WorldWideScience

Sample records for reflection loss shifts

  1. Procedure to decouple reflectance and down-shifting effects in luminescent down-shifting enhanced photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Ahmed M; Walker, Alexandre W; Wilkins, Matthew M; Kleiman, Rafael; Hinzer, Karin

    2017-06-12

    The down-shifting (DS) process is a purely optical approach used to improve the short-wavelength response of a solar cell by shifting high-energy photons to the visible range, which can be more efficiently absorbed by the solar cell. In addition to the DS effect, coupling a DS layer to the top surface of a solar cell results in a change in surface reflectance. The two effects are intermixed and therefore, usually reported as a single effect. Here we propose a procedure to decouple the two effects. Analytical equations are derived to decouple the two effects, that consider the experimentally measured quantum efficiency of the solar cell with and without the DS layer, in addition to transfer matrix simulations of the parasitic absorption in the device structure. In this work, an overall degradation of 0.46 mA/cm 2 is observed when adding a DS layer composed of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a quartz matrix to a silicon solar cell of 11% baseline efficiency. To fully understand the contribution from each effect, the surface reflectance and DS effects are decoupled and quantified using the described procedure. We observe an enhancement of 0.27 mA/cm 2 in short-circuit current density due to the DS effect, while the surface reflectance effect leads to a degradation of 0.73 mA/cm 2 in short-circuit current density.

  2. Shifting Sands: Reflections from the Field of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of reflection in higher education, highlighting one academic's reflections on herself as a woman in academia and how the attitudes she learned during her childhood and youth created problems during her own higher education and in her work as an academic. Also looks at educational discrimination against other minority groups.…

  3. "Reflections of the Loss of Rumeli on the Turkish Poetry"

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Losing the land of Rumeli has had significant reflections on the Turkish poetry. Poets such as Rıza Tevfik, Mehmet kif, Aka Gündüz, Arif Nihat, etc. wrote poems on how much the sudden loss of Rumeli, which had long been under the Turkish rule, influenced the feelings of the Turkish people quite negatively. They harshly criticized the negligence and the incompetence of the rulers which accelerated the loss of the land during the Balkan War. One can easily observe the dramatic style in such po...

  4. Reflections of the Loss of Rumeli on the Turkish Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Losing the land of Rumeli has had significant reflections on the Turkish poetry. Poets such as Rıza Tevfik, Mehmet Âkif, Aka Gündüz, Arif Nihat, etc. wrote poems on how much the sudden loss of Rumeli, which had long been under the Turkish rule, influenced the feelings of the Turkish people quite negatively. They harshly criticized the negligence and the incompetence of the rulers which accelerated the loss of the land during the Balkan War. One can easily observe the dramatic style in such p...

  5. Shifting to triple value healthcare: Reflections from England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Anant; Jungmann, Sven; Gray, Muir

    2018-02-01

    Increasing need and demand because of growing and aging populations combined with stagnant or decreasing resources being invested into healthcare globally mean that a radical shift is needed to ensure that healthcare systems can meet current and future challenges. Quality-, safety- and efficiency-improvement approaches have been used as means to address many problems in healthcare and while they are essential and necessary, they are not sufficient to meet our current challenges. To build resilient and sustainable healthcare systems, we need a shift to focus on triple value healthcare, which will help healthcare professionals improve outcomes at the process, patient and population levels while also optimising resource utilisation. Here we present a brief history of the Quality and Evidence-based Healthcare model and then describe how value emerged as a predominant theme in England. We then highlight the four solutions that we, as part of the RightCare programme, designed and refined in the English NHS to turn theory into practice: We end with a description of how triple value is being introduced into Germany and steps that can be taken to facilitate its adoption. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Shifts in growth strategies reflect tradeoffs in cellular economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Douwe; van Berlo, Rogier; de Ridder, Dick; Teusink, Bas

    2009-01-01

    The growth rate-dependent regulation of cell size, ribosomal content, and metabolic efficiency follows a common pattern in unicellular organisms: with increasing growth rates, cell size and ribosomal content increase and a shift to energetically inefficient metabolism takes place. The latter two phenomena are also observed in fast growing tumour cells and cell lines. These patterns suggest a fundamental principle of design. In biology such designs can often be understood as the result of the optimization of fitness. Here we show that in basic models of self-replicating systems these patterns are the consequence of maximizing the growth rate. Whereas most models of cellular growth consider a part of physiology, for instance only metabolism, the approach presented here integrates several subsystems to a complete self-replicating system. Such models can yield fundamentally different optimal strategies. In particular, it is shown how the shift in metabolic efficiency originates from a tradeoff between investments in enzyme synthesis and metabolic yields for alternative catabolic pathways. The models elucidate how the optimization of growth by natural selection shapes growth strategies. PMID:19888218

  7. Attention shifts the language network reflecting paradigm presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eKollndorfer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a reliable and non-invasive method with which to localize language function in pre-surgical planning. In clinical practice, visual stimulus presentation is often difficult or impossible, due to the patient’s restricted language or attention abilities. Therefore, our aim was to investigate modality-specific differences in visual and auditory stimulus presentation.Methods: Ten healthy subjects participated in an fMRI study comprising two experiments with visual and auditory stimulus presentation. In both experiments, two language paradigms (one for language comprehension and one for language production used in clinical practice were investigated. In addition to standard data analysis by the means of the general linear model (GLM, independent component analysis (ICA was performed to achieve more detailed information on language processing networks.Results: GLM analysis revealed modality-specific brain activation for both language paradigms for the contrast visual > auditory in the area of the intraparietal sulcus and the hippocampus, two areas related to attention and working memory. Using group ICA, a language network was detected for both paradigms independent of stimulus presentation modality. The investigation of language lateralization revealed no significant variations. Visually presented stimuli further activated an attention-shift network, which could not be identified for the auditory presented language.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the visually presented language stimuli additionally activate an attention-shift network. These findings will provide important information for pre-surgical planning in order to preserve reading abilities after brain surgery, significantly improving surgical outcomes. Our findings suggest that the presentation modality for language paradigms should be adapted on behalf of individual indication.

  8. Blue Shifting Tuning of the Selective Reflection of Polymer Stabilized Cholesteric Liquid Crystals (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    crystal (MLC-2079, Merck). The polymer stabi- lizing network was formed within the samples by photoinitiated polymerization with 50–700 mW cm2 of 365...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0347 BLUE-SHIFTING TUNING OF THE SELECTIVE REFLECTION OF POLYMER STABILIZED CHOLESTERIC LIQUID CRYSTALS (POSTPRINT...BLUE-SHIFTING TUNING OF THE SELECTIVE REFLECTION OF POLYMER STABILIZED CHOLESTERIC LIQUID CRYSTALS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-F

  9. Characteristic losses of electrons energy under reflection from leadsilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusarov, A.I.; Mashkov, V.A.; Pronin, V.P.; Tyutikov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The spectra of characteristic losses of energy (CLE) for the case of electron reflection from the surface of leadsilicate glasses of the composition xPbOx(1-x)SiO 2 , depending on molar concentration of lead oxide x, has been calculated for the first time. It is shown that the given model of glass energy structure permits to describe correctly general behaviour of CLE spectrum. However, the energy of plasma maximum measured experimentally remains approximately constant. The behaviour can be conditioned by ω 0 dependence on x[4], which has not been taken into account, and (or) by a slower change in ΔE, than it has been assumed. Further refining of theory and experiment is required to solve the problem

  10. Effect of gear shift and engine start losses on control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, energetic loss models in the events of shifting gear and starting engine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle equipped with an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) will be introduced. The optimal control algorithm for the start-stop, power split and gear shift problem based on Dynamic

  11. Surface energy loss processes in XPS studied by absolute reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, T.; Goto, K.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the inelastic interaction of 300-3000 eV electrons with the Ni and Au surfaces by the analysis of absolute reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectra were described. The present analysis enables the inelastic mean free path (IMFP), surface excitation parameter (SEP) and differential SEP (DSEP) to be obtained simultaneously from an absolute REELS spectrum. The obtained IMFPs for Ni and Au showed a good agreement with those calculated using the TPP-2M predictive equation. The present SEPs determined for Ni and Au were fitted to the Chen's formula describing the dependence of the SEP on the electron energy, and material parameters for Ni and Au in Chen's formula were proposed. The present DESPs were compared with the theoretical results, and a reasonable agreement between the experimentally determined DSEPs and theoretical results was confirmed. The MC modeling of calculating the REELS spectrum, in which energy loss processes due to surface excitations are taken into account, was also described. The IMFP, SEP and DSEP determined by the present absolute REELS analysis were employed to describe energy loss processes by inelastic scattering in the proposed MC simulation. The simulated REELS spectra were found to be in a good agreement with the experimental spectra for both Ni and Au.

  12. Bayesian Estimation Of Shift Point In Poisson Model Under Asymmetric Loss Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    uma srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with estimating  shift point which occurs in any sequence of independent observations  of Poisson model in statistical process control. This shift point occurs in the sequence when  i.e. m  life data are observed. The Bayes estimator on shift point 'm' and before and after shift process means are derived for symmetric and asymmetric loss functions under informative and non informative priors. The sensitivity analysis of Bayes estimators are carried out by simulation and numerical comparisons with  R-programming. The results shows the effectiveness of shift in sequence of Poisson disribution .

  13. Energy loss from internal reflection off metal layers on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. W.; Bezuidenhout, D. F.; Klee, H. W.; Theron, E.

    1983-12-01

    The reflection characteristics of metal layers are considered for the situation where the electromagnetic radiation is incident from the glass side. Theoretical and measured reflectance values are presented which indicate that for some metals the reflection has a strong dependence on the refractive index of the incident medium. Some examples are given of recent cases where the above results were an important consideration in the choice of the metallic reflecting material. These results indicate that aluminium should not be automatically considered the best choice for the visible region nor gold for the infra-red.

  14. Self-reflection and set-shifting mediate awareness in cognitively preserved schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleen, James; David, Anthony; Greenwood, Kathryn

    2016-05-01

    Poor insight in schizophrenia has been linked to poor cognitive functioning, psychological processes such as denial, or more recently with impaired metacognitive capacity. Few studies, however, have investigated the potential co-dependency of multiple factors in determining level of insight, but such a model is necessary in order to account for patients with good cognitive functioning who have very poor awareness. As evidence suggests that set-shifting and cognitive insight (self-reflection (SR) and self-certainty) are strong predictors of awareness we proposed that these factors are key mediators in the relationship between cognition and awareness. We hypothesised that deficits specifically in SR and set-shifting determine level of awareness in the context of good cognition. Thirty schizophrenia patients were stratified by high and low awareness of illness and executive functioning scores. Cognitive insight, cognition, mood and symptom measures were compared between sub-groups. A low insight/high executive functioning (LI-HE) group, a high insight/high executive functioning (HI-HE) group and a low insight/low executive functioning (LI-LE) group were revealed. As anticipated, the LI-HE patients showed significantly lower capacity for SR and set-shifting than the HI-HE patients. This study indicates that good cognitive functioning is necessary but not sufficient for good awareness; good awareness specifically demands preserved capacity to self-reflect and shift-set. Results support Nelson and Narens' [1990. Metamemory: A theoretical framework and new findings. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 26, 125-173] model of metacognition by which awareness is founded on control (set-shifting) and monitoring (SR) processes. These specific factors could be targeted to improve insight in patients with otherwise unimpaired cognitive function.

  15. Culture and Loss: A Project of Self-Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marsha L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a learning activity that stimulates recollection of nursing students' experiences of loss and grief, helping them examine personal responses, recognize cultural differences in responses, and develop skills for caring for those who are grieving. (SK)

  16. REFLECTIONS ON THE NICE DECISION TO REJECT PATIENT PRODUCTION LOSSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, James; Byford, Sarah; Birch, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Patient production losses occur when individuals' capacities to work, whether paid or unpaid, are impaired by illness, treatment, disability, or death. There is controversy about whether and how to include patient production losses in economic evaluations in health care. Patient production losses have not previously been considered when evaluating medications for reimbursement under the U.K. National Health Service. Proposals for value-based assessment of health technologies in the United Kingdom created renewed interest in whether and how to include costs from a wider societal perspective, such as patient production losses, within economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. A narrative review was undertaken of theoretical, ethical, and policy issues that might inform decisions that involve the normative question of whether or not to include patient production losses in economic evaluation. It seems difficult to reconcile the implications of including patient production losses with the objectives of a healthcare system dedicated to providing universal healthcare coverage without regard to patients' ability to pay. Tax payer funded healthcare systems may legitimately adopt maximands other than health gain, but these will be at the opportunity cost of less than maximum health gains.

  17. Shift in power during an interview situation: methodological reflections inspired by Foucault and Bourdieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aléx, Lena; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents methodological reflections on power sharing and shifts of power in various interview situations. Narratives are said to be shaped by our attempts to position ourselves within social and cultural circumstances. In an interview situation, power can be seen as something that is created and that shifts between the interviewer and the interviewed. Reflexivity is involved when we as interviewers attempt to look at a situation or a concept from various perspectives. A modified form of discourse analysis inspired by subject positioning was used to reflect on power relations in four different interview situations. The analyses indicate that reflection on the power relations can lead to other forms of understanding of the interviewee. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that power relations are created within an interview situation and therefore it is important to be aware of dominant perspectives. Researchers and nurses face the challenge of constantly raising their level of consciousness about power relationships, and discursive reflexivity is one way of doing this. Thus, reflexivity is an important part of the qualitative research process.

  18. Quantum reflection times and space shifts for Casimir-van der Waals potential tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisch, Alexander; Friedrich, Harald

    2004-01-01

    When cold atoms approach a surface, they can be quantum reflected by quantal regions in the tail of the atom-surface potential. We study the phase of the reflection amplitude for Casimir-van der Waals potential tails, depending on the critical parameter ρ=ρ(C 3 ,C 4 ), which describes the relative importance of the -C 3 /r 3 and -C 4 /r 4 parts of the potential. The phase is related to observable kinematic quantities, the space and time shifts, the reflected atom experiences. We study three different models for the shape of the potential between the asymptotic limits and observe that the phases are more sensitive to the potential shape than the quantum reflection probabilities. At threshold, there are always time delays in comparison to the free movement. This is in contrast to the classical movement, which shows time gains. Further above threshold, the quantum reflected atom experiences a time gain relative to free motion, but this time gain is generally smaller than that of the classical particle

  19. An anterior-to-posterior shift in midline cortical activity in schizophrenia during self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Daphne J; Cassidy, Brittany S; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Lee, Su Mei; Coombs, Garth; Goff, Donald C; Gabrieli, John D; Moran, Joseph M

    2011-03-01

    Deficits in social cognition, including impairments in self-awareness, contribute to the overall functional disability associated with schizophrenia. Studies in healthy subjects have shown that social cognitive functions, including self-reflection, rely on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate gyrus, and these regions exhibit highly correlated activity during "resting" states. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia show dysfunction of this network during self-reflection and that this abnormal activity is associated with changes in the strength of resting-state correlations between these regions. Activation during self-reflection and control tasks was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 19 patients with schizophrenia and 20 demographically matched control subjects. In addition, the resting-state functional connectivity of midline cortical areas showing abnormal self-reflection-related activation in schizophrenia was measured. Compared with control subjects, the schizophrenia patients demonstrated lower activation of the right ventral mPFC and greater activation of the mid/posterior cingulate gyri bilaterally during self-reflection, relative to a control task. A similar pattern was seen during overall social reflection. In addition, functional connectivity between the portion of the left mid/posterior cingulate gyrus showing abnormally elevated activity during self-reflection in schizophrenia, and the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus was lower in the schizophrenia patients compared with control subjects. Schizophrenia is associated with an anterior-to-posterior shift in introspection-related activation, as well as changes in functional connectivity, of the midline cortex. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that aberrant midline cortical function contributes to social cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier

  20. Trait-based diversification shifts reflect differential extinction among fossil taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Peter J; Estabrook, George F

    2014-11-18

    Evolution provides many cases of apparent shifts in diversification associated with particular anatomical traits. Three general models connect these patterns to anatomical evolution: (i) elevated net extinction of taxa bearing particular traits, (ii) elevated net speciation of taxa bearing particular traits, and (iii) elevated evolvability expanding the range of anatomies available to some species. Trait-based diversification shifts predict elevated hierarchical stratigraphic compatibility (i.e., primitive→derived→highly derived sequences) among pairs of anatomical characters. The three specific models further predict (i) early loss of diversity for taxa retaining primitive conditions (elevated net extinction), (ii) increased diversification among later members of a clade (elevated net speciation), and (iii) increased disparity among later members in a clade (elevated evolvability). Analyses of 319 anatomical and stratigraphic datasets for fossil species and genera show that hierarchical stratigraphic compatibility exceeds the expectations of trait-independent diversification in the vast majority of cases, which was expected if trait-dependent diversification shifts are common. Excess hierarchical stratigraphic compatibility correlates with early loss of diversity for groups retaining primitive conditions rather than delayed bursts of diversity or disparity across entire clades. Cambrian clades (predominantly trilobites) alone fit null expectations well. However, it is not clear whether evolution was unusual among Cambrian taxa or only early trilobites. At least among post-Cambrian taxa, these results implicate models, such as competition and extinction selectivity/resistance, as major drivers of trait-based diversification shifts at the species and genus levels while contradicting the predictions of elevated net speciation and elevated evolvability models.

  1. Diagonalization of complex symmetric matrices: Generalized Householder reflections, iterative deflation and implicit shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, J. H.; Lubasch, M.; Stevens, J.; Jentschura, U. D.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a matrix diagonalization algorithm for complex symmetric (not Hermitian) matrices, A ̲ =A̲T, which is based on a two-step algorithm involving generalized Householder reflections based on the indefinite inner product 〈 u ̲ , v ̲ 〉 ∗ =∑iuivi. This inner product is linear in both arguments and avoids complex conjugation. The complex symmetric input matrix is transformed to tridiagonal form using generalized Householder transformations (first step). An iterative, generalized QL decomposition of the tridiagonal matrix employing an implicit shift converges toward diagonal form (second step). The QL algorithm employs iterative deflation techniques when a machine-precision zero is encountered "prematurely" on the super-/sub-diagonal. The algorithm allows for a reliable and computationally efficient computation of resonance and antiresonance energies which emerge from complex-scaled Hamiltonians, and for the numerical determination of the real energy eigenvalues of pseudo-Hermitian and PT-symmetric Hamilton matrices. Numerical reference values are provided.

  2. Transcriptomic alterations during ageing reflect the shift from cancer to degenerative diseases in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramillo Irizar, Peer; Schäuble, Sascha; Esser, Daniela; Groth, Marco; Frahm, Christiane; Priebe, Steffen; Baumgart, Mario; Hartmann, Nils; Marthandan, Shiva; Menzel, Uwe; Müller, Julia; Schmidt, Silvio; Ast, Volker; Caliebe, Amke; König, Rainer; Krawczak, Michael; Ristow, Michael; Schuster, Stefan; Cellerino, Alessandro; Diekmann, Stephan; Englert, Christoph; Hemmerich, Peter; Sühnel, Jürgen; Guthke, Reinhard; Witte, Otto W; Platzer, Matthias; Ruppin, Eytan; Kaleta, Christoph

    2018-01-30

    Disease epidemiology during ageing shows a transition from cancer to degenerative chronic disorders as dominant contributors to mortality in the old. Nevertheless, it has remained unclear to what extent molecular signatures of ageing reflect this phenomenon. Here we report on the identification of a conserved transcriptomic signature of ageing based on gene expression data from four vertebrate species across four tissues. We find that ageing-associated transcriptomic changes follow trajectories similar to the transcriptional alterations observed in degenerative ageing diseases but are in opposite direction to the transcriptomic alterations observed in cancer. We confirm the existence of a similar antagonism on the genomic level, where a majority of shared risk alleles which increase the risk of cancer decrease the risk of chronic degenerative disorders and vice versa. These results reveal a fundamental trade-off between cancer and degenerative ageing diseases that sheds light on the pronounced shift in their epidemiology during ageing.

  3. Loss Aversion Reflects Information Accumulation, Not Bias: A Drift-Diffusion Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Summer N; Clithero, John A; Harris, Alison M; Reed, Catherine L

    2017-01-01

    Defined as increased sensitivity to losses, loss aversion is often conceptualized as a cognitive bias. However, findings that loss aversion has an attentional or emotional regulation component suggest that it may instead reflect differences in information processing. To distinguish these alternatives, we applied the drift-diffusion model (DDM) to choice and response time (RT) data in a card gambling task with unknown risk distributions. Loss aversion was measured separately for each participant. Dividing the participants into terciles based on loss aversion estimates, we found that the most loss-averse group showed a significantly lower drift rate than the other two groups, indicating overall slower uptake of information. In contrast, neither the starting bias nor the threshold separation (barrier) varied by group, suggesting that decision thresholds are not affected by loss aversion. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying loss aversion, consistent with an account based on information accumulation.

  4. Loss Aversion Reflects Information Accumulation, Not Bias: A Drift-Diffusion Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer N. Clay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Defined as increased sensitivity to losses, loss aversion is often conceptualized as a cognitive bias. However, findings that loss aversion has an attentional or emotional regulation component suggest that it may instead reflect differences in information processing. To distinguish these alternatives, we applied the drift-diffusion model (DDM to choice and response time (RT data in a card gambling task with unknown risk distributions. Loss aversion was measured separately for each participant. Dividing the participants into terciles based on loss aversion estimates, we found that the most loss-averse group showed a significantly lower drift rate than the other two groups, indicating overall slower uptake of information. In contrast, neither the starting bias nor the threshold separation (barrier varied by group, suggesting that decision thresholds are not affected by loss aversion. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying loss aversion, consistent with an account based on information accumulation.

  5. Set-shifting abilities, mood and loss of control over eating in binge eating disorder: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Alexandra E; Visser, Hiske; Paul, Linda; van Furth, Eric F

    2015-12-15

    Executive functions play an important role in problem-solving and self-control. Set-shifting is an aspect of executive functioning and represents cognitive flexibility. The inability to control eating in Binge Eating Disorder (BED) may imply deficits in set-shifting which could be exacerbated by negative mood and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to test whether there is a causal relationship between set-shifting ability, changes in mood and loss of control over eating in BED. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to a negative or neutral mood induction. Set-shifting abilities, depressive symptoms, current mood and loss of control over eating were assessed. Having depressive symptoms and poorer set-shifting abilities resulted in a more negative mood after a negative mood induction, whereas this was not observed in the neutral mood induction. Post-hoc analyses revealed that individuals with poorer set-shifting abilities and more changes in negative mood, experienced more feelings of loss of control over eating than individuals whose set-shifting abilities were better and whose mood did not change. The results suggest that both depressive symptoms and deficits in set-shifting abilities may decrease an individual's ability to handle negative affect and increase loss of control over eating in individuals with BED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-stationarity and power spectral shifts in EMG activity reflect motor unit recruitment in rat diaphragm muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Yasin B; Mantilla, Carlos B; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C

    2013-01-15

    We hypothesized that a shift in diaphragm muscle (DIAm) EMG power spectral density (PSD) to higher frequencies reflects recruitment of more fatigable fast-twitch motor units and motor unit recruitment is reflected by EMG non-stationarity. DIAm EMG was recorded in anesthetized rats during eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10% O(2)-5% CO(2)), airway occlusion, and sneezing (maximal DIAm force). Although power in all frequency bands increased progressively across motor behaviors, PSD centroid frequency increased only during sneezing (pmotor units were recruited during different motor behaviors. Motor units augmented their discharge frequencies progressively beyond the non-stationary period; yet, EMG signal became stationary. In conclusion, non-stationarity of DIAm EMG reflects the period of motor unit recruitment, while a shift in the PSD towards higher frequencies reflects recruitment of more fatigable fast-twitch motor units. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, M. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia); Marmitt, G. G. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia); Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Finkelstein, Y. [Nuclear Research Center — Negev, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Moreh, R. [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  8. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, M.; Marmitt, G. G.; Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO 3 , Li 2 CO 3 , and SiO 2 ) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO 2 , good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E gap ) 1.5 . For CaCO 3 , the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li 2 CO 3 (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate

  9. Effect of reflection losses on stationary dielectric-filled nonimaging concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madala, Srikanth; Boehm, Robert F.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of Fresnel reflection and total internal reflection (TIR) losses on the performance parameters in refractive solar concentrators has often been downplayed because most refractive solar concentrators are traditionally the imaging type, yielding a line or point image on the absorber surface when solely interacted with paraxial etendue ensured by solar tracking. Whereas, with refractive-type nonimaging solar concentrators that achieve two-dimensional (rectangular strip) focus or three-dimensional (circular or elliptical) focus through interaction with both paraxial and nonparaxial etendue within the acceptance angle, the Fresnel reflection and TIR losses are significant as they will affect the performance parameters and, thereby, energy collection. A raytracing analysis has been carried out to illustrate the effects of Fresnel reflection and TIR losses on four different types of stationary dielectric-filled nonimaging concentrators, namely V-trough, compound parabolic concentrator, compound elliptical concentrator, and compound hyperbolic concentrator. The refractive index (RI) of a dielectric fill material determines the acceptance angle of a solid nonimaging collector. Larger refractive indices yield larger acceptance angles and, thereby, larger energy collection. However, they also increase the Fresnel reflection losses. This paper also assesses the relative benefit of increasing RI from an energy collection standpoint.

  10. Observations of discrete energy loss effects in spectra of positrons reflected from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, J.M.; Hulett, L.D.; Pendyala, S.

    1980-01-01

    Surfaces of tungsten and silicon have been bombarded with monoenergetic beams of positrons and electrons. Spectra of reflected particles show energy loss tails with discrete peaks at kinetic energies about 15 eV lower than that of the elastic peaks. In the higher energy loss range for tungsten, positron spectra show fine structure that is not apparent in the electron spectra. This suggests that the positrons are losing energy through mechanisms different from that of the electrons

  11. 'The Loss of My Elderly Patient:' Interactive reflective writing to support medical students' rites of passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hedy S; Reis, Shmuel P; Monroe, Alicia D; Borkan, Jeffrey M

    2010-01-01

    The fostering of reflective capacity within medical education helps develop critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills and enhances professionalism. Use of reflective narratives to augment reflective practice instruction is well documented. At Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (Alpert Med), a narrative medicine curriculum innovation of students' reflective writing (field notes) with individualized feedback from an interdisciplinary faculty team (in pre-clinical years) has been implemented in a Doctoring course to cultivate reflective capacity, empathy, and humanism. Interactive reflective writing (student writer/faculty feedback provider dyad), we propose, can additionally support students with rites of passage at critical educational junctures. At Alpert Med, we have devised a tool to guide faculty in crafting quality feedback, i.e. the Brown Educational Guide to Analysis of Narrative (BEGAN) which includes identifying students' salient quotes, utilizing reflection-inviting questions and close reading, highlighting derived lessons/key concepts, extracting clinical patterns, and providing concrete recommendations as relevant. We provide an example of a student's narrative describing an emotionally powerful and meaningful event - the loss of his first patient - and faculty responses using BEGAN. The provision of quality feedback to students' reflective writing - supported by BEGAN - can facilitate the transformation of student to professional through reflection within medical education.

  12. A theoretical and practical clarification on the calculation of reflection loss for microwave absorbing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Kun; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Yue

    2018-01-01

    Reflection loss is usually calculated and reported as a function of the thickness of microwave absorption material. However, misleading results are often obtained since the principles imbedded in the popular methods contradict the fundamental facts that electromagnetic waves cannot be reflected in a uniform material except when there is an interface and that there are important differences between the concepts of characteristic impedance and input impedance. In this paper, these inconsistencies have been analyzed theoretically and corrections provided. The problems with the calculations indicate a gap between the background knowledge of material scientists and microwave engineers and for that reason a concise review of transmission line theory is provided along with the mathematical background needed for a deeper understanding of the theory of reflection loss. The expressions of gradient, divergence, Laplacian, and curl operators in a general orthogonal coordinate system have been presented including the concept of reciprocal vectors. Gauss's and Stokes's theorems have been related to Green's theorem in a novel way.

  13. Energy loss of MeV protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaristi, J.I.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Echenique, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A parameter-free model is presented to study the energy loss of fast protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces. The contributions to the energy loss from excitation of valence-band electrons and ionization of localized target-atom electronic states are calculated separately. The former is calculated from the induced surface wake potential using linear response theory and the specular-reflection model, while the latter is calculated in the first Born approximation. The results obtained are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, the experimental qualitative trend of the energy loss as a function of the angle of incidence is obtained when the valence-band electron model is replaced by localized target atom electron states, though with a worse quantitative agreement. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Dielectric multilayer beam splitter with differential phase shift on transmission and reflection for division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenjia; Shen, Weidong; Zhang, Yueguang; Liu, Xu

    2014-05-05

    Dielectric multilayer beam splitter with differential phase shift on transmission and reflection for division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) was presented for the first time to our knowledge. The optimal parameters for the beam splitter are Tp = 78.9%, Ts = 21.1% and Δr - Δt = π/2 at 532nm at an angle of incidence of 45°. Multilayer anti-reflection coating with low phase shift was applied to reduce the backside reflection. Different design strategies that can achieve all optimal targets at the wavelength were tested. Two design methods were presented to optimize the differential phase shift. The samples were prepared by ion beam sputtering (IBS). The experimental results show good agreement with those of the design. The ellipsometric parameters of samples were measured in reflection (ψr, Δr) = (26.5°, 135.1°) and (28.2°, 133.5°), as well as in transmission (ψt, Δt) = (62.5°, 46.1°) and (63.5°, 46°) at 532.6nm. The normalized determinant of instrument matrix to evaluate the performance of samples is respectively 0.998 and 0.991 at 532.6nm.

  15. Character Education in Taiwan: A Reflection of Historical Shifts in Sociocultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsiu-Zu; Lam, Yeana W.; Yeh, Kuang-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Education systems across the world reflect the values of the cultures and societies they represent. Character education is often framed as a response to certain values emphasized in a given context, reflecting the commonly accepted traits of good character and responsible citizenship in which learners are engaged. This article describes the nature…

  16. Thermotolerance of apple tree leaves probed by chlorophyll a fluorescence and modulated 820 nm reflection during seasonal shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ying; Zhang, Mengxia; Gao, Jin; Li, Pengmin; Goltsev, Vasilij; Ma, Fengwang

    2015-11-01

    During the seasonal shift from June to August, air temperatures increase. To explore how apple trees improve their thermotolerance during this shift, we examined the photochemical reaction capacity of apple tree leaves by simultaneous measurement of prompt chlorophyll fluorescence, delayed chlorophyll fluorescence, and modulated 820 nm reflection at varying temperatures. It was found that the reaction centers and antennae of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI), the donor side of PSII, the electron transfer capacity from QA to QB, and the reoxidation capacity of plastoquinol were all sensitive to heat stress, particularly in June. As the season shifted, apple tree leaves improved in thermotolerance. Interestingly, the acclimation to seasonal shift enhanced the thermotolerance of PSII and PSI reaction centers more than that of their antennae, and the activity of PSII more than that of PSI. This may be a strategy for plant adaptation to changes in environmental temperatures. In addition, results from prompt and delayed fluorescence, as well as modulated 820 nm reflection corroborate each other. We suggest that the simultaneous measurement of the three independent signals may provide more information on thermal acclimation mechanisms of photochemical reactions in plant leaves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep loss and circadian disruption in shift work: health burden and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Howard, Mark E; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2013-10-21

    About 1.5 million Australians are shift workers. Shift work is associated with adverse health, safety and performance outcomes. Circadian rhythm misalignment, inadequate and poor-quality sleep, and sleep disorders such as sleep apnoea, insomnia and shift work disorder (excessive sleepiness and/or insomnia temporally associated with the work schedule) contribute to these associations. Falling asleep at work at least once a week occurs in 32%-36% of shift workers. Risk of occupational accidents is at least 60% higher for non-day shift workers. Shift workers also have higher rates of cardiometabolic diseases and mood disturbances. Road and workplace accidents related to excessive sleepiness, to which shift work is a significant contributor, are estimated to cost $71-$93 billion per annum in the United States. There is growing evidence that understanding the interindividual variability in sleep-wake responses to shift work will help detect and manage workers vulnerable to the health consequences of shift work. A range of approaches can be used to enhance alertness in shift workers, including screening and treating sleep disorders, melatonin treatment to promote sleep during the daytime, and avoidance of inappropriate use of sedatives and wakefulness-promoters such as modafinil and caffeine. Short naps, which minimise sleep inertia, are generally effective. Shifting the circadian pacemaker with appropriately timed melatonin and/or bright light may be used to facilitate adjustment to a shift work schedule in some situations, such as a long sequence of night work. It is important to manage the health risk of shift workers by minimising vascular risk factors through dietary and other lifestyle approaches.

  18. Shifting Positionalities: Empirical Reflections on a Queer/Trans of Colour Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Haritaworn

    2008-01-01

    How can we study 'Queer', or indeed, should we? Drawing on fieldwork with people raised in interracial families in Britain and Germany, and reflecting on my own coming out as transgendered/genderqueer during the research, I reflect on the role of difference, similarity, and change in the production of queer knowledges. My entry point is a queer diasporic one. Queers of colour, I argue, have a particular stake in queering racialised heterosexualities; yet differences within diasporic spaces cl...

  19. Ecological shifts in Mediterranean coralligenous assemblages related to gorgonian forest loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ponti

    Full Text Available Mediterranean gorgonian forests are threatened by several human activities and are affected by climatic anomalies that have led to mass mortality events in recent decades. The ecological role of these habitats and the possible consequence of their loss are poorly understood. Effects of gorgonians on the recruitment of epibenthic organisms were investigated by manipulating presence of gorgonians on experimental panels at 24 m depth, for Eunicella cavolinii, and at 40 m depth, for Paramuricea clavata, at two sites: Tavolara Island (Tyrrhenian Sea and Portofino Promontory (Ligurian Sea. After 4 months, the most abundant taxa on the panels were encrusting green algae, erect red algae and crustose coralline algae at 24 m depth and encrusting brown algae and erect red algae at 40 m depth. Assemblages on the panels were significantly affected by the presence of the gorgonians, although effects varied across sites and between gorgonian species. Species diversity and evenness were lower on panels with gorgonian branches. Growth of erect algae and recruitment of serpulid polychaetes were also affected by the presence of the gorgonians, primarily at Tavolara. Crustose coralline algae and erect sponges were more abundant on E. cavolinii panels at 24 m depth, while encrusting bryozoans were more abundant on P. clavata panels at 40 m depth. Effects of gorgonians on recruited assemblages could be due to microscale modification of hydrodynamics and sediment deposition rate, or by a shading effect reducing light intensity. Gorgonians may also intercept settling propagules, compete for food with the filter-feeders and/or for space by producing allelochemicals. Presence of gorgonians mainly limits the growth of erect algae and enhances the abundance of encrusting algae and sessile invertebrates. Therefore, the gorgonian disappearances may cause a shift from assemblages characterised by crustose coralline algae to filamentous algae assemblages, decreasing

  20. Reflections on shifts in the work identity of research team members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina A. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study explores shifts in the work identity of individual members of a research team. Research purpose: The aim of the study is to explore shifts in work identity experienced by individual research team members during a project wherein they were studying work identity themselves. Motivation for the study: This study seized the opportunity to do research on the shifts in work identify experienced by researchers whilst they were studying work identify as part of the South African–Netherlands Project for Alternatives in Development. This allowed the researcher the rather novel opportunity of conducting research on researchers and resulted in the project as a whole occurring at a dual level of analysis. Research approach, design and method: Using thematic analysis methodology in the context of qualitative field research, 10 semi-structured interviews were conducted with five participants, all of them part of the research team who were themselves involved in conducting research on work identity. The sixth member of the research team, who is also one of the authors of this article, presented data related to shifts in her own work identity in her dissertation as an autoethnographic account. For purposes of this article, she is referred to as Participant 6. Given the multiple research team members, each one of whom constituted an individual case, the researcher made use of a multiple case study approach whilst focusing on the intrinsic case. The holistic nature of description found in the case study involved every aspect of the lives of the research team members. Analysis was done by means of content analysis. Main findings: In exploring the shifts in work identity experienced by individual research team members, it was discovered that finding meaning and purpose in the professional activities participants engaged in was of critical importance. Contextual realities and the way in which individuals approached the possibility of shifts

  1. A theoretical and practical clarification on the calculation of reflection loss for microwave absorbing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflection loss is usually calculated and reported as a function of the thickness of microwave absorption material. However, misleading results are often obtained since the principles imbedded in the popular methods contradict the fundamental facts that electromagnetic waves cannot be reflected in a uniform material except when there is an interface and that there are important differences between the concepts of characteristic impedance and input impedance. In this paper, these inconsistencies have been analyzed theoretically and corrections provided. The problems with the calculations indicate a gap between the background knowledge of material scientists and microwave engineers and for that reason a concise review of transmission line theory is provided along with the mathematical background needed for a deeper understanding of the theory of reflection loss. The expressions of gradient, divergence, Laplacian, and curl operators in a general orthogonal coordinate system have been presented including the concept of reciprocal vectors. Gauss’s and Stokes’s theorems have been related to Green’s theorem in a novel way.

