients undergo cranial CT in the emergency department. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the necessity of cranial CT among patients with mild TBI, as well as the feasibility of 2 popular criteria (Canadian CT head rule [CCHR] and New Orleans Criteria [NOC]) in China. Patients with mild TBI who underwent cranial CT within 24 hours of the trauma were included in our institute. Two neurosurgeons reviewed the CT images independently to identify positive CT findings. The sensitivity and specificity of CCHR and NOC for positive CT findings related to TBI were analyzed. Finally, this study included 625 patients. Positive CT findings related to TBI were discovered in 13.12% (82/625) of these patients on cranial CT, and 6.88% (43/625) of them were admitted to the hospital for further management. Ultimately, 11 patients (1.76%, 11/625) underwent neurosurgery. In this study, the sensitivities of both the CCHR and NOC were 100%, but the specificity of CCHR was 43.36% and that of NOC was 33.12%. Based on our study, both CCHR and NOC have high sensitivity for the detection of positive CT findings related to head trauma in patients with mild TBI.

  11. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: functional requirements and performance criteria for waste packages for solidified high-level waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has primary federal responsibility for the development and implementation of safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear waste disposal methods. Currently, the principal emphasis in the program is on emplacement of nuclear wastes in mined geologic repositories well beneath the earth's surface. A brief description of the mined geologic disposal system is provided. The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program was established under DOE's predecessor, the Energy Research and Development Administration, to provide facilities for the mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. The NWTS program includes both the development and the implementation of the technology necessary for designing, constructing, licensing, and operating repositories. The program does not include the management of processing radioactive wastes or of transporting the wastes to repositories. The NWTS-33 series, of which this document is a part, provides guidance for the NWTS program in the development and implementation of licensed mined geologic disposal systems for solidified high-level and transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document presents the functional requirements and performance criteria for waste packages for solidified high-level waste and spent fuel. A separate document to be developed, NWTS-33(4b), will present the requirements and criteria for waste packages for TRU wastes. The hierarchy and application of these requirements and criteria are discussed in Section 2.2

  12. ASYMMETRIC PRICE TRANSMISSION MODELING: THE IMPORTANCE OF MODEL COMPLEXITY AND THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SELECTION CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry de-Graft Acquah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Criteria provides an attractive basis for selecting the best model from a set of competing asymmetric price transmission models or theories. However, little is understood about the sensitivity of the model selection methods to model complexity. This study therefore fits competing asymmetric price transmission models that differ in complexity to simulated data and evaluates the ability of the model selection methods to recover the true model. The results of Monte Carlo experimentation suggest that in general BIC, CAIC and DIC were superior to AIC when the true data generating process was the standard error correction model, whereas AIC was more successful when the true model was the complex error correction model. It is also shown that the model selection methods performed better in large samples for a complex asymmetric data generating process than with a standard asymmetric data generating process. Except for complex models, AIC's performance did not make substantial gains in recovery rates as sample size increased. The research findings demonstrate the influence of model complexity in asymmetric price transmission model comparison and selection.

  13. Decomposition of the Mean Squared Error and NSE Performance Criteria: Implications for Improving Hydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hoshin V.; Kling, Harald; Yilmaz, Koray K.; Martinez-Baquero, Guillermo F.

    2009-01-01

    The mean squared error (MSE) and the related normalization, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), are the two criteria most widely used for calibration and evaluation of hydrological models with observed data. Here, we present a diagnostically interesting decomposition of NSE (and hence MSE), which facilitates analysis of the relative importance of its different components in the context of hydrological modelling, and show how model calibration problems can arise due to interactions among these components. The analysis is illustrated by calibrating a simple conceptual precipitation-runoff model to daily data for a number of Austrian basins having a broad range of hydro-meteorological characteristics. Evaluation of the results clearly demonstrates the problems that can be associated with any calibration based on the NSE (or MSE) criterion. While we propose and test an alternative criterion that can help to reduce model calibration problems, the primary purpose of this study is not to present an improved measure of model performance. Instead, we seek to show that there are systematic problems inherent with any optimization based on formulations related to the MSE. The analysis and results have implications to the manner in which we calibrate and evaluate environmental models; we discuss these and suggest possible ways forward that may move us towards an improved and diagnostically meaningful approach to model performance evaluation and identification.

  14. Extrapolating power-ramp performance criteria for current and advanced CANDU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, M.; Chassie, G.G

    2000-06-01

    To improve the precision and accuracy of power-ramp performance criteria for high-burnup fuel, we have examined in-reactor fuel performance data as well as out-reactor test data. The data are consistent with some of the concepts used in the current formulations for defining fuel failure thresholds, such as size of power-ramp and extent of burnup. Our review indicates that there is a need to modify some other aspects of the current formulations; therefore, a modified formulation is presented in this paper. The improvements mainly concern corrodent concentration and its relationships with threshold stress for failure. The new formulation is consistent with known and expected trends such as strength of Zircaloy in corrosive environment, timing of the release of fission products to the pellet-to-sheath gap, CANLUB coating, and fuel burnup. Because of the increased precision and accuracy, the new formulation is better able to identify operational regimes that are at risk of power-ramp failures; this predictive ability provides enhanced protection to fuel against power-ramp defects. At die same time, by removing unnecessary conservatisms in other areas, the new formulation permits a greater range of defect-free operational envelope as well as larger operating margins in regions that are, in fact, not prone to power-ramp failures. (author)

  15. ANALISIS PENGUKURAN KINERJA PENGADAAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE SINK’S SEVEN PERFORMANCE CRITERIA (Studi Kasus di Universitas Diponegoro Semarang Tahun 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnawan Adi Wicaksono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pengukuran kinerja pengadaan di Universitas Diponegoro telah dilakukan dengan melihat segi financial. Pengukuran secara finansial memiliki kelemahan yaitu tidak dapat menjelaskan apakah dengan penyerapan anggaran yang semakin besar maka akan semakin baik efisiensi dan kinerjanya. Ukuran kinerja lain yang penting seperti ketepatan waktu pengiriman barang, kecocokan spesifikasi dan jumlah barang, hingga tujuan dan keinginan pengguna apakah sesuai atau tidak, belum terukur dengan jelas. Pengukuran kinerja pengadaan akan dilakukan menggunakan model Sink’s Seven Performance Criteria, yaitu model pengukuran kinerja yang menggambarkan suatu sistem manajemen sebagai suatu mekanisme untuk membangun siklus perbaikan yang lebih efektif. Hasil perancangan pengukuran kinerja terdiri dari 6 kriteria dengan urutan prioritas sebagai berikut: kriteria Kualitas (31%, kriteria Efisiensi (17.2%, kriteria Efektivitas (17.2%, kriteria Kualitas Kehidupan Kerja (13.8%, kriteria Budgetabilitas (11.6%, dan kriteria Inovasi (9.2%. Dari keenam kriteria kinerja tersebut, diperoleh rancangan akhir 32 KPI yang berisi: 17 KPI Kuantitatif dan 15 KPI Kualitatif. Berdasarkan hasil pengukuran kinerja dengan Objective Matrix dan Traffic Light System, menunjukkan bahwa kinerja pengadaan tahun 2007 adalah sebesar 4.564 yang berada dalam kategori warna kuning yang berarti pencapaian kinerjanya ini sudah cukup baik meskipun nilainya mendekati kategori buruk, sehingga masih perlu ditingkatkan lagi. Dari hasil analisis Importance – Performance Matrix, diperoleh indikator-indikator yang berada dalam zona penting tetapi ternyata kinerjanya masih rendah. Indikator tersebut adalah Efisiensi waktu, Efisiensi jumlah personil, Pemborosan waktu, Pemborosan personil, Jumlah lelang gagal/lelang ulang, Jumlah keluhan pengguna, Jumlah penyedia ingkar kontrak, dan Inovasi proses. Oleh karena itu rekomendasi diutamakan untuk indikator-indikator di atas. Kata Kunci: Pengukuran kinerja Pengadaan

  16. Diagnostic Performance of Three Phase Bone Scan for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 with Optimally Modified Image Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Paeng, Jin Chul; Nahm, Francins Sahngun; Kim, Seog Gyun; Zehra, Tanzeel; Oh, So Won; Lee, Hyo Sang; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Although the three phase bone scan (TBPS) is one of the widely used imaging studies for diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1), there is some controversy regarding the TPBS image criteria for CRPS 1. In this study, we modified the image criteria using image pattern and quantitative analysis in the patients diagnosed using the most recent consensus clinical diagnostic criteria. The study included 140 patients with suspected CRPS 1 (CRPS 1, n=79; non CRPS, n=61; mean age 39{+-}15 years) who underwent TPBS. The clinical diagnostic criteria for CRPS 1 revised by the Budapest consensus group were used for confirmative diagnosis. Patients were classified according to flow/pool and delayed uptake (DU) image patterns, and the time interval between the initiating event and TPBS (TI{sup eventscan)}. Quantitative analysis for lesion to contralateral ratio (LCR) was performed. Modified TPBS image criteria were created and evaluated for optimal diagnostic performance. Both increased and decreased periarticular DU were significant image findings for CRPS 1 (CRPS 1 positive rate=73% in the increased DU group, 75% in the decreased DU group). The TI{sup eventscand}id not differ significantly between the different image pattern groups. Quantitative analysis revealed an LCR of 1.43 was the optimal cutoff value for CRPS 1 and diagnostic performance was significantly improved in the increased DU group (area under the curve=0.732). Given the modified image criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of TPBS for diagnosing CRPS 1 were 80% and 72%, respectively. Optimally modified TPBS image criteria for CRPS 1 were suggested using image pattern and quantitative analysis. With the criteria, TPBS is an effective imaging study for CRPS 1 even with the most recent consensus clinical diagnostic criteria.

  17. Diagnostic Performance of Three Phase Bone Scan for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 with Optimally Modified Image Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Paeng, Jin Chul; Nahm, Francins Sahngun; Kim, Seog Gyun; Zehra, Tanzeel; Oh, So Won; Lee, Hyo Sang; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    Although the three phase bone scan (TBPS) is one of the widely used imaging studies for diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1), there is some controversy regarding the TPBS image criteria for CRPS 1. In this study, we modified the image criteria using image pattern and quantitative analysis in the patients diagnosed using the most recent consensus clinical diagnostic criteria. The study included 140 patients with suspected CRPS 1 (CRPS 1, n=79; non CRPS, n=61; mean age 39±15 years) who underwent TPBS. The clinical diagnostic criteria for CRPS 1 revised by the Budapest consensus group were used for confirmative diagnosis. Patients were classified according to flow/pool and delayed uptake (DU) image patterns, and the time interval between the initiating event and TPBS (TI eventscan) . Quantitative analysis for lesion to contralateral ratio (LCR) was performed. Modified TPBS image criteria were created and evaluated for optimal diagnostic performance. Both increased and decreased periarticular DU were significant image findings for CRPS 1 (CRPS 1 positive rate=73% in the increased DU group, 75% in the decreased DU group). The TI eventscand id not differ significantly between the different image pattern groups. Quantitative analysis revealed an LCR of 1.43 was the optimal cutoff value for CRPS 1 and diagnostic performance was significantly improved in the increased DU group (area under the curve=0.732). Given the modified image criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of TPBS for diagnosing CRPS 1 were 80% and 72%, respectively. Optimally modified TPBS image criteria for CRPS 1 were suggested using image pattern and quantitative analysis. With the criteria, TPBS is an effective imaging study for CRPS 1 even with the most recent consensus clinical diagnostic criteria.

  18. Reforestation feasibility in area formerly used for cattle rasing in the state of Rondônia, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes Gama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little knowledge on initial behavior of native tree species in recovering landscapes in the Amazon is a current concern for expanding reforestation in the region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of native tree species that could be used for reforestation in area previously covered by a pasture of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha destined for intensive cattle rasing in the State of Rondônia. For this, there were performed previous diagnostic of landscape changes and the election of tree species based on the ecological group information. Some of the critical macronutrients for plant growth were supplied in the holes to alleviate nutrient deficiencies. In addition, growth and survival parameters were taken to evaluate the initial behavior of species. Six native tree species planted with different combinations (10mx10m, 5mx5m and 3mx3m had survival rate and growth (total height, girth stem and crown projection area measured in different intervals: 6-month, 12-month and 24-month after planting. All the species presented survival rate over 90% at 24 months and comparable growth indices to other native species under similar situation and in the region. Overall, Schizolobium amazonicum (bandarra, the non-identified legume tree 1 (acácia grande and Colubrina glandulosa (sóbrasil averaged over 90% the highest girth stem growth all over the area. S. amazonicum and the non-identified legume tree 1 (acácia grande presented the best results for height and canopy area growth parameters, respectively. The combination among native tree species from initial successional ecological groups and fertilizer was favorable to promote reforestation in the conditions of the study area in Rondônia.

  19. Soil organic matter dynamics during 80 years of reforestation of tropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika Marin-Spiotta; Whendee L. Silver; Christopher W. Swanston; Rebecca. Ostertag

    2009-01-01

    Our research takes advantage of a historical trend in natural reforestation of abandoned tropical pastures to examine changes in soil carbon (C) during 80 years of secondary forest regrowth. We combined a chronosequence...

  20. Reforestation of Imperata grasslands in Indonesia as an option for mitigation of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, L O [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway)

    1999-12-31

    The paper discusses reforestation of Imperata (alang-alang) grasslands in Indonesia as one strategy to counteract the anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. Large-scale Imperata grasslands, mainly formed as a result of deforestation and land use change, cover at least 8.6 million hectares or 4.5% of the land area in Indonesia. Reforestation of these lands has a large potential for carbon sequestration and could yield significant socio-economic and environmental benefits. However, there are at present several constraints and barriers to capturing these benefits. The global carbon sequestration benefits of reforestation must be considered jointly with objectives for local development and environmental conservation. A major challenge is to examine potential areas of synergy or conflict between global and local objectives. There is also a need for a more comprehensive assessment of how reforestation projects affect carbon flows and stocks. 45 refs.

  1. Discerning fragmentation dynamics of tropical forest and wetland during reforestation, urban sprawl, and policy shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Gao

    Full Text Available Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940-2000 and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr-1 in 1977-1991 versus 2.17% yr-1 in 1991-2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws

  2. Discerning fragmentation dynamics of tropical forest and wetland during reforestation, urban sprawl, and policy shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940-2000) and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr-1 in 1977-1991 versus 2.17% yr-1 in 1991-2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws/regulations in land

  3. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world’s largest reforestation programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China’s Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world’s largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP’s biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on...

  4. Performance of different diagnostic criteria of overweight and obesity as predictors of metabolic syndrome in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Overweight and obesity using BMI showed a moderate association with MetS, regardless of the diagnostic criteria used. However, the IOTF criterion showed better predictive capacity for the presence of MetS than the WHO and the Conde and Monteiro criteria.

  5. Development of performance assessment methodology for establishment of quantitative acceptance criteria of near-surface radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. R.; Lee, E. Y.; Park, J. W.; Chang, G. M.; Park, H. Y.; Yeom, Y. S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : review of state-of-the-art on the establishment of waste acceptance criteria in foreign near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities, investigation of radiological assessment methodologies and scenarios, investigation of existing models and computer codes used in performance/safety assessment, development of a performance assessment methodology(draft) to derive quantitatively radionuclide acceptance criteria of domestic near-surface disposal facility, preliminary performance/safety assessment in accordance with the developed methodology.

  6. Performance Based Failure Criteria of the Base Isolation System for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil

    2013-01-01

    The realistic approach to evaluate the failure state of the base isolation system is necessary. From this point of view, several concerns are reviewed and discussed in this study. This is the preliminary study for the performance based risk assessment of a base isolated nuclear power plant. The items to evaluate the capacity and response of an individual base isolator and a base isolation system were briefly outlined. However, the methodology to evaluate the realistic fragility of a base isolation system still needs to be specified. For the quantification of the seismic risk for a nuclear power plant structure, the failure probabilities of the structural component for the various seismic intensity levels need to be calculated. The failure probability is evaluated as the probability when the seismic response of a structure exceeds the failure criteria. Accordingly, the failure mode of the structural system caused by an earthquake vibration should be defined first. The type of a base isolator appropriate for a nuclear power plant structure is regarded as an elastometric rubber bearing with a lead core. The failure limit of the lead-rubber bearing (LRB) is not easy to be predicted because of its high nonlinearity and a complex loading condition by an earthquake excitation. Furthermore, the failure mode of the LRB system installed below the nuclear island cannot be simply determined because the basemat can be sufficiently supported if the number of damaged isolator is not much

  7. Analysis of existing work-zone devices with MASH safety performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Crashworthy, work-zone, portable sign support systems accepted under NCHRP Report No. 350 were analyzed to : predict their safety peformance according to the TL-3 MASH evaluation criteria. An analysis was conducted to determine : which hardware param...

  8. Performance of classification criteria for gout in early and established disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, William J; Fransen, Jaap; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of different classification criteria for gout in early and established disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of consecutive rheumatology clinic patients with joint swelling in which gout was defined by presence or absence...... of monosodium urate crystals as observed by a certified examiner at presentation. Early disease was defined as patient-reported onset of symptoms of 2 years or less. RESULTS: Data from 983 patients were collected and gout was present in 509 (52%). Early disease was present in 144 gout cases and 228 non.......3%/84.4% and 86.4%/63.6%. Criteria not requiring synovial fluid analysis had sensitivity and specificity of less than 80% in early and established disease. CONCLUSIONS: Existing classification criteria for gout have sensitivity of over 80% in early and established disease but currently available criteria that do...

  9. Performance evaluation for epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG) detection by using Neyman-Pearson criteria and a support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-mei; Zhang, Chong-ming; Zou, Jun-zhong; Zhang, Jian

    2012-02-01

    The diagnosis of several neurological disorders is based on the detection of typical pathological patterns in electroencephalograms (EEGs). This is a time-consuming task requiring significant training and experience. A lot of effort has been devoted to developing automatic detection techniques which might help not only in accelerating this process but also in avoiding the disagreement among readers of the same record. In this work, Neyman-Pearson criteria and a support vector machine (SVM) are applied for detecting an epileptic EEG. Decision making is performed in two stages: feature extraction by computing the wavelet coefficients and the approximate entropy (ApEn) and detection by using Neyman-Pearson criteria and an SVM. Then the detection performance of the proposed method is evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that the wavelet coefficients and the ApEn are features that represent the EEG signals well. By comparison with Neyman-Pearson criteria, an SVM applied on these features achieved higher detection accuracies.

  10. Effects of Reforestation on Tree Pollen Sensitization in Inhabitants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Palma-Gómez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change has implications for health, ecology and society. Urban green areas are a key element in the planning of citie, promoting citizen interaction with the environment, as well as health. Lack of planning and design of these areas as well as the selection of ornamental trees can be a trigger of pollen allergy in the surrounding population. Reforestation is among the programs implemented by the government that have an impact on allergy. Environmental reforestation programs do not take into account the allergenic potential of some spe- cies. In the last 4 years, the government of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, has planted nearly 18,000 Quercus species trees, in addition to an unknown number of Fraxinus species trees that are listed as tree species with high pollen production. Objective: To identify changes in tree pollen sensitization, based on environmental reforestation programs. Material and method: A retrospective and descriptive study was done in which positive skin prick tests to pollen from trees in the interval of 2010-2014 were analyzed, correlating between tree species used for reforestation and increased sensitivity to the former. Results: A statistically signi cant increase in pollen sensitization to species with which Nuevo Leon was reforested was found, along with a decrease in sensitization to the species that were not reforested. Conclusion: Reforestation contributes to some extent to the change in the pattern of positive skin tests and may result in more frequent exac- erbations of respiratory diseases. It is an activity that should always be regulated and assisted by experts in the according eld.

  11. Disappointing performance of literature-derived selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in an inner-city population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, I G; Boeke, A J; Morré, S A; van den Brule, A J; Meijer, C J; Devillé, W; Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an inner-city population with a low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, selective screening may be indicated to increase the efficiency of screening. GOAL: To evaluate the performance of sets of selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection

  12. Using multiple and specific criteria to assess the predictive validity of the Big Five personality factors on academic performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, F.R.; van der Flier, H.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple and specific academic performance criteria were used to examine the predictive validity of the Big Five personality traits. One hundred thirty-three students in a college of higher learning in The Netherlands participated in a naturally occurring field study. The results of the NEO-FFI were

  13. 77 FR 58607 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...: Notification of criteria used to evaluate the National Aerospace Training and Research (NASTAR) Center safety... approval for the ability of its Falcon 12/4 Altitude Chamber to replicate pressures experienced at altitude...). NASTAR's Falcon 12/4 Altitude Chamber is capable of replicating any pressure experienced at altitudes...

  14. 78 FR 28275 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... provide as a service, scenario based physiology training, which includes hypobaric chamber training. BST may offer its scenario based physiology altitude training as a service to a prospective launch and...: Notification of criteria used to evaluate the Black Sky Training, Inc. (BST) safety approval application...

  15. Feasibility Study on: Reforestation of Degraded Grasslands in Indonesia as a Climate Change Mitigation Option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, A; Naess, L O; Sutamihardja, R T.M.; Gintings, N

    1997-12-31

    The report deals with a cooperation project between Norway and Indonesia dealing with a feasibility study on sustainable reforestation of degraded grasslands in Indonesia. Poor forest management and uncontrolled land use changes contribute a significant share anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO{sub 2}, and one of many ways to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission is to encourage reforestation and better forest management. The report contains a brief overview of the issue of Imperata (alang-alang) grasslands, an outline of the present status, a discussion of potential costs and benefits associated with reforestation, and suggestions of strategies which could be applied to reach the desired goals. Case studies are presented from three locations where field work has been undertaken. The case studies provide baseline data about the sites and the imperata grasslands, experiences from earlier efforts to rehabilitate the grasslands, the common attitude to reforestation among the local communities, a discussion of the feasibility of reforestation, and finally, recommendations for the future. 142 refs., 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Feasibility Study on: Reforestation of Degraded Grasslands in Indonesia as a Climate Change Mitigation Option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, A.; Naess, L.O.; Sutamihardja, R.T.M.; Gintings, N.

    1996-12-31

    The report deals with a cooperation project between Norway and Indonesia dealing with a feasibility study on sustainable reforestation of degraded grasslands in Indonesia. Poor forest management and uncontrolled land use changes contribute a significant share anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO{sub 2}, and one of many ways to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission is to encourage reforestation and better forest management. The report contains a brief overview of the issue of Imperata (alang-alang) grasslands, an outline of the present status, a discussion of potential costs and benefits associated with reforestation, and suggestions of strategies which could be applied to reach the desired goals. Case studies are presented from three locations where field work has been undertaken. The case studies provide baseline data about the sites and the imperata grasslands, experiences from earlier efforts to rehabilitate the grasslands, the common attitude to reforestation among the local communities, a discussion of the feasibility of reforestation, and finally, recommendations for the future. 142 refs., 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Novel and conventional working fluid mixtures for solar Rankine cycles: Performance assessment and multi-criteria selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrou, Paschalia; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I.; Stijepovic, Mirko Z.; Seferlis, Panos; Linke, Patrick; Voutetakis, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of working fluid mixtures for use in solar ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems) with heat storage employing FPC (Flat Plate Collectors). Several mixtures are considered including conventional choices often utilized in ORC as well as novel mixtures previously designed using advanced computer aided molecular design methods (Papadopoulos et al., 2013). The impact of heat source variability on the ORC performance is assessed for different working fluid mixtures. Solar radiation is represented in detail through actual, hourly averaged data for an entire year. A multi-criteria mixture selection methodology unveils important trade-offs among several important system operating parameters and efficiently highlights optimum operating ranges. Such parameters include the ORC thermal efficiency, the net generated power, the volume ratio across the turbine, the mass flow rate of the ORC working fluid, the evaporator temperature glide, the temperature drop in the storage tank, the ORC total yearly operating duration, the required collector aperture area to generate 1 kW of power and the irreversibility. A mixture of neopentane – 2-fluoromethoxy-2-methylpropane at 70% neopentane is found to be the most efficient in all the considered criteria simultaneously. - Highlights: • Investigation of novel and conventional working fluid mixtures for solar ORCs. • Systematic, multi-criteria assessment methodology for mixture selection. • Simultaneous consideration of multiple important mixture performance criteria. • Effects of year-round solar variability in a solar ORC with heat storage tank

  18. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP) and return to activity criteria (RTAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.

  19. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP and return to activity criteria (RTAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logerstedt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.

  20. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi'An; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China.

  1. Descriptive analysis of bacon smoked with Brazilian woods from reforestation: methodological aspects, statistical analysis, and study of sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Erick; Castillo, Luiz Saldarriaga; Sánchez, Jorge Cabrera; Siche, Raúl; de Almeida, Marcio Aurélio; Behrens, Jorge H; Selani, Miriam Mabel; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis (DA) of bacons smoked with woods from reforestation and liquid smokes in order to investigate their sensory profile. Six samples of bacon were selected: three smoked bacons with different wood species (Eucalyptus citriodora, Acacia mearnsii, and Bambusa vulgaris), two artificially smoked bacon samples (liquid smoke) and one negative control (unsmoked bacon). Additionally, a commercial bacon sample was also evaluated. DA was developed successfully, presenting a good performance in terms of discrimination, consensus and repeatability. The study revealed that the smoking process modified the sensory profile by intensifying the "saltiness" and differentiating the unsmoked from the smoked samples. The results from the current research represent the first methodological development of descriptive analysis of bacon and may be used by food companies and other stakeholders to understand the changes in sensory characteristics of bacon due to traditional smoking process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeted reforestation could reverse declines in connectivity for understory birds in a tropical habitat corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Matthew E; DeFries, Ruth S; Sesnie, Steven E; Arroyo-Mora, J Pablo; Chazdon, Robin L

    2016-07-01

    Re-establishing connectivity between protected areas isolated by habitat clearing is a key conservation goal in the humid tropics. In northeastern Costa Rica, payments for environmental services (PES) and a government ban on deforestation have subsidized forest protection and reforestation in the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC), resulting in a decline in mature forest loss and the expansion of tree plantations. We use field studies and graph models to assess how conservation efforts have altered functional connectivity over the last 25 years for four species of insectivorous understory birds. Field playback studies assessed how reforestation habitat quality affected the willingness of Myrmeciza exsul, Henicorhina leucosticta, Thamnophilus atrinucha, and Glyphorynchus spirurus to travel outside forest habitat for territorial defense. Observed travel distances were greatest in nonnative and native tree plantations with high understory stem density, regardless of overstory composition. In contrast, tree plantations with low stem density had travel responses comparable to open pasture for three of the four bird species. We modeled landscape connectivity for each species using graph models based on varying possible travel distances in tree plantations, gallery forests, and pastures. From 1986 to 2011, connectivity for all species declined in the SJLSBC landscape (5825 km 2 ) by 14% to 21% despite only a 4.9% net loss in forest area and the rapid expansion of tree plantations over 2% of the landscape. Plantation placement in the landscape limited their potential facilitation of connectivity because they were located either far from forest cover or within already contiguous forest areas. We mapped current connectivity bottlenecks and identified priority areas for future reforestation. We estimate that reforestation of priority areas could improve connectivity by 2% with only a 1% gain in forest cover, an impressive gain given the small area reforested

  3. Rates, drivers and impacts of reforestation and afforestation in Western Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakwiye, B.; Rogan, J.; Eastman, R.

    2017-12-01

    Within East-Africa, Rwanda is the most heavily populated, predominantly rural country where 85% of the population heavily depends on smallholder agriculture and natural resources. The biodiversity-rich, high elevation western region of Rwanda has historically experienced unprecedented forest loss and degradation, resulting in major losses of wildlife habitat, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Forest loss peaked during the 1990s civil wars and genocide when forests sheltered both civilians and combatants or were cleared to resettle refugees. Since the 2000s, national and international initiatives have encouraged reforestation and afforestation activities aiming to reconnect remnant fragments and improve environmental resiliency. However, consistent spatially- and temporally-explicit regional assessments of these afforestation and reforestation activities are still lacking. This study links satellite and in situ socio-ecological data to document the rates and drivers of reforestation and afforestation in Western Rwanda. Random Forest classification was used to map the extent of forests using multitemporal Landsat-5, -7 and -8 images covering the period from 1986 to 2016. Semi-structured interviews with stakeholders were used to identify the potential drivers of afforestation and reforestation. Preliminary results show a net increase of 0.05% in forest cover from 2001 to 2016, predominantly occurring on former croplands and pasture/grasslands. Around 90% of afforested and reforested areas are patchy monocultures of Eucalyptus and Alnus species, valued for timber and wood by-products but with relatively low potential to provide other ecosystem services compared to native tree species. These results highlight the need for an integrated approach to afforestation and reforestation to ensure the sustainable provision of diverse ecosystem services.

  4. A fuzzy multi criteria approach for evaluating green supplier's performance in green supply chain with linguistic preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Lixin; Olfat, Laya; Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Today's international business environment has forced many firms to focus on supply chain management to gain a competitive advantage. During recent years, supplier selection process in the supply chain has become a key strategic consideration. With the growing worldwide awareness of environmental...... protection and the corresponding increase in legislation and regulations, green purchasing has become an important issue for companies to gain environmental sustainability. Traditionally, companies consider criteria such as price, quality and lead time, when evaluating supplier performance and do not give...... enough attention to environmental criteria as a means to evaluate suppliers. Now, many companies have begun to implement green supply chain management (GSCM) and to consider environmental issues and the measurement of their suppliers' environmental performance. This paper examines GSCM to propose a fuzzy...

  5. Observer Variability and the Performance between Faculties and Residents: US Criteria for Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Chang Suk; Jung, So Lyung

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the interobserver variability and performance in the interpretation of ultrasonographic (US) findings of thyroid nodules. 72 malignant nodules and 61 benign nodules were enrolled as part of this study. Five faculty radiologists and four residents independently performed a retrospective analysis of the US images. The observers received one training session after the first interpretation and then performed a secondary interpretation. Agreement was analyzed by Cohen's kappa statistic. Degree of performance was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Agreement between the faculties was fair-to-good for all criteria; however, between residents, agreement was poor-to-fair. The area under the ROC curves was 0.72, 0.62, and 0.60 for the faculties, senior residents, and junior residents, respectively. There was a significant difference in performance between the faculties and the residents (p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in the agreement for some criteria in the faculties and the senior residents after the training session, but no significant increase in the junior residents. Independent reporting of thyroid US performed by residents is undesirable. A continuous and specialized resident training is essential to enhance the degree of agreement and performance

  6. A BSC- EFQM method for evaluating and detecting performance measurement criteria: A case study of Malavan Footbal team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Shojaee Vazhnani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important criteria for performance measurement based on two methods of balanced score card (BSC as well as European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM methods. In order to determine the mission, vision, strategy and values we first review different documents including International Federation of football documentations, AFC and Football Federation of the Islamic Republic of Iran and Charter Club. Next, we determine the necessary criteria for performance measurement using interview with decision makers, design a questionnaire and distribute it among 57 players and coaching staff as well as experts, veterans and supporters club. Next, we study the results using t-student test and analyze them. The results are categorized in terms of four criteria of BSC method including internal processes, learning and growth, costumer and financial. In addition, key performance results based on the Excellence Model are classified according to nine areas of leadership, strategy, human resources, partnerships and resources, processes, customer results, human resource results and society.

  7. Utilizing an ANP framework for prioritizing effective criteria on performance management in cooperative organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Akhavan Alavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance management plays an essential role on increasing efficiency of business units. It helps find important barriers against a business unit helping us setup better strategies for handling troubles. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find important factors influencing performance management in cooperative organizations. The proposed study uses analytical hierarchy process to rank important factors in three groups of team level, individual and organization levels. The survey is based on receiving feedbacks from decision makers and making a pairwise comparison on measuring the relative importance of each criterion influencing performance management. The results of our survey indicate that setting appropriate standards for performance management is the most important item followed by relationship between organization structure and performance management, performance management based on future events. The other three factors including continuous improvement and updating systems, encouraging employee for change culture and relationship between future outlook and performance management are other important factors.

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF THE ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROJECTS - A PREMISE OF INCREASING THE UNIVERSITY SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Marius TOMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Plan for Research, Development and Innovation 2007 – 2013, called herein the National Plan II, represents the main instrument used to implement the National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation. Universities play a unique role in the development of the knowledge-based society, through its contribution to knowledge generation, transmission, dissemination and utilization. The essential role of the university is to shape the highly qualified human resource, a process that implies a symbiosis between the education and research, the education system performances contributing in this way to a great extent to the society development. The highly qualified human resource represents an important asset of a nation. This study is dedicated to the analysis of the assessment criteria for the Exploratory Research Projects (ERP handed in the competitions in 2007, 2008, 2011 and 2012 and to highlight the importance of improving the assessment criteria in order to improve their quality.

  9. Admissions Criteria as Predictors of Academic Performance in a Three-Year Pharmacy Program at a Historically Black Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jayesh R.; Purnell, Miriam; Lang, Lynn A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the ability of University of Maryland Eastern Shore School of Pharmacy’s admissions criteria to predict students’ academic performance in a 3-year pharmacy program and to analyze transferability to African-American students. Methods. Statistical analyses were conducted on retrospective data for 174 students. Didactic and experiential scores were used as measures of academic performance. Results. Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT), grade point average (GPA), interview, and observational scores combined with previous pharmacy experience and biochemistry coursework predicted the students' academic performance except second-year (P2) experiential performance. For African-American students, didactic performance positively correlated with PCAT writing subtests, while the experiential performance positively correlated with previous pharmacy experience and observational score. For nonAfrican-American students, didactic performance positively correlated with PCAT multiple-choice subtests, and experiential performance with interview score. The prerequisite GPA positively correlated with both of the student subgroups’ didactic performance. Conclusion. Both PCAT and GPA were predictors of didactic performance, especially in nonAfrican-Americans. Pharmacy experience and observational scores were predictors of experiential performance, especially in African-Americans. PMID:26941432

  10. Natural Reforestation Reclaims a Watershed: A Case History from West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.P. Lima; J.H. Patric; N. Holowaychuk

    1978-01-01

    Thirteen years of hydrologic data from two contiguous small watersheds in West Virginia were analyzed to determine the effects on streamflow of natural reforestation on abandoned farmlands. During the study period (1958-1970), streamflow on the watersheds was unchanged. The history of land use on the study area helps explain the apparent lack of hydrologic effects of...

  11. Impact of natural reforestation on floodpain sedimentation in the Dragonja basin, SW Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesstra, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in floodplain sediment dynamics have profound effects on riverine habitats and riparian biodiversity. Depopulation due to socio-economic changes in the Dragonja catchment (91 km2) in southwestern Slovenia resulted in the abandonment of agricultural fields, followed by natural reforestation

  12. CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND PLANT COMMUNITY DYNAMICS FOLLOWING REFORESTATION OF TROPICAL PASTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHENDEE L. SILVER; LARA M. KUEPPERS; ARIEL E. LUGO; REBECCA OSTERTAG; VIRGINIA MATZEK

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of abandoned cattle pastures to secondary forests and plantations in the tropics has been proposed as a means to increase rates of carbon (C) sequestration from the atmosphere and enhance local biodiversity. We used a long-term tropical reforestation project (55–61 yr) to estimate rates of above- and belowground C sequestration and to investigate the impact...

  13. Climate-based seed zones for Mexico: guiding reforestation under observed and projected climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante Castellanos-Acuña; Kenneth W. Vance-Borland; J. Bradley St. Clair; Andreas Hamann; Javier López-Upton; Erika Gómez-Pineda; Juan Manuel Ortega-Rodríguez; Cuauhtémoc Sáenz-Romero

    2018-01-01

    Seed zones for forest tree species are a widely used tool in reforestation programs to ensure that seedlings are well adapted to their planting environments. Here, we propose a climate-based seed zone system for Mexico to address observed and projected climate change. The proposed seed zone classification is based on bands of climate variables often related to genetic...

  14. Comparative genetic responses to climate in the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: reforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Dennis G. Joyce; Laura P. Leites; J. Bradley St Clair; Javier Lopez-Upton

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on the climatic niche of the sub-specific varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii and on the adaptedness of their populations are considered from the viewpoint of reforestation. In using climate projections from an ensemble of 17 general circulation models targeting the decade surrounding 2060, our analyses suggest that a...

  15. The diagnostic performance of imaging methods in ARVC using the 2010 Task Force criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgquist, Rasmus; Haugaa, Kristina H; Gilljam, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , fractional area shortening 31 ± 9 vs. 39 ± 9% (P performance was low; sensitivity 50% and specificity 70%, positive predictive value 80% and negative predictive value 37...... evaluation of subtle structural changes in the right ventricle may be unreliable, and the diagnostic performance of CMR compared with echocardiography should be reflected in the guidelines....

  16. Waste package performance criteria for deepsea disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1988-07-01

    Sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste began in the United States in 1946, and was placed under the licensing authority of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The practice stopped completely in 1970. Most of the waste disposed of at sea was packaged in second- hand or reconditioned 55-gallon drums filled with cement so that the average package density was sufficiently greater than that of sea water to ensure sinking. It was assumed that all the contents would eventually be released since the packages were not designed or required to remain intact for sustained periods of time after descent to the ocean bottom. Recently, there has been renewed interest in ocean disposal, both in this country and abroad, as a waste management alternative to land burial. The Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (PL 92-532) gives EPA the regulatory responsibility for ocean dumping of all materials, including radioactive waste. This act prohibits the ocean disposal of high-level radioactive waste and requires EPA to control the ocean disposal of all other radioactive waste through the issuance of permits. In implementing its permit authorities, EPA issued on initial set of regulations and criteria in 1973 to control the disposal of material into the ocean waters. It was in these regulations that EPA initially introduced the general requirement of isolation and containment of radioactive waste as the basic operating philosophy. 37 refs

  17. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  18. Increasing the effectiveness of native forest regeneration and reforestation: towards climate-change adaptation in drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branquinho, Cristina; Príncipe, Adriana; Nunes, Alice; Kobel, Melanie; Soares, Cristina; Pinho, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The recent expansion of the semiarid climate to all the region of the south of Portugal and the growing impact of climate change demands local adaptation. The growth of the native forest represents a strategy at the ecosystem level to adapt to climate change since it increases resilience and increases also de delivery of ecosystem services such as the increment of organic matter in the soil, carbon and nitrogen, biodiversity, water infiltration, etc. Moreover decreases susceptibility to desertification. For that reason, large areas have been reforested in the south of Portugal with the native species holm oak and cork oak but with a low rate of effectiveness. Our goal in this work is to show how the cost-benefit relation of the actions intended to expand the forest of the Portuguese semiarid can be lowered by taking into account the microclimatic conditions and high spatial resolution management. The potential of forest regeneration was modelled at the local and regional level in the semiarid area using information concerning the Potential Solar Radiation. This model gives us the rate of native forest regeneration after a disturbance with high spatial resolution. Based on this model the territory was classified in: i) easy regeneration areas; ii) areas with the need of assisted reforestation, using methods that increase water and soil conservation; iii) areas of difficult reforestation because of the costs. Additionally a summary of the success of reforestations was made in the historical semiarid since the 60s based on the evaluation of a series of case studies, where we quantified the ecosystem services currently delivered by the reforested ecosystems. Acknowledgement: Programa Adapt: financed by EEA Grants and Fundo Português de Carbono

  19. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA of RUBBER UKM BASED ON COOPERATIVE USING BALANCED SCORECARD METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy Iriani Putri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (UKM of Usaha Mandiri is the only UKM in Putri Hijau district, North Bengkulu that carries out its activities based on cooperative principles. The UKM was established in 2010 due to the rubber farmer’s concern about their future. In the last few years, the rubber price has declined, resulting in the decreasing performance of UKM Usaha Mandiri’s.  The objective of this research is to analyze the performance of UKM of Usaha Mandiri.  The method used is balanced scorecard (BSC and Focus Group Discussion (FGD to identify the UKM’s strategic aim and the BSC value. The result of the research shows that the performance of UKM of Usaha Mandiri   started to decline from 2013–2015.  The BSC score from 2011–2015 was 112.93 (excellent, 141.84 (excellent, 95.41 (excellent, 47.42 (average and 81.62 (very good.  The decline of the performance was due to the decline of natural rubber price.  The conclusion for the research is that in 2015 the performance of UKM of Usaha Mandiri   was categorized as very good (BSC method with the most contribution from growth and learning perspective.        Keywords : Balanced scorecard, BSC, cooperation, performance measurement, UKM

  20. Two non-tracking solar collectors: Design criteria and performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratismith, Wattana; Inthongkhum, Anusorn; Briggs, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A collector module designed to capture solar radiation efficiently is proposed. • Two different compound parabolic trough designs are examined and tested. • A novel design with a flat base trough and vertical absorber operates efficiently in direct and diffuse sunlight. - Abstract: We propose fixed (non-tracking) configurations of solar light collector modules which are designed to operate efficiently throughout the day, i.e. for varying incident angles of direct sunlight, and in conditions of diffuse solar irradiation. We present two trough designs of compound parabolic collector (CPC) type. One, a more conventional double-parabolic trough, has the absorber plate perpendicular to the vertical axis of the trough cross-section. The other, of a new flat-base shape, has the absorber plate parallel. The collectors have two novel features appropriate to non-tracking. The first is a smoothing of the power output over the day by the simple expedient of arranging three troughs tilted at different angles. The second is the original design of the flat-base trough allowing optimal interception of the caustic surfaces of this non-focussing device. By ray-tracing analysis of the different trough shapes and absorber plate orientation, we emphasise the design criteria for achievement of a high intercept factor throughout the day without tracking and demonstrate the superiority of the flat-base collector over the double-parabolic design. In test experiments we show that the high temperatures (≈180 °C) necessary for some industrial process heat applications can be achieved. Also test results of the efficiency of the proposed systems are presented which indicate that the flat-base trough with vertical absorber plate is superior to the double-parabolic trough with horizontal absorber plate

  1. Fundamental criteria for the design of high-performance Josephson nondestructive readout random access memory cells and experimental confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkels, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fundamental design criteria for Josephson nondestructive readout random access memory (NDRO RAM) cells are presented, within the context of an LSI array environment. Emphasis is placed upon principles which are relevant to high performance. The criteria are elucidated via a specific design which is simulated and then experimentally evaluated in a technology with a smallest critical dimension of 5 μm. The specific cell differs from previously tested Josephson NDRO cells in several respects; namely, the cell stores only approx.8Phi 0 , employs interferometer gates and an external damping resistor, allows switching into device resonances, and eliminates the need for a special initialization cycle. The cell-selection scheme, employing triple coincidence, results in larger operating margins and smaller operating currents than have previously been achieved. The large operating margins and all basic cell design criteria were experimentally verified. The experimental interferometer gate characteristics were analyzed in detail and found to be describable by simple models. In addition, it was discovered that single flux quantum transitions in the interferometer gates could be exploited beneficially in order to enhance the insensitivity of operating margins to fabrication tolerances

  2. Improving behavioral performance under full attention by adjusting response criteria to changes in stimulus predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Steffen; Treue, Stefan; Busse, Laura

    2012-09-04

    One of the key features of active perception is the ability to predict critical sensory events. Humans and animals can implicitly learn statistical regularities in the timing of events and use them to improve behavioral performance. Here, we used a signal detection approach to investigate whether such improvements in performance result from changes of perceptual sensitivity or rather from adjustments of a response criterion. In a regular sequence of briefly presented stimuli, human observers performed a noise-limited motion detection task by monitoring the stimulus stream for the appearance of a designated target direction. We manipulated target predictability through the hazard rate, which specifies the likelihood that a target is about to occur, given it has not occurred so far. Analyses of response accuracy revealed that improvements in performance could be accounted for by adjustments of the response criterion; a growing hazard rate was paralleled by an increasing tendency to report the presence of a target. In contrast, the hazard rate did not affect perceptual sensitivity. Consistent with previous research, we also found that reaction time decreases as the hazard rate grows. A simple rise-to-threshold model could well describe this decrease and attribute predictability effects to threshold adjustments rather than changes in information supply. We conclude that, even under conditions of full attention and constant perceptual sensitivity, behavioral performance can be optimized by dynamically adjusting the response criterion to meet ongoing changes in the likelihood of a target.

  3. Missouri River, Gavins Point Dam - Lewis and Clark Lake, Nebraska and South Dakota, Embankment Criteria and Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    PM T.CTIO. 16 8. DIYISIOU AND CLOSE ib tio/ 17 A iaJ,3,"q1tY Cod,: TC-1 A w!-, iaui’,orI D-I ist SPOIa;I K 9. SEEPAGE CONTROL 18 9.1 Relief Wells 18...DonoeCn vIH & COePS OF ENG11NEERS OMAHA NEFIRASKiA ENIBANKMENT CRITERIA AND PERFORMANCE REPORT P LATE A-2 I< _ I I- / LEWIS A CLARK LAKE Is --- 4"- C

  4. FMS Scores Change With Performers' Knowledge of the Grading Criteria-Are General Whole-Body Movement Screens Capturing "Dysfunction"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-11-01

    Deficits in joint mobility and stability could certainly impact individuals' Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores; however, it is also plausible that the movement patterns observed are influenced by the performers' knowledge of the grading criteria. Twenty-one firefighters volunteered to participate, and their FMS scores were graded before and immediately after receiving knowledge of the movement patterns required to achieve a perfect score on the FMS. Standardized verbal instructions were used to administer both screens, and the participants were not provided with any coaching or feedback. Time-synchronized sagittal and frontal plane videos were used to grade the FMS. The firefighters significantly (p injury risk.

  5. Species composition, plant cover and diversity of recently reforested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... Deforestation, over-cultivation and rural growth have severely ... over-cultivation, plant populations changed, and biolo- ... Restoring community structure (e.g. species composi-tion ... plant diversity at all spatial scales are the criteria that should ..... taxonomic groups in recovering and restored forests.

  6. Designing sustainable concrete on the basis of equivalence performance: assessment criteria for safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    In order not to hampers innovations, the Dutch National Building Regulations (NBR), allow an alternative approval route for new building materials. It is based on the principles of equivalent performance which states that if the solution proposed can be proven to have the same level of safety,

  7. Key Performance Indicators of Public Universities Based on Quality Assessment Criteria in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukboonyasatit, Kritsana; Thanapaisarn, Chaiwit; Manmar, Lampang

    2011-01-01

    The research objective was to develop public universities' key performance indicators. Qualitative research and interviews were employed with each public university's senior executive and quality assessors. The sample group was selected by the office of the public sector development commission and Thailand's public universities can be separated…

  8. A Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Analysis of the Performance of Global Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourtit, K.; Macharis, C.; Nijkamp, P.

    2014-01-01

    The strong world-wide urbanisation trend calls for a repositioning of cities, especially the large cities with a global impact. These cities tend to become economic, logistic and political powerhouses and are increasingly involved in a competition on their integral performance. The present paper

  9. Model Multi Criteria Decision Making with Fuzzy ANP Method for Performance Measurement Small Medium Enterprise (SME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanita, E.; Widyaningrum, V. T.; Kustiyahningsih, Y.; Purnama, J.

    2018-04-01

    SMEs have a very important role in the development of the economy in Indonesia. SMEs assist the government in terms of creating new jobs and can support household income. The number of SMEs in Madura and the number of measurement indicators in the SME mapping so that it requires a method.This research uses Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) method for performance measurement SME. The FANP method can handle data that contains uncertainty. There is consistency index in determining decisions. Performance measurement in this study is based on a perspective of the Balanced Scorecard. This research approach integrated internal business perspective, learning, and growth perspective and fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP). The results of this research areframework a priority weighting of assessment indicators SME.

  10. Optimizing the use of the "state-of-the-art" performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Streichert, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The organizers of the first EFLM Strategic Conference "Defining analytical performance goals" identified three models for defining analytical performance goals in laboratory medicine. Whereas the highest level of model 1 (outcome studies) is difficult to implement, the other levels are more or less based on subjective opinions of experts, with models 2 (based on biological variation) and 3 (defined by the state-of-the-art) being more objective. A working group of the German Society of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (DGKL) proposes a combination of models 2 and 3 to overcome some disadvantages inherent to both models. In the new model, the permissible imprecision is not defined as a constant proportion of biological variation but by a non-linear relationship between permissible analytical and biological variation. Furthermore, the permissible imprecision is referred to the target quantity value. The biological variation is derived from the reference interval, if appropriate, after logarithmic transformation of the reference limits.

  11. Performance evaluation and parametric choice criteria of a Brayton pumped thermal electricity storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Juncheng; Cai, Ling; Chen, Jincan; Zhou, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    A more realistic thermodynamic model of the pumped thermal electricity storage (PTES) system consisting of a Brayton cycle and a reverse Brayton cycle is proposed, where the internal and external irreversible losses are took into account and several important controlling parameters, e.g., the pressure ratio and heat flows of the two isobaric processes in the Brayton cycle, are introduced. Analytic expressions for the round trip efficiency and power output of the PTES system are derived. The general performance characteristics of the PTES system are revealed. The optimal relationship between the round trip efficiency and the power output is obtained. The influences of some important controlling parameters on the performance characteristics of the PTES system are discussed and the optimally operating regions of these parameters are determined. - Highlights: • A cycle model of the Brayton pumped thermal electricity storage system is proposed. • Internal and external irreversible losses are considered. • Maximum power output and efficiency of the system are calculated. • Optimum performance characteristics of the system are revealed. • Rational ranges of key controlling parameters are determined.

  12. A decision support system for mission-based ship routing considering multiple performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, You; Frangopol, Dan M.; Sabatino, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the risk associated with marine vessels subjected to inclement weather and sea conditions when developing a decision support system for ship routing. The generalized decision making framework developed in this paper performs a variety of tasks, including, but not limited to quantifying the flexural and fatigue performance of ship structures and employing multi-attribute utility theory to evaluate ship mission performance. A structural reliability approach is utilized to compute the probability of failure considering the uncertainties in structural capacity and load effects; specifically, effects of flexural and fatigue damage are investigated. The expected repair cost, cumulative fatigue damage, total travel time, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with ship routing are considered as consequences within the risk assessment procedure adopted in this paper. Additionally, the decision maker’s risk attitude is integrated into the presented approach by employing utility theory. The presented methodology can assist decision makers in making informed decisions concerning ship routing. In order to illustrate its capabilities the approach is applied to the Joint High-speed Sealift Ship. - Highlights: • Multi-attribute utility theory is proposed for the ship routing decision making. • Spectral-based fatigue damage and repair loss are computed. • Travel time and CO_2 emissions are incorporated within the decision making process. • The attitude of the decision maker has significant effects on the utility value.

  13. Long-term pavement performance monitoring and the revision of performance criteria for high modulus asphalt in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enrobé à Module Élevé (EME) technology, a High Modulus Asphalt (HiMA), was originally developed in France. The technology is primarily suitable for construction of heavily trafficked routes, airports and container terminals. The key performance...

  14. Multi-rate h2 tracking control with mixed continuous-discrete performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahane, A.C.; Palmor, Z.J.; Mirkin, L.

    1998-01-01

    Control goals defined both in continuous and discrete time arise naturally in many sampled-data tracking control problems. The design methods found in the literature deal with each kind of those control goals separately, over-emphasizing one kind at the expense of the other. We formulate and solve these tracking control problems as an H2 optimization problem with a mixed continuous/discrete performance criterion. It is argued that the proposed setup enables tradeoff between the various control goals in a natural manner and thus leads to better tracking characteristics

  15. Pilot test of ANSI draft standard N13.29 environmental dosimetry -- Performance criteria for testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemic, G.; Shebell, P.; Monetti, M.; Raccah, F.; Sengupta, S.

    1998-09-01

    American National Standards Institute Draft N13.29 describes performance tests for environmental radiation dosimetry providers. If approved it would be the first step toward applying the types of performance testing now required in personnel dosimetry to environmental radiation monitoring. The objective of this study was to pilot test the draft standard, before it undergoes final balloting, on a small group of dosimetry providers that were selected to provide a mix of facility types, thermoluminescent dosimeter designs and monitoring program applications. The first phase of the pilot test involved exposing dosimeters to laboratory photon, beta, and x-ray sources at routine and accident dose levels. In the second phase, dosimeters were subjected to ninety days of simulated environmental conditions in an environmental chamber that cycled through extremes of temperature and humidity. Two out of seven participants passed all categories of the laboratory testing phase, and all seven passed the environmental test phase. While some relatively minor deficiencies were uncovered in the course of the pilot test, the results show that draft N13.29 describes useful tests that could be appropriate for environmental dosimetry providers. An appendix to this report contains recommendations that should be addressed by the N13.29 working group before draft N13.29 is submitted for balloting

  16. Nearly Increased Dry-season Flows after Reforesting Degraded Fire-climax Grassland in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerveld, I. H. J.; Zhang, J.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Tripoli, R.; Quiñones, C. M. O.

    2017-12-01

    After decades of logging and shifting cultivation, vast tracts in tropical SE Asia have turned to fire-climax grassland. Whilst the hydrological functioning of Imperata grasslands has been studied little, the general perception is they are major contributors to downstream flooding and siltation. As such, Imperata grasslands are targeted widely for reforestation in the expectation to improve regional hydrology. Yet, numerous small catchment studies within and outside the tropics have typically shown decreased annual water yield after reforestation of grass- or cropland, with the bulk of the decrease observed during times of baseflow. Yet, it is theoretically possible that the higher water use of the planted trees is compensated by improved soil infiltration capacity after reforestation which should lead to higher baseflows, the so-called infiltration trade-off. To examine a rare claim of increased baseflow after reforesting an Imperata grassland in northern Leyte (Philippines) we compared a 3.2 ha degraded headwater catchment under Imperata with a nearby 8.7 ha catchment under 23-year-old reforestation. Both catchments were underlain by mafic rock, had perennial flow and were demonstrably watertight, thus allowing comparisons to be made. Grassland saturated soil hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) decreased from 10 mm h-1 at the surface to 2.9 mm h-1 at 20-40 cm depth and <1 mm h-1 below 60 cm, suggesting not only possibly frequent overland flow but also perched groundwater conditions at 20 cm depth. By contrast, Ksat of the forest soil decreased from 370 mm h-1 in the top 5 cm via 60 mm h-1 at 20 cm, with lower values found only deeper in the profile (7.3 and 2.6 mm h-1 at 60 and 90 cm, respectively). Thus, stormflows Qq for the reforestation were smaller and less `flashy' compared to the grassland catchment. Depending on how the annual reduction in catchment-wide infiltration (assumed equal to the difference in total Qq between catchments) was estimated, the trade

  17. Determining Criteria to Predict Repeatability of Performance in Older Adults: Using Coefficients of Variation for Strength and Functional Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Isaac Selva; Bird, Stephen R; Westfold, Ben A; Shield, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measures of muscle strength and functional capacity in older adults are essential. The aim of this study was to determine whether coefficients of variation (CVs) of individuals obtained at the first session can infer repeatability of performance in a subsequent session. Forty-eight healthy older adults (mean age 68.6 ± 6.1 years; age range 60-80 years) completed two assessment sessions, and on each occasion undertook: dynamometry for isometric and isokinetic quadriceps strength, 6 meter fast walk (6MFWT), timed up and go (TUG), stair climb and descent, and vertical jump. Significant linear relationships were observed between CVs in session 1 and the percentage difference between sessions 1 and 2 for torque at 60, 120, 240 and 360°/s, 6MFWT, TUG, stair climb, and stair descent. The results of this study could be used to establish criteria for determining an acceptably reliable performance in strength and functional tests.

  18. Physiological, physical and on-ice performance criteria for selection of elite ice hockey teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Roczniok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine physiological and physical determinants of ice-hockey performance in order to assess their impact on the result during a selection for ice hockey. A total of 42 ice hockey players took part in the selection camp. At the end of the camp 20 best players were selected by team of expert coaches to the ice hockey team and created group G1, while the second group (G2 consisted of not selected players (non-successful group Evaluation of goodness of fit of the model to the data was based on the Hosmer Lemeshow test Ice hockey players selected to the team were taller 181.95±4.02 cm, had lower % body fat 13.17±3.17%, a shorter time to peak power 2.47±0.35 s , higher relative peak power 21.34±2.41 W • kg-1 and higher relative total work 305.18±28.41 J • kg-1. The results of the aerobic capacity test showed significant differences only in case of two variables. Ice hockey players in the G1 had higher VO2max 4.07±0.31 l • min-1 values than players in the G2 as well as ice hockey players in G1 showed a higher level of relative VO2max 51.75±2.99 ml • min-1 • kg-1 than athletes in G2. Ice hockey players selected to the team (G1 performed better in the 30 m Forwards Sprint 4.28±0.31 s; 6x9 Turns 12.19±0.75 s; 6x9 stops 12.79±0.49 s and Endurance test (6x30 m stops 32.01±0.80 s than players in G2. The logistic regression model showed that the best predictors of success in the recruitment process of top level ice hockey players were time to peak power, relative peak power, VO2max and 30 m sprint forwards on ice. On the basis of the constructed predictive logistic regression model it will be possible to determine the probability of success of the athletes during following the selection processes to the team.

  19. Performance Criteria for Capture and/or Immobilization Technologies - Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Soelberg, Nick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Riley, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The capture and subsequent immobilization of the four regulated volatile radionuclides (3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I) from the off-gas streams of a used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing facility has been a topic of substantial research interest for the US Department of Energy and its international colleagues. Removal of some or all of these radionuclides (e.g., based upon fuel burnup, fuel type, cooling time) from the plant effluent streams prior to discharge to the environment is required to meet regulations set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Upon removal, the radionuclide, as well as associated sorbents that cannot be cost-effectively regenerated, is destined for conversion to a waste form. Research in separation and capture methodologies has included a wide range of technologies, including liquid caustic scrubbing systems, solid adsorbents, and cryogenic distillation. The studies of waste forms have been correspondingly diverse. In considering the technologies available for future development and implementation of both sorbents and waste forms, it is necessary to identify benchmark measures of performance to evaluate objectively each sorbent system or waste form.

  20. An Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model for Evaluating Wind Farm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Sung Kang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The demands for alternative energy resources have been increasing exponentially in the 21st century due to continuous industrial development, depletion of fossil fuels and emerging environmental consciousness. Renewable energy sources, including wind energy, hydropower energy, geothermal energy, solar energy, biomass energy and ocean power, have received increasing attention as alternative means of meeting global energy demands. After Japan's Fukushima nuclear plant disaster in March 2011, more and more countries are having doubt about the safety of nuclear plants. As a result, safe and renewable energy sources are attracting even more attention these days. Wind energy production, with its relatively safer and positive environmental characteristics, has evolved in the past few decades from a marginal activity into a multi-billion dollar industry. In this research, a comprehensive evaluation model is constructed to select a suitable location for developing a wind farm. The model incorporates interpretive structural modeling (ISM, benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR and fuzzy analytic network process (FANP. Experts in the field are invited to contribute their expertise in evaluating the importance of the factors and various aspects of the wind farm evaluation problem, and the most suitable wind farm can finally be generated from the model. A case study is carried out in Taiwan in evaluating the expected performance of several potential wind farms, and a recommendation is provided for selecting the most appropriate wind farm for construction.

  1. Performance evaluation of hybrid VLC using device cost and power over data throughput criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. C.; Tan, C. S.; Wong, H. Y.; Yahya, M. B.

    2013-09-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) technology has attained its attention in both academic and industry lately. It is determined by the development of light emitting diode (LED) technology for solid-state lighting (SSL).It has great potential to gradually replace radio frequency (RF) wireless technology because it offers unregulated and unlicensed bandwidth to withstand future demand of indoor wireless access to real-time bandwidth-demanding applications. However, it was found to provide intrusive uplink channel that give rise to unpleasant irradiance from the user device which could interfere with the downlink channel of VLC and hence limit mobility to users as a result of small coverage (field of view of VLC).To address this potential problem, a Hybrid VLC system which integrates VLC (for downlink) and RF (for uplink) technology is proposed. It offers a non-intrusive RF back channel that provides high throughput VLC and maintains durability with conventional RF devices. To deploy Hybrid VLC system in the market, it must be energy and cost saving to attain its equivalent economical advantage by comparing to existing architecture that employs fluorescent or LED lights with RF technology. In this paper, performance evaluation on the proposed hybrid system was carried out in terms of device cost and power consumption against data throughput. Based on our simulation, Hybrid VLC system was found to reduce device cost by 3% and power consumption by 68% when compares to fluorescent lights with RF technology. Nevertheless, when it is compared to LED lights with RF technology, our proposed hybrid system is found to achieve device cost saving as high as 47% and reduced power consumption by 49%. Such promising results have demonstrated that Hybrid VLC system is a feasible solution and has paved the way for greater cost saving and energy efficient compares with the current RF architecture even with the increasing requirement of indoor area coverage.

  2. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Li, Hui; Tang, Zheng; Li, Zhongfang; Tian, Jing; Lou, Yilai; Li, Jianwei; Li, Guichun; Hu, Xiaomin

    2016-06-17

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H'), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nematode trophic groups, and biomass of bacteria and fungi were increased. Our results indicate that the Karst aboveground vegetation restoration was accompanied with belowground nematode food web development: increasing community complexity, function and fungal dominance in decomposition pathway, and the driving forces included the bottom-up effect (resource control), connectedness of functional groups, as well as soil environments.

  3. Reforestation and Climate Change Mitigation. A background Study for Joint Implementation in China and Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin; Naess, Lars Otto; Kasa, Sjur; O` Brien, Karen L

    1998-12-01

    This report studies the importance of institutional barriers in promoting reforestation as a means of mitigating global climate change. It is argued that cost-effective implementation of reforestation depends on proper institutional settings in host countries. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of property rights. The relationship between various stakeholders, such as governments, non-governmental organisations, the private sector, and international aid agencies is analysed. Discussed aspects include conflicts among stakeholders, long-term security or stability of property rights regimes, distribution of property rights, and information exchange. The forest situation in China and Indonesia is used as an example. The study outlines a number of conflicts in the property rights regime that need a better understanding. Some important issues that need further study are listed. 66 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Costa Rica: Hydroelectric utility Energía Global finances upstream reforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Energía Global (Global Energy S.A.); The National Forest Office; National Fund for Forest Financing (FONAFIFO)

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record The goal of Energía Global is to increase both the stream flow and decrease sedimentation in the hydroelectric reservoirs. They are attempting to do this by reforestation projects as well as forest conservation. The sources of revenue for this project are from the private hydroelectric company and the government through taxes on fossil fuels. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)

  5. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x̅ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (̅x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impacts of reforestation upon sediment load and water outflow in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Theodor D. Leininger; Matt Moran

    2013-01-01

    Among the world’s largest coastal and river basins, the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV)is one of the most disturbed by human activities. This study ascertained the impacts of reforestation on water outflow attenuation (i.e., water flow out of the watershed outlet) and sediment load reduction in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed (LYRW) within the LMRAV...

  7. Application of a Genetic Algorithm to the Optimization of a Missile Autopilot Controller for Performance Criteria with Non-Analytic Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Richard

    1993-01-01

    .... Genetic algorithms (GA's), on the other hand, offer a numerical search method which does not require a statement of the mathematical relationship between the performance criteria and the parameter update rule...

  8. Performance characteristics and parametric optimum criteria of a Brownian micro-refrigerator in a spatially periodic temperature field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bihong; Chen Jincan

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that a microscopic system consisting of Brownian particles moving in a spatially asymmetric but periodic potential (ratchet) and contacting with the alternating hot and cold reservoirs along space coordinate and an external force applying on the particles may work as a refrigerator. In order to clarify the underlying physical pictures of the system, the heat flows via both the potential energy and the kinetic energy of the particles are considered simultaneously. Based on an Arrhenius' factor describing the forward and backward particle currents, expressions for some important performance parameters of the refrigerator, such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate and power input, are derived analytically. The maximum coefficient of performance and cooling rate are numerically calculated for some given parameters. The influence of the main parameters such as the external force, barrier height of the potential, asymmetry of the potential and temperature ratio of the heat reservoirs on the performance of the Brownian refrigerator is discussed. The optimum criteria of some characteristic parameters are given. It is found that the Brownian refrigerator may be controlled to operate in different regions through the choice of several parameters

  9. Microwave induced plasma for solid fuels and waste processing: A review on affecting factors and performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Guan Sem; Faizal, Hasan Mohd; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2017-11-01

    High temperature thermal plasma has a major drawback which consumes high energy. Therefore, non-thermal plasma which uses comparatively lower energy, for instance, microwave plasma is more attractive to be applied in gasification process. Microwave-induced plasma gasification also carries the advantages in terms of simplicity, compactness, lightweight, uniform heating and the ability to operate under atmospheric pressure that gains attention from researchers. The present paper synthesizes the current knowledge available for microwave plasma gasification on solid fuels and waste, specifically on affecting parameters and their performance. The review starts with a brief outline on microwave plasma setup in general, and followed by the effect of various operating parameters on resulting output. Operating parameters including fuel characteristics, fuel injection position, microwave power, addition of steam, oxygen/fuel ratio and plasma working gas flow rate are discussed along with several performance criteria such as resulting syngas composition, efficiency, carbon conversion, and hydrogen production rate. Based on the present review, fuel retention time is found to be the key parameter that influences the gasification performance. Therefore, emphasis on retention time is necessary in order to improve the performance of microwave plasma gasification of solid fuels and wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOODY REGENERATION FROM A REFORESTATION WITH NATIVE SPECIES IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Anderson Almeida Colmanetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, specifically in São Paulo State, there are guidelines based on the high diversity of tropical forests that instructs the restoration projects in the state (current SMA 32/2014. The main goal of this study was verify the importance and effectiveness of the high diversity of arboreal species originated from a reforestation, and its influence in a woody regenerating composition. We developed a phytosociologic study in a woody regenerating stratum of a nine year old reforestation at a Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN, in Mogi-Guaçu, São Paulo State. All specimens with height > 30 cm and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH < 5 cm were evaluated. The woody regenerating diversity was smaller than the overstory diversity and the species composition was similar to the overstory. The Simpson index (1-D was 0.85, Shannon index (H' was 2.46 and the Pielou index (J' was 0.60. The zoochoric dispersion syndrome was major among the species. Our results suggest that the use of high diversity of native seedlings in a reforestation leads to high diversity of species in woody regeneration stratum, after one decade of planting.

  11. Deforestation and reforestation analysis from land-use changes in North Sumatran Mangroves, 1990-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Sulistiyono, N.

    2018-02-01

    Mangrove forest plays a critical role in the context of climate change in tropical and subtropical regions. The present study analyzed the deforestation and reforestation from land-use and land-cover changes from 1990, 2000, 2009 and 2015 in North Sumatran mangrove forest, Indonesia. The land-use/land-cover consists of thirteen classes namely, primary mangrove forest, secondary mangrove forest, shrub, swamp shrub, swamp, settlement, paddy field, oil palm plantation, aquaculture, dry land farming, mixed dry land farming, mining, and barren land. Results showed that primary mangrove forests significantly decreased 61.21% from 1990 to 2015, mostly deforestation was derived from 1990 to 2000 to be secondary mangrove forest and swamp shrub. During 25 years observed, no reforestation was noted in the primary mangrove forest. Similarly, secondary mangrove forest had been degraded from 56,128.75 ha in 1990 to only 35,768.48 ha in 2015. Drivers of deforestation found in secondary mangrove forests were aquaculture (43.32%), barren land (32.56%), swamp shrub (10.88%), and oil palm plantation (5.17%). On the other hand, reforested activity was occurred only 701.83 ha from 1990 to 2015, while the nonforest use has been increased. These data are likely to contribute towards coastal management planning, conservation, and rehabilitation of degraded mangrove forests.

  12. Performance allocation traceable to regulatory criteria as applied to site characterization work at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.; Babad, H.; Bensky, M.S.; Jacobs, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project has developed a method for defining in detail the work required to demonstrate the feasibility of emplacing and providing for the safe isolation of nuclear wastes in a repository in the deep basalts at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Criteria analysis allows the identification of areas of significant technical uncertainty or controversy that can be highlighted as issues. A preliminary analysis has been conducted, which, by identifying key radionuclides and allocating performance among the multiple barriers in a repository constructed in a basalt, allows the design and development testing activities at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to be put into perspective. Application of sophisticated uncertainty analysis techniques will allow refinements in the analysis to be made and to further guide characterization and testing activities. Preliminary results suggest that a repository constructed in basalt will provide for the safe isolation of nuclear wastes in a cost-effective and reliable manner with a high degree of confidence

  13. A fuzzy multi criteria approach for measuring sustainability performance of a supplier based on triple bottom line approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Khodaverdi, R.; Jafarian, A.

    2013-01-01

    responsibility. Sustainable supply chain initiatives like supplier environmental and social collaboration can play a significant role in achieving the "triple bottom line" of social, environmental, and economic benefits. Supplier selection plays an important role in the management of a supply chain......Sustainable supply chain management has received much attention from practitioners and scholars over the past decade owing to the significant attention given by consumers, profit and not-for-profit organizations, local communities, legislation and regulation to environmental, social and corporate....... Traditionally, organizations consider criteria such as price, quality, flexibility, etc. when evaluating supplier performance. While the articles on the selection and evaluation of suppliers are abundant, those that consider sustainability issues are rather limited. This paper explores sustainable supply chain...