  2. Solid Ground: Comment on "Shifting Sands: Reflections from the Field of Higher Education."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Karen Gayton

    2001-01-01

    Critiques an article on using reflection to examine discrimination in higher education and the academe, presenting one American Indian woman administrator's experience with higher education and beyond. Emphasizes the benefits of: having a mentor, defining an agenda to guide one's research, clearly defining one's expectations for tenure, and…

  3. Study of optical and electronic properties of nickel from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Yang, L. H.; Da, B.; Tóth, J.; Tőkési, K.; Ding, Z. J.

    2017-09-01

    We use the classical Monte Carlo transport model of electrons moving near the surface and inside solids to reproduce the measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectra. With the combination of the classical transport model and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters the so-called reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method was developed, and used to obtain optical constants of Ni in this work. A systematic study of the electronic and optical properties of Ni has been performed in an energy loss range of 0-200 eV from the measured REELS spectra at primary energies of 1000 eV, 2000 eV and 3000 eV. The reliability of our method was tested by comparing our results with the previous data. Moreover, the accuracy of our optical data has been confirmed by applying oscillator strength-sum rule and perfect-screening-sum rule.

  4. Comparison of Ear-Canal Reflectance and Umbo Velocity in Patients with Conductive Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Pisano, Dominic V.; Röösli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2011-11-01

    Patients who present at hearing clinics with a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane create a unique challenge for otologists. While patient counseling, treatment options, and outcome vary with differing middle-ear pathologies, a non-invasive diagnostic that can differentiate between these pathologies does not currently exist. We evaluated the clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of two non-invasive measures of middle-ear mechanics: ear-canal reflectance (ECR) and umbo velocity (VU).

  5. Influence of the linear magneto-electric effect on the lateral shift of light reflected from a magneto-electric film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadoenkova, Yu S; Petrov, R V; Bichurin, M I; Bentivegna, F F L; Dadoenkova, N N; Lyubchanskii, I L

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the lateral shift of an infrared light beam reflected from a magnetic film deposited on a non-magnetic dielectric substrate, taking into account the linear magneto-electric interaction in the magnetic film. We use the stationary phase method to evaluate the lateral shift. It is shown that the magneto-electric coupling leads to a six-fold enhancement of the lateral shift amplitude of a p-(s-) polarized incident beam reflected into a s-(p-) polarized beam. A reversal of the magnetization in the film leads to a nonreciprocal sign change of the lateral shift. (paper)

  6. Peak season plant activity shift towards spring is reflected by increasing carbon uptake by extratropical ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M; Ooi, Ying W

    2018-05-01

    Climate change is lengthening the growing season of the Northern Hemisphere extratropical terrestrial ecosystems, but little is known regarding the timing and dynamics of the peak season of plant activity. Here, we use 34-year satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) observations and atmospheric CO 2 concentration and δ 13 C isotope measurements at Point Barrow (Alaska, USA, 71°N) to study the dynamics of the peak of season (POS) of plant activity. Averaged across extratropical (>23°N) non-evergreen-dominated pixels, NDVI data show that the POS has advanced by 1.2 ± 0.6 days per decade in response to the spring-ward shifts of the start (1.0 ± 0.8 days per decade) and end (1.5 ± 1.0 days per decade) of peak activity, and the earlier onset of the start of growing season (1.4 ± 0.8 days per decade), while POS maximum NDVI value increased by 7.8 ± 1.8% for 1982-2015. Similarly, the peak day of carbon uptake, based on calculations from atmospheric CO 2 concentration and δ 13 C data, is advancing by 2.5 ± 2.6 and 4.3 ± 2.9 days per decade, respectively. POS maximum NDVI value shows strong negative relationships (p POS days. Given that the maximum solar irradiance and day length occur before the average POS day, the earlier occurrence of peak plant activity results in increased plant productivity. Both the advancing POS day and increasing POS vegetation greenness are consistent with the shifting peak productivity towards spring and the increasing annual maximum values of gross and net ecosystem productivity simulated by coupled Earth system models. Our results further indicate that the decline in autumn NDVI is contributing the most to the overall browning of the northern high latitudes (>50°N) since 2011. The spring-ward shift of peak season plant activity is expected to disrupt the synchrony of biotic interaction and exert strong biophysical feedbacks on climate by modifying the surface albedo and energy budget. © 2017

  7. Reflectance Measures from Infant Ears With Normal Hearing and Transient Conductive Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Susan E; Herrmann, Barbara S; Horton, Nicholas J; Amadei, Elizabeth A; Kujawa, Sharon G

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to utilize newborn reflectance measures for the identification of middle-ear transient conditions (e.g., middle-ear fluid) during the newborn period and ultimately during the first few months of life. Transient middle-ear conditions are a suspected source of failure to pass a newborn hearing screening. The ability to identify a conductive loss during the screening procedure could enable the referred ear to be either (1) cleared of a middle-ear condition and recommended for more extensive hearing assessment as soon as possible, or (2) suspected of a transient middle-ear condition, and if desired, be rescreened before more extensive hearing assessment. Reflectance measurements are reported from full-term, healthy, newborn babies in which one ear referred and one ear passed an initial auditory brainstem response newborn hearing screening and a subsequent distortion product otoacoustic emission screening on the same day. These same subjects returned for a detailed follow-up evaluation at age 1 month (range 14 to 35 days). In total, measurements were made on 30 subjects who had a unilateral refer near birth (during their first 2 days of life) and bilateral normal hearing at follow-up (about 1 month old). Three specific comparisons were made: (1) Association of ear's state with power reflectance near birth (referred versus passed ear), (2) Changes in power reflectance of normal ears between newborn and 1 month old (maturation effects), and (3) Association of ear's newborn state (referred versus passed) with ear's power reflectance at 1 month. In addition to these measurements, a set of preliminary data selection criteria were developed to ensure that analyzed data were not corrupted by acoustic leaks and other measurement problems. Within 2 days of birth, the power reflectance measured in newborn ears with transient middle-ear conditions (referred newborn hearing screening and passed hearing assessment at age 1 month) was significantly

  8. Measurement of the band gap by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, Maarten, E-mail: maarten.vos@anu.edu.au [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); King, Sean W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); French, Benjamin L. [Ocotillo Materials Laboratory, Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ 85248 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Semiconductors are measured (without surface preparation) using REELS. • At low beam energies it is difficult to measure band gap due to surface impurities. • At very high energies it is difficult to measure band gap due to recoil effect. • At intermediate energies (around 5 keV) one obtains a good estimate of the band gap. - Abstract: We investigate the possibilities of measuring the band gap of a variety of semiconductors and insulators by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy without additional surface preparation. The band gap is a bulk property, whereas reflection energy loss spectroscopy is generally considered a surface sensitive technique. By changing the energy of the incoming electrons, the degree of surface sensitivity can be varied. Here, we present case studies to determine the optimum condition for the determination of the band gap. At very large incoming electron energies recoil effects interfere with the band gap determination, whereas at very low energies surface effects are obscuring the band gap without surface preparation. Using an incoming energy of 5 keV a reasonable estimate of the band gap is obtained in most cases.

  9. Measurement of the band gap by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, Maarten; King, Sean W.; French, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Semiconductors are measured (without surface preparation) using REELS. • At low beam energies it is difficult to measure band gap due to surface impurities. • At very high energies it is difficult to measure band gap due to recoil effect. • At intermediate energies (around 5 keV) one obtains a good estimate of the band gap. - Abstract: We investigate the possibilities of measuring the band gap of a variety of semiconductors and insulators by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy without additional surface preparation. The band gap is a bulk property, whereas reflection energy loss spectroscopy is generally considered a surface sensitive technique. By changing the energy of the incoming electrons, the degree of surface sensitivity can be varied. Here, we present case studies to determine the optimum condition for the determination of the band gap. At very large incoming electron energies recoil effects interfere with the band gap determination, whereas at very low energies surface effects are obscuring the band gap without surface preparation. Using an incoming energy of 5 keV a reasonable estimate of the band gap is obtained in most cases.

  10. Wave Reflection and Loss Characteristics of an Emerged Quarter Circle Breakwater with Varying Seaside Perforations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binumol, S.; Rao, Subba; Hegde, Arkal Vittal

    2017-09-01

    Breakwaters are one of the most important harbour structures constructed to withstand and dissipate the dynamic energy due to the action of the waves. Due to fast growing need of the universe and advances in technology different types of breakwaters are being developed. Quarter circle breakwater is a new type of breakwater emerged from semi circular breakwater and the first model was developed in Peoples Republic of China (2006). Quarter circle breakwater with perforations posses merits of caisson as well as perforated breakwaters such as low weight, requires less materials, suited for poor soil conditions, easily transported, handled and placed at the site, aesthetically pleasing, cost effective, eco-friendly and stable. Therefore it is necessary to carry out detailed studies on hydrodynamic characteristics to investigate the suitability and applicability of various types of quarter circle breakwaters. The present study investigates the wave reflection and loss characteristics of an emerged seaside perforated quarter circle breakwater of radius 55 cm and with varying ratios of spacing to diameter of perforations, for different water depths and wave conditions. The tests were conducted in the two-dimensional monochromatic wave flume available in Marine Structures laboratory of Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics of National Institute of Technology, Surathkal, Karnataka, India. The results were plotted as non-dimensional graphs and it was observed that the reflection coefficient increases with increase in wave steepness for all values of ratio of height of breakwater structure to water depth. For a constant water depth, wave reflection increases with increase in ratio of spacing to diameter of perforations. It was also found that the loss coefficient decreases with increase in wave steepness for all values of ratio of height of breakwater structure to water depth, and ratio of spacing to diameter of perforations.

  11. High frequency electromagnetic reflection loss performance of substituted Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles/SWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordani, Gholam Reza, E-mail: gordani@gmail.com [Materials Engineering Department, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, Ali [Materials Engineering Department, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saidi, Ali [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the electromagnetic properties of a novel nanocomposite material made of substituted Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles and different percentage of single walled carbon nanotube have been studied. The structural, magnetic and electromagnetic properties of samples were studied as a function of volume percentage of SWCNTs by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analysis. Well suitable crystallinity of hexaferrite nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD patterns. TEM and FESEM micrographs were shown the good homogenity and high level of dispersivity of SWCNTs and Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles in nanocomposite samples. The VSM results shown that with increasing in amount of CNTs (0–6 vol%), the saturation of magnetization decreased up to 11 emu/g for nanocomposite sample contains of 6 vol% of SWCNTs. The vector network analysis results show that the maximum value of reflection loss was −36.4 dB at the frequency of 11 GHz with an absorption bandwidth of more than 4 GHz (<−20 dB). The results indicate that, this nanocomposite material with appropriate amount of SWCNTs hold great promise for microwave device applications. - Highlights: • We investigate the high frequency properties of Sr-hexaferrite/SWCNTs composite. • Saturation magnetization of nanocomposites is decreased with presence of SWCNTs. • The ferrite/CNTs nanocomposite sample covers whole X-band frequencies (8–12 GHz). • The ferrite/CNTs nanocomposite can be used as a potential magnetic loss material. • Nanocomposite contain 4 vol% of CNTs have shown greater than 99% of reflection loss.

  12. Narrative reflective practice in medical education for residents: composing shifting identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandinin, Jean; Cave, Marie Thérèse; Cave, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    As researchers note, medical educators need to create situations to work with physicians in training to help them attend to the development of their professional identities. While there is a call for such changes to be included in medical education, educational approaches that facilitate attention to the development of medical students' professional identities, that is, who they are and who they are becoming as physicians, are still under development. One pedagogical strategy involves narrative reflective practice as a way to develop physician identity. Using this approach, medical residents first write narrative accounts of their experiences with patients in what are called "parallel charts". They then engage in a collaborative narrative inquiry within a sustained inquiry group of other residents and two researcher/facilitators (one physician, one narrative researcher). Preliminary studies of this approach are underway. Drawing on the experiences of one medical resident in one such inquiry group, we show how this pedagogical strategy enables attending to physician identity making.

  13. Shifts of Gamma Phase across Primary Visual Cortical Sites Reflect Dynamic Stimulus-Modulated Information Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserve, Michel; Lowe, Scott C; Logothetis, Nikos K; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Panzeri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Distributed neural processing likely entails the capability of networks to reconfigure dynamically the directionality and strength of their functional connections. Yet, the neural mechanisms that may allow such dynamic routing of the information flow are not yet fully understood. We investigated the role of gamma band (50-80 Hz) oscillations in transient modulations of communication among neural populations by using measures of direction-specific causal information transfer. We found that the local phase of gamma-band rhythmic activity exerted a stimulus-modulated and spatially-asymmetric directed effect on the firing rate of spatially separated populations within the primary visual cortex. The relationships between gamma phases at different sites (phase shifts) could be described as a stimulus-modulated gamma-band wave propagating along the spatial directions with the largest information transfer. We observed transient stimulus-related changes in the spatial configuration of phases (compatible with changes in direction of gamma wave propagation) accompanied by a relative increase of the amount of information flowing along the instantaneous direction of the gamma wave. These effects were specific to the gamma-band and suggest that the time-varying relationships between gamma phases at different locations mark, and possibly causally mediate, the dynamic reconfiguration of functional connections.

  14. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Joshua; Philipp, Christopher; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific), like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah) and the Dusky (C. obscurus), were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th) century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  15. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Drew

    Full Text Available The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific, like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah and the Dusky (C. obscurus, were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  16. Low complexity joint estimation of reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift for MIMO-radar by exploiting 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, to estimate the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation yields the best performance. For this problem, the ML estimation requires

  17. Narrative reflective practice in medical education for residents: composing shifting identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Clandinin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jean Clandinin1, Marie Thérèse Cave2, Andrew Cave21Center for Research for Teacher Education and Development, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: As researchers note, medical educators need to create situations to work with physicians in training to help them attend to the development of their professional identities. While there is a call for such changes to be included in medical education, educational approaches that facilitate attention to the development of medical students' professional identities, that is, who they are and who they are becoming as physicians, are still under development. One pedagogical strategy involves narrative reflective practice as a way to develop physician identity. Using this approach, medical residents first write narrative accounts of their experiences with patients in what are called "parallel charts". They then engage in a collaborative narrative inquiry within a sustained inquiry group of other residents and two researcher/facilitators (one physician, one narrative researcher. Preliminary studies of this approach are underway. Drawing on the experiences of one medical resident in one such inquiry group, we show how this pedagogical strategy enables attending to physician identity making.Keywords: physician identity formation, residency

  18. Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chloe V; Flint, James A; Lepper, Paul A

    2010-10-01

    Bat mortality resulting from actual or near-collision with operational wind turbine rotors is a phenomenon that is widespread but not well understood. Because bats rely on information contained in high-frequency echoes to determine the nature and movement of a target, it is important to consider how ultrasonic pulses similar to those used by bats for echolocation may be interacting with operational turbine rotor blades. By assessing the characteristics of reflected ultrasonic echoes, moving turbine blades operating under low wind speed conditions (<6 m s(-1)) were found to produce distinct Doppler shift profiles at different angles to the rotor. Frequency shifts of up to ±700-800 Hz were produced, which may not be perceptible by some bat species. Monte Carlo simulation of bat-like sampling by echolocation revealed that over 50 rotor echoes could be required by species such as Pipistrellus pipistrellus for accurate interpretation of blade movement, which may not be achieved in the bat's approach time-window. In summary, it was found that echoes returned from moving blades had features which could render them attractive to bats or which might make it difficult for the bat to accurately detect and locate blades in sufficient time to avoid a collision.

  19. A New High Frequency Injection Method Based on Duty Cycle Shifting without Maximum Voltage Magnitude Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    The conventional high frequency signal injection method is to superimpose a high frequency voltage signal to the commanded stator voltage before space vector modulation. Therefore, the magnitude of the voltage used for machine torque production is limited. In this paper, a new high frequency...... amplitude. This may be utilized to develop new position estimation algorithm without involving the inductance in the medium to high speed range. As an application example, a developed inductance independent position estimation algorithm using the proposed high frequency injection method is applied to drive...... injection method, in which high frequency signal is generated by shifting the duty cycle between two neighboring switching periods, is proposed. This method allows injecting a high frequency signal at half of the switching frequency without the necessity to sacrifice the machine fundamental voltage...

  20. The impact of a workplace-based weight loss program on work-related outcomes in overweight male shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Cook, Alyce T; Berthon, Bronwyn; Mitchell, Simon; Callister, Robin

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a workplace-based weight loss program (Workplace POWER [Preventing Obesity Without Eating like a Rabbit]) for male shift workers on a number of work-related outcomes. A total of 110 overweight/obese (body mass index = 25-40) (mean [SD] age = 44.3 [8.6] years; body mass index = 30.5 [3.6]) male employees at Tomago Aluminium (New South Wales, Australia) were randomized to either (i) Workplace POWER program (n = 65) or (ii) a 14-week wait-list control group (n = 45). Men were assessed at baseline and 14-week follow-up for weight, quality of life, sleepiness, productivity at work (presenteeism), absenteeism, and workplace injuries. Retention was 81%. Intention-to-treat analysis using linear mixed models revealed a significant intervention effect for weight, quality of life (mental), presenteeism, absenteeism, and injuries. The Workplace POWER weight loss program improved a number of important work-related outcomes in male shift workers.

  1. Shifts in pore connectivity from precipitation versus groundwater rewetting increases soil carbon loss after drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ashly P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Benscoter, Brian W.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Hinkle, Ross; Liu, Chongxuan; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2017-11-06

    Droughts and other extreme precipitation events are predicted to increase in intensity, duration and extent, with uncertain implications for terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration. Soil wetting from above (precipitation) results in a characteristically different pattern of pore-filling than wetting from below (groundwater), with larger, well-connected pores filling before finer pore spaces, unlike groundwater rise in which capillary forces saturate the finest pores first. Here we demonstrate that pore-scale wetting patterns interact with antecedent soil moisture conditions to alter pore-, core- and field-scale C dynamics. Drought legacy and wetting direction are perhaps more important determinants of short-term C mineralization than current soil moisture content in these soils. Our results highlight that microbial access to C is not solely limited by physical protection, but also by drought or wetting-induced shifts in hydrologic connectivity. We argue that models should treat soil moisture within a three-dimensional framework emphasizing hydrologic conduits for C and resource diffusion.

  2. Climate warming: a loss of variation in populations can accompany reproductive shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, Manuel; Legendre, Stéphane; Fédérici, Pierre; Clobert, Jean

    2017-09-01

    The most documented response of organisms to climate warming is a change in the average timing of seasonal activities (phenology). Although we know that these average changes can differ among species and populations, we do not know whether climate warming impacts within-population variation in phenology. Using data from five study sites collected during a 13-year survey, we found that the increase in spring temperatures is associated with a reproductive advance of 10 days in natural populations of common lizards (Zootoca vivipara). Interestingly, we show a correlated loss of variation in reproductive dates within populations. As illustrated by a model, this shortening of the reproductive period can have significant negative effects on population dynamics. Consequently, we encourage tests in other species to assess the generality of decreased variation in phenological responses to climate change. © 2017 The Authors Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Coastal urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and community shifts along the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Oliveira, Eurico Cabral; Simonassi, José Carlos; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chow, Fungyi; Nunes, José Marcos C; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2013-11-15

    Coastal urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed communities remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of urbanization along an extensive latitudinal gradient encompassing three phycogeographical regions in the SW Atlantic. Human population density, number of dwellings, and terrestrial vegetation cover were determined for each survey area and correlated with diversity indices calculated from seaweed percent cover data. Urban areas had significantly lower calcareous algal cover (-38%), and there was significantly less carbonate in the sediment off urban areas than off reference areas. Seaweed richness averaged 26% less in urban areas than in areas with higher vegetation cover. We observed a remarkable decline in Phaeophyceae and a substantial increase of Chlorophyta in urban areas across a wide latitudinal gradient. Our data show that coastal urbanization is causing substantial loss of seaweed biodiversity in the SW Atlantic, and is considerably changing seaweed assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reducing the porosity and reflection loss of silicon nanowires by a sticky tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junjun; Huang, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Engineering the porosity of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is of fundamental importance, and this work introduces a new method for doing so. Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of heavily doped Si(100) creates mesoporous silicon nanowires (mp-SiNWs). mp-SiNWs are transferred from the MACE-treated wafer to a sticky tape, leaving residues composed of broken mp-SiNWs and a mesoporous Si layer on the wafer. Then the taped wafer is re-treated by MACE, without changing the etching conditions. The second MACE treatment generates mp-SiNWs that are less porous and longer than those generated by the first MACE treatment, which can be attributed to the difference in the surface topography at the beginning of the etching process. Less porous mp-SiNWs reduce optical scattering from the porous Si skeletons, and vertically protrude on the wafer without aggregation to facilitate optical trapping. Consequently, less porous mp-SiNWs effectively reduce ultraviolet-visible reflection loss. (paper)

  5. High frequency electromagnetic reflection loss performance of substituted Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles/SWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordani, Gholam Reza; Ghasemi, Ali; saidi, Ali

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the electromagnetic properties of a novel nanocomposite material made of substituted Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles and different percentage of single walled carbon nanotube have been studied. The structural, magnetic and electromagnetic properties of samples were studied as a function of volume percentage of SWCNTs by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analysis. Well suitable crystallinity of hexaferrite nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD patterns. TEM and FESEM micrographs were shown the good homogenity and high level of dispersivity of SWCNTs and Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles in nanocomposite samples. The VSM results shown that with increasing in amount of CNTs (0-6 vol%), the saturation of magnetization decreased up to 11 emu/g for nanocomposite sample contains of 6 vol% of SWCNTs. The vector network analysis results show that the maximum value of reflection loss was -36.4 dB at the frequency of 11 GHz with an absorption bandwidth of more than 4 GHz (nanocomposite material with appropriate amount of SWCNTs hold great promise for microwave device applications.

  6. Plasma HVA levels following debrisoquine administration do not reflect cerebral dopamine loss in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, S; Hindmarsh, J G; Steiger, M J; Bhatt, M; Quinn, N P; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

    1994-06-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA) following debrisoquine (DBQ) administration may be indicative of central dopaminergic activity. The effect of DBQ (10-20 mg) administration on pHVA in young healthy volunteers was studied to establish a protocol for use in de novo patients with Parkinson's disease. Subsequently, pHVA in de novo patients with Parkinson's disease were measured and compared to young healthy volunteers. Following DBQ (10 mg) administration to healthy volunteers, pHVA fell with time to a maximum of 62% of control values at 6 h. The decrease in pHVA was not affected by loading with DBQ (10 mg) 10 h previously (pHVA: 67.6 +/- 5.8% of preDBQ levels) or increasing the dose to 20 mg (56.1 +/- 11.8% of preDBQ levels) compared to a single 10 mg dose of debrisoquine (66.5 +/- 4.5% of preDBQ levels). pHVA was reduced in both de novo patients with Parkinson's disease and in healthy volunteers following DBQ (10 mg) administration. However, there was no difference in pHVA before or after DBQ administration when comparing the two groups. These results suggest that, following DBQ administration, pHVA does not reflect dopamine neuronal loss in de novo patients with Parkinson's disease, so it is unlikely to detect the disease before the clinical symptoms manifest themselves.

  7. Electronic and optical properties of Fe, Pd, and Ti studied by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Kraaer, Jens; Tougaard, Sven

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the electronic and optical properties of Fe, Pd, and Ti by reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS). REELS spectra recorded for primary energies in the range from 300 eV to 10 keV were corrected for multiple inelastically scattered electrons to determine the effective inelastic-scattering cross section. The dielectric functions and optical properties were determined by comparing the experimental inelastic-electron scattering cross section with a simulated cross section calculated within the semi-classical dielectric response model in which the only input is Im(−1/ε) by using the QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS software package. The complex dielectric functions ε(k,ω), in the 0–100 eV energy range, for Fe, Pd, and Ti were determined from the derived Im(−1/ε) by Kramers-Kronig transformation and then the refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. The validity of the applied model was previously tested and found to give consistent results when applied to REELS spectra at energies between 300 and 1000 eV taken at widely different experimental geometries. In the present paper, we provide, for the first time, a further test on its validity and find that the model also gives consistent results when applied to REELS spectra in the full range of primary electron energies from 300 eV to 10000 eV. This gives confidence in the validity of the applied method.

  8. Shifts of heat availability and stressful temperatures in Russian Federation result in gains and losses of wheat thermal suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Arianna; Caporaso, Luca; Santini, Monia; Di Paola, Francesco; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Climate changes are likely to shift the suitability of lands devoted to cropping systems. We explored the past-to-future thermal suitability of Russian Federation for wheat (Triticum aestivum) culture through an ensemble of bias corrected CMIP5-GCMs outputs considering two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Thermal suitability assesses where wheat heat requirement, counted from suggested sowing dates, is satisfied without the occurrence of stressful hot and frost temperatures. Thermal requirement was estimated by means of phenological observations on soft wheat involving different wheat cultivar collected in different regions of Russian Federation, Azerbaidhan, Kazakhstan and Tadzhikistan, whilst stressful temperatures were taken from a literature survey. Results showed projected geographical shift of heat resource toward the north-eastern regions, currently mainly covered by forests and croplands, but also an increase of very hot temperatures in the most productive areas of the southern regions. Gains and losses were then quantified and discussed from both agronomical and climatic perspective.

  9. Intermolecular Interactions in Crystalline Theobromine as Reflected in Electron Deformation Density and (13)C NMR Chemical Shift Tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzková, Kateřina; Babinský, Martin; Novosadová, Lucie; Marek, Radek

    2013-06-11

    An understanding of the role of intermolecular interactions in crystal formation is essential to control the generation of diverse crystalline forms which is an important concern for pharmaceutical industry. Very recently, we reported a new approach to interpret the relationships between intermolecular hydrogen bonding, redistribution of electron density in the system, and NMR chemical shifts (Babinský et al. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2013, 117, 497). Here, we employ this approach to characterize a full set of crystal interactions in a sample of anhydrous theobromine as reflected in (13)C NMR chemical shift tensors (CSTs). The important intermolecular contacts are identified by comparing the DFT-calculated NMR CSTs for an isolated theobromine molecule and for clusters composed of several molecules as selected from the available X-ray diffraction data. Furthermore, electron deformation density (EDD) and shielding deformation density (SDD) in the proximity of the nuclei involved in the proposed interactions are calculated and visualized. In addition to the recently reported observations for hydrogen bonding, we focus here particularly on the stacking interactions. Although the principal relations between the EDD and CST for hydrogen bonding (HB) and stacking interactions are similar, the real-space consequences are rather different. Whereas the C-H···X hydrogen bonding influences predominantly and significantly the in-plane principal component of the (13)C CST perpendicular to the HB path and the C═O···H hydrogen bonding modulates both in-plane components of the carbonyl (13)C CST, the stacking modulates the out-of-plane electron density resulting in weak deshielding (2-8 ppm) of both in-plane principal components of the CST and weak shielding (∼ 5 ppm) of the out-of-plane component. The hydrogen-bonding and stacking interactions may add to or subtract from one another to produce total values observed experimentally. On the example of theobromine, we demonstrate

  10. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  11. Children with Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents' Reflections on Experiences and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Grandpierre, Viviane; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Gaboury, Isabelle; Coyle, Doug; Na, Eunjung; Sallam, Nusaiba

    2016-01-01

    Children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss are now commonly identified early through newborn hearing screening initiatives. There remains considerable uncertainty about how to support parents and about which services to provide for children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss. The goal of this study was to learn about…

  12. Quantitative analysis of reflection electron energy loss spectra to determine electronic and optical properties of Fe–Ni alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Oh, Sukh Kun; Kang, Hee Jae; Tougaard, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). • The energy loss functions (ELF) are dominated by a plasmon peak at 23.6 eV for Fe and moves gradually to lower energies in Fe-Ni alloys towards the bulk plasmon energy of Ni at 20.5 eV. • Fe has a strong effect on the dielectric and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films even for an alloy with 72% Ni. Electronic and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). - Abstract: Electronic and optical properties of Fe–Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) by ion beam sputter deposition were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). The analysis was carried out by using the QUASES-XS-REELS and QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS softwares to determine the energy loss function (ELF) and the dielectric functions and optical properties by analyzing the experimental spectra. For Ni, the ELF shows peaks around 3.6, 7.5, 11.7, 20.5, 27.5, 67 and 78 eV. The peak positions of the ELF for Fe_2_8Ni_7_2 are similar to those of Fe_5_1Ni_4_9, even though there is a small peak shift from 18.5 eV for Fe_5_1Ni_4_9 to 18.7 eV for Fe_2_8Ni_7_2. A plot of n, k, ε_1, and ε_2 shows that the QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS software for analysis of REELS spectra is useful for the study of optical properties of transition metal alloys. For Fe–Ni alloy with high Ni concentration (Fe_2_8Ni_7_2), ε_1, and ε_2 have strong similarities with those of Fe. This indicates that the presence of Fe in the Fe–Ni alloy thin films has a strong effect.

  13. Children With Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents’ Reflections on Experiences and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Grandpierre, Viviane; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Gaboury, Isabelle; Coyle, Doug; Na, Eunjung; Sallam, Nusaiba

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss are now commonly identified early through newborn hearing screening initiatives. There remains considerable uncertainty about how to support parents and about which services to provide for children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss. The goal of this study was to learn about parents’ experiences and understand, from their perspectives, the impact of hearing loss in the mild range on the child’s functioning. Parents of 20 children in Ontario, Canada, participated in the study. The median age of identification of hearing loss was 4.6 months (interquartile range: 3.6, 10.8). Parents appreciated learning early about hearing loss, but their experiences with the early process were mixed. Parents felt that professionals minimized the importance of milder hearing loss. There was substantial uncertainty about the need for hearing aids and the findings suggest that parents need specific guidance. Parents expressed concerns about the potential impact of hearing loss on their child’s development, particularly at later ages. PMID:26433195

  14. Significant reduction of saturation magnetization and microwave-reflection loss in barium-natural ferrite via Nd3+ substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanarto, W.; Ardenti, E.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Kurniawan, C.; Effendi, M.; Cahyanto, W. T.

    2018-06-01

    To minimize the signal degradation, many electronic devices require efficient microwave absorbers with very low reflection-losses within the X-band. We prepared a series of trivalent neodymium-ion (Nd3+) substituted barium-natural ferrite using a modified solid-state reaction method. The effect of the Nd3+-ion content on the structure, surface morphology, magnetic properties, and microwave reflection loss was studied. The composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, a vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning electron microscopy, and a vector network analyzer. The XRD patterns of the sample without Nd3+ reveal the presence of BaFe12O19 (hexagonal) and BaFe2O4 (rhombohedral) phases. Furthermore, a new hexagonal crystal phase of Ba6Nd2Fe4O15 appeared after substituting Nd3+. The average size of the prepared barium-natural ferrite particles was estimated to be between 0.4 and 0.8 μm. Both saturation magnetization and microwave reflection losses of these barium-ferrites were significantly reduced by increasing the Nd3+ content.

  15. The shift work and health research agenda: Considering changes in gut microbiota as a pathway linking shift work, sleep loss and circadian misalignment, and metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy C; Paterson, Jessica L; Ferguson, Sally A; Stanley, Dragana; Wright, Kenneth P; Dawson, Drew

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence and impact of metabolic disease is rising. In particular, overweight and obesity are at epidemic levels and are a leading health concern in the Western world. Shift work increases the risk of overweight and obesity, along with a number of additional metabolic diseases, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). How shift work contributes to metabolic disease has not been fully elucidated. Short sleep duration is associated with metabolic disease and shift workers typically have shorter sleep durations. Short sleep durations have been shown to elicit a physiological stress response, and both physiological and psychological stress disrupt the healthy functioning of the intestinal gut microbiota. Recent findings have shown altered intestinal microbial communities and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in circadian disrupted mice and jet lagged humans. We hypothesize that sleep and circadian disruption in humans alters the gut microbiota, contributing to an inflammatory state and metabolic disease associated with shift work. A research agenda for exploring the relationship between insufficient sleep, circadian misalignment and the gut microbiota is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Low complexity joint estimation of reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift for MIMO-radar by exploiting 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-10-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, to estimate the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation yields the best performance. For this problem, the ML estimation requires the joint estimation of spatial location and Doppler shift, which is a two dimensional search problem. Therefore, the computational complexity of ML estimation is prohibitively high. In this work, to estimate the parameters of a target, a reduced complexity optimum performance algorithm is proposed, which allow two dimensional fast Fourier transform to jointly estimate the spatial location and Doppler shift. To asses the performances of the proposed estimators, the Cramér-Rao-lower-bound (CRLB) is derived. Simulation results show that the mean square estimation error of the proposed estimators achieve the CRLB. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. Reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy as efficient technique for the determination of optical properties of polystyrene intermixed with gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deris, Jamileh [Department of Physics, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajati, Shaaker, E-mail: Hajati@mail.yu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Semiconductors, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj 3177983634 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of nano-metalized polymer. • Determination of real part of the dielectric function of nanostructured sample. • Determination of imaginary part of the dielectric function of nanostructured sample. • Determination of refractive index and coefficient of extinction of the sample. • Determination of reflection and absorption coefficients of nano-metalized Polymer. - Abstract: The electronic properties (electron inelastic cross section, energy loss function) of a nano-metalized polystyrene obtained by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) in a previous study [J. Deris, S. Hajati, S. Tougaard, V. Zaporojtchenko, Appl. Surf. Sci. 377 (2016) 44–47], which relies on the Yubero-Tougaard method, were used in the complementary application of Kramers-Kronig transformation to determine its optical properties such as the real part (ε{sub 1}) and imaginary part (ε{sub 2}) of the dielectric function (ε), refractive index (n), coefficients of extinction (k), reflection (R) and absorption (μ). The degree of intermixing of polystyrene thin film and gold nanoparticles of sizes 5.5 nm was controlled by annealing the sample to achieve a morphology in which the nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed within polystyrene. It is worth noting that no data are available on the optical properties of metalized polymers such as gold nanoparticles intermixed with polystyrene. Therefore, this work is of high importance in terms of both the sample studied here and the method applied. The advantage of the method applied here is that no information on the lateral distribution of the nanocomposite sample is required. This means that the REELS technique has been presented here to suitably, efficiently and easily obtain the optical properties of such nano-metalized polymer in which the metal nanoparticles have been vertically well distributed (homogeneous in depth). Therefore, for vertically homogeneous and

  18. Measurement of Stress Distribution Around a Circular Hole in a Plate Under Bending Moment Using Phase-shifting Method with Reflective Polariscope Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Tae Hyun

    Photoelasticity is one of the most widely used whole-field optical methods for stress analysis. The technique of birefringent coatings, also called the method of photoelastic coatings, extends the classical procedures of model photoelasticity to the measurement of surface strains in opaque models made of any structural material. Photoelastic phase-shifting method can be used for the determination of the phase values of isochromatics and isoclinics. In this paper, photoelastic phase-shifting technique and conventional Babinet-Soleil compensation method were utilized to analyze a specimen with a triangular hole and a circular hole under bending. Photoelastic phase-shifting technique is whole-field measurement. On the other hand, conventional compensation method is point measurement. Three groups of results were obtained by phase-shifting method with reflective polariscope arrangement, conventional compensation method and FEM simulation, respectively. The results from the first two methods agree with each other relatively well considering experiment error. The advantage of photoelastic phase-shifting method is that it is possible to measure the stress distribution accurately close to the edge of holes.

  19. Inadmissibility of Usual and Mixed Estimators of Two Ordered Gamma Scale Parameters Under Reflected Gamma Loss Function

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Meghnatisi; N. Nematollahi

    2009-01-01

    Let Xi1, · · · , Xini be a random sample from a gamma distribution with known shape parameter νi > 0 and unknown scale parameter βi > 0, i = 1, 2, satisfying 0 < β1 6 β2. We consider the class of mixed estimators for estimation of β1 and β2 under reflected gamma loss function. It has been shown that the minimum risk equivariant estimator of βi, i = 1, 2, which is admissible when no information on the ordering of parameters are given, is inadmissible and dominated by a cla...

  20. Analysis for reflection peaks of multiple-phase-shift based sampled fiber Bragg gratings and application in high channel-count filter design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kun Hua; Yan, Lian Shan; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Zou, Xi Hua; Ye, Jia; Ma, Ya Nan

    2009-10-10

    An analytical expression for calculating the reflection-peak wavelengths (RPWs) of a uniform sampled fiber Bragg grating (SFBG) with the multiple-phase-shift (MPS) technique is derived through Fourier transform of the index modulation. The new expression can accurately depict the RPWs incorporating various parameters such as the duty cycle and the DC index change. The effectiveness of the derived expression is further confirmed by comparing the RPWs estimated from the expression with the simulated reflective spectra using the piecewise uniform method. And the reflective spectrum has been well optimized by introducing the Gaussian apodization function to suppress the sidelobes without any wavelength shift on the RPWs. Then, a high-channel-count comb filter based on MPS is proposed by cascading two or more SFBGs with different Bragg periods but with the same RPWs. Noticeably, the RPWs of the new structured SFBG can also be accurately calculated through the expression. Furthermore, the number of spectral channels can be controlled by choosing gratings with specified difference Bragg periods.

  1. A reverse Monte Carlo method for deriving optical constants of solids from reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da, B.; Sun, Y.; Ding, Z. J.; Mao, S. F.; Zhang, Z. M.; Jin, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Tanuma, S.

    2013-01-01

    A reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method is developed to obtain the energy loss function (ELF) and optical constants from a measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectrum by an iterative Monte Carlo (MC) simulation procedure. The method combines the simulated annealing method, i.e., a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters, surface and bulk excitation weighting factors, and band gap energy, with a conventional MC simulation of electron interaction with solids, which acts as a single step of MCMC sampling in this RMC method. To examine the reliability of this method, we have verified that the output data of the dielectric function are essentially independent of the initial values of the trial parameters, which is a basic property of a MCMC method. The optical constants derived for SiO 2 in the energy loss range of 8-90 eV are in good agreement with other available data, and relevant bulk ELFs are checked by oscillator strength-sum and perfect-screening-sum rules. Our results show that the dielectric function can be obtained by the RMC method even with a wide range of initial trial parameters. The RMC method is thus a general and effective method for determining the optical properties of solids from REELS measurements.

  2. Inadmissibility of Usual and Mixed Estimators of Two Ordered Gamma Scale Parameters Under Reflected Gamma Loss Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Meghnatisi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Let Xi1, · · · , Xini be a random sample from a gamma distribution with known shape parameter νi > 0 and unknown scale parameter βi > 0, i = 1, 2, satisfying 0 < β1 6 β2. We consider the class of mixed estimators for estimation of β1 and β2 under reflected gamma loss function. It has been shown that the minimum risk equivariant estimator of βi, i = 1, 2, which is admissible when no information on the ordering of parameters are given, is inadmissible and dominated by a class of mixed estimators when it is known that the parameters are ordered. Also, the inadmissible estimators in the class of mixed estimators are derived. Finally the results are extended to some subclass of exponential family

  3. Comparison of ear-canal reflectance and umbo velocity in patients with conductive hearing loss: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko H; Pisano, Dominic V; Roosli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A; Merchant, Gabrielle R; Mahfoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F; Rosowski, John J; Merchant, Saumil N

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the clinical utility of measurements of ear-canal reflectance (ECR) in a population of patients with conductive hearing loss in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane and an aerated middle ear. We also sought to compare the diagnostic accuracy of umbo velocity (VU) measurements and measurements of ECR in the same group of patients. This prospective study comprised 31 adult patients with conductive hearing loss, of which 14 had surgically confirmed stapes fixation due to otosclerosis, 6 had surgically confirmed ossicular discontinuity, and 11 had computed tomography and vestibular evoked myogenic potential confirmed superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD). Measurements on all 31 ears included pure-tone audiometry for 0.25 to 8 kHz, ECR for 0.2 to 6 kHz using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system, and VU for 0.3 to 6 kHz using the HLV-1000 laser Doppler vibrometer (Polytec Inc, Waldbronn, Germany). We analyzed power reflectance |ECR| as well as the absorbance level = 10 × log10(1 - |ECR|). All measurements were made before any surgical intervention. The VU and ECR data were plotted against normative data obtained in a companion study of 58 strictly defined normal ears (). Small increases in |ECR| at low-to-mid frequencies (400-1000 Hz) were observed in cases with stapes fixation, while narrowband decreases were seen for both SCD and ossicular discontinuity. The SCD and ossicular discontinuity differed in that the SCD had smaller decreases at mid-frequency (∼1000 Hz), whereas ossicular discontinuity had larger decreases at lower frequencies (500-800 Hz). SCD tended to have less air-bone gap at high frequencies (1-4 kHz) compared with stapes fixation and ossicular discontinuity. The |ECR| measurements, in conjunction with audiometry, could successfully separate 28 of the 31 cases into the three pathologies. By comparison, VU measurements, in conjunction with audiometry, could successfully separate

  4. Available number of multiplexed holograms based on signal-to-noise ratio analysis in reflection-type holographic memory using three-dimensional speckle-shift multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, Tatsuya; Matoba, Osamu; Nitta, Kouichi

    2014-09-01

    The recording properties of three-dimensional speckle-shift multiplexing in reflection-type holographic memory are analyzed numerically. Three-dimensional recording can increase the number of multiplexed holograms by suppressing the cross-talk noise from adjacent holograms by using depth-direction multiplexing rather than in-plane multiplexing. Numerical results indicate that the number of multiplexed holograms in three-layer recording can be increased by 1.44 times as large as that of a single-layer recording when an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio is set to be 2 when NA=0.43 and the thickness of the recording medium is 0.5 mm.

  5. Band gap and defect states of MgO thin films investigated using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Heo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The band gap and defect states of MgO thin films were investigated by using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS and high-energy resolution REELS (HR-REELS. HR-REELS with a primary electron energy of 0.3 keV revealed that the surface F center (FS energy was located at approximately 4.2 eV above the valence band maximum (VBM and the surface band gap width (EgS was approximately 6.3 eV. The bulk F center (FB energy was located approximately 4.9 eV above the VBM and the bulk band gap width was about 7.8 eV, when measured by REELS with 3 keV primary electrons. From a first-principles calculation, we confirmed that the 4.2 eV and 4.9 eV peaks were FS and FB, induced by oxygen vacancies. We also experimentally demonstrated that the HR-REELS peak height increases with increasing number of oxygen vacancies. Finally, we calculated the secondary electron emission yields (γ for various noble gases. He and Ne were not influenced by the defect states owing to their higher ionization energies, but Ar, Kr, and Xe exhibited a stronger dependence on the defect states owing to their small ionization energies.

  6. Risk Balancing of Cold Ischemic Time against Night Shift Surgery Possibly Reduces Rates of Reoperation and Perioperative Graft Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Emmanouilidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This retrospective cohort study evaluates the advantages of risk balancing between prolonged cold ischemic time (CIT and late night surgery. Methods. 1262 deceased donor kidney transplantations were analyzed. Multivariable regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs for reoperation, graft loss, delayed graft function (DGF, and discharge on dialysis. CIT was categorized according to a forward stepwise pattern ≤1h/>1h, ≤2h/>2h, ≤3h/>3h,…, ≤nh/>nh. ORs for DGF were plotted against CIT and a nonlinear regression function with best R2 was identified. First and second derivative were then implemented into the curvature formula k(x=f′′(x/(1+f′x23/2 to determine the point of highest CIT-mediated risk acceleration. Results. Surgery between 3 AM and 6 AM is an independent risk factor for reoperation and graft loss, whereas prolonged CIT is only relevant for DGF. CIT-mediated risk for DGF follows an exponential pattern fx=A·(1+k·eI·x with a cut-off for the highest risk increment at 23.5 hours. Conclusions. The risk of surgery at 3 AM–6 AM outweighs prolonged CIT when confined within 23.5 hours as determined by a new mathematical approach to calculate turning points of nonlinear time related risks. CIT is only relevant for the endpoint of DGF but had no impact on discharge on dialysis, reoperation, or graft loss.

  7. The Loss of Grammatical Gender and Case Features Between Old and Early Middle English: Its Impact on Simple Demonstratives and Topic Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurczyk Rafał

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the relation between the loss of formal gender and Case features on simple demonstratives and the topic shifting property they manifest. The examination period spans between Old English and Early Middle English. While we argue that this loss has important discourse-pragmatic and derivational effects on demonstratives, we also employ the Strong Minimalist Hypothesis approach (Chomsky 2001 and feature valuation, as defined in Pesetsky & Torrego (2007, to display how their syntactic computation and pragmatic properties have come about. To account for the above innovations yielding the Early Middle English ϸe (‘the’, we first discuss the formal properties of the Old English demonstratives which distinguish number, gender, and Case features. This inflectional variety of forms allows the Old English demonstratives to be used independently and to show the anaphoric and discourse-linking properties of topics. Crucially, the same properties characterise also German and Dutch demonstratives that manifest Case and/or gender morphology overtly, which shows that the syntactic distribution of LIs and their morphological richness should be considered as intertwined. The above properties are then confronted with the determiner system in Early Middle English, whose forms undergo inflectional levelling producing the invariant ϸe/ðe form that loses its distributional independence and acquires the article status. The levelling process in question is argued to stimulate the shift of the [+ref/spec] feature from the formal to the semantic pole. This suggests that the Early Middle English ϸe form no longer counts as an appropriate anaphor in topic shift contexts owing to its indeterminacy of Case, gender, and φ-features, which means that it cannot satisfy the Full Interpretation requirement at the interfaces.

  8. Ultrafast evolution and loss of CRISPRs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel F Delaney

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus, a common North American songbird. For the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in House Finch isolates of MG, as well as in poultry outgroups. Using whole-genome sequences of 12 House Finch isolates across a 13-year serial sample and an additional four newly sequenced poultry strains, we estimate a nucleotide diversity in House Finch isolates of only ∼2% of ancestral poultry strains and a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.8-1.2×10(-5 per site per year both in poultry and in House Finches, an exceptionally fast rate rivaling some of the highest estimates reported thus far for bacteria. We also found high diversity and complete turnover of CRISPR arrays in poultry MG strains prior to the switch to the House Finch host, but after the invasion of House Finches there is progressive loss of CRISPR repeat diversity, and recruitment of novel CRISPR repeats ceases. Recent (2007 House Finch MG strains retain only ∼50% of the CRISPR repertoire founding (1994-95 strains and have lost the CRISPR-associated genes required for CRISPR function. Our results suggest that genome evolution in bacterial pathogens of wild birds can be extremely rapid and in this case is accompanied by apparent functional loss of CRISPRs.

  9. Identification of hydrogen and deuterium at the surface of water ice by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yubero, F.; Toekesi, K.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The study of elastically backscattered electrons from surfaces by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) has been recently recommended as an alternative technique to quantify the H content at the surface of a-C:H and polymer samples. This analysis is based on the fact that the energy loss of the incident electrons due to the recoil effect depends on the atomic mass of the particular atom present at the surface. The observed difference in recoil energies between H and O atoms (about 2 eV for 1.5 keV primary electrons) can be easily measured with standard electron spectrometers used in surface analysis. In this paper we go one step forward to explore if, with the same experimental approach, it is possible to differentiate between hydrogen and deuterium (D) in the surface region of a sample. This capability could be important for technological fields such as surface functionalization, where it is desired to distinguish between H and D at surfaces after interaction with labeled compounds. We have chosen normal and deuterated water as test labeled compounds because this polar molecule is of key importance in numerous surface reactions. It has been shown that H and D can be easily distinguished at the surface of water ice [4] using standard REELS measurements with 1000 - 1650 eV primary-electron energies, i.e., a surface analytical technique. Differences in recoil energies of the O - H and O - D atom pairs present in H 2 O and D 2 O have been found to agree with MC simulations (see Fig.1). There are many possible applications of H and D detection by REELS. Among many others, this study opens the possibility of nondestructive studies of deuterium-labeled atoms present or adsorbed on surfaces. For example, studies of H incorporation into a polymer or carbonbased surface after plasma activation with gas mixtures with several labeled molecules containing H atoms. Acknowledgements F.Y. thanks the Spanish Ministry of Science

  10. Influence of risky and protective behaviors connected with listening to music on hearing loss and the noise induced threshold shift among students of the Medical University of Bialystok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Modzelewska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background . Currently, significant changes have occurred in the character of sound exposure, along with the properties of the group affected by it. Thus, primary care physicians have to keep in mind that a sizable group of young adults comprises groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing. Objectives . The goal of the following study was to determine the auditory ability of the students attending the Medical University in Bialystok and to analyze their risky and protective behaviors relating to music consumption. Material and methods . In total, 230 students (age: 18–26 years completed a questionnaire about general personal information and their music-listening habits. Thereafter, pure tone audiometry at standard frequencies (0.25 kHz–8 kHz was performed. Results . Hearing loss was more frequent in subjects who listened to music at higher volumes (‘very loud’ – 22.2%, ‘loud’ – 3.9%, ‘not very loud’ – 2.1%, ‘quiet’ – 9.1%, p = 0.046. Hearing loss was more prevalent among those students who were living in a city with more than 50,000 inhabitants before starting higher education compared to the remaining subjects (7.95% vs. 0.97%, p = 0.025. Conclusions . The study demonstrated that surprisingly few medical students suffer from hearing loss or a noise induced threshold shift. There is no correlation between risky behavior such as a lengthy daily duration of listening to music or the type of headphone used and hearing loss. Hearing screening tests connected with education are indicated in the group of young adults due to the accumulative character of hearing damage.

  11. Magnetic confinement, Alfven wave reflection, and the origins of X-ray and mass-loss 'dividing lines' for late-type giants and supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.; An, C.-H.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, R. L.; Suess, S. T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple qualitative model for the origin of the coronal and mass-loss dividing lines separating late-type giants and supergiants with and without hot, X-ray-emitting corona, and with and without significant mass loss is discussed. The basic physical effects considered are the necessity of magnetic confinement for hot coronal material on the surface of such stars and the large reflection efficiency for Alfven waves in cool exponential atmospheres. The model assumes that the magnetic field geometry of these stars changes across the observed 'dividing lines' from being mostly closed on the high effective temperature side to being mostly open on the low effective temperature side.

  12. A degradation debt? Large-scale shifts in community composition and loss of biomass in a tropical forest fragment after 40 years of isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahawi, Rakan A; Oviedo-Brenes, Federico; Peterson, Chris J

    2017-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. We examined forest dynamics in a mid-elevation 365-ha fragment in southern Costa Rica. The fragment was isolated in the mid-1970s and belongs to the Las Cruces Biological Station. A 2.25-ha permanent plot was established in the center of the old-growth forest (>400 m to nearest edge boundary) and all plants >5 cm DBH were censused, mapped, and identified to species in two surveys taken ~5-6 years apart (>3,000 stems/survey). Although the reserve maintains high species richness (>200 spp.), with many rare species represented by only one individual, we document a strong shift in composition with a two-fold increase in the number of soft-wooded pioneer individuals. The dominant late-successional understory tree species, Chrysochlamys glauca (Clusiaceae), and most species in the Lauraceae, declined dramatically. Turnover was high: 22.9% of stems in the first survey were lost, and 27.8% of stems in the second survey represented new recruits. Mean tree diameter decreased significantly and there was a 10% decrease in overall biomass. Such alteration has been documented previously but only in smaller fragments or within ~100 m of an edge boundary. Further penetration into this fragment was perhaps driven by a progressive invasion of disturbance-adapted species into the fragment's core over time; the loss of once-dominant late successional species could be a contributing factor. The pattern found is of particular concern given that such fragments represent a substantial portion of today's remaining tropical habitat; further studies in similar-sized fragments that have been isolated for similar prolonged periods are called for.

  13. A degradation debt? Large-scale shifts in community composition and loss of biomass in a tropical forest fragment after 40 years of isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakan A Zahawi

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. We examined forest dynamics in a mid-elevation 365-ha fragment in southern Costa Rica. The fragment was isolated in the mid-1970s and belongs to the Las Cruces Biological Station. A 2.25-ha permanent plot was established in the center of the old-growth forest (>400 m to nearest edge boundary and all plants >5 cm DBH were censused, mapped, and identified to species in two surveys taken ~5-6 years apart (>3,000 stems/survey. Although the reserve maintains high species richness (>200 spp., with many rare species represented by only one individual, we document a strong shift in composition with a two-fold increase in the number of soft-wooded pioneer individuals. The dominant late-successional understory tree species, Chrysochlamys glauca (Clusiaceae, and most species in the Lauraceae, declined dramatically. Turnover was high: 22.9% of stems in the first survey were lost, and 27.8% of stems in the second survey represented new recruits. Mean tree diameter decreased significantly and there was a 10% decrease in overall biomass. Such alteration has been documented previously but only in smaller fragments or within ~100 m of an edge boundary. Further penetration into this fragment was perhaps driven by a progressive invasion of disturbance-adapted species into the fragment's core over time; the loss of once-dominant late successional species could be a contributing factor. The pattern found is of particular concern given that such fragments represent a substantial portion of today's remaining tropical habitat; further studies in similar-sized fragments that have been isolated for similar prolonged periods are called for.

  14. School-Aged Children with Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents' Reflections on Services, Experiences, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandpierre, Viviane; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Na, Eunjung; Mendonca, Oreen

    2018-01-01

    Following the establishment of newborn hearing screening programs, age of identification and length of time before receiving interventions has been reduced for children, including those with milder degrees of hearing loss who were previously not identified until school age. This population of early-identified children requires new support programs…

  15. Mapping sound intensities by seating position in a university concert band: A risk of hearing loss, temporary threshold shifts, and comparisons with standards of OSHA and NIOSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicholas Vedder, III

    Exposure to loud sounds is one of the leading causes of hearing loss in the United States. The purpose of the current research was to measure the sound pressure levels generated within a university concert band and determine if those levels exceeded permissible sound limits for exposure according to criteria set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Time-weighted averages (TWA) were obtained via a dosimeter during six rehearsals for nine members of the ensemble (plus the conductor), who were seated in frontal proximity to "instruments of power" (trumpets, trombones, and percussion; (Backus, 1977). Subjects received audiometer tests prior to and after each rehearsal to determine any temporary threshold shifts (TTS). Single sample t tests were calculated to compare TWA means and the maximum sound intensity exposures set by OSHA and NIOSH. Correlations were calculated between TWAs and TTSs, as well as TTSs and the number of semesters subjects reported being seated in proximity to instruments of power. The TWA-OSHA mean of 90.2 dBA was not significantly greater than the specified OSHA maximum standard of 90.0 dBA (p > .05). The TWA-NIOSH mean of 93.1 dBA was, however, significantly greater than the NIOSH specified maximum standard of 85.0 dBA (p OSHA, r = .20 for NIOSH); the correlation between TTSs and semesters of proximity to instruments of power was also considered weak (r = .13). TWAs cumulatively exceeded both association's sound exposure limits at 11 specified locations (nine subjects and both ears of the conductor) throughout the concert band's rehearsals. In addition, hearing acuity, as determined by TTSs, was substantially affected negatively by the intensities produced in the concert band. The researcher concluded that conductors, as well as their performers, must be aware of possible damaging sound intensities in rehearsals or performances.

  16. The Impact of Social and Cultural Difference in Relation to Job Loss and Financial Planning: Reflections on the Risk Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abbott

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on data collected as part of a research study which looks at how different social and cultural groups frame, and respond to, the risk of income and/or job loss. Writers like LASH, DOUGLAS and LUPTON have placed an emphasis on the importance of group membership and social categories in structuring response to different types of risk preferring to talk about "risk cultures" rather than "risk society". However, the writers acknowledge that there is little empirical research which explores this. As the first stage of our research, focus groups in two parts of the UK explored the relationship between risk and social difference with an emphasis on the risk of job or income loss. The groups were comprised of lesbian, gay and bisexual people; people from Black and Minority Ethnic backgrounds; Disabled people; and, people who actively practice a religion. Participants did not see strong links between their sexuality, race, or religion and their perceptions of, or responses to, risk. Income, and attitudinal factors were cited as being more important. Disabled people however were much more likely to make connections between being disabled and a range of barriers to responding to risky situations. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601160

  17. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effect of in-material losses on terahertz absorption, transmission, and reflection in photonic crystals made of polar dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serebryannikov, Andriy E., E-mail: andser@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Nanotechnology Research Center—NANOTAM, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Nojima, S. [Yokohama City University, Department of Nanosystem Science, Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Kanazawa Ku, 22-2 Seto, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2360027 (Japan); Alici, K. B. [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Materials Institute, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozbay, Ekmel [Nanotechnology Research Center—NANOTAM, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-10-07

    The effect of the material absorption factor on terahertz absorption (A), transmittance (T), and reflectance (R) for slabs of PhC that comprise rods made of GaAs, a polar dielectric, is studied. The main goal was to illustrate how critical a choice of the absorption factor for simulations is and to indicate the importance of the possible modification of the absorption ability by using either active or lossy impurities. The spectra of A, T, and R are strongly sensitive to the location of the polaritonic gap with respect to the photonic pass and stop bands connected with periodicity that enables the efficient combination of the effects of material and structural parameters. It will be shown that the spectra can strongly depend on the utilized value of the material absorption factor. In particular, both narrow and wide absorption bands may appear owing to a variation of the material parameters with a frequency in the vicinity of the polaritonic gap. The latter are often achieved at wideband suppression of transmission, so that an ultra-wide stop band can appear as a result of adjustment of the stop bands having different origin. The results obtained at simultaneous variation of the absorption factor and frequency, and angle of incidence and frequency, indicate the possibility of the existence of wide ranges of tolerance, in which the basic features do remain. This allows for mitigating the accuracy requirements for the absorption factor in simulations and promises the efficient absorption of nonmonochromatic waves and beams with a wide angular spectrum. Suppression of narrowband effects in transmission is demonstrated at rather large values of the absorption factor, when they appear due to either the defect modes related to structural defects or dispersion inspired variations of the material parameters in the vicinity of the polaritonic gap. Comparison with auxiliary structures helps one to detect the common features and differences of homogeneous slabs and slabs of a

  19. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  20. Origin of absorption peaks in reflection loss spectrum in Ku- frequency band of Co-Zr substituted strontium hexaferrites prepared using sucrose precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narang, Sukhleen Bindra, E-mail: sukhleen2@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Pubby, Kunal, E-mail: kunalpubby02@gmail.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Chawla, S.K., E-mail: sschawla118@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Kaur, Prabhjyot, E-mail: prabhjyot.2525@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India)

    2017-03-15

    This study presents the detailed explanation of the factors, contributing towards the absorption peaks in reflection loss spectrum of hexaferrites. Cobalt-Zirconium substituted strontium hexaferrites, synthesized using sucrose precursor sol-gel technique, were analyzed in 12.4–18 GHz frequency range. The concepts of impedance matching through quarter wavelength condition, complex thickness, dielectric phase angle and attenuation constant have been used to determine the location as well as intensity of absorption peaks. This study also demonstrates the potential application of three compositions of this series with doping content (x)==0.0, 0.6 and 0.8 as an effective microwave absorbers in Ku-frequency band. - Highlights: • EM analysis of Sr Hexaferrites in Ku-band. • Factors towards absorption peak intensity & location.

  1. Influence of multiwalled carbon nanotube addition on the magnetic and reflection-loss characteristics of Mn–Sn–Ti substituted strontium ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamalian, Majid; Ghasemi, Ali; Paimozd, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Structural properties of nanocomposites were investigated. • The microwave absorbing characteristics were studied. • The synthesized materials are proper candidates for electromagnetic wave absorber. - Abstract: In this work, Mn–Sn–Ti substituted strontium ferrite (Sr-ferrite:SrM) nanoparticles were attached on the outer surface of varied multi-walled carbon nanotubes volume fraction with the amount of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30, by employing of the sol–gel method. The phase identification and morphologies of the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning microscopy respectively. The obtained results showed that the single phase SrFe 9.5 (Mn 1.25 Sn 0.625 Ti 0.625 ) O 19 nanoparticles were decorated on MWCNTs can be obtained at 900 °C. Fourier transform infrared revealed that both the stretching and the bending modes are formed in the citrate complex in the ferrite and hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the external surface of MWCNTs. The Magnetic properties were measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It was found that saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity decrease by an increase in the MWCNTs content from 10 to 30 vol%. The reflection loss measurement of the prepared absorber which contain the ratio of 70–30 mass% for the nanocomposite to the polyvinyl chloride, done by the vector network analyzer, proved that the prepared nanocomposites have the maximum reflection loss of −28 dB at the frequency of 8.8 GHz for Mn–Ti–Sn substituted strontium ferrite −30 vol% MWCNT nanocomposite with a bandwidth of 4 GHz (RL > −10 dB)

  2. Influence of multiwalled carbon nanotube addition on the magnetic and reflection-loss characteristics of Mn–Sn–Ti substituted strontium ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamalian, Majid, E-mail: mjscience@yahoo.com; Ghasemi, Ali; Paimozd, Ebrahim

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Structural properties of nanocomposites were investigated. • The microwave absorbing characteristics were studied. • The synthesized materials are proper candidates for electromagnetic wave absorber. - Abstract: In this work, Mn–Sn–Ti substituted strontium ferrite (Sr-ferrite:SrM) nanoparticles were attached on the outer surface of varied multi-walled carbon nanotubes volume fraction with the amount of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30, by employing of the sol–gel method. The phase identification and morphologies of the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning microscopy respectively. The obtained results showed that the single phase SrFe{sub 9.5} (Mn{sub 1.25}Sn{sub 0.625}Ti{sub 0.625}) O{sub 19} nanoparticles were decorated on MWCNTs can be obtained at 900 °C. Fourier transform infrared revealed that both the stretching and the bending modes are formed in the citrate complex in the ferrite and hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the external surface of MWCNTs. The Magnetic properties were measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It was found that saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity decrease by an increase in the MWCNTs content from 10 to 30 vol%. The reflection loss measurement of the prepared absorber which contain the ratio of 70–30 mass% for the nanocomposite to the polyvinyl chloride, done by the vector network analyzer, proved that the prepared nanocomposites have the maximum reflection loss of −28 dB at the frequency of 8.8 GHz for Mn–Ti–Sn substituted strontium ferrite −30 vol% MWCNT nanocomposite with a bandwidth of 4 GHz (RL > −10 dB)

  3. Short-term music-induced hearing loss after sound exposure to discotheque music: the effectiveness of a break in reducing temporary threshold shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleman, Hiske W; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of a break in music exposure on temporary threshold shifts. A cross-over design where subjects are exposed to dance music for either two hours consecutively, or exposed to two hours of dance music with a one-hour break in between. Outcome measure was the change in hearing threshold, measured in 1-dB steps at different time points after ending the music. Eighteen normal-hearing subjects participated in this study. Changes in pure-tone threshold were observed in both conditions and were similar, regardless of the break. Threshold shifts could be averaged for 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The shift immediately after the ending of the music was 1.7 dB for right ears, and 3.4 dB for left ears. The difference between left and right ears was significant. One hour after the exposure, right ears were recovered to baseline conditions whereas left ears showed a small but clinically irrelevant remaining shift of approximately 1 dB. The advice to use chill-out zones is still valid, because this helps to reduce the duration to the exposure. This study does not provide evidence that a rest period gives an additional reduction of temporary threshold shifts.

  4. Improvement of insertion loss and quality factor of flexural plate-wave-based alpha-fetoprotein biosensor using groove-type reflective grating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chang-Yu; Huang, I.-Yu; Lan, Je-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Conventional flexural plate-wave (FPW) transducers have limited applications in biomedical sensing due to their disadvantages such as high insertion loss and low quality factor. To overcome these shortcomings, we propose a FPW transducer on a low phase velocity insulator membrane (5-μm-thick SiO2) with a novel groove-type reflective grating structure design. Additionally, a cystamine self-assembly monolayer and a glutaraldehyde cross-linking layer are implemented on the backside of the FPW device to immobilize alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) antibody. A FPW-based AFP biosensor with low detection limit (5 ng/mL) can be achieved and used to measure the extreme low concentration of AFP antigen in human serum for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. The proposed FPW-based AFP biosensor also demonstrates a very high quality factor (206), low insertion loss (-40.854 dB), low operating frequency (6.388 MHz), and high sensing linearity (90.7%).

  5. Bacterial diversity shift determined by different diets in the gut of the spotted wing fly Drosophila suzukii is primarily reflected on acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Vacchini, Violetta

    2016-11-25

    The pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. Drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important components. Here, we investigated the bacterial and AAB components of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii microbiota, by studying the same insect population separately grown on fruit-based or non-fruit artificial diet. AAB were highly prevalent in the gut under both diets (90 and 92% infection rates with fruits and artificial diet, respectively). Fluorescent in situ hybridization and recolonization experiments with green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labelled strains showed AAB capability to massively colonize insect gut. High-throughput sequencing on 16S rRNA gene indicated that the bacterial microbiota of guts fed with the two diets clustered separately. By excluding AAB-related OTUs from the analysis, insect bacterial communities did not cluster separately according to the diet, suggesting that diet-based diversification of the community is primarily reflected on the AAB component of the community. Diet influenced also AAB alpha-diversity, with separate OTU distributions based on diets. High prevalence, localization and massive recolonization, together with AAB clustering behaviour in relation to diet, suggest an AAB role in the D. suzukii gut response to diet modification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-Term Precipitation Isotope Ratios (δ18O, δ2H, d-excess) in the Northeast US Reflect Atlantic Ocean Warming and Shifts in Moisture Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntsag, T.; Welker, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.; Klein, E. S.; Campbell, J. L.; Likens, G.

    2014-12-01

    The global water cycle is exhibiting dramatic changes as global temperatures increase resulting in increases in: drought extremes, flooding, alterations in storm track patterns with protracted winter storms, and greater precipitation variability. The mechanisms driving these changes can be difficult to assess, but the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation water isotopes (δ18O, δ2H, d-excess) provide a means to help understand these water cycle changes. However, extended temporal records of isotope ratios in precipitation are infrequent, especially in the US. In our study we analyzed precipitation isotope ratio data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire that has the longest US precipitation isotope record, to determine: 1) the monthly composited averages and trends from 1967 to 2012 (45 years); ; 2) the relationships between abiotic properties such as local temperatures, precipitation type, storm tracks and isotope ratio changes; and 3) the influence of regional shifts in moisture sources and/or changes in N Atlantic Ocean water conditions on isotope values. The seasonal variability of Hubbard Brook precipitation isotope ratios is consistent with other studies, as average δ18O values are ~ -15‰ in January and ~ -5 ‰ in July. However, over the 45 year record there is a depletion trend in the δ 18O values (becoming isotopically lighter with a greater proportion of 16O), which coupled with less change in δ 2H leads to increases in d-excess values from ~ -10‰ around 1970 to greater than 10‰ in 2009. These changes occurred during a period of warming as opposed to cooling local temperatures indicating other processes besides temperature are controlling long-term water isotope traits in this region. We have evidence that these changes in precipitation isotope traits are controlled in large part by an increases in moisture being sourced from a warming N Atlantic Ocean that is providing evaporated, isotopically

  7. Direct band gap measurement of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 thin films using high-resolution reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Sung; Lee, Hyung-Ik; Park, Jong-Bong; Ko, Dong-Su; Chung, JaeGwan; Kim, KiHong; Kim, Seong Heon; Yun, Dong-Jin; Ham, YongNam; Park, Gyeong Su; Song, Taewon; Lee, Dongho; Nam, Junggyu; Kang, Hee Jae; Choi, Pyung-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Deog

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the band gap profile of Cu(In 1−x ,Ga x )(Se 1−y S y ) 2 of various compositions, we measured the band gap profile directly as a function of in-depth using high-resolution reflection energy loss spectroscopy (HR-REELS), which was compared with the band gap profile calculated based on the auger depth profile. The band gap profile is a double-graded band gap as a function of in-depth. The calculated band gap obtained from the auger depth profile seems to be larger than that by HR-REELS. Calculated band gaps are to measure the average band gap of the spatially different varying compositions with respect to considering its void fraction. But, the results obtained using HR-REELS are to be affected by the low band gap (i.e., out of void) rather than large one (i.e., near void). Our findings suggest an analytical method to directly determine the band gap profile as function of in-depth

  8. Direct band gap measurement of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films using high-resolution reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Sung [Analytical Engineering Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Ik; Park, Jong-Bong; Ko, Dong-Su; Chung, JaeGwan; Kim, KiHong; Kim, Seong Heon; Yun, Dong-Jin; Ham, YongNam; Park, Gyeong Su [Analytical Engineering Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Taewon [Energy lab, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongho, E-mail: dhlee0333@gmail.com; Nam, Junggyu [PV Development Team, Energy Solution Business Division, Samsung SDI, 467 Beonyeong-ro, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 331-330 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hee Jae [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Gaesin-dong, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju, 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Pyung-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Deog, E-mail: bdchoi@skku.edu [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-29

    To investigate the band gap profile of Cu(In{sub 1−x},Ga{sub x})(Se{sub 1−y}S{sub y}){sub 2} of various compositions, we measured the band gap profile directly as a function of in-depth using high-resolution reflection energy loss spectroscopy (HR-REELS), which was compared with the band gap profile calculated based on the auger depth profile. The band gap profile is a double-graded band gap as a function of in-depth. The calculated band gap obtained from the auger depth profile seems to be larger than that by HR-REELS. Calculated band gaps are to measure the average band gap of the spatially different varying compositions with respect to considering its void fraction. But, the results obtained using HR-REELS are to be affected by the low band gap (i.e., out of void) rather than large one (i.e., near void). Our findings suggest an analytical method to directly determine the band gap profile as function of in-depth.

  9. Direct characterization of the energy level alignments and molecular components in an organic hetero-junction by integrated photoemission spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Shin, Weon-Ho; Bulliard, Xavier; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Seyun; Chung, Jae Gwan; Kim, Yongsu; Heo, Sung; Kim, Seong Heon

    2016-08-26

    A novel, direct method for the characterization of the energy level alignments at bulk-heterojunction (BHJ)/electrode interfaces on the basis of electronic spectroscopy measurements is proposed. The home-made in situ photoemission system is used to perform x-ray/ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy of organic-semiconductors (OSCs) deposited onto a Au substrate. Through this analysis system, we are able to obtain the electronic structures of a boron subphthalocyanine chloride:fullerene (SubPC:C60) BHJ and those of the separate OSC/electrode structures (SubPC/Au and C60/Au). Morphology and chemical composition analyses confirm that the original SubPC and C60 electronic structures remain unchanged in the electrodes prepared. Using this technique, we ascertain that the position and area of the nearest peak to the Fermi energy (EF = 0 eV) in the UPS (REELS) spectra of SubPC:C60 BHJ provide information on the highest occupied molecular orbital level (optical band gap) and combination ratio of the materials, respectively. Thus, extracting the adjusted spectrum from the corresponding SubPC:C60 BHJ UPS (REELS) spectrum reveals its electronic structure, equivalent to that of the C60 materials. This novel analytical approach allows complete energy-level determination for each combination ratio by separating its electronic structure information from the BHJ spectrum.

  10. Past and future range shifts and loss of diversity in dwarf willow (Salix herbaceae L.) inferred from genetics, fossils and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsos, Inger Greve; Alm, Torbjørn; Normand, Signe

    2009-01-01

    . Macrofossil records were compiled to infer past distribution, and species distribution models were used to predict the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and future distribution of climatically suitable areas. Results  We found strong genetic differentiation between the populations from Europe/East Greenland...... during the last glaciation was inferred based on the fossil records and distribution modelling. A 46-57% reduction in suitable areas was predicted in 2080 compared to present. However, mainly southern alpine populations may go extinct, causing a loss of about 5% of the genetic diversity in the species....... Main conclusions  From a continuous range in Central Europe during the last glaciation, northward colonization probably occurred as a broad front maintaining diversity as the climate warmed. This explains why potential extinction of southern populations by 2080 will cause a comparatively low loss...