  14. Determination of performance criteria of safety systems in a nuclear power plant via simulated annealing optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik

    1993-02-01

    This study presents and efficient methodology that derives design alternatives and performance criteria of safety functions/systems in commercial nuclear power plants. Determination of design alternatives and intermediate-level performance criteria is posed as a reliability allocation problem. The reliability allocation is performed for determination of reliabilities of safety functions/systems from top-level performance criteria. The reliability allocation is a very difficult multi objective optimization problem (MOP) as well as a global optimization problem with many local minima. The weighted Chebyshev norm (WCN) approach in combination with an improved Metropolis algorithm of simulated annealing is developed and applied to the reliability allocation problem. The hierarchy of probabilistic safety criteria (PSC) may consist of three levels, which ranges from the overall top level (e.g., core damage frequency, acute fatality and latent cancer fatality) through the interlnediate level (e.g., unavailiability of safety system/function) to the low level (e.g., unavailability of components, component specifications or human error). In order to determine design alternatives of safety functions/systems and the intermediate-level PSC, the reliability allocation is performed from the top-level PSC. The intermediated level corresponds to an objective space and the top level is related to a risk space. The reliability allocation is performed by means of a concept of two-tier noninferior solutions in the objective and risk spaces within the top-level PSC. In this study, two kinds of towtier noninferior solutions are defined: intolerable intermediate-level PSC and desirable design alternatives of safety functions/systems that are determined from Sets 1 and 2, respectively. Set 1 is obtained by maximizing simultaneously not only safety function/system unavailabilities but also risks. Set 1 reflects safety function/system unavailabilities in the worst case. Hence, the

  15. KETERKAITAN KATEGORI KEPEMIMPINAN DENGAN ENAM KATEGORI LAINNYA DALAM MALCOLM BALDRIGE CRITERIA FOR PERFORMANCE EXCELLENCE (MBCFPE PADA BADAN USAHA MILIK NEGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudjito Rudjito

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Some State Own Enterprises (SOEs have measured their performance based on Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence method yearly since 2005 and participated in Indonesia Quality Award (IQA to recognize their performances. The MBCfPE method measures company performance based on seven criterion categories, which Leadership as the first category is stated in the method that must be visionary, motivator and as the driver to lead people and entire organization to achieve performance excellence. The purposes of this study is to analyze the interrelatation of Leadership as first category to category second up to category seventh of MBCfPE.Convenience and purposive (judgmental sampling techniques are used to choose twelve SOEs, which consist of two groups of six SOEs: “Good Performance” and “Below Good Performance”. Two hundred seventy two respondents consist of SOEs’ CEO, management and employees who understand MBCfPE method have participated in this study which selected by judgmental sampling technique. Reseacher used Rank Spearman and Discriminant anlysis for analyzing the interrelation of leadership category to category second up to seventh of MBCfPE. According to rank-spearman correlation analysis results, in overall, most of variables X (areas to address of Laedership category, have relation with variables Y (areas to address of category second up category seventh of MBCfPE, except for variable X4 (Legal and ethical behavior and variable X5 (Societal Responsibility and Support of key communities to variable Y1 (Strategy development process. From Discriminant analysis, it can be concluded that Communication and Company Performance is variable that discriminate between SOEs “Good Performance” and SOEs “Below Good Performance”.

  16. Dew as an Adaptation Measure to Meet Agricultural and Reforestation Water Demand in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszkiewicz, Marlene; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El Fadel, Mutasem

    2014-05-01

    Dew harvesting, believed to be an ancient technique, has recently re-emerged as a viable and sustainable water resource. Nightly yields are relatively low, yet non-negligible, and dew events occur more frequently than rainfall promoting its effectiveness, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, we demonstrate how dew can be harvested and subsequently used for small-scale irrigation to meet agricultural and reforestation water demand. Polyethylene dew harvesting systems were constructed and placed in the field. Dew was harvested as a result of the radiative cooling during the night, thus allowing dew formation under conditions of high humidity. Condensed dew formed upon the planar surface was collected by gravity. Water demand for selected crops and trees within a pilot study area (Lebanon) was estimated using a deficit irrigation model. Simulations of water demand requirements of various plants and surfaces were performed and compared to dew volumes to assess the ability of the system to meet all or in part the plant water demands across seasons. Data from the polyethylene low-cost dew condensers have shown that within the pilot study, average nightly dew yields were 0.1 L m-2 of condensing surface with a maximum yield of 0.4 L m-2. Dew events occurred generally more frequently than precipitation events, with an estimated 40% of nights producing dew condensate. This translates to 50 mm of equivalent rainfall on average (during dew nights), with a maximum of 200 mm in one night, if one assumes using drip irrigation over a seedling within a 20 cm2 area. Using a simple deficit irrigation model, it was demonstrated that crops such as the tomato plant, which typically has a growing season during the dry summer, can potentially be irrigated solely by dew, thus eliminating the need for traditional irrigation sources. Similarly, young tree seedlings, such as the cedar tree, can depend upon dew as a primary water resource. Moreover, based on similar

  17. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, Safiullah; Burney, Owen T.; Morrissey, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges) or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags) are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1) Container Comparison–to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller) and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw.) seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2) Bottle Modification–to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control) and container opacity (green, black, and clear) on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology were

  18. Performance characteristics of seven bilevel mechanical ventilators in pressure-support mode with different cycling criteria: a comparative bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuqing; Cheng, Kewen; Zhou, Xin

    2015-01-26

    Pressure support ventilation from a bilevel device is a standard technique for non-invasive home ventilation. A bench study was designed to compare the performance and patient-ventilator synchronization of 7 bilevel ventilators, in the presence of system leaks. Ventilators were connected to a Hans Rudolph Series 1101 lung simulator (compliance, 50 mL/cmH2O; expiratory resistance, 20 cmH2O/L/s; respiratory rate, 15 breaths/min; inspiratory time, 1.0 s). All ventilators were set at 15 cmH2O pressure support and 5 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure. Tests were conducted at 2 system leaks (12-15 and 25-28 L/min). The performance characteristics and patient-ventilator asynchrony were assessed, including flow, airway pressure, time, and workload. The Breas Vivo30 could not synchronize with the simulator (frequent auto-triggering) at a leak of 25-28 L/min, but provided stable assisted ventilation when the leak was 12-15 L/min. Missed efforts and back-up ventilation occurred for the Weinmann VENTImotion and Airox Smartair Plus, requiring adjustment of trigger effort. All ventilators had a short trigger delay time (ventilators, possibly due to software algorithm differences. Adjusting the cycling criteria settings can alter the shape of the inspiratory phase and peak expiratory flow, and improve patient-ventilator synchrony.

  19. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for laboratories performing cytogenetic triage for assessment of mass casualties in radiological or nuclear emergencies - General principles and application to dicentric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The potential for nuclear and radiological emergencies involving mass casualties from accidental or malicious acts or terrorism requires generic procedures for emergency dose assessment to help the development of medical response capabilities. A mass-casualties incident is defined here as an event that exceeds the local medical resources. Biological dosimetry, based on cytogenetic analysis using the dicentric assay, typically applied for accidental dose assessment, has been defined in ISO 19238. Cytogenetic triage is the use of chromosome damage to evaluate and assess approximately and rapidly radiation doses received by individuals in order to supplement the clinical categorization of casualties. This International Standard focuses on the use of the dicentric assay for rapid cytogenetic triage involving mass-casualty incidents. The primary purpose of this International Standard is to provide a guideline to all laboratories in order to perform the dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage for dose assessment using documented and validated procedures. Secondly, it can facilitate the application of cytogenetic biodosimetry networks to permit comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. Finally, it is expected that laboratories newly commissioned to carry out the cytogenetic triage conform to this International Standard in order to perform the triage reproducibly and accurately. This International Standard is written in the form of procedures to adopt for dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage biological dosimetry for overexposures involving mass radiological casualties. The criteria required for such measurements usually depend on the application of the results: medical management when appropriate, radiation-protection management, record keeping and medical/legal requirements. For example, selected cases can be analysed to produce a more accurate evaluation of high partial-body exposure; secondly, doses can be estimated for persons exposed below the

  20. Reforestation and land use change as drivers for a decrease of avalanche damage in mid-latitude mountains (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Cristina; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Sánchez-Posada, Covadonga; Pereira, Susana; Oliva, Marc; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2017-06-01

    Natural conditions that explain the triggering of snow avalanches are becoming better-known, but our understanding of how socio-environmental changes can influence the occurrence of damaging avalanches is still limited. This study analyses the evolution of snow avalanche damage in the Asturian Massif (NW Spain) between 1800 and 2015, paying special attention to changes in land-use and land-cover patterns. A damage index has been performed using historical sources, photointerpretation and fieldwork-based data, which were introduced in a GIS and processed by means of statistical analysis. Mapping allowed connecting spatiotemporal variations of damage and changes in human-environment interactions. The total number of victims was 342 (192 dead and 150 injured). Results show stability in the number of avalanches during the study period, but a progressive decrease in the damage per avalanche. Changes in land use explain the evolution of damage and its spatial/temporal behaviour. The role played by vegetation cover is at the root of this process: damage was the highest during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when a massive deforestation process affected the protective forest. This deforestation was the result of demographic growth and intensive grazing, disentailment laws and emerging coal mining. Since the mid-20th century, the transformation of a traditional land-management system based on overexploitation into a system based on land marginalization and reforestation, together with the decline of deforestation due to industrial and legal causes, resulted in the decrease of avalanches that affected settlements (mostly those released below the potential timberline). The decrease of damage has been sharper in the western sector of the Asturian Massif, where oak deforestation was very intense in the past and where lithology allows for a more successful ecological succession at present. Taking into account that reforestation can be observed in mountain environments of

  1. Medicalising normality? Using a simulated dataset to assess the performance of different diagnostic criteria of HIV-associated cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, Davide; Leech, Robert; Sabin, Caroline A.; Winston, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Objective The reported prevalence of cognitive impairment remains similar to that reported in the pre-antiretroviral therapy era. This may be partially artefactual due to the methods used to diagnose impairment. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of the HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (Frascati criteria) and global deficit score (GDS) methods in comparison to a new, multivariate method of diagnosis. Methods Using a simulated ‘normative’ dataset informed by real-world cognitive data from the observational Pharmacokinetic and Clinical Observations in PeoPle Over fiftY (POPPY) cohort study, we evaluated the apparent prevalence of cognitive impairment using the Frascati and GDS definitions, as well as a novel multivariate method based on the Mahalanobis distance. We then quantified the diagnostic properties (including positive and negative predictive values and accuracy) of each method, using bootstrapping with 10,000 replicates, with a separate ‘test’ dataset to which a pre-defined proportion of ‘impaired’ individuals had been added. Results The simulated normative dataset demonstrated that up to ~26% of a normative control population would be diagnosed with cognitive impairment with the Frascati criteria and ~20% with the GDS. In contrast, the multivariate Mahalanobis distance method identified impairment in ~5%. Using the test dataset, diagnostic accuracy [95% confidence intervals] and positive predictive value (PPV) was best for the multivariate method vs. Frascati and GDS (accuracy: 92.8% [90.3–95.2%] vs. 76.1% [72.1–80.0%] and 80.6% [76.6–84.5%] respectively; PPV: 61.2% [48.3–72.2%] vs. 29.4% [22.2–36.8%] and 33.9% [25.6–42.3%] respectively). Increasing the a priori false positive rate for the multivariate Mahalanobis distance method from 5% to 15% resulted in an increase in sensitivity from 77.4% (64.5–89.4%) to 92.2% (83.3–100%) at a cost of specificity from 94.5% (92.8–95.2%) to 85.0% (81.2–88

  2. Case study: Prioritization strategies for reforestation of minelands to benefit Cerulean Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Molly E.; Shumar, Matthew B.; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2013-01-01

    The central Appalachian landscape is being heavily altered by surface coal mining. The practice of Mountaintop Removal/Valley Fill (MTRVF) mining has transformed large areas of mature forest to non-forest and created much forest edge, affecting habitat quality for mature forest wildlife. The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative is working to restore mined areas to native hardwood forest conditions, and strategies are needed to prioritize restoration efforts for wildlife. We present mineland reforestation guidelines for the imperiled Cerulean Warbler, considered a useful umbrella species, in its breeding range. In 2009, we surveyed forest predicted to have Cerulean Warblers near mined areas in the MTRVF region of West Virginia and Kentucky. We visited 36 transect routes and completed songbird surveys on 151 points along these routes. Cerulean Warblers were present at points with fewer large-scale canopy disturbances and more mature oak-hickory forest. We tested the accuracy of a predictive map for this species and demonstrated that it can be useful to guide reforestation efforts. We then developed a map of hot spot locations that can be used to determine potential habitat suitability. Restoration efforts would have greatest benefit for Cerulean Warblers and other mature forest birds if concentrated near a relative-abundance hot spot, on north- and east-facing ridgetops surrounded by mature deciduous forest, and prioritized to reduce edges and connect isolated forest patches. Our multi-scale approach for prioritizing restoration efforts using an umbrella species may be applied to restore habitat impacted by a variety of landscape disturbances.

  3. Development of a working set of waste package performance criteria for deepsea disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Columbo, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr; Sailor, V.L.

    1982-11-01

    The United States ocean dumping regulations developed pursuant to PL92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, as amended, provide for a general policy of isolation and containment of low-level radioactive waste after disposal into the ocean. In order to determine whether any particular waste packaging system is adequate to meet this general requirement, it is necessary to establish a set of performance criteria against which to evaluate a particular packaging system. These performance criteria must present requirements for the behavior of the waste in combination with its immobilization agent and outer container in a deepsea environment. This report presents a working set of waste package performance criteria, and includes a glossary of terms, characteristics of low-level radioactive waste, radioisotopes of importance in low-level radioactive waste, and a summary of domestic and international regulations which control the ocean disposal of these wastes

  4. [Control of Soil Nutrient Loss of Typical Reforestation Patterns Along the Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Huang, Zhi-lin; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zeng, Li-xiong

    2015-10-01

    Annual soil nutrient loss characteristics on typical reforestation patterns in watershed along the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were studied based on runoff plot experiment. Runoff and sediment nutrition content from May to October 2014 of typical reforestation patterns including garden plot (tea garden), forest land (Chinese chestnut) and the original slope farmland were determined and then analyzed. The results showed that: (1) After the Returning Farmland to Forest Project the quantity of annual soil nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus, the sum of them in sediment and runoff) loss decreased. The output of total nitrogen (TN) was in the order of slope farmland (2 444.27 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (998.70 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (532.61 g x hm(-2)), and for total phosphorus (TP) loss was slope farmland (1 690.48 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (488.06 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (129.00 g x hm(-2)) . Compared with slope farmland, the load of TN and TP output of reforestation patterns decreased 68.68% and 81.75%, respectively. (2) Compared with slope farmland, available nitrogen loss decreased in reforestation patterns. Total nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) loss ranked in the order of slope farmland (113.79 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (73.75 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (56.06 g x hm(-2)) The largest amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) was found in tea garden (69.34 g x hm(-2)), then in farmland (52.45 g x hm(-2)), and the least in Chinese chestnut forest (47.23 g x hm(-2)). (3) The main route of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N loss was both through runoff, the quantity of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N output in which accounted for 91.4% and 92.2% of the total, respectively. The quantity of TN and TP in sediment accounted for 86.6% and 98.4% of the total. TN and TP loss showed an extremely significant correlation with sediments, which showed that sediment output was the main approach of TN and TP loss.

  5. Benefits of using shrubs as nurse plants for reforestation in Mediterranean mountains: a 4-year study

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Gutiérrez, Jorge; Zamora Rodríguez, Regino; Hódar, José Antonio; Gómez Reyes, José M.; Gómez Aparicio, Lorena

    2004-01-01

    7 pages, 3 figures, 50 references. We thank the Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía, for constant support and facilities. We are also especially grateful to the Direction of the National Park for permission to work in Sierra Nevada and to Empresa de Transformación Agraria S.A. (TRAGSA) for carrying out the experimental reforestation. Daniel García kindly helped in the fieldwork, and two anonymous reviewers provided helpful comments that improved the manuscript. ...

  6. Response of runoff and soil loss to reforestation and rainfall type in red soil region of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhigang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Fengrui; Zheng, Hua; Wang, Xiaoke

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of reforestation types on soil erosion on degraded land, vegetation and soil properties under conventional sloping farmland (CSF) and three different reforestation types including a Pinus massoniana secondary forest (PSF), an Eucommia ulmoides artificial economic forest (EEF) and a natural succession type forest (NST), were investigated at runoff plot scale over a six-year period in a red soil region of southern China. One hundred and thirty erosive rainfall events generating runoff in plots were grouped into four rainfall types by means of K-mean clustering method. Erosive rainfall type I is the dominant rainfall type. The amount of runoff and the soil loss under erosive rainfall type III were the most, followed by rain-fall type II, IV and I. Compared with CSF treatment, reforestation treatments decreased the average annual runoff depth and the soil loss by 25.5%-61.8% and 93.9%-96.2% during the study period respectively. Meanwhile, runoff depth at PSF and EEF treatments was significantly lower than that in NST treatment, but no significant difference existed in soil erosion modulus among the three reforestation treatments. This is mainly due to the improved vegetation properties (i.e., vegetation coverage, biomass of above- and below-ground and litter-fall mass) and soil properties (i.e., bulk density, total porosity, infiltration rate and organic carbon content) in the three reforestation treatments compared to CSF treatment. The PSF and EEF are recommended as the preferred reforestation types to control runoff and soil erosion in the red soil region of southern China, with the NST potentially being used as an important supplement.

  7. Evaluation and performance of arccheck and film using gamma criteria in pre-treatment quality assurance of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Ramachandran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the use of ArcCHECK (AC as an alternative method to replace film dosimetry for pre-treatment quality assurance (QA of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR treatment plans. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with a varied diagnosis of lung, spine, sacrum, sternum, ribs, scapula, and femur undergoing SABR were selected for this study. Pre-treatment QA was performed for all the patients using ionization chamber and film dosimetry. Measurements were also carried out on an AC phantom. The planned and measured doses from the AC device and EBT3 films were compared using four different gamma criteria: 2%/2 mm, 3%/2 mm, 3%/1 mm, and 3%/3 mm. Results: The mean gamma passing rates at 3%/3 mm for all non-spine SABR cases were 98.79 ± 0.96 and 99.27 ± 1.03 with AC and films, respectively. The mean passing rates at 3%/2 mm for AC and films were 98.76 ± 0.42 and 99.43 ± 0.27 respectively for spine VMAT SABR, and 87.15 ± 2.45 and 99.79 ± 0.14 respectively for spine IMRT SABR. In the case of spine tumors, the gamma criterion was tightened due to the proximity of spinal cord to the planning target volume. Our results show that AC provides good results for all VMAT SABR plans. Conclusion: The AC results at 3%/3 mm were in good agreement with film dosimetry for most cases. We observed a significant reduction in QA time on using AC for SABR QA. This study showed that AC results are comparable to film dosimetry for all studied sites except for spine IMRT SABR.

  8. Performance of the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria versus the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria in adult and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Esther A R; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; Jacobs, Johannes W G; Welsing, Paco M J; Fritsch-Stork, Ruth D E

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the performance in classifying systemic lupus erythematosus by the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics criteria (SLICC'12), versus the revised American College of Rheumatology criteria from 1997 (ACR'97) in adult and juvenile SLE patients. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Embase for studies comparing SLICC'12 and ACR'97 with clinical diagnosis. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of SLICC'12 and ACR'97. To assess classification earlier in the disease by either set, sensitivity and specificity were compared for patients with disease duration <5years. Sensitivity and specificity of individual criteria items were also assessed. In adult SLE (nine studies: 5236 patients, 1313 controls), SLICC'12 has higher sensitivity (94.6% vs. 89.6%) and similar specificity (95.5% vs. 98.1%) compared to ACR'97. For juvenile SLE (four studies: 568 patients, 339 controls), SLICC'12 demonstrates higher sensitivity (99.9% vs. 84.3%) than ACR'97, but much lower specificity (82.0% vs. 94.1%). SLICC'12 classifies juvenile SLE patients earlier in disease course. Individual items contributing to diagnostic accuracy are low complement, anti-ds DNA and acute cutaneous lupus in SLICC'12, and the immunologic and hematologic disorder in ACR'97. Based on sensitivity and specificity SLICC'12 is best for adult SLE. Following the view that higher specificity, i.e. avoidance of false positives, is preferable, ACR'97 is best for juvenile SLE even if associated with lower sensitivity. Our results on the contribution of the individual items of SLICC'12 and ACR´97 may be of value in future efforts to update classification criteria. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Decisive factors of the reforestation in the basin of the Purires River; Factores determinantes de la reforestacion en la cuenca del Rio Purires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarraga Florez, Liz Farleidy

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the comparative analysis between reforestations and non-reforestations, keeping in mind some socioeconomic factors, of use and production of their properties and institutional factors associated with the participation in reforestation. The information was obtained applying surveys and by means of models it was considered the influence of this factors in the decision of reforesting; the study was taken in the basin of the Purires River that presented some problems of floods, due to the deforestation on its high part in several years; for such a reason, the Cantonal Agricultural Center of the Valley of the Guarco began the reforestation program since the year 1992 using the incentives granted by the government from Costa Rica.

  10. GIS-based multicriteria municipal solid waste landfill suitability analysis: a review of the methodologies performed and criteria implemented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demesouka, O E; Vavatsikos, A P; Anagnostopoulos, K P

    2014-04-01

    Multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS) have emerged as an integration of the geographical information systems (GIS) and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods. GIS-based MCDA allows the incorporation of conflicting objectives and decision maker (DM) preferences into spatial decision models. During recent decades, a variety of research articles have been published regarding the implementation of methods and/or tools in a variety of real-world case studies. The article discusses, in detail, the criteria and methods that are implemented in GIS-based landfill siting suitability analysis and especially the exclusionary and non-exclusionary criteria that can be considered when selecting sites for municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. This paper reviews 36 seminal articles in which the evaluation of candidate landfill sites is conducted using MCDA methods. After a brief description of the main components of a MC-SDSS and the applied decision rules, the review focuses on the criteria incorporated into the decision models. The review provides a comprehensive guide to the landfill siting analysis criteria, providing details regarding the utilization methods, their decision or exclusionary nature and their monotonicity.

  11. A proposed framework for establishing integrated cost and performance criteria for environmental technologies. A summary report to the U.S. Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Through an Interagency Agreement between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA directed a project to establish a suite of standard cost and performance criteria to guide the evaluation of environmental cleanup technologies for DOE sites. Ideally, these criteria would be ''generic'' in that they could be used as a basis for evaluating any cleanup technology for any DOE site. To be most useful, however, these criteria would also reflect the interests of diverse decisionmakers who influence DOE technology evaluation. The project was conducted by the National Environmental Technology Applications Center (NETAC), a nonprofit organization specializing in the development and commercialization of new and innovative environmental technologies for national and international markets. To accomplish the project objective, NETAC (1) developed a data gathering questionnaire, (2) interviewed government and industry decisionmakers, (3) identified previous criteria development efforts, (4) conducted a workshop, (5) evaluated workshop discussions, and (6) applied its five years' experience in commercializing environmental technologies to analyze project findings. The project resulted in the development of a unique and comprehensive resource or tool to enhance communication among decisionmakers. This resource, a ''Proposed Framework for Establishing Integrated Cost and Performance Criteria for Evaluating Environmental Cleanup Technologies for DOE Sites,'' offers decisionmakers a first-time comprehensive assessment of major technology evaluation issues by a decisionmaker group

  12. A critical assessment of the performance criteria in confirmatory analysis for veterinary drug residue analysis using mass spectrometric detection in selected reaction monitoring mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Bjorn J.A.; Meijer, Thijs; Wegh, Robin; Mol, Hans G.J.; Smyth, Wesley G.; Armstrong Hewitt, S.; Ginkel, van Leen; Nielen, Michel W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Besides the identification point system to assure adequate set-up of instrumentation, European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC includes performance criteria regarding relative ion abundances in mass spectrometry and chromatographic retention time. In confirmatory analysis, the relative abundance

  13. Alignment of University Information Technology Resources with the Malcolm Baldrige Results Criteria for Performance Excellence in Education: A Balanced Scorecard Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Deborah F.; Humphrey, Roberta L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors suggest using a balanced scorecard (BSC) approach to evaluate information technology (IT) resources in higher education institutions. The BSC approach illustrated is based on the performance criteria of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in Education. This article suggests areas of potential impact of IT on BSC measures in…

  14. Reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Nepal : Effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and overland flow production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghimire, C.P.; Bonell, Mike; Bruijnzeel, L. Adrian; Coles, Neil A.; Lubczynski, M.

    2013-01-01

    [1] Severely degraded hillslopes in the Lesser Himalaya challenge local communities as a result of the frequent occurrence of overland flow and erosion during the rainy season and water shortages during the dry season. Reforestation is often perceived as an effective way of restoring predisturbance

  15. Reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Central Nepal: effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and overland flow production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghimire, C.P.; Bonell, M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Coles, N.A.; Lubczynski, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Severely degraded hillslopes in the Lesser Himalaya challenge local communities as a result of the frequent occurrence of overland flow and erosion during the rainy season and water shortages during the dry season. Reforestation is often perceived as an effective way of restoring predisturbance

  16. Reboisement des Terres Arides. (Reforestation in Arid Lands. Manual M5A). Appropriate Technologies for Development Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Virginia C., Ed.

    This is the French translation for a manual which presents some current, state-of-the-art examples of forestry programs in West Africa. It is based on the collective experiences of foresters and of local farmers and herders. Since many of the problems of reforestation of dry areas are the same worldwide, the text (which focuses on the broad…

  17. Growth and mortality of pin oak and pecan reforestation in a constructed wetland: analysis with management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Henderson; P. Botch; J. Cussimanio; D. Ryan; J. Kabrick; D. Dey

    2009-01-01

    Pin oak (Quercus palustris Muenchh.) and pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) trees were planted on reforestation plots at Four Rivers Conservation Area in west-central Missouri. The study was conducted to determine survival and growth rates of the two species under different production methods and environmental variables....

  18. Estimating effects of reforestation on nitrogen and phosphorus load reductions in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Theodor D. Leininger; Matt Moran

    2015-01-01

    Surface water quality in the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) and the adjacent Gulf of Mexico has degraded over the past several decades primarily due to deforestation to agricultural lands and the loss of wetlands. This study investigated the benefits of reforestation upon nitrate–nitrogen (NO-3---N) and orthophosphate (PO3-...

  19. Investment criteria of private equity/venture capital funds and financial performance of companies before initial investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Drewniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and recognizing of the investment criteria of private equity/venture capital seems to be crucial for all parties of this market. Entrepreneurs, who are looking for the capital for financing their businesses, can easier find the most proper fund and better formulate their expectations. For the funds, specifying theirs investment criteria is the reflection of the investment strategy leading to its better wording. The fund's investmentcriteriaare also importantfor investors - capital donors. First of allthey wantto knowin whattypes of assetswill be investedtheirfunds. That can help to assess the risk involved in the investment and calculate the expected rate of return. In addition topresentation ofthe investment criteriaof private equity/venture capital funds, thepaper refers to thecompany's financialsituationbefore investments. That draw the company profile, the funds are most interested to invest. The turnover, net profit, profitability ratios and liquidity were analyzed to specify this profile.

  20. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP) and return to activity criteria (RTAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and ...

  1. Performance of Clinical Criteria for Screening of Possible Antiretroviral Related Mitochondrial Toxicity in HIV-Infected Children in Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langs-Barlow, Allison; Renner, Lorna; Katz, Karol; Northrup, Veronika; Paintsil, Elijah

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is implicated in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) toxicity. HIV infection also causes mitochondrial toxicity (MT). Differentiating between the two is critical for HIV management. Our objective was to test the utility of the Mitochondrial Disease Criteria (MDC) and the Enquête Périnatale Française (EPF) to screen for possible HAART related MT in HIV-infected children in Ghana. The EPF and MDC are compilations of clinical symptoms, or criteria, of MT: a (+) score indicates possible MT. We applied these criteria retrospectively to 403 charts of HIV-infected children. Of those studied, 331/403 received HAART. Comparing HAART exposed and HAART naïve children, the difference in EPF score, but not MDC, approached significance (P = 0.1). Young age at HIV diagnosis or at HAART initiation was associated with (+) EPF (P ≤ 0.01). Adherence to HAART trended toward an association with (+) EPF (P = 0.09). Exposure to nevirapine, abacavir, or didanosine increased risk of (+) EPF (OR = 3.55 (CI = 1.99-6.33), 4.76 (2.39-9.43), 4.93 (1.29-18.87)). Neither EPF nor MDC identified a significant difference between HAART exposed or naïve children regarding possible MT. However, as indicators of HAART exposure are associated with (+) EPF, it may be a candidate for prospective study of possible HAART related MT in resource-poor settings.

  2. Performance of Clinical Criteria for Screening of Possible Antiretroviral Related Mitochondrial Toxicity in HIV-Infected Children in Accra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Langs-Barlow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial damage is implicated in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART toxicity. HIV infection also causes mitochondrial toxicity (MT. Differentiating between the two is critical for HIV management. Our objective was to test the utility of the Mitochondrial Disease Criteria (MDC and the Enquête Périnatale Française (EPF to screen for possible HAART related MT in HIV-infected children in Ghana. The EPF and MDC are compilations of clinical symptoms, or criteria, of MT: a (+ score indicates possible MT. We applied these criteria retrospectively to 403 charts of HIV-infected children. Of those studied, 331/403 received HAART. Comparing HAART exposed and HAART naïve children, the difference in EPF score, but not MDC, approached significance (. Young age at HIV diagnosis or at HAART initiation was associated with (+ EPF (. Adherence to HAART trended toward an association with (+ EPF (. Exposure to nevirapine, abacavir, or didanosine increased risk of (+ EPF (OR = 3.55 (CI = 1.99–6.33, 4.76 (2.39–9.43, 4.93 (1.29–18.87. Neither EPF nor MDC identified a significant difference between HAART exposed or naïve children regarding possible MT. However, as indicators of HAART exposure are associated with (+ EPF, it may be a candidate for prospective study of possible HAART related MT in resource-poor settings.

  3. Reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Nepal: Effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and overland flow production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Chandra Prasad; Bonell, Mike; Bruijnzeel, L. Adrian; Coles, Neil A.; Lubczynski, Maciek W.

    2013-12-01

    degraded hillslopes in the Lesser Himalaya challenge local communities as a result of the frequent occurrence of overland flow and erosion during the rainy season and water shortages during the dry season. Reforestation is often perceived as an effective way of restoring predisturbance hydrological conditions but heavy usage of reforested land in the region has been shown to hamper full recovery of soil hydraulic properties. This paper investigates the effect of reforestation and forest usage on field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivities (Kfs) near Dhulikhel, Central Nepal, by comparing degraded pasture, a footpath within the pasture, a 25 year old pine reforestation, and little disturbed natural forest. The hillslope hydrological implications of changes in Kfs with land-cover change were assessed via comparisons with measured rainfall intensities over different durations. High surface and near-surface Kfs in natural forest (82-232 mm h-1) rule out overland flow occurrence and favor vertical percolation. Conversely, corresponding Kfs for degraded pasture (18-39 mm h-1) and footpath (12-26 mm h-1) were conducive to overland flow generation during medium- to high-intensity storms and thus to local flash flooding. Pertinently, surface and near-surface Kfs in the heavily used pine forest remained similar to those for degraded pasture. Estimated monsoonal overland flow totals for degraded pasture, pine forest, and natural forest were 21.3%, 15.5%, and 2.5% of incident rainfall, respectively, reflecting the relative ranking of surface Kfs. Along with high water use by the pines, this lack of recovery of soil hydraulic properties under pine reforestation is shown to be a critical factor in the regionally observed decline in base flows following large-scale planting of pines and has important implications for regional forest management.

  4. Uncertainties in the Forecasted Performance of Sediment Diversions Associated with Differences Between "Optimized" Diversion Design Criteria and the Natural Crevasse-Splay Sub-Delta Life-Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment diversions have been proposed as a crucial component of the restoration of Coastal Louisiana. They are generally characterized as a means of creating land by mimicking natural crevasse-splay sub-delta processes. However, the criteria that are often promoted to optimize the performance of these diversions (i.e. large, sand-rich diversions into existing, degraded wetlands) are at odds with the natural processes that govern the development of crevasse-splay sub-deltas (typically sand-lean or sand-neutral diversions into open water). This is due in large part to the fact that these optimization criteria have been developed in the absence of consideration for the natural constraints associated with fundamental hydraulics: specifically, the conservation of mechanical energy. Although the implementation of the aforementioned optimization criteria have the potential to greatly increase the land-building capacity of a given diversion, the concomitant widespread inundation of the existing wetlands (an unavoidable consequence of diverting into a shallow, vegetated embayment), and the resultant stresses on existing wetland vegetation, have the potential to dramatically accelerate the loss of these existing wetlands. Hence, there are inherent uncertainties in the forecasted performance of sediment diversions that are designed according to the criteria mentioned above. This talk details the reasons for these uncertainties, using analytic and numerical model results, together with evidence from field observations and experiments. The likelihood that, in the foreseeable future, these uncertainties can be reduced, or even rationally bounded, is discussed.

  5. Comparison of performance of various tumour response criteria in assessment of regorafenib activity in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours after failure of imatinib and sunitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagare, Atul B; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Kurra, Vikram; Urban, Trinity; Manola, Judith; Choy, Edwin; Demetri, George D; George, Suzanne; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2014-03-01

    To compare performance of various tumour response criteria (TRCs) in assessment of regorafenib activity in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) with prior failure of imatinib and sunitinib. Twenty participants in a phase II trial received oral regorafenib (median duration 47 weeks; interquartile range (IQR) 24-88) with computed tomography (CT) imaging at baseline and every two months thereafter. Tumour response was prospectively determined on using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) 1.1, and retrospectively reassessed for comparison per RECIST 1.0, World Health Organization (WHO) and Choi criteria, using the same target lesions. Clinical benefit rate [CBR; complete or partial response (CR or PR) or stable disease (SD)≥16 weeks] and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared between various TRCs using kappa statistics. Performance of TRCs in predicting overall survival (OS) was compared by comparing OS in groups with progression-free intervals less than or greater than 20 weeks by each TRC using c-statistics. PR was more frequent by Choi (90%) than RECIST 1.1, RECIST 1.0 and WHO (20% each), however, CBR was similar between various TRCs (overall CBR 85-90%, 95-100% agreement between all TRC pairs). PFS per RECIST 1.0 was similar to RECIST 1.1 (median 44 weeks versus 58 weeks), and shorter for WHO (median 34 weeks) and Choi (median 24 weeks). With RECIST 1.1, RECIST 1.0 and WHO, there was moderate concordance between PFS and OS (c-statistics 0.596-0.679). Choi criteria had less favourable concordance (c-statistic 0.506). RECIST 1.1 and WHO performed somewhat better than Choi criteria as TRC for response evaluation in patients with advanced GIST after prior failure on imatinib and sunitinib. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The dual Green Revolutions in South Korea: reforestation and agricultural revolution under the authoritarian regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Manyong

    2012-01-01

    In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals.