  11. Resonance-shifting luminescent solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel Christopher; Wiederrecht, Gary P.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2018-01-23

    An optical system and method to overcome luminescent solar concentrator inefficiencies by resonance-shifting, in which sharply directed emission from a bi-layer cavity into a glass substrate returns to interact with the cavity off-resonance at each subsequent reflection, significantly reducing reabsorption loss en route to the edges. In one embodiment, the system comprises a luminescent solar concentrator comprising a transparent substrate, a luminescent film having a variable thickness; and a low refractive index layer disposed between the transparent substrate and the luminescent film.

  12. Adipose tissue transcriptome reflects variations between subjects with continued weight loss and subjects regaining weight 6 mo after caloric restriction independent of energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....

  13. Vegetation shift from deciduous to evergreen dwarf shrubs in response to selective herbivory offsets carbon losses: evidence from 19 years of warming and simulated herbivory in the subarctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylänne, Henni; Stark, Sari; Tolvanen, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Selective herbivory of palatable plant species provides a competitive advantage for unpalatable plant species, which often have slow growth rates and produce slowly decomposable litter. We hypothesized that through a shift in the vegetation community from palatable, deciduous dwarf shrubs to unpalatable, evergreen dwarf shrubs, selective herbivory may counteract the increased shrub abundance that is otherwise found in tundra ecosystems, in turn interacting with the responses of ecosystem carbon (C) stocks and CO2 balance to climatic warming. We tested this hypothesis in a 19-year field experiment with factorial treatments of warming and simulated herbivory on the dominant deciduous dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus. Warming was associated with a significantly increased vegetation abundance, with the strongest effect on deciduous dwarf shrubs, resulting in greater rates of both gross ecosystem production (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) as well as increased C stocks. Simulated herbivory increased the abundance of evergreen dwarf shrubs, most importantly Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum, which led to a recent shift in the dominant vegetation from deciduous to evergreen dwarf shrubs. Simulated herbivory caused no effect on GEP and ER or the total ecosystem C stocks, indicating that the vegetation shift counteracted the herbivore-induced C loss from the system. A larger proportion of the total ecosystem C stock was found aboveground, rather than belowground, in plots treated with simulated herbivory. We conclude that by providing a competitive advantage to unpalatable plant species with slow growth rates and long life spans, selective herbivory may promote aboveground C stocks in a warming tundra ecosystem and, through this mechanism, counteract C losses that result from plant biomass consumption. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  15. Shifting horizons: Reflections on qualitative methods

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges of developing methodologies which build on the insights of early feminist research and methods, but which also incorporate some of the new innovations in sociological, qualitative research. Feminist research has emphasized the need to capture the everyday lives of women (and others) but this is not so easy once it is realized how 'messy' everyday life may be and that we may also not have tools adequate to the art of listening and the task of 'story tellin...

  16. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  17. Market shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  18. Tough Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    people to change their behavior at home. Leveraging prior research on encouraging reductions in residential energy use through game play, we introduce ShareBuddy: a casual mobile game intended to encourage players not only to reduce, but also to shift their electricity use. We conducted two field studies...... real-world resource use into a game....

  19. Lossy effects on the lateral shifts in negative-phase-velocity medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of the lateral shifts of the reflected and transmitted beams were performed, using the stationary-phase approach, for the planar interface of a conventional medium and a lossy negative-phase-velocity medium. The lateral shifts exhibit different behaviors beyond and below a certain angle, for both incident p-polarized and incident s-polarized plane waves. Loss in the negative-phase-velocity medium affects lateral shifts greatly, and may cause changes from negative to positive values for p-polarized incidence

  20. Investigating The Relationship Between Structural Geology and Wetland Loss Near Golden Meadow, Louisiana By Utilizing 3D Seismic Reflection and Well Log Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. S.; Zhang, R.; Gottardi, R.; Dawers, N. H.

    2017-12-01

    Wetland loss is one of the greatest environmental and economic threats in the deltaic plain of the Gulf Coast. This loss is controlled by subsidence, sea level rise, decreased sediment supply rates, movement along normal faults, salt tectonics, fluid extraction related to oil, gas and water exploration, and compaction. However, the interplay and feedback between these different processes are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the role of active faulting and salt tectonics on wetland loss in an area located between Golden Meadow and Leeville, Louisiana. Using industry 3D seismic and well log data, we investigate key segments of the Golden Meadow fault zone and map shallow faults that overlie the Leeville salt dome, to compare those fault planes with areas of wetland loss and subsidence. Faults were mapped to a depth of 1200 m, and well logs were tied to the upper 180 m of the seismic data to make accurate projections of the faults to the surface. Preliminary results highlight a graben structure south of a segment of the Golden Meadow fault. Well log and published data from shallow borings reveal a thicker Holocene accumulation at the center of the graben, up to 45 m than on the flanks of the graben. The location of this graben spatially correlates with Catfish Lake, and part of it overlies salt adjacent to the main fault surface. Bayou Lafourche, the main distributary channel of the Lafourche lobe of the Mississippi River delta complex, appears to have its path controlled by faults. Bayou Lafourche changes orientation and flows parallel to, and on the downthrown side of, two radial faults associated with the Leeville salt dome. These preliminary results indicate that there is a relationship between surface geomorphology and subsurface structures that, at least in part, exert a control on wetland loss in southern Louisiana.

  1. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  2. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  3. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  4. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  5. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  6. Goos-Haenchen shift in complex crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Staliunas, Kestutis [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Instituci Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanats (ICREA), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The Goos-Haenchen (GH) effect for wave scattering from complex PT-symmetric periodic potentials (complex crystals) is theoretically investigated, with specific reference to optical GH shift in photonic crystal slabs with a sinusoidal periodic modulation of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The analysis highlights some distinct and rather unique features as compared to the GH shift found in ordinary crystals. In particular, as opposed to GH shift in ordinary crystals, which is large at the band gap edges, in complex crystals the GH shift can be large inside the reflection (amplification) band and becomes extremely large as the PT symmetry-breaking threshold is approached.

  7. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  8. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  9. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  10. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  11. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  12. 12-hour shifts: an ethical dilemma for the nurse executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Susan G

    2008-06-01

    Flexible work hours, including 12-hour shifts, have become a common scheduling option for nurses. The author explores whether 12-hour shifts are an ethical scheduling option for nurses because recent research suggests that 12-hour shifts are a potential hazard to patients. A multistep model for ethical decision making, reflecting the concept of procedural justice, is used to examine this issue.

  13. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element with the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  14. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element wit the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  15. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  16. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  17. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  18. Applied photometry, radiometry, and measurements of optical losses

    CERN Document Server

    Bukshtab, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Applied Photometry, Radiometry, and Measurements of Optical Losses reviews and analyzes physical concepts of radiation transfer, providing quantitative foundation for the means of measurements of optical losses, which affect propagation and distribution of light waves in various media and in diverse optical systems and components. The comprehensive analysis of advanced methodologies for low-loss detection is outlined in comparison with the classic photometric and radiometric observations, having a broad range of techniques examined and summarized: from interferometric and calorimetric, resonator and polarization, phase-shift and ring-down decay, wavelength and frequency modulation to pulse separation and resonant, acousto-optic and emissive - subsequently compared to direct and balancing methods for studying free-space and polarization optics, fibers and waveguides. The material is focused on applying optical methods and procedures for evaluation of transparent, reflecting, scattering, absorbing, and aggregat...

  19. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  20. Choice Shifts in Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kfir Eliaz; Debraj Ray

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of "choice shifts" in group decision-making is fairly ubiquitous in the social psychology literature. Faced with a choice between a ``safe" and ``risky" decision, group members appear to move to one extreme or the other, relative to the choices each member might have made on her own. Both risky and cautious shifts have been identified in different situations. This paper demonstrates that from an individual decision-making perspective, choice shifts may be viewed as a systematic...

  1. Invariant polar bear habitat selection during a period of sea ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; Rode, Karyn D; St Martin, Michelle

    2016-08-17

    Climate change is expected to alter many species' habitat. A species' ability to adjust to these changes is partially determined by their ability to adjust habitat selection preferences to new environmental conditions. Sea ice loss has forced polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to spend longer periods annually over less productive waters, which may be a primary driver of population declines. A negative population response to greater time spent over less productive water implies, however, that prey are not also shifting their space use in response to sea ice loss. We show that polar bear habitat selection in the Chukchi Sea has not changed between periods before and after significant sea ice loss, leading to a 75% reduction of highly selected habitat in summer. Summer was the only period with loss of highly selected habitat, supporting the contention that summer will be a critical period for polar bears as sea ice loss continues. Our results indicate that bears are either unable to shift selection patterns to reflect new prey use patterns or that there has not been a shift towards polar basin waters becoming more productive for prey. Continued sea ice loss is likely to further reduce habitat with population-level consequences for polar bears. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Invariant polar bear habitat selection during a period of sea ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; Rode, Karyn D.; St Martin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter many species' habitat. A species' ability to adjust to these changes is partially determined by their ability to adjust habitat selection preferences to new environmental conditions. Sea ice loss has forced polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to spend longer periods annually over less productive waters, which may be a primary driver of population declines. A negative population response to greater time spent over less productive water implies, however, that prey are not also shifting their space use in response to sea ice loss. We show that polar bear habitat selection in the Chukchi Sea has not changed between periods before and after significant sea ice loss, leading to a 75% reduction of highly selected habitat in summer. Summer was the only period with loss of highly selected habitat, supporting the contention that summer will be a critical period for polar bears as sea ice loss continues. Our results indicate that bears are either unable to shift selection patterns to reflect new prey use patterns or that there has not been a shift towards polar basin waters becoming more productive for prey. Continued sea ice loss is likely to further reduce habitat with population-level consequences for polar bears.

  3. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  4. Insomnia in shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  6. LINGUISTIC REFLECTIONS AND MEANING SHIFTS IN PSALM 23 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paul

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... correspondence in the process of going from the source language ... can occupy the same position in the system of the target language ... power relationships, all conveyed through the use of written texts in communicative ... Lawrence, The Teacher's Commentary) Psalm 23 is unarguably the ... VARIANTS.

  7. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carried...

  8. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  9. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  10. Josephson shift registers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  11. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  12. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  13. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  14. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  15. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  16. Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting User Behaviors, Shifting Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni; Faniel, Ixchel M.

    2014-01-01

    This report suggests that Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan's "Five Laws of Library Science" can be reordered and reinterpreted to reflect today's library resources and services, as well as the behaviors that people demonstrate when engaging with them. Although authors Senior Research Scientist Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Associate Research…

  17. Acceptable losses: the debatable origins of loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad

    2018-04-16

    It is often claimed that negative events carry a larger weight than positive events. Loss aversion is the manifestation of this argument in monetary outcomes. In this review, we examine early studies of the utility function of gains and losses, and in particular the original evidence for loss aversion reported by Kahneman and Tversky (Econometrica  47:263-291, 1979). We suggest that loss aversion proponents have over-interpreted these findings. Specifically, the early studies of utility functions have shown that while very large losses are overweighted, smaller losses are often not. In addition, the findings of some of these studies have been systematically misrepresented to reflect loss aversion, though they did not find it. These findings shed light both on the inability of modern studies to reproduce loss aversion as well as a second literature arguing strongly for it.

  18. Fuzzy Determination of Target Shifting Time and Torque Control of Shifting Phase for Dry Dual Clutch Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the independently developed five-speed dry dual clutch transmission (DDCT, the paper proposes the torque coordinating control strategy between engine and two clutches, which obtains engine speed and clutch transferred torque in the shifting process, adequately reflecting the driver intention and improving the shifting quality. Five-degree-of-freedom (DOF shifting dynamics model of DDCT with single intermediate shaft is firstly established according to its physical characteristics. Then the quantitative control objectives of the shifting process are presented. The fuzzy decision of shifting time and the model-based torque coordinating control strategy are proposed and also verified by simulating under different driving intentions in up-/downshifting processes with the DCT model established on the MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results validate that the shifting control algorithm proposed in this paper can not only meet the shifting quality requirements, but also adapt to the various shifting intentions, having a strong robustness.

  19. Nurses' shift reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify reporting practices that feature in studies of nurses' shift reports across diverse nursing specialities. The objectives were to perform an exhaustive systematic literature search and to critically review the quality and findings of qualitative field studies...... of nurses' shift reports. BACKGROUND: Nurses' shift reports are routine occurrences in healthcare organisations that are viewed as crucial for patient outcomes, patient safety and continuity of care. Studies of communication between nurses attend primarily to 1:1 communication and analyse the adequacy...... and accuracy of patient information and feature handovers at the bedside. Still, verbal reports between groups of nurses about patients are commonplace. Shift reports are obvious sites for studying the situated accomplishment of professional nursing at the group level. This review is focused exclusively...

  20. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  1. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  2. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  3. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  4. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...

  5. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  6. Plasmon Geometric Phase and Plasmon Hall Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.

    2018-04-01

    The collective plasmonic modes of a metal comprise a simple pattern of oscillating charge density that yields enhanced light-matter interaction. Here we unveil that beneath this familiar facade plasmons possess a hidden internal structure that fundamentally alters its dynamics. In particular, we find that metals with nonzero Hall conductivity host plasmons with an intricate current density configuration that sharply departs from that of ordinary zero Hall conductivity metals. This nontrivial internal structure dramatically enriches the dynamics of plasmon propagation, enabling plasmon wave packets to acquire geometric phases as they scatter. At boundaries, these phases accumulate allowing plasmon waves that reflect off to experience a nonreciprocal parallel shift. This plasmon Hall shift, tunable by Hall conductivity as well as plasmon wavelength, displaces the incident and reflected plasmon trajectories and can be readily probed by near-field photonics techniques. Anomalous plasmon geometric phases dramatically enrich the nanophotonics toolbox, and yield radical new means for directing plasmonic beams.

  7. Health consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecklund, Göran; Axelsson, John

    2016-11-01

    This review summarises the literature on shift work and its relation to insufficient sleep, chronic diseases, and accidents. It is based on 38 meta-analyses and 24 systematic reviews, with additional narrative reviews and articles used for outlining possible mechanisms by which shift work may cause accidents and adverse health. Evidence shows that the effect of shift work on sleep mainly concerns acute sleep loss in connection with night shifts and early morning shifts. A link also exists between shift work and accidents, type 2 diabetes (relative risk range 1.09-1.40), weight gain, coronary heart disease (relative risk 1.23), stroke (relative risk 1.05), and cancer (relative risk range 1.01-1.32), although the original studies showed mixed results. The relations of shift work to cardiometabolic diseases and accidents mimic those with insufficient sleep. Laboratory studies indicate that cardiometabolic stress and cognitive impairments are increased by shift work, as well as by sleep loss. Given that the health and safety consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep are very similar, they are likely to share common mechanisms. However, additional research is needed to determine whether insufficient sleep is a causal pathway for the adverse health effects associated with shift work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  9. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  10. Ecosystem regime shifts disrupt trophic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempson, Tessa N; Graham, Nicholas A J; MacNeil, M Aaron; Hoey, Andrew S; Wilson, Shaun K

    2018-01-01

    Regime shifts between alternative stable ecosystem states are becoming commonplace due to the combined effects of local stressors and global climate change. Alternative states are characterized as substantially different in form and function from pre-disturbance states, disrupting the delivery of ecosystem services and functions. On coral reefs, regime shifts are typically characterized by a change in the benthic composition from coral to macroalgal dominance. Such fundamental shifts in the benthos are anticipated to impact associated fish communities that are reliant on the reef for food and shelter, yet there is limited understanding of how regime shifts propagate through the fish community over time, relative to initial or recovery conditions. This study addresses this knowledge gap using long-term data of coral reef regime shifts and recovery on Seychelles reefs following the 1998 mass bleaching event. It shows how trophic structure of the reef fish community becomes increasingly dissimilar between alternative reef ecosystem states (regime-shifted vs. recovering) with time since disturbance. Regime-shifted reefs developed a concave trophic structure, with increased biomass in base trophic levels as herbivorous species benefitted from increased algal resources. Mid trophic level species, including specialists such as corallivores, declined with loss of coral habitat, while biomass was retained in upper trophic levels by large-bodied, generalist invertivores. Recovering reefs also experienced an initial decline in mid trophic level biomass, but moved toward a bottom-heavy pyramid shape, with a wide range of feeding groups (e.g., planktivores, corallivores, omnivores) represented at mid trophic levels. Given the importance of coral reef fishes in maintaining the ecological function of coral reef ecosystems and their associated fisheries, understanding the effects of regime shifts on these communities is essential to inform decisions that enhance ecological

  11. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  12. OPEC 1991 results reflect hard times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that low crude oil prices and economic tough times in industrial countries cause a lean 1991 for members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC's 1991 annual report the member countries reported an overall loss of $12 billion in 1991 on oil revenues that fell 16.2%. Iraq and Kuwait were not included because of their unusual circumstances in the wake of the Persian Gulf war. Reduced oil revenues reflected a slide to $18.66/bbl in 1991 from $22.26/bbl in 1990 for the average price of OPEC basket crudes. As of last June 5 OPEC's basket crude price has averaged only $17.42/bbl this year, OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported. First quarter 1992 prices averaged $16.77/bbl, compared wit $19.31/bbl in fourth quarter 1991. The average price jumped 52 cent/bbl the first week in June this year to $19.93/bbl, bouyed by Saudi Arabia's move at the end of May to shift its policy from price moderation to one in favor of higher prices, Opecna the. OPEC members increased production 1% in 1991 to an average 23.28 million b/d in spite of negligible production from Iraq and Kuwait and reduced production from Qatar

  13. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  14. MANAGEMENT OF CREDIT LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Anoshkina

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the problem of credit loss management topical for modern Russian science and banking practice. The bank’s lending activity is an integral and the most profitable sphere of banking activity. Banks need to take credit risks inherent in their core business and minimize their impact through the establishment of advanced risk management systems. The study, reflected in the present paper, has been conducted in order to determine approaches to the organization of credit loss management in banking. Analysis of the system of management of credit risks and credit losses has shown that they have different scope, object and purpose. In this connection, there is an objective necessity to create a special subsystem for the management of credit losses in banks. On the basis of common bank approaches to credit risk management, the paper develops models of credit loss management: a multi-level management model in the area of ‘operational-tactical-strategic management’ and a functional management model in the area of ‘technology-execution-control’. These models are important for the modern theory and practice of banking, as they allow the bank to manage credit losses on the entire time horizon of the management process, thus opening a wide range of opportunities for the creation and implementation of large-scale programs, as well as specific techniques. This study allows drawing a conclusion about the need to consider control credit losses as a strictly regulated multi-level process, in which each division is assigned with specific objectives, tasks, functions, formally enshrined in the relevant lists, job descriptions and other legal documents.

  15. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Near zero reflection by nanostructured anti-reflection coating design for Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fandi, Mohamed; Makableh, Yahia F.; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Rabady, Rabi

    2018-05-01

    The nanostructure design of near zero reflection coating for Si substrates by using ZnO Nanoneedles (ZnONN) is performed and optimized for the visible spectral range. The design investigates the ZnONN tip to body ratio effect on the anti-reflection coating properties. Different tip to body ratios are used on Si substrates. Around zero reflection is achieved by the Nanoneedles structure design presented in this work, leading to minimal reflection losses from the Si surface. The current design evolves a solution to optical losses and surface contamination effects associated with Si solar cells.

  17. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  18. Spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  19. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  20. Age differences in strategy shift: retrieval avoidance or general shift reluctance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David J; Touron, Dayna R; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults' demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch's (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attending to only that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions that promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults' strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits.

  1. Age Differences in Strategy Shift: Retrieval Avoidance or General Shift Reluctance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David J.; Touron, Dayna R.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults’ demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch’s (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attend only to that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions which promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults’ strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits. PMID:23088195

  2. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  3. Cellular mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabi, Arwa; Keithley, Elizabeth M; Housley, Gary D; Ryan, Allen F; Wong, Ann C-Y

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to intense sound or noise can result in purely temporary threshold shift (TTS), or leave a residual permanent threshold shift (PTS) along with alterations in growth functions of auditory nerve output. Recent research has revealed a number of mechanisms that contribute to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The principle cause of NIHL is damage to cochlear hair cells and associated synaptopathy. Contributions to TTS include reversible damage to hair cell (HC) stereocilia or synapses, while moderate TTS reflects protective purinergic hearing adaptation. PTS represents permanent damage to or loss of HCs and synapses. While the substrates of HC damage are complex, they include the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and the active stimulation of intracellular stress pathways, leading to programmed and/or necrotic cell death. Permanent damage to cochlear neurons can also contribute to the effects of NIHL, in addition to HC damage. These mechanisms have translational potential for pharmacological intervention and provide multiple opportunities to prevent HC damage or to rescue HCs and spiral ganglion neurons that have suffered injury. This paper reviews advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms that contribute to NIHL and their potential for therapeutic manipulation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... night. Good daytime sleep is possible, though, if shift work is a necessary part of your work life. ... mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/expert-answers/shift-work/faq-20057991 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  5. Lanthanide shift reagents, binding, shift mechanisms and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.W.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, when added to a solution of a substrate, induce shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the substrate molecules. The induced shifts contain information about the structure of the shift reagent substrate complex. The structural information, however, may be difficult to extract because of the following effects: (1) different complexes between shift reagent and substrate may be present in solution, e.g. 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, and the shift observed is a weighed average of the shifts of the substrate nuclei in the different complexes; (2) the Fermi contact interaction, arising from the spin density at the nucleus, contributes to the induced shift; (3) chemical exchange effects may complicate the NMR spectrum. In this thesis, the results of an investigation into the influence of these effects on the NMR spectra of solutions containing a substrate and LSR are presented. The equations describing the pseudo contact and the Fermi contact shift are derived. In addition, it is shown how the modified Bloch equations describing the effect of the chemical exchange processes occurring in the systems studied can be reduced to the familiar equations for a two-site exchange case. The binding of mono- and bifunctional ethers to the shift reagent are reported. An analysis of the induced shifts is given. Finally, the results of the experiments performed to study the exchange behavior of dimethoxyethane and heptafluorodimethyloctanedionato ligands are presented

  6. Faktor Dan Penjadualan Shift Kerja

    OpenAIRE

    Maurits, Lientje Setyawati; Widodo, Imam Djati

    2008-01-01

    Work shift has negative effect in physical and mental health, work performance and job accident. Disturbance of circadian rhythms is indicated as source of the problems. This article explores some researches related to the impacts of work shift and establishes basic principles of work shift scheduling that considers human need and limitation.

  7. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  8. The Multidimensional Loss Scale: validating a cross-cultural instrument for measuring loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromans, Lyn; Schweitzer, Robert D; Brough, Mark

    2012-04-01

    The Multidimensional Loss Scale (MLS) represents the first instrument designed specifically to index Experience of Loss Events and Loss Distress across multiple domains (cultural, social, material, and intrapersonal) relevant to refugee settlement. Recently settled Burmese adult refugees (N = 70) completed a questionnaire battery, including MLS items. Analyses explored MLS internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and factor structure. Cronbach alphas indicated satisfactory internal consistency for Experience of Loss Events (0.85) and Loss Distress (0.92), reflecting a unitary construct of multidimensional loss. Loss Distress did not correlate with depression or anxiety symptoms and correlated moderately with interpersonal grief and trauma symptoms, supporting divergent and convergent validity. Factor analysis provided preliminary support for a five-factor model: Loss of Symbolic Self, Loss of Interdependence, Loss of Home, Interpersonal Loss, and Loss of Intrapersonal Integrity. Received well by participants, the new scale shows promise for application in future research and practice.

  9. The Third Perspective on Shifting Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Sharma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are two perspectives in which the understanding of food sustainability in the world is entangled. The first perspective which believes that food sustainability can be achieved by technology presents shifting cultivation as a reflection of a lower state of cultural evolution in comparison with more sophisticated societies (O’Brien 2002.The second perspective which believes in culture, in the ‘way of life’ paradigm valorise shifting cultivation as a form of indigenous genius, representing the indigenous people as perhaps the original environmentalist (Bandy et al.1993; Conklin 1957; Grandstaff 1981; Hong 1987. The biasness of both the perspectives is well visible. The task now is to document and evaluate indigenous strategies of shifting cultivation through a process of research and development. This process involves identification of promising indigenous practices, characterization of the practices, validation of the utility of the practice for other communities, extrapolation to other locations, verification with key farmers, and wide-scale extension. This can be treated as the third perspective available to the policy makers. By this, the detrimental effects of shifting cultivation can be mitigated and productivity increased (Mali 2003.

  10. The shift in windpower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite new production records, the near-term market for new windpower projects in the US remains bleak. Congressional incentives and project proposals in the mid-1990s offer promise, but for now most development has shifted to Europe. During 1992 and 1993 the largest wind projects developed by US companies will not be in the US, but in the United Kingdom and Spain. Indeed, most of the US's windpower industry is going abroad, establishing offices overseas. This move toward Europe comes as little surprise. New project development for US firms has faltered at home while the European market has burgeoned. The topics of the article include the move to Europe, a reduction in California's share of producing wind power plants, a rise in Europe's share of producing wind power plants, the future market for wind power in the US, and reawakening California's market

  11. Energy phase shift as mechanism for catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás

    2012-05-01

    Catalysts are agents that by binding reactant molecules lower the energy barriers to chemical reaction. After reaction the catalyst is regenerated, its unbinding energy recruited from the environment, which is associated with an inevitable loss of energy. We show that combining several catalytic sites to become energetically and temporally phase-shifted relative to each other provides a possibility to sustain the overall reaction by internal \\'energy recycling\\', bypassing the need for thermal activation, and in principle allowing the system to work adiabatically. Using an analytical model for superimposed, phase-shifted potentials of F 1-ATP synthase provides a description integrating main characteristics of this rotary enzyme complex. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An algebraic substructuring using multiple shifts for eigenvalue computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jin Hwan; Jung, Sung Nam; Byun, Do Young; Bai, Zhaojun

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic substructuring (AS) is a state-of-the-art method in eigenvalue computations, especially for large-sized problems, but originally it was designed to calculate only the smallest eigenvalues. Recently, an updated version of AS has been introduced to calculate the interior eigenvalues over a specified range by using a shift concept that is referred to as the shifted AS. In this work, we propose a combined method of both AS and the shifted AS by using multiple shifts for solving a considerable number of eigensolutions in a large-sized problem, which is an emerging computational issue of noise or vibration analysis in vehicle design. In addition, we investigated the accuracy of the shifted AS by presenting an error criterion. The proposed method has been applied to the FE model of an automobile body. The combined method yielded a higher efficiency without loss of accuracy in comparison to the original AS

  13. Regime shifts and resilience in China's coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2016-02-01

    Regime shift often results in large, abrupt, and persistent changes in the provision of ecosystem services and can therefore have significant impacts on human wellbeing. Understanding regime shifts has profound implications for ecosystem recovery and management. China's coastal ecosystems have experienced substantial deterioration within the past decades, at a scale and speed the world has never seen before. Yet, information about this coastal ecosystem change from a dynamics perspective is quite limited. In this review, I synthesize existing information on coastal ecosystem regime shifts in China and discuss their interactions and cascading effects. The accumulation of regime shifts in China's coastal ecosystems suggests that the desired system resilience has been profoundly eroded, increasing the potential of abrupt shifts to undesirable states at a larger scale, especially given multiple escalating pressures. Policy and management strategies need to incorporate resilience approaches in order to cope with future challenges and avoid major losses in China's coastal ecosystem services.

  14. Beam splitter phase shifts: Wave optics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Antonio; Degiorgio, Vittorio

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the phase relationships between transmitted and reflected waves in a lossless beam splitter having a multilayer structure, using the matrix approach as outlined in classical optics books. Contrarily to the case of the quantum optics formalism generally employed to describe beam splitters, these matrices are not unitary. In this note we point out the existence of general relations among the elements of the transfer matrix that describes the multilayer beam splitter. Such relations, which are independent of the detailed structure of the beam splitter, fix the phase shifts between reflected and transmitted waves. It is instructive to see how the results obtained by Zeilinger by using spinor algebra and Pauli matrices can be easily derived from our general relations.

  15. Chemical shift imaging: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brateman, L.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical shift is the phenomenon that is seen when an isotope possessing a nuclear magnetic dipole moment resonates at a spectrum of resonance frequencies in a given magnetic field. These resonance frequencies, or chemical shifts, depend on the chemical environments of particular nuclei. Mapping the spatial distribution of nuclei associated with a particular chemical shift (e.g., hydrogen nuclei associated with water molecules or with lipid groups) is called chemical shift imaging. Several techniques of proton chemical shift imaging that have been applied in vivo are presented, and their clinical findings are reported and summarized. Acquiring high-resolution spectra for large numbers of volume elements in two or three dimensions may be prohibitive because of time constraints, but other methods of imaging lipid of water distributions (i.e., selective excitation, selective saturation, or variations in conventional magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences) can provide chemical shift information. These techniques require less time, but they lack spectral information. Since fat deposition seen by chemical shift imaging may not be demonstrated by conventional magnetic resonance imaging, certain applications of chemical shift imaging, such as in the determination of fatty liver disease, have greater diagnostic utility than conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, edge artifacts caused by chemical shift effects can be eliminated by certain selective methods of data acquisition employed in chemical shift imaging

  16. Shifting Borderland of Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindtner, Silvia; Cohn, Marisa; Leahu, Lucian

    2015-01-01

    other how to navigate changing terrains of technology research and design. To maximize in- depth collaboration between junior and senior scholars, we propose a format that includes in-depth mentoring sessions, panel presentations from junior and senior participants, group activities, and working......Since the publication of Phil Agre’s [1] seminal work on critical technical practice, the sites of intersection between computation and society have multiplied, and so too have the sociotechnical borderlands we inhabit. Critical methodologies such as “critical design” [8,6,5], “reflective design...... like big data and social computing pose new challenges. Given the fluidity of the landscape it is important for us to articulate the specificities of our scholarly borderlands. By bringing together junior and senior scholars we aim to provide a forum for researchers in this area to learn from each...

  17. Mars analog minerals' spectral reflectance characteristics under Martian surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, J. T.; Cloutis, E. A.; Salvatore, M. R.; Mertzman, S. A.; Applin, D. M.; Mann, P.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the spectral reflectance properties of minerals under a simulated Martian environment. Twenty-eight different hydrated or hydroxylated phases of carbonates, sulfates, and silica minerals were selected based on past detection on Mars through spectral remote sensing data. Samples were ground and dry sieved to <45 μm grain size and characterized by XRD before and after 133 days inside a simulated Martian surface environment (pressure 5 Torr and CO2 fed). Reflectance spectra from 0.35 to 4 μm were taken periodically through a sapphire (0.35-2.5 μm) and zinc selenide (2.5-4 μm) window over a 133-day period. Mineral stability on the Martian surface was assessed through changes in spectral characteristics. Results indicate that the hydrated carbonates studied would be stable on the surface of Mars, only losing adsorbed H2O while maintaining their diagnostic spectral features. Sulfates were less stable, often with shifts in the band position of the SO, Fe, and OH absorption features. Silicas displayed spectral shifts related to SiOH and hydration state of the mineral surface, while diagnostic bands for quartz were stable. Previous detection of carbonate minerals based on 2.3-2.5 μm and 3.4-3.9 μm features appears to be consistent with our results. Sulfate mineral detection is more questionable since there can be shifts in band position related to SO4. The loss of the 0.43 μm Fe3+ band in many of the sulfates indicate that there are fewer potential candidates for Fe3+ sulfates to permanently exist on the Martian surface based on this band. The gypsum sample changed phase to basanite during desiccation as demonstrated by both reflectance and XRD. Silica on Mars has been detected using band depth ratio at 1.91 and 1.96 μm and band minimum position of the 1.4 μm feature, and the properties are also used to determine their age. This technique continues to be useful for positive silica identifications, however, silica age appears to be less consistent

  18. Chemical shift homology in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, Barbara C.M.; Chazin, Walter J.

    1998-01-01

    The degree of chemical shift similarity for homologous proteins has been determined from a chemical shift database of over 50 proteins representing a variety of families and folds, and spanning a wide range of sequence homologies. After sequence alignment, the similarity of the secondary chemical shifts of C α protons was examined as a function of amino acid sequence identity for 37 pairs of structurally homologous proteins. A correlation between sequence identity and secondary chemical shift rmsd was observed. Important insights are provided by examining the sequence identity of homologous proteins versus percentage of secondary chemical shifts that fall within 0.1 and 0.3 ppm thresholds. These results begin to establish practical guidelines for the extent of chemical shift similarity to expect among structurally homologous proteins

  19. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  20. Portable shift register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Bourret, S.C.; Hansen, W.J.; Hicks, D.V.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Krick, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M 3 CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M 3 CA; like the M 3 CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel

  1. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  2. At a Loss: Scared and Excited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silin, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the author's struggle to come to terms with multiple personal losses, his observations of young children in early childhood classrooms, and work with novice teachers, this essay points to the generative possibilities embedded in moments of disorienting loss. Constrained by traditional templates of mourning that did not reflect the lived…

  3. A probabilistic approach for validating protein NMR chemical shift assignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bowei; Wang, Yunjun; Wishart, David S.

    2010-01-01

    It has been estimated that more than 20% of the proteins in the BMRB are improperly referenced and that about 1% of all chemical shift assignments are mis-assigned. These statistics also reflect the likelihood that any newly assigned protein will have shift assignment or shift referencing errors. The relatively high frequency of these errors continues to be a concern for the biomolecular NMR community. While several programs do exist to detect and/or correct chemical shift mis-referencing or chemical shift mis-assignments, most can only do one, or the other. The one program (SHIFTCOR) that is capable of handling both chemical shift mis-referencing and mis-assignments, requires the 3D structure coordinates of the target protein. Given that chemical shift mis-assignments and chemical shift re-referencing issues should ideally be addressed prior to 3D structure determination, there is a clear need to develop a structure-independent approach. Here, we present a new structure-independent protocol, which is based on using residue-specific and secondary structure-specific chemical shift distributions calculated over small (3-6 residue) fragments to identify mis-assigned resonances. The method is also able to identify and re-reference mis-referenced chemical shift assignments. Comparisons against existing re-referencing or mis-assignment detection programs show that the method is as good or superior to existing approaches. The protocol described here has been implemented into a freely available Java program called 'Probabilistic Approach for protein Nmr Assignment Validation (PANAV)' and as a web server (http://redpoll.pharmacy.ualberta.ca/PANAVhttp://redpoll.pharmacy.ualberta.ca/PANAV) which can be used to validate and/or correct as well as re-reference assigned protein chemical shifts.

  4. Observation of the Goos-Haenchen Shift with Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, Victor-O. de; Plomp, Jeroen; Rekveldt, Theo M.; Kraan, Wicher H.; Well, Ad A. van; Dalgliesh, Robert M.; Langridge, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The Goos-Haenchen effect is a spatial shift along an interface resulting from an interference effect that occurs for total internal reflection. This phenomenon was suggested by Sir Isaac Newton, but it was not until 1947 that the effect was experimentally observed by Goos and Haenchen. We provide the first direct, absolute, experimental determination of the Goos-Haenchen shift for a particle experiencing a potential well as required by quantum mechanics: namely, wave-particle duality. Here, the particle is a spin-polarized neutron reflecting from a film of magnetized material. We detect the effect through a subtle change in polarization of the neutron. Here, we demonstrate, through experiment and theory, that neutrons do exhibit the Goos-Haenchen effect and postulate that the associated time shift should also be observable.

  5. Observation of the Goos-Hänchen shift with neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Victor-O; Plomp, Jeroen; Rekveldt, Theo M; Kraan, Wicher H; van Well, Ad A; Dalgliesh, Robert M; Langridge, Sean

    2010-01-08

    The Goos-Hänchen effect is a spatial shift along an interface resulting from an interference effect that occurs for total internal reflection. This phenomenon was suggested by Sir Isaac Newton, but it was not until 1947 that the effect was experimentally observed by Goos and Hänchen. We provide the first direct, absolute, experimental determination of the Goos-Hänchen shift for a particle experiencing a potential well as required by quantum mechanics: namely, wave-particle duality. Here, the particle is a spin-polarized neutron reflecting from a film of magnetized material. We detect the effect through a subtle change in polarization of the neutron. Here, we demonstrate, through experiment and theory, that neutrons do exhibit the Goos-Hänchen effect and postulate that the associated time shift should also be observable.

  6. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... of visual aids. Some options include: Magnifiers High power reading glasses Devices that make it easier to ...

  7. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  8. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  9. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  10. Oxidative DNA damage during night shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Randolph, Timothy W; Gong, Jicheng; Buchanan, Diana Taibi; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Davis, Scott

    2017-09-01

    We previously reported that compared with night sleep, day sleep among shift workers was associated with reduced urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), potentially reflecting a reduced ability to repair 8-OH-dG lesions in DNA. We identified the absence of melatonin during day sleep as the likely causative factor. We now investigate whether night work is also associated with reduced urinary excretion of 8-OH-dG. For this cross-sectional study, 50 shift workers with the largest negative differences in night work versus night sleep circulating melatonin levels (measured as 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in urine) were selected from among the 223 shift workers included in our previous study. 8-OH-dG concentrations were measured in stored urine samples using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Mixed effects models were used to compare night work versus night sleep 8-OH-dG levels. Circulating melatonin levels during night work (mean=17.1 ng/mg creatinine/mg creatinine) were much lower than during night sleep (mean=51.7 ng/mg creatinine). In adjusted analyses, average urinary 8-OH-dG levels during the night work period were only 20% of those observed during the night sleep period (95% CI 10% to 30%; psleep, is associated with reduced repair of 8-OH-dG lesions in DNA and that the effect is likely driven by melatonin suppression occurring during night work relative to night sleep. If confirmed, future studies should evaluate melatonin supplementation as a means to restore oxidative DNA damage repair capacity among shift workers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  12. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  13. Particle reflection and TFTR neutral beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O'Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-04-01

    Determination of two critical neutral beam parameters, power and divergence, are affected by the reflection of a fraction of the incident energy from the surface of the measuring calorimeter. On the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand, greater than 30% of the incident power directed at the target chamber calorimeter was unaccounted for. Most of this loss is believed due to reflection from the surface of the flat calorimeter, which was struck at a near grazing incidence (12 degrees). Beamline calorimeters, of a ''V''-shape design, while retaining the beam power, also suffer from reflection effects. Reflection, in this latter case, artificially peaks the power toward the apex of the ''V'', complicating the fitting technique, and increasing the power density on axis by 10 to 20%; an effect of import to future beamline designers. Agreement is found between measured and expected divergence values, even with 24% of the incident energy reflected

  14. Temporary threshold shift after impulse-noise during video game play: laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spankovich, C; Griffiths, S K; Lobariñas, E; Morgenstein, K E; de la Calle, S; Ledon, V; Guercio, D; Le Prell, C G

    2014-03-01

    Prevention of temporary threshold shift (TTS) after laboratory-based exposure to pure-tones, broadband noise, and narrowband noise signals has been achieved, but prevention of TTS under these experimental conditions may not accurately reflect protection against hearing loss following impulse noise. This study used a controlled laboratory-based TTS paradigm that incorporated impulsive stimuli into the exposure protocol; development of this model could provide a novel platform for assessing proposed therapeutics. Participants played a video game that delivered gunfire-like sound through headphones as part of a target practice game. Effects were measured using audiometric threshold evaluations and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The sound level and number of impulses presented were sequentially increased throughout the study. Participants were normal-hearing students at the University of Florida who provided written informed consent prior to participation. TTS was not reliably induced by any of the exposure conditions assessed here. However, there was significant individual variability, and a subset of subjects showed TTS under some exposure conditions. A subset of participants demonstrated reliable threshold shifts under some conditions. Additional experiments are needed to better understand and optimize stimulus parameters that influence TTS after simulated impulse noise.

  15. Inequalities for scattering phase shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, B.; Grosse, H.

    1985-01-01

    A recently developed method, which was used to derive bounds on energy levels, is applied to continuous spectra and gives relations between scattering phase shifts of various angular momenta. (Author)

  16. Isotope shifts in unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    1980-05-01

    Current experimental investigations of isotope shifts in atomic spectra of unstable nuclei and the resulting information about size and shape of nuclei far off stability are discussed with reference to some representative examples. (orig.)

  17. Method for the manufacture of phase shifting masks for EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Daniel G.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Barty, Anton

    2006-04-04

    A method for fabricating an EUV phase shift mask is provided that includes a substrate upon which is deposited a thin film multilayer coating that has a complex-valued reflectance. An absorber layer or a buffer layer is attached onto the thin film multilayer, and the thickness of the thin film multilayer coating is altered to introduce a direct modulation in the complex-valued reflectance to produce phase shifting features.

  18. Dissociable effects of basolateral amygdala lesions on decision making biases in rats when loss or gain is emphasized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Melanie; Cocker, Paul J; Hosking, Jay G; Zeeb, Fiona D; Rogers, Robert D; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2014-12-01

    Individuals switch from risk seeking to risk aversion when mathematically identical options are described in terms of loss versus gains, as exemplified in the reflection and framing effects. Determining the neurobiology underlying such cognitive biases could inform our understanding of decision making in health and disease. Although reports vary, data using human subjects have implicated the amygdala in such biases. Animal models enable more detailed investigation of neurobiological mechanisms. We therefore tested whether basolateral amygdala (BLA) lesions would affect risk preference for gains or losses in rats. Choices in both paradigms were always between options of equal expected value-a guaranteed outcome, or the 50:50 chance of double or nothing. In the loss-chasing task, most rats exhibited strong risk seeking preferences, gambling at the risk of incurring double the penalty, regardless of the size of the guaranteed loss. In the betting task, the majority of animals were equivocal in their choice, irrespective of bet size; however, a wager-sensitive subgroup progressively shifted away from the uncertain option as the bet size increased, which is reminiscent of risk aversion. BLA lesions increased preference for the smaller guaranteed loss in the loss-chasing task, without affecting choice on the betting task, which is indicative of reduced risk seeking for losses, but intact risk aversion for gains. These data support the hypothesis that the amygdala plays a more prominent role in choice biases related to losses. Given the importance of the amygdala in representing negative affect, the aversive emotional reaction to loss, rather than aberrant estimations of probability or loss magnitude, may underlie risk seeking for losses.

  19. Telling it like it is: the adaptive function of narratives in coping with loss in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Scott E; Haslett, Beth J; Burleson, Brant R

    2005-01-01

    As the population ages, caregivers and health care providers need more insight into how people experience old age and their attitudes and emotions about growing older. It is particularly critical to understand how communication processes change and how older adults communicate their concerns and feelings. This article proposes that some discursive activities may play a crucial role in successfully adapting to, and coping with, loss in later life. Thus, this study explored how older adults reflect on and express themselves concerning recent experiences of loss. A sample of 41 residents of 2 independent-living retirement communities wrote in journals about a recent significant loss. Participants wrote about their losses during brief lab sessions over the course of 3 consecutive days. Each set of 3 journals was content-analyzed to measure the frequency with which the participants employed emotional expression, factual recounting, account giving, religious-account giving, humor, intensifiers, and referential statements. The analysis indicates that, overall, participants shifted from a primarily factual mode (what the loss was, how the loss occurred, etc.) to more of a focus on the impact of this loss on their lives (e.g., handling new tasks and expressions of emotions) over the 3 sessions. In addition, most participants offered accounts of their losses; that is, they attempted to find some meaning in the loss and integrate the loss into an overall framework for their lives. Many of these accounts focused on religion. Final sections of the article discuss the implications of journaling as a mechanism for effective coping with loss, as a useful tool for expressing emotions, and as a means for older adults' caregivers and health care providers to better adapt their supportive messages.

  20. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a ...

  1. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  2. Evanescent field phase shifting in a silicon nitride waveguide using a coupled silicon slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Asger Sellerup; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Green, William M. J.

    2015-01-01

    An approach for electrical modulation of low-loss silicon nitride waveguides is proposed, using a silicon nitride waveguide evanescently loaded with a thin silicon slab. The thermooptic phase-shift characteristics are investigated in a racetrack resonator configuration....

  3. Hurricane Loss Analysis Based on the Population-Weighted Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Kakareko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses different measures for quantifying regional hurricane loss. The main measures used in the past are normalized percentage loss and dollar value loss. In this research, we show that these measures are useful but may not properly reflect the size of the population influenced by hurricanes. A new loss measure is proposed that reflects the hurricane impact on people occupying the structure. For demonstrating the differences among these metrics, regional loss analysis was conducted for Florida. The regional analysis was composed of three modules: the hazard module stochastically modeled the wind occurrence in the region; the vulnerability module utilized vulnerability functions developed in this research to calculate the loss; and the financial module quantified the hurricane loss. In the financial module, we calculated three loss metrics for certain region. The first metric is the average annual loss (AAL which represents the expected loss per year in percentage. The second is the average annual dollar loss which represents the expected dollar amount loss per year. The third is the average annual population-weighted loss (AAPL—a new measure proposed in this research. Compared with the AAL, the AAPL reflects the number of people influenced by the hurricane. The advantages of the AAPL are illustrated using three different analysis examples: (1 conventional regional loss analysis, (2 mitigation potential analysis, and (3 forecasted future loss analysis due to the change in population.

  4. Shifting currents: Progress, setbacks, and shifts in policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Dunning, Charles; Robertson, Dale M.

    2016-01-01

    clean water future. More than a decade has passed since our first statewide WOW conversation and the report that captured recommendations from its participants: Waters of Wisconsin: The Future of Our Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Drawing from a diverse and growing set of stakeholders from across the state, the Wisconsin Academy initiated a new conversation in 2012 (known as WOW II) to assess progress in regard to our 2003 recommendations. We also sought to review the status of waters in Wisconsin today. The result of this renewed conversation is Shifting Currents: Progress, Setbacks, and Shifts in Policy and Practice. The new report assesses progress in brief, and explores in greater depth the continuing and emerging challenges to water quality, supply, and aquatic ecosystems in Wisconsin.In this report, we first review the context and frameworks for public decision-making about water and then examine some of the root causes—or “drivers”—and ecological stressors that underlie many of the symptoms we see in the form of pollution or ecosystem degradation in Wisconsin. This is followed by a summary of current water issues, many of which had been identified in the 2003 report and remain relevant today. We examine progress since 2003 but also setbacks, and discuss issues that we are likely to continue to face in the coming decades, including controlling agricultural runoff, mitigating climate change and grappling with its effects on the state’s waters, protecting groundwater from bacterial contamination and other pollutants, and preventing groundwater depletion. We also attempt to anticipate issues on the horizon. We offer a deeper look at some particular challenges, such as phosphorus pollution and groundwater contamination. We then consider the current decision-making framework and how it is shaping our capacity to respond to water challenges in Wisconsin. Finally, we offer recommendations and identify opportunities to safeguard Wisconsin’s waters in the

  5. Principles of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  6. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  7. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-12-12

    'Language shift' is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100-120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the 'natural wastage' as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission.

  8. Nanoscale Electromechanics To Measure Thermal Conductivity, Expansion, and Interfacial Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, John P; Patel, Raj; Borah, Abhinandan; Maliakkal, Carina B; Abhilash, T S; Deshmukh, Mandar M

    2015-11-11

    We study the effect of localized Joule heating on the mechanical properties of doubly clamped nanowires under tensile stress. Local heating results in systematic variation of the resonant frequency; these frequency changes result from thermal stresses that depend on temperature dependent thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient. The change in sign of the linear expansion coefficient of InAs is reflected in the resonant response of the system near a bath temperature of 20 K. Using finite element simulations to model the experimentally observed frequency shifts, we show that the thermal conductivity of a nanowire can be approximated in the 10-60 K temperature range by the empirical form κ = bT W/mK, where the value of b for a nanowire was found to be b = 0.035 W/mK(2), significantly lower than bulk values. Also, local heating allows us to independently vary the temperature of the nanowire relative to the clamping points pinned to the bath temperature. We suggest a loss mechanism (dissipation ~10(-4)-10(-5)) originating from the interfacial clamping losses between the metal and the semiconductor nanostructure.

  9. Shifting schedules: the health effects of reorganizing shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare L; Whitehead, Margaret M; Sowden, Amanda J; Akers, Joanne; Petticrew, Mark P

    2008-05-01

    Approximately one fifth of workers are engaged in some kind of shift work. The harmful effects of shift work on the health and work-life balance of employees are well known. A range of organizational interventions has been suggested to address these negative effects. This study undertook the systematic review (following Quality Of Reporting Of Meta [QUORUM] analyses guidelines) of experimental and quasi-experimental studies, from any country (in any language) that evaluated the effects on health and work-life balance of organizational-level interventions that redesign shift work schedules. Twenty-seven electronic databases (medical, social science, economic) were searched. Data extraction and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent reviewers. Narrative synthesis was performed. The review was conducted between October 2005 and November 2006. Twenty-six studies were found relating to a variety of organizational interventions. No one type of intervention was found to be consistently harmful to workers. However, three types were found to have beneficial effects on health and work-life balance: (1) switching from slow to fast rotation, (2) changing from backward to forward rotation, and (3) self-scheduling of shifts. Improvements were usually at little or no direct organizational cost. However, there were concerns about the generalizability of the evidence, and no studies reported on impacts on health inequalities. This review reinforces the findings of epidemiologic and laboratory-based research by suggesting that certain organizational-level interventions can improve the health of shift workers, their work-life balance, or both. This evidence could be useful when designing interventions to improve the experience of shift work.

  10. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  11. Regime shift of snow days in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Christoph

    2008-06-01

    The number of days with a snow depth above a certain threshold is the key factor for winter tourism in an Alpine country like Switzerland. An investigation of 34 long-term stations between 200 and 1800 m asl (above sea level) going back for at least the last 60 years (1948-2007) shows an unprecedented series of low snow winters in the last 20 years. The signal is uniform despite high regional differences. A shift detection analysis revealed a significant step-like decrease in snow days at the end of the 1980's with no clear trend since then. This abrupt change resulted in a loss of 20% to 60% of the total snow days. The stepwise increase of the mean winter temperature at the end of the 1980's and its close correlation with the snow day anomalies corroborate the sensitivity of the mid-latitude winter to the climate change induced temperature increase.

  12. SAT in shift manager training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, F.

    1995-01-01

    EDF has improved the organization of the operation shift teams with the replacement of shift supervisor in shift manager function. The shift manager is not only responsible for tasks associated to plant operation (production), but he is also responsible for safety of these tasks and for management of shift team members. A job analysis of this new job position has been performed in order to design the training programme. It resulted in a 10-month training programme that includes 8 weeks in safety-related topics and 12 weeks in soft-skills related topics. The safety related training courses are mandatory, the other courses are optional courses depending on individual trainee needs. The training also includes the development of management competencies. During the 10 month period, each trainee develops an individual project that is evaluated by NPP manager. As well, as group project is undertaken by the trainees and overseen by a steering committee. The steering committee participates in the evaluation process and provides operational experience feedback to the trainee groups and to the overall programme

  13. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  14. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain...

  15. Clips supporting and spacing flanged sheets of reflective insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to clips, spacing and supporting flanged sheets of reflective insulation used to encase the main body and associated piping of nuclear reactors to minimize heat and radiation losses. (UK)

  16. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  17. Understanding Grief and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the process of adapting to life after a loss. It is influenced by each person’s society, culture, and religion. Bereavement is the state of having experienced a loss. Common grief reactions Reactions to loss are called ...

  18. Nonlocal optical effects on the Goos–Hänchen shifts at multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Bian, Tingting; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Leung, P T

    2016-01-01

    The lateral beam shift of light incident on a multilayered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) is investigated using a theoretical model which emphasizes the nonlocal optical response of the indefinite material. By applying an effective local response theory formulated recently in the literature, it is found that nonlocal effects only affect p polarized light in this Goos–Hänchen (GH) shift of the incident beam; leading to a blue-shifted peak for positive shifts at high frequencies and red-shifted dip for negative shifts at low frequencies in the GH shift spectrum. An account for the observed phenomenon is given by referring to the ‘Brewster condition’ for the reflected wave from the HMM. This observation thus provides a relatively direct probe for the nonlocal response of the HMM. (paper)

  19. Error Analysis of High Frequency Core Loss Measurement for Low-Permeability Low-Loss Magnetic Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niroumand, Farideh Javidi; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    in magnetic cores is B-H loop measurement where two windings are placed on the core under test. However, this method is highly vulnerable to phase shift error, especially for low-permeability, low-loss cores. Due to soft saturation and very low core loss, low-permeability low-loss magnetic cores are favorable...... in many of the high-efficiency high power-density power converters. Magnetic powder cores, among the low-permeability low-loss cores, are very attractive since they possess lower magnetic losses in compared to gapped ferrites. This paper presents an analytical study of the phase shift error in the core...... loss measuring of low-permeability, low-loss magnetic cores. Furthermore, the susceptibility of this measurement approach has been analytically investigated under different excitations. It has been shown that this method, under square-wave excitation, is more accurate compared to sinusoidal excitation...

  20. Does the ARFIMA really shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have long-memory features similar to those associated to processes generated under fractional integration. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification, that allows to disentangle the level...... the highest power compared to other existing tests for spurious long-memory. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach on the daily series of bipower variation and share turnover and on the monthly inflation series of G7 countries....... shift term from the ARFIMA component. The estimation is carried out via a state-space methodology and it leads to a robust estimate of the fractional integration parameter also in presence of level shifts.The Monte Carlo simulations show that this approach produces unbiased estimates of the fractional...

  1. Loss-Chasing, Alexithymia and Impulsivity: Alexithymia as a precursor to loss-chasing when gambling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Anthony Bibby

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship between loss-chasing, the propensity to continue gambling to recover from losses, alexithymia, a personality trait associated poor emotional processing and impulsivity, the tendency to act quickly without reflection or consideration of the consequences.Method: Two experiments are reported (E1: N=60, Males, 11; Age, 21.6 years. E2: N=49, Males, 22; Age, 21.1 years. In experiment 1, two groups (low alexithymia, high alexithymia completed the Cambridge Gambling Task. Loss-chasing behaviour was investigated. In experiment 2, both alexithymia (low, high and impulsivity (low, high were examined also using the CGT. A further change was the order of bet proportion from ascending to descending. Results: Experiment 1 shows loss-chasing behaviour in participants high in alexithymia but not those low in alexithymia (η_p^2=.09. Experiment 2 shows loss-chasing behaviour in participants both low and high in alexithymia but it was greater for participants high in alexithymia (η_p^2=.09. The effect of impulsivity was not statistically significant (η_p^2=.01. Loss-chasing behaviour was correlated with the emotional facets of alexithymia but not the cognitive facet. Conclusions: Alexithymia is a precursor to loss-chasing when gambling and loss-chasing reflects the cognitive and emotional aspects of gambling. Specifically, the tendency to loss-chase depends on the need to recoup previous losses and failure to process the emotional consequences of those losses.

  2. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  3. Transmission and reflection properties of terahertz fractal metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Cooke, David

    2010-01-01

    We use THz time-domain spectroscopy to investigate transmission and reflection properties of metallic fractal metamaterial structures. We observe loss of free-space energy at certain resonance frequencies, indicating excitation of surface modes of the metamaterial.......We use THz time-domain spectroscopy to investigate transmission and reflection properties of metallic fractal metamaterial structures. We observe loss of free-space energy at certain resonance frequencies, indicating excitation of surface modes of the metamaterial....

  4. Morphisms Between Sofic Shift Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Agentoft

    The lower entropy factor problem asks for necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a factor map from a (mixing) sofic shift space onto another (mixing) sofic subshift of lower entropy. The problem was posed by Mike Boyle in 1984. It remains an open problem, but the present thesis...... gives a re-formulation which can be used to effectively decide the question for a larger class of sofic shifts than all previous results. In addition, the methods are used to make progress on the corresponding embedding problem which asks for necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence...

  5. Shift-Variant Multidimensional Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-29

    x,y;u,v) is the system response at (x,y) to an unit impulse applied at (u,v). The presence of additive noise in the preceding input-output model of a...space model developed works very effi- ciently to deblur images affected by 2-D linear shift- varying blurs, its use, in presence of noise needs to be...causal linear shift-variant (LSV) system, whose impulse res- ponse is a K-th order degenerate sequence, a K-th order state-space model was obtained

  6. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  7. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  8. Loss restlessness and gain calmness: durable effects of losses and gains on choice switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad; Zahavi, Gal; Arditi, Eli

    2015-08-01

    While the traditional conceptualization of the effect of losses focuses on bias in the subjective weight of losses compared with respective gains, some accounts suggest more global task-related effects of losses. Based on a recent attentional theory, we predicted a positive after-effect of losses on choice switching in later tasks. In two experimental studies, we found increased choice switching rates in tasks with losses compared to tasks with no losses. Additionally, this heightened shifting behavior was maintained in subsequent tasks that do not include losses, a phenomenon we refer to as "loss restlessness." Conversely, gains were found to have an opposite "calming" effect on choice switching. Surprisingly, the loss restlessness phenomenon was observed following an all-losses payoff regime but not after a task with symmetric mixed gains and losses. This suggests that the unresolved mental account following an all-losses regime increases search behavior. Potential implications to macro level phenomena, such as the leverage effect, are discussed.

  9. Gain-assisted control of the Goos-Haenchen shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziauddin,; Qamar, Sajid [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-11-15

    A gain-assisted model is considered to study the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift behavior in the reflected and transmitted light. In this model, a probe light is incident on a cavity containing three-level dilute gaseous atomic medium. The atom-field interaction follows two-photon Raman transitions, and the dielectric susceptibility of the medium exhibits dispersion and gain properties [L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature (London) 406, 227 (2000)]. Under appropriate conditions, two gain peaks are observed with anomalous dispersion between the peaks, whereas normal dispersion can be observed at and around the gain maxima. The manipulation of the detuning associated with the probe light field which interacts with the intracavity medium during its propagation through the cavity can lead to a control over negative and positive GH shift in the reflected and transmitted light beam via the anomalous and normal dispersion of the medium.

  10. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  11. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  12. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  13. Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) Monitor Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The CAPS PMex monitor is a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction instrument. It operates as an optical extinction spectrometer, using a visible-light-emitting diode (LED) as the light source, a sample cell incorporating two high-reflectivity mirrors centered at the wavelength of the LED, and a vacuum photodiode detector. Its efficacy is based on the fact that aerosols are broadband scatterers and absorbers of light.

  14. Simple method for measuring reflectance of optical coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Gui Wang; Yi Sheng Chen

    1995-01-01

    The quality of optical coatings has an important effect on the performance of optical instrument. The last few years, the requirements for super low loss dielectric mirror coatings used in low gain laser systems such as free electron laser and the ring laser etc., have given an impetus to the development of the technology of precise reflectance measurement of optical coatings. A reliable and workable technique is to measure the light intensity decay time of optical resonant cavity. This paper describes a measuring method which is dependent on direct measurement of the light intensity decay time of a resonant cavity comprised of low loss optical components. According to the evolution of a luminous flux stored inside the cavity, this method guarantees not only a quick and precise reflectance measurements of low loss highly reflecting mirror coatings but also transmittance measurements of low loss antireflection coatings and is especially effective with super los loss highly reflecting mirror. From the round-trip path length of the cavity and the speed of light, the light intensity exponential decay time of an optical cavity is easy to obtain and the cavity losses can be deduced. An optical reflectance of low loss highly mirror coatings and antireflection coatings is precisely measured as well. This is highly significant for the discrimination of the coating surface characteristics, the improvement of the performance of optical instrument and the development of high technology

  15. Leadership Shifts in Changing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    As groups representing local and state education players struggle to remain relevant in a policy conversation often dominated by foundations, think tanks, new advocacy groups, and political and business figures, a shift in leadership has been under way at major associations. Most of the changes have come as part of the natural churn; former…

  16. Crichton's phase-shift ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P.W.; Mehta, N.; Roo, M. de

    1973-01-01

    A re-examination of the SPD phase-shift ambiguity is made with a view to understanding certain singular features of the elastic unitarity constraint. An explicit solution of Crichton's equations is presented, and certain features of this solution are displayed graphically. In particular, it is shown

  17. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  18. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  19. Pathophysiology of Age-Related Hearing Loss (Peripheral and Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) refers to bilaterally symmetrical hearing loss resulting from aging process. Presbycusis is a complex phenomenon characterized by audiometric threshold shift, deterioration in speech-understanding and speech-perception difficulties in noisy environments. Factors contributing to presbycusis include mitochondria DNA mutation, genetic disorders including Ahl, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic disease and other systemic diseases in the intrinsic aspects. Ext...

  20. Goos-Hänchen shift of partially coherent light fields in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Qamar, Sajid; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2016-05-01

    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in the reflected light are investigated both for p and s polarized partial coherent light beams incident on epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. In contrary to the coherent counterparts, the magnitude of GH shift becomes non-zero for p polarized partial coherent light beam; while GH shift can be relatively large with a small degree of spatial coherence for s polarized partial coherent beam. Dependence on the beam width and the permittivity of ENZ metamaterials is also revealed for partial coherent light fields. Our results on the GH shifts provide a direction on the applications for partial coherent light sources in ENZ metamaterials.

  1. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  2. Laser frequency stabilization and shifting by using modulation transfer spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bing; Wang, Zhao-Ying; Wu, Bin; Xu, Ao-Peng; Wang, Qi-Yu; Xu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    The stabilizing and shifting of laser frequency are very important for the interaction between the laser and atoms. The modulation transfer spectroscopy for the 87Rb atom with D2 line transition F = 2 → F' = 3 is used for stabilizing and shifting the frequency of the external cavity grating feedback diode laser. The resonant phase modulator with electro—optical effect is used to generate frequency sideband to lock the laser frequency. In the locking scheme, circularly polarized pump- and probe-beams are used. By optimizing the temperature of the vapor, the pump- and probe-beam intensity, the laser linewidth of 280 kHz is obtained. Furthermore, the magnetic field generated by a solenoid is added into the system. Therefore the system can achieve the frequency locking at any point in a range of hundreds of megahertz frequency shifting with very low power loss.

  3. Evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome in ethnobotanical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazaki, Natalia; Herbst, Dannieli Firme; Marques, Mel Simionato; Vandebroek, Ina

    2013-11-14

    The shifting baseline syndrome is a concept from ecology that can be analyzed in the context of ethnobotanical research. Evidence of shifting baseline syndrome can be found in studies dealing with intracultural variation of knowledge, when knowledge from different generations is compared and combined with information about changes in the environment and/or natural resources. We reviewed 84 studies published between 1993 and 2012 that made comparisons of ethnobotanical knowledge according to different age classes. After analyzing these studies for evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome (lower knowledge levels in younger generations and mention of declining abundance of local natural resources), we searched within these studies for the use of the expressions "cultural erosion", "loss of knowledge", or "acculturation". The studies focused on different groups of plants (e.g. medicinal plants, foods, plants used for general purposes, or the uses of specific important species). More than half of all 84 studies (57%) mentioned a concern towards cultural erosion or knowledge loss; 54% of the studies showed evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome; and 37% of the studies did not provide any evidence of shifting baselines (intergenerational knowledge differences but no information available about the abundance of natural resources). The general perception of knowledge loss among young people when comparing ethnobotanical repertoires among different age groups should be analyzed with caution. Changes in the landscape or in the abundance of plant resources may be associated with changes in ethnobotanical repertoires held by people of different age groups. Also, the relationship between the availability of resources and current plant use practices rely on a complexity of factors. Fluctuations in these variables can cause changes in the reference (baseline) of different generations and consequently be responsible for differences in intergenerational knowledge. Unraveling

  4. Dialogic Reflection and Journaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Herman Woodrow; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Notes that educators at all levels are involved in a paradigm shift--from the view that knowledge is an external entity existing independently of human thought and action to knowledge as mutually constructed by teacher and student. Describes the use of a double-entry journal that engages learners actively in constructing their own meanings. (RS)

  5. Reflections on Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lisette

    1999-01-01

    Examines aspects of cross-cultural studies, delineates a concept of culture, explores the interplay of culture and ethics, and analyzes the shifting cultural and economic values as issues that either the economists or the humanists will deal with under the banner of the future global village. (Author/VWL)

  6. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  7. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  8. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  9. Shifts in Selective Pressures on Snake Phototransduction Genes Associated with Photoreceptor Transmutation and Dim-Light Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Ryan K; Van Nynatten, Alexander; Card, Daren C; Castoe, Todd A; S W Chang, Belinda

    2018-06-01

    The visual systems of snakes are heavily modified relative to other squamates, a condition often thought to reflect their fossorial origins. Further modifications are seen in caenophidian snakes, where evolutionary transitions between rod and cone photoreceptors, termed photoreceptor transmutations, have occurred in many lineages. Little previous work, however, has focused on the molecular evolutionary underpinnings of these morphological changes. To address this, we sequenced seven snake eye transcriptomes and utilized new whole-genome and targeted capture sequencing data. We used these data to analyze gene loss and shifts in selection pressures in phototransduction genes that may be associated with snake evolutionary origins and photoreceptor transmutation. We identified the surprising loss of rhodopsin kinase (GRK1), despite a low degree of gene loss overall and a lack of relaxed selection early during snake evolution. These results provide some of the first evolutionary genomic corroboration for a dim-light ancestor that lacks strong fossorial adaptations. Our results also indicate that snakes with photoreceptor transmutation experienced significantly different selection pressures from other reptiles. Significant positive selection was found primarily in cone-specific genes, but not rod-specific genes, contrary to our expectations. These results reveal potential molecular adaptations associated with photoreceptor transmutation and also highlight unappreciated functional differences between rod- and cone-specific phototransduction proteins. This intriguing example of snake visual system evolution illustrates how the underlying molecular components of a complex system can be reshaped in response to changing selection pressures.

  10. The dissimilar time course of temporary threshold shifts and reduction of inhibition in the inferior colliculus following intense sound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeringa, A N; van Dijk, P

    2014-06-01

    Excessive noise exposure is known to produce an auditory threshold shift, which can be permanent or transient in nature. Recent studies showed that noise-induced temporary threshold shifts are associated with loss of synaptic connections to the inner hair cells and with cochlear nerve degeneration, which is reflected in a decreased amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). This suggests that, despite normal auditory thresholds, central auditory processing may be abnormal. We recorded changes in central auditory processing following a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. Anesthetized guinea pigs were exposed for 1 h to a pure tone of 11 kHz (124 dB sound pressure level). Hearing thresholds, amplitudes of ABR waves I and IV, and spontaneous and tone-evoked firing rates in the inferior colliculus (IC) were assessed immediately, one week, two weeks, and four weeks post exposure. Hearing thresholds were elevated immediately following overexposure, but recovered within one week. The amplitude of the ABR wave I was decreased in all sound-exposed animals for all test periods. In contrast, the ABR wave IV amplitude was only decreased immediately after overexposure and recovered within a week. The proportion of IC units that show inhibitory responses to pure tones decreased substantially up to two weeks after overexposure, especially when stimulated with high frequencies. The proportion of excitatory responses to low frequencies was increased. Spontaneous activity was unaffected by the overexposure. Despite rapid normalization of auditory thresholds, our results suggest an increased central gain following sound exposure and an abnormal balance between excitatory and inhibitory responses in the midbrain up to two weeks after overexposure. These findings may be associated with hyperacusis after a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  12. Prevalence of workers with shifts in hearing by industry: a comparison of OSHA and NIOSH Hearing Shift Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Elizabeth A; Sweeney, Marie Haring; Deddens, James A; Themann, Christa L; Wall, David K

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of workers with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health significant threshold shifts (NSTS), Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard threshold shifts (OSTS), and with OSTS with age correction (OSTS-A), by industry using North American Industry Classification System codes. From 2001 to 2010, worker audiograms were examined. Prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios for NSTS were estimated by industry. NSTS, OSTS, and OSTS-A prevalences were compared by industry. Twenty percent of workers had an NSTS, 14% had an OSTS, and 6% had an OSTS-A. For most industries, the OSTS and OSTS-A criteria identified 28% to 36% and 66% to 74% fewer workers than the NSTS criteria, respectively. Use of NSTS criteria allowing for earlier detection of shifts in hearing is recommended for improved prevention of occupational hearing loss.

  13. [Burden and health effects of shift work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Jörg

    2010-10-01

    In Germany aprox. 15% of all employees have irregular or flexible working hours. Disturbed sleep and/or hypersomnia are direct consequences of shift work and therefore described as shift work disorder. Beyond this, shift work can also be associated with specific pathological disorders. There are individual differences in tolerance to shift work. Optimization of both shift schedules and sleep to "non-physiological" times of the day are measures to counteract the negative effects of shift work. There is still not enough evidence to recommend drugs for routine use in shift workers. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  15. Special training of shift personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    The first step of on-the-job training is practical observation phase in an operating Nuclear Plant, where the participants are assigned to shift work. The simulator training for operating personnel, for key personnel and, to some extent, also for maintenance personnel and specialists give the practical feeling for Nuclear Power Plant behaviour during normal and abnormal conditions. During the commissioning phase of the own Nuclear Power Plant, which is the most important practical training, the participants are integrated into the commissioning staff and assisted during their process of practical learning by special instructors. The preparation for the licensing exams is vitally important for shift personnel and special courses are provided after the first non-nuclear trial operation of the plant. Personnel training also includes performance of programmes and material for retraining, training of instructors and assistance in building up special training programmes and material as well as training centers. (orig./RW)

  16. Experimental observation of parametric effects near period doubling in a loss-modulated CO2 laser

    OpenAIRE

    Chizhevsky, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    A number of parametric effects, such as suppression of period doubling, shift of the bifurcation point, scaling law relating the shift and the perturbation amplitude, influence of the detuning on the suppression, reaching of the maximum gain between the original and shifted bifurcation points, and scaling law for idler power are experimentally observed near period doubling bifurcation in a loss-driven CO2 laser that is subjected to periodic loss perturbations at a frequency that is close to a...

  17. The role of serotonin in nonnormative risky choice: the effects of tryptophan supplements on the "reflection effect" in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susannah E; Longhitano, Carlo; Ayres, Rachael E; Cowen, Philip J; Harmer, Catherine J; Rogers, Robert D

    2009-09-01

    Risky decision-making involves weighing good and bad outcomes against their probabilities in order to determine the relative values of candidate actions. Although human decision-making sometimes conforms to rational models of how this weighting is achieved, irrational (or nonnormative) patterns of risky choice, including shifts between risk-averse and risk-seeking choices involving equivalent-value gambles (the "reflection effect"), are frequently observed. In the present experiment, we investigated the role of serotonin in decision-making under conditions of uncertainty. Fifteen healthy adult volunteers received a treatment of 3 g per day of the serotonin precursor, tryptophan, in the form of dietary supplements over a 14-day period, whereas 15 age- and IQ-matched control volunteers received a matched placebo substance. At test, all participants completed a risky decision-making task involving a series of choices between two simultaneously presented gambles, differing in the magnitude of their possible gains, the magnitude of their possible losses, and the probabilities with which these outcomes were delivered. Tryptophan supplements were associated with alterations in the weighting of gains and small losses perhaps reflecting reduced loss-aversion, and a marked and significant diminution of the reflection effect. We conclude that serotonin activity plays a significant role in nonnormative risky decision-making under conditions of uncertainty.

  18. Shift work as an oxidative stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Pasalar Parvin; Farahani Saeed; Sharifian Akbar; Gharavi Marjan; Aminian Omid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Some medical disorders have higher prevalence in shift workers than others. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of night-shift-working on total plasma antioxidant capacity, with respect to the causative role of oxidative stress in induction of some of these disorders. Methods Two blood samples were taken from 44 workers with a rotational shift schedule, one after their day shift and one after their night shift. The total plasma antioxidant capacity of each worke...