  7. Useful trees in reforestation planning at the Biosphere Reserve «Buenavista», Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Herrera Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba, Biosphere Reserves protect and keep natural areas of variable size including one or several forest, scrub or grassland vegetation units, either primary or secondary, also taking into account the various kinds of complex vegetation and communities. The Biosphere Reserve Buenavista, located in Central Cuba, includes several primary vegetation units such as the mangrove forest, sandy coast and rocky coast vegetation, littoral scrub and the dry semi-deciduous, semi-deciduous and gallery forests. Ferns and their allies, gimnosperms and angiosperms were determined and listed in the Reserve and dominant or dominated tree taxa were selected, also listing their standard heights with the ultimate purpose of using them in future reforestation planning if deforestation in some zones occurs.

  8. Modelling regional land change scenarios to assess land abandonment and reforestation dynamics in the Pyrenees (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas; Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan R.; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades and centuries, European mountain landscapes have experienced substantial transformations. Natural and anthropogenic LULC changes (land use and land cover changes), especially agro-pastoral activities, have directly influenced the spatial organization and composition of European mountain landscapes. For the past sixty years, natural reforestation has been occurring due to a decline in both agricultural production activities and rural population. Stakeholders, to better anticipate future changes, need spatially and temporally explicit models to identify areas at risk of land change and possible abandonment. This paper presents an integrated approach combining forecasting scenarios and a LULC changes simulation model to assess where LULC changes may occur in the Pyrenees Mountains, based on historical LULC trends and a range of future socio-economic drivers. The proposed methodology considers local specificities of the Pyrenean valleys, sub-regional climate and topographical properties, and regional economic policies. Results indicate that some regions are projected to face strong abandonment, regardless of the scenario conditions. Overall, high rates of change are associated with administrative regions where land productivity is highly dependent on socio-economic drivers and climatic and environmental conditions limit intensive (agricultural and/or pastoral) production and profitability. The combination of the results for the four scenarios allows assessments of where encroachment (e.g. colonization by shrublands) and reforestation are the most probable. This assessment intends to provide insight into the potential future development of the Pyrenees to help identify areas that are the most sensitive to change and to guide decision makers to help their management decisions.

  9. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Oliver Adams

    Full Text Available Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area, followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE. Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp. was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5% where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%. Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming.

  10. Asset-building payments for ecosystem services: assessing landowner perceptions of reforestation incentives in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkissian, A.J.; Brook, R.M.; Talhouk, S.N.; Hockley, N.J.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Incentivising landowners to supply ecosystem services remains challenging, especially when this requires long-term investments such as reforestation. We investigated how landowners perceive, and would respond to, distinct types of incentives for planting diverse native trees on private lands in Lebanon. Our aim was to understand landowners’ attitudes towards hypothetical Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) contracts options; their likely participation; and the potential additionality they would provide. Area of study: Highland villages situated within eight of Lebanon’s 20 Important Plant Areas Materials and methods: Mixed-methods surveys were conducted with 34 landowners to determine past, present and future land-use strategies. Study participants were presented with three differently structured reforestation contract options (or schemes). The three schemes (results-based loan, action-based grant, and results-based payments) differed in their expected risks and benefits to landowners. Qualitative debriefing questions followed each of the schemes presented. Main results: Although the results-based loan did deter uptake relative to the lower risk action-based grant, results-based payments did not significantly increase uptake or planting area, suggesting asymmetric attitudes to risk. Qualitative probing revealed economic, social (e.g. trust) and institutional factors (e.g. legal implications of planting forest trees on private land) that limited willingness to participate in the results-based contract option. Research highlights: This study demonstrates the importance of combining qualitative and quantitative methods to better understand landowner perceptions of incentives and risks, particularly in challenging socio-political contexts.

  11. Asset-building payments for ecosystem services: assessing landowner perceptions of reforestation incentives in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkissian, A.J.; Brook, R.M.; Talhouk, S.N.; Hockley, N.J.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: Incentivising landowners to supply ecosystem services remains challenging, especially when this requires long-term investments such as reforestation. We investigated how landowners perceive, and would respond to, distinct types of incentives for planting diverse native trees on private lands in Lebanon. Our aim was to understand landowners’ attitudes towards hypothetical Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) contracts options; their likely participation; and the potential additionality they would provide. Area of study: Highland villages situated within eight of Lebanon’s 20 Important Plant Areas Materials and methods: Mixed-methods surveys were conducted with 34 landowners to determine past, present and future land-use strategies. Study participants were presented with three differently structured reforestation contract options (or schemes). The three schemes (results-based loan, action-based grant, and results-based payments) differed in their expected risks and benefits to landowners. Qualitative debriefing questions followed each of the schemes presented. Main results: Although the results-based loan did deter uptake relative to the lower risk action-based grant, results-based payments did not significantly increase uptake or planting area, suggesting asymmetric attitudes to risk. Qualitative probing revealed economic, social (e.g. trust) and institutional factors (e.g. legal implications of planting forest trees on private land) that limited willingness to participate in the results-based contract option. Research highlights: This study demonstrates the importance of combining qualitative and quantitative methods to better understand landowner perceptions of incentives and risks, particularly in challenging socio-political contexts.

  12. Monitoring of reforestation on burnt areas in Western Russia using Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobev, Oleg; Kurbanov, Eldar

    2017-04-01

    Forest fires are main disturbance factor for the natural ecosystems, especially in boreal forests. Monitoring for the dynamic of forest cover regeneration in the post-fire period of ecosystem recovery is crucial to both estimation of forest stands and forest management. In this study, on the example of burnt areas of 2010 wildfires in Republic Mari El of Russian Federation we estimated post-fire dynamic of different classes of vegetation cover between 2011-2016 years with the use of time series Landsat satellite images. To validate the newly obtained thematic maps we used 80 test sites with independent field data, as well Canopus-B images of high spatial resolution. For the analysis of the satellite images we referred to Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Tasseled Cap transformation. The research revealed that at the post-fire period the area of thematic classes "Reforestation of the middle and low density" has maximum cover (44%) on the investigated burnt area. On the burnt areas of 2010 there is ongoing active process of grass overgrowing (up to 20%), also there are thematic classes of deadwood (15%) and open spaces (10%). The results indicate that there is mostly natural regeneration of tree species pattern corresponding to the pre-fire condition. Forest plantations cover only 2% of the overall burnt area. By the 2016 year the NDVI parameters of young vegetation cover were recovered to the pre-fire level as well. The overall unsupervised classification accuracy of more than 70% shows high degree of agreement between the thematic map and the ground truth data. The research results can be applied for the long term succession monitoring and management plan development for the reforestation activities on the lands disturbed by fire.

  13. Natural and artificial reforestation in the mining landscapes of the Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ivakina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The area of technogenic territories in the Russian Far East and Siberia continues to increase. The aim of this article is show the degree of reforestation processes scrutiny in mining landscapes of the Russian Far Eastern region. The results of technogenic landscapes research of the Russian Far East are represented by extensive set of knowledge, accumulated over half a century, and highly of disparate in resent time. They are not extensive as the results of studies of natural landscapes, but have important practical importance. Time of mining influence in the landscapes of the Far Eastern region is relatively small, and makes some decades in most cases. Therefore, the results of most studies belong to early, at least middle stages of ecological successions. Floral features of mining areas are thoroughly characterized. Many papers are devoted to the regularities of self-healing vegetation. Questions of recultivation are considered for each site individually. It is recommended to provide forestry, recreation, sanitation and meliorative restoration that assume different recultivation schemes. The selection of wood species is commonly recommended from the number of native species, because they are better adapted for local growing conditions. Compiled the lists of tree species, most successfully surviving on the dumps. In the presence of fairly extensive scientific literature, detailed studies of the structure and dynamics of disturbed areas are few in number. In particular, the facies structure of technogenic territories have not been studied, the recovery process of vegetation differentiated for different types of habitats were not considered and there are no detailed landscape and geobotanical maps of disturbed areas. Unfortunately, monitoring studies of natural and artificial reforestation are not developed.

  14. Determination of performance criteria for high-level solidified nuclear waste from the commercial nuclear fuel cycle: a probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    To minimize the radiological risk from the operation of a waste management system for the safe disposal of high-level waste, performance characteristics of the solidified waste form must be specified. The minimum waste form characteristics that must be specified are the radionuclide volatilization fraction, airborne particulate dispersion fraction, and the aqueous dissolution characteristics. The results indicate that the pre-emplacement environs are more limiting in establishing the waste form performance criteria than the post-emplacement environs. The actual values of expected risk are sensitive to modeling assumptions and data base uncertainties. The transportation step appears to be the most limiting in determining the required performance characteristics

  15. Numerical simulation of the impact of reforestation on winter meteorology and environment in a semi-arid urban valley, Northwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ye, E-mail: yyu@lzb.ac.cn [Clod and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold & Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He, Jianjun, E-mail: 18766167147@163.com [Clod and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold & Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhao, Suping [Clod and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold & Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Na [Clod and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold & Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Weather Modification Office, Qinghai Meteorological Bureau, Xining 810001 (China); Chen, Jinbei [Clod and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold & Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Mao, Hongjun; Wu, Lin [College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Since 1999 Chinese government has made great effort to reforest the south and north mountains surrounding urban Lanzhou – a city located in a river valley, Northwestern China. Until 2009 obvious land use change occurred, with 69.2% of the reforested area been changed from grasslands, croplands, barren or sparsely vegetated land to closed shrublands and 20.6% from closed shrublands, grasslands, and croplands to forests. Reforestation changes land-surface properties, with possible impact on the evolution of atmospheric variables. To understand to what extent the local meteorology and environment could be affected by reforestation in winter, and through what processes, two sets of simulations were conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model for a control case with high-resolution remotely sensed land cover data for 2009 and a scenario assuming no reforestation since 1999. Results suggested that the changes in albedo, surface exchange coefficient and surface soil heat conductivity related to reforestation led to the changes in surface net radiation and surface energy partitioning, which in turn affected the meteorological fields and enhanced the mountain-valley wind circulation. Replacement of shrublands and grassland with forest in the south mountain through reforestation play a dominant role in the enhancement of mountain-valley wind circulation. Reforestation increased the amount of air exchanged between the valley and the outside during the day, with the largest hourly increase of 10% on calm weather days and a monthly mean hourly increase of 2% for the study period (Dec. 2009). Reforestation affected the spatial distribution of pollutants and slightly improved the urban air quality, especially in the eastern valley. Results from this study provide useful information for future urban air quality management and reforestation plan, and some experience for cities with similar situations in

  16. Numerical simulation of the impact of reforestation on winter meteorology and environment in a semi-arid urban valley, Northwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ye; He, Jianjun; Zhao, Suping; Liu, Na; Chen, Jinbei; Mao, Hongjun; Wu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Since 1999 Chinese government has made great effort to reforest the south and north mountains surrounding urban Lanzhou – a city located in a river valley, Northwestern China. Until 2009 obvious land use change occurred, with 69.2% of the reforested area been changed from grasslands, croplands, barren or sparsely vegetated land to closed shrublands and 20.6% from closed shrublands, grasslands, and croplands to forests. Reforestation changes land-surface properties, with possible impact on the evolution of atmospheric variables. To understand to what extent the local meteorology and environment could be affected by reforestation in winter, and through what processes, two sets of simulations were conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model for a control case with high-resolution remotely sensed land cover data for 2009 and a scenario assuming no reforestation since 1999. Results suggested that the changes in albedo, surface exchange coefficient and surface soil heat conductivity related to reforestation led to the changes in surface net radiation and surface energy partitioning, which in turn affected the meteorological fields and enhanced the mountain-valley wind circulation. Replacement of shrublands and grassland with forest in the south mountain through reforestation play a dominant role in the enhancement of mountain-valley wind circulation. Reforestation increased the amount of air exchanged between the valley and the outside during the day, with the largest hourly increase of 10% on calm weather days and a monthly mean hourly increase of 2% for the study period (Dec. 2009). Reforestation affected the spatial distribution of pollutants and slightly improved the urban air quality, especially in the eastern valley. Results from this study provide useful information for future urban air quality management and reforestation plan, and some experience for cities with similar situations in

  17. Falling in the elderly: Do statistical models matter for performance criteria of fall prediction? Results from two large population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeshova, Anastasiia; Launay, Cyrille P; Gromov, Vasilii A; Fantino, Bruno; Levinoff, Elise J; Allali, Gilles; Beauchet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    To compare performance criteria (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, area under receiver operating characteristic curve and accuracy) of linear and non-linear statistical models for fall risk in older community-dwellers. Participants were recruited in two large population-based studies, "Prévention des Chutes, Réseau 4" (PCR4, n=1760, cross-sectional design, retrospective collection of falls) and "Prévention des Chutes Personnes Agées" (PCPA, n=1765, cohort design, prospective collection of falls). Six linear statistical models (i.e., logistic regression, discriminant analysis, Bayes network algorithm, decision tree, random forest, boosted trees), three non-linear statistical models corresponding to artificial neural networks (multilayer perceptron, genetic algorithm and neuroevolution of augmenting topologies [NEAT]) and the adaptive neuro fuzzy interference system (ANFIS) were used. Falls ≥1 characterizing fallers and falls ≥2 characterizing recurrent fallers were used as outcomes. Data of studies were analyzed separately and together. NEAT and ANFIS had better performance criteria compared to other models. The highest performance criteria were reported with NEAT when using PCR4 database and falls ≥1, and with both NEAT and ANFIS when pooling data together and using falls ≥2. However, sensitivity and specificity were unbalanced. Sensitivity was higher than specificity when identifying fallers, whereas the converse was found when predicting recurrent fallers. Our results showed that NEAT and ANFIS were non-linear statistical models with the best performance criteria for the prediction of falls but their sensitivity and specificity were unbalanced, underscoring that models should be used respectively for the screening of fallers and the diagnosis of recurrent fallers. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic performance of Baveno IV criteria in cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: analysis of the F7 liver-1288 study population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thabut, D; D'Amico, G; Tan, P

    2010-01-01

    The definition of failure to control bleeding agreed upon at the Baveno IV consensus meeting, included the Adjusted Blood Requirement Index [ABRI: number of blood units/(final-initial hematocrit+0.01)]. ABRI =0.75 denotes failure. However, timing for hematocrit measurements was not defined....... The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the Baveno IV criteria performance to classify treatment success or failure to control bleeding at 5 days, (2) to determine the appropriate timing for hematocrit....

  19. Diagnostic performance of Baveno IV criteria in cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: analysis of the F7 liver-1288 study population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thabut, D; D'Amico, G; Tan, P

    2010-01-01

    The definition of failure to control bleeding agreed upon at the Baveno IV consensus meeting, included the Adjusted Blood Requirement Index [ABRI: number of blood units/(final-initial hematocrit+0.01)]. ABRI ≥0.75 denotes failure. However, timing for hematocrit measurements was not defined....... The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the Baveno IV criteria performance to classify treatment success or failure to control bleeding at 5 days, (2) to determine the appropriate timing for hematocrit....

  20. Criteria CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, V.; Zateyshikova, O.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the theoretical aspects regarding criteria for assessing CSR proposed by A. Carroll, including: economic, legal, ethical, philanthropic. Based on this, it is proposed to characterize these criteria with respect to the interested parties (stakeholders), including: investors, shareholders suppliers, customers, employees, society and the state. This will make a qualitative assessment of the presence and depth using social responsibility in the company, as well as determine the ext...

  1. Benchmarking whole-building energy performance with multi-criteria technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution using a selective objective-weighting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Endong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A TOPSIS based multi-criteria whole-building energy benchmarking is developed. • A selective objective-weighting procedure is used for a cost-accuracy tradeoff. • Results from a real case validated the benefits of the presented approach. - Abstract: This paper develops a robust multi-criteria Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) based building energy efficiency benchmarking approach. The approach is explicitly selective to address multicollinearity trap due to the subjectivity in selecting energy variables by considering cost-accuracy trade-off. It objectively weights the relative importance of individual pertinent efficiency measuring criteria using either multiple linear regression or principal component analysis contingent on meta data quality. Through this approach, building energy performance is comprehensively evaluated and optimized. Simultaneously, the significant challenges associated with conventional single-criterion benchmarking models can be avoided. Together with a clustering algorithm on a three-year panel dataset, the benchmarking case of 324 single-family dwellings demonstrated an improved robustness of the presented multi-criteria benchmarking approach over the conventional single-criterion ones

  2. Evaluating the performance of clinical criteria for predicting mismatch repair gene mutations in Lynch syndrome: a comprehensive analysis of 3,671 families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Verena; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Loeffler, Markus; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Morak, Monika; Schackert, Hans K; Görgens, Heike; Pox, Christian; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Büttner, Reinhard; Propping, Peter; Engel, Christoph

    2014-07-01

    Carriers of mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations have a high lifetime risk for colorectal and endometrial cancers, as well as other malignancies. As mutation analysis to detect these patients is expensive and time-consuming, clinical criteria and tumor-tissue analysis are widely used as pre-screening methods. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of commonly applied clinical criteria (the Amsterdam I and II Criteria, and the original and revised Bethesda Guidelines) and the results of tumor-tissue analysis in predicting MMR gene mutations. We analyzed 3,671 families from the German HNPCC Registry and divided them into nine mutually exclusive groups with different clinical criteria. A total of 680 families (18.5%) were found to have a pathogenic MMR gene mutation. Among all 1,284 families with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancer, the overall mutation detection rate was 53.0%. Mutation frequencies and their distribution between the four MMR genes differed significantly between clinical groups (p small-bowel cancer (p small-bowel cancer were clinically relevant predictors for Lynch syndrome. © 2013 UICC.

  3. Symptom presentations and other characteristics of colorectal cancer patients and the diagnostic performance of the Auckland Regional Grading Criteria for Suspected Colorectal Cancer in the South Auckland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, John C; Bai, Wayne; Lal, Dinesh

    2013-09-13

    This study reviews the presenting symptoms of colorectal cancer in the ethnically diverse Middlemore Hospital referral population of South Auckland, New Zealand. The performance of the newly introduced Auckland Regional Grading Criteria as prediction tool for selecting colorectal cancer cases referred from primary care was evaluated in this group. Retrospective review of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases diagnosed between January 2006 and January 2011. Information extracted from case note review was used to grade patients using the Auckland Regional Grading Criteria. A total of 799 patients were included. The commonest symptoms were: rectal bleeding (25.5-42.3%) and change in bowel habit (20.6-26.8%). Low-risk symptoms including abdominal pain (16.3-46.8%) and weight loss (18.4-26.1%) were not uncommon. 64.4% of Maori and 64.9% of Pacific patients had stage III or IV cancers. Pacific patients had more stage IV disease, 37.7% (pAuckland Regional Grading Criteria would miss 24.7% of the patients with CRC in the referral population. While rectal bleeding and change in bowel habit are frequent presenting symptoms, low-risk atypical symptoms including constipation, weight loss and abdominal pain were not uncommon. Significant proportion of Pacific patients present with late-stage disease. The current Auckland Regional grading criteria would miss significant proportion of our study population with colorectal cancer.

  4. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in native and reforested areas in Rancho Alegre, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Gallo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, natural environments have been transformed into small forest remnants, with the consequent habitat loss and species extinction. The North Paraná State is not an exception, since only 2 to 4% of the original ecosystem occurs in small fragments of Stational Semidecidual Forest. We studied the species richness and abundance of bats in two forest fragments from the Fazenda Congonhas, in Rancho Alegre city, Paraná State, Brazil. Four samplings were undertaken in a legally protected native area (107.8ha and in a reforested area (11.8ha between April 2007 and March 2008. Samplings began at nightfall and lasted six hours, during two consecutive nights in each location. The individuals were captured using eight mist nets, with the same capture effort in both environments. A total of 397 individuals, 14 species and 10 genera were captured in the native area; while in the reforested area, 105 individuals, six species and four genera. Artibeus lituratus was the most common species in both fragments (n=328, 65.3%, followed by Artibeus fimbriatus (n=44, 8.8% and Artibeus jamaicensis (n=30, 6.0%. Other species including Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus auritus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, accounted for 19.9% of the captures. The native area presented higher values of species richness (S=14 and diversity (H’=1.4802 in comparison to the reforested area (S=6, H’=0.57015. The t-test evidenced a significant difference between diversity among the sites (t=7.1075. Chao 1 index indicated that the sampling effort recorded approximately 78% from the total species richness for the native area and 75% for the reforested area. Therefore, the preservation of the forest fragment is essential since it provides habitat for a diverse community of bats. Forest management and reforestation actions may

  5. Analytical criteria for performance characteristics of IgE binding methods for evaluating safety of biotech food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhauser, Thomas; van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K.; Bannon, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    There is detailed guidance on how to perform bioinformatic analyses and enzymatic degradation studies for genetically modified crops under consideration for approval by regulatory agencies; however, there is no consensus in the scientific community on the details of how to perform IgE serum studies.

  6. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  7. General performance characteristics and parametric optimum criteria of a nano-thermoelectric refrigerator with an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao; Wu Guoxing; Xie Jian

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, we describe a single-level quantum dot with an external magnetic field that works as a nano-thermoelectric refrigerator. Based on the model, the expressions for the cooling rate (R), the power input (P) and the coefficient of performance (ε) are derived. The effects of the magnetic field strength and the level energy on the performance of the refrigerator are revealed. The optimal performance characteristics of the refrigerator are analyzed by numerical calculation. Furthermore, the practical operating regions of the cycle are determined.

  8. Leaf litter breakdown rates and associated fauna of native and exotic trees used in Neotropical Riparia Reforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Isaza, Nataly; Blanco, Juan Felipe

    2014-01-01

    A signature of globalization is the prevalence of exotic trees along reforested urban and rural riparian zones in the neotropics, but little is known about the instream processing of its leaf litter. In this study, leaf litter breakdown rates were measured during 35 days using mesh bags within a reference headwater stream for seven exotic and three native tree species commonly used in urban and rural reforestation. Artocarpus altilis, Schefflera actinophylla and Terminalia catappa scored the highest mass loss rates (>85 %; mean life: t50 <15 d), while Cecropia sp. and Cespedesia macrophylla (mass loss =36 and 15 %; t50 =58 and 172 d, respectively) scored the lowest rates. However, a broad range of rates was observed among the ten species studied. The carbon to phosphorus ratio (c:p) and toughness of the leaf litter were the best predictors of breakdown rates. However, these leaf properties were not correlated with the very low values of macro invertebrates abundance and diversity, and the few morpho classified as shredders. Therefore physical rather than biological controls seem to best explain the observed variability of mass loss rates, and thus slow decomposing leaf litter species seems to provide a habitat rather than a food resource, particularly to collectors. This study suggests that riparian reforestation will propagate species-specific ecological influences on instream processes such as leaf litter processing depending on leaf quality properties, therefore ecosystem-wide influences should be considered for improving reforestation strategies. Future studies should test for differences in breakdown rates and colonization by macro invertebrates relative for leaf litter species origin (native vs. exotic).

  9. Yellow-cedar in vitro clonal production and evaluation of propagules for reforestation. FRDA research memo No. 211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Technical note describing a project that was part of an ongoing effort to develop micropropagation techniques on an operation scale and to investigate their possible use in producing genetically improved stock for planting. The project developed a commercially viable process that uses organogenic micropropagation to produce yellow-cedar stock for operational reforestation; evaluated the techniques for developing genetically improved clones; and established demonstration plots of mircopropagules.

  10. Work in support of biosphere assessments for solid radioactive waste disposal. 1. performance assessments, requirements and methodology; criteria for radiological environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Loose, M.; Smith, G.M.; Watkins, B.M.

    2001-10-01

    The first part of this report is intended to assess how the recent Swedish regulatory developments and resulting criteria impose requirements on what should be included in a performance assessment (PA) for the SFR low and medium level waste repository and for a potential deep repository for high level waste. The second part of the report has been prepared by QuantiSci as an input to the development of SSI's PA review methodology. The aim of the third part is to provide research input to the development of radiological protection framework for the environment, for use in Sweden. This is achieved through a review of various approaches used in other fields

  11. Monitoring performance of progression assessment criteria for cancer antigen 125 among patients with ovarian cancer compared by computer simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu Hassan, Suher Othman; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    to simulated datasets. We investigated the ability to provide information on CA125 increments as well as their robustness against false positive signals. RESULTS: For baseline concentrations above cut-off, the best performing criterion was based on a confirmed increment ≥2.5-times the nadir concentration...

  12. Criteria and procedures for validating biomathematical models of human performance and fatigue : procedures for analysis of work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Each railroad covered by 49 CFR 228.407 must perform an analysis of the work schedules of its train employees who are engaged in commuter or intercity rail passenger transportation and identify those schedules that, if worked by such a train employee...

  13. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492-1900 CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah; Swetnam, Thomas W

    2016-02-09

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact.

  14. The future role of reforestation in reducing buildup of atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.

    1993-01-01

    Among the options posed for mitigating the buildup of atmospheric CO 2 is planting new forest areas to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Among the questions of interest in modeling the global carbon cycle is the extent to which reforestation is likely to succeed in providing physical removal of CO 2 from the atmosphere. There are many strategies for using forest land to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of CO 2 : decreasing the rate at which forests are cleared for other land uses, increasing the density of carbon storage in existing forests, improving the rate and efficiency at which forest products are used in the place of other energy intensive products, substitution of renewable wood fuels for fossil fuels, improved management of forests and agroforestry, and increasing the amount of land in standing forest. Because increasing the area of forests has social, political, and economic limitations; in addition to physical limitations; it is hard to envision a large increase in forest area except where there are associated economic benefits. The authors speculation is that, over the next several decades, the forest strategies most likely to be pursued for the express purpose of CO 2 mitigation are those which provide more or more-efficient substitution of forest products for energy or energy-intensive resources and that the physical accumulation of additional carbon in forests will be of lesser importance

  15. Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Krishnakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted indegradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth.However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum(Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum(Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings of E. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantlyhigher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher inAM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings.

  16. Reforestation of Bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karthikeyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted in degradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth. However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum (Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings ofEucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings ofE. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantly higher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher in AM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings. 

  17. Selection of performance measure system as a base of airport operational control using multi criteria decision making approach

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović, Tatjana; Stanković, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary's business environment, successful company must be socially responsible and environmentally conscientious in addition to essential tendency for maximizing profits, because only in this way can it ensure competitiveness in the market. Performance measuring of the airport is a critical management activity, which must be consistent with the goals, strategies and key success factors. Since the decision making is based on facts about considered task and their detailed analysis, the...

  18. PHI and PCA3 improve the prognostic performance of PRIAS and Epstein criteria in predicting insignificant prostate cancer in men eligible for active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Francesco; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Cicione, Antonio; Ferro, Matteo; Cimino, Sebastiano; Favilla, Vincenzo; Perdonà, Sisto; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Magno, Carlo; Morgia, Giuseppe; Damiano, Rocco

    2016-04-01

    To assess the performance of prostate health index (PHI) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) when added to the PRIAS or Epstein criteria in predicting the presence of pathologically insignificant prostate cancer (IPCa) in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) but eligible for active surveillance (AS). An observational retrospective study was performed in 188 PCa patients treated with laparoscopic or robot-assisted RP but eligible for AS according to Epstein or PRIAS criteria. Blood and urinary specimens were collected before initial prostate biopsy for PHI and PCA3 measurements. Multivariate logistic regression analyses and decision curve analysis were carried out to identify predictors of IPCa using the updated ERSPC definition. At the multivariate analyses, the inclusion of both PCA3 and PHI significantly increased the accuracy of the Epstein multivariate model in predicting IPCa with an increase of 17 % (AUC = 0.77) and of 32 % (AUC = 0.92), respectively. The inclusion of both PCA3 and PHI also increased the predictive accuracy of the PRIAS multivariate model with an increase of 29 % (AUC = 0.87) and of 39 % (AUC = 0.97), respectively. DCA revealed that the multivariable models with the addition of PHI or PCA3 showed a greater net benefit and performed better than the reference models. In a direct comparison, PHI outperformed PCA3 performance resulting in higher net benefit. In a same cohort of patients eligible for AS, the addition of PHI and PCA3 to Epstein or PRIAS models improved their prognostic performance. PHI resulted in greater net benefit in predicting IPCa compared to PCA3.

  19. Criteria and techniques for field characterization and modeling related to selecting and evaluating performance of LILW disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faybishenko, Boris; Witherspoon, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Argentina is faced with the challenging problem of developing technology for near-surface disposal and isolation of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW). The preferred option for disposal of LILW (including both relatively short-lived and long-lived radionuclides) is to use disposal facilities that are near-surface--either above or below ground level [IAEA, 1985; 2001a;2004]. How individual components of a waste disposal system perform (including waste forms, waste containers, engineered barriers and host environment) will determine system safety and the safety of the surrounding environment [IAEA, 1999]. The lack of appropriate engineering for the backfill, and for the selection of sealing and covering materials for trenches, vaults, and ditches, could result in the escape of radionuclides from the disposed wastes [IAEA, 1994a; 2001b]. Therefore, assessment and design of backfill, barriers, and cover materials are very important, both for preventing invasion of water into the disposal system, and for retarding radionuclides that could potentially migrate from the system into the atmosphere or groundwater [IAEA, 1982; 1994b;2001a

  20. Fit-for-purpose: species distribution model performance depends on evaluation criteria - Dutch Hoverflies as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Polce, Chiara; van Loon, E Emiel; Raes, Niels; Reemer, Menno; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2013-01-01

    Understanding species distributions and the factors limiting them is an important topic in ecology and conservation, including in nature reserve selection and predicting climate change impacts. While Species Distribution Models (SDM) are the main tool used for these purposes, choosing the best SDM algorithm is not straightforward as these are plentiful and can be applied in many different ways. SDM are used mainly to gain insight in 1) overall species distributions, 2) their past-present-future probability of occurrence and/or 3) to understand their ecological niche limits (also referred to as ecological niche modelling). The fact that these three aims may require different models and outputs is, however, rarely considered and has not been evaluated consistently. Here we use data from a systematically sampled set of species occurrences to specifically test the performance of Species Distribution Models across several commonly used algorithms. Species range in distribution patterns from rare to common and from local to widespread. We compare overall model fit (representing species distribution), the accuracy of the predictions at multiple spatial scales, and the consistency in selection of environmental correlations all across multiple modelling runs. As expected, the choice of modelling algorithm determines model outcome. However, model quality depends not only on the algorithm, but also on the measure of model fit used and the scale at which it is used. Although model fit was higher for the consensus approach and Maxent, Maxent and GAM models were more consistent in estimating local occurrence, while RF and GBM showed higher consistency in environmental variables selection. Model outcomes diverged more for narrowly distributed species than for widespread species. We suggest that matching study aims with modelling approach is essential in Species Distribution Models, and provide suggestions how to do this for different modelling aims and species' data

  1. Reforestation and landscape reconstruction in gypsum mine area from the semiarid region of NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, S. M. B.; Straaten, P. V.; de Araujo Vieura Santos, M. de Fatima; Agra Bezerra da Silva, Y. J.; da Silva, M.; Saraiva de Melo Pinheiro, T.; Gusmao Didier de Moraes, F.; de Aguiar Accioly, A. M.; Alves de Santana, S. R.; dos Santos, H. A.; de Carvalho, D. M.; de Lima Ferreira, G.; de Carvalho Santos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Araripe region, Northeast Brazil, exist the world's second largest reserve of gypsum, estimated at over than one billion tons, which accounts for 95% of the Brazilian production and constitutes an important segment of the regional economy. The gypsum deposit occurs in the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe basin, which is constituted by siltstones, marls, limestones, shales and gypsum layers. The ore extraction is from an open pit, on simple benches with a height of about 15 meters. Activities in mining operations involve stripping, drilling, loading explosives, blast, fragmentation and block loading / transport. Currently, gypsum mining and processing results in major changes in the landscape (pits and wastes heaps sedimentary rocks and soil mixture), deforestation of the "caatinga" ecosystem for use as firewood in small calcinations, dust pollution and changes in hydrology. To promote environmental remediation of this area, a multidisciplinary research has being done with the aim to support reforestation at the wastes heaps. The study involved the following activities: collection and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of mine waste materials; a floristic survey around the mines (botanical identification and measuring physical parameters in 16 plots, in order to identify which species are best suited to the conditions of the substrate at the mine site); an experiment (randomized block design) developed in a greenhouse, where seedlings of various native tree species were grown in a "constructed soil" made up of gypsum waste combined with chicken, goat and cattle manure, aimed to select tree species and soil treatment to be used in a waste heap; and an assessment of water quality for irrigation of the reforestation areas. The waste materials consist of large clayey aggregates, which may present physical/chemical properties unfavorable for plant development. The mineralogy of the sand fraction (> 85% quartz, gypsum and

  2. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492–1900 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J.; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I.; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact. PMID:26811459

  3. Simulating stream response to floodplain connectivity, reforestation and wetland restoration from reach to catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Bomblies, A.; Wemple, B. C.; Ricketts, T.

    2017-12-01

    Natural infrastructure (e.g., floodplains, forests) can offer multiple ecosystem services (ES), including flood resilience and water quality improvement. In order to maintain these ES, state, federal and non-profit organizations may consider various interventions, such as increased floodplain connectivity, reforestation, and wetland restoration to minimize flood peaks and erosion during events. However, the effect of these interventions on hydro-geomorphic responses of streams from reach to catchment scales (>100 km2) are rarely quantified. We used stream geomorphic assessment datasets with a hydraulic model to investigate the influence of above mentioned interventions on stream power (SP), water depth (WD) and channel velocity (VEL) during floods of 2yr and 100yr return periods for three catchments in the Lake Champlain basin, Vermont. To simulate the effect of forests and wetlands, we changed the Manning's coefficient in the model, and to simulate the increased connectivity of the floodplain, we edited the LIDAR data to lower bank elevations. We find that the wetland scenario resulted in the greatest decline in WD and SP, whereas forested scenario exhibited maximum reduction in VEL. The connectivity scenario showed a decline in almost all stream responses, but the magnitude of change was relatively smaller. On average, 35% (2yr) and 50% (100yr) of altered reaches demonstrated improvement over baseline, and 39% (2yr) and 31% (100yr) of altered reaches showed degradation over baseline, across all interventions. We also noted changes in stream response along unaltered reaches (>30%), where we did not make interventions. Overall, these results point to the complexity related to stream interventions and suggest careful evaluation of spatially explicit tradeoffs of these interventions on river-floodplain ecosystem. The proposed approach of simulating and understanding stream's response to interventions, prior to the implementation of restoration activities, may lead to

  4. Climate-Smart Seedlot Selection Tool: Reforestation and Restoration for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Molnar, N.; Howe, G.; St Clair, B.; Bachelet, D. M.; Ward, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    Local populations of trees are generally adapted to their local climates. Historically, this has meant that local seed zones based on geography and elevation have been used to guide restoration and reforestation. In the face of climate change, seeds from local sources will likely be subjected to climates significantly different from those to which they are currently adapted. The Seedlot Selection Tool (SST) offers a new approach for matching seed sources with planting sites based on future climate scenarios. The SST is a mapping program designed for forest managers and researchers. Users can use the tool to to find seedlots for a given planting site, or to find potential planting sites for a given seedlot. Users select a location (seedlot or planting site), climate scenarios (a climate to which seeds are adapted, and a current or future climate scenario), climate variables, and transfer limits (the maximum climatic distance that is considered a suitable match). Transfer limits are provided by the user, or derived from the range of values within a geographically defined seed zone. The tool calculates scores across the landscape based on an area's similarity, in a multivariate climate space, to the input. Users can explore results on an interactive map, and export PDF and PowerPoint reports, including a map of the results along with the inputs used. Planned future improvements include support for non-forest use cases and ability to download results as GeoTIFF data. The Seedlot Selection Tool and its source code are available online at https://seedlotselectiontool.org. It is co-developed by the United States Forest Service, Oregon State University, and the Conservation Biology Institute.

  5. Changes in butterfly abundance in response to global warming and reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Sung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chun, Jung Hwa; Byun, Bong-Kyu; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Shin, Joon Hwan

    2010-04-01

    In the Republic of Korea, most denuded forest lands have been restored since the 1960s. In addition, the annual mean temperature in the Republic of Korea has increased approximately 1.0 degrees C during the last century, which is higher than the global mean increase of 0.74 degrees C. Such rapid environmental changes may have resulted in changes in the local butterfly fauna. For example, the number of butterflies inhabiting forests may have increased because of reforestation, whereas the number of butterflies inhabiting grasslands may have declined. Furthermore, the number of northern butterflies may have declined, whereas the number of southern butterflies may have increased in response to global warming. Therefore, we compared current data (2002 approximately 2007) regarding the abundance of butterfly species at two sites in the central portion of the Korean Peninsula to data from the late 1950s and early 1970s for the same sites. Changes in the abundance rank of each species between the two periods were evaluated to determine whether any patterns corresponded to the predicted temporal changes. The predicted changes in butterfly abundance were confirmed in this study. In addition, the results showed a different response to habitat change between northern and southern species. In northern butterfly species, butterflies inhabiting forests increased, whereas those inhabiting grasslands declined. However, the opposite was true when southern butterfly species were evaluated. Changes in the abundance indicate that habitat change may be one of the key factors related to the survival of populations that remain around the southern boundary of butterfly species.

  6. Thermodynamic performance analysis and optimization of DMC (Dual Miller Cycle) cogeneration system by considering exergetic performance coefficient and total exergy output criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ust, Yasin; Arslan, Feyyaz; Ozsari, Ibrahim; Cakir, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Miller cycle engines are one of the popular engine concepts that are available for improving performance, reducing fuel consumption and NO x emissions. There are many research studies that investigated the modification of existing conventional engines for operation on a Miller cycle. In this context, a comparative performance analysis and optimization based on exergetic performance criterion, total exergy output and exergy efficiency has been carried out for an irreversible Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system having finite-rate of heat transfer, heat leak and internal irreversibilities. The EPC (Exergetic Performance Coefficient) criterion defined as the ratio of total exergy output to the loss rate of availability. Performance analysis has been also extended to the Otto–Miller and Diesel-Miller cogeneration cycles which may be considered as two special cases of the Dual–Miller cycle. The effect of the design parameters such as compression ratio, pressure ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, heat consumer temperature ratio, allocation ratio and the ratio of power to heat consumed have also been investigated. The results obtained from this paper will provide guidance for the design of Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system and can be used for selection of optimal design parameters. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic performance estimation tool for DM cogeneration cycle is presented. • Using the model two special cases OM and dM cogeneration cycles can be analyzed. • The effects of r M , ψ, χ 2 and R have been investigated. • The results evaluate exergy output and environmental aspects together.

  7. Clinical Neuropathology practice news 1-2014: Pyrosequencing meets clinical and analytical performance criteria for routine testing of MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusser, Matthias; Berghoff, Anna S.; Manzl, Claudia; Filipits, Martin; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Pulverer, Walter; Dieckmann, Karin; Widhalm, Georg; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Knosp, Engelbert; Marosi, Christine; Hainfellner, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    Testing of the MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma is relevant for clinical decision making and research applications. Two recent and independent phase III therapy trials confirmed a prognostic and predictive value of the MGMT promoter methylation status in elderly glioblastoma patients. Several methods for MGMT promoter methylation testing have been proposed, but seem to be of limited test reliability. Therefore, and also due to feasibility reasons, translation of MGMT methylation testing into routine use has been protracted so far. Pyrosequencing after prior DNA bisulfite modification has emerged as a reliable, accurate, fast and easy-to-use method for MGMT promoter methylation testing in tumor tissues (including formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples). We performed an intra- and inter-laboratory ring trial which demonstrates a high analytical performance of this technique. Thus, pyrosequencing-based assessment of MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma meets the criteria of high analytical test performance and can be recommended for clinical application, provided that strict quality control is performed. Our article summarizes clinical indications, practical instructions and open issues for MGMT promoter methylation testing in glioblastoma using pyrosequencing. PMID:24359605

  8. Work in support of biosphere assessments for solid radioactive waste disposal. 1. performance assessments, requirements and methodology; criteria for radiological environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M.J.; Loose, M.; Smith, G.M.; Watkins, B.M. [QuantiSci Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    The first part of this report is intended to assess how the recent Swedish regulatory developments and resulting criteria impose requirements on what should be included in a performance assessment (PA) for the SFR low and medium level waste repository and for a potential deep repository for high level waste. The second part of the report has been prepared by QuantiSci as an input to the development of SSI's PA review methodology. The aim of the third part is to provide research input to the development of radiological protection framework for the environment, for use in Sweden. This is achieved through a review of various approaches used in other fields.

  9. Global Climate Forcing from Albedo Change Caused by Large-scale Deforestation and Reforestation: Quantification and Attribution of Geographic Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Tong; Williams, Christopher A.; Ghimire, Bardan; Masek, Jeffrey; Gao, Feng; Schaaf, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale deforestation and reforestation have contributed substantially to historical and contemporary global climate change in part through albedo-induced radiative forcing, with meaningful implications for forest management aiming to mitigate climate change. Associated warming or cooling varies widely across the globe due to a range of factors including forest type, snow cover, and insolation, but resulting geographic variation remain spoorly described and has been largely based on model assessments. This study provides an observation-based approach to quantify local and global radiative forcings from large-scale deforestation and reforestation and further examines mechanisms that result in the spatial heterogeneity of radiative forcing. We incorporate a new spatially and temporally explicit land cover-specific albedo product derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer with a historical land use data set (Land Use Harmonization product). Spatial variation in radiative forcing was attributed to four mechanisms, including the change in snow-covered albedo, change in snow-free albedo, snow cover fraction, and incoming solar radiation. We find an albedo-only radiative forcing (RF) of -0.819 W m(exp -2) if year 2000 forests were completely deforested and converted to croplands. Albedo RF from global reforestation of present-day croplands to recover year 1700 forests is estimated to be 0.161 W m)exp -2). Snow-cover fraction is identified as the primary factor in determining the spatial variation of radiative forcing in winter, while the magnitude of the change in snow-free albedo is the primary factor determining variations in summertime RF. Findings reinforce the notion that, for conifers at the snowier high latitudes, albedo RF diminishes the warming from forest loss and the cooling from forest gain more so than for other forest types, latitudes, and climate settings.

  10. The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

    2002-02-26

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

  11. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R and D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality

  12. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  13. A look at new key performance criteria that could most affect the safety of long term storage of nuclear waste. A case study commissioned by CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A.; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C

    2002-01-01

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R and D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting research work to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as a few centuries. This goal is a significant departure from current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study in which MUTADIS Consultants and CEPN were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods of time - one dating back to the end of the 18th century - and identified off the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behaviour and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were and are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result the study group obtained a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered when technical studies are conducted. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality. (author)

  14. Reforestation Effects on Carbon Stocks in the Northeast USA: Interactions among Earthworms, Land-Use History and Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. S.; Görres, J. H.; Knowles, M.; Cogbill, C. V.

    2017-12-01

    Reforestation has occurred in many areas of the northeastern USA that were cleared for agriculture in the 1700s and 1800s. Net gains in carbon have occurred but these gains may be affected by earthworm invasions. All earthworm species common to New England were introduced from either Europe or, more recently, Asia. We have been monitoring 18 managed forest stands in Vermont to be able to determine long-term changes in carbon stores. In addition to measuring carbon with depth into the C horizon, we have documented land use history dating back to colonial times, determined earthworm species and density, measured tree species and site metrics, and measured a suite of soil chemical parameters. We also determined carbon distribution in soil microaggregates in a subset of sites. Prior land use in the 18 monitored plots included cultivation, pasture, farm woodlot and possibly iron mining. Higher earthworm species diversity correlated with reduced forest floor depth, higher mineral soil carbon, and greater stability (microaggregate-protected) of that carbon. Sites with the highest worm density and species richness had a history of more intense agricultural land use (although not all former agricultural sites had earthworms). There were also positive interactions between exchangeable calcium pools and earthworm density, and between elevation and carbon in the forest floor. With only 18 sites, it is difficult to establish statistically robust relationships. The effect of reforestation on present-day carbon stores appears to be a complex interaction of land-use history, site location, earthworm history and soil chemistry.

  15. First-Year Vitality of Reforestation Plantings in Response to Herbivore Exclusion on Reclaimed Appalachian Surface-Mined Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J. Hackworth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Appalachian surface-mine reclamation techniques repress natural forest regeneration, and tree plantings are often necessary for reforestation. Reclaimed Appalachian surface mines harbor a suite of mammal herbivores that forage on recently planted seedlings. Anecdotal reports across Appalachia have implicated herbivory in the hindrance and failure of reforestation efforts, yet empirical evaluation of herbivory impacts on planted seedling vitality in this region remains relatively uninitiated. First growing-season survival, height growth, and mammal herbivory damage of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L., shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill., and white oak (Quercus alba L. are presented in response to varying intensities of herbivore exclusion. Seedling survival was generally high, and height growth was positive for all species. The highest herbivory incidence of all tree species was observed in treatments offering no herbivore exclusion. While seedling protectors lowered herbivory incidence compared with no exclusion, full exclusion treatments resulted in the greatest reduction of herbivore damage. Although herbivory from rabbits, small mammals, and domestic animals was observed, cervids (deer and elk were responsible for 95.8% of all damaged seedlings. This study indicates that cervids forage heavily on planted seedlings during the first growing-season, but exclusion is effective at reducing herbivory.

  16. Evaluation of the HOOF-Print assay for typing Brucella abortus strains isolated from cattle in the United States: results with four performance criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewalt Darla R

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental question that arises during epidemiological investigations of bacterial disease outbreaks is whether the outbreak strain is genetically related to a proposed index strain. Highly discriminating genetic markers for characterizing bacterial strains can help in clarifying the genetic relationships among strains. Under the auspices of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the European Study Group for Epidemiological Markers (ESGEM established guidelines for evaluating the performance of typing systems based of a number of criteria. Recently, HOOF-Print genotype analysis, a new method for typing Brucella abortus strains based on hypervariability at eight tandem repeat loci, was described. This paper evaluates the HOOF-Print assay by four of the criteria set out by the ESGEM: typeability, reproducibility, power of discrimination, and concordance with other typing methods. Results The HOOF-Print Assay was evaluated with a test population composed of 97 unrelated field isolates and 6 common laboratory strains of B. abortus. Both typeability and reproducibility of the assay were excellent. Allele diversity and frequency varied widely among the eight loci, ranging from 1 to 13 alleles. The power of discrimination, measured by the Hunter-Gaston discrimination index (HGDI, varied by locus ranging from 0 to 0.89, where a maximal value of 1.0 indicates discrimination of all strains. The HGDI values calculated for subgroups sorted by biovar were similar to the values determined for the whole population. None of the individual loci achieved the recommended HGDI threshold of 0.95, but the HGDI of the composite profiles was 0.99 (93 unique genotypes from 97 field strains evaluated, well above the recommended threshold. By comparison, the HGDI value for biovar typing was 0.61 in a test population biased with disproportionate numbers of the less common biovars. Cluster analysis based on HOOF

  17. The effects of performance criteria including accounting, market, and economy on the quality of financial reporting: A case study on Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the effects of performance criteria (accounting, market and economy on the quality of financial reporting in Iran. To evaluate the variable financial reporting quality, the scores given to each company are applied based on the checklist introduced by Iranian Association of Certified Public Accountants and used for the disclosure of the information of the annual financial statements of companies. The statistical population of this research consists of the companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. This research, which is classified as applied research, uses the methods of multivariate regression test. The data and hypotheses of this research are analyzed and tested using correlation test and means difference test. The results of the tests conducted on 99 companies indicate that there is a significant and positive relation between the rate of return on equity and the equality of financial reporting. There is also a significant and positive relation between earnings per share and the equality of financial reporting. However, there is no relationship between QTOBIN and the equality of financial reporting. Finally, our results indicate there is a significant and positive relation between market value-added and the equality of financial reporting.

  18. The participation of indigenous peoples and other stake holders in the Yacuiba Rio Grande pipeline reforestation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuleta, Edgar A. [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2005-07-01

    The Yacuiba - Rio Grande Pipeline (GASYRG), located in the southern part of Bolivia, is a 432 km, 32 inches pipeline. Its ROW layout goes through three states, 6 municipalities and eight recognized Indigenous Peoples Territories. Seven of these territories belong to the Guarani people and one to the Weenhayek. An extensive Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was conducted prior to the construction period. The EIA included a Public Consultation and Disclosure processes. One of the key requests from every town, municipality or indigenous communities was to have as many job opportunities as possible. An other concern was regarding the application of an environmental management plan for their territories, being the reforestation a great concern. (author)

  19. Stress tolerance of soil fungal communities from native Atlantic forests, reforestations, and a sand mining degraded area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo C; Pupin, Breno; Rangel, Drauzio E N

    2018-06-01

    Microorganisms are essential to the functionality of the soil, particularly in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling, which regulate plant productivity and shape the soil structure. However, biotic and abiotic stresses greatly disrupt soil fungal communities and, thereby, disturb the ecosystem. This study quantified seasonal tolerances to UV-B radiation and heat of fungal communities, which could be cultured, found in soil from two native Atlantic forest fragments called F1 and F2, five reforested areas (RA) planted in 1994, 1997, 2004, 2007, and 2009 with native species of the Atlantic forest, and one sand mining degraded soil (SMDS). The cold activity of the soil fungal communities (FC) from the eight different areas was also studied. Higher tolerance to UV-B radiation and heat was found in the FC from the SMDS and the 2009RA, where the incidence of heat and UV radiation from sun was more intense, which caused selection for fungal taxa that were more UV-B and heat tolerant in those areas. Conversely, the FC from the native forests and older reforested sites were very susceptible to heat and UV-B radiation. The cold activity of the soil FC from different areas of the study showed an erratic pattern of responses among the sampling sites. Little difference in tolerance to UV-B radiation and heat was found among the FC of soil samples collected in different seasons; in general soil FC collected in winter were less tolerant to UV-B radiation, but not for heat. In conclusion, FC from SMDS soil that receive intense heat and UV radiation, as well as with low nutrient availability, were more tolerant to both UV-B radiation and heat. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Creating a New Learning Community: A Case Study of School Leaders' Perceptions of the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence and Their Implementation in a Suburban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Denean

    2013-01-01

    The Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence (Baldrige categories) are increasingly being used throughout the health, education, and business sectors to drive continuous improvement in quality organizations. In each industry, specific categories are available to assist in identifying quality practices deployed throughout an organization. The…

  1. Produção de serapilheira em área reflorestada Litter production in a reforested

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Moreira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante um ano a deposição de serapilheira, em uma área de 7.455 m² reflorestada com espécies arbóreas sobre um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo de textura média, foi quantificada. A área deste estudo pertence à propriedade rural denominada sítio Laranja Azeda, no bairro do Pinhal, município de Limeira-SP, localizada na depressão periférica do Estado (22º 33' 17" S e 47º 24' 17" W, a uma altitude de 567 m. O clima local é do tipo Cwa, de acordo com a classificação climática de Köppen, com verão quente e úmido e inverno seco e frio. A produção de serapilheira foi estimada mensalmente por meio de 21 coletores de 0,25 m², distribuídos aleatoriamente por toda área de estudo, colocados em cada uma das situações topográficas verificadas. A produção média de serapilheira na estação seca foi de 697 kg/ha e 407 kg/ha na estação úmida. Estes valores são intermediários quando comparados com os dos fragmentos de floresta estacional semidecidual do Estado de São Paulo e com os da Floresta da Tijuca (área reflorestada, que são áreas em estádios mais avançados de sucessão secundária, e superiores, quando comparados com os de outras áreas reflorestadas de São Paulo. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que: a a produção de serapilheira teve uma forte variação sazonal, tendo ocorrido maior deposição nos meses mais secos; b há distinção entre produção de serapilheira nas três situações topográficas verificadas; e c a produção de serapilheira é um forte indicativo do grau de crescimento e equilíbrio ecológico da nova floresta.Litter deposition was measured in a 7,455 m² area reforested with tree species over a redyellow "Argisoil" of medium texture during one year. This area is owned by Sítio Laranja Azeda,in the subdivision of Pinhal, in Limeira, SP, located in the peripheral depression of the state (22º33'17" S and 47º24'17" W, at an altitude of 567 m. The local climate is classified by K

  2. Site evaluation approach for reforestations based on SVAT water balance modeling considering data scarcity and uncertainty analysis of model input parameters from geophysical data

    OpenAIRE

    Mannschatz, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Extensive deforestations, particularly in the (sub)tropics, have led to intense soil degradation and erosion with concomitant reduction in soil fertility. Reforestations or plantations on those degraded sites may provide effective measures to mitigate further soil degradation and erosion, and can lead to improved soil quality. However, a change in land use from, e.g., grassland to forest may have a crucial impact on water balance. This may affect water availability even under humid tropical c...

  3. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Bruder, Edson Marcelo; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from 241 Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m 3 . Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m 3 . These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in productivity

  4. Reforestation Sites Show Similar and Nested AMF Communities to an Adjacent Pristine Forest in a Tropical Mountain Area of South Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

  5. International joint research of reforestation techniques for tropical rain forests in Indonesia; Indonesia tono nettairin saisei gijutsu no kyodo kenkyu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    The purposes of this research are to establish large-scale reforestation techniques, and to transfer these techniques into Indonesia for contributing to the preservation of tropical rain forests and the protection of global warming. Lauan trees provide disease and drying resistance properties by inoculating their roots with mycorrhizal fungi, to promote their growth. This is due to the symbiotic relationship between them, in which mycelia of mycorrhizal fungi collect and bring water and nutritive substances in the soil to the roots of lauan trees and intake sugars from the roots as nutrition. Since lauan trees are local variety, they are suitable for the preservation of biosystem. Since their growth life is long, they are suitable for the fixation of CO2. However, the reforestation techniques have not yet been established. Between FY 1992 and 1997, a high survival rate about 60% was obtained through a method in which natural seedlings in mountains were implanted and a method in which seeds were planted in the nursery. About 34000 lauan trees have been planted for the reforestation tests. An inoculation method was established for the accelerated growth of seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi. Through the inoculation, the growth rate was increased up to three times of that without inoculation. The lauan trees grew up to 5 m, and the survival rate was also increased up to twice. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Definition of criteria and indicators for the prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) in hospitals for the purposes of Italian institutional accreditation and performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardivo, S; Moretti, F; Nobile, M; Agodi, A; Appignanesi, R; Arrigoni, C; Baldovin, T; Brusaferro, S; Canino, R; Carli, A; Chiesa, R; D'Alessandro, D; D'Errico, M M; Giuliani, G; Montagna, M T; Moro, M; Mura, I I; Novati, R; Orsi, G B; Pasquarella, C; Privitera, G; Ripabelli, G; Rossini, A; Saia, M; Sodano, L; Torregrossa, M V; Torri, E; Zarrilli, R; Auxilia, F; SItI, Gisio

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are an important issue in terms of quality of care. HAIs impact patient safety by contributing to higher rates of preventable mortality and prolonged hospitalizations. In Italy, analysis of the currently available accreditation systems shows a substantial heterogeneity of approaches for the prevention and surveillance of HAIs in hospitals. The aim of the present study is to develop and propose the use of a synthetic assessment tool that could be implemented homogenously throughout the nation. An analysis of nine international and of the 21 Italian regional accreditation systems was conducted in order to identify requirements and indicators implemented for HAI prevention and control. Two relevant reviews on this topic were further analyzed to identify additional evidence-based criteria. The project team evaluated all the requirements and indicators with consensus meeting methodology, then those applicable to the Italian context were grouped into a set of "focus areas". The analysis of international systems and Italian regional accreditation manuals led to the identification respectively of 19 and 14 main requirements, with relevant heterogeneity in their application. Additional evidence-based criteria were included from the reviews analysis. From the consensus among the project team members all the standards were compared and 20 different thematic areas were identified, with a total of 96 requirements and indicators for preventing and monitoring HAIs. The study reveals a great heterogeneity in the definition of accreditation criteria between the Italian regions. The introduction of a uniform, synthetic assessment instrument, based on the review of national and international standards, may serve as a self-assessment tool to evaluate the achievement of a minimum standards set for HAIs prevention and control in healthcare facilities. This may be used as an assessment tool by the Italian institutional accreditation system, also

  7. National forest cover change in Congo Basin: deforestation, reforestation, degradation and regeneration for the years 1990, 2000 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céline, Ernst; Philippe, Mayaux; Astrid, Verhegghen; Catherine, Bodart; Musampa, Christophe; Pierre, Defourny

    2013-04-01

    This research refers to an object-based automatic method combined with a national expert validation to produce regional and national forest cover change statistics over Congo Basin. A total of 547 sampling sites systematically distributed over the whole humid forest domain are required to cover the six Central African countries containing tropical moist forest. High resolution imagery is used to accurately estimate not only deforestation and reforestation but also degradation and regeneration. The overall method consists of four steps: (i) image automatic preprocessing and preinterpretation, (ii) interpretation by national expert, (iii) statistic computation and (iv) accuracy assessment. The annual rate of net deforestation in Congo Basin is estimated to 0.09% between 1990 and 2000 and of net degradation to 0.05%. Between 2000 and 2005, this unique exercise estimates annual net deforestation to 0.17% and annual net degradation to 0.09%. An accuracy assessment reveals that 92.7% of tree cover (TC) classes agree with independent expert interpretation. In the discussion, we underline the direct causes and the drivers of deforestation. Population density, small-scale agriculture, fuelwood collection and forest's accessibility are closely linked to deforestation, whereas timber extraction has no major impact on the reduction in the canopy cover. The analysis also shows the efficiency of protected areas to reduce deforestation. These results are expected to contribute to the discussion on the reduction in CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) and serve as reference for the period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  9. Environmental quality and sustainability in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy): using multi-criteria analysis to assess and compare municipal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, A; Bodini, A; Becchi, M

    2001-10-01

    Sustainability has become an increasingly significant issue, although practical implementation remains difficult. In Italy, promoting sustainability is particularly problematic at the provincial and municipal level, where the lack of resources and expertise, and the effects of uncoordinated policies make it difficult to achieve minimum requirements to make sustainable policies operational. One essential requirement is knowledge of baseline environmental conditions in each municipality. In the province of Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy) Legambiente, an environmental association, launched an initiative called 'Ecopaese' aimed at gathering data on environmental conditions and stimulating local administrations to implement sustainable policies. To this end, the state of the environment in the 45 municipalities within the province has been monitored using 25 indicators. Their values have been used to rank the municipalities by multiple criteria analysis (MCA). The results of this comparative approach provide information about the level of sustainability attained in the province as a whole as well as in the single municipalities. It is hoped that it will provide the basis for direct action plans at the provincial level by identifying areas for remedial action, as recommended by Agenda 21, the declaration adopted by many countries attending the Rio Summit in 1992.

  10. Análise do custo e do raio econômico de transporte de madeira de reflorestamentos para diferentes tipos de veículos Cost and distance of reforestation wood transport for different types of trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Lopes da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de estabelecer a distância máxima de transporte viável para cada tipo de veículo utilizado para transportar a madeira das áreas de colheita até centros de consumo. Para tanto, utilizaram-se dados de custos e receitas de um reflorestamento, bem como a capacidade de carga de diferentes composições veiculares empregadas no transporte. Aplicando-se os critérios econômicos (VPL, TIR, CMP e BCPE, as distâncias variaram entre 155 e 226 km, para o caminhão-truck e o rodotrem, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que o rodotrem pode alcançar distância maior de transporte, sendo o preço da madeira a variável que mais influenciou a distância máxima de transporte.The objective of this study was to establish the viable transport maximum distance for each type of wood transportation vehicle from the harvest areas to the consumption centers. Thus, reforestation cost and revenue data were used, as well as the load capacity of different types of vehicles used for wood transport. The application of economic criteria (VPL, TIR, CMP and BCPE showed that the distances varied between 155 and 226 km, for the small truck and rodotrem (truck with two large trailers, respectively. It was concluded that rodotrem could reach a greater distance, with wood price being the factor most influencing maximum transport distance.

  11. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks

  12. User Performance Evaluation of Four Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems Applying ISO 15197:2013 Accuracy Criteria and Calculation of Insulin Dosing Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Jendrike, Nina; Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Liebing, Christina; Haug, Cornelia

    2018-04-01

    The international standard ISO 15197:2013 requires a user performance evaluation to assess if intended users are able to obtain accurate blood glucose measurement results with a self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) system. In this study, user performance was evaluated for four SMBG systems on the basis of ISO 15197:2013, and possibly related insulin dosing errors were calculated. Additionally, accuracy was assessed in the hands of study personnel. Accu-Chek ® Performa Connect (A), Contour ® plus ONE (B), FreeStyle Optium Neo (C), and OneTouch Select ® Plus (D) were evaluated with one test strip lot. After familiarization with the systems, subjects collected a capillary blood sample and performed an SMBG measurement. Study personnel observed the subjects' measurement technique. Then, study personnel performed SMBG measurements and comparison measurements. Number and percentage of SMBG measurements within ± 15 mg/dl and ± 15% of the comparison measurements at glucose concentrations performed by lay-users. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02916576). Ascensia Diabetes Care Deutschland GmbH.

  13. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  14. A study on relationship between operating cash flows and performance evaluation criteria based on the theory of constraints (TOC versus traditional method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Arabi Ashtiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to measure the relationship between traditional accounting performance measurement as well as theory of constraint-based figures with operating cash flow. Traditional accounting measurement includes net profit and return of investment and theory of constraint method includes net profit and return of investment based on theory of constraints. The study selects 69 firms list on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2000-2010. Using panel data and fixed effect, the study performs regression analysis and the results confirm that there was a positive relationship between net profit measured by theory of constraints and cash flow and it can be effectively used for performance measurement.

  15. Peru; Third Review and Inflation Consultation Under the Stand-By Arrangement and Request for Waiver of Applicability of Performance Criteria: Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Peru

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses key findings of the Third Review for Peru and Inflation Consultation Under the Stand-By Arrangement. All performance criteria for end-December 2007 and end-March 2008 were observed, but inflation in March exceeded the upper limit of the program’s consultation band around the official inflation target range. The end-March structural benchmark was observed and progress has been made on end-June benchmarks. The outlook for 2008 remains favorable, with the economy continuing ...

  16. Optimization of the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of synthetic estrogenic and progestogenic steroids using the multi-criteria decision making method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, A. K.; Bruins, C. H.; Doornbos, D. A.; Vink, J.

    1987-01-01

    The optimization of the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of a mixture of ethynylestradiol, desogestrel and three related compounds is described. A procedure is used that allows the prediction of the capacity factors of each individual synthetic steroid, depending on

  17. Performance comparison and selection criteria: an assessment for choosing the best flight detector for the SIR-2 NIR-spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, P.; Vilenius, E.; Mall, U.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the performance evaluation of a sample of InGaAs detectors from which the best unit had to be selected for the flight model of the SIR-2 NIR-spectrometer to be flown on the Chandrayaan-1 mission in 2008.

  18. Variation in performance measure criteria significantly affects cardiology practice rankings: Insights from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Zubin J; Tang, Fengming; Jones, Phil G; Maddox, Thomas M; Oetgen, William J; Spertus, John A; Rumsfeld, John S; Heidenreich, Paul A; Peterson, Eric D; Drozda, Joseph P

    2015-06-01

    Million Hearts is a national initiative to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes over 5 years by improving cardiovascular prevention. An important tool in the success of programs like Million Hearts is public ranking on the quality of practices, yet different measures may provide different rankings, so the true quality of practices is difficult to discern. We evaluated the quality of ambulatory cardiology care using performance measure metrics. We compared rankings of practices participating in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence Registry using measures from (1) the physician quality reporting system and (2) the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement. We compared achievement rates for measures between the 2 frameworks and determined correlations in rankings using Spearman correlation coefficients. From January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012, there were 1,711,326 patients enrolled from 111 US practices. Among eligible patients, the physician quality reporting system and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement measures were achieved in 76.1% versus 77.4% for antiplatelet prescription (P performance and failing to achieve public health goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Design to fabrication integration and material craftsmanship - A performance driven stone architecture design system based on material, structural and fabrication constraints and criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi, S.; Tanti, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computational design methodology through describing of a case study on stone building system. In addition to establishing a performance driven form-finding methodology, the objective is to redefine local craftsmanship methods as industrial fabrication techniques in order to

  20. Proposed limiting values for performance criteria in acceptance testing of diagnostic X-ray equipment in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeuml, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a new X-ray ordinance came into force in 1988 containing a specific paragraph on quality assurance for all medical X-ray units stipulating acceptance tests, regular checks and supervision by medical bodies and the competent authorities. Acceptance testing is to be performed by engineers from equipment suppliers of manufacturers in new and existing installations. It is expected that the service engineers will adjust the equipment in such a way as to obtain optimal performance before measurements are made, the results of which are to be stated in a certificate describing quality status of the equipment. A working group has developed guidelines for these acceptance tests. Items to be measured are reported and proposed limiting values and their tolerances are discussed. (author)

  1. Proposed limiting values for performance criteria in acceptance testing of diagnostic X-ray equipment in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeuml, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a new X-ray ordinance came into force in 1988 containing a specific paragraph on quality assurance for all medical X-ray units stipulating acceptance tests, regular checks and supervision by medical bodies and the competent authorities. Acceptance testing is to be performed by engineers from the equipment suppliers or manufacturers in new and also existing installations. It is expected that the service engineers will adjust the equipment in such a way as to obtain optimal performance before measurements are made, the results of which are to be stated in a certificate describing the quality status of the equipment. A working group has developed guidelines for these acceptance tests. The items to be measured are reported and the proposed limiting values and their tolerances are discussed. (author)

  2. Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Preliminary Safety Information Document, Amendment 10. GCFR residual heat removal system criteria, design, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of safety design bases to support the conceptual design of the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) residual heat removal (RHR) systems. The report is structured to enable the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to review and comment in the licensability of these design bases. This report also presents information concerning a specific plant design and its performance as an auxiliary part to assist the NRC in evaluating the safety design bases

  3. Weighting Performance Evaluation Criteria Base in Balanced Score Card Approach with Use of Combination Method Shapley value & Bull\\'s-eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Kamfiroozi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation as a control tool was considered by managers in the organizations and manufactures. In this paper we decide to present a new model for performance evaluation and industrial companies ranking at uncertain conditions. Based on this, we implemented performance evaluation based on balance score card (BSC method. Beside, we tried to use three parameter interval grey numbers in lieu of linguistic variables. Then evaluation and weighting of fourth indicators is done with use of Bulls-eye-Shapley combination method that is counted as new approach in this article. Reason of utilization of three parameter interval grey numbers and combination method was decreasing of environmental uncertainty on data and model. This combination weighting method can be used as a new method in decision making Science. At final of this paper case study was implemented on industrial companies (nail makers that ranking of these companies is obtained by use of grey-TOPSIS method (that is a generalization of classic TOPSIS for three parameter interval grey numbers.

  4. Repository operational criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations, considering the interfaces and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The study addresses regulatory criteria related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. The study task developed regulatory concepts or potential repository operational criteria (PROC) based on analysis of a repository's safety functions and other regulations for similar facilities. These regulatory concepts or PROC were used as a basis to assess the sufficiency and adequacy of the current criteria in 10 CFR Part 60. Where the regulatory concepts were same as current operational criteria, these criteria were referenced. The operations criteria referenced or the PROC developed are given in this report. Detailed analyses used to develop the regulatory concepts and any necessary PROC for those regulations that may require a minor change are also presented. The results of the ROC task showed a need for further analysis and possible major rule change related to the design bases of a geologic repository operations area, siting, and radiological emergency planning

  5. CCS site characterisation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, S.; Hawkes, C.; Lawton, D.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Perkins, E.

    2009-12-15

    IEA GHG recently commissioned the Alberta Research Counil in Canada to conduct a review of storage site selection criteria and site characterisation methods in order to produce a synthesis report. This report reviews the literature on the subject on the site seleciton and characterisation since the publication of the IPCC Special Report on CCS, and provides a synthesis and classification of criteria. 161 refs.

  6. Presentation of the EURODELTA III intercomparison exercise - evaluation of the chemistry transport models' performance on criteria pollutants and joint analysis with meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessagnet, Bertrand; Pirovano, Guido; Mircea, Mihaela; Cuvelier, Cornelius; Aulinger, Armin; Calori, Giuseppe; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Manders, Astrid; Stern, Rainer; Tsyro, Svetlana; García Vivanco, Marta; Thunis, Philippe; Pay, Maria-Teresa; Colette, Augustin; Couvidat, Florian; Meleux, Frédérik; Rouïl, Laurence; Ung, Anthony; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; María Baldasano, José; Bieser, Johannes; Briganti, Gino; Cappelletti, Andrea; D'Isidoro, Massimo; Finardi, Sandro; Kranenburg, Richard; Silibello, Camillo; Carnevale, Claudio; Aas, Wenche; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Fagerli, Hilde; Gonzalez, Lucia; Menut, Laurent; Prévôt, André S. H.; Roberts, Pete; White, Les

    2016-10-01

    The EURODELTA III exercise has facilitated a comprehensive intercomparison and evaluation of chemistry transport model performances. Participating models performed calculations for four 1-month periods in different seasons in the years 2006 to 2009, allowing the influence of different meteorological conditions on model performances to be evaluated. The exercise was performed with strict requirements for the input data, with few exceptions. As a consequence, most of differences in the outputs will be attributed to the differences in model formulations of chemical and physical processes. The models were evaluated mainly for background rural stations in Europe. The performance was assessed in terms of bias, root mean square error and correlation with respect to the concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, O3, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5), as well as key meteorological variables. Though most of meteorological parameters were prescribed, some variables like the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and the vertical diffusion coefficient were derived in the model preprocessors and can partly explain the spread in model results. In general, the daytime PBL height is underestimated by all models. The largest variability of predicted PBL is observed over the ocean and seas. For ozone, this study shows the importance of proper boundary conditions for accurate model calculations and then on the regime of the gas and particle chemistry. The models show similar and quite good performance for nitrogen dioxide, whereas they struggle to accurately reproduce measured sulfur dioxide concentrations (for which the agreement with observations is the poorest). In general, the models provide a close-to-observations map of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations over Europe rather with correlations in the range 0.4-0.7 and a systematic underestimation reaching -10 µg m-3 for PM10. The highest concentrations are much more underestimated, particularly in wintertime. Further evaluation of

  7. Presentation of the EURODELTA III intercomparison exercise – evaluation of the chemistry transport models' performance on criteria pollutants and joint analysis with meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bessagnet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The EURODELTA III exercise has facilitated a comprehensive intercomparison and evaluation of chemistry transport model performances. Participating models performed calculations for four 1-month periods in different seasons in the years 2006 to 2009, allowing the influence of different meteorological conditions on model performances to be evaluated. The exercise was performed with strict requirements for the input data, with few exceptions. As a consequence, most of differences in the outputs will be attributed to the differences in model formulations of chemical and physical processes. The models were evaluated mainly for background rural stations in Europe. The performance was assessed in terms of bias, root mean square error and correlation with respect to the concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, O3, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5, as well as key meteorological variables. Though most of meteorological parameters were prescribed, some variables like the planetary boundary layer (PBL height and the vertical diffusion coefficient were derived in the model preprocessors and can partly explain the spread in model results. In general, the daytime PBL height is underestimated by all models. The largest variability of predicted PBL is observed over the ocean and seas. For ozone, this study shows the importance of proper boundary conditions for accurate model calculations and then on the regime of the gas and particle chemistry. The models show similar and quite good performance for nitrogen dioxide, whereas they struggle to accurately reproduce measured sulfur dioxide concentrations (for which the agreement with observations is the poorest. In general, the models provide a close-to-observations map of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations over Europe rather with correlations in the range 0.4–0.7 and a systematic underestimation reaching −10 µg m−3 for PM10. The highest concentrations are much more underestimated, particularly in

  8. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  9. Rethinking Dental School Admission Criteria: Correlation Between Pre-Admission Variables and First-Year Performance for Six Classes at One Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Kevin C; Rieken, Susan

    2018-04-01

    Admissions committees in dental schools are charged with the responsibility of selecting candidates who will succeed in school and become successful members of the profession. Identifying students who will have academic difficulty is challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of pre-admission variables for the first-year performance of six classes at one U.S. dental school. The authors hypothesized that the variables undergraduate grade point average (GPA), undergraduate science GPA (biology, chemistry, and physics), and Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores would predict the level of performance achieved in the first year of dental school, measured by year-end GPA. Data were collected in 2015 from school records for all 297 students in the six cohorts who completed the first year (Classes of 2007 through 2013). In the results, statistically significant correlations existed between all pre-admission variables and first-year GPA, but the associations were only weak to moderate. Lower performing students at the end of the first year (lowest 10% of GPA) had, on average, lower pre-admission variables than the other students, but the differences were small (≤10.8% in all categories). When all the pre-admission variables were considered together in a multiple regression analysis, a significant association was found between pre-admission variables and first-year GPA, but the association was weak (adjusted R 2 =0.238). This weak association suggests that these students' first-year dental school GPAs were mostly determined by factors other than the pre-admission variables studied and has resulted in the school's placing greater emphasis on other factors for admission decisions.

  10. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  11. Stormwater Tank Performance: Design and Management Criteria for Capture Tanks Using a Continuous Simulation and a Semi-Probabilistic Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio De Martino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater tank performance significantly depends on management practices. This paper proposes a procedure to assess tank efficiency in terms of volume and pollutant concentration using four different capture tank management protocols. The comparison of the efficiency results reveals that, as expected, a combined bypass—stormwater tank system achieves better results than a tank alone. The management practices tested for the tank-only systems provide notably different efficiency results. The practice of immediately emptying after the end of the event exhibits significant levels of efficiency and operational advantages. All other configurations exhibit either significant operational problems or very low performances. The continuous simulation and semi-probabilistic approach for the best tank management practice are compared. The semi-probabilistic approach is based on a Weibull probabilistic model of the main characteristics of the rainfall process. Following this approach, efficiency indexes were established. The comparison with continuous simulations shows the reliability of the probabilistic approach even if this last is certainly very site sensitive.

  12. Potential Impact of Land Use Change on Future Regional Climate in the Southeastern U.S.: Reforestation and Crop Land Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, M.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Liu, P.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos; Hu, Y.; Nenes, A.; Stone, B.; Russell, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of future land use and land cover changes (LULCC) on regional and global climate is one of the most challenging aspects of understanding anthropogenic climate change. We study the impacts of LULCC on regional climate in the southeastern U.S. by downscaling the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies global climate model E to the regional scale using a spectral nudging technique with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Climate-relevant meteorological fields are compared for two southeastern U.S. LULCC scenarios to the current land use/cover for four seasons of the year 2050. In this work it is shown that reforestation of cropland in the southeastern U.S. tends to warm surface air by up to 0.5 K, while replacing forested land with cropland tends to cool the surface air by 0.5 K. Processes leading to this response are investigated and sensitivity analyses conducted. The sensitivity analysis shows that results are most sensitive to changes in albedo and the stomatal resistance. Evaporative cooling of croplands also plays an important role in regional climate. Implications of LULCC on air quality are discussed. Summertime warming associated with reforestation of croplands could increase the production of some secondary pollutants, while a higher boundary layer will decrease pollutant concentrations; wintertime warming may decrease emissions from biomass burning from wood stoves

  13. Effects of Reforestation and Site Preparation Methods on Early Growth and Survival of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in South-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful tree regeneration is a key process in ensuring forest sustainability and one of the most crucial investments made in silviculture. This study compared the effects of three reforestation methods (planting, direct seeding, and natural regeneration and three mechanical site preparation methods (double mould-board forest plough (FP; active plough (AP; and forest mill (FM on biometric parameters, survival, and density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings in the first 4 years of growth in a clear-cut area in south-eastern Poland. Planted seedlings were higher, thicker in root collar, and had higher survival rates after the fourth growing season than trees from natural regeneration and direct seeding. Site preparation methods did not affect the density of planted seedlings. After natural regeneration and direct seeding, seedling density was lower and less homogeneous (plots with no seedlings in FM soil preparation in comparison to other methods. The survival of pines in all reforestation methods was not affected significantly by site preparation methods. Our results indicate that the best mechanical site preparation method for planting is FM, as this is the one that least disturbs the soil environment. For direct seeding the best results were achieved after AP preparation. Natural regeneration of Scots pine was most effective after FP use, and in relatively wet years also after AP use.

  14. Multimodal freight investment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  15. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  16. Aquatic Life Criteria - Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents related to EPA's final 2013 Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Freshwater). These documents pertain to the safe levels of Ammonia in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  17. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  18. Integrated Criteria Document Chromium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; Cleven RFMJ; Janus JA; van der Poel P; van Beelen P; Boumans LJM; Canton JH; Eerens HC; Krajnc EI; de Leeuw FAAM; Matthijsen AJCM; van de Meent D; van der Meulen A; Mohn GR; Wijland GC; de Bruijn PJ; van Keulen A; Verburgh JJ; van der Woerd KF

    1990-01-01

    Betreft de engelse versie van rapport 758701001
    Bij dit rapport behoort een appendix onder hetzelfde nummer getiteld: "Integrated Criteria Document Chromium: Effects" Auteurs: Janus JA; Krajnc EI
    (appendix: see 710401002A)

  19. Risk based seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2) What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the safe-shutdown-earthquake (SSE) ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented. (orig.)

  20. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... to the clear role that income thresholds play in such decision making, but does not rule out a role for tradeoffs between risk and utility or probability weighting....

  1. Rating of environmental criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueck, K; Krasser, G

    1980-01-01

    After a general theoretical discussion on the question of rating within a framework of cost-benefit studies, first trials as to the quantification and standardisation of twelve selected environmental criteria by means of an indicator system are worked out and compiled. The selection includes the criteria exhaust gas, dust, micro climate, water pollution, water regime, land requirement, vibrations, traffic noise, landscape scene, urban scene, effect of separation and safety risks. An insight is given of the rating practice using an evaluation of the available literature, of a household interview and of an interview of experts. The interviewing of 156 experts as to their rating conception of ten criteria in the second round has provided contributions to the general problem of the evaluation estimate based on multi criteria analysis as well as differentiation of the twelve or ten environmental criteria. The following criteria ratings given by the experts and which are averaged and smoothed are: traffic noise 20,0% +- 8,5; air pollution 15,0% +- 7,0; safety risk 13,0% +- 7,0; soil and water pollution 8,5% +- 5,0; landscape scene 8,0% +- 4,5; urban scene 8,0% +- 4,5; water regime 6,5% +- 3,5 and vibrations 4,5% +- 2,5.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of a Land-Use Change Model with and without Agents to Assess Land Abandonment and Long-Term Re-Forestation in a Swiss Mountain Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandle, M.; Langendijk, G.; Peter, S.; Brunner, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    Land abandonment and the subsequent re-forestation are important drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in mountain regions. Agent-based models can help to identify global change impacts on farmland abandonment and can test policy and management options to counteract this development.

  3. Effects of Syn-pandemic Fire Reduction and Reforestation in the Tropical Americas on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During European Conquest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevle, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    2000 BP correlate with expanding indigenous population, agriculture, and fire use in the tropical Americas. The rise in inter-site variability in charcoal accumulation after 2000 BP is consistent with a demographic shift toward sedentary agrarian communities and localized increases in charcoal accumulation in densely populated centers. Declines in regional charcoal accumulation and inter-site variability after 500 BP suggest a correlative cause related to reduction in anthropogenic biomass burning resulting from pandemic-driven population collapse. Published reconstructions of Pre-Columbian demography indicate that during European conquest, pandemics killed ~90% of the indigenous American population (~60 million), estimated to represent ~20% of the 16th century global population. Our predictive calculations suggest that fire reduction in the tropical Americas is associated with massive forest regeneration on ~5 x 105 km2 of land and sequestration of 5-10 Gt C into the terrestrial biosphere, which can account for 13- 50% of the ~2% global reduction in atmospheric CO2 levels and the 0.1‰ increase in δ13C of atmospheric CO2 from 1500 to 1700 CE recorded in Antarctic ice cores and tropical sponges. New archeological discoveries revealing extensive networks of geoglyphs and urban polities in Pre-Columbian Amazonia suggest that our estimates of reforestation, and consequent effects on atmospheric CO2, may be conservative.

  4. Criteria for Evaluating the Performance of Compilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    shows that multiple nerting of loops is used only within a BEGC2’.i-- tD (compound statement) block, and never as the simple loop-,%ithin-loop form... 4bD 0 0 0 tn 00 0 C, OD -LA I 276’ 16 of Boolean expressions with & operators. The histogram pre- sented in Figure 41 is the dynamic counterpart of the

  5. 24 CFR 214.303 - Performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgage lenders, brokers, builders, or real estate sales agents or brokers in which the officer, employee... referring a client to mortgage lenders, brokers, builders, or real estate sales agents or brokers. (3) A...) Conflicts of interest. (1) A director, employee, officer, contractor, or agent of a participating agency...

  6. Summarized water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempster, P.L.; Hattingh, W.H.J.; Van Vliet, H.R.

    1980-08-01

    The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

  7. Comparison between mycocenosis living in forest of Cestnut reforested with Douglas Fir; Confronto tra micocenosi presenti nei boschi di latifoglie e rimboschimenti di Douglasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, A.; Serra, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Dalla Valle, E.; Govi, G. [Bologna, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare. Centro di Micologia

    1997-05-01

    In this technical report the results of a first mycological research carried out from 1989 to 1990 in Brasimone in the high Bolognan Appennines (Northern Italy) are shown. The study was taken up by making a comparison between the fungus community living in forest plots with different vegetation; in particular, the mycocenosis of plots reforested with Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga (Mirb.) Franco) with those of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Cestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) woods were compared. The results show that the specific richness clearly decreases form mixed broad-leaved forest (90 species) to the mono specific plantation of P. menziesii (41 species). Particularly in the artificial plantation with exotic trees, there are few symbiont species while the saprophytic wood and litter fungi abound in relationship with the large bulk of undecomposed vegetable material present in these habitats.

  8. 5 CFR 430.404 - Certification criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.404 Certification criteria. (a) To be... system(s) must provide for the following: (1) Alignment, so that the performance expectations for... that the performance expectations for senior employees meet the requirements of 5 CFR part 430...

  9. Quality criteria for cardiac images: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, G.; Bar, O.; Jezewski, T.; Vano, E.; Maccia, C.; Trianni, A.; Padovani, R.

    2008-01-01

    The DIMOND II and III Cardiology Groups have agreed on quality criteria for cardiac images and developed a scoring system, to provide a tool to test quality of coronary angiograms, which was demonstrated to be of value in clinical practice. In the last years, digital flat panel technology has been introduced in cardiac angiographic systems and the radiological technique may have been influenced by the better performance of these new detectors. This advance in digital imaging, together with the lesson learned from previous studies, warranted the revision of the quality criteria for cardiac angiographic images as formerly defined. DIMOND criteria were reassessed to allow a simpler evaluation of angiograms. Clinical criteria were simplified and separated from technical criteria. Furthermore, the characteristics of an optimised angiographic technique have been outlined. (authors)

  10. Feeding habits, sexual dimorphism and size at maturity of the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825) (Teiidae) in a reforested restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, G G; Vasconcellos, A; Gadelha, Y E A; Vieira, W L S; Almeida, W O; Nóbrega, R P; Alves, R R N

    2010-05-01

    The feeding habits, the sexual dimorphism in size and sexual maturity of the actively foraging lizard Cnemidophorusocellifer were analysed in an area of a reforested Restinga habitat located in the municipality of Mataraca, along the northern-most coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Seventy-five specimens of C. ocellifer were examined (46 males and 29A females). Of this total, only 23 specimens had prey in their stomachs. The most frequent prey consumed items were orthopterans (50%), coleopterans (23.9%) and arachnids (10.9%); termites and insect larvae were less consumed (both with 2.2%). There were no significant differences observed between the numbers of prey consumed by either males or females. There were significant differences in SVL (snout-vent length) between the sexes, with males attaining larger SVL values. When the influence of SVL was removed from the analyses, sexual dimorphism in the form was still reflected in the head size of these lizards. Sexual maturity in females and males was attained with SVL of 42.2 and 49.0 mm respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the SVL of the females and the number of eggs produced, there was a clear tendency for larger females to produce more eggs. The low structural complexity of the vegetation and the poor soil quality in the reforested restinga area examined does not furnish favourable habitat for insect and termite larvae, contributing to the marked differences in the diet of the population of C. ocellifer observed in the present study in relation to the diet of their conspecifics in undisturbed areas of restinga, cerrado and caatinga.

  11. Feeding habits, sexual dimorphism and size at maturity of the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae in a reforested restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GG. Santana

    Full Text Available The feeding habits, the sexual dimorphism in size and sexual maturity of the actively foraging lizard Cnemidophorusocellifer were analysed in an area of a reforested Restinga habitat located in the municipality of Mataraca, along the northern-most coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Seventy-five specimens of C. ocellifer were examined (46 males and 29Â females. Of this total, only 23 specimens had prey in their stomachs. The most frequent prey consumed items were orthopterans (50%, coleopterans (23.9% and arachnids (10.9%; termites and insect larvae were less consumed (both with 2.2%. There were no significant differences observed between the numbers of prey consumed by either males or females. There were significant differences in SVL (snout-vent length between the sexes, with males attaining larger SVL values. When the influence of SVL was removed from the analyses, sexual dimorphism in the form was still reflected in the head size of these lizards. Sexual maturity in females and males was attained with SVL of 42.2 and 49.0 mm respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the SVL of the females and the number of eggs produced, there was a clear tendency for larger females to produce more eggs. The low structural complexity of the vegetation and the poor soil quality in the reforested restinga area examined does not furnish favourable habitat for insect and termite larvae, contributing to the marked differences in the diet of the population of C. ocellifer observed in the present study in relation to the diet of their conspecifics in undisturbed areas of restinga, cerrado and caatinga.

  12. Radiological design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Andersen, B.V.; Carter, L.A.; Waite, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Many new nuclear facilities are unsatisfactory from a radiation protection point of view, particularly when striving to maintain occupational exposure as low as practicable 'ALAP'. Radiation protection is achieved through physical protective features supplemented by administrative controls. Adequate physical protective feature should be achieved during construction so that supplemental administrative controls may be kept simple and workable. Many nuclear facilities fall short of adequate physical protective features, thus, remedial and sometimes awkward administrative procedures are required to safely conduct work. In reviewing the various handbooks, reports and regulations which deal with radiation protection, it may be noted that there is minimal radiological design guidance for application to nuclear facilities. A set of criteria or codes covering functional areas rather than specific nuclear facility types is badly needed. The following are suggested as functional areas to be considered: characterization of the Facility; siting and access; design exposure limits; layout (people and materials flow); ventilation and effluent control; radiation protection facilities and systems. The application of such radiological design criteria early in the design process would provide some assurance that nuclear facilities will be safe, flexible, and efficient with a minimum of costly retrofitting or administrative restrictions. Criteria which we have found helpful in these functional areas is discussed together with justification for adoption of such criteria and identification of problems which still require solution

  13. Comments on confinement criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.; Schroer, B.; Swieca, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    For a QED 2 model with SU(n) flavour, the nature of the physical states space is more subtle than one expects on the basis of the loop criterion for confinement. One may have colour confinement without confinement of the fundamental flavour representation. Attempts to formulate confinement criteria in which the quark fields play a more fundamental role are discussed [pt

  14. Productive Regions: Criteria and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasyuk L. I.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An official statistical dataset for 80 territorial subjects of the Russian Federation for 2000, 2007 and 2009 has proved the hypothesis that, under the neoclassical concept, the resources move to regions with the highest marginal productivity of the factors of production, which leads to the accumulation of investment resources, while providing financial and social efficiency. Based on cluster analysis by three performance criteria, productive regions are identified, which are dominated by regions productive in the extraction of minerals. It is shown that the stability of the factors’ distribution in space determines the current and future specialization of regional economies

  15. Redefining design criteria for Pu-238 gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    Enclosures for confinement of special nuclear materials (SNM) have evolved into the design of gloveboxes. During the early stages of glovebox technology, established practices and process operation requirements defined design criteria. Proven boxes that performed and met or exceeded process requirements in one group or area, often could not be duplicated in other areas or processes, and till achieve the same success. Changes in materials, fabrication and installation methods often only met immediate design criteria. Standardization of design criteria took a big step during creation of ''Special-Nuclear Materials R and D Laboratory Project, Glovebox standards''. The standards defined design criteria for every type of process equipment in its most general form. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) then and now has had great success with Pu-238 processing. However with ever changing Environment Safety and Health (ES and H) requirements and Ta-55 Facility Configuration Management, current design criteria are forced to explore alternative methods of glovebox design fabrication and installation. Pu-238 fuel processing operations in the Power Source Technologies Group have pushed the limitations of current design criteria. More than half of Pu-238 gloveboxes are being retrofitted or replaced to perform the specific fuel process operations. Pu-238 glovebox design criteria are headed toward process designed single use glovebox and supporting line gloveboxes. Gloveboxes that will house equipment and processes will support TA-55 Pu-238 fuel processing needs into the next century and extend glovebox expected design life

  16. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  17. TAPS safety evaluation criteria for reload fueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahendra Nath; Veeraraghavan, N.

    1976-01-01

    To improve operating performance of Tarapur reactors, several proposals are under consideration such as core expansion, change-over to an improved fuel design with lower heat rating, extension of fuel cycle lengths etc., which have a bearing on overall plant operating characteristics and reactor safety. For evaluating safety implications of the various proposals, it is necessary to formulate safety evaluation criteria for reload fuelling. Salient features of these criteria are discussed. (author)

  18. Intelligent intefrace design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Y.; Siebert, S.; Thebault, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Optimum adequation between control means and the capacities of the teams of operators is sought for to achieve computerization of control and monitoring interfaces. Observation of the diagnosis activity of populations of operators in incident situations on a simulator enables design criteria well-suited to the characteristics of the detection, interpretation of symptoms and incident location tasks to be defined. A software tool based on a qualitative approach enables the design process to be systematized

  19. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  20. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, G.

    1999-01-01

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements

  1. İnovasyon Süreci Performansı Ölçüm Kriterlerini Nitel Bir Araştırma İle Belirleme: Bilişim Sektöründen Bulgular - Defining Innovation Process Performance Measurement Criteria with a Qualitative Research: Findings from IT Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Emre TAŞGİT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define innovation performance measurement criteria for firms and measure their performance through these criteria. IT firms in technoparks at TR42 East Marmara Region are included in the study and qualitative research method is used. Data are collected through the interviews conducted with managers of IT firms and are analyzed with descriptive and content analysis techniques. After the analysis, some measurement criteria are introduced to measure the innovation performance. Results show that “Idea Generation” stage is not taken seriously by these firms. Performances of “Beta Version Development” and “Full Version Development” stages are high. Firms have to analyze “Sale” stage carefully.

  2. Reflection on the efficiency criteria for a long duration disposal with respect to temporary abandonment situations; Reflexion sur les criteres de performance d'un entreposage de longue duree (ELD) vis-a-vis des situations de delaissement temporaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G; Gadbois, S [Mutadis, 75 - Paris (France); Chieber, C; Schneider, Th [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2002-08-15

    A study carried out by Mutadis and CEPN, on request of the CEA, aimed at supplying some elements allowing to elaborate some performance criteria for a long-term management system in front of situations of temporary abandonment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The first part of the study has been the identification of case studies illustrating situations of loss of maintenance or temporary abandonment. The second phase has been the selection and analysis of 4 case studies (the ancient underground cavities in Ile-de-France, the regulation relative to new underground quarries, the abandoned mines in Loraine basin, and Unesco's approach for the protection of mankind world patrimony). These cases have been analysed with respect to various aspects: actors involved, construction management and memory preservation, liabilities in time and space, prevention means, scheduling, and resumption strategies. The concepts of abandonment, scheduling and resumption have been precised and analysed in a third part according to the case studies. Three goals - avoiding abandonment, encouraging scheduling and resumption - and eight characteristics are drawn from this analysis, which are indicators of the robustness of the system implemented to fulfill these 3 goals. These characteristics appear as strongly interdependent. (J.S.)

  3. Reflection on the efficiency criteria for a long duration disposal with respect to temporary abandonment situations; Reflexion sur les criteres de performance d'un entreposage de longue duree (ELD) vis-a-vis des situations de delaissement temporaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S. [Mutadis, 75 - Paris (France); Chieber, C.; Schneider, Th. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2002-08-15

    A study carried out by Mutadis and CEPN, on request of the CEA, aimed at supplying some elements allowing to elaborate some performance criteria for a long-term management system in front of situations of temporary abandonment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The first part of the study has been the identification of case studies illustrating situations of loss of maintenance or temporary abandonment. The second phase has been the selection and analysis of 4 case studies (the ancient underground cavities in Ile-de-France, the regulation relative to new underground quarries, the abandoned mines in Loraine basin, and Unesco's approach for the protection of mankind world patrimony). These cases have been analysed with respect to various aspects: actors involved, construction management and memory preservation, liabilities in time and space, prevention means, scheduling, and resumption strategies. The concepts of abandonment, scheduling and resumption have been precised and analysed in a third part according to the case studies. Three goals - avoiding abandonment, encouraging scheduling and resumption - and eight characteristics are drawn from this analysis, which are indicators of the robustness of the system implemented to fulfill these 3 goals. These characteristics appear as strongly interdependent. (J.S.)

  4. Criteria for software modularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, David N.; Page, Gerald T.; Mcgarry, Frank E.

    1985-01-01

    A central issue in programming practice involves determining the appropriate size and information content of a software module. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of two widely used criteria for software modularization, strength and size, in reducing fault rate and development cost. Data from 453 FORTRAN modules developed by professional programmers were analyzed. The results indicated that module strength is a good criterion with respect to fault rate, whereas arbitrary module size limitations inhibit programmer productivity. This analysis is a first step toward defining empirically based standards for software modularization.

  5. Generalized Lawson Criteria for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, Robert E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    The Lawson Criterion was proposed by John D. Lawson in 1955 as a general measure of the conditions necessary for a magnetic fusion device to reach thermonuclear ignition. Over the years, similar ignition criteria have been proposed which would be suitable for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) designs. This paper will compare and contrast several ICF ignition criteria based on Lawson’s original ideas. Both analytical and numerical results will be presented which will demonstrate that although the various criteria differ in some details, they are closely related and perform similarly as ignition criteria. A simple approximation will also be presented which allows the inference of each ignition parameter directly from the measured data taken on most shots fired at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with a minimum reliance on computer simulations. Evidence will be presented which indicates that the experimentally inferred ignition parameters on the best NIF shots are very close to the ignition threshold.

  6. Study on the Hymenoptera parasitoid associated with Lepidoptera larvae in reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste) São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A G; Silva, R B; Dias, M M; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the local fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with Lepidoptera larvae in areas of reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, São Carlos, SP, Brazil). Lepidoptera larvae collected with entomological umbrella were kept in the laboratory until emergence of adults or their parasitoids. From those collected in the agrosilvopastoral system, emerged 267 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids belonging to 16 genera: Braconidae, Agathidinae (Alabagrus), Braconinae (Bracon), Microgastrinae (Cotesia, Diolcogaster, Glyptapanteles, Pholetesor and Protapanteles), Orgilinae (Orgilus); Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae (Casinaria, Charops and Microcharops); Chalcididae, Chalcidinae (Brachymeria and Conura); Eulophidae, Entedoninae (Horismenus), Eulophinae (Elachertus and Euplectrus). From the Lepidoptera larvae collected in the reforestation, emerged 68 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids, belonging to 8 genera: Chalcididae, Chalcidinae (Conura); Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae (Neotheronia), Campopleginae (Charops and Microcharops) and Braconidae, Microgastrinae (Apanteles, Diolcogaster, Distatrix, Glyptapanteles and Protapanteles). The results of this study suggest the occurrence of a wide variety of Hymenoptera parasitoids in the studied environments.

  7. DISPOSABLE CANISTER WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2001-07-30

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide the bases for defining the preclosure limits on radioactive material releases from radioactive waste forms to be received in disposable canisters at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, this calculation will provide the basis for criteria to be included in a forthcoming revision of the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD) that limits releases in terms of non-isotope-specific canister release dose-equivalent source terms. These criteria will be developed for the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canister, the Multicanister Overpack (MCO), the naval spent fuel canister, the High-Level Waste (HLW) canister, the plutonium can-in-canister, and the large Multipurpose Canister (MPC). The shippers of such canisters will be required to demonstrate that they meet these criteria before the canisters are accepted at the MGR. The Quality Assurance program is applicable to this calculation. The work reported in this document is part of the analysis of DSNF and is performed using procedure AP-3.124, Calculations. The work done for this analysis was evaluated according to procedure QAP-2-0, Control of Activities, which has been superseded by AP-2.21Q, Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities. This evaluation determined that such activities are subject to the requirements of DOE/RW/0333P, Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (DOE 2000). This work is also prepared in accordance with the development plan titled Design Basis Event Analyses on DOE SNF and Plutonium Can-In-Canister Waste Forms (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Technical Work Plan For: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Work Packages (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This calculation contains no electronic data applicable to any electronic data management system.

  8. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  9. Combining the IADPSG criteria with the WHO diagnostic criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrosomia or at least one adverse outcome were more likely in GDM patients who met the diagnostic criteria by both the IADPSG and WHO criteria (P = 0.001). Conclusion: A diagnosis of GDM that meets both the WHO and IADPSG criteria provides stronger prediction for adverse pregnancy outcome than a diagnosis that ...

  10. Leaf litter breakdown rates and associated fauna of native and exotic trees used in Neotropical Riparia Reforestation; Tasas de perdida de masa de la hojarasca y fauna asociada en especies de arboles comunmente utilizados en la Reforestacion de Riberas Neotropicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Isaza, Nataly; Blanco, Juan Felipe

    2014-07-01

    A signature of globalization is the prevalence of exotic trees along reforested urban and rural riparian zones in the neotropics, but little is known about the instream processing of its leaf litter. In this study, leaf litter breakdown rates were measured during 35 days using mesh bags within a reference headwater stream for seven exotic and three native tree species commonly used in urban and rural reforestation. Artocarpus altilis, Schefflera actinophylla and Terminalia catappa scored the highest mass loss rates (>85 %; mean life: t50 <15 d), while Cecropia sp. and Cespedesia macrophylla (mass loss =36 and 15 %; t50 =58 and 172 d, respectively) scored the lowest rates. However, a broad range of rates was observed among the ten species studied. The carbon to phosphorus ratio (c:p) and toughness of the leaf litter were the best predictors of breakdown rates. However, these leaf properties were not correlated with the very low values of macro invertebrates abundance and diversity, and the few morpho classified as shredders. Therefore physical rather than biological controls seem to best explain the observed variability of mass loss rates, and thus slow decomposing leaf litter species seems to provide a habitat rather than a food resource, particularly to collectors. This study suggests that riparian reforestation will propagate species-specific ecological influences on instream processes such as leaf litter processing depending on leaf quality properties, therefore ecosystem-wide influences should be considered for improving reforestation strategies. Future studies should test for differences in breakdown rates and colonization by macro invertebrates relative for leaf litter species origin (native vs. exotic).

  11. Study on the Hymenoptera parasitoid associated with Lepidoptera larvae in reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste) São Carlos, SP, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,A. G.; Silva,R. B.; Dias,M. M.; Penteado-Dias,A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the local fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with Lepidoptera larvae in areas of reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, São Carlos, SP, Brazil). Lepidoptera larvae collected with entomological umbrella were kept in the laboratory until emergence of adults or their parasitoids. From those collected in the agrosilvopastoral system, emerged 267 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids belo...

  12. The impact of reforestation on discharge and sediment fluxes in drylands: long-term evidences from the Western Rift Valley Escarpment (Northern Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaha, Tesfaalem; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Deforestation and land degradation have been common problems in the Northern Ethiopian highlands, including for the Western Rift Valley Escarpment. In particular, the rapid deforestation of the steep catchments (average slope gradient of 44% ± 10%) in the second half of 20th century, together with rainfall variability and over-cultivation, resulted in the development of dense gully and scar networks. Subsequently, huge amounts sediment were taken to the densely populated graben bottoms. In response, extensive reforestation interventions were carried out as of the 1980s, resulting in improvements of vegetation cover in many catchments. This study analyses the spatio-temporal changes in vegetation cover and rainfall variability and their impact on discharge and sediment transport in escarpment catchments. Degree of rehabilitation was examined in 20 adjacent catchments by correlating the density of scar networks incised down to the bed rock with Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and slope gradient. Based on these results, 11 contrasting catchments were selected for detailed investigation. To study the current spatio-temporal variability in rainfall and its relation with daily peak discharge, 7 rain gauges were installed at different locations and altitudes. Trendlines of decadal rainfall variability since 1996 will be established based on the analysis of NOAA's rainfall estimates, and long-term rainfall variability will be explored by correlating the field data to long-term rainfall measurements in nearby synoptic stations. The changes in land use and cover will be detected from aerial photos of the 1935, 1965 and 1986. Peak discharges were monitored using 11 crest stage gauges. Fixed boulders were painted in stream reaches to quantify the transport of bedload. This was done by photographing the stream reaches and by measuring the displacement of painted boulders after flood events. In a multiple regression analysis, scar density was negatively related

  13. Multi-criteria decision making with overlapping criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahid Abdulla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The evidential reasoning (ER algorithm for multi-criteria decision making (MCDM performs aggregation of the assessments of multiple experts, one each for every attribute (or subsystem or criterion of a given system. Two variants of ER are proposed, that handle a scenario where more than one expert assesses an attribute. The first algorithm handles the case of multiple experts who assess an attribute of a larger system. Experiments compare a modification of ER for this scenario which results in poorer detection. The second algorithm is used when experts have overlapping areas of expertise among the subsystems. A comparison is made with a variant of ER in the literature. Both algorithms are examples of novel ‘exclusive’ and ‘inclusive’ ER.

  14. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  15. Diagnostic Criteria for Pediatric MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago review the diagnostic criteria for pediatric multiple sclerosis, the differential diagnosis, the 2010 McDonald criteria, and Callen criteria.

  16. Design criteria for plutonium gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The standard defines criteria for the design of glovebox systems to be used for the handling of plutonium in any form or isotopic composition or when mixed with other elements or compounds. The glovebox system is a series of physical barriers provided with glove ports and gloves, through which process and maintenance operations may be performed, together with an operating ventilation system. The system minimizes the potential for release of radioactive material to the environment, protects operators from contamination, and mitigates the consequences of abnormal condiations. The standard covers confinement, construction, materials, windows, glove ports, gloves, equipment insertion and removal, lighting, ventilation, fire protection, criticality prevention, services and utilities, radiation shielding, waste systems, monitoring and alarm systems, safeguards, quality assurance, and decommissioning

  17. Risk assessment of soil contamination criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Marter, W.L.; Montaque, D.F.; Holton, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    Criteria have been developed to select radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants at waste sites detailed analysis and risk assessment. These criteria were based on soil and water quality guidelines developed by various government agencies to determine if the criteria were appropriate. We performed a risk assessment of a hypothetical site which contained radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants at levels equal to the criteria values. Risks to the public from atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater exposure pathways were examined. Health risks to the public from atmospheric releases of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from a waste at soil criteria contamination levels are low. Health risks to the maximally exposed individual to chemical carcinogens are considerably below traditional EPA action levels. And health risks to the maximally exposed individual to atmospherically released radioactive contaminants is 1.88 x 10 -7 , more than a factor of 5 less than 10 -6 . Based on our atmospheric exposure pathways analysis and risk assessment, the applied soil criteria are appropriate for screening out unimportant risk contributors to human health from atmospheric exposure pathways. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Analysis of the carbon sequestration costs of afforestation and reforestation agroforestry practices and the use of cost curves to evaluate their potential for implementation of climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Arturo Balderas [Environment Department, University of York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente (ITESO), Tlaquepaque CP (Mexico); Technology and Sustainable Development Section, Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, University of Twente/CSTM, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Marchant, Rob; Smart, James C.R. [Environment Department, University of York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lovett, Jon C. [Environment Department, University of York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Technology and Sustainable Development Section, Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, University of Twente/CSTM, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Tipper, Richard [Ecometrica, Edinburgh, EH9 1PJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Carbon sequestration in forest sinks is an important strategy to remove greenhouse gases and to mitigate climate change; however its implementation has been limited under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol which has not created the incentives for widespread implementation. The objective of this paper is to analyze the sequestration costs of agroforestry afforestation and reforestation projects (ARPs) following a partial market equilibrium using average cost curves and economic break even analysis to identify the supply costs. The modelling done in this work contrasts the voluntary and clean development mechanism transaction costs. Data is based on the voluntary project, Scolel Te, being implemented in Mexico. Cost curves are developed for seven different sequestration options considering transaction and implementation costs; information from agricultural production in Chiapas Mexico is used to integrate opportunity costs of two agroforestry practices suggesting that sequestration costs may follow a 'U' shape, with an initial reduction due to economies of scale and a subsequent increase caused by high opportunity costs. The widespread implementation of agroforestry options not requiring complete land conversion (e.g. living fences and coffee under shade) might be cost effective strategies not generating high opportunity costs. Results also suggest that payments in the early years of the project and lower transaction costs favour the development of ARPs in the voluntary market especially in marginal rural areas with high discount rates. (author)

  19. A ton is not always a ton: A road-test of landfill, manure, and afforestation/reforestation offset protocols in the U.S. carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Carrie M.; Lazarus, Michael; Smith, Gordon R.; Todd, Kimberly; Weitz, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Protocols are the foundation of an offset program. • Using sample projects, we “road test” landfill, manure and afforestation protocols from 5 programs. • For a given project, we find large variation in the volume of offsets generated. • Harmonization of protocols can increase the likelihood that “a ton is a ton”. • Harmonization can enhance prospects for linking emission trading systems. -- Abstract: The outcome of recent international climate negotiations suggests we are headed toward a more fragmented carbon market, with multiple emission trading and offset programs operating in parallel. To effectively harmonize and link across programs, it will be important to ensure that across offset programs and protocols that a “ton is a ton”. In this article, we consider how sample offsets projects in the U.S. carbon market are treated across protocols from five programs: the Clean Development Mechanism, Climate Action Reserve, Chicago Climate Exchange, Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, and the U.S. EPA's former program, Climate Leaders. We find that differences among protocols for landfill methane, manure management, and afforestation/reforestation project types in accounting boundary definitions, baseline setting methods, measurement rules, emission factors, and discounts lead to differences in offsets credited that are often significant (e.g. greater than 50%). We suggest opportunities for modification and harmonization of protocols that can improve offset quality and credibility and enhance prospects for future linking of trading units and systems

  20. Assessment Criteria for Competency-Based Education: A Study in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastré, Greet M. J.; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Amsing-Smit, Pauline; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of type of assessment criteria (performance-based vs. competency-based), the relevance of assessment criteria (relevant criteria vs. all criteria), and their interaction on secondary vocational education students' performance and assessment skills. Students on three programmes in the domain of nursing and care…

  1. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K.

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  2. Admission Criteria for MBA Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Dakduk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a review of studies on admission criteria for MBA programs. The method consisted in a literary review based on a systematic search in international databases (Emerald, ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest Education Journals, ProQuest European Business, ProQuest Science Journal, ProQuest Research Library, ProQuest Psychology Journals, ProQuest Social Science Journals and Business Source Complete of studies published from January 1990 to December 2013, which explore the academic performance of students or graduates of MBA programs. A quantitative review was performed. Results show that most researchers studied relations between GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test and UGPA (Undergraduate Grade Point Average as predictors of GGPA (Graduate Grade Point Average. On the other hand, work experience and personal traits (such as personality, motivation, learning strategies, self-efficacy beliefs and achievement expectations and their relation with GGPA had been less studied, and results are not consistent enough to consider them valid predictors of student performance at this time.

  3. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Criteria of site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P.; Fuchs, H.

    1975-01-01

    The criteria which lead to the choice of a particular site for a nuclear power station are in general very similar to those which would apply to any other type of power station. The principal differences derive from the simpler transport problems for the fuel compared with, say, solid fuel and the special safety considerations which attach to nuclear reactors. The search for a suitable site obviously starts by considering where the power is needed, i.e. where the load centers are and also the existing transmission network which may help to bring the power from a more remote site to the load centers. This economic incentive to put the plant close to loads conflicts directly with the nuclear safety argument which favours more remote siting, and part of the problem of site selection is to reconcile these two matters. In addition, there are many other important matters which will be considered later concerning the adequacy of cooling water supplies, foundation conditions, etc., all of which must be examined in considerable detail. (orig./TK) [de

  5. Criteria for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe three risk acceptability criteria as parts of a strategy to clean up decommissioned facilities, related to both the status quo and to a variety of alternative technical clean-up options. The acceptability of risk is a consideration that must enter into any decision to establish when a site is properly decommissioned. To do so, both the corporate and public aspects of the acceptability issue must be considered. The reasons for discussion the acceptability of risk are to: Legitimize the process for making cleanup decisions; Determine who is at risk, who benefits, and who bears the costs of site cleanup, for each specific cleanup option, including the do nothing option; Establish those factors that, taken as a whole, determine measures of acceptability; Determine chemical-specific aggregate and individual risk levels; and Establish levels for cleanup. The choice of these reasons is pragmatic. The method consistent with these factors is risk-risk-effectiveness: the level of cleanup must be consistent with the foreseeable use of the site and budget constraints. Natural background contamination is the level below which further cleanup is generally inefficient. Case-by-case departures from natural background are to be considered depending on demonstrated risk. For example, a hot spot is obviously a prima facie exception, but should be rebuttable. Rebuttability means that, through consensus, the ''hot spot'' is shown not to be associated with exposure

  6. TRU waste form and package criteria meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-08-01

    The broad subject of the meeting is the overall ERDA TRU waste management program, although the discussions also cover performance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and their implications for the overall TRU program. Separate abstracts were prepared for all ten presentations. (DLC)

  7. 49 CFR 639.27 - Minimum criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dollar value to any non-financial factors that are considered by using performance-based specifications..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.27 Minimum criteria. In making the... used where possible and appropriate: (a) Operation costs; (b) Reliability of service; (c) Maintenance...

  8. Criteria for safety-related operator actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.H.; Haas, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    The Safety-Related Operator Actions (SROA) Program was designed to provide information and data for use by NRC in assessing the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) control room operators in responding to abnormal/emergency events. The primary effort involved collection and assessment of data from simulator training exercises and from historical records of abnormal/emergency events that have occurred in operating plants (field data). These data can be used to develop criteria for acceptability of the use of manual operator action for safety-related functions. Development of criteria for safety-related operator actions are considered

  9. NRC licensing criteria for portable radwaste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The shortcomings of various components of the liquid and solid radwaste systems at nuclear power reactors has resulted in the contracting of the functions performed by these systems to various contractors who utilize portable equipment. In addition, some streams, for which treatment was not originally anticipated, have been processed by portable equipment. The NRC criteria applicable to portable liquid and solid radwaste systems is presented along with discussion on what is required to provide an adequate 10 CFR Part 50.59 review for those situations where changes are made to an existing system. The criteria the NRC is considering for facilities which may intend to utilize portable incinerators is also presented

  10. Water quality criteria for lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report is one in a series that establishes water quality criteria for British Columbia. The report sets criteria for lead to protect a number of water uses, including drinking water, freshwater and marine aquatic life, wildlife, livestock, irrigation, and recreation. The criteria are set as either maximum concentrations of total lead that should not be exceeded at any time, or average concentrations that should not be exceeded over a 30-day period. Actual values are summarized.

  11. Criteria for Authorship in Bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Resnik, David B.; Master, Zubin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple authorship is becoming increasingly common in bioethics research. There are well-established criteria for authorship in empirical bioethics research but not for conceptual research. It is important to develop criteria for authorship in conceptual publications to prevent undeserved authorship and uphold standards of fairness and accountability. This article explores the issue of multiple authorship in bioethics and develops criteria for determining who should be an author on a concept...

  12. Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-10-01

    We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  13. Plugging criteria for WWER SG tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L.; Wilam, M. [Vitkovice NPP Services (Switzerland); Herman, M. [Vuje, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    At operated Czech and Slovak nuclear power plants the 80 % criteria for crack or other bulk defect depth is used for steam generator heat exchanging tubes plugging. This criteria was accepted as the recommendation of designer of WWER steam generators. Verification of this criteria was the objective of experimental program performed by Vitkovice, J.S.C., UJV Rez, J.S.C. and Vuje Trnava, J.S.C .. Within this program the following factors were studied: (1) Influence of secondary water chemistry on defects initiation and propagation, (2) Statistical evaluation of corrosion defects progression at operated SG, and (3) Determination of critical pressure for tube rupture as a function of eddy current indications. In this presentation items (2) and (3) are considered.

  14. Plugging criteria for WWER SG tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L; Wilam, M [Vitkovice NPP Services (Switzerland); Herman, M [Vuje, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1998-12-31

    At operated Czech and Slovak nuclear power plants the 80 % criteria for crack or other bulk defect depth is used for steam generator heat exchanging tubes plugging. This criteria was accepted as the recommendation of designer of WWER steam generators. Verification of this criteria was the objective of experimental program performed by Vitkovice, J.S.C., UJV Rez, J.S.C. and Vuje Trnava, J.S.C .. Within this program the following factors were studied: (1) Influence of secondary water chemistry on defects initiation and propagation, (2) Statistical evaluation of corrosion defects progression at operated SG, and (3) Determination of critical pressure for tube rupture as a function of eddy current indications. In this presentation items (2) and (3) are considered.

  15. Maintenance evaluation using risk based criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Valle, A.

    1996-01-01

    The maintenance evaluation is currently performed by using economic and, in some case, technical equipment failure criteria, however this is done to a specific equipment level. In general, when statistics are used the analysis for maintenance optimization are made isolated and whit a post mortem character; The integration provided by mean of Probabilistic Safety assessment (PSA) together with the possibilities of its applications, allow for evaluation of maintenance on the basis of broader scope criteria in regard to those traditionally used. The evaluate maintenance using risk based criteria, is necessary to follow a dynamic and systematic approach, in studying the maintenance strategy, to allow for updating the initial probabilistic models, for including operational changes that often take place during operation of complex facilities. This paper proposes a dynamic evaluation system of maintenance task. The system is illustrated by means of a practical example

  16. Distribuição da calda herbicida por pontas de pulverização agrícola utilizadas em áreas de reflorestamento com eucalipto Herbicide distribution by spraying nozzles used in eucalyptus reforestation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo da C. Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a distribuição de calda por pontas de pulverização hidráulicas para a aplicação de herbicidas em pré-emergência das plantas daninhas, em função do espaçamento na barra utilizada em áreas de reflorestamento com eucalipto. O experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Ciência das Plantas Daninhas do Departamento de Fitossanidade da UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal. Foram utilizados os modelos com indução de ar AIUB 025, AI 110025, TTI 110015 e DB 12002, considerando o espaçamento de 0,8; 1,0; 1,2 e 1,5 m entre eles. A avaliação da distribuição da calda pulverizada foi realizada em mesa de deposição. Pulverizou-se água com 0,1% do adjuvante não iônico alquilfenol. Os valores observados foram utilizados para a obtenção das curvas de deposição e do coeficiente de variação. Para a sobreposição de dois exemplares de pontas, conclui-se que o modelo AIUB 025 possui menores coeficientes de variação, resultando em melhores características operacionais em relação à AI 110025, TTI 110015 e DB 12002. Para a utilização de três exemplares de pontas, seguindo somente o critério da distribuição da calda, a melhor combinação foi entre AIUB 025 e DB 12002, como intercalar. A utilização da ponta intercalar aumentou significativamente o consumo de calda.This work aimed to evaluate spray distribution by spraying hydraulic nozzles for the application of herbicides in the pre-emergence of weeds, due to the spacing in spraying boom used in areas reforested with eucalyptus. The trial was carried out at the Weed Science Laboratory from the Phytosanitary Department, UNESP - Jaboticabal Campus - SP, Brazil. It was used air induction nozzles AIUB 025, AI 110025, TTI 110015 and DB 12002, on spacing 0.8; 1.0; 1.2; and 1.5 m, between them. The spraying liquid distribution evaluation was done in patternator table. It was sprayed water plus 0.1% of non-ionic adjuvant alkylphenol . The observed

  17. Combining the IADPSG criteria with the WHO diagnostic criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) and World Health ... Macrosomia or at least one adverse outcome were more likely in GDM patients who ... criteria for GDM in the ADA's more recent position statement.[18] .... at risk for postpartum type 2 DM;[27] the IADPSG criteria on the other ...

  18. Valuation on carbon fixation and oxygen release in reforested croplands of Shaanxi Province of China%陕西省退耕还林固碳释氧价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范建忠; 李登科; 周辉

    2013-01-01

    By using the EOS/MODIS NPP data of remote sensing biogeochemical model ( BI-OME-BGC) , this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variations of vegetations carbon fixation quantity in the reforested croplands of Shaanxi Province, China in 2000-2010, and estimated the service values of the vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release, according to the specifications for the assessment of forest ecosystem services in China. From 2000 to 2010, the estimated carbon fixation density in the reforested croplands was averagely 299 g · m-2 · a-1. As compared to the year 2000, the amount of carbon fixation in the reforested croplands in 2010 increased by 5. 37×106 t · a-1 , and the carbon fixation value totaled 1.401 billions Yuan, accounting for 50. 4% of the increment value of the carbon fixation in the Province, while the area of the reforested croplands only occupied 38. 5% of the total area of the Province. The amount of oxygen release in the reforested croplands increased by 1.43×107 t · a-1 , and the oxygen release value totaled 5.053 billions Yuan. In the reforested croplands, the carbon fixation density had a slow increase (though with fluctuation) , but the increasing trend was more significant and the increment was higher than that in the perimeter zones. The area where the carbon fixation density increased occupied 99. 8% of the reforested cropland area, while the area where the carbon fixation density decreased only occupied 0. 2%. The proportion of the total area with low carbon fixation density was decreasing, while that with medium and high carbon densities was increasing. In the reforested cropland area, the carbon fixation density in the main land-use types had an obvious increasing trend, while that in different steep lands showed different increasing trend, being most significant (P25° lands. It was suggested that with the implementation of the project of reforesting cultivated land, vegetation coverage improved gradually, and significant benefits

  19. Negative trade-off between changes in vegetation water use and infiltration recovery after reforesting degraded pasture land in the Nepalese Lesser Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, C. P.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Lubczynski, M. W.; Bonell, M.

    2014-12-01

    This work investigates the trade-off between increases in vegetation water use and rain water infiltration afforded by soil improvement after reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal. The hillslope hydrological functioning (surface and subsurface soil hydraulic conductivities and overland flow generation) and the evapotranspiration (rainfall interception and transpiration) of the following contrasting vegetation types were quantified and examined in detail: (i) a nearly undisturbed, natural broadleaved forest; (ii) a 25-year-old, intensively-used pine plantation; and (iii) a highly degraded pasture. Planting pines increased vegetation water use relative to the pasture and natural forest situation by 355 and 55 mm year-1, respectively. On balance, the limited amount of extra infiltration afforded by the pine plantation relative to the pasture (only 90 mm year-1 due to continued soil degradation associated with regular harvesting of litter and understory vegetation in the plantation) proved insufficient to compensate the higher water use of the pines. As such, observed declines in dry season flows in the study area are thought to mainly reflect the higher water use of the pines although the effect could be moderated by better forest and soil management promoting infiltration. In contrast, a comparison of the water use of the natural forest and degraded pasture suggests that replacing the latter by (mature) broadleaved forest would (ultimately) have a near-neutral effect on dry season flows as the approximate gains in infiltration and evaporative losses were very similar (ca. 300 mm year-1 each). The results of the present study underscore the need for proper forest management for optimum hydrological functioning as well as the importance of protecting the remaining natural forests in the region.

  20. Rainfall model investigation and scenario analyses of the effect of government reforestation policy on seasonal rainfalls: A case study from Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangdai, Eakkapong; Likasiri, Chulin

    2017-03-01

    In this work, 4 models for predicting rainfall amounts are investigated and compared using Northern Thailand's seasonal rainfall data for 1973-2008. Two models, global temperature, forest area and seasonal rainfall (TFR) and modified TFR based on a system of differential equations, give the relationships between global temperature, Northern Thailand's forest cover and seasonal rainfalls in the region. The other two models studied are time series and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models. All models are validated using the k-fold cross validation method with the resulting errors being 0.971233, 0.740891, 2.376415 and 2.430891 for time series, ARMA, TFR and modified TFR models, respectively. Under Business as Usual (BaU) scenario, seasonal rainfalls in Northern Thailand are projected through the year 2020 using all 4 models. TFR and modified TFR models are also used to further analyze how global temperature rise and government reforestation policy affect seasonal rainfalls in the region. Rainfall projections obtained via the two models are also compared with those from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) under IS92a scenario. Results obtained through a mathematical model for global temperature, forest area and seasonal rainfall show that the higher the forest cover, the less fluctuation there is between rainy-season and summer rainfalls. Moreover, growth in forest cover also correlates with an increase in summer rainfalls. An investigation into the relationship between main crop productions and rainfalls in dry and rainy seasons indicates that if the rainy-season rainfall is high, that year's main-crop rice production will decrease but the second-crop rice, maize, sugarcane and soybean productions will increase in the following year.

  1. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...

  2. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  3. Criteria for controlled atmosphere chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.N.

    1980-03-01

    The criteria for design, construction, and operation of controlled atmosphere chambers intended for service at ORNL are presented. Classification of chambers, materials for construction, design criteria, design, controlled atmosphere chamber systems, and operating procedures are presented. ORNL Safety Manual Procedure 2.1; ORNL Health Physics Procedure Manual Appendix A-7; and Design of Viewing Windows are included in 3 appendices

  4. Failure Criteria for Reinforced Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    Failure of materials is often characterized as ductile yielding, brittle fracture, creep rupture, etc., and different criteria given in terms of different parameters have been used to describe different types of failure. Only criteria expressing failure in terms of stress are considered in what...... place until the matrix, the continuous component of the composite, fails. When an isotropic matrix is reinforced as described above, the result is an anisotropic composite material. Even if the material is anisotropic, it usually exhibits a rather high degree of symmetry and such symmetries place...... certain restrictions on the form of the failure criteria for anisotropic materials. In section 2, some failure criteria for homogenous materials are reviewed. Both isotropic and anisotropic materials are described, and in particular the constraints imposed on the criteria from the symmetries orthotropy...

  5. Current quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajaroff, Pedro M.

    1999-01-01

    The Safety Series 50-C/SG-Q 'Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and other Nuclear Installations' published by the IAEA in 1996, contains the Code and 14 Safety Guides. It is more addressed to operating organizations than to regulatory authorities. Priority is assigned to programme implementation and to work effectiveness. Emphasis is putted on doing work correctly from the very beginning (right first time attitude), and not on finding and correcting errors instead of preventing them. The essential aspects for assuring quality (that is, for achieving and maintaining an acceptable level of safety) cover the ten basic requirements established by the Code: Management (QA programme, training and qualification, non-conformance control and corrective actions, document control and records); Performance (work, design, procurement, inspection and testing for acceptance); and Assessment (management self-assessment, independent assessment). These requirements are applicable, on a graded approach basis, to the overall QA programme of the operating organization and its partial programmes during design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning stages. The requirements can be also applied, with due adaptations, to other nuclear installations. The research and development activities related to such stages are comprised under the quality 'umbrella' as well. Therefore the scope of the traditional quality assurance is expanded and consolidated as a management tool more oriented to user. Responsibilities for achieving quality objectives are assigned to all involved individuals and organizations at all levels: management, working groups and assessment teams. Managers' is important but individual responsibilities are unavoidable. For the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority, performance-based quality assurance was not a novelty. In line with the regulatory philosophy (which is essentially based on performance) the regulatory standard AR 3.6.1 (Rev.1

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of a Land-Use Change Model with and without Agents to Assess Land Abandonment and Long-Term Re-Forestation in a Swiss Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Brändle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land abandonment and the subsequent re-forestation are important drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in mountain regions. Agent-based models can help to identify global change impacts on farmland abandonment and can test policy and management options to counteract this development. Realigning the representation of human decision making with time scales of ecological processes such as reforestation presents a major challenge in this context. Models either focus on the agent-specific behavior anchored in the current generation of farmers at the expense of representing longer scale environmental processes or they emphasize the simulation of long-term economic and forest developments where representation of human behavior is simplified in time and space. In this context, we compare the representation of individual and aggregated decision-making in the same model structure and by doing so address some implications of choosing short or long term time horizons in land-use modeling. Based on survey data, we integrate dynamic agents into a comparative static economic sector supply model in a Swiss mountain region. The results from an extensive sensitivity analysis show that this agent-based land-use change model can reproduce observed data correctly and that both model versions are sensitive to the same model parameters. In particular, in both models the specification of opportunity costs determines the extent of production activities and land-use changes by restricting the output space. Our results point out that the agent-based model can capture short and medium term developments in land abandonment better than the aggregated version without losing its sensitivity to important socio-economic drivers. For comparative static approaches, extensive sensitivity analysis with respect to opportunity costs, i.e., the measure of benefits forgone due to alternative uses of labor is essential for the assessment of the impact of climate change on land

  7. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities

  8. Analysing and Comparing Encodability Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encodings or the proof of their absence are the main way to compare process calculi. To analyse the quality of encodings and to rule out trivial or meaningless encodings, they are augmented with quality criteria. There exists a bunch of different criteria and different variants of criteria in order to reason in different settings. This leads to incomparable results. Moreover it is not always clear whether the criteria used to obtain a result in a particular setting do indeed fit to this setting. We show how to formally reason about and compare encodability criteria by mapping them on requirements on a relation between source and target terms that is induced by the encoding function. In particular we analyse the common criteria full abstraction, operational correspondence, divergence reflection, success sensitiveness, and respect of barbs; e.g. we analyse the exact nature of the simulation relation (coupled simulation versus bisimulation that is induced by different variants of operational correspondence. This way we reduce the problem of analysing or comparing encodability criteria to the better understood problem of comparing relations on processes.

  9. 45 CFR 1308.15 - Eligibility criteria: Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Autism. 1308.15 Section 1308... Services Performance Standards § 1308.15 Eligibility criteria: Autism. A child is classified as having autism when the child has a developmental disability that significantly affects verbal and non-verbal...

  10. 45 CFR 1308.16 - Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. 1308... DISABILITIES Health Services Performance Standards § 1308.16 Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. A child is classified as having traumatic brain injury whose brain injuries are caused by an external...

  11. Regulatory criteria for the disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagstaff, K.P.

    1986-09-01

    Radiological protection criteria have been proposed by the Atomic Energy Control Board for judging the potential long-term impacts of radioactive waste disposal options in which the wastes are contained and isolated from the human environment. This paper reviews the proposed criteria and the regulatory guidelines for their application in performance assessments, taking note of the public comments received to-date

  12. Foreign criteria and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Thompson, I.M.G.

    1993-03-01

    The concept of measurement quality assurance (MQA) as embodied in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) programs is not generally used within European programs for testing or accreditation. Although the essential elements of quality control and quality assurance are in the European programs, the concept of testing the capability of the laboratory itself, in terms of its performance for the designated measurements, may not be included. Rather, the European programs use the concept of periodic calibration of laboratory reference standards against the next highest level of standards. Thus, they embody the concept of measurement traceability to appropriate primary standards. Within Europe a series of calibration accreditation programs has been established in the various countries tied together through a multilateral agreement. The radiation measurement programs are based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 series of standards. The purpose of this paper is to outline the overall operation of European Accreditation Programs in the radiation calibration and measurement areas. The operation of the radiation measurement programs of the National Measurement Accreditation Service (NAMAS) in the United Kingdom is described in detail along with other European programs. The manner in which these programs relate to individual dosimetry service programs is also described

  13. Risk acceptance criteria of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felizia, Eduardo R.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes some of the regulatory and control functions legally conferred upon the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority concerning radiological risks, as well as a critical analysis of the radiological risk acceptance criteria contained in the Argentine regulatory system. A summary of the application of regulatory standards AR 3.1.3. - 'Radiological criteria related to accidents in nuclear power reactors' and AR 4.1.3. - 'Radiological criteria related to accidents in research reactors' to concrete cases is made, while the favourable and unfavourable aspects of the risk acceptance criteria are discussed. The conclusion is that the Argentine regulatory system contains adequate radiological risk acceptance criteria, that the latter are consistent with the radiological protection principles applicable to man and that, for the moment, there is no need to perform any modifications that would broaden the conceptual framework on which such criteria are based. (author) [es

  14. Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review - Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Winfried; Blanpain, Patrick; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Gorzel, Andreas; Hozer, Zoltan; Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Maertens, Dietmar; Nechaeva, Olga; Petit, Marc; Rehacek, Radomir; Rey-Gayo, Jose Maria; Sairanen, Risto; Sonnenburg, Heinz-Guenther; Valach, Mojmir; Waeckel, Nicolas; Yueh, Ken; Zhang, Jinzhao; Voglewede, John

    2012-01-01

    Most of the current nuclear fuel safety criteria were established during the 1960's and early 1970's. Although these criteria were validated against experiments with fuel designs available at that time, a number of tests were based on unirradiated fuels. Additional verification was performed as these designs evolved, but mostly with the aim of showing that the new designs adequately complied with existing criteria, and not to establish new limits. In 1996, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) reviewed existing fuel safety criteria, focusing on new fuel and core designs, new cladding materials and industry manufacturing processes. The results were published in the Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review of 2001. The NEA has since re-examined the criteria. A brief description of each criterion and its rationale are presented in this second edition, which will be of interest to both regulators and industry (fuel vendors, utilities)

  15. Criteria for Developing a Successful Privatization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    conceptualization and planning are required when pursuing privatization projects. In fact, privatization project proponents need to know how to...selection of projects for analysis, methods of acquiring information about these projects, and the analysis framwork . Chapter IV includes the analysis. A...performed an analysis to determine cormion conceptual and creative approaches and lessons learned. This analysis was then used to develop criteria for

  16. Aquatic Life Criteria - Tributyltin (TBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to 2004 Final Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Tributyltin (TBT) for freshwater and saltwater. These documents include the safe levels of TBT that should protect the majority of species.

  17. Floorball game skills (evaluation criteria)

    OpenAIRE

    Chlumský, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Title: Playing skills in floorball (evaluation criteria). Target: To create a list of playing skills which an ideal player should demonstrate. Find and verify the evaluation criteria of these skills and inspire trainers to develop these skills in the best way. Methods: Informal interviews, individually structured interviews, analysis and verification of data, pilot testing. Results: Defined playing skills in floorball, developed scale of values of floorball playing skills, creation of exercis...

  18. Reliability criteria for voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Carson W; Silverstein, Brian L [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In face of costs pressures, there is need to allocate scare resources more effectively in order to achieve voltage stability. This naturally leads to development of probabilistic criteria and notions of rick management. In this paper it is presented a discussion about criteria for long term voltage stability limited to the case in which the time frames are topically several minutes. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.; Lee, L.; Lein, P.; Omberg, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents recommendations of a subcommittee of the Westinghouse M ampersand 0 Nuclear Facility Safety Committee concerning toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria. Two sets of criteria have been developed, one for use in the hazard classification of facilities, and the second for use in comparing risks in DOE non-reactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports. The Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) values are intended to provide estimates of concentration ranges for specific chemicals above which exposure would be expected to lead to adverse heath effects of increasing severity for ERPG-1, -2, and -3s. The subcommittee recommends that criteria for hazard class or risk range be based on ERPGs for all chemicals. Probability-based Incremental Cancer Risk (ICR) criteria are recommended for additional analyses of risks from all known or suspected human carcinogens. Criteria are given for both on-site and off-site exposure. The subcommittee also recommends that the 5-minute peak concentration be compared with the relevant criterion with no adjustment for exposure time. Since ERPGs are available for only a limited number of chemicals, the subcommittee has developed a proposed hierarchy of concentration limit parameters for the different criteria

  20. Evaluation and construction of diagnostic criteria for inclusion body myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Andrew L.; Amato, Anthony A.; Weiss, Michael D.; Needham, Merrilee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To use patient data to evaluate and construct diagnostic criteria for inclusion body myositis (IBM), a progressive disease of skeletal muscle. Methods: The literature was reviewed to identify all previously proposed IBM diagnostic criteria. These criteria were applied through medical records review to 200 patients diagnosed as having IBM and 171 patients diagnosed as having a muscle disease other than IBM by neuromuscular specialists at 2 institutions, and to a validating set of 66 additional patients with IBM from 2 other institutions. Machine learning techniques were used for unbiased construction of diagnostic criteria. Results: Twenty-four previously proposed IBM diagnostic categories were identified. Twelve categories all performed with high (≥97%) specificity but varied substantially in their sensitivities (11%–84%). The best performing category was European Neuromuscular Centre 2013 probable (sensitivity of 84%). Specialized pathologic features and newly introduced strength criteria (comparative knee extension/hip flexion strength) performed poorly. Unbiased data-directed analysis of 20 features in 371 patients resulted in construction of higher-performing data-derived diagnostic criteria (90% sensitivity and 96% specificity). Conclusions: Published expert consensus–derived IBM diagnostic categories have uniformly high specificity but wide-ranging sensitivities. High-performing IBM diagnostic category criteria can be developed directly from principled unbiased analysis of patient data. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that published expert consensus–derived IBM diagnostic categories accurately distinguish IBM from other muscle disease with high specificity but wide-ranging sensitivities. PMID:24975859

  1. PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and 16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ and the squat jump (SJ measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera. A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05. In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p>0.05, in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p<0.05. The dynamic resistance warm-up method was found to cause changes in the kinematics of jumping movements, as well as an increase in jump height values. As a result, dynamic warm-up exercises could be applicable in cases of resistance corresponding to 6-10% of body weight applied in horizontal and vertical directions in order to increase the jump performance acutely.

  2. Study on the Hymenoptera parasitoid associated with Lepidoptera larvae in reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste São Carlos, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the local fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with Lepidoptera larvae in areas of reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Lepidoptera larvae collected with entomological umbrella were kept in the laboratory until emergence of adults or their parasitoids. From those collected in the agrosilvopastoral system, emerged 267 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids belonging to 16 genera: Braconidae, Agathidinae (Alabagrus, Braconinae (Bracon, Microgastrinae (Cotesia, Diolcogaster, Glyptapanteles, Pholetesor and Protapanteles, Orgilinae (Orgilus; Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae (Casinaria, Charops and Microcharops; Chalcididae, Chalcidinae (Brachymeria and Conura; Eulophidae, Entedoninae (Horismenus, Eulophinae (Elachertus and Euplectrus. From the Lepidoptera larvae collected in the reforestation, emerged 68 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids, belonging to 8 genera: Chalcididae, Chalcidinae (Conura; Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae (Neotheronia, Campopleginae (Charops and Microcharops and Braconidae, Microgastrinae (Apanteles, Diolcogaster, Distatrix, Glyptapanteles and Protapanteles. The results of this study suggest the occurrence of a wide variety of Hymenoptera parasitoids in the studied environments.

  3. Multi-Criteria Sustainability Assessment of Urban Sludge Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    to determine the weights of the criteria for sustainability assessment, and extension theory was used to prioritize the alternative technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge and grade their sustainability performances. An illustrative case including three technologies (compositing, incineration...

  4. Criteria Based Audit of the Management of Severe Preeclampsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Management of Severe Preeclampsia/ Eclampsia in a Nigerian Teaching ... Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, Nigeria. ... pre-determined standard of care based on 18 criteria, the performance score ...

  5. Social Advertising Quality: Assessment Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kalmykov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the The purpose of the publication is development of existing criterial assessment in social advertising sphere. The next objectives are provided for its achievement: to establish research methodology, to develop the author’s version of necessary notional apparatus and conceptual generalization, to determine the elements of social advertising quality, to establish the factors of its quality, to conduct the systematization of existing criteria and measuring instruments of quality assessment, to form new criteria of social advertising quality, to apply received results for development of criterial assessment to determine the further research perspectives. Methods: the methodology of research of management of social advertising interaction with target audience, which has dynamic procedural character with use of sociological knowledge multivariate paradigmatic status, has been proposed. Results: the primary received results: the multivariate paradigmatic research basis with use of works of famous domestic and foreign scientists in sociology, qualimetry and management spheres; the definitions of social advertising, its quality, sociological quality provision system, target audience behavior model during social advertising interaction are offered; the quality factors with three groups by level of effect on consumer are established; the systematization of existing quality and its measure instruments assessment criteria by detected social advertising quality elements are conducted; the two new criteria and its management quality assessment measuring instruments in social advertising sphere are developed; the one of the common groups of production quality criteria – adaptability with considering of new management quality criteria and conducted systematization of existing social advertising creative quality assessment criteria development; the perspective of further perfection of quality criterial assessment based on social advertising

  6. A demonstration of NIOSH push-pull ventilation criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M K

    1987-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study performed on an actual chrome plating tank in order to validate criteria for push-pull ventilation systems developed by Huebener and Hughes at NIOSH. Validation of the criteria was made by taking area industrial hygiene samples for hexavalent and total chrome at ten locations around the plating tank. The sampling was performed during actual production runs or while the tank was operating with a dummy load. The sampling data are summarized. The data show that the push-pull system, operating at Huebener's criteria, could control emissions to below the current standards and guidelines. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  7. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harres, A.; Mikhov, M.; Skumryev, V.; Andrade, A.M.H. de; Schmidt, J.E.; Geshev, J.

    2016-01-01

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe_3O_4 and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one. - Highlights: • Proper estimation of hysteresis-loop parameters is vital in magnetic studies. • We propose criteria for discrimination minor from major hysteresis loops. • The criteria analyze magnetization, remanence and ZFC/FC curves and/or their derivatives. • Examples of their application on real nanoparticles systems are given. • Using the criteria could avoid twofold or bigger saturation-field underestimation errors.

  8. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harres, A. [Departamento de Física, UFSM, Santa Maria, 97105-900 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Mikhov, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Skumryev, V. [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Andrade, A.M.H. de; Schmidt, J.E. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Geshev, J., E-mail: julian@if.ufrgs.br [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one. - Highlights: • Proper estimation of hysteresis-loop parameters is vital in magnetic studies. • We propose criteria for discrimination minor from major hysteresis loops. • The criteria analyze magnetization, remanence and ZFC/FC curves and/or their derivatives. • Examples of their application on real nanoparticles systems are given. • Using the criteria could avoid twofold or bigger saturation-field underestimation errors.

  9. Seismic re-evaluation criteria for Bohunice V1 reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.; Schlund, H.; Warnken, L.

    2001-01-01

    Bohunice V1 in Slovakia is a Russian designed two unit WWER 440, Model 230 Pressurized Water Reactor. The plant was not originally designed for earthquake. Subsequent and ongoing reassessments now confirm that the seismic hazard at the site is significant. EBO, the plant owner has contracted with a consortium lead by Siemens AG (REKON) to do major reconstruction of the plant to significantly enhance its safety systems by the addition of new systems and the upgrading of existing systems. As part of the reconstruction, a complete seismic assessment and upgrading is required for existing safety relevant structures, systems and components. It is not practical to conduct this reassessment and upgrading using criteria applied to new design of nuclear power plants. Alternate criteria may be used to achieve adequate safety goals. Utilities in the U.S. have faced several seismic issues with operating NPPs and to resolve these issues, alternate criteria have been developed which are much more cost effective than use of criteria for new design. These alternate criteria incorporate the knowledge obtained from investigation of the performance of equipment in major earthquakes and include provisions for structures and passive equipment to deform beyond the yield point, yet still provide their essential function. IAEA has incorporated features of these alternate criteria into draft Technical Guidelines for application to Bohunice V1 and V2. REKON has developed plant specific criteria and procedures for the Bohunice V1 reconstruction that incorporate major features of the U.S. developed alternate criteria, comply to local codes and which envelop the draft IAEA Technical Guidelines. Included in these criteria and procedures are comprehensive walkdown screening criteria for equipment, piping, HVAC and cable raceways, analytical criteria which include inelastic energy absorption factors defined on an element basis and testing criteria which include specific guidance on interpretation

  10. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  11. Criteria for authorship in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Master, Zubin

    2011-10-01

    Multiple authorship is becoming increasingly common in bioethics research. There are well-established criteria for authorship in empirical bioethics research but not for conceptual research. It is important to develop criteria for authorship in conceptual publications to prevent undeserved authorship and uphold standards of fairness and accountability. This article explores the issue of multiple authorship in bioethics and develops criteria for determining who should be an author on a conceptual publication in bioethics. Authorship in conceptual research should be based on contributing substantially to: (1) identifying a topic, problem, or issue to study; (2) reviewing and interpreting the relevant literature; (3) formulating, analyzing, and evaluating arguments that support one or more theses; (4) responding to objections and counterarguments; and (5) drafting the manuscript. Authors of conceptual publications should participate substantially in at least two of areas (1)-(5) and also approve the final version. [corrected].

  12. Design criteria for advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Design criteria for advanced reactors are discussed, including safety aspects, site selection, problems related to maintenance and possibility of repairing or replacing structures or components of a nuclear power plant, the human factor considerations. Bearing in mind that some of these criteria are the subject of consensus at international level, the author suggests to establish a table of different operator requirements, to prepare a dossier on the comparison of input data for probabilistic risk analysis, to take into consideration the means to control a severe accident from the very start of the design

  13. OSCILLATION CRITERIA FOR FORCED SUPERLINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using Riccati transformation techniques,some oscillation criteria for the forced second-order superlinear difference equations are established.These criteria are dis- crete analogues of the criteria for differential equations proposed by Yan.

  14. Dismissal: Important criteria in managerial decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Stocker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about dismissal decision-making, particularly concerning the criteria used by managers in choosing who will be dismissed and why, is scarce. Considering the implications of such decisions for organizations and society, in this paper, we identify the seven most frequently used criteria in dismissal decisions and examine their importance for managers. We collected data through a survey among 385 managers and used the rational ranking and the multicriteria Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to analyze them. The results show that commitment, performance records, and trust have the greatest impact on the dismissal decision, whereas interpersonal relationship, growth potential, and professional experience are considered secondary criteria. These results contribute to extending our knowledge about dismissal decisions and showing the most relevant criteria in these choices and the relevance assigned to each of the criteria so that greater transparency can be achieved.

  15. Accident analysis and DOE criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, J.M.; Elder, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    In analyzing the radiological consequences of major accidents at DOE facilities one finds that many facilities fall so far below the limits of DOE Order 6430 that compliance is easily demonstrated by simple analysis. For those cases where the amount of radioactive material and the dispersive energy available are enough for accident consequences to approach the limits, the models and assumptions used become critical. In some cases the models themselves are the difference between meeting the criteria or not meeting them. Further, in one case, we found that not only did the selection of models determine compliance but the selection of applicable criteria from different chapters of Order 6430 also made the difference. DOE has recognized the problem of different criteria in different chapters applying to one facility, and has proceeded to make changes for the sake of consistency. We have proposed to outline the specific steps needed in an accident analysis and suggest appropriate models, parameters, and assumptions. As a result we feed DOE siting and design criteria will be more fairly and consistently applied

  16. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  17. Criteria and procedures for stability studies - adopted measures for improving system dynamic performance; Criterios e procedimentos para estudos de estabilidade - definicao de acoes para a melhoria do desempenho em regime transitorio e dinamico de sistemas de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Erli F [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fontoura, Roberto N [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Luiz Gastao C [ELETROSUL, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Barros, Joao Ricardo P. de [Companhia Hidroeletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil); Aires, Joao C. de O. [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Etrusco, Wellignton [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil); Rosa, Aciron B. de [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (CEEE), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Daldagan, Maria L [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bastos, Jose R [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yamamura, Paulo [ELETRONORTE, Belem, PA (Brazil); Luz, Ariosto [Companhia de Energia Eltrica da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Oliveira, Elizabeth F [CELG (Brazil); Mello, Albert C.G. de [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Itamar [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A. (CELESC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, Amaury R.C. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martins, Junior, Jose A [Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz (CPFL), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Jose S [Espirito Santo Centrias Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitotia, ES (Brazil); Molina, Jair M [Empresa Energetica do Mato Grosso do Sul S.A. (ENERSUL), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Pereira, Marcel J.A. [Centrais Eltricas do Para S.A. (CELPA); [Belem, PA (Brazil); Rocha Neto, Cassiano, C. [Companhia Energetica do Ceara (COELCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Coelho, Simone N [CELPE (Brazil); Silva, Robson P [CEAL (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents criterion and proceedings to the analysis of the performance of AC and DC transmission systems point to point and multi-terminal, in dynamic and transient regime. (author) 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striley, Catherine L W; Griffiths, Roland R; Cottler, Linda B

    2011-12-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who reported caffeine use in the last 7 days and also reported use of alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs within the past year ( n =167). Results: Thirty-five percent met the criteria for dependence when all seven of the adopted DSM dependence criteria were used. Rates of endorsement of several of the most applicable diagnostic criteria were as follows: 26% withdrawal, 23% desire to cut down or control use, and 44% continued use despite harm. In addition, 34% endorsed craving, 26% said they needed caffeine to function, and 10% indicated that they talked to a physician or counselor about problems experienced with caffeine. There was a trend towards increased caffeine dependence among those dependent on nicotine or alcohol. Within a subgroup that had used caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine in the past year, 28% fulfilled criteria for caffeine dependence compared to 50% for alcohol and 80% for nicotine. Conclusion: The present study adds to a growing literature suggesting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the caffeine dependence diagnosis. Recognition of caffeine dependence in the DSM-V may be clinically useful.

  19. Geomembrane selection criteria for uranium tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.; Cuello, R.

    1986-09-01

    The selection criteria, particularly those involving chemical compatibility, of geomembranes to be used in ponds at uranium mill operations are discussed. The principal functional criteria which a geomembrane must meet for this application are: (1) a specified service life and (2) low permeability. Chemical compatibility with the waste is essential in meeting these functional criteria. In two different types of aging tests using simulated acidic uranium mill waste, degradation of chemical and physical properties were examined in geomembranes of high-density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and chlorosulfonated polyethylene. Compatibility tests according to the National Sanitation Foundation procedures are recommended to ascertain the stability of certain physical properties of the proposed geomembrane. Actual experience with a specific geomembrane in an identical application is probably the best method to assure compatibility; however, this experience is frequently not available. Experience with a geomembrane in similar applications is valuable in the selection process, however, small differences in either the geomembrane formulation or the waste composition may result in large differences in performance of the geomembrane. It is likely that many geomembranes have acceptable chemical stability for typical uranium mill applications, therefore, additional factors in the selection processes will include seaming characteristics, mechanical properties, site characteristics, and costs

  20. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2008-12-01

    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  1. DOE natural phenomenal hazards design and evaluation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.; Chander, H.; Hill, J.R.; Kimball, J.K.

    1994-10-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct, and operate DOE facilities so that workers, the general public, and the environment are protected from the impacts of natural phenomena hazards (NPH). Furthermore, DOE has established explicit goals of acceptable risk for NPH performance. As a result, natural phenomena hazard (earthquake, extreme wind, and flood) design and evaluation criteria for DOE facilities have been developed based on target probabilistic performance goals. These criteria include selection of design/evaluation NPH input from probabilistic hazard curves combined with commonly practiced deterministic response evaluation methods and acceptance criteria with controlled levels of conservatism. For earthquake considerations, conservatism is intentionally introduced in specification of material strengths and capacities, in the allowance of limited inelastic behavior, and by a seismic scale factor. Criteria have been developed following a graded approach for several performance goals ranging from that appropriate for normal-use facilities to that appropriate for facilities involving hazardous or critical operations. Performance goals are comprised of qualitative expressions of acceptable behavior and of target quantitative probabilities that acceptable limits of behavior are maintained. The criteria are simple procedures but have a rigorous basis. This paper addresses DOE seismic design and evaluation criteria

  2. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  3. HWVP compliance with the Hanford site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromm, R.; Ornelas, J.; Fundingsland, S.; Shah, K.

    1993-01-01

    In order to ensure that the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) will meet solid waste acceptance criteria, a review of the criteria was performed. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the modifications that will be required to bring the HWVP into compliance for secondary waste which will be generated during normal operations of the facility. To accomplish this objective, the current HWVP design was evaluated based on the criteria established. Once the non-compliance areas and potentially non-compliance areas were identified, alternative plant design modifications were proposed. This paper summarizes the results and recommendations of that study

  4. Reflexive criteria of sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Ubaydullaeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the sociological criteria of explaining the way of thinking and actions of subjects, their spiritual and moral positions and intellectual forces that form the laws of social life. The author seeks to adapt such categories as ‘meaning of life’, ‘human dignity’, ‘rationality’ etc. for the purposes of sociological analysis by methodological construction of some real life dichotomies such as ‘subjective meaning and social function’, ‘the real and the ideal’, ‘the demanded and the excluded’. Thus, the author studies economic, political and technical processes in terms of both positivity and negativity of social interaction and states that given the increasing differentiation of the society and the contradictory trends of social development the reflexive criteria that take into account the socio-cultural nature of the man help to find one’s own model of development.

  5. New facility shield design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the criteria presented here is to provide standard guidance for the design of nuclear radiation shields thoughout new facilities. These criteria are required to assure a consistent and integrated design that can be operated safely and economically within the DOE standards. The scope of this report is confined to the consideration of radiation shielding for contained sources. The whole body dose limit established by the DOE applies to all doses which are generally distributed throughout the trunk of the body. Therefore, where the whole body is the critical organ for an internally deposited radionuclide, the whole body dose limit applies to the sum of doses received must assure control of the concentration of radionuclides in the building atmosphere and thereby limit the dose from internal sources

  6. NSSS supplier's response to differing safety criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremades, J; Filkin, R; Franke, T [Westinghouse Electric Nuclear Energy Systems Europe (WENESE), Brussels (Belgium)

    1980-11-01

    The limited progress achieved to date in harmonizing national criteria has led to the development of designs which include the most common national requirements. Progress towards harmonization of safety criteria can be accelerated by expanding the IAEA leadership and co-ordination activities, and implementing an integrated approach to criteria development. National and International safety criteria are examined.

  7. Environmental criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Bargues, José Luis; González-Cruz, María-Carmen; González-Gaya, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Green Public Procurement (GPP) is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain g...

  8. Environmental Criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Fuentes-Bargues; Mª Carmen González-Cruz; Cristina González-Gaya

    2017-01-01

    Green Public Procurement (GPP) is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain group ...

  9. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Safety criteria for ferrocyanide watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.; Meacham, J.E.; Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a technical basis for closing the ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) at the Hanford Site. Three work efforts were performed in developing this technical basis. The efforts described herein are: 1. The formulation of criteria for ranking the relative safety of waste in each ferrocyanide tank. 2. The current classification of tanks into safety categories by comparing available information on tank contents with the safety criteria; 3. The identification of additional information required to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue

  10. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Striley, Catherine L.W.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who re...

  11. Radiological criteria in nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, D.; Diaz de la Cruz, F.

    1985-01-01

    It is pretended to enlighten the way to adopt the recommendations, from supranational organizations or the practices followed in other countries, to the peculiarities existing in Spain for the specific case of Nuclear Emergency Response Planning. The adaptation has been focalized in the criteria given by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council and has taken into account the radiological protection levels, which have been considered adequate for Spanish population in case of nuclear accidents. (author)

  12. Sampling criteria in multicollection searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, A.; Scozzafava, R.; Marchetti, P. G.

    In the first stage of the document retrieval process, no information concerning relevance of a particular document is available. On the other hand, computer implementation requires that the analysis be made only for a sample of retrieved documents. This paper addresses the significance and suitability of two different sampling criteria for a multicollection online search facility. The inevitability of resorting to a logarithmic criterion in order to achieve a "spread of representativeness" from the multicollection is demonstrated.

  13. Position paper: Seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnworth, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A

  14. Technological status diagnosis used by partners of a Eucalyptus plantation reforesting company in Divinopolis, MG, Brazil; Levantamento do nivel tecnologico utilizado por parceiros no plantio de eucalipto de uma empresa reflorestadora na regiao de Divinopolis, MG, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccon, Eliane [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), DF (Mexico)]. Email: ececcon@miranda.ecologia.unam.mx

    1999-07-15

    Among the reforesting companies holding a partnership program on eucalyptus plantations with small and medium farmers in Minas Gerais, the Pains Florestal S.A. stands out for creating a research and development program in agroforestry systems with eucalyptus. Following a successful biological research, the need for a more specific diagnosis of the social-economic conditions emerged in order to assess the viability of the program. It was found that the company's partners lack important financial resources to start new agricultural and forest enterprises in their lands. Additionally, their technological level was low. The main income sources are livestock, corn plantations and charcoal production. On the other hand, most farmers presented a high level of interest in beginning new activities, provided credit conditions were available. (author)

  15. Calculation on the impacts of forestation, afforestation and reforestation on the C-sequestration potential in Belgian forests ecosystems. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belgian climate policy is formulated at the federal level, requiring cooperation between regional and federal administrations. Around a fifth of the total area of Belgium is covered by forests. Around 80/ of the productive forests are in the Walloon region. Reported values for land use change and forestry categories give a potential of 2,057 kt eq. CO2 per year. Given the existing regional forest inventories (RFI: RFI1 for 1984 and RFI2 for 1999, an estimate has been made to consolidate reported data. Afforestation, deforestation and reforestation activities are calculated according the Intergovernemental Panel on Climate Change special report on land use, land use change and forestry.

  16. Repository operational criteria comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations considering the interfaces among the components of the regulations and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The ROC task addresses regulatory criteria and uncertainties related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. Those parts of 10 CFR Part 60 that require routine guidance or minor changes to the rule were addressed in Hageman and Chowdhury, 1992. The ROC task shows a possible need for further regulatory clarity, by major changes to the rule, related to the design bases and siting of a geologic repository operations area and radiological emergency planning in order to assure defense-in-depth. The analyses, presented in this report, resulted in the development and refinement of regulatory concepts and their supporting rationale for recommendations for potential major changes to 10 CFR Pan 0 regulations

  17. Turkey; Third and Fourth Reviews Under the Stand-By Arrangement and Request for Waiver of Performance Criteria-Staff Report; Staff Supplement, Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    Although Turkey’s economic performance has been strong, growing external imbalances exposed the country to a reversal of sentiment. In the wake of recent market turbulence, the authorities have recommitted to strong policies and stepped up program implementation. The authorities’ commitment to tighter fiscal policy will help preserve market confidence and resume disinflation. These delays are wide ranging, including on the landmark pension reform, tax reform, bank supervision, and state bank ...

  18. Reflorestamento de manguezais e o valor de resgate para o seqüestro de carbono atmosférico The reforestation of mangrove swamps and its value in atmospheric carbon sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Mattos Fonseca

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores afirmam a relevância do reflorestamento de manguezais para projetos de seqüestro de carbono atmosférico, dentro dos princípios do chamado mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo (MDL,definidos em diversas arenas técnicas e políticas internacionais, dentro da Convenção de Mudanças Climáticas. Descrevem um projeto de pesquisa em andamento, que inclui estudo de caso focalizado em manguezais da laguna de Itaipu (Niterói, RJ, cujo objetivo é selecionar e fazer medições preliminares de parâmetros ecológicos e socioambientais relevantes para a valoração econômica e financeira dos benefícios do reflorestamento. A seleção e as medições servirão como estudo de viabilidade para que projetos semelhantes se qualifiquem para obter apoio financeiro e alcançar sucesso técnico, gerando benefícios ambientais e sociais.The article argues that the reforestation of mangrove swamps is of relevance to projects for sequestering atmospheric carbon, within the principles of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM currently being defined in different technical and political arenas as part of the Convention on Climate Change. The text describes a research project currently under way that includes a case study of mangrove swamps in the Itaipu Lagoon in Niterói, RJ. The project's goal is to select and take preliminary measurements of the ecological and socio-environmental parameters pertinent to the economic and financial valuation of the benefits of reforestation. These parameters will serve as part of feasibility studies that determine whether similar projects up for financing by the CDM qualify for financial support and whether they will achieve technical success that brings environmental and social benefits to the various social actors involved.

  19. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Bilir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful

  20. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) V2.0 logistics module PBI acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the acceptance criteria for the Automated Transportation Management System V2.0 Logistics Module Performance Based Incentive (PBI). This acceptance criteria will be the primary basis for the generation of acceptance test procedures. The purpose of this document is to define the minimum criteria that must be fulfilled to guarantee acceptance of the Logistics Module

  1. STOPP/START criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people: version 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Denis; O'Sullivan, David; Byrne, Stephen; O'Connor, Marie Noelle; Ryan, Cristin; Gallagher, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Screening tool of older people's prescriptions (STOPP) and screening tool to alert to right treatment (START) criteria were first published in 2008. Due to an expanding therapeutics evidence base, updating of the criteria was required. We reviewed the 2008 STOPP/START criteria to add new evidence-based criteria and remove any obsolete criteria. A thorough literature review was performed to reassess the evidence base of the 2008 criteria and the proposed new criteria. Nineteen experts from 13 European countries reviewed a new draft of STOPP & START criteria including proposed new criteria. These experts were also asked to propose additional criteria they considered important to include in the revised STOPP & START criteria and to highlight any criteria from the 2008 list they considered less important or lacking an evidence base. The revised list of criteria was then validated using the Delphi consensus methodology. The expert panel agreed a final list of 114 criteria after two Delphi validation rounds, i.e. 80 STOPP criteria and 34 START criteria. This represents an overall 31% increase in STOPP/START criteria compared with version 1. Several new STOPP categories were created in version 2, namely antiplatelet/anticoagulant drugs, drugs affecting, or affected by, renal function and drugs that increase anticholinergic burden; new START categories include urogenital system drugs, analgesics and vaccines. STOPP/START version 2 criteria have been expanded and updated for the purpose of minimizing inappropriate prescribing in older people. These criteria are based on an up-to-date literature review and consensus validation among a European panel of experts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  2. Conversion to dementia in mild cognitive impairment diagnosed with DSM-5 criteria and with Petersen's criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, G; Santabárbara, J; Lopez-Anton, R; De-la-Cámara, C; Gracia-García, P; Lobo, E; Pírez, G; Menchón, J M; Palomo, T; Stephan, B C M; Brayne, C; Lobo, A

    2016-05-01

    In a background of revision of criteria for states of increased risk for progression to dementia, we compare the conversion rate to dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as diagnosed using DSM-5 (DSM-5-MCI) and Petersen's (P-MCI) criteria. A population representative cohort of 4057 dementia-free individuals 55+ years of age was followed up at 2.5 and 4.5 years in Zaragoza, Spain (ZARADEMP). Using the Geriatric Mental State- AGECAT for assessment, research psychiatrists diagnosed DSM-5-MCI and P-MCI following operationalized criteria. 'Conversion rate' (CR), 'annual conversion rate' (ACR), and incidence rate (IR) were calculated along with incidence rate ratio (IRR) to compare the performance of the intermediate cognitive definitions. At 4.5-year follow-up, in individuals aged 65+ years, ACRs for non-cases, P-MCI, and DSM-5-MCI were 0.8, 1.9 and 3.4, respectively, for global dementia. The IRRs were 2.9 and 5.3 for P-MCI and DSM5-MCI, respectively, being the non-cases the reference category. The corresponding values were slightly lower for AD. Conversion rate to dementia and AD was higher using DSM-5-MCI criteria than using Petersen's criteria. However, prediction of the construct still has some way to go, as most MCI individuals did not convert at 4.5-year follow-up. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Criteria in University Building Maintenance in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Ashola Abdul-Lateef

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available University buildings are a significant part of university assets and considerable resources are committed to their design, construction and maintenance. The core of maintenance management is to optimize productivity and user satisfaction with optimum resources. An important segment in the maintenance management system is the analysis of criteria that influence building maintenance. Therefore, this paper aims to identify quantify, rank and discuss the criteria that influence maintenance costs, maintenance backlogs, productivity and user satisfaction in Malaysian university buildings. The paper reviews the related literature and presents the outcomes of a questionnaire survey. Questionnaires were administered on 50 university maintenance organizations. Thirty-one criteria were addressed to the university maintenance organizations to evaluate the degree to which each of the criteria influences building maintenance management. With a 66% response rate, it was concluded that the consideration of the criteria is critical to the university building maintenance management system. The quality of components and materials, budget constraints and the age of the building were found to be the most influential criteria but information on user performance satisfaction, problems associated with in-house workforce and shortage of materials and components were the least influential criteria. The paper also outlined that maintenance management is a strategic function in university administration.

  4. New Splitting Criteria for Decision Trees in Stationary Data Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek; Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek; Rutkowski, Leszek; Duda, Piotr; Jaworski, Maciej

    2018-06-01

    The most popular tools for stream data mining are based on decision trees. In previous 15 years, all designed methods, headed by the very fast decision tree algorithm, relayed on Hoeffding's inequality and hundreds of researchers followed this scheme. Recently, we have demonstrated that although the Hoeffding decision trees are an effective tool for dealing with stream data, they are a purely heuristic procedure; for example, classical decision trees such as ID3 or CART cannot be adopted to data stream mining using Hoeffding's inequality. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new algorithms, which are both mathematically justified and characterized by good performance. In this paper, we address this problem by developing a family of new splitting criteria for classification in stationary data streams and investigating their probabilistic properties. The new criteria, derived using appropriate statistical tools, are based on the misclassification error and the Gini index impurity measures. The general division of splitting criteria into two types is proposed. Attributes chosen based on type- splitting criteria guarantee, with high probability, the highest expected value of split measure. Type- criteria ensure that the chosen attribute is the same, with high probability, as it would be chosen based on the whole infinite data stream. Moreover, in this paper, two hybrid splitting criteria are proposed, which are the combinations of single criteria based on the misclassification error and Gini index.

  5. Assessment of Clinical Criteria for Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Christopher W.; Liu, Vincent X.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.; Brunkhorst, Frank M.; Rea, Thomas D.; Scherag, André; Rubenfeld, Gordon; Kahn, Jeremy M.; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Singer, Mervyn; Deutschman, Clifford S.; Escobar, Gabriel J.; Angus, Derek C.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The Third International Consensus Definitions Task Force defined sepsis as “life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection.” The performance of clinical criteria for this sepsis definition is unknown. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the validity of clinical criteria to identify patients with suspected infection who are at risk of sepsis. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND POPULATION Among 1.3 million electronic health record encounters from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012, at 12 hospitals in southwestern Pennsylvania, we identified those with suspected infection in whom to compare criteria. Confirmatory analyses were performed in 4 data sets of 706 399 out-of-hospital and hospital encounters at 165 US and non-US hospitals ranging from January 1, 2008, until December 31, 2013. EXPOSURES Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, Logistic Organ Dysfunction System (LODS) score, and a new model derived using multivariable logistic regression in a split sample, the quick Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score (range, 0–3 points, with 1 point each for systolic hypotension [≤100 mm Hg], tachypnea [≥22/min], or altered mentation). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES For construct validity, pairwise agreement was assessed. For predictive validity, the discrimination for outcomes (primary: in-hospital mortality; secondary: in-hospital mortality or intensive care unit [ICU] length of stay ≥3 days) more common in sepsis than uncomplicated infection was determined. Results were expressed as the fold change in outcome over deciles of baseline risk of death and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). RESULTS In the primary cohort, 148 907 encounters had suspected infection (n = 74 453 derivation; n = 74 454 validation), of whom 6347 (4%) died. Among ICU encounters in the validation cohort (n = 7932 with suspected

  6. Training review criteria and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides direction to NRC personnel for reviewing training programs at nuclear power plants to verify compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 50. 120 and 10 CFR 55 as applicable. It describes the process for evaluating the effectiveness of training programs, provides aids for collection of information during interviews and observations, and provides criteria for evaluating the implementation of a systems approach to training. This document is not intended to have the effect of a regulation, it establishes no binding requirements or interpretations of NRC regulations. It is intended as guidance only

  7. Quality criteria for landscape visualisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldi, H.-P.; Witt, U. de

    1996-01-01

    The rapid expansion of wind energy utilisation in Western Europe can strain the limits of social acceptance with citizens living in wind development areas. One of the problems wind farm engineers and local authorities face is the visual impact of wind turbines. To determine the influence on the landscape visualisations of wind farms photorealistic compositions are used. In many cases it is part of the planning procedure. The quality of this visualization can strongly influence the success of the permission procedure. We will give criteria which can give help to reduce the possibility of unwanted manipulations. (author)

  8. 2D Decision-Making for Multi-Criteria Design Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engau, A; Wiecek, M. M

    2006-01-01

    The high dimensionality encountered in engineering design optimization due to large numbers of performance criteria and specifications leads to cumbersome and sometimes unachievable tradeoff analyses...

  9. Validating a Methodology for Establishing a Criteria and Proficiency Levels in Surgical Skills Simulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heinrichs, LeRoy; Lukoff, Brian; Youngblood, Patricia; Dev, Parvati; Shavelson, Richard

    2006-01-01

    .... To establish training criteria, we have assessed the performance of 18 experienced laparoscopic surgeons basic technical surgical skills of recorded electronically in 26 basic skills modules selected...

  10. Summary of the evidence file demonstrating completion of the NIF Project Completion Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynam, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-04

    This document summarizes the results of performance verification tests on NIF that demonstrate it has met its performance-related Project Completion Criteria (PCC). It includes measurements made on NIF with the NIF diagnostics, the calibration of these diagnostics and the supporting analyses that verify the NIF performance criteria have been met.

  11. ACL Return to Sport Guidelines and Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, George J; McCarty, Eric; Provencher, Matthew; Manske, Robert C

    2017-09-01

    Because of the epidemiological incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, the high reinjury rates that occur when returning back to sports, the actual number of patients that return to the same premorbid level of competition, the high incidence of osteoarthritis at 5-10-year follow-ups, and the effects on the long-term health of the knee and the quality of life for the patient, individualizing the return to sports after ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) is critical. However, one of the challenging but unsolved dilemmas is what criteria and clinical decision making should be used to return an athlete back to sports following an ACL-R. This article describes an example of a functional testing algorithm (FTA) as one method for clinical decision making based on quantitative and qualitative testing and assessment utilized to make informed decisions to return an athlete to their sports safely and without compromised performance. The methods were a review of the best current evidence to support a FTA. In order to evaluate all the complicated domains of the clinical decision making for individualizing the return to sports after ACL-R, numerous assessments need to be performed including the biopsychosocial concepts, impairment testing, strength and power testing, functional testing, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The optimum criteria to use for individualizing the return to sports after ACL-R remain elusive. However, since this decision needs to be made on a regular basis with the safety and performance factors of the patient involved, this FTA provides one method of quantitatively and qualitatively making the decisions. Admittedly, there is no predictive validity of this system, but it does provide practical guidelines to facilitate the clinical decision making process for return to sports. The clinical decision to return an athlete back into competition has significant implications ranging from the safety of the athlete, to performance factors and actual

  12. Rome Criteria and a Diagnostic Approach to Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Lacy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs account for at least 40% of all referrals to gastroenterologists. Of the 33 recognized adult FGIDs, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most prevalent, with a worldwide prevalence estimated at 12%. IBS is an important health care concern as it greatly affects patients’ quality of life and imposes a significant economic burden to the health care system. Cardinal symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. The absence of abdominal pain makes the diagnosis of IBS untenable. The diagnosis of IBS can be made by performing a careful review of the patient’s symptoms, taking a thoughtful history (e.g., diet, medication, medical, surgical, and psychological history, evaluating the patient for the presence of warning signs (e.g., “red flags” of anemia, hematochezia, unintentional weight loss, or a family history of colorectal cancer or inflammatory bowel disease, performing a guided physical examination, and using the Rome IV criteria. The Rome criteria were developed by a panel of international experts in the field of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although initially developed to guide researchers, these criteria have undergone several revisions with the intent of making them clinically useful and relevant. This monograph provides a brief overview on the development of the Rome criteria, discusses the utility of the Rome IV criteria, and reviews how the criteria can be applied clinically to diagnose IBS. In addition, a diagnostic strategy for the cost-effective diagnosis of IBS will be reviewed.

  13. Ventilation criteria for IDMS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    Both Facility Evaluation Board (FEB) reviews of the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) have identified the inconsistency of the current IDMS Process Hazards Review (PHR) versus actual IDMS practice as regards the criteria to contain air borne pollutants that may be present in the Process Room (e.g. benzene and mercury). The PHR states that a 1.0 in. wc pressure differential be maintained between the IDMS Process Room and Building 672-T. In addition, the PHR further specifies that the linear velocity through openings into the Process Room (e.g. open doors) be equal to or greater than 150 fpm. Finally, the PHR recommended that mercury vapor and benzene monitors be installed in the Process Room ventilation exhaust to alert personnel to the presence of vapors of benzene and/or mercury before entering the Process Room. This report summarizes the results of reassessment of these criteria and the specific recommendation for permanent installation of mercury and benzene vapor monitors in the vapor exhaust of the Process Room

  14. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agcaoili, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  15. Nuclear reactor philosophy and criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, R.J.

    1979-07-01

    Nuclear power plant safety criteria and principles developed in Canada are directed towards minimizing the chance of failure of the fuel and preventing or reducing to an acceptably low level the escape of fission products should fuel failure occur. Safety criteria and practices are set forth in the Reactor Siting Guide, which is based upon the concept of defence in depth. The Guide specifies that design and construction shall follow the best applicable code, standard or practice; the total of all serious process system failures shall not exceed one in three years; special safety systems are to be physically and functionally separate from process systems and each other; and safety systems shall be testable, with unavailability less than 10 - 3 . Doses to the most exposed member of the public due to normal operation, serious process failures, and dual failures are specified. Licensees are also required to consider the effects of extreme conditions due to airplane crashes, explosions, turbine disintegration, pipe burst, and natural disasters. Safety requirements are changing as nuclear power plant designs evolve and in response to social and economic pressures

  16. Acceptability criteria for final underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Specialists now generally agree that the underground disposal of suitably immobilized radioactive waste offers a means of attaining the basic objective of ensuring the immediate and long-term protection of man and the environment throughout the requisite period of time and in all foreseeable circumstances. Criteria of a more general as well as a more specific nature are practical means through which this basic protection objective can be reached. These criteria, which need not necessarily be quantified, enable the authorities to gauge the acceptability of a given project and provide those responsible for waste management with a basis for making decisions. In short, these principles constitute the framework of a suitably safety-oriented waste management policy. The more general criteria correspond to the protection objectives established by the national authorities on the basis of principles and recommendations formulated by international organizations, in particular the ICRP and the IAEA. They apply to any underground disposal system considered as a whole. The more specific criteria provide a means of evaluating the degree to which the various components of the disposal system meet the general criteria. They must also take account of the interaction between these components. As the ultimate aim is the overall safety of the disposal system, individual components can be adjusted to compensate for the performance of others with respect to the criteria. This is the approach adopted by the international bodies and national authorities in developing acceptability criteria for the final underground radioactive disposal systems to be used during the operational and post-operational phases respectively. The main criteria are reviewed and an attempt is made to assess the importance of the specific criteria according to the different types of disposal systems. (author)

  17. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy. Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1) six symptom criteria, (2) four functional impairment criteria and (3) exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%), while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use. The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.

  18. Quality criteria for phase change materials selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Nuno; Abrantes, João C.C.; Frade, Jorge R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Selection criteria of phase change materials for representative applications. • Selection criteria based on reliable solutions for latent heat transfer. • Guidelines for the role of geometry and heat transfer mechanisms. • Performance maps based on PCM properties, operating conditions, size and time scales. - Abstract: Selection guidelines are primary criterion for optimization of materials for specific applications in order to meet simultaneous and often conflicting requirements. This is mostly true for technologies and products required to meet the main societal needs, such as energy. In this case, gaps between supply and demand require strategies for energy conversion and storage, including thermal storage mostly based on phase change materials. Latent heat storage is also very versatile for thermal management and thermal control by allowing high storage density within narrow temperature ranges without strict dependence between stored thermal energy and temperature. Thus, this work addressed the main issues of latent heat storage from a materials selection perspective, based on expected requirements of applications in thermal energy storage or thermal regulation. Representative solutions for the kinetics of latent heat charge/discharge were used to derive optimization guidelines for high energy density, high power, response time (from fast response to thermal inertia), etc. The corresponding property relations were presented in graphical forms for a wide variety of prospective phase change materials, and for wide ranges of operating conditions, and accounting for changes in geometry and mechanisms.

  19. 45 CFR 1176.3 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES PART-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT § 1176.3 Criteria. Positions becoming vacant... to part-time. Among the criteria which may be used when conducting this review are: (a) Mission...

  20. 40 CFR 258.24 - Air criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.24 Air criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLFs... wastes, silvicultural wastes, landclearing debris, diseased trees, or debris from emergency cleanup...