  19. Perihelium shifts in central potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, A.E.A.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Motivated by the rigorous results on level ordering for arbitrary central potentials recently derived in the literature a classical treatment of the perihelium shifts is presented, based on the consideration of those orbits which lie in the vicinity of a circular orbit. The role played by the Laplacian of the potential is emphasized. By the same approach Bertrand's theorem is also discussed, in connection with Arnold's proof. (Author) [pt

  20. Multicolor Holography With Phase Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1996-01-01

    Prototype apparatus constructed to test feasibility of two-color holographic interferometric scheme in which data for reconstructing holographic wavefront obtained with help of phase-shifting technique. Provides two sets of data needed to solve equations for effects of temperature and concentration. Concept extended to holography at three or more wavelengths to measure three or more phenomena associated with significant variations in index of refraction

  1. Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  2. PSYCHE Pure Shift NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroozandeh, Mohammadali; Morris, Gareth; Nilsson, Mathias

    2018-03-13

    Broadband homodecoupling techniques in NMR, also known as "pure shift" methods, aim to enhance spectral resolution by suppressing the effects of homonuclear coupling interactions to turn multiplet signals into singlets. Such techniques typically work by selecting a subset of "active" nuclear spins to observe, and selectively inverting the remaining, "passive", spins to reverse the effects of coupling. Pure Shift Yielded by Chirp Excitation (PSYCHE) is one such method; it is relatively recent, but has already been successfully implemented in a range of different NMR experiments. Paradoxically, PSYCHE is one of the trickiest of pure shift NMR techniques to understand but one of the easiest to use. Here we offer some insights into theoretical and practical aspects of the method, and into the effects and importance of the experimental parameters. Some recent improvements that enhance the spectral purity of PSYCHE spectra will be presented, and some experimental frameworks including examples in 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, for the implementation of PSYCHE will be introduced. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. PREGNANCY LOSS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibary A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy loss is an important aspect of equine practice due to the economic and emotional loss that it engenders. Pregnancy loss is often divided in two categories: early pregnancy loss (EPL or embryonic death (ED (first 42 days and fetal losses (after 42 days. Diagnosis of the causes of pregnancy loss is often very challenging. Many of the causes of EPL remain poorly documented but studies on embryo development and embryo-uterine interaction have been able to shed some light on predisposing factors. Fetal losses or abortions are dominated by infectious causes and particularly bacterial placentitis. Detailed reviews of pregnancy loss were recently published by the authors (Tibary et al., 2012; Tibary and Pearson, 2012; Tibary et al., 2014. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and prevention of pregnancy loss in the mare.

  4. Flow control for oblique shock wave reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Giepman, R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are prevalent in many aerospace applications that involve transonic or supersonic flows. Such interactions may lead to boundary layer separation, flow unsteadiness and substantial losses in the total pressure. Flow control techniques can help to mitigate these adverse effects and stabilize the interaction. This thesis focuses on passive flow control techniques for oblique shock wave reflections on flat plates and presents experimental results for both la...

  5. Casimir-Polder shifts on quantum levitation states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépin, P.-P.; Dufour, G.; Guérout, R.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.

    2017-03-01

    An ultracold atom above a horizontal mirror experiences quantum reflection from the attractive Casimir-Polder interaction, which holds it against gravity and leads to quantum levitation states. We analyze this system by using a Liouville transformation of the Schrödinger equation and a Langer coordinate adapted to problems with a classical turning point. Reflection on the Casimir-Polder attractive well is replaced by reflection on a repulsive wall, and the problem is then viewed as an ultracold atom trapped inside a cavity with gravity and Casimir-Polder potentials acting, respectively, as top and bottom mirrors. We calculate numerically Casimir-Polder shifts of the energies of the cavity resonances and propose an approximate treatment which is precise enough to discuss spectroscopy experiments aimed at tests of the weak-equivalence principle on antihydrogen. We also discuss the lifetimes by calculating complex energies associated with cavity resonances.

  6. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  7. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McCann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor’s reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  8. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  9. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  10. Eye blinking in an avian species is associated with gaze shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2016-08-30

    Even when animals are actively monitoring their environment, they lose access to visual information whenever they blink. They can strategically time their blinks to minimize information loss and improve visual functioning but we have little understanding of how this process operates in birds. This study therefore examined blinking in freely-moving peacocks (Pavo cristatus) to determine the relationship between their blinks, gaze shifts, and context. Peacocks wearing a telemetric eye-tracker were exposed to a taxidermy predator (Vulpes vulpes) and their blinks and gaze shifts were recorded. Peacocks blinked during the majority of their gaze shifts, especially when gaze shifts were large, thereby timing their blinks to coincide with periods when visual information is already suppressed. They inhibited their blinks the most when they exhibited high rates of gaze shifts and were thus highly alert. Alternative hypotheses explaining the link between blinks and gaze shifts are discussed.

  11. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

  12. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  13. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  14. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  15. OI Issues: Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signals normally to the brain. In addition, hearing losses are classified according to the degree of severity: • Mild, • Moderate, • Severe, • Profound. Hearing losses are also classified according to the sound frequency ...

  16. Early Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go on to have successful pregnancies. Repeated pregnancy losses are rare. Testing and evaluation can be done ... find a cause if you have several pregnancy losses. Even if no cause is found, most couples ...

  17. Occupational hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001048.htm Occupational hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Occupational hearing loss is damage to the inner ear from noise ...

  18. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D linked to miscarriage among women with prior pregnancy loss Release: Anti-HIV drug combination does not increase preterm birth risk, study suggests Release: Elevated blood pressure before pregnancy may increase chance of pregnancy loss All related ...

  19. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Coping With Memory Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... be evaluated by a health professional. What Causes Memory Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of ...

  20. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  1. Myopic loss aversion revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Blavatskyy, Pavlo; Pogrebna, Ganna

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we reexamine several experimental papers on myopic loss aversion by analyzing individual rather than aggregate choice patterns. We find that the behavior of the majority of subjects is inconsistent with the hypothesis of myopic loss aversion.

  2. Visual attention shifting in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Annette E; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal visual attention has been frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal shifting of visual attention is related to abnormal development of social cognition and has been identified as a key neuropsychological finding in ASD. Better characterizing attention shifting in ASD and its relationship with social functioning may help to identify new targets for intervention and improving social communication in these disorders. Thus, the current study investigated deficits in attention shifting in ASD as well as relationships between attention shifting and social communication in ASD and neurotypicals (NT). To investigate deficits in visual attention shifting in ASD, 20 ASD and 20 age- and gender-matched NT completed visual search (VS) and Navon tasks with attention-shifting demands as well as a set-shifting task. VS was a feature search task with targets defined in one of two dimensions; Navon required identification of a target letter presented at the global or local level. Psychomotor and processing speed were entered as covariates. Relationships between visual attention shifting, set shifting, and social functioning were also examined. ASD and NT showed comparable costs of shifting attention. However, psychomotor and processing speed were slower in ASD than in NT, and psychomotor and processing speed were positively correlated with attention-shifting costs on Navon and VS, respectively, for both groups. Attention shifting on VS and Navon were correlated among NT, while attention shifting on Navon was correlated with set shifting among ASD. Attention-shifting costs on Navon were positively correlated with restricted and repetitive behaviors among ASD. Relationships between attention shifting and psychomotor and processing speed, as well as relationships between measures of different aspects of visual attention shifting, suggest inefficient top-down influences over preattentive visual processing in ASD. Inefficient attention shifting may be

  3. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  4. Worship, Reflection, Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Dong,

    2012-01-01

    In my youth, I was a worshipper of Mao Zedong. From the latter stage of the Mao Era to the early years of Reform and Opening, I began to reflect on Mao and the Communist Revolution he launched. In recent years I’ve devoted myself to empirical historical research on Mao, seeking the truth about Mao and China’s modern history.

  5. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  6. Reflections on 21 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.; Mandel, H.; Teller, E.

    1977-01-01

    Personal reflections after twenty one years of nuclear power are presented by a number of those who were international figures in the nuclear energy field during that period. Lessons learnt, achievements, prospects and predictions for the future are discussed in eleven brief surveys. (U.K.)

  7. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  8. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  9. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  10. Onward: Reflections on Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberley Buster

    2018-01-01

    The author has been blessed with great mentors throughout her career. When she was invited to participate in the Leadership University of Mary Washington (UMW), a mentoring program at her institution, she did not hesitate to say yes. In this article, the author shares her reflections on mentoring.

  11. Interferometric reflection moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Combell, Olivier

    1995-06-01

    A new reflection moire technique is introduced in this paper. The basic equations that relate the measurement of slopes to the basic geometric and optical parameters of the system are derived. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are discussed. Examples of application to the study of silicon wafers and electronic chips are given.

  12. Reflection on robotic intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the development or robots, both their physical shape as well as their intelligence. The later strongly depends on the progress made in the artificial intelligence (AI) community which does not yet provide the models and tools necessary to create intelligent robots. It is time

  13. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  14. Reflecting on Writing Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The following reflections relate to the reasons for and an approach to an autobiographic task, the notions that underpin it, and some thoughts about the quality and value of such a project. The focus was on the ways one views curriculum change over time; and the intention was to provide an example that others may sense as either familiar or at…

  15. Reflections on the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Reflections on the field of special education offer six ideas: (1) the value of science; (2) the continuing value of separate and special education for some students; (3) the continuing importance of prevention; (4) the importance of academic instruction; (5) the importance of social justice for the poor; and (6) a renewed emphasis on human…

  16. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  17. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in this ... head are in the resting phase. What Causes Hair Loss? Men, especially older men, are the ones who ...

  18. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  19. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-disaster reflections

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 88, NO. 10, 25 MAY 2005 during the growth and development of plant species? To overcome serious env i- ronmental risks from transgenic insect i- cida l plants, mo re eco - friendly approache s of pest management should also... be encou r- aged to combat both primary and se c ondary pests by allelopathic plant as intercro p- ping tool, shift in the date of plan t ing/ sowing, spacing between rows and plant (solar management) to plan t population, screening of superior...

  1. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  2. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  3. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  4. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  5. Energy losses in switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF 6 polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V peak I peak ) 1.1846 . When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset

  6. [Cancer and nutrition - a paradigma shift].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoberdorf, R; Rühlin, M; Ballmer, P E

    2017-08-01

    Substantial international differences in the prevalence of cancer disease suppose that nutrition may be an important factor in the development of cancer. Many experts believe, that nutritional factors may contribute up to 35 % to the development of malignant tumors. Many patients have lost substantial body weight already at the time of the diagnosis of the disease as consequence of undernutrition and malnutrition, respectively. During the course of the disease the nutritional status often is deteriorating further. Caused by both the cancer disease itself and the treatment, loss of appetite, changes in taste, nausea and vomiting may additionally contribute to undernutrition. Undernutrition is a relevant factor for the outcome of the disease and for the tolerance of the treatment as well. Therefore, supporting the heavily impaired patients in nutritional intake is of paramount importance and an urgent task for physicians and nurses. In view of physiology, pathophysiology, genetics and molecular biology, metabolic processes in cancer are highly complex regulated and there is increasing evidence that a diet rich in fat and protein is favourable. This, however, implies a paradigma shift away from the "healthy" balanced diet rich in fruit, vegetable and complex carbohydrates. So far, the evidence based data of this new concept is, however, a controversial issue. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  8. Effects of phase change on reflection in phase-measuring interference microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois , Arnaud

    2004-01-01

    International audience; We show by analytical and numerical calculations that the phase change on reflection that occurs in interference microscopy is almost independent of the numerical aperture of the objective. The shift of the microscope interferogram response due to the phase change on reflection, however, increases with the numerical aperture. Measurements of the interferogram shift are made with a Linnik interference microscope equipped with various numerical-aperture objectives and ar...

  9. Bragg reflection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.W.

    This user's guide to the Bragg Reflection Program (BRP) is in the nature of an informal report. The general purpose of BRP is to scan a series of Bragg reflections automatically in order to obtain profiles and integrated intensities. The program is used in conjunction with the SUPERVISOR and READ packages, and the procedures for using it are similar to those for the Triple-Axis Control program. All the general features of the system, SUPERVISOR and READ packages as described in the Spectrometer Control Systems User's Guide are preserved. The presentation assumes that the reader is familiar with these. Sections are given on the READ package, execution and use, error messages, and output. A few sample problems are shown. (1 figure) (U.S.)

  10. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  11. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  12. Superradiance or total reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    László, András

    2014-01-01

    Numerical evolution of massless scalar fields on Kerr background is studied. The initial data specifications are chosen to have compact support separated from the ergoregion and to yield nearly monochromatic incident wave packets. The initial data is also tuned to maximize the effect of superradiance. Evidences are shown indicating that instead of the anticipated energy extraction from black hole the incident radiation fail to reach the ergoregion rather it suffers a nearly perfect reflection.

  13. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

    1980-01-01

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  14. Individual differences in shift work tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers-van der Holst, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a key feature of our contemporary 24/7 society, employing several successive work teams to sustain around-the-clock operations. However, numerous studies imply that frequently shifting the periods of sleep and wakefulness poses a serious threat to the shift worker’s physical, mental

  15. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  16. Reflection Revisited: The Class Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Through the regular use of what Donald Schon has termed reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, students can learn to improve their "reflection-in-presentation," in Kathleen Blake Yancey's term. Students are often asked to do this type of reflection-in-presentation as a capstone to first-year or basic writing courses. However, a number of…

  17. Reflection as Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how reflection can be used as self-assessment. Reflection involves not only thinking about a learning experience, but also questioning parts of the experience. Reflection is thinking about what one knows from the learning experience, what one might do differently the next time. Reflection is wondering about…

  18. Executive functions predict weight loss in a medically supervised weight loss programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, D.; Gunstad, J.; Pera, V.; Rathier, L.; Tremont, G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Methods Twenty‐three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8.8, 68% female, 92% White) enrolled in a medically supervised weight loss programme, involving prescription of a very low calorie diet and strategies to change eating and activity behaviours, underwent comprehensive computerized testing of executive functions at baseline. Weight was obtained at baseline and 8 weeks. Demographic and clinical information were obtained through medical chart review. Results Participants lost an average of 9.8 ± 3.4% of their initial body weight at 8 weeks. Fewer correct responses on a set‐shifting task and faster reaction time on a response inhibition task were associated with lower weight loss percentage at 8 weeks after adjusting for age, education and depressive symptoms. There were no associations between performance on tests of working memory or planning and weight loss. Conclusions This study shows that worse performance on a set‐shifting task (indicative of poorer cognitive flexibility) and faster reaction times on a response inhibition test (indicative of higher impulsivity) are associated with lower weight loss among participants in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Pre‐treatment assessment of executive functions may be useful in identifying individuals who may be at risk for suboptimal treatment outcomes. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in larger samples and identify underlying mechanisms. PMID:28090338

  19. Tilt shift determinations with spatial-carrier phase-shift method in temporal phase-shift interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Yang; He, Jianguo; Ji, Fang; Wang, Baorui

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed to deal with tilt-shift errors in temporal phase-shift interferometry (PSI). In the algorithm, the tilt shifts are detected with the spatial-carrier phase-shift (SCPS) method and then the tilt shifts are applied as priori information to the least-squares fittings of phase retrieval. The algorithm combines the best features of the SCPS and the temporal PSI. The algorithm could be applied to interferograms of arbitrary aperture without data extrapolation for the Fourier transform is not involved. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The statistics of simulation results show a satisfied accuracy in detecting tilt-shift errors. Comparisons of the measurements with and without environmental vibration show that the proposed algorithm could compensate tilt-shift errors and retrieve wavefront phase accurately. The algorithm provides an approach to retrieve wavefront phase for the temporal PSI in vibrating environment. (paper)

  20. Marginal matters: pregnancy loss as a social event

    OpenAIRE

    van der Sijpt, E.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on fertility in Africa have known a major paradigm shift when demographic concerns about ‘overpopulation’ came to be replaced by new ideas about reproductive health, rights, and choices during the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Whereas this shift has allowed for more recognition of losses during pregnancy which had been virtually absent in previous demographic accounts of high fertility rates, the new discourse on rights and choices turns most of i...

  1. Steady State Shift Damage Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk

    2017-01-01

    The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first......-order importance. The present paper investigates two sub-structuring approaches, in which the idea is to employ Craig-Bampton super-elements to reduce the amount of interrogation distributions while still providing an acceptable localization resolution. The first approach operates on a strict super-element level...

  2. Identical and shifted identical bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, R.S; Jones, E.F.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of 252 Cm was studied with 72 large Compton suppressed Ge detectors in Gamma sphere. New isotopes 160 Sm and 162 Gd were identified. Through X-ray-γ and γ-γ-γ) coincidence measurements, level energies were established to spins 14 + to 20 + in 152 , 154 156 60 Nd 92 94 96 , 156 , 158 , 160 62 Sm 94 , 96 , 98 , and 160 , 162 64 Gd 96 , 98 . These nuclei exhibit a remarkable variety of identical bands and bands where the energies and moments of inertia are shifted by the same constant amount for every spin state from 2 + to 12 + for various combinations of nuclei differing by 2n, 4n, 2p, 4p, and α

  3. George Kubler Shifting South: Architecture History Following Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Santos, Eliana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to present the shifting relations between North America and the South - South America and the South of Europe - through the work of the historian George Kubler. At the beginning of his career as a scholar, Kubler was invited by the Department of State to participate in a conference on inter-American relations. Later, with the positioning of the United States in World War II, the transatlantic relationship between the US and Europe became more prominent. Kubler’s research interests followed this change: His research shift from South America to peripheral Southern Europe reflects an availability of funding given his country's geopolitical interests. So far, artists and other scholars have praised Kubler’s vast work regarding the art and architecture of different 'Souths' mainly as a sign of 'nonalignment' and of his attention to the condition of peripheral countries.

  4. James Madison and a Shift in Precipitation Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenbrod, D. L.; Mann, M. E.; Stahle, D. W.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Therrell, M. D.; Shugart, H. H.

    2001-12-01

    An eighteen-year meteorological diary and tree ring data from James Madison's Montpelier plantation provide a consistent reconstruction of early summer and prior fall rainfall for the 18th Century Virginia piedmont. The Madison meteorological diary suggests a seasonal shift in monthly rainfall towards an earlier wet season relative to 20th Century norms. Furthermore, dendroclimatic reconstructions of early summer and prior fall rainfall reflect this shift in the seasonality of summer rainfall. The most pronounced early summer drought during the Madison diary period is presented as a case study. This 1792 drought occurs during one of the strongest El Niño events on record and is highlighted in the correspondence of James Madison.

  5. The dissimilar time course of temporary threshold shifts and reduction of inhibition in the inferior colliculus following intense sound exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, A. N.; van Dijk, P.

    Excessive noise exposure is known to produce an auditory threshold shift, which can be permanent or transient in nature. Recent studies showed that noise-induced temporary threshold shifts are associated with loss of synaptic connections to the inner hair cells and with cochlear nerve degeneration,

  6. Large-scale impact of climate change vs. land-use change on future biome shifts in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boit, Alice; Sakschewski, Boris; Boysen, Lena; Cano-Crespo, Ana; Clement, Jan; Garcia-alaniz, Nashieli; Kok, Kasper; Kolb, Melanie; Langerwisch, Fanny; Rammig, Anja; Sachse, René; Eupen, van Michiel; Bloh, von Werner; Clara Zemp, Delphine; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and land-use change are two major drivers of biome shifts causing habitat and biodiversity loss. What is missing is a continental-scale future projection of the estimated relative impacts of both drivers on biome shifts over the course of this century. Here, we provide such a

  7. Drugs and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mansi; Harrison, Shannon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a common complaint, both in men and women, and use of prescription medications is widespread. When there is a temporal association between the onset of hair loss and commencement of a medication, the medication is commonly thought to have caused the hair loss. However, hair loss and in particular telogen effluvium may occur in response to a number of triggers including fever, hemorrhage, severe illness, stress, and childbirth, and a thorough exclusion of these potential confounders is necessary before the hair loss can be blamed on the medication. Certain medications are known to cause hair loss by a variety of mechanisms including anagen arrest, telogen effluvium, or accentuation of androgenetic alopecia by androgens. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  9. Seismic reflection imaging, accounting for primary and multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Thorbecke, Jan; Broggini, Filippo; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2015-04-01

    Imaging of seismic reflection data is usually based on the assumption that the seismic response consists of primary reflections only. Multiple reflections, i.e. waves that have reflected more than once, are treated as primaries and are imaged at wrong positions. There are two classes of multiple reflections, which we will call surface-related multiples and internal multiples. Surface-related multiples are those multiples that contain at least one reflection at the earth's surface, whereas internal multiples consist of waves that have reflected only at subsurface interfaces. Surface-related multiples are the strongest, but also relatively easy to deal with because the reflecting boundary (the earth's surface) is known. Internal multiples constitute a much more difficult problem for seismic imaging, because the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces are not known. We are developing reflection imaging methodology which deals with internal multiples. Starting with the Marchenko equation for 1D inverse scattering problems, we derived 3D Marchenko-type equations, which relate reflection data at the surface to Green's functions between virtual sources anywhere in the subsurface and receivers at the surface. Based on these equations, we derived an iterative scheme by which these Green's functions can be retrieved from the reflection data at the surface. This iterative scheme requires an estimate of the direct wave of the Green's functions in a background medium. Note that this is precisely the same information that is also required by standard reflection imaging schemes. However, unlike in standard imaging, our iterative Marchenko scheme retrieves the multiple reflections of the Green's functions from the reflection data at the surface. For this, no knowledge of the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces is required. Once the full Green's functions are retrieved, reflection imaging can be carried out by which the primaries and multiples are

  10. Educating the Reflective Educator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mikkel; Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2016-01-01

    , (2) managing digital and analogue design materials and (3) balancing different modes of teaching. This paper demonstrates how a combination of design theory, in-school practice and peer-to-peer learning created a framework towards educating design educators – a framework that allowed us......Design thinking and digital technologies are increasingly introduced in education to develop children’s design literacy. This shift demands a change in teachers’ mindsets, capabilities and approaches to design and technology as well as new teaching practices. This paper reports on a research......-based master's course developed to address and study the challenges that educators experience when teaching design in K-12 classes. We investigate three aspects that we argue are crucial when developing teachers' capability to teach design literacy to children: (1) ability to navigate a complex design process...

  11. Weight Science: Evaluating the Evidence for a Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphramor Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current guidelines recommend that "overweight" and "obese" individuals lose weight through engaging in lifestyle modification involving diet, exercise and other behavior change. This approach reliably induces short term weight loss, but the majority of individuals are unable to maintain weight loss over the long term and do not achieve the putative benefits of improved morbidity and mortality. Concern has arisen that this weight focus is not only ineffective at producing thinner, healthier bodies, but may also have unintended consequences, contributing to food and body preoccupation, repeated cycles of weight loss and regain, distraction from other personal health goals and wider health determinants, reduced self-esteem, eating disorders, other health decrement, and weight stigmatization and discrimination. This concern has drawn increased attention to the ethical implications of recommending treatment that may be ineffective or damaging. A growing trans-disciplinary movement called Health at Every Size (HAES challenges the value of promoting weight loss and dieting behavior and argues for a shift in focus to weight-neutral outcomes. Randomized controlled clinical trials indicate that a HAES approach is associated with statistically and clinically relevant improvements in physiological measures (e.g., blood pressure, blood lipids, health behaviors (e.g., eating and activity habits, dietary quality, and psychosocial outcomes (such as self-esteem and body image, and that HAES achieves these health outcomes more successfully than weight loss treatment and without the contraindications associated with a weight focus. This paper evaluates the evidence and rationale that justifies shifting the health care paradigm from a conventional weight focus to HAES.

  12. A fiberoptic reflection oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, M L; Knop, N; Kwant, G; Mook, G A; Zijlstra, W G

    1978-03-20

    A catheter tip oximeter is described consisting of a cardiac catheter containing optical fibers, and incandescent light source, a light detection unit and a processing unit. Half of the optical fibers guide the light to the blood at the tip of the catheter, the other half the backscattered (reflected) light to the detection unit. The detection unit contains a dichroic mirror, transmitting most of the light with lambda less than 800 nm and reflecting most of the light with lambda greater than 900 nm, thus splitting the light into two beams. These pass through interference filters with nominal wavelengths of 640 and 920 nm respectively, and are focused on silicium barrier layer photocells. The photocell signals are amplified and fed into a divider giving the ratio of measuring (R640) and compensating (R920) photocell output. The relationship between log R640/R920 and oxygen saturation is represented by a slightly curved line. The relation may be linearized by subtracting a constant voltage from the divided output before taking the logarithm. The slope of the calibration line is dependent on the total haemoglobin concentration. Nonetheless an average calibration line can be used between 70 and 100% oxygen saturation. For 78 measurements of pig blood samples in this range (haemoglobin concentration between 96 and 161 g.1(-1)), the standard deviation of the difference between the fiberoptic oximeter and a Radiometer OSM1 oxygen saturation meter was 1.9% saturation, for 152 samples over the entire saturation range the standard deviation of the difference was 3.1% saturation. The influence of the flow velocity of blood on the light reflection depends on wavelength as well as on oxygen saturation. Therefore, complete compensation for the flow effect is not possible by simple means.

  13. Effect of Shift Work on Nocturia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wook

    2016-01-01

    To identify the circadian sensitive component of nocturia by comparing nocturia in patients who voluntarily choose a disrupted circadian rhythm, that is, shift workers, with those who maintain normal day-night cycles. Between 2011 and 2013, a total of 1741 untreated patients, 1376 nonshift workers and 365 shift workers, were compared for nocturia indices based on frequency volume charts (FVCs). General linear model of 8-hour interval urine production and frequency were compared between FVCs of nonshift workers, FVCs of night-shift workers, and FVCs of day-shift workers. Nocturia frequency was increased in the night-shift workers (2.38 ± 1.44) compared with nonshift workers (2.18 ± 1.04) (P night-shift workers, 0.34 ± 0.13 for nonshift workers, P = .24), nocturnal bladder capacity index increased significantly (1.41 ± 1.06 for night-shift workers, 1.26 ± 0.92 for nonshift workers, P shift (P shift changes (P = .35). Patients in alternating work shifts showed increased nocturia, especially during their night shift. These changes tended to be more associated with decreased nocturnal bladder capacity than increased nocturnal polyuria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plutonium fuel cycles in the spectral shift controlled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sider, F.M.; Matzie, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) controls excess core reactivity during an operating cycle through the use of variable heavy water concentrations in the moderator. With heavy water in the coolant, the neutron spectrum is shifted to higher energy levels, thus increasing fertile conversion. In addition, since heavy water obviates the need for soluble boron, neutron losses to control poison are eliminated. As a result, better resource utilization is obtained in the SSCR employing plutonium fuel cycles compared to similarly fueled pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SSCR, however, is not competitive with the PWR due to higher capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, and the heavy water costs, which outweigh the fuel cycle cost savings. The SSCR may become an attractive alternative to the PWR if uranium prices increase substantially

  15. Real life working shift assignment problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, San-Nah; Kwek, Yeek-Ling; Tiong, Wei-King; Chiew, Kang-Leng

    2017-07-01

    This study concerns about the working shift assignment in an outlet of Supermarket X in Eastern Mall, Kuching. The working shift assignment needs to be solved at least once in every month. Current approval process of working shifts is too troublesome and time-consuming. Furthermore, the management staff cannot have an overview of manpower and working shift schedule. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop working shift assignment simulation and propose a working shift assignment solution. The main objective for this study is to fulfill manpower demand at minimum operation cost. Besides, the day off and meal break policy should be fulfilled accordingly. Demand based heuristic is proposed to assign working shift and the quality of the solution is evaluated by using the real data.

  16. Dynamics and computation in functional shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Jun; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2004-07-01

    We introduce a new type of shift dynamics as an extended model of symbolic dynamics, and investigate the characteristics of shift spaces from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation. This shift dynamics is called a functional shift, which is defined by a set of bi-infinite sequences of some functions on a set of symbols. To analyse the complexity of functional shifts, we measure them in terms of topological entropy, and locate their languages in the Chomsky hierarchy. Through this study, we argue that considering functional shifts from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation gives us opposite results about the complexity of systems. We also describe a new class of shift spaces whose languages are not recursively enumerable.

  17. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-01-01

    ‘Language shift’ is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100–120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the ‘natural wastage’ as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission. PMID:21041210

  19. Matter reflects Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A.; Cristiano, A.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is common belief that the interaction between antimatter and ordinary solid matter is dominated by annihilation. However, non-destructive processes may play a relevant role too. One century ago E. Rutherford wrote about the "diffuse reflection" of alpha and beta particles by thin layers of different metals: "The observations ... of Geiger and Marsden on the scattering of alpha rays indicate that some of the alpha particles must suffer a deflexion of more than a right angle at a single encounter.... It will be shown that the main deductions from the theory are independent of whether the central charge is supposed to be positive or negative". Although the theory of electromagnetic scattering is in first approximation independent of the relative sign of the colliding particles, in the case where projectile antiprotons are shot against a wall of solid matter the Rutherford diffuse reflection mechanism competes with the annihilation process. So it is not obvious at all that a relevant part of an antiproton beam...

  20. Reflection, Interrogatory, Provocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    This invited paper advances a framing context for considering next steps in HOF and organizational culture in light of the presentations and discussions that occur during the conference. Many of the contributions during the conference will represent results of scholarly research, structured investigations, or formal organizational improvement efforts. This contribution is intended as informal reflection by a 40-year nuclear veteran on themes from other presentations considering questions such as: ''Where do we think we are?, Are we better off as an industry based on what we have done?, Where do we think we need to go?, What do we think we need to do?, and, Why do we think these things?'' Our coming together on this occasion marks 30 years since the publication of INSAG-l. As we reflect on the past, perhaps it is time to pose a series of questions. Are we sustainers of a mature technology that is in some places declining and being replaced by other energy sources? If we consider nuclear a mature technology, should we focus most on operational excellence with renewed attention to managing the unexpected? Or, is innovation still a vital part of our industry?

  1. Variance as a Leading Indicator of Regime Shift in Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Brock

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental conflicts involve pollutants such as greenhouse gas emissions that are dispersed through space and cause losses of ecosystem services. As pollutant emissions rise in one place, a spatial cascade of declining ecosystem services can spread across a larger landscape because of the dispersion of the pollutant. This paper considers the problem of anticipating such spatial regime shifts by monitoring time series of the pollutant or associated ecosystem services. Using such data, it is possible to construct indicators that rise sharply in advance of regime shifts. Specifically, the maximum eigenvalue of the variance-covariance matrix of the multivariate time series of pollutants and ecosystem services rises prior to the regime shift. No specific knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the regime shift is needed to construct the indicator. Such leading indicators of regime shifts could provide useful signals to management agencies or to investors in ecosystem service markets.

  2. Subexponential loss rate asymptotics for Lévy processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nørvang

    2011-01-01

    We consider a Lévy process reflected in barriers at 0 and K > 0. The loss rate is the mean of the local time at K at time 1 when the process is started in stationarity, and is a natural continuous-time analogue of the stationary expected loss rate for a reflected random walk. We derive asymptotic...... for the loss rate when K tends to infinity, when the mean of the Lévy process is negative and the positive jumps are subexponential. In the course of this derivation, we achieve a formula, which is a generalization of the celebrated Pollaczeck-Khinchine formula....

  3. Exogenous cortisol causes a shift from deliberative to intuitive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Strombach, Tina; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    People often rely on intuitive judgments at the expense of deliberate reasoning, but what determines the dominance of intuition over deliberation is not well understood. Here, we employed a psychopharmacological approach to unravel the role of two major endocrine stress mediators, cortisol and noradrenaline, in cognitive reasoning. Healthy participants received placebo, cortisol (hydrocortisone) and/or yohimbine, a drug that increases noradrenergic stimulation, before performing the cognitive reflection test (CRT). We found that cortisol impaired performance in the CRT by biasing responses toward intuitive, but incorrect answers. Elevated stimulation of the noradrenergic system, however, had no effect. We interpret our results in the context of the dual systems theory of judgment and decision making. We propose that cortisol causes a shift from deliberate, reflective cognition toward automatic, reflexive information processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Writing toward a Scientific Identity: Shifting from Prescriptive to Reflective Writing in Undergraduate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otfinowski, Rafael; Silva-Opps, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Analytical writing enhances retention of science learning and is integral to student-centered classrooms. Despite this, scientific writing in undergraduate programs is often presented as a series of sentence-level conventions of grammar, syntax, and citation formats, reinforcing students' perceptions of its highly prescriptive nature. The authors…

  5. The doppler frequency shift caused by the inhomogeneities of a medium induced by pulses of intense laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, N. N.; Kiselev, Al. S.; Kiselev, An. S.

    2008-08-01

    Self-reflection of pulses of intense laser radiation from an inhomogeneity induced by them in a medium with fast optical nonlinearity is analyzed. The reflected radiation is characterized by a considerable Doppler shift and by a signal magnitude that is sufficient for experimental detection.

  6. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Bakker, Marije F; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure–response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. Methods Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses. Time spent (hours/week) in different PA types (walking/cycling/exercise/chores) and intensities (moderate/vigorous) were calculated based on self-reported PA. Furthermore, sports were operationalised as: playing sports (no/yes), individual versus non-individual sports, and non-vigorous-intensity versus vigorous-intensity sports. PA levels were compared between shift workers and non-shift workers using Generalized Estimating Equations and logistic regression. Results Shift workers reported spending more time walking than non-shift workers (B=2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4)), but shift work was not associated with other PA types and any of the sports activities. Shift workers who worked 1–4 night shifts/month (B=2.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.3)) and ≥5 night shifts/month (B=3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.6)) spent more time walking than non-shift workers. No exposure–response relationships were found between years of shift work and PA levels. Conclusions Shift workers spent more time walking than non-shift workers, but we observed no differences in other non-occupational PA levels. To better understand if and how PA plays a role in the negative health consequences of shift work, our findings need to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:27872151

  7. Hereditary Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, LenhAnh P.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses inheritance patterns in hearing loss, epidemiology, clues to genetic causes, locating genes that cause hereditary disorders, genes related to hearing loss disorders in individuals with Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Branchio-oto-renal and Pendred syndromes, and the significance of finding…

  8. Loss muinasjuturaamatust / Agu Veetamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veetamm, Agu, 1953-

    2004-01-01

    Ballindaloch on üks väheseid Shoti losse, kus omanikud aastaringselt elavad. 450 aastat on loss kuulunud Macpherson-Grantide suguvõsale. Praegu on lossi omanikuks Clare Nancy Macpherson-Grant Russell, kelle kujundatud on kiviktaimla ja rosaarium. Lossi ajaloost, omanikest, ümberehitustest, ringkäigust lossis, pargist. 14 ill

  9. A procedure to validate and correct the {sup 13}C chemical shift calibration of RNA datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeschbacher, Thomas; Schubert, Mario, E-mail: schubert@mol.biol.ethz.ch; Allain, Frederic H.-T., E-mail: allain@mol.biol.ethz.ch [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Molecular Biology and Biophysics (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    Chemical shifts reflect the structural environment of a certain nucleus and can be used to extract structural and dynamic information. Proper calibration is indispensable to extract such information from chemical shifts. Whereas a variety of procedures exist to verify the chemical shift calibration for proteins, no such procedure is available for RNAs to date. We present here a procedure to analyze and correct the calibration of {sup 13}C NMR data of RNAs. Our procedure uses five {sup 13}C chemical shifts as a reference, each of them found in a narrow shift range in most datasets deposited in the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank. In 49 datasets we could evaluate the {sup 13}C calibration and detect errors or inconsistencies in RNA {sup 13}C chemical shifts based on these chemical shift reference values. More than half of the datasets (27 out of those 49) were found to be improperly referenced or contained inconsistencies. This large inconsistency rate possibly explains that no clear structure-{sup 13}C chemical shift relationship has emerged for RNA so far. We were able to recalibrate or correct 17 datasets resulting in 39 usable {sup 13}C datasets. 6 new datasets from our lab were used to verify our method increasing the database to 45 usable datasets. We can now search for structure-chemical shift relationships with this improved list of {sup 13}C chemical shift data. This is demonstrated by a clear relationship between ribose {sup 13}C shifts and the sugar pucker, which can be used to predict a C2 Prime - or C3 Prime -endo conformation of the ribose with high accuracy. The improved quality of the chemical shift data allows statistical analysis with the potential to facilitate assignment procedures, and the extraction of restraints for structure calculations of RNA.

  10. Simulated night shift work induces circadian misalignment of the human peripheral blood mononuclear cell transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervezee, Laura; Cuesta, Marc; Cermakian, Nicolas; Boivin, Diane B

    2018-05-22

    Misalignment of the endogenous circadian timing system leads to disruption of physiological rhythms and may contribute to the development of the deleterious health effects associated with night shift work. However, the molecular underpinnings remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of a 4-day simulated night shift work protocol on the circadian regulation of the human transcriptome. Repeated blood samples were collected over two 24-hour measurement periods from eight healthy subjects under highly controlled laboratory conditions before and 4 days after a 10-hour delay of their habitual sleep period. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells to obtain transcriptomic data. Cosinor analysis revealed a marked reduction of significantly rhythmic transcripts in the night shift condition compared with baseline at group and individual levels. Subsequent analysis using a mixed-effects model selection approach indicated that this decrease is mainly due to dampened rhythms rather than to a complete loss of rhythmicity: 73% of transcripts rhythmically expressed at baseline remained rhythmic during the night shift condition with a similar phase relative to habitual bedtimes, but with lower amplitudes. Functional analysis revealed that key biological processes are affected by the night shift protocol, most notably the natural killer cell-mediated immune response and Jun/AP1 and STAT pathways. These results show that 4 days of simulated night shifts leads to a loss in temporal coordination between the human circadian transcriptome and the external environment and impacts biological processes related to the adverse health effects associated to night shift work.

  11. Shift work-related health problems in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khavaji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsShift work is a major feature of working life that affects diverse aspects of human life. The main purposes of this study were to investigate shift work-related health problems and their risk factors among workers of "12-hour shift" schedule.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out at 8 petrochemical industries in Asalooyeh area. Study population consisted of 1203 workers including 549 shift worker (46% and 654 day worker (54%. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shift work werecollected by anonymous questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 11.5. The level of significance was set at 5%.ResultsAlthough, the results showed that health problems among shift workers was more prevalent than day workers, but the differences were just significant in gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.05. Multiple linear regressions indicated that in addition to shift working, other variants such as long work hours, type of employment, second job, number of children and job title were associated with health problems.ConclusionPrevalence rates of gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems among shift workers were significantly higher than that of day workers. Although, working in shift system was the main significant factor associated with the reported problems, but other demographic andwork variables were also found to have association.

  12. Shift work as an oxidative stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasalar Parvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some medical disorders have higher prevalence in shift workers than others. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of night-shift-working on total plasma antioxidant capacity, with respect to the causative role of oxidative stress in induction of some of these disorders. Methods Two blood samples were taken from 44 workers with a rotational shift schedule, one after their day shift and one after their night shift. The total plasma antioxidant capacity of each worker was measured through the FRAP method. The impacts of age and weight were also assessed. Results The total plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in 44 shift-workers with a mean age of 36.57 years (SD: 10.18 and mean BMI of 26.06 (SD: 4.37 after their day and night shifts. The mean reduction of total plasma antioxidant capacity after the night shift was 105.8 μmol/L (SD: 146.39. Also, a significant correlation was shown between age and weight and total plasma antioxidant capacity. Age and weight were found to be inversely related to total plasma antioxidant capacity; as age and weight increased, the total plasma antioxidant capacity decreased. Conclusion Shift work can act as an oxidative stressor and may induce many medical disorders. Aging and obesity in shift workers makes them more sensitive to this hazardous effect.

  13. Electro-optic study of PZT ferroelectric ceramics using modulation of reflected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazkov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optic coefficients of variations in the refractive index of PZT and PLZT ceramic materials induced by ac electric field are estimated using modulation of reflected light. The electro-optic coefficients of PLZT ceramics measured with the aid of conventional birefringence using the phase shift of transmitted radiation and the proposed method of birefringence using the modulation of reflected light are compared.

  14. Empirical isotropic chemical shift surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czinki, Eszter; Csaszar, Attila G.

    2007-01-01

    A list of proteins is given for which spatial structures, with a resolution better than 2.5 A, are known from entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and isotropic chemical shift (ICS) values are known from the RefDB database related to the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank (BMRB) database. The structures chosen provide, with unknown uncertainties, dihedral angles φ and ψ characterizing the backbone structure of the residues. The joint use of experimental ICSs of the same residues within the proteins, again with mostly unknown uncertainties, and ab initio ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces obtained for the model peptides For-(l-Ala) n -NH 2 , with n = 1, 3, and 5, resulted in so-called empirical ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces for all major nuclei of the 20 naturally occurring α-amino acids. Out of the many empirical surfaces determined, it is the 13C α ICS(φ,ψ) surface which seems to be most promising for identifying major secondary structure types, α-helix, β-strand, left-handed helix (α D ), and polyproline-II. Detailed tests suggest that Ala is a good model for many naturally occurring α-amino acids. Two-dimensional empirical 13C α - 1 H α ICS(φ,ψ) correlation plots, obtained so far only from computations on small peptide models, suggest the utility of the experimental information contained therein and thus they should provide useful constraints for structure determinations of proteins

  15. Red Shifts and Existing Speculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2009-03-01

    There are many current flaws, mysteries, and errors in the standard model of the universe - all based upon speculative interpretation of many excellent and verified observations. The most serious cause of some errors is the speculation about the meaning of the redshifts observed in the 1930s by Hubble. He ascribed the redshifts as due to ``an apparent Doppler effect''. This led to speculation that the remote stars were receding, and the universe was expanding -- although without observational proof of the actual receding velocity of the stars. The age of the universe, based upon the Hubble constant is pure speculation because of lack of velocity demonstration. The belief in expansion, the big bang, and of inflation should be reexamined. Also, the redshift cannot always be used as a distance measure, particularly for photons from quasars containing massive black holes that can reduce photon energy through gravitational attraction. If the linear Hubble constant is extrapolated to the most remote super novae and beyond, it would eventually require that the corresponding photon energy go to zero or become negative -- according to Hubble linear relationship. This should require a reexamination of the meaning of the red shift and the speculative consequences and give a model with fewer mysteries.

  16. Core shift effect in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A.; Mohan, P.; Gupta, Alok C.; Mangalam, A.; Volvach, A. E.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Gu, M. F.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Volvach, L. N.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the pc-scale core shift effect using radio light curves for three blazars, S5 0716+714, 3C 279 and BL Lacertae, which were monitored at five frequencies (ν) between 4.8 and 36.8 GHz using the University of Michigan Radio Astronomical Observatory (UMRAO), the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and Metsähovi Radio Observatory for over 40 yr. Flares were Gaussian fitted to derive time delays between observed frequencies for each flare (Δt), peak amplitude (A) and their half width. Using A ∝ να, we infer α in the range of -16.67-2.41 and using Δ t ∝ ν ^{1/k_r}, we infer kr ∼ 1, employed in the context of equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energy density for parameter estimation. From the estimated core position offset (Ωrν) and the core radius (rcore), we infer that opacity model may not be valid in all cases. The mean magnetic field strengths at 1 pc (B1) and at the core (Bcore) are in agreement with previous estimates. We apply the magnetically arrested disc model to estimate black hole spins in the range of 0.15-0.9 for these blazars, indicating that the model is consistent with expected accretion mode in such sources. The power-law-shaped power spectral density has slopes -1.3 to -2.3 and is interpreted in terms of multiple shocks or magnetic instabilities.

  17. Application of Phase Shifted, Laser Feedback Interferometry to Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovryn, Ben; Eppell, Steven J.; Andrews, James H.; Khaydarov, John

    1996-01-01

    We have combined the principles of phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) and laser-feedback interferometry (LFI) to produce a new instrument that can measure both optical path length (OPL) changes and discern sample reflectivity variations. In LFI, coherent feedback of the incident light either reflected directly from a surface or reflected after transmission through a region of interest will modulate the output intensity of the laser. LFI can yield a high signal-to-noise ratio even for low reflectivity samples. By combining PSI and LFI, we have produced a robust instrument, based upon a HeNe laser, with high dynamic range that can be used to measure either static (dc) or oscillatory changes along the optical path. As with other forms of interferometry, large changes in OPL require phase unwrapping. Conversely, small phase changes are limited by the fraction of a fringe that can be measured. We introduce the phase shifts with an electro-optic modulator (EOM) and use either the Carre or Hariharan algorithms to determine the phase and visibility. We have determined the accuracy and precision of our technique by measuring both the bending of a cantilevered piezoelectric bimorph and linear ramps to the EOM. Using PSI, sub-nanometer displacements can be measured. We have combined our interferometer with a commercial microscope and scanning piezoelectric stage and have measured the variation in OPL and visibility for drops of PDMS (silicone oil) on coated single crystal silicon. Our measurement of the static contact angle agrees with the value of 68 deg stated in the literature.

  18. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  19. Concurrent credit portfolio losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicking, Joachim; Guhr, Thomas; Schäfer, Rudi

    2018-01-01

    We consider the problem of concurrent portfolio losses in two non-overlapping credit portfolios. In order to explore the full statistical dependence structure of such portfolio losses, we estimate their empirical pairwise copulas. Instead of a Gaussian dependence, we typically find a strong asymmetry in the copulas. Concurrent large portfolio losses are much more likely than small ones. Studying the dependences of these losses as a function of portfolio size, we moreover reveal that not only large portfolios of thousands of contracts, but also medium-sized and small ones with only a few dozens of contracts exhibit notable portfolio loss correlations. Anticipated idiosyncratic effects turn out to be negligible. These are troublesome insights not only for investors in structured fixed-income products, but particularly for the stability of the financial sector. JEL codes: C32, F34, G21, G32, H81.

  20. On the radiation accompanying volume reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandiera, L.; Bagli, E.; Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Dalpiaz, P.; Della Mea, G.; De Salvador, D.; Guidi, V.; Hasan, S.; Lietti, D.; Mazzolari, A.

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnetic radiation emitted by 120 GeV/c volume-reflected electrons in a bent silicon crystal has been investigated at CERN SPS-H4 beamline. The trajectories of electrons crossing a silicon strip-like crystal have been reconstructed through a telescope system based on high precision micro-strip detectors. The experimental setup was also equipped with a spectrometer and an electromagnetic calorimeter to measure the energy loss of the particles under volume reflection condition. Such a system enabled to record the full photon spectrum up to the nominal energy of the beam. Experimental results were compared to recently developed theoretical approaches based on the quasi-classical operators method of Baier and Katkov

  1. Reflecting Contemporary Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present paper addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose......, the paper follows two steps. First, it proposes a categorization of the field in the form of a position model. The paper’s underlying assumption is that design research as a discipline exists in many different forms that cannot necessarily be brought together under one common academic research tradition......; instead it is necessary to attempt to define the field in order to initiate discussions about what constitutes the various research bases for design. Second, the paper discusses the implication for future design research when it is an interdisciplinary field that involves many disciplines, mindsets...

  2. The Reflective Methodologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways. In this ......In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways...... in which the practical sense and tacit knowledge are related to questions of power and social actors’ strategies for positioning themselves within a social space. This demands a particular focus on the historical effect of the concept of ‘the reflective practitioner’ as a symbolic marker of identity...

  3. Reflections on SLAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger

    1997-01-01

    The SLAP data bases represent a major step forward in the reliability analysis of passive components. The present reflections are motivated by draft documentation for SLAP and have profited greatly from discussions with the SLAP team. We collect a number of remarks and suggestions: The use of event and failure fields to organize the data seems sensible and feasible, from a data analysis viewpoint. Influence factors, i. e. environmental influences which are affected by plant operations, are clearly important yet very difficult to accommodate in any straightforward data analysis methodology. We would welcome a serious effort to estimate the exposure in the various exposure cells. These estimates would not be based on failure records, but on knowledge of plant design and operations. Quantitative expert judgement might be a viable alternative to a massive review of all plants in the SLAP data base

  4. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  5. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  6. Reflections on Student Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tinto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Feature for this issue Reflections on Student Persistence has been prepared by Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, United States of America (USA and a longtime friend and supporter of STARS. Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue. He synthesises this extensive, detailed, rich but often somewhat impenetrable data into a trilogy of clear and credible key dimensions of the motivation construct student self efficacy, sense of belonging and perceived value of the curriculum. This interpretation of the literature is a personal but informed reflection and is a timely piece which highlights the breadth and profundity of the presentations at this year's conference in Adelaide, Australia where students in all their diversity are central to our focus on enhancing the student experience. In this opening article, Vincent refers directly to the STARS papers selected for this Conference issue of the Journal which also address the importance of student persistence, self-efficacy and building the sense of belonging within their own institutional communities (Fernandes, Ford, Rayner & Pretorius; Kahu, Nelson, & Picton; McFarlane, Spes-Skrbis & Taib; Naylor; Smallhorn. Echoing his position on social justice and his advocacy for underserved students, Vincent reminds us that educational equity gaps still exist, and he encourages us to see the issue of persistence through the eyes of the students to support their perseverance and completion and thereby help reduce educational disadvantage.

  7. A physical model study of the travel times and reflection points of SH-waves reflected from transversely isotropic media with tilted symmetry axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Chung; Chang, Young-Fo; Chang, Chih-Hsiung; Chung, Chia-Lung

    2012-05-01

    In reflection seismology, detailed knowledge of how seismic waves propagate in anisotropic media is important for locating reservoirs accurately. The SH-wave possesses a pure mode polarization which does not convert to P- and SV-waves when reflecting from a horizontal interface, and vice versa. The simplicity of the SH-wave thus provides an easy way to view the details of SH-wave propagation in anisotropic media. In this study, we attempt to inspect the theoretical reflection moveouts of SH-waves reflected from transversely isotropic (TI) layers with tilted symmetry axes and to verify the reflection point, which could be shifted away from the common midpoint (CMP), by numerical calculations and physical modelling. In travel time-offset analyses, the moveout curves of SH-waves reflected from horizontal TI media (TIM) with different tilted angles of symmetry axes are computed by the TI modified hyperbolic equation and Fermat's principle, respectively. It turns out that both the computed moveout curves are similar and fit well to the observed physical data. The reflection points of SH-waves for a CMP gather computed by Fermat's principle show that they are close to the CMP for TIM with the vertical and horizontal symmetry axes, but they shift away from the CMP for the other tilted angles of symmetry axes. The shifts of the reflection points of the SH-waves from the CMP were verified by physical modelling.

  8. Reflective Practices for Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Kuswandono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on reflective practice in teacher education are increasingly getting more attention at least in the last 2 decades. This article discusses concepts of reflection and how it is implemented in educating pre-service teachers on their early stage of professional learning. The purposes of doing the reflection for pre-service teachers are not only for illuminating their professional learning experiences, but also to critically reflect their vocation as teachers, including the values which may be dictated to them through rigid regulations. Reflection in teacher education is crucial as it connects well with learning in that learners use reflection to exercise their mind and to evaluate their learning experiences. Besides, this article also highlights some perceived difficulties to implement reflective practice, as well as ways how to promote reflection.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150102

  9. Prospect theory reflects selective allocation of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Murphy, Ryan O; Hertwig, Ralph

    2018-02-01

    There is a disconnect in the literature between analyses of risky choice based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT) and work on predecisional information processing. One likely reason is that for expectation models (e.g., CPT), it is often assumed that people behaved only as if they conducted the computations leading to the predicted choice and that the models are thus mute regarding information processing. We suggest that key psychological constructs in CPT, such as loss aversion and outcome and probability sensitivity, can be interpreted in terms of attention allocation. In two experiments, we tested hypotheses about specific links between CPT parameters and attentional regularities. Experiment 1 used process tracing to monitor participants' predecisional attention allocation to outcome and probability information. As hypothesized, individual differences in CPT's loss-aversion, outcome-sensitivity, and probability-sensitivity parameters (estimated from participants' choices) were systematically associated with individual differences in attention allocation to outcome and probability information. For instance, loss aversion was associated with the relative attention allocated to loss and gain outcomes, and a more strongly curved weighting function was associated with less attention allocated to probabilities. Experiment 2 manipulated participants' attention to losses or gains, causing systematic differences in CPT's loss-aversion parameter. This result indicates that attention allocation can to some extent cause choice regularities that are captured by CPT. Our findings demonstrate an as-if model's capacity to reflect characteristics of information processing. We suggest that the observed CPT-attention links can be harnessed to inform the development of process models of risky choice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Guided and Unguided Student Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Matheson, Amanda; Wood, Laura; Franklin, Scott V.

    2017-01-01

    Self-reflection is important metacognitive skill, enabling students to build coherence into their learning and embed content in a broader context. While various pedagogical techniques exist to encourage student reflection, little research has examined the differences between formally guided, partially guided and unguided reflections. This study focuses on student responses to online Guided Reflection Forms (GRFs) from students in a first-semester non-physics class and, separately, a sophomore...

  11. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    OpenAIRE

    Alvyda Liuolienė; Regina Metiūnienė

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journ...

  12. Loss aversion in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Brady, Melissa; Saccente, Erica; Moreno, Alexis; Epstein, Henry; Citrome, Leslie; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel

    2008-08-01

    Loss aversion in decision-making refers to a higher sensitivity to losses than to gains. Loss aversion is conceived as an affective interference in cognitive processes such as judgment and decision-making. Loss aversion in non-risky choices has not been studied in schizophrenia. Forty-two individuals with schizophrenia and 42 non-patient control subjects, matched by gender and age, were randomized to two different scenarios (a buying scenario and a selling scenario). Subjects were asked to evaluate the price of a decorated mug. Schizophrenia subjects were re-tested four weeks later with the other scenario. Contrary to non-patient controls, schizophrenia subjects did not show loss aversion. In the schizophrenia group, absence of loss aversion was correlated with age, duration of illness, number of months in State hospitals, and poorer performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, but not with current psychopathology and two domains of emotional experience. Absence of loss aversion in schizophrenia represents a deficit in the processing of emotional information during decision-making. It can be interpreted as a lack of integration between the emotional and the cognitive systems, or to a more diffuse and de-differentiated impact of emotional information on decision-making. Future studies should bring more clarity to this question.

  13. Cost effective shift schedules enhance utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how new shift scheduling concepts can save utility operations millions of dollars every year and yet maintain safety and improve employee morale. The key to scheduling is to define and match the work load. This includes discretionary as well as daily, weekly, and yearly core work loads. In most power plants the overall work load (including maintenance, operations, materials handling, etc.) on day shift is greater than on other shifts, hence an unbalanced schedule would be appropriate

  14. Stochastic dynamical models for ecological regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Carstensen, Jacob; Madsen, Henrik

    the physical and biological knowledge of the system, and nonlinearities introduced here can generate regime shifts or enhance the probability of regime shifts in the case of stochastic models, typically characterized by a threshold value for the known driver. A simple model for light competition between...... definition and stability of regimes become less subtle. Ecological regime shifts and their modeling must be viewed in a probabilistic manner, particularly if such model results are to be used in ecosystem management....

  15. Time Zones, Shift Working and International Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Yuji; Fukushima, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    We build a trade model with two identical countries located in different time zones and a monopolistically competitive sector of which production requires differentiated goods produced in two successive stages. We introduce shift working disutility and allow consumers to choose between day and night shifts. Shift working disutility raises the cost of night production and firms can reduce costs by “virtually” outsourcing foreign labor. We found that firms only outsource if relat...

  16. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłońska, Beata; Burdelak, Weronika; Krysicka, Jolanta; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Sobala, Wojciech; Klimecka-Muszyńska, Dorota; Rybacki, Marcin

    2014-10-01

    Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more) - 434 individuals currently working night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity) was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22) among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029). This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  17. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  18. Examining paid sickness absence by shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, V M; Bissonnette, A B

    2014-06-01

    Shift workers are at greater risk than day workers with respect to psychological and physical health, yet little research has linked shift work to increased sickness absence. To investigate the relationship between shift work and sickness absence while controlling for organizational and individual characteristics and shift work attributes that have confounded previous research. The study used archive data collected from three national surveys in Canada, each involving over 20000 employees and 6000 private-sector firms in 14 different occupational groups. The employees reported the number of paid sickness absence days in the past 12 months. Data were analysed using both chi-squared statistics and hierarchical regressions. Contrary to previous research, shift workers took less paid sickness absence than day workers. There were no differences in the length of the sickness absence between both groups or in sickness absence taken by female and male workers whether working days or shifts. Only job tenure, the presence of a union in the workplace and working rotating shifts predicted sickness absence in shift workers. The results were consistent across all three samples. In general, shift work does not seem to be linked to increased sickness absence. However, such associations may be true for specific industries. Male and female workers did not differ in the amount of sickness absence taken. Rotating shifts, regardless of industry, predicted sickness absence among shift workers. Consideration should be given to implementing scheduled time off between shift changes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Gas transmission : a paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition

  20. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  1. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  2. Computer Simulation of Phase Shifted Series Resonant DC to DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PARVATHY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with digital simulation of phase shifted series resonant DC to DC converter using Matlab Simulink. The Simulink models for open loop and closed loop systems are developed and they are used for simulation studies. This converter is capable of producing ripple free DC output. Switching losses and switching stresses are reduced by using soft switching. This converter has advantages like high power density and low switching losses. Theoretical predictions are well supported by the simulation results.

  3. Electrically Tunable Reflective Terahertz Phase Shifter Based on Liquid Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Xia, Tianyu; Jing, Shuaicheng; Deng, Guangsheng; Lu, Hongbo; Fang, Yong; Yin, Zhiping

    2018-02-01

    We present a reflective spatial phase shifter which operates at terahertz regime above 325 GHz. The controllable permittivity of the nematic liquid crystals was utilized to realize a tunable terahertz (THz) reflective phase shifter. The reflective characteristics of the terahertz electromagnetic waves and the liquid crystal parameters were calculated and analyzed. We provide the simulation results for the effect of the incident angle of the plane wave on the reflection. The experiment was carried out considering an array consisting of 30 × 30 patch elements, printed on a 20 × 20 mm quartz substrate with 1-mm thickness. The phase shifter provides a tunable phase range of 300° over the frequency range of 325 to 337.6 GHz. The maximum phase shift of 331° is achieved at 330 GHz. The proposed phase shifter is a potential candidate for THz applications, particularly for reconfigurable reflectarrays.

  4. Genome fluctuations in cyanobacteria reflect evolutionary, developmental and adaptive traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylander Johan AA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria belong to an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes with pronounced variations in their cellular differentiation strategies, physiological capacities and choice of habitat. Sequencing efforts have shown that genomes within this phylum are equally diverse in terms of size and protein-coding capacity. To increase our understanding of genomic changes in the lineage, the genomes of 58 contemporary cyanobacteria were analysed for shared and unique orthologs. Results A total of 404 protein families, present in all cyanobacterial genomes, were identified. Two of these are unique to the phylum, corresponding to an AbrB family transcriptional regulator and a gene that escapes functional annotation although its genomic neighbourhood is conserved among the organisms examined. The evolution of cyanobacterial genome sizes involves a mix of gains and losses in the clade encompassing complex cyanobacteria, while a single event of reduction is evident in a clade dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria. Genome sizes and gene family copy numbers evolve at a higher rate in the former clade, and multi-copy genes were predominant in large genomes. Orthologs unique to cyanobacteria exhibiting specific characteristics, such as filament formation, heterocyst differentiation, diazotrophy and symbiotic competence, were also identified. An ancestral character reconstruction suggests that the most recent common ancestor of cyanobacteria had a genome size of approx. 4.5 Mbp and 1678 to 3291 protein-coding genes, 4%-6% of which are unique to cyanobacteria today. Conclusions The different rates of genome-size evolution and multi-copy gene abundance suggest two routes of genome development in the history of cyanobacteria. The expansion strategy is driven by gene-family enlargment and generates a broad adaptive potential; while the genome streamlining strategy imposes adaptations to highly specific niches, also reflected in their different

  5. Genome fluctuations in cyanobacteria reflect evolutionary, developmental and adaptive traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyanobacteria belong to an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes with pronounced variations in their cellular differentiation strategies, physiological capacities and choice of habitat. Sequencing efforts have shown that genomes within this phylum are equally diverse in terms of size and protein-coding capacity. To increase our understanding of genomic changes in the lineage, the genomes of 58 contemporary cyanobacteria were analysed for shared and unique orthologs. Results A total of 404 protein families, present in all cyanobacterial genomes, were identified. Two of these are unique to the phylum, corresponding to an AbrB family transcriptional regulator and a gene that escapes functional annotation although its genomic neighbourhood is conserved among the organisms examined. The evolution of cyanobacterial genome sizes involves a mix of gains and losses in the clade encompassing complex cyanobacteria, while a single event of reduction is evident in a clade dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria. Genome sizes and gene family copy numbers evolve at a higher rate in the former clade, and multi-copy genes were predominant in large genomes. Orthologs unique to cyanobacteria exhibiting specific characteristics, such as filament formation, heterocyst differentiation, diazotrophy and symbiotic competence, were also identified. An ancestral character reconstruction suggests that the most recent common ancestor of cyanobacteria had a genome size of approx. 4.5 Mbp and 1678 to 3291 protein-coding genes, 4%-6% of which are unique to cyanobacteria today. Conclusions The different rates of genome-size evolution and multi-copy gene abundance suggest two routes of genome development in the history of cyanobacteria. The expansion strategy is driven by gene-family enlargment and generates a broad adaptive potential; while the genome streamlining strategy imposes adaptations to highly specific niches, also reflected in their different functional capacities. A few

  6. Deterioration of neurobehavioral performance in resident physicians during repeated exposure to extended duration work shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Clare; Sullivan, Jason P; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Cade, Brian E; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W

    2012-08-01

    Although acute sleep loss during 24- to 30-h extended duration work shifts (EDWS) has been shown to impair the performance of resident physicians, little is known about the effects of cumulative sleep deficiency on performance during residency training. Chronic sleep restriction induces a gradual degradation of neurobehavioral performance and exacerbates the effects of acute sleep loss in the laboratory, yet the extent to which this occurs under real-world conditions is unknown. In this study, the authors quantify the time course of neurobehavioral deterioration due to repeated exposure to EDWS during a 3-week residency rotation. A prospective, repeated-measures, within-subject design. Medical and cardiac intensive care units, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. Thirty-four postgraduate year one resident physicians (23 males; age 28.0 ± 1.83 (standard deviation) years) Residents working a 3-week Q3 schedule (24- to 30-h work shift starts every 3(rd) day), consisting of alternating 24- to 30-h (EDWS) and approximately 8-h shifts, underwent psychomotor vigilance testing before, during, and after each work shift. Mean response time, number of lapses, and slowest 10% of responses were calculated for each test. Residents also maintained daily sleep/wake/work logs. EDWS resulted in cumulative sleep deficiency over the 21-day rotation (6.3 h sleep obtained per day; average 2.3 h sleep obtained per extended shift). Response times deteriorated over a single 24- to 30-h shift (P Performance on the fifth and sixth shift was significantly worse than on the first shift (P performance and exacerbated the effects of acute sleep loss inherent in the 24- to 30-h EDWS that are commonly used in resident schedules.

  7. Reduced Tolerance to Night Shift in Chronic Shift Workers: Insight From Fractal Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Morris, Christopher J; Patxot, Melissa; Yugay, Tatiana; Mistretta, Joseph; Purvis, Taylor E; Scheer, Frank A J L; Hu, Kun

    2017-07-01

    Healthy physiology is characterized by fractal regulation (FR) that generates similar structures in the fluctuations of physiological outputs at different time scales. Perturbed FR is associated with aging and age-related pathological conditions. Shift work, involving repeated and chronic exposure to misaligned environmental and behavioral cycles, disrupts circadian coordination. We tested whether night shifts perturb FR in motor activity and whether night shifts affect FR in chronic shift workers and non-shift workers differently. We studied 13 chronic shift workers and 14 non-shift workers as controls using both field and in-laboratory experiments. In the in-laboratory study, simulated night shifts were used to induce a misalignment between the endogenous circadian pacemaker and the sleep-wake cycles (ie, circadian misalignment) while environmental conditions and food intake were controlled. In the field study, we found that FR was robust in controls but broke down in shift workers during night shifts, leading to more random activity fluctuations as observed in patients with dementia. The night shift effect was present even 2 days after ending night shifts. The in-laboratory study confirmed that night shifts perturbed FR in chronic shift workers and showed that FR in controls was more resilience to the circadian misalignment. Moreover, FR during real and simulated night shifts was more perturbed in those who started shift work at older ages. Chronic shift work causes night shift intolerance, which is probably linked to the degraded plasticity of the circadian control system. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Modeling of Doppler frequency shift in multipath radio channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penzin M.S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the modeling of propagation of a quasi-monochromatic radio signal, represented by a coherent pulse sequence, in a non-stationary multipath radio channel. In such a channel, signal propagation results in the observed frequency shift for each ray (Doppler effect. The modeling is based on the assumption that during propagation of a single pulse a channel can be considered stationary. A phase variation in the channel transfer function is shown to cause the observed frequency shift in the received signal. Thus, instead of measuring the Doppler frequency shift, we can measure the rate of variation in the mean phase of one pulse relative to another. The modeling is carried out within the framework of the method of normal waves. The method enables us to model the dynamics of the electromagnetic field at a given point with the required accuracy. The modeling reveals that a local change in ionospheric conditions more severely affects the rays whose reflection region is in the area where the changes occur.

  9. The effect of spectral width on Goos–Hanchen and Imbert–Fedorov shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajapati, Chandravati; Ranganathan, D

    2013-01-01

    We study the Goos–Hanchen and Imbert–Fedorov shifts for quasi-monochromatic Gaussian beams near the Brewster angle, when the reflection is from a denser to a rarer medium. This is the case of interest in the usual experiments on reflectometry, etc. We have incorporated the effects of the finite linewidth of the quasi-monochromatic light and treated the cases of a Lorentzian and a Gaussian lineshape of the input light spectrum. This study of light with a finite spectral width was carried out for the more frequently studied case, namely reflection from a dense to a rare medium. We found that the shift is increased as compared to the monochromatic Gaussian beam, and is zero at the Brewster angle for a p polarized beam. The shift variation with angle of incidence near the Brewster and critical angles at different values of refractive index ratios is found. We also studied the shift variation for Hermite–Gauss beams around the Brewster angle when the reflection is from a rarer to a denser medium and compare this with our earlier results for the case when the reflection was from a denser to a rarer medium. (paper)

  10. Inhibition and Shifting in Children with Learning Deficits in Arithmetic and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Sophie; de Jong, Peter F.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2004-01-01

    The executive functions of inhibition and shifting were studied in arithmetic-disabled children, reading-disabled children, reading plus arithmetic-disabled children, and controls (N = 74). Measures involved the rapid naming of objects, digits, letters, or quantities with or without additional task requirements that reflected inhibition or…

  11. Examining Shifts in Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes toward Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Anna H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of integrating self-reflection, focused instruction, and field practice in a semester-long language arts course in order to shift early childhood preservice teachers' (PSTs) beliefs and attitudes about writing instruction, as well as their development and planned use of tools for…

  12. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The doses of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) don’t harm bone and shouldn’t be cause for concern. Only high doses, used for thyroid cancer treatment, can cause bone loss. High doses or long- ...

  13. Hearing loss - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In infants born with hearing loss, ... therapy allow many children to develop normal language skills at the same age as their peers with ...

  14. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... deafness, which account for most cases. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard In 1993, children born in the ...

  15. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  16. High risk of near-crash driving events following night-shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael L; Howard, Mark E; Horrey, William J; Liang, Yulan; Anderson, Clare; Shreeve, Michael S; O'Brien, Conor S; Czeisler, Charles A

    2016-01-05

    Night-shift workers are at high risk of drowsiness-related motor vehicle crashes as a result of circadian disruption and sleep restriction. However, the impact of actual night-shift work on measures of drowsiness and driving performance while operating a real motor vehicle remains unknown. Sixteen night-shift workers completed two 2-h daytime driving sessions on a closed driving track at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety: (i) a postsleep baseline driving session after an average of 7.6 ± 2.4 h sleep the previous night with no night-shift work, and (ii) a postnight-shift driving session following night-shift work. Physiological measures of drowsiness were collected, including infrared reflectance oculography, electroencephalography, and electrooculography. Driving performance measures included lane excursions, near-crash events, and drives terminated because of failure to maintain control of the vehicle. Eleven near-crashes occurred in 6 of 16 postnight-shift drives (37.5%), and 7 of 16 postnight-shift drives (43.8%) were terminated early for safety reasons, compared with zero near-crashes or early drive terminations during 16 postsleep drives (Fishers exact: P = 0.0088 and P = 0.0034, respectively). Participants had a significantly higher rate of lane excursions, average Johns Drowsiness Scale, blink duration, and number of slow eye movements during postnight-shift drives compared with postsleep drives (3.09/min vs. 1.49/min; 1.71 vs. 0.97; 125 ms vs. 100 ms; 35.8 vs. 19.1; respectively, P Night-shift work increases driver drowsiness, degrading driving performance and increasing the risk of near-crash drive events. With more than 9.5 million Americans working overnight or rotating shifts and one-third of United States commutes exceeding 30 min, these results have implications for traffic and occupational safety.

  17. Characteristics of children with unilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Al-Essa, Rakan S; Whittingham, JoAnne; Fitzpatrick, Jessica

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL), examine deterioration in hearing, and explore amplification decisions. Population-based data were collected prospectively from time of diagnosis. Serial audiograms and amplification details were retrospectively extracted from clinical charts to document the trajectory and management of hearing loss. The study included all children identified with UHL in one region of Canada over a 13-year period (2003-2015) after implementation of universal newborn hearing screening. Of 537 children with permanent hearing loss, 20.1% (108) presented with UHL at diagnosis. They were identified at a median age of 13.9 months (IQR: 2.8, 49.0). Children with congenital loss were identified at 2.8 months (IQR: 2.0, 3.6) and made up 47.2% (n = 51), reflecting that a substantial portion had late-onset, acquired or late-identified loss. A total of 42.4% (n = 39) showed deterioration in hearing, including 16 (17.4%) who developed bilateral loss. By study end, 73.1% (79/108) of children had received amplification recommendations. Up to 20% of children with permanent HL are first diagnosed with UHL. About 40% are at risk for deterioration in hearing either in the impaired ear and/or in the normal hearing ear.

  18. Teachers’ way of reflecting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose of t......’ reflections on practice. Based on this model, the paper provides a proposal regarding how to work with teachers’ professional development and learning processes. Educational implications and future research directions are discussed.......This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose...... of the Danish study was to investigate and understand teachers’ classroom experiences using Fenstermacher’s approach to develop a practical argument, as these classroom experiences are regarded as a potential source of learning for teachers. A three-level scale model from the study describes the teach-ers...

  19. Losses in variable fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronca, G.; Fevrier, A.; Genevey, P.; Perot, J.

    1974-01-01

    After a recall of the theory of losses in type 11 superconductors and review of recent work on this topic, the characteristics of what should be an ideal conductor for a pulsed magnet are given. The requirements of pulsed magnets for high energy physics are reviewed and total losses for a 1000 GeV synchrotron estimated. Finally, recent results of prototypes are reported along with the projects of superconducting synchrotron accelerators through the world. (author)

  20. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  1. Language loss and language processing : three generations of Dutch migrants in New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsen, Madeleine Elisabeth Helena

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationship between language shift, language loss, and language processing. Three generations of Dutch immigrants to New Zealand were tested to investigate intra- and intergenerational patterns of language use, social networks, perceived ethnolinguistic vitality,

  2. Measurement of conductive hearing loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhaobing; Wood, Melissa; Rosowski, John J

    2010-05-01

    In order to discriminate conductive hearing loss from sensorineural impairment, quantitative measurements were used to evaluate the effect of artificial conductive pathology on distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and laser-Doppler vibrometry (LDV) in mice. The conductive manipulations were created by perforating the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane, filling or partially filling the middle-ear cavity with saline, fixing the ossicular chain, and interrupting the incudo-stapedial joint. In the saline-filled and ossicular-fixation groups, averaged DPOAE thresholds increased relative to the control state by 20-36 and 25-39 dB, respectively with the largest threshold shifts occurring at frequencies less than 20kHz, while averaged ABR thresholds increased 12-19 and 12-25 dB, respectively without the predominant low-frequency effect. Both DPOAE and ABR thresholds were elevated by less than 10 dB in the half-filled saline condition; no significant change was observed after pars flaccida perforation. Conductive pathology generally produced a change in DPOAE threshold in dB that was 1.5-2.5 times larger than the ABR threshold change at frequencies less than 30 kHz; the changes in the two thresholds were nearly equal at the highest frequencies. While mild conductive pathology (ABR threshold shifts of conductive hearing losses (ABR threshold shifts >10 dB) were associated with significant deceases in DPOAE growth rate. Our LDV measurements are consistent with others and suggest that measurements of umbo velocity are not an accurate indicator of conductive hearing loss produced by ossicular lesions in mice. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hair Loss Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective. METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth. RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments. DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694..

  4. Control of Goos-Hänchen shift via input probe field intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-11-01

    We suggest a scheme to control Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift in an ensemble of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms, which act as super-atoms due to the dipole blockade mechanism. The ensemble of three-level cold Rydberg-dressed (87Rb) atoms follows a cascade configurations where two fields, i.e, a strong control and a weak field are employed [D. Petrosyan, J. Otterbach, and M. Fleischhauer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 213601 (2011)]. The propagation of probe field is influenced by two-photon correlation within the blockade distance, which are damped due to the saturation of super-atoms. The amplitude of GH shift in the reflected light depends on the intensity of probe field. We observe large negative GH shift in the reflected light for small values of the probe field intensities.

  5. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss - A Preventable Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W.; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H.; Stokholm, Zara A.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD) over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and...

  7. UCN anomalous losses and the UCN capture cross section on material defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serebrov, A.; Romanenko, N.; Zherebtsov, O.; Lasakov, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Fomin, A.; Geltenbort, P.; Krasnoshekova, I.; Kharitonov, A.; Varlamov, V.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental data shows anomalously large ultra cold neutrons (UCN) reflection losses and that the process of UCN reflection is not completely coherent. UCN anomalous losses under reflection cannot be explained in the context of neutron optics calculations. UCN losses by means of incoherent scattering on material defects are considered and cross-section values calculated. The UCN capture cross section on material defects is enhanced by a factor of 10 4 due to localization of UCN around defects. This phenomenon can explain anomalous losses of UCN

  8. Reflections on social activism in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C

    2014-03-01

    What is "social activism" to you? For older otolaryngologists, the term is likely to signify the tumult of the 1960s. For incoming generations, this connotation is outdated. Rather, it more broadly reflects concerted efforts to improve the public good. Some ally with existing institutions to work toward incremental progress. Some start new organizations, using technological tools to build networks, marshal resources, and leapfrog hurdles. Countering these efforts are the ever-changing challenges of practicing otolaryngology today: electronic health records, shifting incentives, and changes in the practice model. Employment by large conglomerates is more common, decreasing our visibility as community leaders. Burnout is a recognized "hazard," and budding otolaryngologists are particularly susceptible. Adding one more thing, like social activism, to a full plate seems counterintuitive. But it shouldn't be. You don't need a "bigger" plate to get involved in social causes. Start simple. Find a partner. Scale up. You'll find it rewarding.

  9. Atmosphere Impact Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2018-02-01

    Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth's formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth's formation, but Earth's early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth's formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the {}3He/{}^{22}Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (m_{cap} ≳ √{2

  10. Continuous blood densitometry - Fluid shifts after graded hemorrhage in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid fluid shifts in four pigs and two dogs subjected to graded hemorrhage are investigated. Arterial blood density (BD), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), arterial plasma density (PD), hematocrit (Hct) and erythrocyte density were measured. The apparatus and mechancial oscillator technique for measuring density are described. Fluid shifts between red blood cells and blood plasma and alterations in the whole-body-to-large vessel Hct, F(cell) are studied using two models. The bases of the model calculations are discussed. A decrease in MAP, CVP, and BP is detected at the beginning of hemorrhaging; continued bleeding results in further BD decrease correlating with volume displacement. The data reveal that at 15 ml/kg blood loss the mean PD and BD dropped by 0.99 + or - 0.15 and 2.42 + or 0.26 g/liter, respectively, and the Hct dropped by 2.40 + or 0.47 units. The data reveal that inward-shifted fluid has a higher density than normal ultrafiltrate and/or there is a rise in the F(cell) ratio. It is noted that rapid fluid replacement ranged from 5.8 + or - 0.8 to 10.6 + or - 2.0 percent of the initial plasma volume.

  11. Nonradioactive RNA mobility shift with chemiluminescent detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hesham

    RNA mobility shift is one among many procedures used to study RNA-protein interaction. Yet, there are some limitations for the radioactive RNA mobility shift including; 1) the risk of using radiolabeled nucleotides, 2) the long time to get the results; this could range from days to weeks, and 3) its high cost as compared to ...

  12. Pole Inflation - Shift Symmetry and Universal Corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broy, Benedict J.; Galante, Mario; Roest, Diederik; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    An appealing explanation for the Planck data is provided by inflationary models with a singular non-canonical kinetic term: a Laurent expansion of the kinetic function translates into a potential with a nearly shift-symmetric plateau in canonical fields. The shift symmetry can be broken at large

  13. Machiavellianism, Discussion Time, and Group Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Helmut; Myers, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Social-emotional and rational-cognitive explanations of group risky shift on choice dilemmas (hypothetical life situations) were evaluated by comparing shift in groups of low Mach (emotional) and high Mach (non-emotional) subjects. Effects of Machiavellian beliefs on social functioning are examined. Group composition was not observed to affect…

  14. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  15. Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotch, Howard

    1981-01-01

    The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)

  16. Shifting identities : the musician as theatrical perfomer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hübner, Falk

    2013-01-01

    The artistic PhD research "Shifting Identities" investigates the musicians' professional identity and how this identity might shift when musicians start acting as theatrical performers. In most of the theatrical situations where musicians "perform", their profession is extended by additional tasks

  17. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  18. Hippocampal theta frequency shifts and operant behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.

    1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and

  19. Lambda shifted photonic crystal cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Ek, Sara

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an alternative type of photonic crystal laser design that shifts all the holes in the lattice by a fixed fraction of the targeted emission wavelength. The structures are realized in InGaAsP =1.15 with InGaAsP quantum wells =1.52 as gain material. Cavities with shifts of...

  20. Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, T.P.; Carpenter, S.; Rockstrom, J.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.

    2013-01-01

    Life on Earth has repeatedly displayed abrupt and massive changes in the past, and there is no reason to expect that comparable planetary-scale regime shifts will not continue in the future. Different lines of evidence indicate that regime shifts occur when the climate or biosphere transgresses a

  1. A Seismic Analysis for Reflective Metal Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyuhyung; Kim, Taesoon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) GSI- 191 (Generic Safety Issue-191) is concerned about the head-loss of emergency core cooling pumps caused by calcium silicate insulation debris accumulated on a sump screen when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In order to cope with the concern, many nuclear plants in U. S. have been replacing calcium silicate insulation in containment building with reflective metal insulation (RMI). In Korea, RMI has been used for only reactor vessels recently constructed, but the RMI was imported. Therefore, we have been developing the domestic design of RMI to supply to nuclear power plants under operation and construction in relation to the GSI-191. This paper covers that the structural integrity of the RMI assembly was evaluated under SSE (safety shutdown earthquake) load. An analysis model was built for the seismic test system of a reflective metal insulation assembly and pre-stress, modal, and spectrum analysis for the model were performed using a commercial structural analysis code, ANSYS. According to the results of the analyses, the buckles fastening the RMIs showed the structural integrity under the required response spectrum containing the safety shutdown earthquake loads applied to main components in containment building. Consequently, since the RMI isn't disassembled under the SSE load, the RMI is judged not to affect safety related components.

  2. A Seismic Analysis for Reflective Metal Insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyuhyung; Kim, Taesoon

    2016-01-01

    U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) GSI- 191 (Generic Safety Issue-191) is concerned about the head-loss of emergency core cooling pumps caused by calcium silicate insulation debris accumulated on a sump screen when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In order to cope with the concern, many nuclear plants in U. S. have been replacing calcium silicate insulation in containment building with reflective metal insulation (RMI). In Korea, RMI has been used for only reactor vessels recently constructed, but the RMI was imported. Therefore, we have been developing the domestic design of RMI to supply to nuclear power plants under operation and construction in relation to the GSI-191. This paper covers that the structural integrity of the RMI assembly was evaluated under SSE (safety shutdown earthquake) load. An analysis model was built for the seismic test system of a reflective metal insulation assembly and pre-stress, modal, and spectrum analysis for the model were performed using a commercial structural analysis code, ANSYS. According to the results of the analyses, the buckles fastening the RMIs showed the structural integrity under the required response spectrum containing the safety shutdown earthquake loads applied to main components in containment building. Consequently, since the RMI isn't disassembled under the SSE load, the RMI is judged not to affect safety related components

  3. Deterioration of reflecting coatings by intermetallic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, W R; Mikes, T L; Hass, G

    1972-07-01

    Gold diffraction gratings overcoated with Al + MgF(2) to increase their efficiency in the vacuum ultraviolet suffered a severe loss in efficiency within six months to a year after coating; for example, from 50% to 2% at lambda1216 A. The cause of this loss was assumed to be interdiffusion of Au and Al; therefore, a more complete study of Au-Al film combinations was performed. The coatings were aged at room and elevated temperatures. Reflectance measurements were made in the visible and vacuum ultraviolet spectral regions. For wavelengths longer than lambda900 A, the measurements show very little change until the diffusion boundary reaches the penetration depth of the radiation. If Al is the first surface layer, however, reflectance measurements at lambda584 A permit measuring the progress of the diffusion boundary toward the Al surface because of the low absorptance of Al at this wavelength. Interdiffusion can be effectively eliminated by the use of thin dielectric layers uch as SiO and the natural oxide of Al. Such protected coatings have been exposed for one week at a temperature of 170 degrees C with no visible sign of diffusion, whereas a similar coating without the barrier layer would become useless in less than 1 h. Some preliminary studies have been made with Pt-Al film combinations.

  4. Shift work and age in the offshore petroleum industry

    OpenAIRE

    Waage, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    Background. Shift work is associated with sleep and health problems. Tolerance to shift work is reported to decrease with age. Shift work tolerance should be considered in different shift work populations. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between age, shift work exposure, shift type, and morningness and sleep/health problems in oil rig shift workers. Material and methods. A total of 199 workers participated. They worked either two weeks of 12-h day shifts (n = 96) or tw...

  5. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  6. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-05

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  7. Methodological aspects of shift-work research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Anders

    2004-01-01

    A major issue in shift-work research is to understand the possible ways in which shift work can impact performance and health. Nearly all body functions, from those of the cellular level to those of the entire body, are circadian rhythmic. Disturbances of these rhythms as well as the social consequences of odd work hours are of importance for the health and well-being of shift workers. This article reviews a number of common methodological issues which are of relevance to epidemiological studies in this area of research. It discusses conceptual problems regarding the use of the term "shift work," and it underscores the need to develop models that explain the mechanisms of disease in shift workers.

  8. Spectral reconstruction for shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuxia; Chernavskaia, Olga; Popp, Jürgen; Bocklitz, Thomas

    2018-08-15

    Fluorescence emission is one of the major obstacles to apply Raman spectroscopy in biological investigations. It is usually several orders more intense than Raman scattering and hampers further analysis. In cases where the fluorescence emission is too intense to be efficiently removed via routine mathematical baseline correction algorithms, an alternative approach is needed. One alternative approach is shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS), where two Raman spectra are recorded with two slightly different excitation wavelengths. Ideally, the fluorescence emission at the two excitations does not change while the Raman spectrum shifts according to the excitation wavelength. Hence the fluorescence is removed in the difference of the two recorded Raman spectra. For better interpretability a spectral reconstruction procedure is necessary to recover the fluorescence-free Raman spectrum. This is challenging due to the intensity variations between the two recorded Raman spectra caused by unavoidable experimental changes as well as the presence of noise. Existent approaches suffer from drawbacks like spectral resolution loss, fluorescence residual, and artefacts. In this contribution, we proposed a reconstruction method based on non-negative least squares (NNLS), where the intensity variations between the two measurements are utilized in the reconstruction model. The method achieved fluorescence-free reconstruction on three real-world SERDS datasets without significant information loss. Thereafter, we quantified the performance of the reconstruction based on artificial datasets from four aspects: reconstructed spectral resolution, precision of reconstruction, signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and fluorescence residual. The artificial datasets were constructed with varied Raman to fluorescence intensity ratio (RFIR), SNR, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), excitation wavelength shift, and fluorescence variation between the two spectra. It was demonstrated that

  9. Time for a shift in crop production: embracing complexity through diversity at all levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Finckh, M.R.; Fontaine, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    A radical shift in our approach to crop production is needed to ensure food security and to address the problems of soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, polluted and restricted water supplies, coupled with a future of fossil fuel limitations and increasingly variable climatic conditions...

  10. Time for a shift in crop production: embracing complexity through diversity at all levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostergard, H.; Finckh, M.R.; Fontaine, L.; Goldringer, I.; Hoad, S.; Kristensen, K.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Mascher, F.; Munk, L.; Wolfe, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    A radical shift in our approach to crop production is needed to ensure food security and to address the problems of soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, polluted and restricted water supplies, coupled with a future of fossil fuel limitations and increasingly variable climatic conditions. An

  11. The AGS Booster beam loss monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beadle, E.R.; Bennett, G.W.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    A beam loss monitor system has been developed for the Brookhaven National Laboratory Booster accelerator, and is designed for use with intensities of up to 1.5 x 10 13 protons and carbon to gold ions at 50-3 x 10 9 ions per pulse. This system is a significant advance over the present AGS system by improving the sensitivity, dynamic range, and data acquisition. In addition to the large dynamic range achievable, it is adaptively shifted when high losses are detected. The system uses up to 80 argon filled ion chambers as detectors, as well as newly designed electronics for processing and digitizing detector outputs. The hardware simultaneously integrates each detector output, interfaces to the beam interrupt systems, and digitizes all 80 channels to 21 bits at 170 KHz. This paper discuses the design, construction, and operation of the system. 4 refs., 2 figs

  12. Loss of Drp1 function alters OPA1 processing and changes mitochondrial membrane organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moepert, Kristin [Silence Therapeutics AG, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Hajek, Petr [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Frank, Stephan [Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Basel, CH-4031 Basel (Switzerland); Chen, Christiane [Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Children' s Hospital Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kaufmann, Joerg [Silence Therapeutics AG, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Santel, Ansgar, E-mail: a.santel@silence-therapeutics.com [Silence Therapeutics AG, 13125 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    RNAi mediated loss of Drp1 function changes mitochondrial morphology in cultured HeLa and HUVEC cells by shifting the balance of mitochondrial fission and fusion towards unopposed fusion. Over time, inhibition of Drp1 expression results in the formation of a highly branched mitochondrial network along with 'bulge'-like structures. These changes in mitochondrial morphology are accompanied by a reduction in levels of Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and 2 (Mfn2) and a modified proteolytic processing of OPA1 isoforms, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, our data imply that bulge formation is driven by Mfn1 action along with particular proteolytic short-OPA1 (s-OPA1) variants: Loss of Mfn2 in the absence of Drp1 results in an increase of Mfn1 levels along with processed s-OPA1-isoforms, thereby enhancing continuous 'fusion' and bulge formation. Moreover, bulge formation might reflect s-OPA1 mitochondrial membrane remodeling activity, resulting in the compartmentalization of cytochrome c deposits. The proteins Yme1L and PHB2 appeared not associated with the observed enhanced OPA1 proteolysis upon RNAi of Drp1, suggesting the existence of other OPA1 processing controlling proteins. Taken together, Drp1 appears to affect the activity of the mitochondrial fusion machinery by unbalancing the protein levels of mitofusins and OPA1.

  13. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  14. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  15. [Sleep quality of nurses working in shifts - Hungarian adaptation of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusz, Katalin; Tóth, Ákos; Fullér, Noémi; Müller, Ágnes; Oláh, András

    2015-12-06

    Sleep disorders among shift workers are common problems due to the disturbed circadian rhythm. The Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire assesses discrete sleep problems related to work shifts (day, evening and night shifts) and rest days. The aim of the study was to develop the Hungarian version of this questionnaire and to compare the sleep quality of nurses in different work schedules. 326 nurses working in shifts filled in the questionnaire. The authors made convergent and discriminant validation of the questionnaire with the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. The questionnaire based on psychometric characteristics was suitable to assess sleep disorders associated with shift work in a Hungarian sample. The frequency of discrete symptoms significantly (pshifts. Nurses experienced the worst sleep quality and daytime fatigue after the night shift. Nurses working in irregular shift system had worse sleep quality than nurses working in regular and flexible shift system (pworking in shifts should be assessed with the Hungarian version of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire on a nationally representative sample, and the least burdensome shift system could be established.

  16. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Bakker, Marije F.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Proper, Karin I

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure-response relationships for

  17. Effect of aperiodicity on the broadband reflection of silicon nanorod structures for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Huang, Ningfeng; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2012-01-02

    We carry out a systematic numerical study of the effects of aperiodicity on silicon nanorod anti-reflection structures. We use the scattering matrix method to calculate the average reflection loss over the solar spectrum for periodic and aperiodic arrangements of nanorods. We find that aperiodicity can either improve or deteriorate the anti-reflection performance, depending on the nanorod diameter. We use a guided random-walk algorithm to design optimal aperiodic structures that exhibit lower reflection loss than both optimal periodic and random aperiodic structures.

  18. Effect of reflective practice education on self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking among experienced nurses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Marilyn E; Fain, James A

    2013-01-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted to determine whether nurses' participation in a reflective practice continuing education program using a structured reflection model makes a difference in nurses' self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking about clinical practice situations. Findings suggested that use of structured reflection using question cues, written narratives, and peer-facilitated reflection increased nurses' engagement in self-reflection and enhanced reflective thinking in practice. Including reflective practice education in novice orientation and preceptor training may be beneficial.

  19. Demystifying the reflective clinical journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinkovic, Danielle; Field, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    Student learning on clinical placement is a complex issue and cannot be defined solely by just doing things. Reflection during clinical practice is essential if the student is going to learn from the experience. Therefore it is important for educators to include as part of clinical education programs learning strategies that encourage reflection. The reflective clinical journal is an educational tool that is employed by the School of Medical Radiation Sciences at the University of Sydney to encourage reflection of undergraduate radiation therapy students whilst on clinical placement. This discussion paper explores the key concepts of reflection and the reflective clinical journal. Due to the paucity of information about this issue in radiation therapy the literature reviewed is from across all areas of the health sciences

  20. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-01-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems

  1. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  2. Losing ground - scenarios of land loss as consequence of shifting sediment budgets in the Mekong Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J. P.; Rubin, Z.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2017-10-01

    With changing climate and rising seas, proliferation of hydroelectric dams, instream sand mining, dyking of floodplains, accelerated subsidence from groundwater pumping, accelerated sea-level rise, and other anthropic impacts, it is certain that the Mekong Delta will undergo large changes in the coming decades. These changes will threaten the very existence of the landform itself. The multiplicity of compounding drivers and lack of reliable data lead to large uncertainties in forecasting changes in the sediment budget of the Mekong Delta, its morphology, and the ecosystems and human livelihoods it supports. We compile information on key drivers affecting the sediment budget of the Mekong Delta and compare them to quantify the magnitude of effects from different drivers. We develop a set of likely scenarios for the future development of these drivers and quantify implications for the future of the Mekong Delta using a simplified model of the delta's geometry. If sediment supply to the delta is nearly completely cut off, as would be the case with full buildout of planned dams and current rates of sediment mining, and with continued groundwater pumping at current rates, our model forecasts that the delta will almost completely disappear by the end of this century due to increased rates of delta subsidence and rising sea levels. While local management cannot prevent global sea level rise, model results suggest that there are important management steps that could prolong the persistence of the delta ecosystem and the livelihoods it supports, including a reduction in ground water pumping and maintaining sediment connectivity between the basin and the delta.

  3. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  4. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  5. Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, D.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; Moroz, L. V.; Markus, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL) provides a collection of reflectance spectra between 0.3 and 17 µm. It was originally dedicated to support space missions to small solar system bodies. Meanwhile the library includes selections of biconical reflectance spectra for spectral data analysis of other planetary bodies as well. The library provides reference spectra of well-characterized terrestrial analogue materials and meteorites for interpretation of remote sensing reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We introduce the BRSL, summarize the data available, and access to use them for further relevant applications.

  6. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journaling as central to students’ self-evaluation is described as a means of fostering metacognition.

  7. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  8. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyue Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK, the complex and dynamic knowledge necessary for effective technology integration into instruction. In this study, reflective activities were integrated into a Learning By Design (LBD environment, which was created to help preservice teachers develop TPACK. This paper investigated the participants’ TPACK development and examined how reflection helped them construct TPACK. Through content analysis of the participants’ reflective journals, the researcher found that the preservice teachers developed initial TPACK awareness. However, their reflection in technology knowledge and the content aspects of TPACK were limited and superficial. Interviews with the participants showed reflection helped the preservice teachers remember what they learned by describing and elaborating on their in-class experiences, pushed them to think about how to apply what they learned in their future classrooms, and helped them become more reflective and open-minded about using technology in classrooms. Finally, the researcher discussed this study’s implications for teacher educators and researchers.

  9. Reflection and Reflective Practice Discourses in Coaching: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    Reflection and reflective practice is seen as an established part of coaching and coach education practice. It has become a "taken-for-granted" part of coaching that is accepted enthusiastically and unquestioningly, and is assumed to be "good" for coaching and coaches. Drawing on sociological concepts, a primarily Foucauldian…

  10. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  11. Goos-Hänchen shifts of partially coherent light beams from a cavity with a four-level Raman gain medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically investigate spatial and angular Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts (both negative and positive) in the reflected light for a partial coherent light incident on a cavity. A four-level Raman gain atomic medium is considered in a cavity. The effects of spatial coherence, beam width, and mode index of partial coherent light fields on spatial and angular GH shifts are studied. Our results reveal that a large magnitude of negative and positive GH shifts in the reflected light is achievable with the introduction of partial coherent light fields. Furthermore, the amplitude of spatial (negative and positive) GH shifts are sharply affected by the partial coherent light beam as compared to angular (negative and positive) GH shifts in the reflected light.

  12. ECT and memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R

    1977-09-01

    The author reviews several studies that clarify the nature of the memory loss associated with ECT. Bilateral ECT produced greater anterograde memory loss than right unilateral ECT and more extensive retrograde amnesia than unilateral ECT. Reactivating memories just before ECT did not produce amnesia. Capacity for new learning recovered substantially by several months after ECT, but memory complaints were common in individuals who had received bilateral ECT. Other things being equal, right unilateral ECT seems preferable to bilateral ECT because the risks to memory associated with unilateral ECT are smaller.

  13. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Piroux

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA are associated with thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and fetal loss but they occur in a variety of diseases. Despite many efforts, a correlation between the specificity of particular subgroups of APA and particular clinical situations remains to be established. The antigens at the origin of APA remain to be identified. We discuss here the possible links between cell apoptosis or necrosis, leading to plasma membrane alterations, and the occurrence of APA in response to sustained stimulation. The pathogenic potential of APA is also considered with respect to recurrent pregnancy loss.

  14. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  15. Night work and BMI: is it related to on-shift napping?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva-Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT On-shift napping can benefit night workers regarding sleep loss, synchronization of circadian rhythms, and alertness. However, few studies on napping can be found in the literature focused on possible health benefits. This cross-sectional study has investigated the role of on-shift napping on the association between night work and BMI in 409 night-shift nursing professionals. The number of working nights and the years of exposure to night work were significantly associated with increased BMI levels among non-nappers, but not among nappers. Results suggest a benefit of napping for weight gain, thus subsidizing occupational health policies on the regulation of on-shift napping among nursing workers.

  16. Night work and BMI: is it related to on-shift napping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Griep, Rosane Härter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2017-11-17

    On-shift napping can benefit night workers regarding sleep loss, synchronization of circadian rhythms, and alertness. However, few studies on napping can be found in the literature focused on possible health benefits. This cross-sectional study has investigated the role of on-shift napping on the association between night work and BMI in 409 night-shift nursing professionals. The number of working nights and the years of exposure to night work were significantly associated with increased BMI levels among non-nappers, but not among nappers. Results suggest a benefit of napping for weight gain, thus subsidizing occupational health policies on the regulation of on-shift napping among nursing workers.

  17. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Bakker, Marije F; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2017-05-01

    Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure-response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses. Time spent (hours/week) in different PA types (walking/cycling/exercise/chores) and intensities (moderate/vigorous) were calculated based on self-reported PA. Furthermore, sports were operationalised as: playing sports (no/yes), individual versus non-individual sports, and non-vigorous-intensity versus vigorous-intensity sports. PA levels were compared between shift workers and non-shift workers using Generalized Estimating Equations and logistic regression. Shift workers reported spending more time walking than non-shift workers (B=2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4)), but shift work was not associated with other PA types and any of the sports activities. Shift workers who worked 1-4 night shifts/month (B=2.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.3)) and ≥5 night shifts/month (B=3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.6)) spent more time walking than non-shift workers. No exposure-response relationships were found between years of shift work and PA levels. Shift workers spent more time walking than non-shift workers, but we observed no differences in other non-occupational PA levels. To better understand if and how PA plays a role in the negative health consequences of shift work, our findings need to be confirmed in future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. When Clients Die: Using Storytelling, Journaling and Correspondence in Times of Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    The contexts of loss are as numerous as they are varied. This article reflects upon loss within the context of the helping relationship and illustrates how storytelling, journaling, and correspondence can be used to process the experience of a counselor's loss. The richness of personal accounts, interwoven and connected, provides voice and place…

  19. Shifting visual perspective during memory retrieval reduces the accuracy of subsequent memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotti, Petra; St Jacques, Peggy L

    2018-03-01

    Memories for events can be retrieved from visual perspectives that were never experienced, reflecting the dynamic and reconstructive nature of memories. Characteristics of memories can be altered when shifting from an own eyes perspective, the way most events are initially experienced, to an observer perspective, in which one sees oneself in the memory. Moreover, recent evidence has linked these retrieval-related effects of visual perspective to subsequent changes in memories. Here we examine how shifting visual perspective influences the accuracy of subsequent memories for complex events encoded in the lab. Participants performed a series of mini-events that were experienced from their own eyes, and were later asked to retrieve memories for these events while maintaining the own eyes perspective or shifting to an alternative observer perspective. We then examined how shifting perspective during retrieval modified memories by influencing the accuracy of recall on a final memory test. Across two experiments, we found that shifting visual perspective reduced the accuracy of subsequent memories and that reductions in vividness when shifting visual perspective during retrieval predicted these changes in the accuracy of memories. Our findings suggest that shifting from an own eyes to an observer perspective influences the accuracy of long-term memories.

  20. Correlation of chemical shifts predicted by molecular dynamics simulations for partially disordered proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Jerome M.; Erylimaz, Ertan; Cowburn, David, E-mail: cowburn@cowburnlab.org, E-mail: David.cowburn@einstein.yu.edu [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Biochemistry (United States)

    2015-01-15

    There has been a longstanding interest in being able to accurately predict NMR chemical shifts from structural data. Recent studies have focused on using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation data as input for improved prediction. Here we examine the accuracy of chemical shift prediction for intein systems, which have regions of intrinsic disorder. We find that using MD simulation data as input for chemical shift prediction does not consistently improve prediction accuracy over use of a static X-ray crystal structure. This appears to result from the complex conformational ensemble of the disordered protein segments. We show that using accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations improves chemical shift prediction, suggesting that methods which better sample the conformational ensemble like aMD are more appropriate tools for use in chemical shift prediction for proteins with disordered regions. Moreover, our study suggests that data accurately reflecting protein dynamics must be used as input for chemical shift prediction in order to correctly predict chemical shifts in systems with disorder.

  1. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of feminisms. The authors support an understanding of ubuntu as critique and ubuntu feminism accordingly as a critical intervention that recalls a politics of refusal. The article ends by raising the importance of thinking about spatiality through ubuntu, and vice versa. It may seem strange to title an article Ubuntu feminism when feminism itself has often been identified as a European or Western idea. But, this article will argue that ubuntu offers conceptions of transindividuality and ways of social belonging that could respond in a meaningful way to some of European feminism�s own dilemmas and contradictions. Famously, one of the most intense debates in feminism was between those who defended an ethic of care in a relational view of the self, on one side, and those feminists who held on to more traditional conceptions of justice, placing an emphasis on individuality and autonomy, on the other side. The authors will suggest that ubuntu could address this tension in feminism. Thus, in this article the focus will not simply be on ubuntu, in order to recognise that there are other intellectual heritages worthy of consideration, other than those in Europe and the United States. It will also take a next step in arguing that ubuntu may be a better standpoint entirely from which to continue thinking about what it means to be a human being, as well as how to conceive of the integral interconnection human beings all have with one another. This connection through

  2. MR chemical shift imaging of human atheroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohiaddin, R.H.; Underwood, R.; Firmin, D.; Abdulla, A.K.; Rees, S.; Longmore, D.

    1988-01-01

    The lipid content of atheromatous plaques has been measured with chemical shift MR imaging by taking advantage of the different resonance frequencies of protons in lipid and water. Fifteen postmortem aortic specimens of the human descending aorta and the aortae of seven patients with documented peripheral vascular disease were studied at 0.5 T. Spin-echo images were used to localize the lesions before acquisition of the chemical shift images. The specimens were examined histologically, and the lipid distribution in the plaque showed good correlation with the chemical shift data. Validation in vivo and clinical applications remain to be established

  3. Giant Lamb shift in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuehua; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Gu Benyuan

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a general result for the Lamb shift of excited states of multilevel atoms in inhomogeneous electromagnetic structures and apply it to study atomic hydrogen in inverse-opal photonic crystals. We find that the photonic-crystal environment can lead to very large values of the Lamb shift, as compared to the case of vacuum. We also suggest that the position-dependent Lamb shift should extend from a single level to a miniband for an assembly of atoms with random distribution in space, similar to the velocity-dependent Doppler effect in atomic/molecular gases

  4. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  5. Search for Higgs shifts in white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia " Galileo Galilei," Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Wegner, Gary A., E-mail: onofrior@gmail.com, E-mail: gary.a.wegner@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.

  6. Beta-shifts, their languages and computability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    they give into the dynamics of the underlying system. We prove that the language of the ß-shift is recursive iff ß is a computable real number. That fact yields a precise characterization of the reals: The real numbers ß for which we can compute arbitrarily good approximations—hence in particular......For every real number ß >1, the ß-shift is a dynamical system describing iterations of the map x ¿ ßx mod 1 and is studied intensively in number theory. Each ß-shift has an associated language of finite strings of characters; properties of this language are studied for the additional insight...

  7. Examining the Conservative Shift from Harsh Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycelyn Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a political shift has been observed, in that some political conservatives are now advocating, adjusting, or abandoning draconian drug laws, including mandatory minimums, and funding diversion, re-entry, and drug programs. Vocal proponents of this movement include Grover Norquist, Rand Paul, Edwin Meese, and Mark Levin, from the Texas Public Policy Council. Any movement away from the mass incarceration that has characterized the U.S. correctional policy for the last 30 years is welcomed; however, it is important to note carefully the philosophical foundation of the conservative’s interest in shifting correctional policy. This paper explores the potential factors contributing to this philosophical shift.

  8. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...

  9. Soft theorems for shift-symmetric cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Bernardo; Goon, Garrett; Pajer, Enrico; Santoni, Luca

    2018-03-01

    We derive soft theorems for single-clock cosmologies that enjoy a shift symmetry. These so-called consistency conditions arise from a combination of a large diffeomorphism and the internal shift symmetry and fix the squeezed limit of all correlators with a soft scalar mode. As an application, we show that our results reproduce the squeezed bispectrum for ultra-slow-roll inflation, a particular shift-symmetric, nonattractor model which is known to violate Maldacena's consistency relation. Similar results have been previously obtained by Mooij and Palma using background-wave methods. Our results shed new light on the infrared structure of single-clock cosmological spacetimes.

  10. The Prerequisites for a Degrowth Paradigm Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    What would it take for a degrowth paradigm shift to take place? Drawing on contemporary critical political economy scholarship, this article identifies four prerequisites for socio-economic paradigm shifts: deep crisis, an alternative political project, a comprehensive coalition of social forces...... currently facing humanity. On the other hand, the prospects for a degrowth paradigm shift remain bleak: unlike political projects that became hegemonic in the past, degrowth has neither support from a comprehensive coalition of social forces nor any consent to its agenda among the broader population....

  11. Anomalous loss of DT alpha particles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Hans W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1997-09-01

    An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR`s DT phase. Energy distributions of escaping alphas have been determined by measuring the range of α-particles implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Results at 1.0 MA of plasma current are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss. Results at 1.8 MA, however, show a significant anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas (in addition to the expected first orbit loss), which is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas, but does resemble the anomalous delayed loss seen in DD plasmas. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations. An experiment designed to study the effect of plasma major radius shifts on α-particle loss has led to a better understanding of α-particle dynamics in tokamaks. Intuitively, one might suppose that confined marginally passing α-particles forced to move toward higher magnetic field during an inward major radius shift (i.e., compression) would mirror and become trapped particles, leading to increased alpha loss. Such an effect was looked for during the shift experiment, however, no significant changes in alpha loss to the 90° lost alpha scintillator detector were observed during the shifts. It is calculated that the energy gained by an α-particle during the inward shift is sufficient to explain this result. However, an unexpected loss of partially thermalized α-particles near the passing/trapped boundary was observed to occur between inward and outward shifts at an intermediate value of plasma current (1.4 MA). This anomalous loss feature is not yet understood.

  12. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  13. Ocular Measures of Sleepiness Are Increased in Night Shift Workers Undergoing a Simulated Night Shift Near the Peak Time of the 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftouni, Suzanne; Sletten, Tracey L.; Nicholas, Christian L.; Kennaway, David J.; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The study examined the relationship between the circadian rhythm of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and ocular measures of sleepiness and neurobehavioral performance in shift workers undergoing a simulated night shift. Methods: Twenty-two shift workers (mean age 33.4, SD 11.8 years) were tested at approximately the beginning (20:00) and the end (05:55) of a simulated night shift in the laboratory. At the time point corresponding to the end of the simulated shift, 14 participants were classified as being within range of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) acrophase— defined as 3 hours before or after aMT6s peak—and 8 were classified as outside aMT6s acrophase range. Participants completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the auditory psychomotor vigilance task (aPVT). Waking electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and infrared reflectance oculography was used to collect ocular measures of sleepiness: positive and negative amplitude/velocity ratio (PosAVR, NegAVR), mean blink total duration (BTD), the percentage of eye closure (%TEC), and a composite score of sleepiness levels (Johns Drowsiness Scale; JDS). Results: Participants who were tested within aMT6s acrophase range displayed higher levels of sleepiness on ocular measures (%TEC, BTD, PosAVR, JDS), objective sleepiness (EEG delta power frequency band), subjective ratings of sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance, compared to those who were outside aMT6s acrophase range. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that objective ocular measures of sleepiness are sensitive to circadian rhythm misalignment in shift workers. Citation: Ftouni S, Sletten TL, Nicholas CL, Kennaway DJ, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SM. Ocular measures of sleepiness are increased in night shift workers undergoing a simulated night shift near the peak time of the 6-sulfatoxymelatonin rhythm. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1131–1141. PMID:26094925

  14. Third ventricle midline shift on computed tomography as an alternative to septum pellucidum shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Carlos Francis A.; Oropilla, Jean Quint L; Alvarez, Victor M.

    2000-01-01

    The cerebral midline shift is measured using the displacement from midline of the third ventricle. It is an easily determined criterion from which CT scans of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hematoma may be investigated. Midline shift is a significant criteria in which to gauge the neurological status of patients. In a retrospective study of 32 patients with spontaneous unilateral intracerebral hemorrhage, a midline third ventricle shift correlated well with septum pellucidum shift. A greater than 7 mm midline third ventricle shift was associated with a significantly lower Glasgow Coma scale score compared a shift less than 7mm. For the septum pellucidum, a greater than 10 mm shift was similarly associated with a significantly lower Glasgow Coma scale score. (Author)

  15. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Postnova

    Full Text Available Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8 in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  16. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  17. Ionization loss in BGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, J.A.; Denes, P.; Piroue, P.A.; Stickland, D.P.; Sumner, R.L.; Taylor, C.; Barone, L.; Borgia, B.; Diemoz, M.; Dionisi, C.; Falciano, S.; Ferroni, F.; Gratta, G.; Longo, E.; Luminari, L.; Morganti, S.; Valente, E.; Blaising, J.J.; Boutigny, D.; Coignet, G.; Karyotakis, Y.; Sauvage, G.; Schneegans, M.; Vivargent, M.; Extermann, P.; Morand, G.; Ossmann, J.; Ruckstuhl, W.; Schaad, T.P.; Lecoq, P.; Walk, W.; Li, P.J.; Micke, M.; Micke, U.; Schmitz, D.

    1988-01-01

    We report on a precise measurement of the energy loss through ionization by pions in bismuth germanate performed at several values of the incident particles momentum with a prototype of the L3 electromagnetic calorimeter. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions showing the relativistic rise modified by density effect. (orig.)

  18. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...

  19. Independents' group posts loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices

  20. Deafness and Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This brief overview provides information on the definition, incidence, and characteristics of children with hearing impairments and deafness. The federal definitions of hearing impairment and deafness are provided. The different types of hearing loss are noted, including: (1) conductive (caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle…