WorldWideScience

Sample records for reflecting survey input

  1. Development of a 6 DOF force-reflecting master input device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Yoon, Ho Sik

    1999-05-01

    The teleoperator is a very effective tool for various tasks of nuclear application in that it can reduce the operators' exposure to the radiation. For the utmost performances of the teleoperator, the force reflection capability is essential. This capability represents a function of transmitting the contact force of teleoperator with the object to the human operator. With this function the human operator in the remote area can effectively guide the motion of the teleoperator so that it can follow a safety guaranteed path. In this research a fully force reflectible input device 96 axis is developed. To develop the force reflecting device, the state of art is surveyed. Based on this survey, the 6 DOF manipulator which controls a power manipulator is fabricated and its performance is investigated. Also, various force reflection algorithms analyzed and the enhanced algorithm is proposed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs., 26 fi0008.

  2. Development of a 6 DOF force-reflecting master input device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Yoon, Ho Sik

    1999-05-01

    The teleoperator is a very effective tool for various tasks of nuclear application in that it can reduce the operators' exposure to the radiation. For the utmost performances of the teleoperator, the force reflection capability is essential. This capability represents a function of transmitting the contact force of teleoperator with the object to the human operator. With this function the human operator in the remote area can effectively guide the motion of the teleoperator so that it can follow a safety guaranteed path. In this research a fully force reflectible input device 96 axis is developed. To develop the force reflecting device, the state of art is surveyed. Based on this survey, the 6 DOF manipulator which controls a power manipulator is fabricated and its performance is investigated. Also, various force reflection algorithms analyzed and the enhanced algorithm is proposed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs., 26 fi0008.

  3. Development of a 6 DOF force-reflecting master input device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Yoon, Ho Sik

    1999-05-01

    The teleoperator is a very effective tool for various tasks of nuclear application in that it can reduce the operators' exposure to the radiation. For the utmost performances of the teleoperator, the force reflection capability is essential. This capability represents a function of transmitting the contact force of teleoperator with the object to the human operator. With this function the human operator in the remote area can effectively guide the motion of the teleoperator so that it can follow a safety guaranteed path. In this research a fully force reflectible input device 96 axis) is developed. To develop the force reflecting device, the state of art is surveyed. Based on this survey, the 6 DOF manipulator which controls a power manipulator is fabricated and its performance is investigated. Also, various force reflection algorithms analyzed and the enhanced algorithm is proposed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs., 26 figs

  4. Stream Nitrogen Inputs Reflect Groundwater Across a Snowmelt-Dominated Montane to Urban Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Steven J; Weintraub, Samantha R; Eiriksson, David; Brooks, Paul D; Baker, Michelle A; Bowen, Gabriel J; Bowling, David R

    2016-02-02

    Snowmelt dominates the hydrograph of many temperate montane streams, yet little work has characterized how streamwater sources and nitrogen (N) dynamics vary across wildland to urban land use gradients in these watersheds. Across a third-order catchment in Salt Lake City, Utah, we asked where and when groundwater vs shallow surface water inputs controlled stream discharge and N dynamics. Stream water isotopes (δ(2)H and δ(18)O) reflected a consistent snowmelt water source during baseflow. Near-chemostatic relationships between conservative ions and discharge implied that groundwater dominated discharge year-round across the montane and urban sites, challenging the conceptual emphasis on direct stormwater inputs to urban streams. Stream and groundwater NO3(-) concentrations remained consistently low during snowmelt and baseflow in most montane and urban stream reaches, indicating effective subsurface N retention or denitrification and minimal impact of fertilizer or deposition N sources. Rather, NO3(-) concentrations increased 50-fold following urban groundwater inputs, showing that subsurface flow paths potentially impact nutrient loading more than surficial land use. Isotopic composition of H2O and NO3(-) suggested that snowmelt-derived urban groundwater intercepted NO3(-) from leaking sewers. Sewer maintenance could potentially mitigate hotspots of stream N inputs at mountain/valley transitions, which have been largely overlooked in semiarid urban ecosystems.

  5. Approaches and Tools Used to Teach the Computer Input/Output Subsystem: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraza-Mendiluze, Edurne; Garay-Vitoria, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys how the computer input/output (I/O) subsystem is taught in introductory undergraduate courses. It is important to study the educational process of the computer I/O subsystem because, in the curricula recommendations, it is considered a core topic in the area of knowledge of computer architecture and organization (CAO). It is…

  6. Seismic reflection survey conducted in Benton and Grant Counties, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, T.E.; Beggs, H.G.; Heineck, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The following report is devoted to a discussion of data acquisition procedures, data processing parameters and interpretation of results for a reflection seismic survey located on the Hanford Site in Benton and Grant Countries, Washington. The Pasco basin was the geologic setting for the survey. The main objectives of the program were to determine the subsurface structural attitudes of the numerous basalt flows known to exist within the basin. The location of areas associated with possible faulting and/or fracturing was also considered of prime concern as these conditions could significantly affect the integrity of the basalt

  7. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse reflect the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weixing X; Mao, Tianyi; Dudman, Joshua T

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  8. Seismic reflection survey conducted in Benton County, Washinton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beggs, H.G.; Heineck, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The massive Columbia River Basalt group that underlies the Hanford Site is being considered as a potential geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the effort to ascertain and better understand the physical and geological properties of these basalt flows, a multiphased seismic reflection program has been undertaken. This phase was designed to more thoroughly define geologic features and structural attitudes in an areas in the central part of the Hanford Site. The specific feature of interest is known as the Cold Creek Syncline. This seismic survey, utilized the ''VIBROSEIS'' energy source and multifold common depth point recording. 2 figs

  9. Seismic reflection surveys in central Palo Duro basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, H.; Buller, M.L.; Lewkowicz, J.; Murphy, P.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic reflection surveys have been conducted in the central Palo Duro basin to provide a basis for identifying localities suitable for the emplacement of an underground high level nuclear waste repository. The objectives of this effort were to determine the structure and stratigraphy in the central Palo Duro basin and evaluate the potential for hydrocarbon resources. Of primary interest is the Upper Permian salt section to a depth of about 3000 ft (914 m). Various tests were carried out along a 3 mi (5 km) segment to determine the most appropriate combination of vibrating source and recording parameters. Approximately 130 mi (209 km) of 24-fold CDP stacked data were acquired. The survey lines were tied to test wells in which velocity surveys were conducted. These data were supplemented by about 400 mi (644 km) of available proprietary CDP stacked data. Analysis of these data strongly suggests that central Palo Duro basin has been tectonically stable since Early Permian time. The maximum offset of the basement is about 600 ft (183 m). These basement faults do not appear to affect any strata above. The San Andres Formation and underlying formations can be traced continuously throughout the area surveyed. Available velocity data from various wells in the central Palo Duro basin show few anomalies, confirming the continuity of the reflecting horizons and the tectonic stability of the area. Hydrocarbon potential of the area is presently being evaluated. The preliminary results of this study are in agreement with the stratigraphic correlations among well logs in the Palo Duro basin

  10. Ecological Forecasting in the Applied Sciences Program and Input to the Decadal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Ecological forecasting uses knowledge of physics, ecology and physiology to predict how ecosystems will change in the future in response to environmental factors. Further, Ecological Forecasting employs observations and models to predict the effects of environmental change on ecosystems. In doing so, it applies information from the physical, biological, and social sciences and promotes a scientific synthesis across the domains of physics, geology, chemistry, biology, and psychology. The goal is reliable forecasts that allow decision makers access to science-based tools in order to project changes in living systems. The next decadal survey will direct the development Earth Observation sensors and satellites for the next ten years. It is important that these new sensors and satellites address the requirements for ecosystem models, imagery, and other data for resource management. This presentation will give examples of these model inputs and some resources needed for NASA to continue effective Ecological Forecasting.

  11. High-resolution seismic reflection surveying with a land streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz Tapırdamaz, Mustafa; Cankurtaranlar, Ali; Ergintav, Semih; Kurt, Levent

    2013-04-01

    In this study, newly designed seismic reflection data acquisition array (land streamer) is utilized to image the shallow subsurface. Our acquisition system consist of 24 geophones screwed on iron plates with 2 m spacing, moving on the surface of the earth which are connected with fire hose. Completely original, 4.5 Kg weight iron plates provides satisfactory coupling. This land-streamer system enables rapid and cost effective acquisition of seismic reflection data due to its operational facilities. First test studies were performed using various seismic sources such as a mini-vibro truck, buffalo-gun and hammer. The final fieldwork was performed on a landslide area which was studied before. Data acquisition was carried out on the line that was previously measured by the seismic survey using 5 m geophone and shot spacing. This line was chosen in order to re-image known reflection patterns obtained from the previous field study. Taking penetration depth into consideration, a six-cartridge buffalo-gun was selected as a seismic source to achieve high vertical resolution. Each shot-point drilled 50 cm for gunshots to obtain high resolution source signature. In order to avoid surface waves, the offset distance between the source and the first channel was chosen to be 50 m and the shot spacing was 2 m. These acquisition parameters provided 12 folds at each CDP points. Spatial sampling interval was 1 m at the surface. The processing steps included standard stages such as gain recovery, editing, frequency filtering, CDP sorting, NMO correction, static correction and stacking. Furthermore, surface consistent residual static corrections were applied recursively to improve image quality. 2D F-K filter application was performed to suppress air and surface waves at relatively deep part of the seismic section. Results show that, this newly designed, high-resolution land seismic data acquisition equipment (land-streamer) can be successfully used to image subsurface. Likewise

  12. Burden of disease, research funding and innovation in the UK: Do new health technologies reflect research inputs and need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Derek; Martino, Orsolina; Packer, Claire; Simpson, Sue; Stevens, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    New and emerging health technologies (innovation outputs) do not always reflect conditions representing the greatest disease burden. We examine the role of research and development (R&D) funding in this relationship, considering whether areas with fewer innovative outputs receive an appropriate share of funding relative to their disease burden. We report a retrospective observational study, comparing burden of disease with R&D funding and innovation output. UK disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and deaths came from the World Health Organization (WHO) 2004 Global Burden of Disease estimates; funding estimates from the UK Clinical Research Collaboration's 2006 Health Research Analysis; and innovation output was estimated by the number of new and emerging technologies reported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Horizon Scanning Centre between 2000 and 2009. Disease areas representing the biggest burden were generally associated with the most funding and innovation output; cancer, neuropsychiatric conditions and cardiovascular disease together comprised approximately two-thirds of DALYs, funding and reported technologies. Compared with DALYs, funding and technologies were disproportionately high for cancer, and technologies alone were disproportionately high for musculoskeletal conditions and endocrine/metabolic diseases. Neuropsychiatric conditions had comparatively few technologies compared to both DALYs and funding. The relationship between DALYs and innovation output appeared to be mediated by R&D funding. The relationship between burden of disease and new and emerging health technologies for different disease areas is partly dependent on the associated level of R&D funding (input). Discrepancies among key groups may reflect differential focus of research funding across disease areas. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. High resolution shear wave reflection surveying for hydrogeological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.J.; Clark, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    The high resolution S-wave method has been developed to be a powerful tool in mapping subsurface lithology and in conducting groundwater investigations. The research has demonstrated that the resolution obtainable using S-waves in a Coastal Plain environment is more than double than that obtained using conventional reflection, which already offers a higher resolution than any other surface method. Where the mapping of thin clay layers functioning as aquitards or thin sand layers functioning as aquifers are critical to the understanding of groundwater flow, S-wave reflections offer unparalleled possibilities for nondestructive exploration. The field experiment at Cooke Crossroads, South Carolina enabled the detection and mapping of beds in the thickness range of one to three feet. The S-wave reflection technique, in combination with conventional P-wave reflection, has potential to directly detect confined and unconfined aquifers. This is a breakthrough technology that still requires additional research before it can be applied on a commercial basis. Aquifer systems were interpreted from the test data at Cooke Crossroads consistent with theoretical model. Additional research is need in assessing the theoretical response of P- and S-waves to subsurface interfaces within unconsolidated sediments of varying moisture content and lithology. More theoretical modeling and in situ testing are needed to bring our knowledge of these phenomena to the level that oil and gas researchers have done for fluids in sandstones

  14. Near-surface 3D reflections seismic survey; Sanjigen senso hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahigashi, H; Mitsui, H; Nakano, O; Kobayashi, T [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Faults are being actively investigated across Japan since the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Discussed in this report is the application of the 3D near-surface reflection seismic survey in big cities. Data from trenching and drilling is used for the geological interpretation of the surroundings of a fault, and the reflection seismic survey is used to identify the position, etc., of the fault. In this article, when the results obtained from the experimental field are examined, it is found that the conventional 2D imaging reflection survey betrays the limit of its capability when the geological structure is complicated, that the 3D reflection seismic survey, on the contrary, is capable of high-precision imaging and, when augmented by drilling, etc., becomes capable of a more detailed interpretation, and that it also contributes effectively to the improvement of local disaster prevention in big cities. Using as the model the Tachikawa fault that runs near JR Tachikawa Station, embodiment of the 3D reflection seismic survey is reviewed. For the acquisition of data excellent in quality in a 3D reflection seismic survey conducted utilizing the roads in the sector chosen for experiment in the urban area, the shock generating points and receiving points should be positioned by taking into account the parameters in the bin arranging process so that the mid-points will be regularly distributed on the surface. 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Monitoring the inputs required to extend and sustain hygiene promotion: findings from the GLAAS 2013/2014 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Leslie D; Gore, Fiona M; Andre, Nathalie; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2016-08-01

    There are significant gaps in information about the inputs required to effectively extend and sustain hygiene promotion activities to improve people's health outcomes through water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We sought to analyse current country and global trends in the use of key inputs required for effective and sustainable implementation of hygiene promotion to help guide hygiene promotion policy and decision-making after 2015. Data collected in response to the GLAAS 2013/2014 survey from 93 countries of 94 were included, and responses were analysed for 12 questions assessing the inputs and enabling environment for hygiene promotion under four thematic areas. Data were included and analysed from 20 External Support Agencies (ESA) of 23 collected through self-administered surveys. Firstly, the data showed a large variation in the way in which hygiene promotion is defined and what constitutes key activities in this area. Secondly, challenges to implement hygiene promotion are considerable: include poor implementation of policies and plans, weak coordination mechanisms, human resource limitations and a lack of available hygiene promotion budget data. Despite the proven benefits of hand washing with soap, a critical hygiene-related factor in minimising infection, GLAAS 2013/2014 survey data showed that hygiene promotion remains a neglected component of WASH. Additional research to identify the context-specific strategies and inputs required to enhance the effectiveness of hygiene promotion at scale are needed. Improved data collection methods are also necessary to advance the availability and reliability of hygiene-specific information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Variability Properties of Four Million Sources in the TESS Input Catalog Observed with the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua; Somers, Garrett; Kafka, Stella; Stevens, Daniel J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Lund, Michael B.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; James, David; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2018-01-01

    The Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) has been surveying more than 70% of the celestial sphere for nearly a decade. While the primary science goal of the survey is the discovery of transiting, large-radii planets around bright host stars, the survey has collected more than 106 images, with a typical cadence between 10–30 minutes, for more than four million sources with apparent visual magnitudes in the approximate range 7TESS Input catalog and the AAVSO Variable Star Index to precipitate the follow-up and classification of each source. The catalog is maintained as a living database on the Filtergraph visualization portal at the URL https://filtergraph.com/kelt_vars.

  17. Online Physician Reviews Do Not Reflect Patient Satisfaction Survey Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, R Jay; Maurer, Matthew J; Nayar, Veena R; Aase, Lee A; Wald, John T; Kotsenas, Amy L; Timimi, Farris K; Harper, Charles M; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2018-04-01

    Online physician reviews have become increasingly prevalent and are a common means by which patients explore medical options online. Currently, there are no data comparing physicians with negative online reviews and those without negative reviews. We sought to compare industry-vetted patient satisfaction surveys (PSSs), such as Press Ganey (PG) PSSs, between those physicians with negative online reviews and those without negative reviews. Overall, there were 113 unique individuals with negative online reviews from September 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014, with 8 being nonphysicians. We matched 113 physicians in similar departments/divisions. We obtained PG PSS scores of both groups and compared the mean scores of the 2 groups. Press Ganey PSS scores were available for 98 physicians with negative online reviews compared with 82 matched physicians without negative online reviews. The mean raw PG PSS scores were not different between the 2 groups (4.05; 95% CI, 3.99-4.11 vs 4.04; 95% CI, 3.97-4.11; P=.92). We also noted no difference in mean scores on questions related to physician-patient communication and interaction skills between those with poor online reviews and those without (4.38; 95% CI, 4.32-4.43 vs 4.41; 95% CI, 4.35-4.47; P=.42). However, there was a significantly lower non-physician-specific mean in those with negative online reviews (3.91; 95% CI, 3.84-3.97) vs those without negative online reviews (4.01; 95% CI, 3.95-4.09) (P=.02). Here, we provide data indicating that online physician reviews do not correlate to formal institutional PG PSS. Furthermore, physicians with negative online reviews have lower scores on non-physician-specific variables included in the PG PSSs, emphasizing that these discrepancies can negatively affect overall patient experience, online physician reviews, and physician reputation. It is prudent that an improved mechanism for online ratings be implemented to better inform patients about a physician's online reputation. Copyright

  18. Trends in nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder reflect changing nitrogen inputs to Rhode Island, USA estuarine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruell, Richard J; Taplin, Bryan K; Miller, Kenneth M

    2017-05-15

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ 15 N) in juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, were used to examine changes in nitrogen inputs to several Rhode Island, USA estuarine systems. Fish were collected over two three-year periods with a ten-year interval between sampling periods (2002-2004 and 2012-2014). During that interval numerous changes to nutrient management practices were initiated in the watersheds of these estuarine systems including the upgrade of several major wastewater treatment facilities that discharge to Narragansett Bay, which significantly reduced nitrogen inputs. Following these reductions, the δ 15 N values of flounder in several of the systems decreased as expected; however, isotope ratios in fish from upper Narragansett Bay significantly increased. We believe that low δ 15 N values measured in 2002-2004 were related to concentration-dependent fractionation at this location. Increased δ 15 N values measured between 2012 and 2014 may indicate reduced fractionation or that changes in wastewater treatment processes altered the nitrogen isotopic ratios of the effluents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A statistical survey of heat input parameters into the cusp thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, J. I.; Skjaeveland, A.; Carlson, H. C.

    2017-12-01

    Based on three winters of observational data, we present those ionosphere parameters deemed most critical to realistic space weather ionosphere and thermosphere representation and prediction, in regions impacted by variability in the cusp. The CHAMP spacecraft revealed large variability in cusp thermosphere densities, measuring frequent satellite drag enhancements, up to doublings. The community recognizes a clear need for more realistic representation of plasma flows and electron densities near the cusp. Existing average-value models produce order of magnitude errors in these parameters, resulting in large under estimations of predicted drag. We fill this knowledge gap with statistics-based specification of these key parameters over their range of observed values. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) tracks plasma flow Vi , electron density Ne, and electron, ion temperatures Te, Ti , with consecutive 2-3 minute windshield-wipe scans of 1000x500 km areas. This allows mapping the maximum Ti of a large area within or near the cusp with high temporal resolution. In magnetic field-aligned mode the radar can measure high-resolution profiles of these plasma parameters. By deriving statistics for Ne and Ti , we enable derivation of thermosphere heating deposition under background and frictional-drag-dominated magnetic reconnection conditions. We separate our Ne and Ti profiles into quiescent and enhanced states, which are not closely correlated due to the spatial structure of the reconnection foot point. Use of our data-based parameter inputs can make order of magnitude corrections to input data driving thermosphere models, enabling removal of previous two fold drag errors.

  20. Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart K. Morgan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The practice of feeding of diets containing raw animal products (RAP to pets (dogs and cats is discouraged by veterinary organizations and governmental public health organizations. Nevertheless, the practice of feeding RAP to pets is increasing in popularity. Pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets to pets have not been explored and the benefits of RAP diets remain largely anecdotal. We hypothesized that pet owners feeding RAP diets would not rely on veterinary advice in choosing their pet’s diet. We also hypothesized that these owners would have lower levels of trust in veterinary advice with respect to nutrition relative to pet owners not feeding RAP. Methods An anonymous web-based survey was developed to identify pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets, and to characterize the veterinarian-client relationships of individuals feeding RAP diets. Results There were 2,337 respondents and 2,171 completed surveys. Of survey respondents, 804 reported feeding RAP at the time of the survey. While 20% of pet owners feeding RAP relied on online resources to determine what or how much RAP to feed, only 9% reported consulting with a veterinarian in making decisions about feeding RAP. Pet owners feeding RAP reported lower levels of trust in veterinary advice both ‘in general’ and ‘with respect to nutrition’ than pet owners not feeding RAP. Most pet owners reported that a discussion regarding their pet’s nutrition does not occur at every veterinary appointment. Discussion Pet owners feeding a RAP diet have lower trust in veterinary advice than pet owners not feeding a RAP diet. Owners feeding RAP are more reliant on online resources than their own veterinarian in deciding what and how much RAP to feed. Pet owners perceive that nutrition is not discussed at most veterinary appointments. Therefore, there is room for improvement in the veterinarian-client communication with regards to nutrition.

  1. How Educators Conceptualize and Teach Reflective Practice: A Survey of North American Pediatric Medical Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butani, Lavjay; Bannister, Susan L; Rubin, Allison; Forbes, Karen L

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore pediatric undergraduate medical educators' understanding of reflective practice, the barriers they face in teaching this, the curricular activities they use, and the value they assign to reflective practice. Nine survey questions were sent to members of the Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics, an international pediatric undergraduate medical educator group. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Open-ended responses were analyzed qualitatively through an iterative process to establish themes representing understanding of reflective practice and barriers in teaching this. Respondents representing 56% of all North American schools answered at least 1 survey question. Qualitative analysis of understanding of reflection revealed 11 themes spanning all components of reflective practice, albeit with a narrow view on triggers for reflection and a lower emphasis on understanding the why of things and on perspective-taking. The most frequent barriers in teaching this were the lack of skilled educators and limited time. Most respondents valued reflective skills but few reported confidence in their ability to teach reflection. Several curricular activities were used to teach reflection, the most common being narrative writing. Pediatric undergraduate medical educators value reflection and endorse its teaching. However, many do not have a complete understanding of the construct and few report confidence in teaching this. Implementing longitudinal curricula in reflective practice may require a culture change; opportunities exist for faculty development about the meaning and value of reflective practice and how best to teach this. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reassessment of seismic reflection data from the Finnsjoen study site and prospectives for future surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Juhlin, C.

    1994-02-01

    Reprocessing of data from the seismic reflection survey performed at Finnsjoen in 1987 show that reflection seismics is a viable technique for mapping fracture zones in crystalline rock. Application of state of the art processing algorithms clearly image a gently dipping fracture zone located in the depth interval 200-400 m. In addition, several other reflectors were imaged in the reprocessed section, both gently and steeply dipping ones. Correlations with borehole data indicate that the origin of these reflections are also fractures zones. The data acquisition procedures used at the Finnsjoen survey were basically sound and could, with minor modifications, be applied at other sites. The results indicate that both sources and receivers in future surveys should be placed in boreholes a few meter below the ground surface. 30 refs

  3. Survey data reflecting popular opinions of the causes and mitigation of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jonathan E

    2017-10-01

    The data presented within this manuscript reports the results of a 20-question opinion survey concerning popular beliefs regarding the causes of and possible mitigation of climate change. The results and opinions from 746 survey respondents are presented. The data reflects certain misconceptions of climate change, and is useful for investigators to begin forming opinions of the public's knowledge regarding the potentially inflammatory topics of climate change, greenhouse gases, and geo-engineering.

  4. Survey data reflecting popular opinions of the causes and mitigation of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Jonathan E.

    2017-01-01

    The data presented within this manuscript reports the results of a 20-question opinion survey concerning popular beliefs regarding the causes of and possible mitigation of climate change. The results and opinions from 746 survey respondents are presented. The data reflects certain misconceptions of climate change, and is useful for investigators to begin forming opinions of the public's knowledge regarding the potentially inflammatory topics of climate change, greenhouse gases, and geo-engine...

  5. Heightened amygdala responsiveness in s-carriers of 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphism reflects enhanced cortical rather than subcortical inputs: An MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qian; Holroyd, Tom; Mitchell, Derek; Yu, Henry; Cheng, Xi; Hodgkinson, Colin; Chen, Gang; McCaffrey, Daniel; Goldman, David; Blair, R James

    2017-09-01

    Short allele carriers (S-carriers) of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show an elevated amygdala response to emotional stimuli relative to long allele carriers (LL-homozygous). However, whether this reflects increased responsiveness of the amygdala generally or interactions between the amygdala and the specific input systems remains unknown. It is argued that the amygdala receives input via a quick subcortical and a slower cortical pathway. If the elevated amygdala response in S-carriers reflects generally increased amygdala responding, then group differences in amygdala should be seen across the amygdala response time course. However, if the difference is a secondary consequence of enhanced amygdala-cortical interactions, then group differences might only be present later in the amygdala response. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we found an enhanced amygdala response to fearful expressions starting 40-50 ms poststimulus. However, group differences in the amygdala were only seen 190-200 ms poststimulus, preceded by increased superior temporal sulcus (STS) responses in S-carriers from 130 to 140 ms poststimulus. An enhanced amygdala response to angry expressions started 260-270 ms poststimulus with group differences in the amygdala starting at 160-170 ms poststimulus onset, preceded by increased STS responses in S-carriers from 150 to 160 ms poststimulus. These suggest that enhanced amygdala responses in S-carriers might reflect enhanced STS-amygdala connectivity in S-carriers. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4313-4321, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Survey of coherent ion reflection at the quasi-parallel bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsager, T.G.; Thomsen, M.F.; Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; Russell, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    Ions coherently reflected off the Earth's bow shock have previously been observed both when the upstream geometry is quasi-perpendicular and when it is quasi-parallel. In the case of quasiperpendicular geometry, the ions are reflected in a nearly specular manner and are quickly carried back into the shock by the convecting magnetic field. In the quasi-parallel geometry, however, near-specularly reflected ions' guiding center velocities would on the average be directed away from the shock, allowing the ions to escape into the upstream region. The conditions under which coherent reflection occurs and the subsequent coupling of the reflected ions to the incoming solar wind plasma are important factors when assessing the contribution of the reflected ions to the downstream temperature increase and the shock structure. The survey presented in this paper, along with previously reported observations, suggests that near-specularly reflected ions are indeed an important aspect of energy dissipation at the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. The authors find that (1) cool, coherent, near-specularly reflected ion beams are detected over nearly the full range of upstream plasma paraameters commonly found at the Earth's bow shock; (2) the beams are typically observed only near the shock ramp or some shock-like feature; and (3) the observed beam velocities are almost always consistent with what one would expect for near-specularly reflected ions after only a small fraction of a gyroperiod following reflection. The second and third points indicate that the beams spread very quickly in velocity space. This spread in velocities could be due either to interactions between the beam and incoming solar wind ions or to some initially small velocity spread in the beam

  7. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  8. Crustal evolution of Eocene paleo arc around Ogasawara region obtained by seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Ishizuka, O.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara)-Mariana (IBM) arc is known to the typical oceanic island arc, and it is the most suitable area to understand the growth process of island arc. The existence of two paleo arc which consists of Oligocene and Eocene paleo age is known in IBM forearc region by geological and geophysical studies. The Ogasawara ridge is also known to locate the initial structure of arc evolution from geologic sampling of research submersible. In this region, IODP drilling site: IBM-2 is proposed in order to understand the temporal and spatial change in arc crust composition from 50 to 40Ma magmatism. Site IBM-2 consists of two offset drilling holes (BON-1, BON-2). BON-1 designed to first encounter forearc basalt and will reach the sheeted dykes. BON-2 will start in boninites and finish in fore arc basalts. The purpose of these drilling is sampling the full volcanic stratigraphy from gabbro to boninite. There is no seismic data around BON-1 and BON-2, therefore it is need to conduct the multi-channel seismic reflection survey. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology carried out multi-channel seismic reflection survey and wide-angle reflection survey using 7,800 cu.in. air gun, 5 km streamer with 444 ch hydrophones and 40 OBSs in March 2011. We obtained two seismic reflection profiles of lines KT06 and KT07 along the paleo arc around Ogasawara ridge. Line KT06 located the north side of Ogasawara ridge. Line KT07 located the trench side of Ogasawara ridge. Lines KT06 is also deployed the OBSs every 5 km interval. Thin sediments are covered with basement in both survey lines. There are some sediment filled in depression topography. The low-frequency reflection from the top of subducting Pacific plate is recognized in line KT06. The continuity of this reflection is not clear due to the complicated bathymetry. The displacement of basement in northern side of Ogasawara ridge is identified along the lineament of bathymetry in Line 06. This structure is

  9. Faults survey by 3D reflection seismics; Sanjigen hanshaho jishin tansa ni yoru danso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, T; Ejiri, T; Yamada, N; Narita, N; Aso, H; Takano, H; Matsumura, M [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes fault survey by 3D seismic reflection exploration. Survey has been conducted mainly at flat land area without pavement not in urban area in Japan. Subsurface structure is complicated with intersecting multiple faults. In this area, a lot of geological investigations have been done prior to the seismic reflection exploration. Fairly certain images of faults have been obtained. However, there were still unknown structures. Survey was conducted at an area of 170m{times}280m in the CDP range. Measurements were carried out by using 100 g of dynamite per seismic generation point combined with 40 Hz velocity geophones. Fixed distribution consisting of lattice points of 12{times}12 was adopted as an observation method. In and around the lattice, a great number of explosions were carried out. The CDP stacking method and the method of migration after stacking were used for the data processing. The 3D structures of six horizons and five faults could be interpreted. Interpreted horizons were well agreed with the logging results. 3 figs.

  10. Medical Students' Empathy for Vulnerable Groups: Results From a Survey and Reflective Writing Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellbery, Caroline; Saunders, Pamela A; Kureshi, Sarah; Visconti, Adam

    2017-12-01

    As medical education curricula increasingly acknowledge the contributions of the social determinants of health to individual health, new methods of engaging students in the care of vulnerable groups are needed. Empathy is one way to connect students with patients, but little is known about how to nurture students' empathy on behalf of populations. This study examined the relationship between individual and social empathy as groundwork for cultivating students' empathy for vulnerable groups. In 2014-2015, first-year medical students completed the Social Empathy Index at the start and end of a two-semester population health course, and they completed a reflective writing assignment exploring the challenges of caring for vulnerable patients. Pre- and posttest mean survey scores were compared, and reflective writing assignments were analyzed for themes concerning social empathy. Data from 130 students were analyzed. Scores for the contextual understanding of systemic barriers domain increased significantly. There was a trend toward increased cumulative social empathy scores that did not reach statistical significance. Students' essays revealed three themes relating to individual empathy as the foundation for social empathy; civic and moral obligations; and the role of institutional practices in caring for vulnerable groups. This study extends understanding of empathy beyond care for the individual to include care for vulnerable groups. Thus, social empathy may function as a valuable concept in developing curricula to support students' commitment to care for the underserved. Educators first need to address the many barriers students cited that impede both individual and social empathy.

  11. Do singing-ground surveys reflect american woodcock abundance in the western Great Lakes region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew R. Nelson,; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The Singing-ground Survey (SGS) is the primary monitoring tool used to assess population status and trends of American woodcock (Scolopax minor). Like most broad-scale surveys, the SGS cannot be directly validated because there are no independent estimates of abundance of displaying male American woodcock at an appropriate spatial scale. Furthermore, because locations of individual SGS routes have generally remained stationary since the SGS was standardized in 1968, it is not known whether routes adequately represent the landscapes they were intended to represent. To indirectly validate the SGS, we evaluated whether 1) counts of displaying male American woodcock on SGS routes related to land-cover types known to be related to American woodcock abundance, 2) changes in counts of displaying male American woodcock through time were related to changes in land cover along SGS routes, and 3) land-cover type composition along SGS routes was similar to land-cover type composition of the surrounding landscape. In Wisconsin and Minnesota, USA, counts along SGS routes reflected known American woodcock-habitat relations. Increases in the number of woodcock heard along SGS routes over a 13-year period in Wisconsin were related to increasing amounts of early successional forest, decreasing amounts of mature forest, and increasing dispersion and interspersion of cover types. Finally, the cover types most strongly associated with American woodcock abundance were represented along SGS routes in proportion to their composition of the broader landscape. Taken together, these results suggest that in the western Great Lakes region, the SGS likely provides a reliable tool for monitoring relative abundance and population trends of breeding, male American woodcock.

  12. A Survey of Automatic Protocol Reverse Engineering Approaches, Methods, and Tools on the Inputs and Outputs View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraka D. Sija

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A network protocol defines rules that control communications between two or more machines on the Internet, whereas Automatic Protocol Reverse Engineering (APRE defines the way of extracting the structure of a network protocol without accessing its specifications. Enough knowledge on undocumented protocols is essential for security purposes, network policy implementation, and management of network resources. This paper reviews and analyzes a total of 39 approaches, methods, and tools towards Protocol Reverse Engineering (PRE and classifies them into four divisions, approaches that reverse engineer protocol finite state machines, protocol formats, and both protocol finite state machines and protocol formats to approaches that focus directly on neither reverse engineering protocol formats nor protocol finite state machines. The efficiency of all approaches’ outputs based on their selected inputs is analyzed in general along with appropriate reverse engineering inputs format. Additionally, we present discussion and extended classification in terms of automated to manual approaches, known and novel categories of reverse engineered protocols, and a literature of reverse engineered protocols in relation to the seven layers’ OSI (Open Systems Interconnection model.

  13. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K; Kano, N; Yokokura, T; Kiguchi, T; Yokota, T; Matsushima, J [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey input-data forms for the assessment of the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.

    2017-10-24

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an updated assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin (Permian Basin Province) in southwestern Texas (Marra and others, 2017). The Spraberry Formation was assessed using both the standard continuous (unconventional) and conventional methodologies established by the USGS for three assessment units (AUs): (1) Lower Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, (2) Middle Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, and (3) Northern Spraberry Conventional Oil AU. The revised assessment resulted in total estimated mean resources of 4,245 million barrels of oil, 3,112 billion cubic feet of gas, and 311 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The purpose of this report is to provide supplemental documentation of the input parameters used in the USGS 2017 Spraberry Formation assessment.

  15. Seismic reflection survey of the Uemachi fault in Osaka Prefecture; Osaka Uemachi danso no hanshaho danseiha tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Y [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshizawa, M; Hirooka, S [Nikko Exploration and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yokota, H; Ito, S [Hanshin Consultant Co., Osaka (Japan); Hayashi, K; Aizawa, H

    1997-05-27

    Reflection survey is conducted using three traverse lines in Sakai City for confirming the presence of a southward stretch of the Uemachi fault underground along the western periphery of the Uemachi terrace, Osaka, and for elucidating its connection to the Sakamoto fault distributed near Izumi. Another reflection survey is conducted in the bed of Kanzaki river, Osaka, for the confirmation of its connection to the Nembutsuji-zan fault in Senri hillock. It is estimated on the basis of boring data that there exists another flexural structure approximately 3km south of the flexural structure whose presence is confirmed by the Sakai second traverse line. Accordingly, possibilities are high that the southward stretch of the Uemachi fault connects to the Sakamoto fault. The confirmation by the Kanzaki river traverse line of the flexural structure again confirms the continuity between the Uemachi fault and Nembutsuji-zan fault. The above-said findings enable an inference that the three faults of Nembutsuji-zan, Uemachi, and Sakamoto constitute a chain of active faults. Furthermore, there exists an active fault to the south of the Sakamoto fault, which zigzags to the south on the right-hand side as far as the south of the Kumeda pond. Accordingly, the Uemachi fault system as a whole spans approximately 43km from the northern end of the Nembutsuji-zan fault as far as the south of the Kumeda pond. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  16. The German Generations and Gender Survey: Some Critical Reflections on the Validity of Fertility Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kreyenfeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper validates the fertility histories of the German Generations and Gender Survey (GGS. Focusing on the cohorts 1930-69 of West German women, the total number of children, the parity distribution and the parity progression ratios are compared to external sources. One major result from this validation is that the German GGS understates the fertility for the older cohorts and overstates it for the younger ones. We presume that two mechanisms are responsible for this pattern in the German GGS: On the one hand, children who have left parental home are underreported in the retrospective fertility histories. On the other hand, women with small children are easier to reach by the interviewer. These two mechanisms taken together produce too low numbers of children for the older and too high ones for the younger cohorts. Extending the validation to marital histories has revealed a similar bias. Our general conclusion from this investigation is that the German GGS may not be used for statistical analyses of cohort fertility and marriage trends. For subsequent surveys, we suggest integrating simple control questions in questionnaires with complex retrospective fertility and union histories.

  17. The forearc crustal evolution of Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) region obtained by seismic reflection and refraction surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Takahashi, N.; Tatsumi, Y.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara)-Mariana (IBM) arc is known to the typical oceanic island arc, and it is the most suitable area to understand the growth process of island arc. By previous seismic survey and deep sea drilling, convex basements are distributed along North-South direction in present forearc region. The convex basements are reported to be formed during Oligocene and Eocene (Taylor, 1992). In IBM forearc region, the middle crust with 6 km/s is recognized by seismic survey using OBSs. In IBM region, four IODP drilling sites are proposed in order to understand comprehensive growth process of arc and continental crust evolution. Two of them are located in forearc region. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out multi-channel seismic reflection survey using 7,800/12,000 cu.in. air gun and 5-6 km streamer with 444/204 ch hydrophones in the IBM region since 2004. We investigate the crustal structure beneath the Izu-Bonin forearc region for contribution of IBM drilling site along five long survey lines, which are across from present volcanic front to forearc basin. Seismic refraction survey is also conducted across forearc region using 84 OBSs every 1 km interval. Shallow crustal structure can be classified four units including basement which compared between previous drilling results and obtained seismic profiles. In IBM forearc region, thick sedimentary basin distribute from east side of volcanic front. Two convex basement peaks are indicated in across profile of forearc region. These peaks are estimated the top of paleoarc (Oligocene and Eocene) by previous ODP drilling. The half graben structure with major displacement is identified from west side of present volcanic front to the top of Oligocene arc. On the other hand, there is no displacement of sediments between the Oligocene arc and Eocene arc. This result shows the same origin of basement between the present volcanic front and Oligocene arc. There is long time difference of

  18. Subsurface geology by shallow seismic reflection survey and microgravity survey in Kobe area; Senso hanshaho danseiha tansa oyobi seimitsu juryoku tansa ni yoru Kobe chiiki no chika chishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, H; Makino, M; Murata, Y; Watanabe, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports discussions on subsurface structure of the Kobe area by means of microgravity survey. A Bouguer anomaly distribution graph was obtained (which is close to a near straight line) by measuring the gravity at measurement points with an interval of about 25 m along a traverse line (with a total length of about 1.7 km) in an approximately NNW-SSE direction crossing the downtown of the city of Kobe. Viewing the residuals to a straight line linking the values at both ends of the traverse line revealed that the gradient in the Bouguer anomaly distribution changes as if it is bent at a point near the center of the traverse line as a boundary. Deriving the residuals from fine changes seen in a distribution graph for the residuals made clear that this residual distribution has two discontinuous points. The paper indicates that the bending point in the former case corresponds to a reverse fault in a base bed of a flat land as compared with the result of model calculation on the base structure and gravity distribution. The discontinuous points in the latter case agree with positions of fault distribution derived by a reflection elastic wave survey. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Worldwide distribution of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence instrumentation and its different fields of application: A survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockenkämper, Reinhold, E-mail: reinhold.klockenkaemper@isas.de; Bohlen, Alex von

    2014-09-01

    A survey was carried out with users and manufacturers of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence instrumentation in order to demonstrate the worldwide distribution of TXRF equipment and the different fields of applications. In general, TXRF users come from universities and scientific institutes, from working places at synchrotron beam-lines, or laboratories in semiconductor fabs. TXRF instrumentation is distributed in more than 50 countries on six continents and is applied at about 200 institutes and laboratories. The number of running desktop instruments amounts to nearly 300 units. About 60 beamlines run working places dedicated to TXRF. About 300 floor-mounted instruments are estimated to be used in about 150 fabs of the semiconductor industry. In total, 13 different fields of applications could be registered statistically from three different aspects. - Highlights: • According to the survey world maps show the distribution of TXRF equipment. • Nearly 700 individual units are running actually in 57 countries of 6 continents. • Users work at 200 universities, 60 synchrotron-beamlines, and 150 semiconductor fabs. • 13 fields of applications (e.g. environmental, chemical) are evaluated statistically. • Manufacturers, conference members and authors lead to 3 different pie-charts.

  20. The crustal characteristics at syn- and/or post-rifting in eastern Shikoku basin by seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Takizawa, K.; No, T.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Imaging of the arc-backarc transition zone is important in relation to the backarc opening process. Shikoku Basin locates between the Kyushu-Palau Ridge and the Izu-Ogasawara Arc, which is an important area to reveal the opening evolution of the backarc basins as a part of the growth process of the Philippine Sea. The Shikoku Basin was in the backarc rifting and spreading stage during about 30-15 Ma (e.g. Okino et al., 1994). High P-wave velocity lower crust is identified in arc-backarc transition zone by refraction survey using OBSs (Takahashi et al., 2007). Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) survey using 12,000 cu.in. air gun and 5 km streamer with 204 ch hydrophones in the Izu-Ogasawara region since 2004. We extracted and mapped the crustal characteristics from poststack and prestack depth migrated profiles. According to obtained profiles, the deformation structure with share component is recognized in arc-backarc transition zone, which located eastern side of Shikoku Basin from Zenisu Ridge to about 500 km south. The maximum width of this deformation zone is about 100 km. The relative displacement of horizon is little; however, it is strongly deformed from upper crust beneath seafloor. This deformation zone indicates the post- rifting activity in east side of Shikoku Basin. On the other hand, some knolls are indicated along the en- echelon arrangement from Izu-Ogasawara arc. Ishizuka et al. (2003) reported post-rifting volcanism with Miocene age in en-echelon arrangement. A part of these knolls are estimated to penetrate at syn-rifting and/or post-rifting stage in backarc opening. By comparing the both side of arc-backarc transition zone, we elucidate syn- and post-rifting effect in Shikoku Basin. We also carried out high density MCS surveys in Shikoku Basin in order to IODP proposal site for reconstruction of magmatic processes since Oligocene in rear arc. In this survey, we use new

  1. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  2. Enhanced Input in LCTL Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Language materials for the more-commonly-taught languages (MCTLs often include visual input enhancement (Sharwood Smith 1991, 1993 which makes use of typographical cues like bolding and underlining to enhance the saliency of targeted forms. For a variety of reasons, this paper argues that the use of enhanced input, both visual and oral, is especially important as a tool for the lesscommonly-taught languages (LCTLs. As there continues to be a scarcity of teaching resources for the LCTLs, individual teachers must take it upon themselves to incorporate enhanced input into their own self-made materials. Specific examples of how to incorporate both visual and oral enhanced input into language teaching are drawn from the author’s own experiences teaching Cuzco Quechua. Additionally, survey results are presented from the author’s Fall 2010 semester Cuzco Quechua language students, supporting the use of both visual and oral enhanced input.

  3. Enhanced Input in LCTL Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Language materials for the more-commonly-taught languages (MCTLs often include visual input enhancement (Sharwood Smith 1991, 1993 which makes use of typographical cues like bolding and underlining to enhance the saliency of targeted forms. For a variety of reasons, this paper argues that the use of enhanced input, both visual and oral, is especially important as a tool for the lesscommonly-taught languages (LCTLs. As there continues to be a scarcity of teaching resources for the LCTLs, individual teachers must take it upon themselves to incorporate enhanced input into their own self-made materials. Specific examples of how to incorporate both visual and oral enhanced input into language teaching are drawn from the author’s own experiences teaching Cuzco Quechua. Additionally, survey results are presented from the author’s Fall 2010 semester Cuzco Quechua language students, supporting the use of both visual and oral enhanced input.

  4. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry...

  5. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry....

  6. Draft critical mineral list—Summary of methodology and background information—U.S. Geological Survey technical input document in response to Secretarial Order No. 3359

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Steven M.; Nassar, Nedal T.; Lederer, Graham W.; Brainard, Jamie; Gambogi, Joseph; McCullough, Erin A.

    2018-02-16

    Pursuant to the Presidential Executive Order (EO) No. 13817, “A Federal Strategy to Ensure Secure and Reliable Supplies of Critical Minerals,” the Secretary of the Interior, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, and in consultation with the heads of other relevant executive departments and agencies, was tasked with developing and submitting a draft list of minerals defined as “critical minerals” to the Federal Register within 60 days of the issue of the EO (December 20, 2017).Based on an analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey and other U.S. Government agencies, using multiple criteria, 35 minerals or mineral material groups have been identified that are currently (February 2018) considered critical. These include the following: aluminum (bauxite), antimony, arsenic, barite, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, chromium, cobalt, fluorspar, gallium, germanium, graphite (natural), hafnium, helium, indium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, niobium, platinum group metals, potash, rare earth elements group, rhenium, rubidium, scandium, strontium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zirconium. The categorization of minerals as critical may change during the course of the review process and is thus provisional.

  7. TART input manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimlinger, J.R.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given

  8. The US Geological Survey, digital spectral reflectance library: version 1: 0.2 to 3.0 microns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; King, Trude V. V.; Gallagher, Andrea J.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a digital reflectance spectral library, with management and spectral analysis software. The library includes 500 spectra of 447 samples (some samples include a series of grain sizes) measured from approximately 0.2 to 3.0 microns. The spectral resolution (Full Width Half Maximum) of the reflectance data is less than or equal to 4 nm in the visible (0.2-0.8 microns) and less than or equal 10 nm in the NIR (0.8-2.35 microns). All spectra were corrected to absolute reflectance using an NBS Halon standard. Library management software lets users search on parameters (e.g. chemical formulae, chemical analyses, purity of samples, mineral groups, etc.) as well as spectral features. Minerals from sulfide, oxide, hydroxide, halide, carbonate, nitrate, borate, phosphate, and silicate groups are represented. X-ray and chemical analyses are tabulated for many of the entries, and all samples have been evaluated for spectral purity. The library also contains end and intermediate members for the olivine, garnet, scapolite, montmorillonite, muscovite, jarosite, and alunite solid-solution series. We have included representative spectra of H2O ice, kerogen, ammonium-bearing minerals, rare-earth oxides, desert varnish coatings, kaolinite crystallinity series, kaolinite-smectite series, zeolite series, and an extensive evaporite series. Because of the importance of vegetation to climate-change studies we have include 17 spectra of tree leaves, bushes, and grasses.

  9. Students' Interest and Experiences in Physics and Chemistry Related Themes: Reflections Based on a ROSE-Survey in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Meisalo, Veijo

    2008-01-01

    Interest in physics and chemistry topics and out-of-school experiences of Finnish secondary school students (n = 3626, median age 15) were surveyed using the international ROSE questionnaire. Based on explorative factor analysis the scores of six out-of-school experience factors (indicating how often students had done something outside of school)…

  10. Survey of materials and other problems of relevance in safety engineering, and an assessment of their reflection in regulatory guides for conventional and nuclear engineering (1. technical report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunk, M.; Herter, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Survey and assessment of nuclear engineering specifications and regulatory guides (ASME-BPVC Section III, division 1,2 and KTA, BS 5500) with regard to materials, dimensioning and testing for the purpose of showing to what extent available technical codes, regulatory guides and safety codes are useful in preventing failures and defining the safe limit. The other question examined is that of how these codes ought to be brought up to date in order to reflect the latest state of the art in science and technology. (orig./HP) [de

  11. [Health and indigenous peoples in Brazil: reflections based on the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, E A Coimbra

    2014-04-01

    The current configuration of indigenous peoples' health in Brazil results from a complex historical trajectory, responsible for major delays for this population segment in the countrywide social advances seen in recent decades, particularly in the fields of health, education, housing, and sanitation. The main focus of this contribution is to review synthetically a selection of the main results of the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition, conducted in the period 2008-2009, which visited 113 villages across the Brazil and interviewed 6,692 women and 6,128 children. Among the results, emphasis is given to the observed poor sanitation conditions in villages, high prevalence of chronic malnutrition, anemia, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections in children, and the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases in women. The scenario depicted by this survey requires urgent critical review of indigenous health policy in order to better meet the health needs of Brazil's indigenous population.

  12. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  13. Experiment for 3-component S-wave reflection survey. Part 3; Sanseibun S ha hanshaho no kiso jikken. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, N; Yamaguchi, K; Yokota, T; Kiguchi, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Anisotropy has been investigated using S-wave as a technique for detecting fractures. In this study, fundamental experiments were carried out with slightly changing the measuring conditions at a place where anisotropy was expected. This paper describes the fundamental data acquisition of anisotropy analysis using S-wave, and a part of the results. The experiments were conducted on the agricultural road in Yamadera district, Matsuyama-machi, Yamagata Prefecture. Two flat unpaved roads meeting at right angles were used as traverse lines. In this place, several reflection surfaces were certainly detected by P-wave, and anisotropy of S-wave was confirmed from the velocity of refracted wave of S-wave. Data were processed for individual traverse lines meeting at right angles. Firstly, signal sweeping, correlation, and vertical superposition were made. Six kinds of data were prepared, i.e., three-component receiving records of data at 0{degree} of generating direction and three-component receiving records of data at 90{degree} of generating direction. Records of T-component at 0{degree} and R-component at 90{degree} were used for processing of the seismic reflection method. These records would be considered to be data of SH-wave and SV-wave, respectively. 4 figs.

  14. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  15. High-resolution S-wave reflection survey in a linear depression; Senjo kubochi ni okeru kobunkaino S ha hanshaho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Y [Kyushu Regional Construction Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    An attempt was made to apply a method combining the high-resolution S-wave reflection survey with boring to a fault survey at the Kuju town, Oita Prefecture. The investigation area has a linear depression area as small as about 600 m from east to west and about 100 m from north to south surround by mountain slopes. The boundary section with mountain peaks at the north ridge of the depression area is linear, and existence of a southward falling normal fault has been indicated. The seismic investigation has employed an artificial plank hammering method, and the derived data were processed by using the processing software, Vista for Windows. The Bin interval was 25 cm, the S-wave velocity ranged from 100 to 150 m/s, and the spatial resolution was estimated at several ten centimeters or less. The resolution is thought sufficient for assessing the fault location and displacement. The acquired depth cross sections presented distinct structural discontinuity, from which the fault locations were estimated. However, for displacements in the base bed and upper beds, the reflected waves fell into disorder at the faults, having made a detailed assessment difficult. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. From "models" to "reality", and Return. Some Reflections on the Interaction Between Survey and Interpretative Methods for Built Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, F.; Freddi, F.; Zerbi, A.

    2017-05-01

    It's well known that more and more accurate methodologies and automatic tools are now available in the field of geometric survey and image processing and they constitute a fundamental instrument for cultural heritage knowledge and preservation; on the other side, very smart and precise numerical models are continuously improved and used in order to simulate the mechanical behaviour of masonry structures: both instruments and technologies are important part of a global process of knowledge which is at the base of any conservation project of cultural heritage. Despite the high accuracy and automation level reached by both technologies and programs, the transfer of data between them is not an easy task and defining the most reliable way to translate and exchange information without data loosing is still an open issue. The goal of the present paper is to analyse the complex process of translation from the very precise (and sometimes redundant) information obtainable by the modern survey methodologies for historic buildings (as laser scanner), into the very simplified (may be too much) schemes used to understand their real structural behaviour, with the final aim to contribute to the discussion on reliable methods for cultural heritage knowledge improvement, through empiricism.

  17. SSYST-3. Input description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyder, R.

    1983-12-01

    The code system SSYST-3 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a complete input-list for all modules and several tested inputs for a LOCA analysis. (orig.)

  18. MDS MIC Catalog Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.

  19. Experiment for 3-component S-wave reflection survey. Part 3; Sanseibun S ha hanshaho no kiso jikken. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, N; Kiguchi, T; Yamaguchi, K [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Yokota, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Investigations and discussions were given by using P-S logging on anisotropy of refracted waves in the fundamental experiments conducted in the Matsuyama town, Yamagata Prefecture. In the investigations, S-wave was transmitted into two to three directions at four locations in total: one at the opening of a well with a depth of 100 m and three locations having offset of 50 m from the well opening, and anisotropy of direct waves in the depth direction was investigated. Data were recorded on the ground at the same time by using a 3-component receiver. As a result of the experiment, detection of the anisotropy by means of measurement inside the well was found more difficult than anticipated due to anomaly in the refracted waves, hence no clear velocity anisotropy has been observed. It appears that no azimuth anisotropy exists at depths shallower than at least 24 m. No anisotropy due to incident angles was made clear in the present experiment. Offset recording experienced poor S/N ratio, having made the data analysis difficult. The data for zero offset do not harmonize with the refracted wave analysis on the data derived by using the reflection method, whose cause requires further discussions. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Reflection of Information Technologies over the Information Professionals in Terms of Status: A Survey on the Librarians in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanur Öztemiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order not to succumb to technologies that carry out tasks similar to those performed by humans, modern professional understanding makes it essential to adopt reconciliatory approaches. Because it requires less effort, the partnership between manpower and technology allows professional activities to be carried out in a shorter time and results in greater product or service output. In addition, this partnership deeply affects the workforce responsible for professional implementation. Developing technologies have brought about various changes in education and job titles and particularly in the professional specifications for information professionals. This study aims to set forth the reflections of change on the status extent, based on the information professionals ’ experiences. This study is based on descriptive methodology and covers 106 information professionals working in public libraries, university libraries and in the libraries of those institutions attached to the Prime Ministry in the Turkish capital city Ankara. This research finds that changes in information technologies have had meaningful impacts in terms of indicators of social status such as value, respectability, financial income and professional interest.

  1. Ultraviolet Survey of CO and H2 in Diffuse Molecular Clouds: The Reflection of Two Photochemistry Regimes in Abundance Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffer, Y.; Rogers, M.; Federman, S. R.; Abel, N. P.; Gredel, R.; Lambert, D. L.; Shaw, G.

    2008-11-01

    We carried out a comprehensive far-UV survey of 12CO and H2 column densities along diffuse molecular Galactic sight lines. This sample includes new measurements of CO from HST spectra along 62 sight lines and new measurements of H2 from FUSE data along 58 sight lines. In addition, high-resolution optical data were obtained at the McDonald and European Southern Observatories, yielding new abundances for CH, CH+, and CN along 42 sight lines to aid in interpreting the CO results. These new sight lines were selected according to detectable amounts of CO in their spectra and provide information on both lower density (production route for CO in higher density gas. Similar logarithmic plots among all five diatomic molecules reveal additional examples of dual slopes in the cases of CO versus CH (break at log N = 14.1, 13.0), CH+ versus H2 (13.1, 20.3), and CH+ versus CO (13.2, 14.1). We employ both analytical and numerical chemical schemes in order to derive details of the molecular environments. In the denser gas, where C2 and CN molecules also reside, reactions involving C+ and OH are the dominant factor leading to CO formation via equilibrium chemistry. In the low-density gas, where equilibrium chemistry studies have failed to reproduce the abundance of CH+, our numerical analysis shows that nonequilibrium chemistry must be employed for correctly predicting the abundances of both CH+ and CO.

  2. PLEXOS Input Data Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-01

    The PLEXOS Input Data Generator (PIDG) is a tool that enables PLEXOS users to better version their data, automate data processing, collaborate in developing inputs, and transfer data between different production cost modeling and other power systems analysis software. PIDG can process data that is in a generalized format from multiple input sources, including CSV files, PostgreSQL databases, and PSS/E .raw files and write it to an Excel file that can be imported into PLEXOS with only limited manual intervention.

  3. ColloInputGenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...... it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists....

  4. The effect of deformation after backarc spreading between the rear arc and current volcanic front in Shikoku Basin obtained by seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Tamura, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed crustal structure information of a back-arc basin must be obtained to elucidate the mechanism of its opening. Especially, the Shikoku Basin, which occupies the northern part of the Philippine Sea Plate between the Kyushu-Palau Ridge and the Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc, is an important area to understand the evolution of the back-arc basins as a part of the growth process of the Philippine Sea. Especially, the crustal structure oft the east side of Shikoku Basin is complicated by colliding to the Izu Peninsula Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology has been carried out many multi-channel seismic reflection surveys since 2004 in Izu-Bonin region. Kodaira et al. (2008) reported the results of a refraction seismic survey along a north-south profile within paleoarc in the rear arc (i.e., the Nishi-shichito ridge) about 150 km west of current volcanic front. According to their results, the variation relationship of crustal thickness between the rear arc and volcanic front is suggested the evidence of rifting from current volcanic arc. There is the en-echelon arrangement is located in the eastern side of Shikoku Basin from current arc to rear arc, and it is known to activate after ceased spreading at 15 Ma (Okino et al., 1994) of Shikoku Basin by geologic sampling of Ishizuka et al. (2003). Our MCS results are also recognized the recent lateral fault zone is located in east side of Shikoku Basin. We carried out high density grid multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) survey using tuned airgun in order to obtain the relationship between the lateral faults and en-echelon arrangement in KR08-04 cruise. We identified the deformation of sediments in Shikoku Basin after activity of Kanbun seamount at 8 Ma in MCS profile. It is estimated to activate a part of the eastern side of Shikoku Basin after construction of en-echelon arrangement and termination of Shikoku Basin spreading. Based on analyses of magnetic and gravity anomalies, Yamazaki and Yuasa (1998

  5. Health-Seeking Influence Reflected by Online Health-Related Messages Received on Social Media: Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Rahila; Abaalkhail, Bahaa

    2017-11-16

    Major social networking platforms, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter, have become popular means through which people share health-related information, irrespective of whether messages disseminated through these channels are authentic. This study aims to describe the demographic characteristics of patients that may demonstrate their attitudes toward medical information shared on social media networks. Second, we address how information found through social media affects the way people deal with their health. Third, we examine whether patients initiate or alter/discontinue their medications based on information derived from social media. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015 on patients attending outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients who used social media (Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter) were included. We designed a questionnaire with closed-ended and multiple-choice questions to assess the type of social media platforms patients used and whether information received on these platforms influenced their health care decisions. We used chi-square test to establish the relationship between categorical variables. Of the 442 patients who filled in the questionnaires, 401 used Facebook, WhatsApp, or Twitter. The majority of respondents (89.8%, 397/442) used WhatsApp, followed by Facebook (58.6%, 259/442) and Twitter (42.3%, 187/442). In most cases, respondents received health-related messages from WhatsApp and approximately 42.6% (171/401) reported ever stopping treatment as advised on a social media platform. A significantly higher proportion of patients without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) checked the authenticity of information received on social media. Social media messages influenced decision making among patients without heart disease (P=.04). Respondents without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) were more likely to discuss health-related information

  6. Health-Seeking Influence Reflected by Online Health-Related Messages Received on Social Media: Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Major social networking platforms, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter, have become popular means through which people share health-related information, irrespective of whether messages disseminated through these channels are authentic. Objective This study aims to describe the demographic characteristics of patients that may demonstrate their attitudes toward medical information shared on social media networks. Second, we address how information found through social media affects the way people deal with their health. Third, we examine whether patients initiate or alter/discontinue their medications based on information derived from social media. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015 on patients attending outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients who used social media (Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter) were included. We designed a questionnaire with closed-ended and multiple-choice questions to assess the type of social media platforms patients used and whether information received on these platforms influenced their health care decisions. We used chi-square test to establish the relationship between categorical variables. Results Of the 442 patients who filled in the questionnaires, 401 used Facebook, WhatsApp, or Twitter. The majority of respondents (89.8%, 397/442) used WhatsApp, followed by Facebook (58.6%, 259/442) and Twitter (42.3%, 187/442). In most cases, respondents received health-related messages from WhatsApp and approximately 42.6% (171/401) reported ever stopping treatment as advised on a social media platform. A significantly higher proportion of patients without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) checked the authenticity of information received on social media. Social media messages influenced decision making among patients without heart disease (P=.04). Respondents without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) were more likely to

  7. Imaging Shallow Aquitard Breaches with P waves: Results from a Walk-away test and a Reflection Survey at two Sites in Memphis, Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, J.; Magnani, M.; Waldron, B. A.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of two seismic reflection experiments conducted in the Great Memphis area in April and July 2006. The two experiments consisted in a walk-away test and in the acquisition of a 1 km seismic reflection profile. The acquisition of the seismic data is part of a larger effort aimed at imaging the lateral continuity of the Upper Claiborne confining clay that separates the Memphis aquifer, the region's primary drinking water source, from the upper unconfined aquifer and protects the drinking aquifer from exposure to potential contamination. During the walk-away test, four P-wave sources, a 7.5 kg sledge hammer, a 20 kg weight drop, a 12-gauge Buffalo gun, and a Minivibe source were tested at two sites with the goal of selecting the best P-wave seismic source and acquisition parameters for shallow reflection surveys. Boreholes nearby both sites encountered the Upper Claiborne unit at a depth ranging from 10 m to 40 m. One site is located within a 100-meter length of road median that can be considered an urban environment. The second site is located at Shelby Farms within the City of Memphis yet reflects a rural setting with minimal noise and no subsurface infrastructure. Performing identical walk-away tests at both sites, the results indicate that the energy source selection is site dependent. At the urban site, the energy generated by the weight drop source is more coherent and can be interpreted with more confidence on the recorded data. However the Shelby Farms site the 12-gauge shotgun produced the strongest recorded energy, the highest dominant frequency and the broadest frequency band (6- 110 Hz). Strong attenuations are observed at both sites with a much higher attenuation in the urban road median site, where the near surface materials consisted of gravels, sands, clays, and pebbles. For both sites, surface waves and refractions dominate the seismic recordings. Filtering and gain of the data revealed the presence of shallow reflections related

  8. Input description for BIOPATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, J.E.; Bergstroem, U.; Edlund, O.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program BIOPATH describes the flow of radioactivity within a given ecosystem after a postulated release of radioactive material and the resulting dose for specified population groups. The present report accounts for the input data necessary to run BIOPATH. The report also contains descriptions of possible control cards and an input example as well as a short summary of the basic theory.(author)

  9. Input and execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.; Lane, G.; Rowling, G.

    1986-11-01

    This document describes the input procedures, input data files and operating instructions for the SYVAC A/C 1.03 computer program. SYVAC A/C 1.03 simulates the groundwater mediated movement of radionuclides from underground facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes to the accessible environment, and provides an estimate of the subsequent radiological risk to man. (author)

  10. Gestures and multimodal input

    OpenAIRE

    Keates, Simeon; Robinson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    For users with motion impairments, the standard keyboard and mouse arrangement for computer access often presents problems. Other approaches have to be adopted to overcome this. In this paper, we will describe the development of a prototype multimodal input system based on two gestural input channels. Results from extensive user trials of this system are presented. These trials showed that the physical and cognitive loads on the user can quickly become excessive and detrimental to the interac...

  11. [Requirements for a cross-location biobank IT infrastructure : Survey of stakeholder input on the establishment of a biobank network of the German Biobank Alliance (GBA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, C; Buschhüter, N; Döllinger, C; Ebert, L; Hummel, M; Linde, J; Prokosch, H-U; Proynova, R; Lablans, M

    2018-04-24

    The large number of biobanks within Germany results in a high degree of heterogeneity with regard to the IT components used at the respective locations. Within the German Biobank Alliance (GBA), 13 biobanks implement harmonized processes for the provision of biomaterial and accompanying data. The networking of the individual biobanks and the associated harmonisation of the IT infrastructure should facilitate access to biomaterial and related clinical data. For this purpose, the relevant target groups were first identified in order to determine their requirements for IT solutions to be developed in a workshop. Of the seven identified interest groups, three were initially invited to a first round of discussions. The stakeholder input expressed resulted in a catalogue of requirements with regard to IT support for (i) a sample and data request, (ii) the handling of patient consent and inclusion, and (iii) the subsequent evaluation of the sample and data request. The next step is to design the IT solutions as prototypes based on these requirements. In parallel, further user groups are being surveyed in order to be able to further concretise the specifications for development.

  12. The potential of mid- and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for determining major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from a geochemical survey of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. B.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, soils were collected at 220 sites along two transects across the USA and Canada as a pilot study for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America (North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project). The objective of the current study was to examine the potential of diffuse reflectance (DR) Fourier Transform (FT) mid-infrared (mid-IR) and near-infrared (NIRS) spectroscopy to reduce the need for conventional analysis for the determination of major and trace elements in such continental-scale surveys. Soil samples (n = 720) were collected from two transects (east-west across the USA, and north-south from Manitoba, Canada to El Paso, Texas (USA), n = 453 and 267, respectively). The samples came from 19 USA states and the province of Manitoba in Canada. They represented 31 types of land use (e.g., national forest, rangeland, etc.), and 123 different land covers (e.g., soybeans, oak forest, etc.). The samples represented a combination of depth-based sampling (0-5 cm) and horizon-based sampling (O, A and C horizons) with 123 different depths identified. The set was very diverse with few samples similar in land use, land cover, etc. All samples were analyzed by conventional means for the near-total concentration of 49 analytes (Ctotal, Ccarbonate and Corganic, and 46 major and trace elements). Spectra were obtained using dried, ground samples using a Digilab FTS-7000 FT spectrometer in the mid- (4000-400 cm-1) and near-infrared (10,000-4000 cm-1) at 4 cm-1 resolution (64 co-added scans per spectrum) using a Pike AutoDIFF DR autosampler. Partial least squares calibrations were develop using: (1) all samples as a calibration set; (2) samples evenly divided into calibration and validation sets based on spectral diversity; and (3) samples divided to have matching analyte concentrations in calibration and validation sets. In general, results supported the conclusion that neither mid-IR nor NIRS would be particularly useful in reducing the need for conventional

  13. Urinary Albumin Excretion Reflects Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women without Diabetes: The 2011 to 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jung Ahn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe objective of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between urinary albumin excretion and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk by estimating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS in postmenopausal women without diabetes.MethodsThis study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2011 to 2013. Data on 2,316 postmenopausal women from a total of 24,594 participants was included in the analysis.ResultsThe mean FRS was significantly different in each of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR subgroups, and it increased with UACR. The FRS was 12.69±0.12 in the optimal group, 14.30±0.19 in the intermediate normal group, 14.62±0.26 in the high normal group, and 15.86±0.36 in the microalbuminuria group. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors, high normal levels and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the highest tertile of FRS ([odds ratio (OR, 1.642; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.124 to 2.400] and [OR, 3.385; 95% CI, 2.088 to 5.488], respectively compared with the optimal subgroup. High normal levels and microalbuminuria were also significantly associated with a ≥10% 10-year risk of CVD ([OR, 1.853; 95% CI, 1.122 to 3.060] and [OR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.327 to 6.037], respectively after adjusting for potential confounding covariates.ConclusionUrinary albumin excretion reflects CVD risk in postmenopausal women without diabetes, and high normal levels and microalbuminuria were independently associated with a higher risk of CVD.

  14. Principles of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  15. FLUTAN input specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Baumann, W.; Willerding, G.

    1991-05-01

    FLUTAN is a highly vectorized computer code for 3-D fluiddynamic and thermal-hydraulic analyses in cartesian and cylinder coordinates. It is related to the family of COMMIX codes originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, USA. To a large extent, FLUTAN relies on basic concepts and structures imported from COMMIX-1B and COMMIX-2 which were made available to KfK in the frame of cooperation contracts in the fast reactor safety field. While on the one hand not all features of the original COMMIX versions have been implemented in FLUTAN, the code on the other hand includes some essential innovative options like CRESOR solution algorithm, general 3-dimensional rebalacing scheme for solving the pressure equation, and LECUSSO-QUICK-FRAM techniques suitable for reducing 'numerical diffusion' in both the enthalphy and momentum equations. This report provides users with detailed input instructions, presents formulations of the various model options, and explains by means of comprehensive sample input, how to use the code. (orig.) [de

  16. GARFEM input deck description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdunek, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    The input card deck for the finite element program GARFEM version 3.2 is described in this manual. The program includes, but is not limited to, capabilities to handle the following problems: * Linear bar and beam element structures, * Geometrically non-linear problems (bar and beam), both static and transient dynamic analysis, * Transient response dynamics from a catalog of time varying external forcing function types or input function tables, * Eigenvalue solution (modes and frequencies), * Multi point constraints (MPC) for the modelling of mechanisms and e.g. rigid links. The MPC definition is used only in the geometrically linearized sense, * Beams with disjunct shear axis and neutral axis, * Beams with rigid offset. An interface exist that connects GARFEM with the program GAROS. GAROS is a program for aeroelastic analysis of rotating structures. Since this interface was developed GARFEM now serves as a preprocessor program in place of NASTRAN which was formerly used. Documentation of the methods applied in GARFEM exists but is so far limited to the capacities in existence before the GAROS interface was developed.

  17. Input or intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Navracsics

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the critical period hypothesis, the earlier the acquisition of a second language starts, the better. Owing to the plasticity of the brain, up until a certain age a second language can be acquired successfully according to this view. Early second language learners are commonly said to have an advantage over later ones especially in phonetic/phonological acquisition. Native-like pronunciation is said to be most likely to be achieved by young learners. However, there is evidence of accentfree speech in second languages learnt after puberty as well. Occasionally, on the other hand, a nonnative accent may appear even in early second (or third language acquisition. Cross-linguistic influences are natural in multilingual development, and we would expect the dominant language to have an impact on the weaker one(s. The dominant language is usually the one that provides the largest amount of input for the child. But is it always the amount that counts? Perhaps sometimes other factors, such as emotions, ome into play? In this paper, data obtained from an EnglishPersian-Hungarian trilingual pair of siblings (under age 4 and 3 respectively is analyzed, with a special focus on cross-linguistic influences at the phonetic/phonological levels. It will be shown that beyond the amount of input there are more important factors that trigger interference in multilingual development.

  18. Identifying Inputs to Leadership Development within an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of students' experiences while enrolled in an interdisciplinary leadership minor with the intent to determine programmatic inputs that spur leadership development. Based on students' reflections, three domains of programmatic inputs for leadership development within the minor were identified. These…

  19. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  20. GAROS input deck description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollan, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the input for the programs GAROS1 and GAROS2, version 5.8 and later, February 1988. The GAROS system, developed by Arne Vollan, Omega GmbH, is used for the analysis of the mechanical and aeroelastic properties for general rotating systems. It has been specially designed to meet the requirements of aeroelastic stability and dynamic response of horizontal axis wind energy converters. Some of the special characteristics are: * The rotor may have one or more blades. * The blades may be rigidly attached to the hub, or they may be fully articulated. * The full elastic properties of the blades, the hub, the machine house and the tower are taken into account. * With the same basic model, a number of different analyses can be performed: Snap-shot analysis, Floquet method, transient response analysis, frequency response analysis etc.

  1. Modeling and generating input processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides information relevant to the selection and generation of stochastic inputs to simulation studies. The primary area considered is multivariate but much of the philosophy at least is relevant to univariate inputs as well. 14 refs.

  2. Reprocessing input data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.; Pond, R.B.; Cornella, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, graphite, and liquid-metal) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, production, and breeder), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of (-0.02 ± 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+0.50 ± 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  4. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  5. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  6. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  7. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  8. Reflections on 21 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.; Mandel, H.; Teller, E.

    1977-01-01

    Personal reflections after twenty one years of nuclear power are presented by a number of those who were international figures in the nuclear energy field during that period. Lessons learnt, achievements, prospects and predictions for the future are discussed in eleven brief surveys. (U.K.)

  9. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  10. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  11. "I am yet to encounter any survey that actually reflects my life": a qualitative study of inclusivity in sexual health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrotte, Elise R; Vella, Alyce M; Bowring, Anna L; Douglass, Caitlin; Hellard, Margaret E; Lim, Megan S C

    2016-07-27

    Heteronormativity describes a set of norms and assumptions pertaining to heterosexual identities and binary gender. In 2015, we conducted our annual Sex, Drugs and Rock'n'Roll study, an online health survey of over 1000 Victorians aged 15-29 years. Feedback from participants suggested that our survey contained heteronormative language. In response to this, we aimed to make inclusive changes to our survey via consultation with young gender and sexually diverse (GSD) people. We conducted two semi-structured focus groups in Melbourne with a total of 16 participants (age range: 21-28 years). Participants were mostly cisgender women, and there were two transgender participants and one non-binary participant. Participants also had a range of sexual identities including lesbian, queer, bisexual, pansexual, and asexual. Focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Most participants indicated heteronormativity affects their lives in multiple ways, noting its impacts on access to sexual healthcare, invalidating sexual experiences and miscommunication in forms and surveys. Overall, participants emphasised the need for sexual health research to avoid assumptions about behaviour, to be clear and eliminate question ambiguity and avoiding treating gender as binary. Participants also discussed how the Sex, Drugs and Rock'n'Roll survey could address a range of sexual behaviours and experiences, rather than focusing on penetrative sex, which many participants found invalidating. Our findings have important implications for future health surveys aimed at general populations. We present recommendations that encourage research to be more inclusive to ensure data collection from GSD participants is respectful and rigorous.

  12. “I am yet to encounter any survey that actually reflects my life”: a qualitative study of inclusivity in sexual health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise R. Carrotte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heteronormativity describes a set of norms and assumptions pertaining to heterosexual identities and binary gender. In 2015, we conducted our annual Sex, Drugs and Rock’n’Roll study, an online health survey of over 1000 Victorians aged 15–29 years. Feedback from participants suggested that our survey contained heteronormative language. In response to this, we aimed to make inclusive changes to our survey via consultation with young gender and sexually diverse (GSD people. Methods We conducted two semi-structured focus groups in Melbourne with a total of 16 participants (age range: 21–28 years. Participants were mostly cisgender women, and there were two transgender participants and one non-binary participant. Participants also had a range of sexual identities including lesbian, queer, bisexual, pansexual, and asexual. Focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results Most participants indicated heteronormativity affects their lives in multiple ways, noting its impacts on access to sexual healthcare, invalidating sexual experiences and miscommunication in forms and surveys. Overall, participants emphasised the need for sexual health research to avoid assumptions about behaviour, to be clear and eliminate question ambiguity and avoiding treating gender as binary. Participants also discussed how the Sex, Drugs and Rock’n’Roll survey could address a range of sexual behaviours and experiences, rather than focusing on penetrative sex, which many participants found invalidating. Conclusions Our findings have important implications for future health surveys aimed at general populations. We present recommendations that encourage research to be more inclusive to ensure data collection from GSD participants is respectful and rigorous.

  13. Seismic-reflection surveys of the Blake Ridge, R/V Cape Hatteras, 1992 and 1995; data acquisition, navigation and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael H.; Dillon, William P.; Anton, Christopher H.; Danforth, William W.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study, seismic-reflection profiles were collected over the Blake Ridge in 1992 and 1995, in order to map the volume and distribution of methane hydrate. Faulting and seafloor instabilities appear to be related to methane hydrate processes at the Blake Ridge. Seismic profiles display a prominent collapse structure at the crest, which is inferred to have resulted from the mobilization of sediment that was associated with methane hydrate dissociation.

  14. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

    1980-01-01

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  15. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  16. Method for inverting reflection trace data from 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys and identifying subsurface fluid and pathways in and among hydrocarbon reservoirs based on impedance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W.; Anderson, R.N.

    1998-08-25

    A method is disclosed for inverting 3-D seismic reflection data obtained from seismic surveys to derive impedance models for a subsurface region, and for inversion of multiple 3-D seismic surveys (i.e., 4-D seismic surveys) of the same subsurface volume, separated in time to allow for dynamic fluid migration, such that small scale structure and regions of fluid and dynamic fluid flow within the subsurface volume being studied can be identified. The method allows for the mapping and quantification of available hydrocarbons within a reservoir and is thus useful for hydrocarbon prospecting and reservoir management. An iterative seismic inversion scheme constrained by actual well log data which uses a time/depth dependent seismic source function is employed to derive impedance models from 3-D and 4-D seismic datasets. The impedance values can be region grown to better isolate the low impedance hydrocarbon bearing regions. Impedance data derived from multiple 3-D seismic surveys of the same volume can be compared to identify regions of dynamic evolution and bypassed pay. Effective Oil Saturation or net oil thickness can also be derived from the impedance data and used for quantitative assessment of prospective drilling targets and reservoir management. 20 figs.

  17. Material input of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, S.; Tarjanne, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Material Input (MI) of nuclear fuel, expressed in terms of the total amount of natural material needed for manufacturing a product, is examined. The suitability of the MI method for assessing the environmental impacts of fuels is also discussed. Material input is expressed as a Material Input Coefficient (MIC), equalling to the total mass of natural material divided by the mass of the completed product. The material input coefficient is, however, only an intermediate result, which should not be used as such for the comparison of different fuels, because the energy contents of nuclear fuel is about 100 000-fold compared to the energy contents of fossil fuels. As a final result, the material input is expressed in proportion to the amount of generated electricity, which is called MIPS (Material Input Per Service unit). Material input is a simplified and commensurable indicator for the use of natural material, but because it does not take into account the harmfulness of materials or the way how the residual material is processed, it does not alone express the amount of environmental impacts. The examination of the mere amount does not differentiate between for example coal, natural gas or waste rock containing usually just sand. Natural gas is, however, substantially more harmful for the ecosystem than sand. Therefore, other methods should also be used to consider the environmental load of a product. The material input coefficient of nuclear fuel is calculated using data from different types of mines. The calculations are made among other things by using the data of an open pit mine (Key Lake, Canada), an underground mine (McArthur River, Canada) and a by-product mine (Olympic Dam, Australia). Furthermore, the coefficient is calculated for nuclear fuel corresponding to the nuclear fuel supply of Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) company in 2001. Because there is some uncertainty in the initial data, the inaccuracy of the final results can be even 20-50 per cent. The value

  18. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  19. Phasing Out a Polluting Input

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Clas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores economic policies related to the potential conflict between economic growth and the environment. It applies a model with directed technological change and focuses on the case with low elasticity of substitution between clean and dirty inputs in production. New technology is substituted for the polluting input, which results in a gradual decline in pollution along the optimal long-run growth path. In contrast to some recent work, the era of pollution and environmental polic...

  20. Patterns of change in the size spectra of numbers and diversity of the North Sea fish assemblage, as reflected in surveys and models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, J.; Gislason, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    data. The shape showed no overall trend, but diversity of smaller size classes showed a different temporal pattern from the diversity of intermediate and large size classes. The patterns in modelled output are consistent with, but do not prove, the hypothesis that trophic interactions are an important...... were very similar. Annual abundance spectra were linear and slopes increased significantly and fairly smoothly over the 20 years? indicating significant effects of fishing on the size composition of the exploited fish assemblage. The annual diversity spectra were more dome-shaped than in the survey...... factor in the fish community structure in the North Sea. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea....

  1. FROM “MODELS” TO “REALITY”, AND RETURN. SOME REFLECTIONS ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SURVEY AND INTERPRETATIVE METHODS FOR BUILT HERITAGE CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ottoni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It's well known that more and more accurate methodologies and automatic tools are now available in the field of geometric survey and image processing and they constitute a fundamental instrument for cultural heritage knowledge and preservation; on the other side, very smart and precise numerical models are continuously improved and used in order to simulate the mechanical behaviour of masonry structures: both instruments and technologies are important part of a global process of knowledge which is at the base of any conservation project of cultural heritage. Despite the high accuracy and automation level reached by both technologies and programs, the transfer of data between them is not an easy task and defining the most reliable way to translate and exchange information without data loosing is still an open issue. The goal of the present paper is to analyse the complex process of translation from the very precise (and sometimes redundant information obtainable by the modern survey methodologies for historic buildings (as laser scanner, into the very simplified (may be too much schemes used to understand their real structural behaviour, with the final aim to contribute to the discussion on reliable methods for cultural heritage knowledge improvement, through empiricism.

  2. Knowledge Protection and Input Complexity Arising from Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Thijs; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Controlling unique knowledge is of increasing importance to firms. Therefore, firms use knowledge protection mechanisms to prevent competitors from imitating their knowledge. We study the effects of the complexity of knowledge inputs that arises from open innovation on the importance of two widely...... used protection mechanisms: patents and trademarks. We argue that this complexity makes the threat of imitation less predictable, and thus makes knowledge protection more important. By analyzing survey data of 938 German firms, we find that patents are more important for firms in industries with higher...... knowledge input complexity. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics and not the level of knowledge input complexity positively affect the importance of trademarks....

  3. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  4. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  5. An Exploratory Survey to Quantify the Influence of Social Networks in the Professional Routines of Ecuadorian Journalists: Reflections on the Mediamorphosis from Ecuador (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barredo Ibáñez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Web 2.0, based on the acceptance of collective intelligence, is stimulating a global revolution in the ways of information management. This is a scenario where some alterations within the journalistic profession are imposed: the reporter becomes a gatekeeper, an observer of the symbolic content that originates from readers, rather than the traditional gatekeeper, i.e. a filter that determines the content that is necessary to post. In this new mediamorphosis, the media are becoming meeting places where people come to talk to each other. However, Ecuador poses certain challenges that hinder the development of a participatory journalism, including regulatory regimes (after the adoption of the Communications Law in 2013, low connectivity to the Internet, and even some sociocultural factors, such as low participation of Ecuadorian citizens in the public space. This article presents the results of a national survey of journalists from major Ecuadorian print and electronic media, with the goal of shedding light on the influence social networks have on those journalists’ daily routines. The results indicate a low interaction between reporters and their audiences, along with a partial ignorance of the potential that citizen participation has in the transformation of journalism.

  6. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  7. Parameter setting and input reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.; van Kampen, N.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126439737

    2008-01-01

    The language acquisition procedure identifies certain properties of the target grammar before others. The evidence from the input is processed in a stepwise order. Section 1 equates that order and its typical effects with an order of parameter setting. The question is how the acquisition procedure

  8. Constituency Input into Budget Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents techniques for ensuring constituency involvement in district- and site-level budget management. Outlines four models for securing constituent input and focuses on strategies to orchestrate the more complex model for staff and community participation. Two figures are included. (LMI)

  9. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  10. Lithium inputs to subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, C.; Elliott, T.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the sedimentary and basaltic inputs of lithium to subduction zones. Various sediments from DSDP and ODP drill cores in front of the Mariana, South Sandwich, Banda, East Sunda and Lesser Antilles island arcs have been analysed and show highly variable Li contents and δ

  11. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  12. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  13. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  14. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  15. Auto Draw from Excel Input Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Goullioud, Renaud; Cox, Brian; Grimes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The design process often involves the use of Excel files during project development. To facilitate communications of the information in the Excel files, drawings are often generated. During the design process, the Excel files are updated often to reflect new input. The problem is that the drawings often lag the updates, often leading to confusion of the current state of the design. The use of this program allows visualization of complex data in a format that is more easily understandable than pages of numbers. Because the graphical output can be updated automatically, the manual labor of diagram drawing can be eliminated. The more frequent update of system diagrams can reduce confusion and reduce errors and is likely to uncover symmetric problems earlier in the design cycle, thus reducing rework and redesign.

  16. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  17. Input measurements in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trincherini, P.R.; Facchetti, S.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this work is to give a review of the methods and the problems encountered in measurements in 'input accountability tanks' of irradiated fuel treatment plants. This study was prompted by the conviction that more and more precise techniques and methods should be at the service of safeguards organizations and that ever greater efforts should be directed towards promoting knowledge of them among operators and all those general area of interest includes the nuclear fuel cycle. The overall intent is to show the necessity of selecting methods which produce measurements which are not only more precise but are absolutely reliable both for routine plant operation and for safety checks in the input area. A description and a critical evaluation of the most common physical and chemical methods are provided, together with an estimate of the precision and accuracy obtained in real operating conditions

  18. Identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents an introductory survey of the methods that have been developed for identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input±output data. The two basic approaches may be described as (i) the indirect method, where first a discrete-time model is estimated from the sampled data and then ...

  19. Shortening a Patient Experiences Survey for Medical Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy H. Ng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems—Patient-Centered Medical Home (CAHPS PCMH Survey assesses patient experiences reflecting domains of care related to general patient experience (access to care, communication with providers, office staff interaction, provider rating and PCMH-specific aspects of patient care (comprehensiveness of care, self-management support, shared decision making. The current work compares psychometric properties of the current survey and a proposed shortened version of the survey (from 52 to 26 adult survey items, from 66 to 31 child survey items. The revisions were based on initial psychometric analysis and stakeholder input regarding survey length concerns. A total of 268 practices voluntarily submitted adult surveys and 58 submitted child survey data to the National Committee for Quality Assurance in 2013. Mean unadjusted scores, practice-level item and composite reliability, and item-to-scale correlations were calculated. Results show that the shorter adult survey has lower reliability, but still it still meets general definitions of a sound survey for the adult version, and resulted in few changes to mean scores. The impact was more problematic for the pediatric version. Further testing is needed to investigate approaches to improving survey response and the relevance of survey items in informing quality improvement.

  20. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  1. Surprise! Infants Consider Possible Bases of Generalization for a Single Input Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, LouAnn; Dawson, Colin; Chatila, Razanne; Tenenbaum, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Infants have been shown to generalize from a small number of input examples. However, existing studies allow two possible means of generalization. One is via a process of noting similarities shared by several examples. Alternatively, generalization may reflect an implicit desire to explain the input. The latter view suggests that generalization…

  2. Tectonic history in the Fort Worth Basin, north Texas, derived from well-log integration with multiple 3D seismic reflection surveys: implications for paleo and present-day seismicity in the basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, M. B.; Hornbach, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production in the Fort Worth Basin (FWB) in north Texas have accelerated in the last 10 years due to the success of unconventional gas production. Here, hydraulic fracturing wastewater is disposed via re-injection into deep wells that penetrate Ordovician carbonate formations. The rise in wastewater injection has coincided with a marked rise in earthquake rates, suggesting a causal relationship between industry practices and seismicity. Most studies addressing this relationship in intraplate regions like the FWB focus on current seismicity, which provides an a-posteriori assessment of the processes involved. 3D seismic reflection data contribute complementary information on the existence, distribution, orientation and long-term deformation history of faults that can potentially become reactivated by the injection process. Here we present new insights into the tectonic evolution of faults in the FWB using multiple 3D seismic reflection surveys in the basin, west of the Dallas Fort-Worth Metroplex, where high-volume wastewater injection wells have increased most significantly in number in the past few years. The datasets image with remarkable clarity the 3,300 m-thick sedimentary rocks of the basin, from the crystalline basement to the Cretaceous cover, with particular detail of the Paleozoic section. The data, interpreted using coincident and nearby wells to correlate seismic reflections with stratigraphic markers, allow us to identify faults, extract their orientation, length and displacements at several geologic time intervals, and therefore, reconstruct the long-term deformation history. Throughout the basin, the data show that all seismically detectable faults were active during the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian, but that displacement amounts drop below data resolution ( 7 m) in the post-Pennsylvanian deposits. These results indicate that faults have been inactive for at least the past 300 Ma, until the recent 2008 surge in

  3. Chemical sensors are hybrid-input memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, V. I.; Arkhipov, V. E.; Okotrub, A. V.; Pershin, Y. V.

    2018-04-01

    Memristors are two-terminal electronic devices whose resistance depends on the history of input signal (voltage or current). Here we demonstrate that the chemical gas sensors can be considered as memristors with a generalized (hybrid) input, namely, with the input consisting of the voltage, analyte concentrations and applied temperature. The concept of hybrid-input memristors is demonstrated experimentally using a single-walled carbon nanotubes chemical sensor. It is shown that with respect to the hybrid input, the sensor exhibits some features common with memristors such as the hysteretic input-output characteristics. This different perspective on chemical gas sensors may open new possibilities for smart sensor applications.

  4. Repositioning Recitation Input in College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to discuss how recitation input helps overcome the negative influences on the basis of second language acquisition theory and confirms the important role that recitation input plays in improving college students' oral and written English.

  5. Low reflectance high power RF load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    2016-02-02

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  6. Simplifying BRDF input data for optical signature modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Tomas; Pohl, Anna; Fagerström, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Scene simulations of optical signature properties using signature codes normally requires input of various parameterized measurement data of surfaces and coatings in order to achieve realistic scene object features. Some of the most important parameters are used in the model of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and are normally determined by surface reflectance and scattering measurements. Reflectance measurements of the spectral Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) at various incident angles can normally be performed in most spectroscopy labs, while measuring the BRDF is more complicated or may not be available at all in many optical labs. We will present a method in order to achieve the necessary BRDF data directly from DHR measurements for modeling software using the Sandford-Robertson BRDF model. The accuracy of the method is tested by modeling a test surface by comparing results from using estimated and measured BRDF data as input to the model. These results show that using this method gives no significant loss in modeling accuracy.

  7. Textual Enhancement of Input: Issues and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, ZhaoHong; Park, Eun Sung; Combs, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The input enhancement hypothesis proposed by Sharwood Smith (1991, 1993) has stimulated considerable research over the last 15 years. This article reviews the research on textual enhancement of input (TE), an area where the majority of input enhancement studies have aggregated. Methodological idiosyncrasies are the norm of this body of research.…

  8. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... § 3430.607 Stakeholder input. CSREES shall seek and obtain stakeholder input through a variety of forums...

  9. 7 CFR 3430.15 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.15 Section 3430.15... Stakeholder input. Section 103(c)(2) of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998... RFAs for competitive programs. CSREES will provide instructions for submission of stakeholder input in...

  10. Imported Input Varieties and Product Innovation : Evidence from Five Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Marijke; Vannoorenberghe, Gonzague

    We examine how access to imported intermediate inputs affects firm-level product innovation in five developing counties. We combine trade data with survey data on innovation and develop a method to determine whether new inputs were essential for the product innovation. We find evidence that the

  11. Turn customer input into innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, Anthony W

    2002-01-01

    It's difficult to find a company these days that doesn't strive to be customer-driven. Too bad, then, that most companies go about the process of listening to customers all wrong--so wrong, in fact, that they undermine innovation and, ultimately, the bottom line. What usually happens is this: Companies ask their customers what they want. Customers offer solutions in the form of products or services. Companies then deliver these tangibles, and customers just don't buy. The reason is simple--customers aren't expert or informed enough to come up with solutions. That's what your R&D team is for. Rather, customers should be asked only for outcomes--what they want a new product or service to do for them. The form the solutions take should be up to you, and you alone. Using Cordis Corporation as an example, this article describes, in fine detail, a series of effective steps for capturing, analyzing, and utilizing customer input. First come indepth interviews, in which a moderator works with customers to deconstruct a process or activity in order to unearth "desired outcomes." Addressing participants' comments one at a time, the moderator rephrases them to be both unambiguous and measurable. Once the interviews are complete, researchers then compile a comprehensive list of outcomes that participants rank in order of importance and degree to which they are satisfied by existing products. Finally, using a simple mathematical formula called the "opportunity calculation," researchers can learn the relative attractiveness of key opportunity areas. These data can be used to uncover opportunities for product development, to properly segment markets, and to conduct competitive analysis.

  12. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  13. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  14. Conceptualizing, Understanding, and Predicting Responsible Decisions and Quality Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, N.; PytlikZillig, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    In areas such as climate change, where uncertainty is high, it is arguably less difficult to tell when efforts have resulted in changes in knowledge, than when those efforts have resulted in responsible decisions. What is a responsible decision? More broadly, when it comes to citizen input, what is "high quality" input? And most importantly, how are responsible decisions and quality input enhanced? The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the different dimensions of "responsible" or "quality" public input and citizen decisions by comparing and contrasting the different predictors of those different dimensions. We first present different possibilities for defining, operationalizing and assessing responsible or high quality decisions. For example, responsible decisions or quality input might be defined as using specific content (e.g., using climate change information in decisions appropriately), as using specific processes (e.g., investing time and effort in learning about and discussing the issues prior to making decisions), or on the basis of some judgment of the decision or input itself (e.g., judgments of the rationale provided for the decisions, or number of issues considered when giving input). Second, we present results from our work engaging people with science policy topics, and the different ways that we have tried to define these two constructs. In the area of climate change specifically, we describe the development of a short survey that assesses exposure to climate information, knowledge of and attitudes toward climate change, and use of climate information in one's decisions. Specifically, the short survey was developed based on a review of common surveys of climate change related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, and extensive piloting and cognitive interviews. Next, we analyze more than 200 responses to that survey (data collection is currently ongoing and will be complete after the AGU deadline), and report the predictors of

  15. Input filter compensation for switching regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Kelkar, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems caused by the interaction between the input filter, output filter, and the control loop are discussed. The input filter design is made more complicated because of the need to avoid performance degradation and also stay within the weight and loss limitations. Conventional input filter design techniques are then dicussed. The concept of pole zero cancellation is reviewed; this concept is the basis for an approach to control the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter and thus mitigate some of the problems caused by the input filter. The proposed approach for control of the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter is to use a feedforward loop working in conjunction with feedback loops, thus forming a total state control scheme. The design of the feedforward loop for a buck regulator is described. A possible implementation of the feedforward loop design is suggested.

  16. The reflection seismology measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, C.

    1987-01-01

    Even though data acquisition and data processing procedures have become more and more complex in recent decades, the end products of a reflection seismic survey have remained simple and illustrative. A seismic section resembles a geological cross-section and can be interpreted without in-depth knowledge provided that the basic principles behind the method are understood. This article attempts to convey some insight into the methodology without claiming to be scientifically exact or complete. (author)

  17. READDATA: a FORTRAN 77 codeword input package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A new codeword input package has been produced as a result of the incompatibility between different dialects of FORTRAN, especially when character variables are passed as parameters. This report is for those who wish to use a codeword input package with FORTRAN 77. The package, called ''Readdata'', attempts to combine the best features of its predecessors such as BINPUT and pseudo-BINPUT. (author)

  18. CREATING INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR RIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to create tables for input into RIP ver. 5.18 (Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems) from WAPDEG ver. 3.06 (Waste Package Degradation) output. This calculation details the creation of the RIP input tables for TSPA-VA REV.00

  19. Wave energy input into the Ekman layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the wave energy input into the Ekman layer, based on 3 observational facts that surface waves could significantly affect the profile of the Ekman layer. Under the assumption of constant vertical diffusivity, the analytical form of wave energy input into the Ekman layer is derived. Analysis of the energy balance shows that the energy input to the Ekman layer through the wind stress and the interaction of the Stokes-drift with planetary vorticity can be divided into two kinds. One is the wind energy input, and the other is the wave energy input which is dependent on wind speed, wave characteristics and the wind direction relative to the wave direction. Estimates of wave energy input show that wave energy input can be up to 10% in high-latitude and high-wind speed areas and higher than 20% in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, compared with the wind energy input into the classical Ekman layer. Results of this paper are of significance to the study of wave-induced large scale effects.

  20. Input Enhancement and L2 Question Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which form-focused instruction and corrective feedback (i.e., "input enhancement"), provided within a primarily communicative program, contribute to learners' accuracy in question formation. Study results are interpreted as evidence that input enhancement can bring about genuine changes in learners' interlanguage…

  1. Statistical identification of effective input variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    A statistical sensitivity analysis procedure has been developed for ranking the input data of large computer codes in the order of sensitivity-importance. The method is economical for large codes with many input variables, since it uses a relatively small number of computer runs. No prior judgemental elimination of input variables is needed. The sceening method is based on stagewise correlation and extensive regression analysis of output values calculated with selected input value combinations. The regression process deals with multivariate nonlinear functions, and statistical tests are also available for identifying input variables that contribute to threshold effects, i.e., discontinuities in the output variables. A computer code SCREEN has been developed for implementing the screening techniques. The efficiency has been demonstrated by several examples and applied to a fast reactor safety analysis code (Venus-II). However, the methods and the coding are general and not limited to such applications

  2. Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey with Radial Basis Function Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Arif

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A marine electromagnetic survey is an engineering endeavour to discover the location and dimension of a hydrocarbon layer under an ocean floor. In this kind of survey, an array of electric and magnetic receivers are located on the sea floor and record the scattered, refracted and reflected electromagnetic wave, which has been transmitted by an electric dipole antenna towed by a vessel. The data recorded in receivers must be processed and further analysed to estimate the hydrocarbon location and dimension. To conduct those analyses successfuly, a radial basis function (RBF network could be employed to become a forward model of the input-output relationship of the data from a marine electromagnetic survey. This type of neural networks is working based on distances between its inputs and predetermined centres of some basis functions. A previous research had been conducted to model the same marine electromagnetic survey using another type of neural networks, which is a multi layer perceptron (MLP network. By comparing their validation and training performances (mean-squared errors and correlation coefficients, it is concluded that, in this case, the MLP network is comparatively better than the RBF network[1].[1] This manuscript is an extended version of our previous paper, entitled Radial Basis Function Networks for Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey, which had been presented on 2011 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 17-19 July 2011, Bandung, Indonesia.

  3. Demand for inputs in silkworm production: the case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Orkan Özer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to calculate the price, cross, and Morishima Technical Substitution elasticities for the costs of manpower, supply of mulberry leaves, transportation, heating, and material, all of which play pivotal roles for producers in sericulture. A survey was conducted by face-to-face interviews with 207 farmers within the scope of the study. At the analysis phase of the study, the share equity translog cost model was used. The response of the producers to the production input prices were calculated as inelastic. The strictest demand for an input belongs to mulberry leaves (-0.051 and the highest elasticity for transportation costs (-0.314. Sericulture dependents on workforce and mulberry leaves and this activity in Turkey is a labor-dense type of production.

  4. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  5. Conceptual Design of GRIG (GUI Based RETRAN Input Generator)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyung Jin; Hwang, Su Hyun; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul; Jang, Chan Su; Um, Kil Sup

    2007-01-01

    For the development of high performance methodology using advanced transient analysis code, it is essential to generate the basic input of transient analysis code by rigorous QA procedures. There are various types of operating NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) in Korea such as Westinghouse plants, KSNP(Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant), APR1400 (Advance Power Reactor), etc. So there are some difficulties to generate and manage systematically the input of transient analysis code reflecting the inherent characteristics of various types of NPPs. To minimize the user faults and investment man power and to generate effectively and accurately the basic inputs of transient analysis code for all domestic NPPs, it is needed to develop the program that can automatically generate the basic input, which can be directly applied to the transient analysis, from the NPP design material. ViRRE (Visual RETRAN Running Environment) developed by KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) and KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) provides convenient working environment for Kori Unit 1/2. ViRRE shows the calculated results through on-line display but its capability is limited on the convenient execution of RETRAN. So it can not be used as input generator. ViSA (Visual System Analyzer) developed by KAERI is a NPA (Nuclear Plant Analyzer) using RETRAN and MARS code as thermal-hydraulic engine. ViSA contains both pre-processing and post-processing functions. In the pre-processing, only the trip data cards and boundary conditions can be changed through GUI mode based on pre-prepared text-input, so the capability of input generation is very limited. SNAP (Symbolic Nuclear Analysis Package) developed by Applied Programming Technology, Inc. and NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) provides efficient working environment for the use of nuclear safety analysis codes such as RELAP5 and TRAC-M codes. SNAP covers wide aspects of thermal-hydraulic analysis from model creation through data analysis

  6. Quality Assessment of Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Using MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat

  7. Reflecting on reflection in interprofessional education: implications for theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G

    2009-05-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) involves learning, and learning requires reflection. Educators need to "reflect more on reflection" if they are to be effective teachers in ensuring the learning outcomes essential for teamwork and interprofessional practice (IPP), including incorporating both theory and practice into the development of educational interventions. First, this discussion surveys the IPE-relevant literature on reflection, and then defines and refines the multidimensional concept of reflection as it relates to IPE in developing and implementing teamwork learning programs and experiences. Second, specific methods to promote reflection are presented and explored, including self-assessments, journaling, and written papers. Actual samples from student journals and assignments provide examples of the impacts of using these methods on participant reflection and learning. Finally, implications for an expanded understanding and application of reflection for IPE will be discussed, and recommendations made for educational practice and research in this area.

  8. MARS code manual volume II: input requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Kim, Kyung Doo; Bae, Sung Won; Jeong, Jae Jun; Lee, Seung Wook; Hwang, Moon Kyu

    2010-02-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-Of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This input manual provides a complete list of input required to run MARS. The manual is divided largely into two parts, namely, the one-dimensional part and the multi-dimensional part. The inputs for auxiliary parts such as minor edit requests and graph formatting inputs are shared by the two parts and as such mixed input is possible. The overall structure of the input is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS3.1. MARS3.1 development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  9. Total dose induced increase in input offset voltage in JFET input operational amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.L.; Krieg, J.; Gehlhausen, M.; Black, J.

    1999-01-01

    Four different types of commercial JFET input operational amplifiers were irradiated with ionizing radiation under a variety of test conditions. All experienced significant increases in input offset voltage (Vos). Microprobe measurement of the electrical characteristics of the de-coupled input JFETs demonstrates that the increase in Vos is a result of the mismatch of the degraded JFETs. (authors)

  10. Input to the PRAST computer code used in the SRS probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearnaghan, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The PRAST (Production Reactor Algorithm for Source Terms) computer code was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Science Application International Corporation for the quantification of source terms for the SRS Savannah River Site (SRS) Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment. PRAST requires as input a set of release fractions, decontamination factors, transfer fractions and source term characteristics that accurately reflect the conditions that are evaluated by PRAST. This document links the analyses which form the basis for the PRAST input parameters. In addition, it gives the distribution of the input parameters that are uncertain and considered to be important to the evaluation of the source terms to the environment

  11. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  12. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  13. Egocentric and allocentric alignment tasks are affected by otolith input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A; Bockisch, Christopher J; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Straumann, Dominik

    2012-06-01

    Gravicentric visual alignments become less precise when the head is roll-tilted relative to gravity, which is most likely due to decreasing otolith sensitivity. To align a luminous line with the perceived gravity vector (gravicentric task) or the perceived body-longitudinal axis (egocentric task), the roll orientation of the line on the retina and the torsional position of the eyes relative to the head must be integrated to obtain the line orientation relative to the head. Whether otolith input contributes to egocentric tasks and whether the modulation of variability is restricted to vision-dependent paradigms is unknown. In nine subjects we compared precision and accuracy of gravicentric and egocentric alignments in various roll positions (upright, 45°, and 75° right-ear down) using a luminous line (visual paradigm) in darkness. Trial-to-trial variability doubled for both egocentric and gravicentric alignments when roll-tilted. Two mechanisms might explain the roll-angle-dependent modulation in egocentric tasks: 1) Modulating variability in estimated ocular torsion, which reflects the roll-dependent precision of otolith signals, affects the precision of estimating the line orientation relative to the head; this hypothesis predicts that variability modulation is restricted to vision-dependent alignments. 2) Estimated body-longitudinal reflects the roll-dependent variability of perceived earth-vertical. Gravicentric cues are thereby integrated regardless of the task's reference frame. To test the two hypotheses the visual paradigm was repeated using a rod instead (haptic paradigm). As with the visual paradigm, precision significantly decreased with increasing head roll for both tasks. These findings propose that the CNS integrates input coded in a gravicentric frame to solve egocentric tasks. In analogy to gravicentric tasks, where trial-to-trial variability is mainly influenced by the properties of the otolith afferents, egocentric tasks may also integrate

  14. Outsourcing, public Input provision and policy cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Thomas; Koskela, Erkki

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns public input provision as an instrument for redistribution under international outsourcing by using a model-economy comprising two countries, North and South, where firms in the North may outsource part of their low-skilled labor intensive production to the South. We consider two interrelated issues: (i) the incentives for each country to modify the provision of public input goods in response to international outsourcing, and (ii) whether international outsourcing justifie...

  15. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  16. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  17. Assessing the Impacts of Zimbabwe’s Agricultural Vouchers Input Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mazvimavi, Kizito; Murendo, Conrad; Minde, Isaac J.; Kunzekweguta, Machiweyi

    2013-01-01

    Using data from ICRISAT 2010/11 household and fertilizer retailer surveys, the study reveals that open vouchers enhance farmers input choice. The targeting of vulnerable farmers was efficient in selecting, households with less livestock ownership and those affected by HIV/AIDS. The use of open vouchers enabled retailers to sale agricultural inputs, boost revenue and link them to suppliers. The use of open voucher is preferable in areas where retailer’s infrastructure and mobile telephone netw...

  18. Temporal processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    reflection delays and enhances the test reflection for large delays. Employing a 200-ms-long broadband noise burst as input signal, the critical delay separating these two binaural phenomena was found to be 7–10 ms. It was suggested that the critical delay refers to a temporal window that is employed......, resulting in a critical delay of about 2–3 ms for 20-ms-long stimuli. Hence, for very short stimuli the temporal window or critical delay exhibits values similar to the auditory temporal resolution as, for instance, observed in gap-detection tasks. It is suggested that the larger critical delay observed...

  19. Six axis force feedback input device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Timothy (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a low friction, low inertia, six-axis force feedback input device comprising an arm with double-jointed, tendon-driven revolute joints, a decoupled tendon-driven wrist, and a base with encoders and motors. The input device functions as a master robot manipulator of a microsurgical teleoperated robot system including a slave robot manipulator coupled to an amplifier chassis, which is coupled to a control chassis, which is coupled to a workstation with a graphical user interface. The amplifier chassis is coupled to the motors of the master robot manipulator and the control chassis is coupled to the encoders of the master robot manipulator. A force feedback can be applied to the input device and can be generated from the slave robot to enable a user to operate the slave robot via the input device without physically viewing the slave robot. Also, the force feedback can be generated from the workstation to represent fictitious forces to constrain the input device's control of the slave robot to be within imaginary predetermined boundaries.

  20. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  1. Computer Generated Inputs for NMIS Processor Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. A. Mullens; J. E. Breeding; J. A. McEvers; R. W. Wysor; L. G. Chiang; J. R. Lenarduzzi; J. T. Mihalczo; J. K. Mattingly

    2001-01-01

    Proper operation of the Nuclear Identification Materials System (NMIS) processor can be verified using computer-generated inputs [BIST (Built-In-Self-Test)] at the digital inputs. Preselected sequences of input pulses to all channels with known correlation functions are compared to the output of the processor. These types of verifications have been utilized in NMIS type correlation processors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since 1984. The use of this test confirmed a malfunction in a NMIS processor at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) in 1998. The NMIS processor boards were returned to the U.S. for repair and subsequently used in NMIS passive and active measurements with Pu at VNIIEF in 1999

  2. Harmonize input selection for sediment transport prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin; Keshtegar, Behrooz; Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan; El-Shafie, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, three modeling approaches using a Neural Network (NN), Response Surface Method (RSM) and response surface method basis Global Harmony Search (GHS) are applied to predict the daily time series suspended sediment load. Generally, the input variables for forecasting the suspended sediment load are manually selected based on the maximum correlations of input variables in the modeling approaches based on NN and RSM. The RSM is improved to select the input variables by using the errors terms of training data based on the GHS, namely as response surface method and global harmony search (RSM-GHS) modeling method. The second-order polynomial function with cross terms is applied to calibrate the time series suspended sediment load with three, four and five input variables in the proposed RSM-GHS. The linear, square and cross corrections of twenty input variables of antecedent values of suspended sediment load and water discharge are investigated to achieve the best predictions of the RSM based on the GHS method. The performances of the NN, RSM and proposed RSM-GHS including both accuracy and simplicity are compared through several comparative predicted and error statistics. The results illustrated that the proposed RSM-GHS is as uncomplicated as the RSM but performed better, where fewer errors and better correlation was observed (R = 0.95, MAE = 18.09 (ton/day), RMSE = 25.16 (ton/day)) compared to the ANN (R = 0.91, MAE = 20.17 (ton/day), RMSE = 33.09 (ton/day)) and RSM (R = 0.91, MAE = 20.06 (ton/day), RMSE = 31.92 (ton/day)) for all types of input variables.

  3. Shaped input distributions for structural damage localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio; Damkilde, Lars

    2018-01-01

    localization method is cast that operates on the premise of shaping inputs—whose spatial distribution is fixed—by use of a model, such that these inputs, in one structural subdomain at a time, suppress certain steady-state vibration quantities (depending on the type of damage one seeks to interrogate for......). Accordingly, damage is localized when the vibration signature induced by the shaped inputs in the damaged state corresponds to that in the reference state, hereby implying that the approach does not point directly to damage. Instead, it operates with interrogation based on postulated damage patterns...

  4. A parallel input composite transimpedance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. J.; Kim, C.

    2018-01-01

    A new approach to high performance current to voltage preamplifier design is presented. The design using multiple operational amplifiers (op-amps) has a parasitic capacitance compensation network and a composite amplifier topology for fast, precision, and low noise performance. The input stage consisting of a parallel linked JFET op-amps and a high-speed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) gain stage driving the output in the composite amplifier topology, cooperating with the capacitance compensation feedback network, ensures wide bandwidth stability in the presence of input capacitance above 40 nF. The design is ideal for any two-probe measurement, including high impedance transport and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.

  5. Nuclear reaction inputs based on effective interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S.; Peru, S.; Dubray, N.; Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Goriely, S. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP-226, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    Extensive nuclear structure studies have been performed for decades using effective interactions as sole input. They have shown a remarkable ability to describe rather accurately many types of nuclear properties. In the early 2000 s, a major effort has been engaged to produce nuclear reaction input data out of the Gogny interaction, in order to challenge its quality also with respect to nuclear reaction observables. The status of this project, well advanced today thanks to the use of modern computers as well as modern nuclear reaction codes, is reviewed and future developments are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Simulation of a Multidimensional Input Quantum Perceptron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Alexandre Y.; Sundqvist, Kyle M.; Li, Peng; Harris, H. Rusty

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the improved data separation capabilities of the Multidimensional Input Quantum Perceptron (MDIQP), a fundamental cell for the construction of more complex Quantum Artificial Neural Networks (QANNs). This is done by using input controlled alterations of ancillary qubits in combination with phase estimation and learning algorithms. The MDIQP is capable of processing quantum information and classifying multidimensional data that may not be linearly separable, extending the capabilities of the classical perceptron. With this powerful component, we get much closer to the achievement of a feedforward multilayer QANN, which would be able to represent and classify arbitrary sets of data (both quantum and classical).

  7. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme...... estimation. In the experimental program a small structure subjected to vibration was used to estimate the loading from the measurements and the experimental modal space. The modal parameters were estimated by Natural Input Modal Analysis and the scaling factors of the mode shapes obtained by the mass change...

  8. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  9. Control Board Digital Interface Input Devices – Touchscreen, Trackpad, or Mouse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Ronald L. Boring; Roger Lew

    2015-08-01

    The authors collaborated with a power utility to evaluate input devices for use in the human system interface (HSI) for a new digital Turbine Control System (TCS) at a nuclear power plant (NPP) undergoing a TCS upgrade. A standalone dynamic software simulation of the new digital TCS and a mobile kiosk were developed to conduct an input device study to evaluate operator preference and input device effectiveness. The TCS software presented the anticipated HSI for the TCS and mimicked (i.e., simulated) the turbine systems’ responses to operator commands. Twenty-four licensed operators from the two nuclear power units participated in the study. Three input devices were tested: a trackpad, mouse, and touchscreen. The subjective feedback from the survey indicates the operators preferred the touchscreen interface. The operators subjectively rated the touchscreen as the fastest and most comfortable input device given the range of tasks they performed during the study, but also noted a lack of accuracy for selecting small targets. The empirical data suggest the mouse input device provides the most consistent performance for screen navigation and manipulating on screen controls. The trackpad input device was both empirically and subjectively found to be the least effective and least desired input device.

  10. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  11. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.907 Section 3430.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL...

  12. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…

  13. A summary of WIMSD4 input option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of all the available input data options in the ICL 4/70 and IBM 370 versions of WIMSD4, with little more than a reference where there is already adequate documentation but with rather more detail where no such documentation exists. (author)

  14. Representations of space based on haptic input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhoek, S.

    2005-01-01

    The present thesis focused on the representations of grasping space based on haptic input. We aimed at identifying their characteristics, and the underlying neurocognitive processes and mechanisms. To this end, we studied the systematic distortions in performance on several orientation perception

  15. Hydrogen Generation Rate Model Calculation Input Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KUFAHL, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the procedures and techniques utilized in the collection and analysis of analyte input data values in support of the flammable gas hazard safety analyses. This document represents the analyses of data current at the time of its writing and does not account for data available since then

  16. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders,

  17. MgO reflectance data for Monte Carlo simulation of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillation crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scafè, Raffaele, E-mail: raffaele.scafe@uniroma1.it [Dept. of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, I-00161 Rome (Italy); Pani, Roberto; Pellegrini, Rosanna; Cinti, Maria Nerina [Dept. of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, I-00161 Rome (Italy); Bennati, Paolo [INFN-Roma I, Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Lo Meo, Sergio [National Institution for Insurance against Accidents at Work, Via Fontana Candida 1, I-00040, Monte Porzio Catone (Italy)

    2013-02-11

    Present paper is aimed to estimate the spectral reflectance of MgO as a function of layer thickness around LaBr{sub 3}:5%Ce crystals. A reference emission spectrum of scintillator was calculated averaging 15 experimental trends from literature. A survey on MgO reflectance provided experimental data in the wavelength region of interest without thickness information, while trends with dimensional facts were found in the adjacent wavelength region. An algorithm was developed for interpolating spectral data in the wavelength region of interest for given thickness. A comparison between reflectors for LaBr{sub 3}:Ce is summarized in Appendix A. Results are presented in form of weighted average values as well as numerical trends suitable, in particular, as input for Monte Carlo simulations of encapsulated crystals.

  18. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  19. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain...

  20. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  1. The Relevance of Reflection: An Empirical Examination of the Role of Reflection in Ethic of Caring, Leadership, and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Millora, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    This article is an empirical examination of reflection for first-year and third-year students using data from the College Students' Beliefs and Values survey. Frequency of self-reflection increased between the first and third years of college. Two self-reported measures of reflection, engaging in self-reflection and having classes that…

  2. Do efficiency scores depend on input mix?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Kronborg, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the possibility of using the standard Kruskal-Wallis (KW) rank test in order to evaluate whether the distribution of efficiency scores resulting from Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is independent of the input (or output) mix of the observations. Since the DEA frontier...... is estimated, many standard assumptions for evaluating the KW test statistic are violated. Therefore, we propose to explore its statistical properties by the use of simulation studies. The simulations are performed conditional on the observed input mixes. The method, unlike existing approaches...... the assumption of mix independence is rejected the implication is that it, for example, is impossible to determine whether machine intensive project are more or less efficient than labor intensive projects....

  3. Application of computer voice input/output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.; Shirk, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of microprocessors and other large-scale integration (LSI) circuits is making voice input and output for computers and instruments practical; specialized LSI chips for speech processing are appearing on the market. Voice can be used to input data or to issue instrument commands; this allows the operator to engage in other tasks, move about, and to use standard data entry systems. Voice synthesizers can generate audible, easily understood instructions. Using voice characteristics, a control system can verify speaker identity for security purposes. Two simple voice-controlled systems have been designed at Los Alamos for nuclear safeguards applicaations. Each can easily be expanded as time allows. The first system is for instrument control that accepts voice commands and issues audible operator prompts. The second system is for access control. The speaker's voice is used to verify his identity and to actuate external devices

  4. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  5. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler.

  6. Nitrogen input from residential lawn care practices in suburban watersheds in Baltimore county, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely L. Law; Lawrence E. Band; J. Morgan. Grove

    2004-01-01

    A residential lawn care survey was conducted as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, a Long-term Ecological Research project funded by the National Science Foundation and collaborating agencies, to estimate the nitrogen input to urban watersheds from lawn care practices. The variability in the fertilizer N application rates and the factors affecting the application...

  7. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  8. Crustal investigations of the earthquake-prone Vrancea region in Romania - Part 2: Novel deep seismic reflection experiment in the southeastern Carpathian belt and its foreland basin - survey target, design, and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, V. I.; Stephenson, R. A.; Diaconescu, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.; Matenco, L.; Dinu, C.; Harder, S.; Prodehl, C.; Hauser, F.; Raileanu, V.; Cloetingh, S. A.; Leever, K.

    2001-12-01

    Seismic studies of the outer Carpathian Orogen and its foreland (Focsani Basin) in the vicinity of the Vrancea Zone and Danube Delta (Romania) forms one component of a new multidisciplinary initiative of ISES (Netherlands Centre for Integrated Solid Earth Sciences) called DACIA PLAN ("Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics"). The study area, at the margin of the European craton, constitutes one of the most active seismic zones in Europe, yet has remained a geological and geodynamic enigma within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Intermediate depth (50-220 km) mantle earthquakes of significant magnitude occur in a geographically restricted area in the south-east Carpathians bend. The adjacent, foreland Focsani Basin appears to exhibit recent extensional deformation in what is otherwise understood to be a zone of convergence. The deep seismic reflection component of DACIA PLAN comprises a ~140-km near-vertical profile across the Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin. Data acquisition took place in August-September 2001, as part of the integrated refraction/reflection seismic field programme "Vrancea-2001" co-ordinated at Karlsruhe University (cf. Abstract, Part 1), utilising 640 independently deployed recorders provided by UTEP and IRIS/PASSCAL ("Texans"). Station spacing was every 100-m with shots every 1-km. These data are to be integrated with industry seismic as well as planned new medium-high resolution seismic reflection profiling across key neotectonically active structures in the Focsani Basin. Particular goals of DACIA PLAN include: (1) the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to this zone, including the foreland Focsani Basin; (2) the presence and geometry of structural detachment(s) in relation with foreland basin development, including constraints for balanced cross-sections and geodynamic modelling of basin origin and evolution; (3) the relationship between crustal

  9. PREP-45, Input Preparation for CITATION-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho Carlos, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: A Fortran program has been created, which saves much effort in preparing sections 004 (intervals in the coordinates) and 005 (zone numbers) of the input data file for the multigroup theory code CITATION (version CITATION-2, NESC0387/09), particularly when a thin complicated mesh is used. 2 - Method of solution: A domain is defined for CITATION calculations through specifying its sub-domains (e.g. graphite, lead, beryllium, water and fuel sub-domains) in a compact and simple way. An independent and previous geometrical specification is made of the various types of elements which are envisaged to constitute the contents of the reactor core grid positions. Then the load table for the configuration is input and scanned throughout, thus enabling the geometric mesh description to be produced (section 004). Also the zone placement (section 005) is achieved by means of element description subroutines for the different types of element (which may require appropriate but simple changes in the actual cases). The output of PREP45 is directly obtained in a format which is compatible with CITATION-2 input. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Only rectangular two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates are considered. A maximum of 12 sub-domains in the x direction (18 in the y direction) and up to 8 distinct element types are considered in this version. Other limitations exist which can nevertheless be overcome with simple changes in the source program

  10. Molecular structure input on the web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertl Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A molecule editor, that is program for input and editing of molecules, is an indispensable part of every cheminformatics or molecular processing system. This review focuses on a special type of molecule editors, namely those that are used for molecule structure input on the web. Scientific computing is now moving more and more in the direction of web services and cloud computing, with servers scattered all around the Internet. Thus a web browser has become the universal scientific user interface, and a tool to edit molecules directly within the web browser is essential. The review covers a history of web-based structure input, starting with simple text entry boxes and early molecule editors based on clickable maps, before moving to the current situation dominated by Java applets. One typical example - the popular JME Molecule Editor - will be described in more detail. Modern Ajax server-side molecule editors are also presented. And finally, the possible future direction of web-based molecule editing, based on technologies like JavaScript and Flash, is discussed.

  11. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  12. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  13. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  14. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  15. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  16. Recurrent network models for perfect temporal integration of fluctuating correlated inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Okamoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporal integration of input is essential to the accumulation of information in various cognitive and behavioral processes, and gradually increasing neuronal activity, typically occurring within a range of seconds, is considered to reflect such computation by the brain. Some psychological evidence suggests that temporal integration by the brain is nearly perfect, that is, the integration is non-leaky, and the output of a neural integrator is accurately proportional to the strength of input. Neural mechanisms of perfect temporal integration, however, remain largely unknown. Here, we propose a recurrent network model of cortical neurons that perfectly integrates partially correlated, irregular input spike trains. We demonstrate that the rate of this temporal integration changes proportionately to the probability of spike coincidences in synaptic inputs. We analytically prove that this highly accurate integration of synaptic inputs emerges from integration of the variance of the fluctuating synaptic inputs, when their mean component is kept constant. Highly irregular neuronal firing and spike coincidences are the major features of cortical activity, but they have been separately addressed so far. Our results suggest that the efficient protocol of information integration by cortical networks essentially requires both features and hence is heterotic.

  17. Response of spiking neurons to correlated inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Ruben; Rocha, Jaime de la; Renart, Alfonso; Parga, Nestor

    2002-01-01

    The effect of a temporally correlated afferent current on the firing rate of a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron is studied. This current is characterized in terms of rates, autocorrelations, and cross correlations, and correlation time scale τ c of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. The output rate ν out is calculated in the Fokker-Planck formalism in the limit of both small and large τ c compared to the membrane time constant τ of the neuron. By simulations we check the analytical results, provide an interpolation valid for all τ c , and study the neuron's response to rapid changes in the correlation magnitude

  18. Culture Input in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晶

    2009-01-01

    Language and culture are highly interrelated, that is to say, language is not only the carrier of culture but it is also restricted by culture. Therefore, foreign language teaching aiming at cultivate students' intercultural communication should take culture differences into consideration. In this paper, the relationship between language and culture will be discussed. Then I will illustrate the importance of intercultural communication. Finally, according to the present situation of foreign language teaching in China, several strategies for cultural input in and out of class will be suggested.

  19. Mobile gaze input system for pervasive interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    feedback to the user in response to the received command input. The unit provides feedback to the user on how to position the mobile unit in front of his eyes. The gaze tracking unit interacts with one or more controlled devices via wireless or wired communications. Example devices include a lock......, a thermostat, a light or a TV. The connection between the gaze tracking unit may be temporary or longer-lasting. The gaze tracking unit may detect features of the eye that provide information about the identity of the user....

  20. Flexible input, dazzling output with IBM i

    CERN Document Server

    Victória-Pereira, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Link your IBM i system to the modern business server world! This book presents easier and more flexible ways to get data into your IBM i system, along with rather surprising methods to export and present the vital business data it contains. You'll learn how to automate file transfers, seamlessly connect PC applications with your RPG programs, and much more. Input operations will become more flexible and user-proof, with self-correcting import processes and direct file transfers that require a minimum of user intervention. Also learn novel ways to present information: your DB2 data will look gr

  1. The Importance of Input and Interaction in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党春花

    2009-01-01

    As is known to us, input and interaction play the crucial roles in second language acquisition (SLA). Different linguistic schools have different explanations to input and interaction Behaviorist theories hold a view that input is composed of stimuli and response, putting more emphasis on the importance of input, while mentalist theories find input is a necessary condition to SLA, not a sufficient condition. At present, social interaction theories, which is one type of cognitive linguistics, suggests that besides input, interaction is also essential to language acquisition. Then, this essay will discuss how input and interaction result in SLA.

  2. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  3. Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Sydorenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio on (a the learning of written and aural word forms, (b overall vocabulary gains, (c attention to input, and (d vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian participated in this study. Group one (N = 8 saw video with audio and captions (VAC; group two (N = 9 saw video with audio (VA; group three (N = 9 saw video with captions (VC. All participants completed written and aural vocabulary tests and a final questionnaire.The results indicate that groups with captions (VAC and VC scored higher on written than on aural recognition of word forms, while the reverse applied to the VA group. The VAC group learned more word meanings than the VA group. Results from the questionnaire suggest that learners paid most attention to captions, followed by video and audio, and acquired most words by associating them with visual images. Pedagogical implications of this study are that captioned video tends to aid recognition of written word forms and the learning of word meaning, while non-captioned video tends to improve listening comprehension as it facilitates recognition of aural word forms.

  4. [Prosody, speech input and language acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungheim, M; Miller, S; Kühn, D; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    In order to acquire language, children require speech input. The prosody of the speech input plays an important role. In most cultures adults modify their code when communicating with children. Compared to normal speech this code differs especially with regard to prosody. For this review a selective literature search in PubMed and Scopus was performed. Prosodic characteristics are a key feature of spoken language. By analysing prosodic features, children gain knowledge about underlying grammatical structures. Child-directed speech (CDS) is modified in a way that meaningful sequences are highlighted acoustically so that important information can be extracted from the continuous speech flow more easily. CDS is said to enhance the representation of linguistic signs. Taking into consideration what has previously been described in the literature regarding the perception of suprasegmentals, CDS seems to be able to support language acquisition due to the correspondence of prosodic and syntactic units. However, no findings have been reported, stating that the linguistically reduced CDS could hinder first language acquisition.

  5. FLUTAN 2.0. Input specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willerding, G.; Baumann, W.

    1996-05-01

    FLUTAN is a highly vectorized computer code for 3D fluiddynamic and thermal-hydraulic analyses in Cartesian or cylinder coordinates. It is related to the family of COMMIX codes originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, USA, and particularly to COMMIX-1A and COMMIX-1B, which were made available to FZK in the frame of cooperation contracts within the fast reactor safety field. FLUTAN 2.0 is an improved version of the FLUTAN code released in 1992. It offers some additional innovations, e.g. the QUICK-LECUSSO-FRAM techniques for reducing numerical diffusion in the k-ε turbulence model equations; a higher sophisticated wall model for specifying a mass flow outside the surface walls together with its flow path and its associated inlet and outlet flow temperatures; and a revised and upgraded pressure boundary condition to fully include the outlet cells in the solution process of the conservation equations. Last but not least, a so-called visualization option based on VISART standards has been provided. This report contains detailed input instructions, presents formulations of the various model options, and explains how to use the code by means of comprehensive sample input. (orig.) [de

  6. Radionuclides in the oceans inputs and inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, P.; Germain, P.; Metivier, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after Chernobyl, following the decision by France to end nuclear weapon testing in the Pacific ocean, after the end of the OECD-NEA Coordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance programme related to low-level waste dumping in the deep ocean, and one hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity, the IPSN wanted to compile and review the available information on artificial radioactivity levels in seas and oceans. International experts have been invited to present data on inputs and inventories of radionuclides in the marine environment, and to describe the evolution of radioactivity levels in water, sediments and living organisms. Different sources of radionuclides present in the aquatic environment are described: atmospheric fallout before and after Chernobyl, industrial wastes, dumped wastes and ships, nuclear ship accidents, river inputs, earth-sea atmospheric transfers and experimental sites for nuclear testing. Radioactivity levels due to these sources are dealt with at ocean (Atlantic, Pacific and Indian) and sea level (Channel, North Sea, Irish Sea, Mediterranean, Baltic, Black Sea and Arctic seas). These data collected in the present book give an up-to-date assessment of radionuclide distributions which will be very useful to address scientific and wider public concerns about radionuclides found in the aquatic environment. It gives many references useful to those who want to deepen their understanding of particular aspects of marine radioecology. (authors)

  7. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants

  8. FED, Geometry Input Generator for Program TRUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Elrod, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP (NESC 771). TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, or three dimensions. 2 - Method of solution: The region of interest must first be divided into areas which may consist of a common material. The boundaries of these areas are the required FED input. Each area is subdivided into volume nodes, and the geometrical properties are calculated. Finally, FED connects the adjacent nodes to one another, using the proper surface area, interface distance, and, if specified, radiation form factor and interface conductance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Rectangular bodies can only be approximated by using a very large radius of revolution compared to the total radial thickness and by considering only a small angular segment in the circumferential direction

  9. CDS User survey

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Document Service

    2011-01-01

      The CERN Document Server is launching a user survey in order to collect information relative to its search engine, submission interfaces, collaborative features and content organisation. With the view of re-shaping its collections and interfaces and to better integrate with the new INSPIRE platform that serves all HEP literature, CERN Document Server team invites you to take part in the survey. Your input is essential to provide us with useful information before setting up the new service and improve your interactions with CDS. Thanks for participating !  

  10. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  11. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Rachel F; Barratt, Alexandra L; Crossing, Sally; Butow, Phyllis N; Hanson, Susan; Tattersall, Martin Hn

    2011-06-26

    The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO) was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  12. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butow Phyllis N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Methods Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. Results ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. Conclusions The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  13. Design issues for block-oriented reflective memory system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, M; Tomasevic, M; Milutinovic, V

    1996-12-31

    The block-oriented reflective memory (BORM) system represents a modular bus-based system architecture that belongs to the class of distributed shared memory systems. The results of the evaluation study of the BORM implementation strategies and design decisions in regard to the different values of input parameters are presented. 5 refs.

  14. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  15. Exploration of lateral discontinuities with shallow seismic reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, K.; Ecevitoglu, B.

    2007-01-01

    Shallow seismic reflection method is used to for research of mine, fault and stratigraphy and these researches have been result successfully. Survey parameters should be determined with detailed pre-research before data collection. In this study, limestone-fly sch discontinuity experienced at surface and its extension was researched with collected reflection data

  16. Calculating the sensitivity of wind turbine loads to wind inputs using response surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinker, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    at a low computational cost. Sobol sensitivity indices (SIs) can then be calculated with relative ease using the calibrated response surface. The proposed methodology is demonstrated by calculating the total sensitivity of the maximum blade root bending moment of the WindPACT 5 MW reference model to four......This paper presents a methodology to calculate wind turbine load sensitivities to turbulence parameters through the use of response surfaces. A response surface is a high-dimensional polynomial surface that can be calibrated to any set of input/output data and then used to generate synthetic data...... turbulence input parameters: a reference mean wind speed, a reference turbulence intensity, the Kaimal length scale, and a novel parameter reflecting the nonstationarity present in the inflow turbulence. The input/output data used to calibrate the response surface were generated for a previous project...

  17. Global sensitivity analysis for fuzzy inputs based on the decomposition of fuzzy output entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Lu, Zhenzhou; Zhou, Yicheng

    2018-06-01

    To analyse the component of fuzzy output entropy, a decomposition method of fuzzy output entropy is first presented. After the decomposition of fuzzy output entropy, the total fuzzy output entropy can be expressed as the sum of the component fuzzy entropy contributed by fuzzy inputs. Based on the decomposition of fuzzy output entropy, a new global sensitivity analysis model is established for measuring the effects of uncertainties of fuzzy inputs on the output. The global sensitivity analysis model can not only tell the importance of fuzzy inputs but also simultaneously reflect the structural composition of the response function to a certain degree. Several examples illustrate the validity of the proposed global sensitivity analysis, which is a significant reference in engineering design and optimization of structural systems.

  18. FY 2004 Top 200 Users Survey Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... This survey has been administered annually by the Proactive Customer Advocacy Program (PROCAP) since 1999 to gather input from core users about DTIC's products and services that influence customer satisfaction...

  19. Sidewalk Survey Implementation for the Southeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    With funding from GDOT and STRIDE, the team deployed the Online Sidewalk Assessment Survey to gather input on local sidewalk repair and maintenance preferences across a variety of community types in the southeast. The team targeted four major cities ...

  20. Historical basis for analog input setpoints, 241-AY and 241-AZ tank farm MICON automation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the original basis for selection of the analog input setpoints for the MICON Automation System. In most cases the setpoints were based on vendor supplied information and design requirements. However, some setpoints were also established based on engineering judgment. These setpoints are subject to change as more experience with operation of the ventilation system is obtained. Revision 1 incorporates minor changes to ensure the document setpoints accurately reflect limits established in OSD-T-151-00019, Rev B-0

  1. FLIS Procedures Manual. Document Identifier Code Input/Output Formats (Fixed Length). Volume 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    DATA ELE- MENTS. SEGMENT R MAY BE REPEATED A MAXIMUM OF THREE (3) TIMES IN ORDER TO ACQUIRE THE REQUIRED MIX OF SEGMENTS OR INDIVIDUAL DATA ELEMENTS TO...preceding record. Marketing input DICs. QI Next DRN of appropriate segment will be QF The assigned NSN or PSCN being can- reflected in accordance with Table...Classified KFC Notification of Possible Duplicate (Sub- KRP Characteristics Data mitter) Follow-Up Interrogation LFU Notification of Return, SSR Transaction

  2. Connectivity in the human brain dissociates entropy and complexity of auditory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastase, Samuel A; Iacovella, Vittorio; Davis, Ben; Hasson, Uri

    2015-03-01

    Complex systems are described according to two central dimensions: (a) the randomness of their output, quantified via entropy; and (b) their complexity, which reflects the organization of a system's generators. Whereas some approaches hold that complexity can be reduced to uncertainty or entropy, an axiom of complexity science is that signals with very high or very low entropy are generated by relatively non-complex systems, while complex systems typically generate outputs with entropy peaking between these two extremes. In understanding their environment, individuals would benefit from coding for both input entropy and complexity; entropy indexes uncertainty and can inform probabilistic coding strategies, whereas complexity reflects a concise and abstract representation of the underlying environmental configuration, which can serve independent purposes, e.g., as a template for generalization and rapid comparisons between environments. Using functional neuroimaging, we demonstrate that, in response to passively processed auditory inputs, functional integration patterns in the human brain track both the entropy and complexity of the auditory signal. Connectivity between several brain regions scaled monotonically with input entropy, suggesting sensitivity to uncertainty, whereas connectivity between other regions tracked entropy in a convex manner consistent with sensitivity to input complexity. These findings suggest that the human brain simultaneously tracks the uncertainty of sensory data and effectively models their environmental generators. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Do dyslexics have auditory input processing difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether....... The finding suggests that input processing difficulties are associated with the phonological deficit, but that these difficulties may be stronger above the level of phoneme perception.......Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether...... a group of dyslexics had word level receptive difficulties using an auditory lexical decision task with long words and nonsense words. The dyslexics were slower and less accurate than chronological age controls in an auditory lexical decision task, with disproportionate low performance on nonsense words...

  4. Optimizing microwave photodetection: input-output theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, M.; Govia, L. C. G.; Vavilov, M. G.; McDermott, R.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    High fidelity microwave photon counting is an important tool for various areas from background radiation analysis in astronomy to the implementation of circuit quantum electrodynamic architectures for the realization of a scalable quantum information processor. In this work we describe a microwave photon counter coupled to a semi-infinite transmission line. We employ input-output theory to examine a continuously driven transmission line as well as traveling photon wave packets. Using analytic and numerical methods, we calculate the conditions on the system parameters necessary to optimize measurement and achieve high detection efficiency. With this we can derive a general matching condition depending on the different system rates, under which the measurement process is optimal.

  5. Reflections on practitioner-researcher collaborative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Morran, Keith

    2010-04-01

    We offer comments regarding two articles in this issue, one titled "Bridging the Practitioner-Scientist Gap in Group Psychotherapy Research" and a complementary article providing the results of a survey, entitled "A Survey of Canadian Group Psychotherapist Association Members' Perceptions of Psychotherapy Research." We also make several recommendations for collaborative research between practitioners and scientists, such as the inclusion of clinicians on the research team, practice research networks, and improved approaches to communicating clinically relevant research findings. Also discussed are reflections and recommendations from the authors' experience as scientist-practitioners.

  6. Distribution Development for STORM Ingestion Input Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulton, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Sandia-developed Transport of Radioactive Materials (STORM) code suite is used as part of the Radioisotope Power System Launch Safety (RPSLS) program to perform statistical modeling of the consequences due to release of radioactive material given a launch accident. As part of this modeling, STORM samples input parameters from probability distributions with some parameters treated as constants. This report described the work done to convert four of these constant inputs (Consumption Rate, Average Crop Yield, Cropland to Landuse Database Ratio, and Crop Uptake Factor) to sampled values. Consumption rate changed from a constant value of 557.68 kg / yr to a normal distribution with a mean of 102.96 kg / yr and a standard deviation of 2.65 kg / yr. Meanwhile, Average Crop Yield changed from a constant value of 3.783 kg edible / m 2 to a normal distribution with a mean of 3.23 kg edible / m 2 and a standard deviation of 0.442 kg edible / m 2 . The Cropland to Landuse Database ratio changed from a constant value of 0.0996 (9.96%) to a normal distribution with a mean value of 0.0312 (3.12%) and a standard deviation of 0.00292 (0.29%). Finally the crop uptake factor changed from a constant value of 6.37e-4 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg) to a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean value of 3.38e-4 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg) and a standard deviation value of 3.33 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg)

  7. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  8. Worship, Reflection, Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Dong,

    2012-01-01

    In my youth, I was a worshipper of Mao Zedong. From the latter stage of the Mao Era to the early years of Reform and Opening, I began to reflect on Mao and the Communist Revolution he launched. In recent years I’ve devoted myself to empirical historical research on Mao, seeking the truth about Mao and China’s modern history.

  9. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  10. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  11. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  12. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  13. Onward: Reflections on Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberley Buster

    2018-01-01

    The author has been blessed with great mentors throughout her career. When she was invited to participate in the Leadership University of Mary Washington (UMW), a mentoring program at her institution, she did not hesitate to say yes. In this article, the author shares her reflections on mentoring.

  14. Interferometric reflection moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Combell, Olivier

    1995-06-01

    A new reflection moire technique is introduced in this paper. The basic equations that relate the measurement of slopes to the basic geometric and optical parameters of the system are derived. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are discussed. Examples of application to the study of silicon wafers and electronic chips are given.

  15. Reflection on robotic intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the development or robots, both their physical shape as well as their intelligence. The later strongly depends on the progress made in the artificial intelligence (AI) community which does not yet provide the models and tools necessary to create intelligent robots. It is time

  16. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  17. Reflecting on Writing Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The following reflections relate to the reasons for and an approach to an autobiographic task, the notions that underpin it, and some thoughts about the quality and value of such a project. The focus was on the ways one views curriculum change over time; and the intention was to provide an example that others may sense as either familiar or at…

  18. Reflections on the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Reflections on the field of special education offer six ideas: (1) the value of science; (2) the continuing value of separate and special education for some students; (3) the continuing importance of prevention; (4) the importance of academic instruction; (5) the importance of social justice for the poor; and (6) a renewed emphasis on human…

  19. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  20. Analysis on relation between safety input and accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Qing-guo; ZHANG Xue-mu; LI Chun-hui

    2007-01-01

    The number of safety input directly determines the level of safety, and there exists dialectical and unified relations between safety input and accidents. Based on the field investigation and reliable data, this paper deeply studied the dialectical relationship between safety input and accidents, and acquired the conclusions. The security situation of the coal enterprises was related to the security input rate, being effected little by the security input scale, and build the relationship model between safety input and accidents on this basis, that is the accident model.

  1. Modal Parameter Identification from Responses of General Unknown Random Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    Modal parameter identification from ambient responses due to a general unknown random inputs is investigated. Existing identification techniques which are based on assumptions of white noise and or stationary random inputs are utilized even though the inputs conditions are not satisfied....... This is accomplished via adding. In cascade. A force cascade conversion to the structures system under consideration. The input to the force conversion system is white noise and the output of which is the actual force(s) applied to the structure. The white noise input(s) and the structures responses are then used...

  2. Optimizing Human Input in Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-23

    7] T. L. Lai and H. Robbins, “Asymptotically efficient adaptive allocation rules,” Advances in applied mathematics , vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 4–22, 1985. [8...W. Whitt, “Heavy traffic limit theorems for queues: a survey,” in Mathematical Methods in Queueing Theory. Springer, 1974, pp. 307–350. [9] H...Regret lower bounds and optimal algorithms,” in Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGMETRICS International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer

  3. Effect of input compression and input frequency response on music perception in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emily R; Jones, Linor L; Fraser, Matthew; Lockley, Morag; Hill-Feltham, Penelope; McKay, Colette M

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether modifications to input compression and input frequency response characteristics can improve music-listening satisfaction in cochlear implant users. Experiment 1 compared three pre-processed versions of music and speech stimuli in a laboratory setting: original, compressed, and flattened frequency response. Music excerpts comprised three music genres (classical, country, and jazz), and a running speech excerpt was compared. Experiment 2 implemented a flattened input frequency response in the speech processor program. In a take-home trial, participants compared unaltered and flattened frequency responses. Ten and twelve adult Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant users participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Experiment 1 revealed a significant preference for music stimuli with a flattened frequency response compared to both original and compressed stimuli, whereas there was a significant preference for the original (rising) frequency response for speech stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed no significant mean preference for the flattened frequency response, with 9 of 11 subjects preferring the rising frequency response. Input compression did not alter music enjoyment. Comparison of the two experiments indicated that individual frequency response preferences may depend on the genre or familiarity, and particularly whether the music contained lyrics.

  4. Robust input design for nonlinear dynamic modeling of AUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Nowrouz Mohammad; Valadi, Mehrdad

    2017-09-01

    Input design has a dominant role in developing the dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) through system identification. Optimal input design is the process of generating informative inputs that can be used to generate the good quality dynamic model of AUVs. In a problem with optimal input design, the desired input signal depends on the unknown system which is intended to be identified. In this paper, the input design approach which is robust to uncertainties in model parameters is used. The Bayesian robust design strategy is applied to design input signals for dynamic modeling of AUVs. The employed approach can design multiple inputs and apply constraints on an AUV system's inputs and outputs. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to solve the constraint robust optimization problem. The presented algorithm is used for designing the input signals for an AUV, and the estimate obtained by robust input design is compared with that of the optimal input design. According to the results, proposed input design can satisfy both robustness of constraints and optimality. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  6. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  7. Discrete Input Signaling for MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine; Rezki, Zouheir; Ghrayeb, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the achievable secrecy rate of visible light communication (VLC) links for discrete input distributions. We consider single user single eavesdropper multiple-input single-output (MISO) links. In addition, both beamforming

  8. Bragg reflection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.W.

    This user's guide to the Bragg Reflection Program (BRP) is in the nature of an informal report. The general purpose of BRP is to scan a series of Bragg reflections automatically in order to obtain profiles and integrated intensities. The program is used in conjunction with the SUPERVISOR and READ packages, and the procedures for using it are similar to those for the Triple-Axis Control program. All the general features of the system, SUPERVISOR and READ packages as described in the Spectrometer Control Systems User's Guide are preserved. The presentation assumes that the reader is familiar with these. Sections are given on the READ package, execution and use, error messages, and output. A few sample problems are shown. (1 figure) (U.S.)

  9. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  10. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  11. Superradiance or total reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    László, András

    2014-01-01

    Numerical evolution of massless scalar fields on Kerr background is studied. The initial data specifications are chosen to have compact support separated from the ergoregion and to yield nearly monochromatic incident wave packets. The initial data is also tuned to maximize the effect of superradiance. Evidences are shown indicating that instead of the anticipated energy extraction from black hole the incident radiation fail to reach the ergoregion rather it suffers a nearly perfect reflection.

  12. Radioactive inputs to the North Sea and the Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (radioactivity; radioisotopes; discharges from nuclear establishments); data sources (statutory requirements); sources of liquid radioactive waste (figure showing location of principal sources of radioactive discharges; tables listing principal discharges by activity and by nature of radioisotope); Central Electricity Generating Board nuclear power stations; research and industrial establishments; Ministy of Defence establishments; other UK inputs of radioactive waste; total inputs to the North Sea and the Channel (direct inputs; river inputs; adjacent sea areas); conclusions. (U.K.)

  13. Calibrating the input accountancy tanks on THORP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.G.; Hillier, A.P.; Temple, A.

    1995-01-01

    BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), at Sellafield in the UK, processes oxide fuels from customers around the world. The fuel moves through the plant from shearing and dissolution in the Head End and subsequently to solvent extraction in the Chemical Plant. Clarified dissolver liquor is accumulated in three large buffer storage tanks (each of approximately 75 m 3 capacity), in the Head End prior to feeding to the Chemical Plant. The amount of dissolver liquor being passed to these tanks is accurately measured in one of two Input Accountancy Tanks, which are each of 23 m 3 working capacity, and are equipped with high accuracy weight and level measurement systems. Several papers have been published which describe the principles applied to achieve the Safeguarding of THORP. This paper describes the setting to work of a key measurement point in the THORP process and details the complex trials that were begun during the early commissioning phases, to ensure that these accountancy systems would eventually be fully characterized

  14. Information Fusion of Conflicting Input Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Mönks

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensors, and also actuators or external sources such as databases, serve as data sources in order to realise condition monitoring of industrial applications or the acquisition of characteristic parameters like production speed or reject rate. Modern facilities create such a large amount of complex data that a machine operator is unable to comprehend and process the information contained in the data. Thus, information fusion mechanisms gain increasing importance. Besides the management of large amounts of data, further challenges towards the fusion algorithms arise from epistemic uncertainties (incomplete knowledge in the input signals as well as conflicts between them. These aspects must be considered during information processing to obtain reliable results, which are in accordance with the real world. The analysis of the scientific state of the art shows that current solutions fulfil said requirements at most only partly. This article proposes the multilayered information fusion system MACRO (multilayer attribute-based conflict-reducing observation employing the μBalTLCS (fuzzified balanced two-layer conflict solving fusion algorithm to reduce the impact of conflicts on the fusion result. The performance of the contribution is shown by its evaluation in the scope of a machine condition monitoring application under laboratory conditions. Here, the MACRO system yields the best results compared to state-of-the-art fusion mechanisms. The utilised data is published and freely accessible.

  15. Information Fusion of Conflicting Input Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönks, Uwe; Dörksen, Helene; Lohweg, Volker; Hübner, Michael

    2016-10-29

    Sensors, and also actuators or external sources such as databases, serve as data sources in order to realise condition monitoring of industrial applications or the acquisition of characteristic parameters like production speed or reject rate. Modern facilities create such a large amount of complex data that a machine operator is unable to comprehend and process the information contained in the data. Thus, information fusion mechanisms gain increasing importance. Besides the management of large amounts of data, further challenges towards the fusion algorithms arise from epistemic uncertainties (incomplete knowledge) in the input signals as well as conflicts between them. These aspects must be considered during information processing to obtain reliable results, which are in accordance with the real world. The analysis of the scientific state of the art shows that current solutions fulfil said requirements at most only partly. This article proposes the multilayered information fusion system MACRO (multilayer attribute-based conflict-reducing observation) employing the μ BalTLCS (fuzzified balanced two-layer conflict solving) fusion algorithm to reduce the impact of conflicts on the fusion result. The performance of the contribution is shown by its evaluation in the scope of a machine condition monitoring application under laboratory conditions. Here, the MACRO system yields the best results compared to state-of-the-art fusion mechanisms. The utilised data is published and freely accessible.

  16. Vomeronasal inputs to the rodent ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, I; Novejarque, A; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Pro-Sistiaga, P; Insausti, R; Martinez-Garcia, F; Lanuza, E; Martinez-Marcos, A

    2008-03-18

    Vertebrates sense chemical signals through the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. In squamate reptiles, which possess the largest vomeronasal system of all vertebrates, the accessory olfactory bulb projects to the nucleus sphericus, which in turn projects to a portion of the ventral striatum known as olfactostriatum. Characteristically, the olfactostriatum is innervated by neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin immunoreactive fibers. In this study, the possibility that a structure similar to the reptilian olfactostriatum might be present in the mammalian brain has been investigated. Injections of dextran-amines have been aimed at the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus (the putative mammalian homologue of the reptilian nucleus sphericus) of rats and mice. The resulting anterograde labeling includes the olfactory tubercle, the islands of Calleja and sparse terminal fields in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. This projection has been confirmed by injections of retrograde tracers into the ventral striato-pallidum that render retrograde labeling in the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus. The analysis of the distribution of neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and substance P in the ventral striato-pallidum of rats, and the anterograde tracing of the vomeronasal amygdaloid input in the same material confirm that, similar to reptiles, the ventral striatum of mammals includes a specialized vomeronasal structure (olfactory tubercle and islands of Calleja) displaying dense neuropeptide Y-, tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-immunoreactive innervations. The possibility that parts of the accumbens shell and/or ventral pallidum could be included in the mammalian olfactostriatum cannot be discarded.

  17. Grammar in Context using Comprehended Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Mohamed Nor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been so many ongoing disputes on different approaches to teaching grammar. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching grammar using Gass comprehended Input technique (GCI (1997 (implicit and to explore the undergraduates’ perception on the GCI technique. The respondents consisted of 30 undergraduates’ who are currently pursuing their Bachelor of English. Using the qualitative method, the research instrument was a set of 23- item interview and content analysis of the students’ written work. Results showed that the teaching of grammar using explicit instructions was more preferred than implicit instruction for complex components in grammatical rules. However, implicit instruction is equally effective regardless of the proficiency levels to enable pedagogy to be executed. It is also noted that there is lots of room for improvement, since the undergraduates have a weak grasp of the basic tense aspect of English grammar. Therefore, the Malaysian Ministry of Education should consider having grammar formally taught in isolation as what was practised previously.

  18. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  19. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  20. Inputs and spatial distribution patterns of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Huang, Xinmin; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Cr pollution in marine bays has been one of the critical environmental issues, and understanding the input and spatial distribution patterns is essential to pollution control. In according to the source strengths of the major pollution sources, the input patterns of pollutants to marine bay include slight, moderate and heavy, and the spatial distribution are corresponding to three block models respectively. This paper analyzed input patterns and distributions of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay, eastern China based on investigation on Cr in surface waters during 1979-1983. Results showed that the input strengths of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay could be classified as moderate input and slight input, and the input strengths were 32.32-112.30 μg L-1 and 4.17-19.76 μg L-1, respectively. The input patterns of Cr included two patterns of moderate input and slight input, and the horizontal distributions could be defined by means of Block Model 2 and Block Model 3, respectively. In case of moderate input pattern via overland runoff, Cr contents were decreasing from the estuaries to the bay mouth, and the distribution pattern was parallel. In case of moderate input pattern via marine current, Cr contents were decreasing from the bay mouth to the bay, and the distribution pattern was parallel to circular. The Block Models were able to reveal the transferring process of various pollutants, and were helpful to understand the distributions of pollutants in marine bay.

  1. Distinctiveness and Bidirectional Effects in Input Enhancement for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcroft, Joe

    2003-01-01

    This study examined input enhancement and second language (L2) vocabulary learning while exploring the role of "distinctiveness," the degree to which an item in the input diverges from the form in which other items in the input are presented, with regard to the nature and direction of the effects of enhancement. In this study,…

  2. Input Manipulation, Enhancement and Processing: Theoretical Views and Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benati, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in the field of instructed second language acquisition have been examining the issue of how learners interact with input by conducting research measuring particular kinds of instructional interventions (input-oriented and meaning-based). These interventions include such things as input flood, textual enhancement and processing…

  3. 7 CFR 3431.4 - Solicitation of stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Solicitation of stakeholder input. 3431.4 Section... Designation of Veterinarian Shortage Situations § 3431.4 Solicitation of stakeholder input. The Secretary will solicit stakeholder input on the process and procedures used to designate veterinarian shortage situations...

  4. Comparison of linear microinstability calculations of varying input realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Kinsey, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of varying 'input realism' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  5. Reflection Revisited: The Class Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Through the regular use of what Donald Schon has termed reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, students can learn to improve their "reflection-in-presentation," in Kathleen Blake Yancey's term. Students are often asked to do this type of reflection-in-presentation as a capstone to first-year or basic writing courses. However, a number of…

  6. Reflection as Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how reflection can be used as self-assessment. Reflection involves not only thinking about a learning experience, but also questioning parts of the experience. Reflection is thinking about what one knows from the learning experience, what one might do differently the next time. Reflection is wondering about…

  7. Constellation Stretch Goals: Review of Industry Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, John

    2006-01-01

    Many good ideas received based on industry experience: a) Shuttle operations; b) Commercial aircraft production; c) NASA's historical way of doing business; d) Military and commercial programs. Aerospace performed preliminary analysis: a) Potential savings; b) Cost of implementation; c) Performance or other impact/penalties; d) Roadblocks; e) Unintended consequences; f) Bottom line. Significant work ahead for a "Stretch Goal"to become a good, documented requirement: 1) As a group, the relative "value" of goals are uneven; 2) Focused analysis on each goal is required: a) Need to ensure that a new requirement produces the desired consequence; b) It is not certain that some goals will not create problems elsewhere. 3) Individual implementation path needs to be studied: a) Best place to insert requirement (what level, which document); b) Appropriate wording for the requirement. Many goals reflect "best practices" based on lessons learned and may have value beyond near-term CxP requirements process.

  8. Input-dependent frequency modulation of cortical gamma oscillations shapes spatial synchronization and enables phase coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowet, Eric; Roberts, Mark; Hadjipapas, Avgis; Peter, Alina; van der Eerden, Jan; De Weerd, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Fine-scale temporal organization of cortical activity in the gamma range (∼25-80Hz) may play a significant role in information processing, for example by neural grouping ('binding') and phase coding. Recent experimental studies have shown that the precise frequency of gamma oscillations varies with input drive (e.g. visual contrast) and that it can differ among nearby cortical locations. This has challenged theories assuming widespread gamma synchronization at a fixed common frequency. In the present study, we investigated which principles govern gamma synchronization in the presence of input-dependent frequency modulations and whether they are detrimental for meaningful input-dependent gamma-mediated temporal organization. To this aim, we constructed a biophysically realistic excitatory-inhibitory network able to express different oscillation frequencies at nearby spatial locations. Similarly to cortical networks, the model was topographically organized with spatially local connectivity and spatially-varying input drive. We analyzed gamma synchronization with respect to phase-locking, phase-relations and frequency differences, and quantified the stimulus-related information represented by gamma phase and frequency. By stepwise simplification of our models, we found that the gamma-mediated temporal organization could be reduced to basic synchronization principles of weakly coupled oscillators, where input drive determines the intrinsic (natural) frequency of oscillators. The gamma phase-locking, the precise phase relation and the emergent (measurable) frequencies were determined by two principal factors: the detuning (intrinsic frequency difference, i.e. local input difference) and the coupling strength. In addition to frequency coding, gamma phase contained complementary stimulus information. Crucially, the phase code reflected input differences, but not the absolute input level. This property of relative input-to-phase conversion, contrasting with latency codes

  9. A Systematic Study for Smart Residential Thermostats: User Needs for the Input, Output, and Intelligence Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Luen Patrick Rau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of “smart” residential thermostats—both in terms of wider connectivity and higher intelligence—has revealed great opportunity for energy conservation, as well as providing comfort and convenience. This paper focuses on the interaction design of such a novel system, and analyzed user requirements for input, output, and level of intelligence systematically through both in-depth interviews and a survey.

  10. Seismic reflection imaging, accounting for primary and multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Thorbecke, Jan; Broggini, Filippo; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2015-04-01

    Imaging of seismic reflection data is usually based on the assumption that the seismic response consists of primary reflections only. Multiple reflections, i.e. waves that have reflected more than once, are treated as primaries and are imaged at wrong positions. There are two classes of multiple reflections, which we will call surface-related multiples and internal multiples. Surface-related multiples are those multiples that contain at least one reflection at the earth's surface, whereas internal multiples consist of waves that have reflected only at subsurface interfaces. Surface-related multiples are the strongest, but also relatively easy to deal with because the reflecting boundary (the earth's surface) is known. Internal multiples constitute a much more difficult problem for seismic imaging, because the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces are not known. We are developing reflection imaging methodology which deals with internal multiples. Starting with the Marchenko equation for 1D inverse scattering problems, we derived 3D Marchenko-type equations, which relate reflection data at the surface to Green's functions between virtual sources anywhere in the subsurface and receivers at the surface. Based on these equations, we derived an iterative scheme by which these Green's functions can be retrieved from the reflection data at the surface. This iterative scheme requires an estimate of the direct wave of the Green's functions in a background medium. Note that this is precisely the same information that is also required by standard reflection imaging schemes. However, unlike in standard imaging, our iterative Marchenko scheme retrieves the multiple reflections of the Green's functions from the reflection data at the surface. For this, no knowledge of the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces is required. Once the full Green's functions are retrieved, reflection imaging can be carried out by which the primaries and multiples are

  11. Existing reflection seismic data re-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinaka, Motonori; Sano, Yukiko; Kozawa, Takeshi

    2005-08-01

    This document is to report the results of existing seismic data re-processing around Horonobe town, Hokkaido, Japan, which is a part of the Horonobe Underground Research Project. The main purpose of this re-processing is to recognize the subsurface structure of Omagari Fault and fold system around Omagari Fault. The seismic lines for re-processing are TYHR-A3 line and SHRB-2 line, which JAPEX surveyed in 1975. Applying weathering static correction using refraction analysis and noise suppression procedure, we have much enhanced seismic profile. Following information was obtained from seismic re-processing results. TYHR-A3 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west. These reflections are corresponding western limb of anticline to the west side of Omagari Fault. SHRB-2 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west, at CDP 60-140, while there are reflections, dipping to the east, to the east side of CDP 140. These reflections correspond to the western limb and the eastern limb of the anticline, which is parallel to Omagari FAULT. This seismic re-processing provides some useful information to know the geological structure around Omagari Fault. (author)

  12. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillerman, Joshua; Fredian, Thomas; Manduchi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud

  13. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillerman, Joshua, E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fredian, Thomas, E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud.

  14. PEP surveying procedures and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linker, F.

    1982-06-01

    The PEP Survey and Alignment System, which employs both laser-based and optical survey methods, is described. The laser is operated in conjunction with the Tektronix 4051 computer and surveying instruments such as ARM and SAM, system which is designed to automate data input, reduction, and production of alignment instructions. The laser system is used when surveying ring quadrupoles, main bend magnets, sextupoles, and is optional when surveying RF cavities and insertion quadrupoles. Optical methods usually require that data be manually entered into the computer for alignment, but in some cases, an element can be aligned using nominal values of fiducial locations without use of the computer. Optical surveying is used in the alignment of NIT and SIT, low field bend magnets, wigglers, RF cavities, and insertion quadrupoles

  15. A fiberoptic reflection oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, M L; Knop, N; Kwant, G; Mook, G A; Zijlstra, W G

    1978-03-20

    A catheter tip oximeter is described consisting of a cardiac catheter containing optical fibers, and incandescent light source, a light detection unit and a processing unit. Half of the optical fibers guide the light to the blood at the tip of the catheter, the other half the backscattered (reflected) light to the detection unit. The detection unit contains a dichroic mirror, transmitting most of the light with lambda less than 800 nm and reflecting most of the light with lambda greater than 900 nm, thus splitting the light into two beams. These pass through interference filters with nominal wavelengths of 640 and 920 nm respectively, and are focused on silicium barrier layer photocells. The photocell signals are amplified and fed into a divider giving the ratio of measuring (R640) and compensating (R920) photocell output. The relationship between log R640/R920 and oxygen saturation is represented by a slightly curved line. The relation may be linearized by subtracting a constant voltage from the divided output before taking the logarithm. The slope of the calibration line is dependent on the total haemoglobin concentration. Nonetheless an average calibration line can be used between 70 and 100% oxygen saturation. For 78 measurements of pig blood samples in this range (haemoglobin concentration between 96 and 161 g.1(-1)), the standard deviation of the difference between the fiberoptic oximeter and a Radiometer OSM1 oxygen saturation meter was 1.9% saturation, for 152 samples over the entire saturation range the standard deviation of the difference was 3.1% saturation. The influence of the flow velocity of blood on the light reflection depends on wavelength as well as on oxygen saturation. Therefore, complete compensation for the flow effect is not possible by simple means.

  16. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. On the Nature of the Input in Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heck, Fabian; Müller, Gereon; Vogel, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    The input has two main functions in optimality theory (Prince and Smolensky 1993). First, the input defines the candidate set, in other words it determines which output candidates compete for optimality, and which do not. Second, the input is referred to by faithfulness constraints that prohibit...... output candidates from deviating from specifications in the input. Whereas there is general agreement concerning the relevance of the input in phonology, the nature of the input in syntax is notoriously unclear. In this article, we show that the input should not be taken to define syntactic candidate...... and syntax is due to a basic, irreducible difference between these two components of grammar: Syntax is an information preserving system, phonology is not....

  18. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-31

    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  19. The effect of reflections on the performance of an acoustic energy transfer system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roes, M.G.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.; Duarte, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—The performance of an acoustic energy transfer (AET) system, defined as the ratio of electrical output to input power, is affected to a large extent by reflections. Their effect is examined in this paper. A finite element model is created to model reflections in a typical AET system, of

  20. Matter reflects Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A.; Cristiano, A.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is common belief that the interaction between antimatter and ordinary solid matter is dominated by annihilation. However, non-destructive processes may play a relevant role too. One century ago E. Rutherford wrote about the "diffuse reflection" of alpha and beta particles by thin layers of different metals: "The observations ... of Geiger and Marsden on the scattering of alpha rays indicate that some of the alpha particles must suffer a deflexion of more than a right angle at a single encounter.... It will be shown that the main deductions from the theory are independent of whether the central charge is supposed to be positive or negative". Although the theory of electromagnetic scattering is in first approximation independent of the relative sign of the colliding particles, in the case where projectile antiprotons are shot against a wall of solid matter the Rutherford diffuse reflection mechanism competes with the annihilation process. So it is not obvious at all that a relevant part of an antiproton beam...

  1. Reflection, Interrogatory, Provocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    This invited paper advances a framing context for considering next steps in HOF and organizational culture in light of the presentations and discussions that occur during the conference. Many of the contributions during the conference will represent results of scholarly research, structured investigations, or formal organizational improvement efforts. This contribution is intended as informal reflection by a 40-year nuclear veteran on themes from other presentations considering questions such as: ''Where do we think we are?, Are we better off as an industry based on what we have done?, Where do we think we need to go?, What do we think we need to do?, and, Why do we think these things?'' Our coming together on this occasion marks 30 years since the publication of INSAG-l. As we reflect on the past, perhaps it is time to pose a series of questions. Are we sustainers of a mature technology that is in some places declining and being replaced by other energy sources? If we consider nuclear a mature technology, should we focus most on operational excellence with renewed attention to managing the unexpected? Or, is innovation still a vital part of our industry?

  2. Surveys on surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. The sixtieth birthday (on December 14, 1996) of C.T.C. Wall, a leading member of the subject''s founding generation, led the editors of this volume to reflect on the extraordinary accomplishments of surgery theory as well as its current enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source surveying surgery theory and its applications. Because no one person could write such a survey, the editors ask

  3. Quality Assurance in Psychology Programmes across Europe: Survey and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, J. Frederico

    2013-01-01

    The present article examines how different institutions that offer psychology study cycles across Europe have adopted quality principles and have taken up particular quality assurance initiatives to raise standards and enhance quality. Thirty-eight different institutions from 32 countries who were members of a European psychology network responded…

  4. A Lévy input fluid queue with input and workload regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmowski, Z.B.; Vlasiou, M.; Zwart, B.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a queuing model with the workload evolving between consecutive i.i.d. exponential timers $\\{e_q^{(i)}\\}_{i=1,2,\\ldots}$ according to a spectrally positive Lévy process $Y_i(t)$ that is reflected at zero, and where the environment $i$ equals 0 or 1. When the exponential clock $e_q^{(i)}$

  5. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  6. Response sensitivity of barrel neuron subpopulations to simulated thalamic input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Michael J; Rittenhouse, Cynthia D; Pinto, David J

    2010-06-01

    Our goal is to examine the relationship between neuron- and network-level processing in the context of a well-studied cortical function, the processing of thalamic input by whisker-barrel circuits in rodent neocortex. Here we focus on neuron-level processing and investigate the responses of excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons to simulated thalamic inputs applied using the dynamic clamp method in brain slices. Simulated inputs are modeled after real thalamic inputs recorded in vivo in response to brief whisker deflections. Our results suggest that inhibitory neurons require more input to reach firing threshold, but then fire earlier, with less variability, and respond to a broader range of inputs than do excitatory neurons. Differences in the responses of barrel neuron subtypes depend on their intrinsic membrane properties. Neurons with a low input resistance require more input to reach threshold but then fire earlier than neurons with a higher input resistance, regardless of the neuron's classification. Our results also suggest that the response properties of excitatory versus inhibitory barrel neurons are consistent with the response sensitivities of the ensemble barrel network. The short response latency of inhibitory neurons may serve to suppress ensemble barrel responses to asynchronous thalamic input. Correspondingly, whereas neurons acting as part of the barrel circuit in vivo are highly selective for temporally correlated thalamic input, excitatory barrel neurons acting alone in vitro are less so. These data suggest that network-level processing of thalamic input in barrel cortex depends on neuron-level processing of the same input by excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons.

  7. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    developed in this report, and the related FEPs, are listed in Table 1-1. The relationship between the parameters and FEPs was based on a comparison of the parameter definition and the FEP descriptions as presented in BSC (2003 [160699], Section 6.2). The parameter values developed in this report support the biosphere model and are reflected in the TSPA through the biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). Biosphere modeling focuses on radionuclides screened for the TSPA-LA (BSC 2002 [160059]). The same list of radionuclides is used in this analysis (Section 6.1.4). The analysis considers two human exposure scenarios (groundwater and volcanic ash) and climate change (Section 6.1.5). This analysis combines and revises two previous reports, ''Transfer Coefficient Analysis'' (CRWMS MandO 2000 [152435]) and ''Environmental Transport Parameter Analysis'' (CRWMS MandO 2001 [152434]), because the new ERMYN biosphere model requires a redefined set of input parameters. The scope of this analysis includes providing a technical basis for the selection of radionuclide- and element-specific biosphere parameters (except for Kd) that are important for calculating BDCFs based on the available radionuclide inventory abstraction data. The environmental transport parameter values were developed specifically for use in the biosphere model and may not be appropriate for other applications

  8. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-06-27

    ], Section 6.2). Parameter values developed in this report, and the related FEPs, are listed in Table 1-1. The relationship between the parameters and FEPs was based on a comparison of the parameter definition and the FEP descriptions as presented in BSC (2003 [160699], Section 6.2). The parameter values developed in this report support the biosphere model and are reflected in the TSPA through the biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). Biosphere modeling focuses on radionuclides screened for the TSPA-LA (BSC 2002 [160059]). The same list of radionuclides is used in this analysis (Section 6.1.4). The analysis considers two human exposure scenarios (groundwater and volcanic ash) and climate change (Section 6.1.5). This analysis combines and revises two previous reports, ''Transfer Coefficient Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [152435]) and ''Environmental Transport Parameter Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 2001 [152434]), because the new ERMYN biosphere model requires a redefined set of input parameters. The scope of this analysis includes providing a technical basis for the selection of radionuclide- and element-specific biosphere parameters (except for Kd) that are important for calculating BDCFs based on the available radionuclide inventory abstraction data. The environmental transport parameter values were developed specifically for use in the biosphere model and may not be appropriate for other applications.

  9. Reflecting Contemporary Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present paper addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose......, the paper follows two steps. First, it proposes a categorization of the field in the form of a position model. The paper’s underlying assumption is that design research as a discipline exists in many different forms that cannot necessarily be brought together under one common academic research tradition......; instead it is necessary to attempt to define the field in order to initiate discussions about what constitutes the various research bases for design. Second, the paper discusses the implication for future design research when it is an interdisciplinary field that involves many disciplines, mindsets...

  10. The Reflective Methodologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways. In this ......In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways...... in which the practical sense and tacit knowledge are related to questions of power and social actors’ strategies for positioning themselves within a social space. This demands a particular focus on the historical effect of the concept of ‘the reflective practitioner’ as a symbolic marker of identity...

  11. Reflections on SLAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger

    1997-01-01

    The SLAP data bases represent a major step forward in the reliability analysis of passive components. The present reflections are motivated by draft documentation for SLAP and have profited greatly from discussions with the SLAP team. We collect a number of remarks and suggestions: The use of event and failure fields to organize the data seems sensible and feasible, from a data analysis viewpoint. Influence factors, i. e. environmental influences which are affected by plant operations, are clearly important yet very difficult to accommodate in any straightforward data analysis methodology. We would welcome a serious effort to estimate the exposure in the various exposure cells. These estimates would not be based on failure records, but on knowledge of plant design and operations. Quantitative expert judgement might be a viable alternative to a massive review of all plants in the SLAP data base

  12. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  13. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  14. Reflections on Student Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tinto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Feature for this issue Reflections on Student Persistence has been prepared by Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, United States of America (USA and a longtime friend and supporter of STARS. Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue. He synthesises this extensive, detailed, rich but often somewhat impenetrable data into a trilogy of clear and credible key dimensions of the motivation construct student self efficacy, sense of belonging and perceived value of the curriculum. This interpretation of the literature is a personal but informed reflection and is a timely piece which highlights the breadth and profundity of the presentations at this year's conference in Adelaide, Australia where students in all their diversity are central to our focus on enhancing the student experience. In this opening article, Vincent refers directly to the STARS papers selected for this Conference issue of the Journal which also address the importance of student persistence, self-efficacy and building the sense of belonging within their own institutional communities (Fernandes, Ford, Rayner & Pretorius; Kahu, Nelson, & Picton; McFarlane, Spes-Skrbis & Taib; Naylor; Smallhorn. Echoing his position on social justice and his advocacy for underserved students, Vincent reminds us that educational equity gaps still exist, and he encourages us to see the issue of persistence through the eyes of the students to support their perseverance and completion and thereby help reduce educational disadvantage.

  15. Electro-optic polymeric reflection modulator based on plasmonic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, A.; Swillam, M.

    2018-02-01

    A novel low power design for polymeric Electro-Optic reflection modulator is proposed based on the Extraordinary Reflection of light from multilayer structure consisting of a plasmonic metasurface with a periodic structure of sub wavelength circular apertures in a gold film above a thin layer of EO polymer and above another thin gold layer. The interference of the different reflected beams from different layer construct the modulated beam, The applied input driving voltage change the polymer refractive index which in turn determine whether the interference is constructive or destructive, so both phase and intensity modulation could be achieved. The resonant wavelength is tuned to the standard telecommunication wavelength 1.55μm, at this wavelength the reflection is minimum, while the absorption is maximum due to plasmonic resonance (PR) and the coupling between the incident light and the plasmonic metasurface.

  16. Reflective Practices for Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Kuswandono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on reflective practice in teacher education are increasingly getting more attention at least in the last 2 decades. This article discusses concepts of reflection and how it is implemented in educating pre-service teachers on their early stage of professional learning. The purposes of doing the reflection for pre-service teachers are not only for illuminating their professional learning experiences, but also to critically reflect their vocation as teachers, including the values which may be dictated to them through rigid regulations. Reflection in teacher education is crucial as it connects well with learning in that learners use reflection to exercise their mind and to evaluate their learning experiences. Besides, this article also highlights some perceived difficulties to implement reflective practice, as well as ways how to promote reflection.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150102

  17. A Method to Select Software Test Cases in Consideration of Past Input Sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Eun; Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2015-01-01

    In the Korea Nuclear I and C Systems (KNICS) project, the software for the fully-digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) was developed under a strict procedure. Even though the behavior of the software is deterministic, the randomness of input sequence produces probabilistic behavior of software. A software failure occurs when some inputs to the software occur and interact with the internal state of the digital system to trigger a fault that was introduced into the software during the software lifecycle. In this paper, the method to select test set for software failure probability estimation is suggested. This test set reflects past input sequence of software, which covers all possible cases. In this study, the method to select test cases for software failure probability quantification was suggested. To obtain profile of paired state variables, relationships of the variables need to be considered. The effect of input from human operator also have to be considered. As an example, test set of PZR-PR-Lo-Trip logic was examined. This method provides framework for selecting test cases of safety-critical software

  18. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarko, Diana K; Leitch, Duncan B; Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats' behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors). These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  19. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K Sarko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats’ behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors. These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  20. Guided and Unguided Student Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Matheson, Amanda; Wood, Laura; Franklin, Scott V.

    2017-01-01

    Self-reflection is important metacognitive skill, enabling students to build coherence into their learning and embed content in a broader context. While various pedagogical techniques exist to encourage student reflection, little research has examined the differences between formally guided, partially guided and unguided reflections. This study focuses on student responses to online Guided Reflection Forms (GRFs) from students in a first-semester non-physics class and, separately, a sophomore...

  1. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    OpenAIRE

    Alvyda Liuolienė; Regina Metiūnienė

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journ...

  2. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  3. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  4. 2012 Mask Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

    2012-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

  5. Automated input data management in manufacturing process simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ettefaghian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Input Data Management (IDM) is a time consuming and costly process for Discrete Event Simulation (DES) projects. Input Data Management is considered as the basis of real-time process simulation (Bergmann, Stelzer and Strassburger, 2011). According to Bengtsson et al. (2009), data input phase constitutes on the average about 31% of the time of an entire simulation project. Moreover, the lack of interoperability between manufacturing applications and simulation software leads to a high cost to ...

  6. The Economic Impact of Tourism. An Input-Output Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia SURUGIU

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an Input-Output Analysis for Romania, an important source of information for the investigation of the inter-relations existing among different industries. The Input-Output Analysis is used to determine the role and importance of different economic value added, incomes and employment and it analyses the existing connection in an economy. This paper is focused on tourism and the input-output analysis is finished for the Hotels and Restaurants Sector.

  7. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  8. Apprenticeship or reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This case-study investigates the implementation of blended learning in two undergraduate bachelor educations. The main focus is how blended learning affects the knowledge development in these educations. It is stressed, that knowledge development among students as well as in the professions...... implication for knowledge development in blended learning environments, and how it might have consequences for the development of the profession. The research draws on a theoretical foundation of theories of practice and organizational theory of knowledge development. The methodology of the research uses...... a pragmatic approach of mixed method. The empirical data are derived from survey, document analysis, observation studies and focus group interviews of students, lectures, and practitioners. Data are collected in the first half year of the students’ education at a university college in Denmark in the years...

  9. Accreditation Role of the National Universities Commission and the Quality of the Educational Inputs into Nigerian University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibijola; Yinka, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Accreditation role of the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the quality of the educational inputs into Nigerian university system was investigated in this work, using a descriptive research of survey design. The population consisted of public Universities in South-West, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 300 subjects, consisting of 50…

  10. Analysis and Improvement of Control Algorithm for Operation Mode Transition due to Input Channel Trouble in Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Myunghoon; Kim, Woogoon; Yim, Hyeongsoon

    2016-01-01

    The PI (Proportional plus Integral) controller, which is the essential functional block in control systems, can automatically perform the stable control of an important plant process while reducing the steady state error and improving the transient response. However, if the received input PV (Process Variable) is not normal due to input channel trouble, it will be difficult to control the system automatically. For this reason, many control systems are implemented to change the operation mode from automatic to manual mode in the PI controller when the failed input PV is detected. If the PI controller is in automatic mode for all the time, the control signal varies as the change of the input PV is continuously reflected in the control algorithm. In the other cases, since the controller changes into the manual mode at t=0, the control signal is fixed at the last PI controller output and thus the feedback control is not performed anymore until the operator takes an action such as the operation mode change. As a result of analysis and simulations for the controller’s operation modes in all the cases of input channel trouble, we discovered that it is more appropriate to maintain the automatic mode despite the bad quality in the PV. Therefore, we improved the control system algorithm reflecting the analysis results for the operator’s convenience and the stability of a control system

  11. Analysis and Improvement of Control Algorithm for Operation Mode Transition due to Input Channel Trouble in Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Myunghoon; Kim, Woogoon; Yim, Hyeongsoon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The PI (Proportional plus Integral) controller, which is the essential functional block in control systems, can automatically perform the stable control of an important plant process while reducing the steady state error and improving the transient response. However, if the received input PV (Process Variable) is not normal due to input channel trouble, it will be difficult to control the system automatically. For this reason, many control systems are implemented to change the operation mode from automatic to manual mode in the PI controller when the failed input PV is detected. If the PI controller is in automatic mode for all the time, the control signal varies as the change of the input PV is continuously reflected in the control algorithm. In the other cases, since the controller changes into the manual mode at t=0, the control signal is fixed at the last PI controller output and thus the feedback control is not performed anymore until the operator takes an action such as the operation mode change. As a result of analysis and simulations for the controller’s operation modes in all the cases of input channel trouble, we discovered that it is more appropriate to maintain the automatic mode despite the bad quality in the PV. Therefore, we improved the control system algorithm reflecting the analysis results for the operator’s convenience and the stability of a control system.

  12. On automatic visual inspection of reflective surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmann, Lionel

    1995-01-01

    surfaces, providing new and exciting applications subject to automated visual inspection. Several contextual features have been surveyed along with introduction of novel methods to perform data-dependent enhancement of local surface appearance . Morphological methods have been described and utilized......This thesis descrbes different methods to perform automatic visual inspection of reflective manufactured products, with the aim of increasing productivity, reduce cost and improve the quality level of the production. We investigate two different systems performing automatic visual inspection....... The first is the inspection of highly reflective aluminum sheets, used by the Danish company Bang & Olufsen, as a part of the exterior design and general appearance of their audio and video products. The second is the inspection of IBM hard disk read/write heads for defects during manufacturing. We have...

  13. Anthropogenic inputs of dissolved organic matter in New York Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, G. B.; Chen, R. F.; Olavasen, J.; Peri, F.

    2016-02-01

    The Hudson River flows into the Atlantic Ocean through a highly urbanized region which includes New York City to the east and Newark, New Jersey to the west. As a result, the export of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from the Hudson to the Atlantic Ocean includes a significant anthropogenic component. A series of high resolution studies of the DOC dynamics of this system were conducted between 2003 and 2010. These included both the Hudson and adjacent large waterways (East River, Newark Bay, Kill Van Kull and Arthur Kill) using coastal research vessels and smaller tributaries (Hackensack, Pasaic and Raritan rivers) using a 25' boat. In both cases measurements were made using towed instrument packages which could be cycled from near surface to near bottom depths with horizontal resolution of approximately 20 to 200 meters depending on depth and deployment strategy. Sensors on the instrument packages included a CTD to provide depth and salinity information and a chromophoric dissolved organic matter(CDOM) fluorometer to measure the fluorescent fraction of the DOC. Discrete samples allowed calibration of the fluorometer and the CDOM data to be related to DOC. The combined data set from these cruises identified multiple scales of source and transport processes for DOC within the Hudson River/New York Harbor region. The Hudson carries a substantial amount of natural DOC from its 230 km inland stretch. Additional sources exist in fringing salt marshes adjacent to the Hackensack and Raritan rivers. However the lower Hudson/New Harbor region receives a large input of DOC from multiple publically owned treatment works (POTW) discharges. The high resolution surveys allowed us to elucidate the distribution of these sources and the manner in which they are rapidly mixed to create the total export. We estimate that anthropogenic sources account for up to 2.5 times the DOC flux contributed by natural processes.

  14. Teachers’ way of reflecting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose of t......’ reflections on practice. Based on this model, the paper provides a proposal regarding how to work with teachers’ professional development and learning processes. Educational implications and future research directions are discussed.......This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose...... of the Danish study was to investigate and understand teachers’ classroom experiences using Fenstermacher’s approach to develop a practical argument, as these classroom experiences are regarded as a potential source of learning for teachers. A three-level scale model from the study describes the teach-ers...

  15. Estimated anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the land surface of the conterminous United States--1992, 1997, and 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to each county in the conterminous United States and to the watersheds of 495 surface-water sites studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program were quantified for the years 1992, 1997, and 2002. Estimates of inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus from biological fixation by crops (for nitrogen only), human consumption, crop production for human consumption, animal production for human consumption, animal consumption, and crop production for animal consumption for each county are provided in a tabular dataset. These county-level estimates were allocated to the watersheds of the surface-water sites to estimate watershed-level inputs from the same sources; these estimates also are provided in a tabular dataset, together with calculated estimates of net import of food and net import of feed and previously published estimates of inputs from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer, and recoverable manure. The previously published inputs are provided for each watershed so that final estimates of total anthropogenic nutrient inputs could be calculated. Estimates of total anthropogenic inputs are presented together with previously published estimates of riverine loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus for reference.

  16. Keeping community health workers in Uganda motivated: key challenges, facilitators, and preferred program inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunie, Aurélie; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Otterness, Conrad; Akol, Angela; Chen, Mario; Bufumbo, Leonard; Weaver, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the face of global health worker shortages, community health workers (CHWs) are an important health care delivery strategy for underserved populations. In Uganda, community-based programs often use volunteer CHWs to extend services, including family planning, in rural areas. This study examined factors related to CHW motivation and level of activity in 3 family planning programs in Uganda. Methods: Data were collected between July and August 2011, and sources comprised 183 surveys with active CHWs, in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 43 active CHWs and 5 former CHWs, and service statistics records. Surveys included a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to elicit CHW preferences for selected program inputs. Results: Service statistics indicated an average of 56 visits with family planning clients per surveyed CHW over the 3-month period prior to data collection. In the survey, new skills and knowledge, perceived impact on the community, and enhanced status were the main positive aspects of the job reported by CHWs; the main challenges related to transportation. Multivariate analyses identified 2 correlates of CHWs being highly vs. less active (in terms of number of client visits): experiencing problems with supplies and not collaborating with peers. DCE results showed that provision of a package including a T-shirt, badge, and bicycle was the program input CHWs preferred, followed by a mobile phone (without airtime). IDI data reinforced and supplemented these quantitative findings. Social prestige, social responsibility, and aspirations for other opportunities were important motivators, while main challenges related to transportation and commodity stockouts. CHWs had complex motivations for wanting better compensation, including offsetting time and transportation costs, providing for their families, and feeling appreciated for their efforts. Conclusion: Volunteer CHW programs in Uganda and elsewhere need to carefully consider appropriate combinations of

  17. Comfort constraints. Input for simulation of residents' behavior; Comforthinder. Input bij simulatie van bewonersgedrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaff, H. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Buildings in reality, use more energy than predicted. Among many causes, occupant behaviour plays an important role. Better simulation of occupant behaviour, with respect to thermal comfort and energy use of buildings, opens the possibility to design better, comfortable buildings that have lower energy consumption in reality. Thermal discomfort, a dynamical version of Fanger's PPD, is proposed to be used as input to simulate occupant behaviour via a 'flexible task list' and two Markov processes. [Dutch] Simulatie van bewonersgedrag m.b.t. energiegebruik in gebouwen biedt de mogelijkheid om gebouwen en bijbehorende energie installaties zo te ontwerpen dat ze prettiger zijn om in te wonen en te werken. Thermisch discomfort, een dynamische versie van PPD (percentage of dissatisfied persons) wordt hier voorgesteld om via een Markov-proces en een takenlijst bewonersgedrag mee te simuleren.

  18. Monte Carlo modeling of the net effects of coma scattering and thermal reradiation on the energy input to cometary nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, H.

    1988-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation method is presented that can, to an accuracy of a few percent, calculate the effects of a dusty coma on the total energy input to the cometary nucleus. This method treats nonconservative nonisotropic scattering, as well as the reflection from the nucleus surface. Results are presented as a function of the optical thickness of the dust column in the sun-comet axis. The total energy input to the nucleus appears to be only weakly dependent on the opacity of the coma, the radial distribution of the dust, or the details of the extinction processes. 18 references

  19. Anthropogenic influences on the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and mercury in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naftz, David [US Geological Survey, Salt Lake City 84119, UT (United States)], E-mail: dlnaftz@usgs.gov; Angeroth, Cory; Kenney, Terry [US Geological Survey, Salt Lake City 84119, UT (United States); Waddell, Bruce; Darnall, Nathan [US Fish and Wildlife Service, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Silva, Steven [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perschon, Clay [Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Whitehead, John [Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake (GSL), little is known about the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the lake. In response to increasing public concern regarding anthropogenic inputs to the GSL ecosystem, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated coordinated studies to quantify and evaluate the significance of nutrient and Hg inputs into GSL. A 6 per mille decrease in {delta}{sup 15}N observed in brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) samples collected from GSL during summer time periods is likely due to the consumption of cyanobacteria produced in freshwater bays entering the lake. Supporting data collected from the outflow of Farmington Bay indicates decreasing trends in {delta}{sup 15}N in particulate organic matter (POM) during the mid-summer time period, reflective of increasing proportions of cyanobacteria in algae exported to GSL on a seasonal basis. The C:N molar ratio of POM in outflow from Farmington Bay decreases during the summer period, supportive of the increased activity of N fixation indicated by decreasing {delta}{sup 15}N in brine shrimp and POM. Although N fixation is only taking place in the relatively freshwater inflows to GSL, data indicate that influx of fresh water influences large areas of the lake. Separation of GSL into two distinct hydrologic and geochemical systems from the construction of a railroad causeway in the late 1950s has created a persistent and widespread anoxic layer in the southern part of GSL. This anoxic layer, referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), has high rates of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} reduction, likely increasing the Hg methylation capacity. High concentrations of methyl mercury (CH{sub 3}Hg) (median concentration = 24 ng/L) were observed in the DBL with a significant proportion (31-60%) of total Hg in the CH{sub 3}Hg form. Hydroacoustic and sediment-trap evidence indicate that turbulence introduced by internal waves

  20. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that your...

  1. Input reduction for long-term morphodynamic simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Ruessink, G.; Hoekstra, R.; Tonnon, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Input reduction is imperative to long-term (> years) morphodynamic simulations to avoid excessive computation times. Here, we discuss the input-reduction framework for wave-dominated coastal settings introduced by Walstra et al. (2013). The framework comprised 4 steps, viz. (1) the selection of the

  2. Off-line learning from clustered input examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marangi, Carmela; Solla, Sara A.; Biehl, Michael; Riegler, Peter; Marinaro, Maria; Tagliaferri, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the generalization ability of a simple perceptron acting on a structured input distribution for the simple case of two clusters of input data and a linearly separable rule. The generalization ability computed for three learning scenarios: maximal stability, Gibbs, and optimal learning, is

  3. Phonology: An Emergent Consequence of Memory Constraints and Sensory Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Presents a theoretical model that attempts to account for the early stages of language acquisition in terms of interaction between biological constraints and input characteristics. Notes that the model uses the implications of stochastic representations of the sensory input in a volatile and limited memory. Argues that phonological structure is a…

  4. History of the special committee on INIS input preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Keizo

    2011-06-01

    The special committee on INIS input techniques was held 8 times from December 1970 to March 1973. The special committee on INIS input preparation was held 39 times from February 1974 to December 2004. The history of these two committees is described. (author)

  5. Modeling recognition memory using the similarity structure of natural input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacroix, J.P.W.; Murre, J.M.J.; Postma, E.O.; van den Herik, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The natural input memory (NIM) model is a new model for recognition memory that operates on natural visual input. A biologically informed perceptual preprocessing method takes local samples (eye fixations) from a natural image and translates these into a feature-vector representation. During

  6. Modeling Recognition Memory Using the Similarity Structure of Natural Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Joyca P. W.; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Postma, Eric O.; van den Herik, H. Jaap

    2006-01-01

    The natural input memory (NAM) model is a new model for recognition memory that operates on natural visual input. A biologically informed perceptual preprocessing method takes local samples (eye fixations) from a natural image and translates these into a feature-vector representation. During recognition, the model compares incoming preprocessed…

  7. INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS : THE NEXT 25 YEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lenzen, Manfred; Los, Bart; Guan, Dabo; Lahr, Michael L.; Sancho, Ferran; Suh, Sangwon; Yang, Cuihong; Sancho, S.

    2013-01-01

    This year marks the 25th anniversary of the International Input-Output Association and the 25th volume of Economic Systems Research. To celebrate this anniversary, a group of eight experts provide their views on the future of input-output. Looking forward, they foresee progress in terms of data

  8. A Brief Talk on Cultural Input in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2007-01-01

    Different countries have different languages and cultures. My paper starts from the differentiation between western culture and Chinese culture to point out the importance and necessity of cultural input in English teaching and puts forward some approaches to enforce the cultural input in language teaching.

  9. Determinants of Agro-inputs redemption under the electronic wallet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the spread of farmers and participation in terms of input redemption and the determinants of farmers redeemed with agro-inputs under the electronic-wallet initiative of the Growth Enhancement Support Scheme of the On-going Agricultural Transformation Agenda. Secondary data covering the Nigerian ...

  10. Does Input Enhancement Work for Learning Politeness Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Safari, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of input enhancement on the acquisition of English politeness strategies by intermediate EFL learners. Two groups of freshman English majors were randomly assigned to the experimental (enhanced input) group and the control (mere exposure) group. Initially, a TOEFL test and a discourse completion test (DCT)…

  11. Exact Repetition as Input Enhancement in Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eva Dam; Vinther, Thora

    2003-01-01

    Reports on two studies on input enhancement used to support learners' selection of focus of attention in Spanish second language listening material. Input consisted of video recordings of dialogues between native speakers. Exact repetition and speech rate reduction were examined for effect on comprehension, acquisition of decoding strategies, and…

  12. Variance-based sensitivity indices for models with dependent inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, Thierry A.; Tarantola, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Computational models are intensively used in engineering for risk analysis or prediction of future outcomes. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses are of great help in these purposes. Although several methods exist to perform variance-based sensitivity analysis of model output with independent inputs only a few are proposed in the literature in the case of dependent inputs. This is explained by the fact that the theoretical framework for the independent case is set and a univocal set of variance-based sensitivity indices is defined. In the present work, we propose a set of variance-based sensitivity indices to perform sensitivity analysis of models with dependent inputs. These measures allow us to distinguish between the mutual dependent contribution and the independent contribution of an input to the model response variance. Their definition relies on a specific orthogonalisation of the inputs and ANOVA-representations of the model output. In the applications, we show the interest of the new sensitivity indices for model simplification setting. - Highlights: ► Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses are of great help in engineering. ► Several methods exist to perform variance-based sensitivity analysis of model output with independent inputs. ► We define a set of variance-based sensitivity indices for models with dependent inputs. ► Inputs mutual contributions are distinguished from their independent contributions. ► Analytical and computational tests are performed and discussed.

  13. Adaptive projective synchronization of different chaotic systems with nonlinearity inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Yu-Jun; Pei Bing-Nan; Wang Xing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the projective synchronization of different chaotic systems with nonlinearity inputs. Based on the adaptive technique, sliding mode control method and pole assignment technique, a novel adaptive projective synchronization scheme is proposed to ensure the drive system and the response system with nonlinearity inputs can be rapidly synchronized up to the given scaling factor. (general)

  14. Achievable Information Rates on Linear Interference Channels with Discrete Input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In this paper lower bound on the capacity of multi-dimensional linear interference channels is derived, when the input is taken from a finite size alphabet. The bounds are based on the QR decomposition of the channel matrix, and hold for any input distribution that is independent across dimensions...

  15. A strategy for integrated low-input potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.; Loon, van C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Current systems of potato growing use large amounts of pesticides and fertilizers; these inputs are costly and cause environmental problems. In this paper a strategy for integrated low-input potato production is developed with the aim of reducing costs, improving product quality and reducing

  16. Smart-Guard: Defending User Input from Malware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denzel, Michael; Bruni, Alessandro; Ryan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Trusted input techniques can profoundly enhance a variety of scenarios like online banking, electronic voting, Virtual Private Networks, and even commands to a server or Industrial Control System. To protect the system from malware of the sender’s computer, input needs to be reliably authenticated...

  17. Sound effects: Multimodal input helps infants find displaced objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinskey, Jeanne L

    2017-09-01

    Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion, suggesting auditory input is more salient in the absence of visual input. This article addresses how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for displaced objects. In AB tasks, infants who previously retrieved an object at A subsequently fail to find it after it is displaced to B, especially following a delay between hiding and retrieval. Experiment 1 manipulated auditory input by keeping the hidden object audible versus silent, and visual input by presenting the delay in the light versus dark. Infants succeeded more at B with audible than silent objects and, unexpectedly, more after delays in the light than dark. Experiment 2 presented both the delay and search phases in darkness. The unexpected light-dark difference disappeared. Across experiments, the presence of auditory input helped infants find displaced objects, whereas the absence of visual input did not. Sound might help by strengthening object representation, reducing memory load, or focusing attention. This work provides new evidence on when bimodal input aids object processing, corroborates claims that audiovisual processing improves over the first year of life, and contributes to multisensory approaches to studying cognition. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion. This suggests they find auditory input more salient in the absence of visual input in simple search tasks. After 9 months, infants' object processing appears more sensitive to multimodal (e.g., audiovisual) input. What does this study add? This study tested how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for an object displaced in an AB task. Sound helped infants find displaced objects in both the presence and absence of visual input. Object processing becomes more

  18. Combining symbolic cues with sensory input and prior experience in an iterative Bayesian framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederike Hermi Petzschner

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Perception and action are the result of an integration of various sources of information, such as current sensory input, prior experience, or the context in which a stimulus occurs. Often, the interpretation is not trivial hence needs to be learned from the co-occurrence of stimuli. Yet, how do we combine such diverse information to guide our action?Here we use a distance production-reproduction task to investigate the influence of auxiliary, symbolic cues, sensory input, and prior experience on human performance under three different conditions that vary in the information provided. Our results indicate that subjects can (1 learn the mapping of a verbal, symbolic cue onto the stimulus dimension and (2 integrate symbolic information and prior experience into their estimate of displacements.The behavioral results are explained by to two distinct generative models that represent different structural approaches of how a Bayesian observer would combine prior experience, sensory input, and symbolic cue information into a single estimate of displacement. The first model interprets the symbolic cue in the context of categorization, assuming that it reflects information about a distinct underlying stimulus range (categorical model. The second model applies a multi-modal integration approach and treats the symbolic cue as additional sensory input to the system, which is combined with the current sensory measurement and the subjects’ prior experience (cue-combination model. Notably, both models account equally well for the observed behavior despite their different structural assumptions. The present work thus provides evidence that humans can interpret abstract symbolic information and combine it with other types of information such as sensory input and prior experience. The similar explanatory power of the two models further suggest that issues such as categorization and cue-combination could be explained by alternative probabilistic approaches.

  19. Effects of Input Data Content on the Uncertainty of Simulating Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Camargos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The widely used, partly-deterministic Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT requires a large amount of spatial input data, such as a digital elevation model (DEM, land use, and soil maps. Modelers make an effort to apply the most specific data possible for the study area to reflect the heterogeneous characteristics of landscapes. Regional data, especially with fine resolution, is often preferred. However, such data is not always available and can be computationally demanding. Despite being coarser, global data are usually free and available to the public. Previous studies revealed the importance for single investigations of different input maps. However, it remains unknown whether higher-resolution data can lead to reliable results. This study investigates how global and regional input datasets affect parameter uncertainty when estimating river discharges. We analyze eight different setups for the SWAT model for a catchment in Luxembourg, combining different land-use, elevation, and soil input data. The Metropolis–Hasting Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to infer posterior model parameter uncertainty. We conclude that our higher resolved DEM improves the general model performance in reproducing low flows by 10%. The less detailed soil-map improved the fit of low flows by 25%. In addition, more detailed land-use maps reduce the bias of the model discharge simulations by 50%. Also, despite presenting similar parameter uncertainty (P-factor ranging from 0.34 to 0.41 and R-factor from 0.41 to 0.45 for all setups, the results show a disparate parameter posterior distribution. This indicates that no assessment of all sources of uncertainty simultaneously is compensated by the fitted parameter values. We conclude that our result can give some guidance for future SWAT applications in the selection of the degree of detail for input data.

  20. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The AASHTO Standing Committee on Public Transportation is pleased to release the Survey of State : Funding for Public Transportation. The survey results reflect Fiscal Year 2008 data. This annual report : provides a snapshot of state-by-state investm...

  1. Uncertainty of input data for room acoustic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marbjerg, Gerd; Brunskog, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Although many room acoustic simulation models have been well established, simulation results will never be accurate with inaccurate and uncertain input data. This study addresses inappropriateness and uncertainty of input data for room acoustic simulations. Firstly, the random incidence absorption...... and scattering coefficients are insufficient when simulating highly non-diffuse rooms. More detailed information, such as the phase and angle dependence, can greatly improve the simulation results of pressure-based geometrical and wave-based models at frequencies well below the Schroeder frequency. Phase...... summarizes potential advanced absorption measurement techniques that can improve the quality of input data for room acoustic simulations. Lastly, plenty of uncertain input data are copied from unreliable sources. Software developers and users should be careful when spreading such uncertain input data. More...

  2. On Optimal Input Design and Model Selection for Communication Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanyan [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal model (structure) selection and input design which minimize the worst case identification error for communication systems are provided. The problem is formulated using metric complexity theory in a Hilbert space setting. It is pointed out that model selection and input design can be handled independently. Kolmogorov n-width is used to characterize the representation error introduced by model selection, while Gel fand and Time n-widths are used to represent the inherent error introduced by input design. After the model is selected, an optimal input which minimizes the worst case identification error is shown to exist. In particular, it is proven that the optimal model for reducing the representation error is a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) model, and the optimal input is an impulse at the start of the observation interval. FIR models are widely popular in communication systems, such as, in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems.

  3. Analytic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of models with input correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yueying; Wang, Qiuping A.; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu

    2018-03-01

    Probabilistic uncertainty analysis is a common means of evaluating mathematical models. In mathematical modeling, the uncertainty in input variables is specified through distribution laws. Its contribution to the uncertainty in model response is usually analyzed by assuming that input variables are independent of each other. However, correlated parameters are often happened in practical applications. In the present paper, an analytic method is built for the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of models in the presence of input correlations. With the method, it is straightforward to identify the importance of the independence and correlations of input variables in determining the model response. This allows one to decide whether or not the input correlations should be considered in practice. Numerical examples suggest the effectiveness and validation of our analytic method in the analysis of general models. A practical application of the method is also proposed to the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a deterministic HIV model.

  4. Modeling inputs to computer models used in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Computer models for various risk assessment applications are closely scrutinized both from the standpoint of questioning the correctness of the underlying mathematical model with respect to the process it is attempting to model and from the standpoint of verifying that the computer model correctly implements the underlying mathematical model. A process that receives less scrutiny, but is nonetheless of equal importance, concerns the individual and joint modeling of the inputs. This modeling effort clearly has a great impact on the credibility of results. Model characteristics are reviewed in this paper that have a direct bearing on the model input process and reasons are given for using probabilities-based modeling with the inputs. The authors also present ways to model distributions for individual inputs and multivariate input structures when dependence and other constraints may be present

  5. Double input converters for different voltage sources with isolated charger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalash Sattayarak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the double input converters for different voltage input sources with isolated charger coils. This research aims to increase the performance of the battery charger circuit. In the circuit, there are the different voltage levels of input source. The operating modes of the switch in the circuit use the microcontroller to control the battery charge and to control discharge mode automatically when the input voltage sources are lost from the system. The experimental result of this research shows better performance for charging at any time period of the switch, while the voltage input sources work together. Therefore, this research can use and develop to battery charger for present or future.

  6. Reflective Pedagogy: Making Meaning in Experiential Based Online Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy L. Guthrie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of reflective pedagogies has long been considered critical to facilitating meaningful learning through experientially based curricula; however, the use of such methods has not been extensively explored as implemented in virtual environments. The study reviewed utilizes a combination of survey research and individual interviews to examine student perceptions of the meaningful learning which occurred as a result of their participation in two Web-based courses that utilized reflective pedagogies. One course focuses on topics related to service-learning and the second on placement-based internships. Both were instructed using online coursework based in reflective pedagogies to compliment on-site placements within local communities.

  7. Nursing Student Perceptions of Reflective Journaling: A Conjoint Value Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrix, Thomas J.; O'Malley, Maureen; Sullivan, Catherine; Carmon, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    This study used a statistical technique, conjoint value analysis, to determine student perceptions related to the importance of predetermined reflective journaling attributes. An expert Delphi panel determined these attributes and integrated them into a survey which presented students with multiple journaling experiences from which they had to choose. After obtaining IRB approval, a convenience sample of 66 baccalaureate nursing students completed the survey. The relative importance of the at...

  8. Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez C, V.

    1994-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)

  9. Ecosystem responses to reduced and oxidised nitrogen inputs in European terrestrial habitats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.J. [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Manning, P. [School of Agriculture Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Van den Berg, L.J.L. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York, YO 5DD (United Kingdom); De Graaf, M.C.C. [University of Applied Sciences, HAS Den Bosch, PO BOX 90108, 5200 MA ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Wieger Wamelink, G.W. [Alterra, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Boxman, A.W.; Vergeer, P.; Lamers, L.P.M. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, University of Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bleeker, A. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten, NH, 1755 ZG (Netherlands); Arroniz-Crespo, M. [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Limpens, J. [Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Bornsesteeg 69, 6708 PD Wageningen (Netherlands); Bobbink, R. [Ware Research Centre, Radboud University Nijmegen, PO Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Dorland, E. [Staatsbosbeheer, PO Box 1300, 3970 BH, Driebergen (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    While it is well established that ecosystems display strong responses to elevated nitrogen deposition, the importance of the ratio between the dominant forms of deposited nitrogen (NHx and NOy) in determining ecosystem response is poorly understood. As large changes in the ratio of oxidised and reduced nitrogen inputs are occurring, this oversight requires attention. One reason for this knowledge gap is that plants experience a different NHx:NOy ratio in soil to that seen in atmospheric deposits because atmospheric inputs are modified by soil transformations, mediated by soil pH. Consequently species of neutral and alkaline habitats are less likely to encounter high NH4+ concentrations than species from acid soils. We suggest that the response of vascular plant species to changing ratios of NHx:NOy deposits will be driven primarily by a combination of soil pH and nitrification rates. Testing this hypothesis requires a combination of experimental and survey work in a range of systems.

  10. Effect of reflective practice education on self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking among experienced nurses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Marilyn E; Fain, James A

    2013-01-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted to determine whether nurses' participation in a reflective practice continuing education program using a structured reflection model makes a difference in nurses' self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking about clinical practice situations. Findings suggested that use of structured reflection using question cues, written narratives, and peer-facilitated reflection increased nurses' engagement in self-reflection and enhanced reflective thinking in practice. Including reflective practice education in novice orientation and preceptor training may be beneficial.

  11. Clionid sponge surveys on the Florida Reef Tract suggest land-based nutrient inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward-Paige, Christine A.; Risk, Michael J.; Sherwood, Owen A.; Jaap, Walter C.

    2005-01-01

    Bioerosion by Cliona delitrix and Cliona lampa was assessed at 43 sites along the Florida Reef Tract, USA, in the summer of 2001. Sponge abundances were estimated using rapid visual assessment. Tissue samples of sponges were taken for analysis of δ 15 N. Comparison samples were taken from Belize. Annual trends in sponge abundance were estimated from archived videos covering the period from 1996 to 2001. Sites with the greatest boring sponge size and cover were in the Backcountry and Lower Keys, where total nitrogen, ammonium, and δ 15 N levels were highest. The sites with the largest relative increase of C. delitrix and C. lampa over the 5 year period were in the Upper Keys, where the greatest relative decline in stony coral cover has occurred. Florida sponge δ 15 N values were 5.2(±0.1)%, suggesting the influence of human waste; in comparison, offshore Belize samples were 2.1(±0.1)%. These results suggest sewage contamination of the Florida Reef Tract, shifting the carbonate balance from construction to destruction

  12. Clionid sponge surveys on the Florida Reef Tract suggest land-based nutrient inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward-Paige, Christine A. [School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)]. E-mail: cwardpai@dal.ca; Risk, Michael J. [School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Sherwood, Owen A. [Department of Earth Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4J1 (Canada); Jaap, Walter C. [Florida Marine Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Florida (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Bioerosion by Cliona delitrix and Cliona lampa was assessed at 43 sites along the Florida Reef Tract, USA, in the summer of 2001. Sponge abundances were estimated using rapid visual assessment. Tissue samples of sponges were taken for analysis of {delta} {sup 15}N. Comparison samples were taken from Belize. Annual trends in sponge abundance were estimated from archived videos covering the period from 1996 to 2001. Sites with the greatest boring sponge size and cover were in the Backcountry and Lower Keys, where total nitrogen, ammonium, and {delta} {sup 15}N levels were highest. The sites with the largest relative increase of C. delitrix and C. lampa over the 5 year period were in the Upper Keys, where the greatest relative decline in stony coral cover has occurred. Florida sponge {delta} {sup 15}N values were 5.2({+-}0.1)%, suggesting the influence of human waste; in comparison, offshore Belize samples were 2.1({+-}0.1)%. These results suggest sewage contamination of the Florida Reef Tract, shifting the carbonate balance from construction to destruction.

  13. Demystifying the reflective clinical journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinkovic, Danielle; Field, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    Student learning on clinical placement is a complex issue and cannot be defined solely by just doing things. Reflection during clinical practice is essential if the student is going to learn from the experience. Therefore it is important for educators to include as part of clinical education programs learning strategies that encourage reflection. The reflective clinical journal is an educational tool that is employed by the School of Medical Radiation Sciences at the University of Sydney to encourage reflection of undergraduate radiation therapy students whilst on clinical placement. This discussion paper explores the key concepts of reflection and the reflective clinical journal. Due to the paucity of information about this issue in radiation therapy the literature reviewed is from across all areas of the health sciences

  14. Quantifying input uncertainty in an assemble-to-order system simulation with correlated input variables of mixed types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akçay, A.E.; Biller, B.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an assemble-to-order production system where the product demands and the time since the last customer arrival are not independent. The simulation of this system requires a multivariate input model that generates random input vectors with correlated discrete and continuous components. In

  15. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Amy K; Salem, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Survey research is a unique methodology that can provide insight into individuals' perspectives and experiences and can be collected on a large population-based sample. Specifically, in plastic surgery, survey research can provide patients and providers with accurate and reproducible information to assist with medical decision-making. When using survey methods in research, researchers should develop a conceptual model that explains the relationships of the independent and dependent variables. The items of the survey are of primary importance. Collected data are only useful if they accurately measure the concepts of interest. In addition, administration of the survey must follow basic principles to ensure an adequate response rate and representation of the intended target sample. In this article, the authors review some general concepts important for successful survey research and discuss the many advantages this methodology has for obtaining limitless amounts of valuable information.

  16. Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, D.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; Moroz, L. V.; Markus, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL) provides a collection of reflectance spectra between 0.3 and 17 µm. It was originally dedicated to support space missions to small solar system bodies. Meanwhile the library includes selections of biconical reflectance spectra for spectral data analysis of other planetary bodies as well. The library provides reference spectra of well-characterized terrestrial analogue materials and meteorites for interpretation of remote sensing reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We introduce the BRSL, summarize the data available, and access to use them for further relevant applications.

  17. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journaling as central to students’ self-evaluation is described as a means of fostering metacognition.

  18. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  19. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyue Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK, the complex and dynamic knowledge necessary for effective technology integration into instruction. In this study, reflective activities were integrated into a Learning By Design (LBD environment, which was created to help preservice teachers develop TPACK. This paper investigated the participants’ TPACK development and examined how reflection helped them construct TPACK. Through content analysis of the participants’ reflective journals, the researcher found that the preservice teachers developed initial TPACK awareness. However, their reflection in technology knowledge and the content aspects of TPACK were limited and superficial. Interviews with the participants showed reflection helped the preservice teachers remember what they learned by describing and elaborating on their in-class experiences, pushed them to think about how to apply what they learned in their future classrooms, and helped them become more reflective and open-minded about using technology in classrooms. Finally, the researcher discussed this study’s implications for teacher educators and researchers.

  20. Reflection and Reflective Practice Discourses in Coaching: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    Reflection and reflective practice is seen as an established part of coaching and coach education practice. It has become a "taken-for-granted" part of coaching that is accepted enthusiastically and unquestioningly, and is assumed to be "good" for coaching and coaches. Drawing on sociological concepts, a primarily Foucauldian…

  1. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  2. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of feminisms. The authors support an understanding of ubuntu as critique and ubuntu feminism accordingly as a critical intervention that recalls a politics of refusal. The article ends by raising the importance of thinking about spatiality through ubuntu, and vice versa. It may seem strange to title an article Ubuntu feminism when feminism itself has often been identified as a European or Western idea. But, this article will argue that ubuntu offers conceptions of transindividuality and ways of social belonging that could respond in a meaningful way to some of European feminism�s own dilemmas and contradictions. Famously, one of the most intense debates in feminism was between those who defended an ethic of care in a relational view of the self, on one side, and those feminists who held on to more traditional conceptions of justice, placing an emphasis on individuality and autonomy, on the other side. The authors will suggest that ubuntu could address this tension in feminism. Thus, in this article the focus will not simply be on ubuntu, in order to recognise that there are other intellectual heritages worthy of consideration, other than those in Europe and the United States. It will also take a next step in arguing that ubuntu may be a better standpoint entirely from which to continue thinking about what it means to be a human being, as well as how to conceive of the integral interconnection human beings all have with one another. This connection through

  3. WORM: A general-purpose input deck specification language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.

    1999-01-01

    Using computer codes to perform criticality safety calculations has become common practice in the industry. The vast majority of these codes use simple text-based input decks to represent the geometry, materials, and other parameters that describe the problem. However, the data specified in input files are usually processed results themselves. For example, input decks tend to require the geometry specification in linear dimensions and materials in atom or weight fractions, while the parameter of interest might be mass or concentration. The calculations needed to convert from the item of interest to the required parameter in the input deck are usually performed separately and then incorporated into the input deck. This process of calculating, editing, and renaming files to perform a simple parameter study is tedious at best. In addition, most computer codes require dimensions to be specified in centimeters, while drawings or other materials used to create the input decks might be in other units. This also requires additional calculation or conversion prior to composition of the input deck. These additional calculations, while extremely simple, introduce a source for error in both the calculations and transcriptions. To overcome these difficulties, WORM (Write One, Run Many) was created. It is an easy-to-use programming language to describe input decks and can be used with any computer code that uses standard text files for input. WORM is available, via the Internet, at worm.lanl.gov. A user's guide, tutorials, example models, and other WORM-related materials are also available at this Web site. Questions regarding WORM should be directed to wormatlanl.gov

  4. Mars 2.2 code manual: input requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae; Jeong, Jae Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Kyung Doo; Lee, Seung Wook; Bae, Sung Won

    2003-07-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This input manual provides a complete list of input required to run MARS. The manual is divided largely into two parts, namely, the one-dimensional part and the multi-dimensional part. The inputs for auxiliary parts such as minor edit requests and graph formatting inputs are shared by the two parts and as such mixed input is possible. The overall structure of the input is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS. MARS development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  5. Input data required for specific performance assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Starmer, R.J.; Dicke, C.A.; Leonard, P.R.; Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Smith, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generated this report on input data requirements for computer codes to assist States and compacts in their performance assessments. This report gives generators, developers, operators, and users some guidelines on what input data is required to satisfy 22 common performance assessment codes. Each of the codes is summarized and a matrix table is provided to allow comparison of the various input required by the codes. This report does not determine or recommend which codes are preferable

  6. Barrier island forest ecosystem: role of meteorologic nutrient inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Art, H W; Bormann, F H; Voigt, G K; Woodwell, G M

    1974-04-05

    The Sunken Forest, located on Fire Island, a barrier island in the Atlantic Ocean off Long Island, New York, is an ecosystem in which most of the basic cation input is in the form of salt spray. This meteorologic input is sufficient to compensate for the lack of certain nutrients in the highly weathered sandy soils. In other ecosystems these nutrients are generally supplied by weathering of soil particles. The compensatory effect of meteorologic input allows for primary production rates in the Sunken Forest similar to those of inland temperate forests.

  7. ORIGNATE: PC input processor for ORIGEN-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    ORIGNATE is a personal computer program that serves as a user- friendly interface for the ORIGEN-S isotopic generation and depletion code. It is designed to assist an ORIGEN-S user in preparing an input file for execution of light-water-reactor fuel depletion and decay cases. Output from ORIGNATE is a card-image input file that may be uploaded to a mainframe computer to execute ORIGEN-S in SCALE-4. ORIGNATE features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up an ORIGEN-S input file and perform error checking

  8. I-125 input into antibodies molecules specific to australian antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukayumov, A. M.; Chistyakov, P.G.; Garajshina, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    There are experimental data on I-125 input into antibodies molecules specific to superficial antigen of hepatitis B virus (australian antigen). Three ways of input are submitted: with the help of T chloramine usage, Bolton-Hunter Reagent and with the help of iodogen. There are also comparative characteristics of iodized products obtained: molar radioactivity, radiochemical frequency, immuno - reactivity. The report also discusses advantages and disadvantages of the used methods for inputting I-125 into antibodies to australian antigen in order to study the possibility of creating radio immunological test system for detecting superficial antigen of B hepatitis

  9. Robotics control using isolated word recognition of voice input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A speech input/output system is presented that can be used to communicate with a task oriented system. Human speech commands and synthesized voice output extend conventional information exchange capabilities between man and machine by utilizing audio input and output channels. The speech input facility is comprised of a hardware feature extractor and a microprocessor implemented isolated word or phrase recognition system. The recognizer offers a medium sized (100 commands), syntactically constrained vocabulary, and exhibits close to real time performance. The major portion of the recognition processing required is accomplished through software, minimizing the complexity of the hardware feature extractor.

  10. Robust Fault Detection for Switched Fuzzy Systems With Unknown Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Yingchun; Sun, Xun

    2017-10-03

    This paper investigates the fault detection problem for a class of switched nonlinear systems in the T-S fuzzy framework. The unknown input is considered in the systems. A novel fault detection unknown input observer design method is proposed. Based on the proposed observer, the unknown input can be removed from the fault detection residual. The weighted H∞ performance level is considered to ensure the robustness. In addition, the weighted H₋ performance level is introduced, which can increase the sensibility of the proposed detection method. To verify the proposed scheme, a numerical simulation example and an electromechanical system simulation example are provided at the end of this paper.

  11. Automation of Geometry Input for Building Code Compliance Check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrova, Ekaterina Aleksandrova; Johansen, Peter Lind; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2017-01-01

    Documentation of compliance with the energy performance regulations at the end of the detailed design phase is mandatory for building owners in Denmark. Therefore, besides multidisciplinary input, the building design process requires various iterative analyses, so that the optimal solutions can...... be identified amongst multiple alternatives. However, meeting performance criteria is often associated with manual data inputs and retroactive modifications of the design. Due to poor interoperability between the authoring tools and the compliance check program, the processes are redundant and inefficient...... from building geometry created in Autodesk Revit and its translation to input for compliance check analysis....

  12. Jointness through vessel capacity input in a multispecies fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Carsten Lynge

    2014-01-01

    capacity. We develop a fixed but allocatable input model of purse seine fisheries capturing this particular type of jointness. We estimate the model for the Norwegian purse seine fishery and find that it is characterized by nonjointness, while estimations for this fishery using the standard models imply...... are typically modeled as either independent single species fisheries or using standard multispecies functional forms characterized by jointness in inputs. We argue that production of each species is essentially independent but that jointness may be caused by competition for fixed but allocable input of vessel...

  13. Remote media vision-based computer input device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabnia, Hamid R.; Chen, Ching-Yi

    1991-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a vision-based computer input device which has been built at the University of Georgia. The user of this system gives commands to the computer without touching any physical device. The system receives input through a CCD camera; it is PC- based and is built on top of the DOS operating system. The major components of the input device are: a monitor, an image capturing board, a CCD camera, and some software (developed by use). These are interfaced with a standard PC running under the DOS operating system.

  14. Input Scanners: A Growing Impact In A Diverse Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kevin E.

    1989-08-01

    Just as newly invented photographic processes revolutionized the printing industry at the turn of the century, electronic imaging has affected almost every computer application today. To completely emulate traditionally mechanical means of information handling, computer based systems must be able to capture graphic images. Thus, there is a widespread need for the electronic camera, the digitizer, the input scanner. This paper will review how various types of input scanners are being used in many diverse applications. The following topics will be covered: - Historical overview of input scanners - New applications for scanners - Impact of scanning technology on select markets - Scanning systems issues

  15. OFFSCALE: PC input processor for SCALE-4 criticality sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    OFFSCALE is a personal computer program that serves as a user-friendly interface for the Criticality Safety Analysis Sequences (CSAS) available in SCALE-4. It is designed to assist a SCALE-4 user in preparing an input file for execution of criticality safety problems. Output from OFFSCALE is a card-image input file that may be uploaded to a mainframe computer to execute the CSAS4 control module in SCALE-4. OFFSCALE features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up a CSAS4 input file and perform data checking

  16. Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekik Argo Dahono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.

  17. The input and output management of solid waste using DEA models: A case study at Jengka, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Siti Rosiah; Ghazali, Nur Fadzrina Mohd; Mohd, Ainun Hafizah

    2017-08-01

    Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) as a tool for obtaining performance indices has been used extensively in several of organizations sector. The ways to improve the efficiency of Decision Making Units (DMUs) is impractical because some of inputs and outputs are uncontrollable and in certain situation its produce weak efficiency which often reflect the impact for operating environment. Based on the data from Alam Flora Sdn. Bhd Jengka, the researcher wants to determine the efficiency of solid waste management (SWM) in town Jengka Pahang using CCRI and CCRO model of DEA and duality formulation with vector average input and output. Three input variables (length collection in meter, frequency time per week in hour and number of garbage truck) and 2 outputs variables (frequency collection and the total solid waste collection in kilogram) are analyzed. As a conclusion, it shows only three roads from 23 roads are efficient that achieve efficiency score 1. Meanwhile, 20 other roads are in an inefficient management.

  18. A Method to Select Test Input Cases for Safety-critical Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heeeun; Kang, Hyungook; Son, Hanseong

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new testing methodology for effective and realistic quantification of RPS software failure probability. Software failure probability quantification is important factor in digital system safety assessment. In this study, the method for software test case generation is briefly described. The test cases generated by this method reflect the characteristics of safety-critical software and past inputs. Furthermore, the number of test cases can be reduced, but it is possible to perform exhaustive test. Aspect of software also can be reflected as failure data, so the final failure data can include the failure of software itself and external influences. Software reliability is generally accepted as the key factor in software quality since it quantifies software failures which can make a powerful system inoperative. In the KNITS (Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Systems) project, the software for the fully digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) was developed under a strict procedure including unit testing and coverage measurement. Black box testing is one type of Verification and validation (V and V), in which given input values are entered and the resulting output values are compared against the expected output values. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) were used in implementing critical systems and function block diagram (FBD) is a commonly used implementation language for PLC

  19. Early uneven ear input induces long-lasting differences in left-right motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Michelle W; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas; Vijayakumar, Sarath; McKeehan, Nicholas; Arezzo, Joseph C; Zukin, R Suzanne; Borkholder, David A; Jones, Sherri M; Frisina, Robert D; Hébert, Jean M

    2018-03-01

    How asymmetries in motor behavior become established normally or atypically in mammals remains unclear. An established model for motor asymmetry that is conserved across mammals can be obtained by experimentally inducing asymmetric striatal dopamine activity. However, the factors that can cause motor asymmetries in the absence of experimental manipulations to the brain remain unknown. Here, we show that mice with inner ear dysfunction display a robust left or right rotational preference, and this motor preference reflects an atypical asymmetry in cortico-striatal neurotransmission. By unilaterally targeting striatal activity with an antagonist of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a downstream integrator of striatal neurotransmitter signaling, we can reverse or exaggerate rotational preference in these mice. By surgically biasing vestibular failure to one ear, we can dictate the direction of motor preference, illustrating the influence of uneven vestibular failure in establishing the outward asymmetries in motor preference. The inner ear-induced striatal asymmetries identified here intersect with non-ear-induced asymmetries previously linked to lateralized motor behavior across species and suggest that aspects of left-right brain function in mammals can be ontogenetically influenced by inner ear input. Consistent with inner ear input contributing to motor asymmetry, we also show that, in humans with normal ear function, the motor-dominant hemisphere, measured as handedness, is ipsilateral to the ear with weaker vestibular input.

  20. Productivity and efficiency analysis of privatized hydroelectric generation with a sometimes free input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Claudia Elizabeth

    2000-10-01

    In this paper I use a stochastic distance frontier approach to assess the performance of Chile's hydroelectric industry, which operates within a regulatory framework designed to achieve a competitive outcome. An occasionally free input, water, is the sole energy input. The econometric analysis indicates substantial technical and allocative inefficiencies as well as volatile productivity scores, due presumably to the volatility of the energy input. Some allocative inefficiencies have diminished dramatically as the time under deregulation has grown. The Lerner index suggests that firms in the industry enjoy some degree of market power, reflected by prices that exceed marginal costs. This market power is consistent with operation within a centralized dispatch center, as predicted by a strategic bidding model. I also find that run-of-river plants exhibit increasing returns to scale, while plants relying on dams show slightly diminishing returns. The shadow marginal cost for run-of-river plants is found to be close to zero. Substantial cost savings could be realized if firms in Chile's hydro-electric generation industry were to operate efficiently.

  1. Calculating the sensitivity of wind turbine loads to wind inputs using response surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to calculate wind turbine load sensitivities to turbulence parameters through the use of response surfaces. A response surface is a highdimensional polynomial surface that can be calibrated to any set of input/output data and then used to generate synthetic data at a low computational cost. Sobol sensitivity indices (SIs) can then be calculated with relative ease using the calibrated response surface. The proposed methodology is demonstrated by calculating the total sensitivity of the maximum blade root bending moment of the WindPACT 5 MW reference model to four turbulence input parameters: a reference mean wind speed, a reference turbulence intensity, the Kaimal length scale, and a novel parameter reflecting the nonstationarity present in the inflow turbulence. The input/output data used to calibrate the response surface were generated for a previous project. The fit of the calibrated response surface is evaluated in terms of error between the model and the training data and in terms of the convergence. The Sobol SIs are calculated using the calibrated response surface, and the convergence is examined. The Sobol SIs reveal that, of the four turbulence parameters examined in this paper, the variance caused by the Kaimal length scale and nonstationarity parameter are negligible. Thus, the findings in this paper represent the first systematic evidence that stochastic wind turbine load response statistics can be modeled purely by mean wind wind speed and turbulence intensity. (paper)

  2. Retinal input to efferent target amacrine cells in the avian retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sarah H.; Azizi, Nason; Weller, Cynthia; Wilson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The bird visual system includes a substantial projection, of unknown function, from a midbrain nucleus to the contralateral retina. Every centrifugal, or efferent, neuron originating in the midbrain nucleus makes synaptic contact with the soma of a single, unique amacrine cell, the target cell (TC). By labeling efferent neurons in the midbrain we have been able to identify their terminals in retinal slices and make patch clamp recordings from TCs. TCs generate Na+ based action potentials triggered by spontaneous EPSPs originating from multiple classes of presynaptic neurons. Exogenously applied glutamate elicited inward currents having the mixed pharmacology of NMDA, kainate and inward rectifying AMPA receptors. Exogenously applied GABA elicited currents entirely suppressed by GABAzine, and therefore mediated by GABAA receptors. Immunohistochemistry showed the vesicular glutamate transporter, vGluT2, to be present in the characteristic synaptic boutons of efferent terminals, whereas the GABA synthetic enzyme, GAD, was present in much smaller processes of intrinsic retinal neurons. Extracellular recording showed that exogenously applied GABA was directly excitatory to TCs and, consistent with this, NKCC, the Cl− transporter often associated with excitatory GABAergic synapses, was identified in TCs by antibody staining. The presence of excitatory retinal input to TCs implies that TCs are not merely slaves to their midbrain input; instead, their output reflects local retinal activity and descending input from the midbrain. PMID:20650017

  3. Energy input and dissipation in a temperate lake during the spring transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolway, R. Iestyn; Simpson, John H.

    2017-08-01

    ADCP and temperature chain measurements have been used to estimate the rate of energy input by wind stress to the water surface in the south basin of Windermere. The energy input from the atmosphere was found to increase markedly as the lake stratified in spring. The efficiency of energy transfer ( Eff), defined as the ratio of the rate of working in near-surface waters ( RW) to that above the lake surface ( P 10), increased from ˜0.0013 in vertically homogenous conditions to ˜0.0064 in the first 40 days of the stratified regime. A maximum value of Eff˜0.01 was observed when, with increasing stratification, the first mode internal seiche period decreased to match the diurnal wind period of 24 h. The increase in energy input, following the onset of stratification was reflected in enhancement of the mean depth-varying kinetic energy without a corresponding increase in wind forcing. Parallel estimates of energy dissipation in the bottom boundary layer, based on determination of the structure function show that it accounts for ˜15% of RW in stratified conditions. The evolution of stratification in the lake conforms to a heating stirring model which indicates that mixing accounts for ˜21% of RW. Taken together, these estimates of key energetic parameters point the way to the development of full energy budgets for lakes and shallow seas.

  4. Graphics Education Survey. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sandra B.

    After a 1977 survey reflected the importance of graphics education for news students, a study was developed to investigate the state of graphics education in the whole field of journalism. A questionnaire was sent to professors and administrators in four print-oriented professional fields of education: magazine, advertising, public relations, and…

  5. Ethical Reflections on Becoming Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pamela Bolotin

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives written in a culminating graduate seminar on reflective practice by 36 new secondary teachers who were asked to consider their moral beliefs, moral values and system of ethics as they reflected on their recent student teaching experiences. The findings explore how the participants depicted their constructed moral…

  6. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  7. Surveys & Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My residential construction. Business Dynamics Statistics (BDS) Provides measures of openings and closings, job

  8. Reflective Practice as a Fuel for Organizational Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Tikkamäki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning theories and their interpretations in management research recognize the role of reflection as a central element in the learning process. There also exists a broad consensus that organizational learning (OL happens at three intertwined levels of the individual, the group and the organization. This tri-level analysis has been most influentially presented by Crossan, Lane and White (1999, as a premise for their 4I framework of OL. Though the 4I framework builds strongly on existing literature on OL, it does not address the role of reflection as a factor operating between the inputs and outcomes in 4I sub-processes. Though a large body of research exists regarding the notion of reflection and its importance in terms of OL, this has not been discussed in the specific context of the 4I framework. This article contributes to the development of the 4I model by discussing how reflective practice—on three levels and within 4I sub-processes—fuels the OL process. The argumentation is based on an extensive literature review in three dimensions of learning, illustrated with an empirical inquiry into three business organizations and their reflective practice. In addition, the aim is to increase the understanding of reflection as not only an individual or group process, but as an organized practice, enabled by the tools of management control.

  9. Nurse educatorsํ perceptions on facilitating reflective thinking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to publish the results of nurse educators with regard to how reflective thinking of learners can be facilitated in clinical nursing education. The results were obtained through a perception survey using an agenda focus group in the second phase of an original study whose aim was to develop a model to ...

  10. High resolution reflection seismic mapping of shallow coal seams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngadi, SB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available the extent of the mine workings. Two 94 m profiles (tied to boreholes) were surveyed using a sledgehammer source. Processing was optimized to image the shallow reflections. The refraction seismic models and stacked time sections were compared and integrated...

  11. Usability Improvement for Data Input into the Fatigue Avoidance Scheduling Tool (FAST)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, James C

    2005-01-01

    ...) data input mode than using the graphic schedule input mode. The Grid input mode provided both a statistically and an operationally significant reduction in data input time, compared to the Graphic mode for both novice...

  12. Stochastic weather inputs for improved urban water demand forecasting: application of nonlinear input variable selection and machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Urban water supply systems are often stressed during seasonal outdoor water use as water demands related to the climate are variable in nature making it difficult to optimize the operation of the water supply system. Urban water demand forecasts (UWD) failing to include meteorological conditions as inputs to the forecast model may produce poor forecasts as they cannot account for the increase/decrease in demand related to meteorological conditions. Meteorological records stochastically simulated into the future can be used as inputs to data-driven UWD forecasts generally resulting in improved forecast accuracy. This study aims to produce data-driven UWD forecasts for two different Canadian water utilities (Montreal and Victoria) using machine learning methods by first selecting historical UWD and meteorological records derived from a stochastic weather generator using nonlinear input variable selection. The nonlinear input variable selection methods considered in this work are derived from the concept of conditional mutual information, a nonlinear dependency measure based on (multivariate) probability density functions and accounts for relevancy, conditional relevancy, and redundancy from a potential set of input variables. The results of our study indicate that stochastic weather inputs can improve UWD forecast accuracy for the two sites considered in this work. Nonlinear input variable selection is suggested as a means to identify which meteorological conditions should be utilized in the forecast.

  13. Material properties identification using ultrasonic waves and laser Doppler vibrometer measurements: a multi-input multi-output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, R; Vanlanduit, S; Guillaume, P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a multi-input multi-output approach able to determine the material properties of homogeneous materials is presented. To do so, an experimental set-up which combines the use of multi harmonic signals with interleaved frequencies and laser Doppler vibrometer measurements has been developed. A modeling technique, based on transmission and reflection measurements, allowed the simultaneous determination of longitudinal wave velocity, density and thickness of the materials under test with high levels of precision and accuracy. (paper)

  14. An improved method to estimate reflectance parameters for high dynamic range imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiying; Deguchi, Koichiro; Li, Renfa; Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2008-01-01

    Two methods are described to accurately estimate diffuse and specular reflectance parameters for colors, gloss intensity and surface roughness, over the dynamic range of the camera used to capture input images. Neither method needs to segment color areas on an image, or to reconstruct a high dynamic range (HDR) image. The second method improves on the first, bypassing the requirement for specific separation of diffuse and specular reflection components. For the latter method, diffuse and specular reflectance parameters are estimated separately, using the least squares method. Reflection values are initially assumed to be diffuse-only reflection components, and are subjected to the least squares method to estimate diffuse reflectance parameters. Specular reflection components, obtained by subtracting the computed diffuse reflection components from reflection values, are then subjected to a logarithmically transformed equation of the Torrance-Sparrow reflection model, and specular reflectance parameters for gloss intensity and surface roughness are finally estimated using the least squares method. Experiments were carried out using both methods, with simulation data at different saturation levels, generated according to the Lambert and Torrance-Sparrow reflection models, and the second method, with spectral images captured by an imaging spectrograph and a moving light source. Our results show that the second method can estimate the diffuse and specular reflectance parameters for colors, gloss intensity and surface roughness more accurately and faster than the first one, so that colors and gloss can be reproduced more efficiently for HDR imaging.

  15. Reflection measurements for luminescent powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Luminescent materials are useful in applications varying from lighting and display technologies to document security features and medical research, amongst many others. Measurement of the excitation range is an important consideration, and absorption bands are often determined from a decrease in the measured diffuse reflectance of the material using a ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Such a system may provide questionable results when used to measure the reflectance of a luminescence material, which is demonstrated for a Tb doped silica phosphor, because the system cannot differentiate between the reflected light and luminescence. It is shown that more reliable results are achieved for this phosphor by measuring the reflectance using a synchronous zero-offset scan in a fluorescence spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. This method is therefore recommended instead of traditional reflectance measurements using a UV-vis spectrophotometer for luminescent powders.

  16. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  17. Third order TRANSPORT with MAD [Methodical Accelerator Design] input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes computer-aided design codes for particle accelerators. Among the topics discussed are: input beam description; parameters and algebraic expressions; the physical elements; beam lines; operations; and third-order transfer matrix

  18. effects of sediment input on aquatic animal communities in New

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    the silt determiners the abundance of macroinvertebrates hence the increase in the population in the month of Nov, while Sept(43%) ... result in sediments inputs and deposition in water bodies. (Cuker, 1987). ... reduction in food quality.

  19. Input shaping control with reentry commands of prescribed duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of flexible mechanical structures often deals with the problem of unwanted vibration. The input shaping is a feedforward method based on modification of the input signal so that the output performs the demanded behaviour. The presented approach is based on a finite-time Laplace transform. It leads to no-vibration control signal without any limitations on its time duration because it is not strictly connected to the system resonant frequency. This idea used for synthesis of control input is extended to design of dynamical shaper with reentry property that transform an arbitrary input signal to the signal that cause no vibration. All these theoretical tasks are supported by the results of simulation experiments.

  20. Metacognitive Instruction: Global and Local Shifts in Considering Listening Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bozorgian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A key shift of thinking for effective learning and teaching of listening input has been seen and organized in education locally and globally. This study has probed whether metacognitive instruction through a pedagogical cycle shifts high-intermediate students' English language learning and English as a second language (ESL teacher's teaching focus on listening input. Twenty male Iranian students with an age range of 18 to 24 received a guided methodology including metacognitive strategies (planning, monitoring, and evaluation for a period of three months. This study has used the strategies and probed the importance of metacognitive instruction through interviewing both the teacher and the students. The results have shown that metacognitive instruction helped both the ESL teacher's and the students' shift of thinking about teaching and learning listening input. This key shift of thinking has implications globally and locally for classroom practices of listening input.

  1. Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian University system. ... which mostly affect women‟s job performance in the Nigerian university system. ... are essential in building a gender-friendly university work environment.

  2. Calibration of controlling input models for pavement management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) is currently using the Deighton Total Infrastructure Management System (dTIMS) software for pavement management. This system is based on several input models which are computational backbones to dev...

  3. Towards an affordable alternative educational video game input device

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the prototype design results of an alternative physical educational video gaming input device. The device elicits increased physical activity from the players as compared to the compact gaming controller. Complicated...

  4. Smart mobility solution with multiple input Output interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Aartika; Deb, Sujay; Ranjan, Prabhat; Sardar, Arghya

    2017-07-01

    Smart wheelchairs are commonly used to provide solution for mobility impairment. However their usage is limited primarily due to high cost owing from sensors required for giving input, lack of adaptability for different categories of input and limited functionality. In this paper we propose a smart mobility solution using smartphone with inbuilt sensors (accelerometer, camera and speaker) as an input interface. An Emotiv EPOC+ is also used for motor imagery based input control synced with facial expressions in cases of extreme disability. Apart from traction, additional functions like home security and automation are provided using Internet of Things (IoT) and web interfaces. Although preliminary, our results suggest that this system can be used as an integrated and efficient solution for people suffering from mobility impairment. The results also indicate a decent accuracy is obtained for the overall system.

  5. K Basins environmental impact statement technical input document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.; Bergmann, D.W.; Costley, G.E.; Jansky, M.T.; McCormack, R.L.; Monthey, M.J.; Praga, A.N.; Ullah, J.K.; Willis, W.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document describes the technical input necessary to develop and evaluate the alternatives within the Environmental Impact Statement for the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel From the K Basins at the Hanford Site

  6. Heat input control in coke ovens battery using artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Kannan, C.; Sistla, S.; Kumar, D. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2005-07-01

    Controlled heating is very essential for producing coke with certain desired properties. Controlled heating involves controlling the heat input into the battery dynamically depending on the various process parameters like current battery temperature, the set point of battery temperature, moisture in coal, ambient temperature, coal fineness, cake breakage etc. An artificial intelligence (AI) based heat input control has been developed in which currently some of the above mentioned process parameters are considered and used for calculating the pause time which is applied between reversal during the heating process. The AI based model currently considers 3 input variables, temperature deviation history, current deviation of the battery temperature from the target temperature and the actual heat input into the battery. Work is in progress to control the standard deviation of coke end temperature using this model. The new system which has been developed in-house has replaced Hoogovens supplied model. 7 figs.

  7. An Exploration of Input Conditions for Virtual Teleportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Emil Rosenlund; Ruder, Kevin Vignola; Nilsson, Niels Chr.

    2017-01-01

    This poster describes a within-groups study (n=17) comparing participants' experience of three different input conditions for instigating virtual teleportation (button clicking, physical jumping, and fist clenching). The results indicated that teleportation by clicking a button generally required...

  8. Noise & Input : videost, Portugalist ja muust / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2002-01-01

    Videokunstist, suhtumisest videokunsti Eestis, portugali videokunsti näitusest "High Input, Low Noise" Rotermanni soolalaos. Pedro Dinis (?) Reisi, Caterina (?) Campino, Francisco Quierose (?) ja Rui Toscano teostest. Võrdlus eesti videokunstiga.

  9. Investigating gaze-controlled input in a cognitive selection test

    OpenAIRE

    Gayraud, Katja; Hasse, Catrin; Eißfeldt, Hinnerk; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    In the field of aviation, there is a growing interest in developing more natural forms of interaction between operators and systems to enhance safety and efficiency. These efforts also include eye gaze as an input channel for human-machine interaction. The present study investigates the application of gaze-controlled input in a cognitive selection test called Eye Movement Conflict Detection Test. The test enables eye movements to be studied as an indicator for psychological test performance a...

  10. Optimal Input Strategy for Plug and Play Process Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of optimal operation of a plant, which goal is to maintain production at minimum cost. The system considered in this work consists of a joined plant and redundant input systems. It is assumed that each input system contributes to a flow of goods into the joined pa...... the performance of the plant. The results are applied to a coal fired power plant where an additional new fuel system, gas, becomes available....

  11. Measuring the Efficiency of Financial Inputs for Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Balasubramanyan

    2009-01-01

    This study employs data on small businesses from the Office of Advocacy for the U.S. Small Business Administration, along with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Call Report data for U.S. commercial banks. It examines the efficiency of the impact of the financial inputs on small business entrepreneurial output. This study provides a metric to capture financial input efficiency to the entrepreneurial process. The metric obtained from this analysis is useful for identification and adopti...

  12. Energy Consumptions of Text Input Methods on Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Obison, Henry; Ajuorah, Chiagozie

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computing devices, in particular smartphones are powered from Lithium-ion batteries, which are limited in capacity. With the increasing popularity of mobile systems, various text input methods have been developed to improve user experience and performance. Briefly, text input method is a user interface that can be used to compose an electronic mail, configure mobile Virtual Private Network, and carryout bank transactions and online purchases. Efficient energy management in these system...

  13. IFF, Full-Screen Input Menu Generator for FORTRAN Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Albert

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The IFF-package contains input modules for use within FORTRAN programs. This package enables the programmer to easily include interactive menu-directed data input (module VTMEN1) and command-word processing (module INPCOM) into a FORTRAN program. 2 - Method of solution: No mathematical operations are performed. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Certain restrictions of use may arise from the dimensioning of arrays. Field lengths are defined via PARAMETER-statements

  14. MIFT: GIFT Combinatorial Geometry Input to VCS Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    r-w w-^ H ^ß0318is CQ BRL °RCUMr REPORT NO. 1967 —-S: ... MIFT: GIFT COMBINATORIAL GEOMETRY INPUT TO VCS CODE Albert E...TITLE (and Subtitle) MIFT: GIFT Combinatorial Geometry Input to VCS Code S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED FINAL 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER...Vehicle Code System (VCS) called MORSE was modified to accept the GIFT combinatorial geometry package. GIFT , as opposed to the geometry package

  15. Example of material accounting and verification of reprocessing input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Schoof, S.

    1981-01-01

    An example is described in this paper of material accounting at the reprocessing input point. Knowledge of the fuel history and chemical analyses of the spent fuel permitted concepts to be tested which have been developed for the determination of the input by the operator and for its verification by nuclear material safeguards with the intention of detecting a protracted as well as an abrupt diversion. Accuracies obtained for a material balance of a PWR fuel reprocessing campaign are given. 6 refs

  16. Documentation of CATHENA input files for the APOLLO computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Input files created for the VAX version of the CATHENA two-fluid code have been modified and documented for simulation on the AECB's APOLLO computer system. The input files describe the RD-14 thermalhydraulic loop, the RD-14 steam generator, the RD-12 steam generator blowdown test facility, the Stern Laboratories Cold Water Injection Facility (CWIT), and a CANDU 600 reactor. Sample CATHENA predictions are given and compared with experimental results where applicable. 24 refs

  17. Input Shaping to Reduce Solar Array Structural Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael J.; Tolson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Structural vibrations induced by actuators can be minimized using input shaping. Input shaping is a feedforward method in which actuator commands are convolved with shaping functions to yield a shaped set of commands. These commands are designed to perform the maneuver while minimizing the residual structural vibration. In this report, input shaping is extended to stepper motor actuators. As a demonstration, an input-shaping technique based on pole-zero cancellation was used to modify the Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) actuator commands for the Lewis satellite. A series of impulses were calculated as the ideal SADA output for vibration control. These impulses were then discretized for use by the SADA stepper motor actuator and simulated actuator outputs were used to calculate the structural response. The effectiveness of input shaping is limited by the accuracy of the knowledge of the modal frequencies. Assuming perfect knowledge resulted in significant vibration reduction. Errors of 10% in the modal frequencies caused notably higher levels of vibration. Controller robustness was improved by incorporating additional zeros in the shaping function. The additional zeros did not require increased performance from the actuator. Despite the identification errors, the resulting feedforward controller reduced residual vibrations to the level of the exactly modeled input shaper and well below the baseline cases. These results could be easily applied to many other vibration-sensitive applications involving stepper motor actuators.

  18. SO2 policy and input substitution under spatial monopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerking, Shelby; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Following the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, electric utilities dramatically increased their utilization of low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin (PRB). Recent studies indicate that railroads hauling PRB coal exercise a substantial degree of market power and that relative price changes in the mining and transportation sectors were contributing factors to the observed pattern of input substitution. This paper asks the related question: To what extent does more stringent SO 2 policy stimulate input substitution from high-sulfur coal to low-sulfur coal when railroads hauling low-sulfur coal exercise spatial monopoly power? The question underpins the effectiveness of incentive-based environmental policies given the essential role of market performance in input, output, and abatement markets in determining the social cost of regulation. Our analysis indicates that environmental regulation leads to negligible input substitution effects when clean and dirty inputs are highly substitutable and the clean input market is mediated by a spatial monopolist. (author)

  19. Non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolaev, B.I. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Troyan, S.I. [St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Description of hadronic reactions at high energies is conventionally done in the framework of QCD factorization. All factorization convolutions comprise non-perturbative inputs mimicking non-perturbative contributions and perturbative evolution of those inputs. We construct inputs for the gluon-hadron scattering amplitudes in the forward kinematics and, using the optical theorem, convert them into inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons, embracing the cases of polarized and unpolarized hadrons. In the first place, we formulate mathematical criteria which any model for the inputs should obey and then suggest a model satisfying those criteria. This model is based on a simple reasoning: after emitting an active parton off the hadron, the remaining set of spectators becomes unstable and therefore it can be described through factors of the resonance type, so we call it the resonance model. We use it to obtain non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in unpolarized and polarized hadrons for all available types of QCD factorization: basic, K{sub T}-and collinear factorizations. (orig.)

  20. Non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, B.I.; Troyan, S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Description of hadronic reactions at high energies is conventionally done in the framework of QCD factorization. All factorization convolutions comprise non-perturbative inputs mimicking non-perturbative contributions and perturbative evolution of those inputs. We construct inputs for the gluon-hadron scattering amplitudes in the forward kinematics and, using the optical theorem, convert them into inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons, embracing the cases of polarized and unpolarized hadrons. In the first place, we formulate mathematical criteria which any model for the inputs should obey and then suggest a model satisfying those criteria. This model is based on a simple reasoning: after emitting an active parton off the hadron, the remaining set of spectators becomes unstable and therefore it can be described through factors of the resonance type, so we call it the resonance model. We use it to obtain non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in unpolarized and polarized hadrons for all available types of QCD factorization: basic, K_T-and collinear factorizations. (orig.)

  1. Integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information to "feeling" music, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter-recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, "duple" (march-like rhythms) and "triple" (waltz-like rhythms), presented in three conditions: (1) unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone); (2) various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts; and (3) bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70-85 %) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70-90 %) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60 % when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90 %). Performance dropped dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10 %), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60 %), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. These observations support the notion that meter perception is a cross-modal percept with tactile inputs underlying the perception of "feeling" music.

  2. Nursing home staffing requirements and input substitution: effects on housekeeping, food service, and activities staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowblis, John R; Hyer, Kathryn

    2013-08-01

    To study the effect of minimum nurse staffing requirements on the subsequent employment of nursing home support staff. Nursing home data from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) System merged with state nurse staffing requirements. Facility-level housekeeping, food service, and activities staff levels are regressed on nurse staffing requirements and other controls using fixed effect panel regression. OSCAR surveys from 1999 to 2004. Increases in state direct care and licensed nurse staffing requirements are associated with decreases in the staffing levels of all types of support staff. Increased nursing home nurse staffing requirements lead to input substitution in the form of reduced support staffing levels. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Developing a workable public input process for aesthetics and recreational needs during hydropower licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, D.; Stimac, M.

    1993-01-01

    Aesthetics and recreation are becoming increasingly important issues during hydropower licensing. A variety of regulations and legislation mandate the protection of instream flows for aesthetic and recreational resources. These have provided impetus for determining the effects of instream flows on recreation and aesthetic resources. A public survey designed for a proposed small hydropower project, located in a heavily used recreation area, attempts to determine the aesthetic and recreational preferences for instream flows. The major components in designing the survey are discussed. The public input process is still underway, however, preliminary results indicate lower flows in the river are generally preferable by visitors of the area. This is likely because of the types of users and the recreation activities performed

  4. Spectroscopic surveys of LAMOST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), a new type of reflecting Schmidt telescope, has been designed and produced in China. It marks a breakthrough for large scale spectroscopic survey observation in that both large aperture and wide field of view have been achieved. LAMOST has the highest spectrum acquisition rate, and from October 2011 to June 2014 it has obtained 4.13 million spectra of celestial objects, of which 3.78 million are spectra of stars, with the stellar parameters of 2.20 million stars included. (author)

  5. High-Voltage-Input Level Translator Using Standard CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    proposed integrated circuit would translate (1) a pair of input signals having a low differential potential and a possibly high common-mode potential into (2) a pair of output signals having the same low differential potential and a low common-mode potential. As used here, "low" and "high" refer to potentials that are, respectively, below or above the nominal supply potential (3.3 V) at which standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are designed to operate. The input common-mode potential could lie between 0 and 10 V; the output common-mode potential would be 2 V. This translation would make it possible to process the pair of signals by use of standard 3.3-V CMOS analog and/or mixed-signal (analog and digital) circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. A schematic of the circuit is shown in the figure. Standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry cannot withstand input potentials greater than about 4 V. However, there are many applications that involve low-differential-potential, high-common-mode-potential input signal pairs and in which standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry, which is relatively inexpensive, would be the most appropriate circuitry for performing other functions on the integrated-circuit chip that handles the high-potential input signals. Thus, there is a need to combine high-voltage input circuitry with standard low-voltage CMOS circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. The proposed circuit would satisfy this need. In the proposed circuit, the input signals would be coupled into both a level-shifting pair and a common-mode-sensing pair of CMOS transistors. The output of the level-shifting pair would be fed as input to a differential pair of transistors. The resulting differential current output would pass through six standoff transistors to be mirrored into an output branch by four heterojunction bipolar transistors. The mirrored differential current would be converted back to potential by a pair of diode-connected transistors

  6. What makes boards effective? An examination of the relationships between board inputs, structures, processes and effectiveness in non-profit organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Cornforth, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Based on a survey of charity boards in England and Wales this paper examines what influence board inputs, structures and processes have on board effectiveness. The findings provide mixed support for the normative literature on board effectiveness. Using stepwise logistic regression the research suggests that board inputs and three process variables are important in explaining board effectiveness, namely: board members have the time, skills and experience to do the job; clear board roles and r...

  7. Jupiter's Auroral Energy Input Observed by Hisaki/EXCEED and its Modulations by Io's Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, C.; Kimura, T.; Tsuchiya, F.; Murakami, G.; Yoshioka, K.; Kita, H.; Yamazaki, A.; Kasaba, Y.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2016-12-01

    Aurora is an important indicator representing the momentum transfer from the fast-rotating outer planet to the magnetosphere and the energy input into the atmosphere through the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Long-term monitoring of Jupiter's northern aurora was achieved by the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer called EXCEED (Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscope for Exospheric Dynamics) onboard JAXA's Earth-orbiting planetary space telescope Hisaki until today after its launch in September 2013. We have proceeded the statistical survey of the Jupiter's auroral energy input into the upper atmosphere. The auroral electron energy is estimated using a hydrocarbon color ratio (CR) adopted for the wavelength range of EXCEED, and the emission power in the long wavelength range 138.5-144.8 nm is used as an indicator of total emitted power before hydrocarbon absorption and auroral electron energy flux. Temporal dynamic variation of the auroral intensity was detected when Io's volcanic activity and thus EUV emission from the Io plasma torus are enhanced in the early 2015. Average of the total input power over 80 days increases by 10% with sometimes sporadically more than a factor of 3 upto 7, while the CR indicates the auroral electron energy decrease by 20% during the volcanic event compared to the other period. This indicates much more increase in the current system and Joule heating which contributes heating of the upper atmosphere. We will discuss the impact of this event on the upper atmosphere and ionosphere.

  8. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  9. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state......Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...

  10. Reflection measurements of microwave absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dirk E.; van der Neut, Cornelis A.

    1988-12-01

    A swept-frequency interferometer is described for making rapid, real-time assessments of localized inhomogeneities in planar microwave absorber panels. An aperture-matched exponential horn is used to reduce residual reflections in the system to about -37 dB. This residual reflection is adequate for making comparative measurements on planar absorber panels whose reflectivities usually fall in the -15 to -25 dB range. Reflectivity measurements on a variety of planar absorber panels show that multilayer Jaumann absorbers have the greatest inhomogeneity, while honeycomb absorbers generally have excellent homogeneity within a sheet and from sheet to sheet. The test setup is also used to measure the center frequencies of resonant absorbers. With directional couplers and aperture-matched exponential horns, the technique can be easily applied in the standard 2 to 40 GHz waveguide bands.

  11. Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), Communalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Prof. Asouzu

    Glossary of Igbo Terms and Phrases ihe ahụ na anya ... other words, it is in mutual dependence that the feeling of intimacy found among kindred ..... Complementary Reflection, Communalism and Theory Formulation in African Philosophy 25.

  12. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data include...

  13. Reflective Methodology: The Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Ronald K.; Siefert, Thomas E.

    1970-01-01

    Offers a variety of specific techniques which will help the beginning teacher to implement reflective methodology and create an inquiry-centered classroom atmosphere, at the same time meeting the many more pressing demands of first-year teaching. (JES)

  14. High-resolution reflection spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducloy, Martial

    1997-01-01

    In this article some recent developments in selective reflection spectroscopy is reviewed and the various ways to extend Doppler free techniques to this spectroscopic field is discussed. Its main feature is to probe atomic gas close to the cell boundaries

  15. Realisation Ratios in the Capital Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Berkelmans; Gareth Spence

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Bureau of Statistics capital expenditure survey is one of the inputs into the Reserve Bank’s forecasts for private business investment. This article considers several methods for interpreting the expectations data from this survey and evaluates these methods using out-of-sample forecasts. Forecasts based on long-run average realisation ratios are found to be the most accurate of the options considered, although the use of these forecasts for predicting investment in the nationa...

  16. Inhibitory Gating of Basolateral Amygdala Inputs to the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Laura M; Carter, Adam G

    2016-09-07

    Interactions between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulate emotional behaviors. However, a circuit-level understanding of functional connections between these brain regions remains incomplete. The BLA sends prominent glutamatergic projections to the PFC, but the overall influence of these inputs is predominantly inhibitory. Here we combine targeted recordings and optogenetics to examine the synaptic underpinnings of this inhibition in the mouse infralimbic PFC. We find that BLA inputs preferentially target layer 2 corticoamygdala over neighboring corticostriatal neurons. However, these inputs make even stronger connections onto neighboring parvalbumin and somatostatin expressing interneurons. Inhibitory connections from these two populations of interneurons are also much stronger onto corticoamygdala neurons. Consequently, BLA inputs are able to drive robust feedforward inhibition via two parallel interneuron pathways. Moreover, the contributions of these interneurons shift during repetitive activity, due to differences in short-term synaptic dynamics. Thus, parvalbumin interneurons are activated at the start of stimulus trains, whereas somatostatin interneuron activation builds during these trains. Together, these results reveal how the BLA impacts the PFC through a complex interplay of direct excitation and feedforward inhibition. They also highlight the roles of targeted connections onto multiple projection neurons and interneurons in this cortical circuit. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding for how the BLA can influence the PFC circuit, with important implications for how this circuit participates in the regulation of emotion. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) interact to control emotional behaviors. Here we show that BLA inputs elicit direct excitation and feedforward inhibition of layer 2 projection neurons in infralimbic PFC. BLA inputs are much stronger at corticoamygdala neurons compared

  17. Analytic Reflected Lightcurves for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Hal M.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2018-04-01

    The disk-integrated reflected brightness of an exoplanet changes as a function of time due to orbital and rotational motion coupled with an inhomogeneous albedo map. We have previously derived analytic reflected lightcurves for spherical harmonic albedo maps in the special case of a synchronously-rotating planet on an edge-on orbit (Cowan, Fuentes & Haggard 2013). In this letter, we present analytic reflected lightcurves for the general case of a planet on an inclined orbit, with arbitrary spin period and non-zero obliquity. We do so for two different albedo basis maps: bright points (δ-maps), and spherical harmonics (Y_l^m-maps). In particular, we use Wigner D-matrices to express an harmonic lightcurve for an arbitrary viewing geometry as a non-linear combination of harmonic lightcurves for the simpler edge-on, synchronously rotating geometry. These solutions will enable future exploration of the degeneracies and information content of reflected lightcurves, as well as fast calculation of lightcurves for mapping exoplanets based on time-resolved photometry. To these ends we make available Exoplanet Analytic Reflected Lightcurves (EARL), a simple open-source code that allows rapid computation of reflected lightcurves.

  18. CBM first-level event selector input interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, Dirk [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CBM First-level Event Selector (FLES) is the central event selection system of the upcoming CBM experiment at FAIR. Designed as a high-performance computing cluster, its task is an online analysis of the physics data at a total data rate exceeding 1 TByte/s. To allow efficient event selection, the FLES performs timeslice building, which combines the data from all given input links to self-contained, overlapping processing intervals and distributes them to compute nodes. Partitioning the input data streams into specialized containers allows to perform this task very efficiently. The FLES Input Interface defines the linkage between FEE and FLES data transport framework. Utilizing a custom FPGA board, it receives data via optical links, prepares them for subsequent timeslice building, and transfers the data via DMA to the PC's memory. An accompanying HDL module implements the front-end logic interface and FLES link protocol in the front-end FPGAs. Prototypes of all Input Interface components have been implemented and integrated into the FLES framework. In contrast to earlier prototypes, which included components to work without a FPGA layer between FLES and FEE, the structure matches the foreseen final setup. This allows the implementation and evaluation of the final CBM read-out chain. An overview of the FLES Input Interface as well as studies on system integration and system start-up are presented.

  19. Global sensitivity analysis of computer models with functional inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iooss, Bertrand; Ribatet, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Global sensitivity analysis is used to quantify the influence of uncertain model inputs on the response variability of a numerical model. The common quantitative methods are appropriate with computer codes having scalar model inputs. This paper aims at illustrating different variance-based sensitivity analysis techniques, based on the so-called Sobol's indices, when some model inputs are functional, such as stochastic processes or random spatial fields. In this work, we focus on large cpu time computer codes which need a preliminary metamodeling step before performing the sensitivity analysis. We propose the use of the joint modeling approach, i.e., modeling simultaneously the mean and the dispersion of the code outputs using two interlinked generalized linear models (GLMs) or generalized additive models (GAMs). The 'mean model' allows to estimate the sensitivity indices of each scalar model inputs, while the 'dispersion model' allows to derive the total sensitivity index of the functional model inputs. The proposed approach is compared to some classical sensitivity analysis methodologies on an analytical function. Lastly, the new methodology is applied to an industrial computer code that simulates the nuclear fuel irradiation.

  20. Input-variable sensitivity assessment for sediment transport relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roberto; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2017-09-01

    A methodology to assess input-variable sensitivity for sediment transport relations is presented. The Mean Value First Order Second Moment Method (MVFOSM) is applied to two bed load transport equations showing that it may be used to rank all input variables in terms of how their specific variance affects the overall variance of the sediment transport estimation. In sites where data are scarce or nonexistent, the results obtained may be used to (i) determine what variables would have the largest impact when estimating sediment loads in the absence of field observations and (ii) design field campaigns to specifically measure those variables for which a given transport equation is most sensitive; in sites where data are readily available, the results would allow quantifying the effect that the variance associated with each input variable has on the variance of the sediment transport estimates. An application of the method to two transport relations using data from a tropical mountain river in Costa Rica is implemented to exemplify the potential of the method in places where input data are limited. Results are compared against Monte Carlo simulations to assess the reliability of the method and validate its results. For both of the sediment transport relations used in the sensitivity analysis, accurate knowledge of sediment size was found to have more impact on sediment transport predictions than precise knowledge of other input variables such as channel slope and flow discharge.

  1. Multi-Input Convolutional Neural Network for Flower Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower grading is a significant task because it is extremely convenient for managing the flowers in greenhouse and market. With the development of computer vision, flower grading has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botany and computer vision. A new dataset named BjfuGloxinia contains three quality grades; each grade consists of 107 samples and 321 images. A multi-input convolutional neural network is designed for large scale flower grading. Multi-input CNN achieves a satisfactory accuracy of 89.6% on the BjfuGloxinia after data augmentation. Compared with a single-input CNN, the accuracy of multi-input CNN is increased by 5% on average, demonstrating that multi-input convolutional neural network is a promising model for flower grading. Although data augmentation contributes to the model, the accuracy is still limited by lack of samples diversity. Majority of misclassification is derived from the medium class. The image processing based bud detection is useful for reducing the misclassification, increasing the accuracy of flower grading to approximately 93.9%.

  2. The Input-Output Relationship of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Gielow

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine efflux across different cortical areas and timescales. Such control might be achieved by differential inputs driving separable cholinergic outputs, although no input-output relationship on a brain-wide level has ever been demonstrated. Here, we identify input neurons to cholinergic cells projecting to specific cortical regions by infecting cholinergic axon terminals with a monosynaptically restricted viral tracer. This approach revealed several circuit motifs, such as central amygdala neurons synapsing onto basolateral amygdala-projecting cholinergic neurons or strong somatosensory cortical input to motor cortex-projecting cholinergic neurons. The presence of input cells in the parasympathetic midbrain nuclei contacting frontally projecting cholinergic neurons suggest that the network regulating the inner eye muscles are additionally regulating cortical state via acetylcholine efflux. This dataset enables future circuit-level experiments to identify drivers of known cortical cholinergic functions.

  3. Unprecedented carbon accumulation in mined soils: the synergistic effect of resource input and plant species invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucas C R; Corrêa, Rodrigo S; Doane, Timothy A; Pereira, Engil I P; Horwath, William R

    2013-09-01

    Opencast mining causes severe impacts on natural environments, often resulting in permanent damage to soils and vegetation. In the present study we use a 14-year restoration chronosequence to investigate how resource input and spontaneous plant colonization promote the revegetation and reconstruction of mined soils in central Brazil. Using a multi-proxy approach, combining vegetation surveys with the analysis of plant and soil isotopic abundances (delta13C and delta15N) and chemical and physical fractionation of organic matter in soil profiles, we show that: (1) after several decades without vegetation cover, the input of nutrient-rich biosolids into exposed regoliths prompted the establishment of a diverse plant community (> 30 species); (2) the synergistic effect of resource input and plant colonization yielded unprecedented increases in soil carbon, accumulating as chemically stable compounds in occluded physical fractions and reaching much higher levels than observed in undisturbed ecosystems; and (3) invasive grasses progressively excluded native species, limiting nutrient availability, but contributing more than 65% of the total accumulated soil organic carbon. These results show that soil-plant feedbacks regulate the amount of available resources, determining successional trajectories and alternative stable equilibria in degraded areas undergoing restoration. External inputs promote plant colonization, soil formation, and carbon sequestration, at the cost of excluding native species. The introduction of native woody species would suppress invasive grasses and increase nutrient availability, bringing the system closer to its original state. However, it is difficult to predict whether soil carbon levels could be maintained without the exotic grass cover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings, describing how the combination of resource manipulation and management of invasive species could be used to optimize restoration strategies

  4. Unimolecular Logic Gate with Classical Input by Single Gold Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidin, Dmitry; Faizy, Omid; Krüger, Justus; Eisenhut, Frank; Jancarik, Andrej; Nguyen, Khanh-Hung; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Gourdon, Andre; Moresco, Francesca; Joachim, Christian

    2018-02-27

    By a combination of solution and on-surface chemistry, we synthesized an asymmetric starphene molecule with two long anthracenyl input branches and a short naphthyl output branch on the Au(111) surface. Starting from this molecule, we could demonstrate the working principle of a single molecule NAND logic gate by selectively contacting single gold atoms by atomic manipulation to the longer branches of the molecule. The logical input "1" ("0") is defined by the interaction (noninteraction) of a gold atom with one of the input branches. The output is measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy following the shift in energy of the electronic tunneling resonances at the end of the short branch of the molecule.

  5. PENDUGAAN ELASTISITAS PENAWARAN OUTPUT DAN PERMINTAAN INPUT USAHATANI JAGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Agustian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of changes in output and input prices, corn research expenditures and road infrastructure on output supply and input demand for corn in the Province of East Java and West Java. The data that are analyzed are those of structure of costs of corn farming in the Province of East Java and West Java in 1985-2009. Estimation model employed is the method of Seemingly Unrelated Regression. The results showed that the output supply of corn both in the province of East Java and West Java are elastic to its price changes, however it is inelastic to the price changes of: seed, urea, TSP and labor. Input demand of seed, urea, TSP and labor area inelastic to their price changes. Policy implications of this research is efforts to increase the supply of corn can be carried out by increasing its price, expenditures of corn research, and road infrastructure.

  6. Video-based Chinese Input System via Fingertip Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chang Yu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a system to detect and track fingertips online and recognize Mandarin Phonetic Symbol (MPS for user-friendly Chinese input purposes. Using fingertips and cameras to replace pens and touch panels as input devices could reduce the cost and improve the ease-of-use and comfort of computer-human interface. In the proposed framework, particle filters with enhanced appearance models are applied for robust fingertip tracking. Afterwards, MPS combination recognition is performed on the tracked fingertip trajectories using Hidden Markov Models. In the proposed system, the fingertips of the users could be robustly tracked. Also, the challenges of entering, leaving and virtual strokes caused by video-based fingertip input can be overcome. Experimental results have shown the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed work.

  7. Data entry system for INIS input using a personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masashi

    1990-01-01

    Input preparation for the INIS (International Nuclear Information System) has been performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1970. Instead of the input data preparation done by worksheets make out with the typewriters, new method with which data can be directly inputted into a diskette using personal computers is introduced. According to the popularization of personal computers and word processors, this system is easily applied to other system, so the outline and the future development on it are described. A shortcoming of this system is that spell-checking and data entry using authority files are hardly performed because of the limitation of hardware resources, and that data code conversion is needed because applied code systems between personal computer and main frame computer are quite different from each other. On the other hand, improving the timelyness of data entry is expected without duplication of keying. (author)

  8. Discrete Input Signaling for MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine

    2017-05-12

    In this paper, we study the achievable secrecy rate of visible light communication (VLC) links for discrete input distributions. We consider single user single eavesdropper multiple-input single-output (MISO) links. In addition, both beamforming and robust beamforming are considered. In the former case, the location of the eavesdropper is assumed to be known, whereas in the latter case, the location of the eavesdropper is unknown. We compare the obtained results with those achieved by some continuous distributions including the truncated generalized normal (TGN) distribution and the uniform distribution. We numerically show that the secrecy rate achieved by the discrete input distribution with a finite support is significantly improved as compared to those achieved by the TGN and the uniform distributions.

  9. Input and language development in bilingually developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia

    2013-11-01

    Language skills in young bilingual children are highly varied as a result of the variability in their language experiences, making it difficult for speech-language pathologists to differentiate language disorder from language difference in bilingual children. Understanding the sources of variability in bilingual contexts and the resulting variability in children's skills will help improve language assessment practices by speech-language pathologists. In this article, we review literature on bilingual first language development for children under 5 years of age. We describe the rate of development in single and total language growth, we describe effects of quantity of input and quality of input on growth, and we describe effects of family composition on language input and language growth in bilingual children. We provide recommendations for language assessment of young bilingual children and consider implications for optimizing children's dual language development. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Micro-Level Management of Agricultural Inputs: Emerging Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Weekley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the development of superior plant varieties that benefit from high agrochemical inputs and irrigation, the agricultural Green Revolution has doubled crop yields, yet introduced unintended impacts on environment. An expected 50% growth in world population during the 21st century demands novel integration of advanced technologies and low-input production systems based on soil and plant biology, targeting precision delivery of inputs synchronized with growth stages of crop plants. Further, successful systems will integrate subsurface water, air and nutrient delivery, real-time soil parameter data and computer-based decision-making to mitigate plant stress and actively manipulate microbial rhizosphere communities that stimulate productivity. Such an approach will ensure food security and mitigate impacts of climate change.

  11. Manipulating stored phonological input during verbal working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Gregory B.; Iyer, Asha; Melloni, Lucia; Thesen, Thomas; Friedman, Daniel; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Verbal working memory (vWM), involves storing and manipulating information in phonological sensory input. An influential theory of vWM proposes that manipulation is carried out by a central executive while storage is performed by two interacting systems: A phonological input buffer that captures sound-based information and an articulatory rehearsal system that controls speech motor output. Whether, when, and how neural activity in the brain encodes these components remains unknown. Here, we read-out the contents of vWM from neural activity in human subjects as they manipulate stored speech sounds. As predicted, we identify storage systems that contain both phonological sensory and articulatory motor representations. Surprisingly however, we find that manipulation does not involve a single central executive but rather involves two systems with distinct contributions to successful manipulation. We propose, therefore, that multiple subsystems comprise the central executive needed to manipulate stored phonological input for articulatory motor output in vWM. PMID:27941789

  12. Incorporating uncertainty in RADTRAN 6.0 input files.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Heames, Terence John (Alion Science and Technology)

    2010-02-01

    Uncertainty may be introduced into RADTRAN analyses by distributing input parameters. The MELCOR Uncertainty Engine (Gauntt and Erickson, 2004) has been adapted for use in RADTRAN to determine the parameter shape and minimum and maximum of the distribution, to sample on the distribution, and to create an appropriate RADTRAN batch file. Coupling input parameters is not possible in this initial application. It is recommended that the analyst be very familiar with RADTRAN and able to edit or create a RADTRAN input file using a text editor before implementing the RADTRAN Uncertainty Analysis Module. Installation of the MELCOR Uncertainty Engine is required for incorporation of uncertainty into RADTRAN. Gauntt and Erickson (2004) provides installation instructions as well as a description and user guide for the uncertainty engine.

  13. Originate: PC input processor for origen-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    ORIGINATE is a personal computer program developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to serve as a user-friendly interface for the ORIGEN-S isotopic generation and depletion code. It is designed to assist an ORIGEN-S user in preparing an input file for execution of light-water-reactor fuel depletion and decay cases. Output from ORIGINATE is a card-image input file that may be uploaded to a mainframe computer to execute ORIGEN-S in SCALE-4. ORIGINATE features a pull down menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up an ORIGEN-S input file and perform error checking. This capability increases productivity and decreases chance of user error. (authors). 6 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Pre-processing of input files for the AZTRAN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas E, S.; Ibarra, G.

    2017-09-01

    The AZTRAN code began to be developed in the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas (ESFM) of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN) with the purpose of numerically solving various models arising from the physics and engineering of nuclear reactors. The code is still under development and is part of the AZTLAN platform: Development of a Mexican platform for the analysis and design of nuclear reactors. Due to the complexity to generate an input file for the code, a script based on D language is developed, with the purpose of making its elaboration easier, based on a new input file format which includes specific cards, which have been divided into two blocks, mandatory cards and optional cards, including a pre-processing of the input file to identify possible errors within it, as well as an image generator for the specific problem based on the python interpreter. (Author)

  15. A Practical pedestrian approach to parsimonious regression with inaccurate inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Karrila

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A measurement result often dictates an interval containing the correct value. Interval data is also created by roundoff, truncation, and binning. We focus on such common interval uncertainty in data. Inaccuracy in model inputs is typically ignored on model fitting. We provide a practical approach for regression with inaccurate data: the mathematics is easy, and the linear programming formulations simple to use even in a spreadsheet. This self-contained elementary presentation introduces interval linear systems and requires only basic knowledge of algebra. Feature selection is automatic; but can be controlled to find only a few most relevant inputs; and joint feature selection is enabled for multiple modeled outputs. With more features than cases, a novel connection to compressed sensing emerges: robustness against interval errors-in-variables implies model parsimony, and the input inaccuracies determine the regularization term. A small numerical example highlights counterintuitive results and a dramatic difference to total least squares.

  16. Characterization of Input Current Interharmonics in Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the interharmonic generation process in the input current of double-stage Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) based on voltage source inverters and front-end diode rectifiers. The effects of the inverter output-side low order harmonics, caused by implementing the double......-edge symmetrical regularly sampled Space Vector Modulation (SVM) technique, on the input current interharmonic components are presented and discussed. Particular attention is also given to the influence of the asymmetrical regularly sampled modulation technique on the drive input current interharmonics....... The developed theoretical analysis predicts the drive interharmonic frequency locations with respect to the selected sampling strategies. Simulation and experimental results on a 2.5 kW ASD system verify the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis....

  17. Input saturation in nonlinear multivariable processes resolved by nonlinear decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented for the resolution of the problem of input saturation in nonlinear multivariable process control by means of elementary nonlinear decoupling (END. Input saturation can have serious consequences particularly in multivariable control because it may lead to very undesirable system behaviour and quite often system instability. Many authors have searched for systematic techniques for designing multivariable control systems in which saturation may occur in any of the control variables (inputs, manipulated variables. No generally accepted method seems to have been presented so far which gives a solution in closed form. The method of elementary nonlinear decoupling (END can be applied directly to the case of saturation control variables by deriving as many control strategies as there are combinations of saturating control variables. The method is demonstrated by the multivariable control of a simulated Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC with very convincing results.

  18. Seismic reflection data report: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, Southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hern, J.L.; Powers, D.W.; Barrows, L.J.

    1978-12-01

    Volume II contains uninterpreted processed lines and shotpoint maps from three seismic reflection surveys conducted from 1976 through 1978 by Sandia Laboratories to support investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Data interpretations will be the subject of subsequent reports

  19. Multichannel Seismic Reflection - SCAR- Prydz Bay 1980 SDLS CD-ROM vol 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1980 in the Prydz Bay region, by Australian Geological Survey Organization. The...

  20. Reflections on the Teaching of Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    general challenge of  teaching software engineering. The primary issues covered in this part are testing,  extreme programming, and frameworks. These are all issues that are typically covered  in later courses.  Part IV, the last part of the book, consists of two chapters addressing innovative  approaches...... in teaching programming, as well as a  substantial body of publications in the computer science education literature.  The authors are members of the Scandinavian Pedagogy of Programming Network,  and bring together a diverse body of experiences from the Nordic European countries.  The 14 chapters of the book......This state-of-the-art survey, reflecting on the teaching of programming, has been written by a group of primarily Scandinavian researchers and educators with special interest and experience in the subject of programming. The 14 chapters - contributed by 24 authors - present practical experience...

  1. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics, and to whom he always remained close - his sister Maja. .... moved to Munich at the beginning of 1882, when Albert was barely two years old. ... This was demonstrated during a further change in the sphere of activity of .... As is well known, in Germany one uses the polite form "Sie" for adults and for people who.

  2. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-04-01

    Apr 1, 2004 ... journal Current Science, Vol 61, 1991, pp.594-600. It is an ... could be explained as mere imperfections in the fossil record. .... would almost seem that exposure to the rigours of the climate had quickened the pace ... would be interesting to know whether this telescoping effect is the outward manifesta-.

  3. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    making computer programs 'human like' by building in learning and ... discussed the problems of control and communication in the living organism and the machine. ... To be effective in warding off disastrous consequences, our understanding.

  4. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    not only in linguistics hut also in allied fields, splitting social scientists into t\\VO groups, Chomskyan and others. ... views on language, IlO\\\\"knoVv'Il as 'Standard Theory', generated a ... For the human mind, learning is a kind of reminiscence.

  5. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    future seemed secure, and there was such complete harmony of character between ... was at once so taken with the idea that he was able to persuade Hermann Einstein to .... A liberal spirit, undogmatic in matters of religion, brought by both.

  6. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Of what lasting benefit has been man's use of science and of the new instruments which his research .... future moves about the laboratory or the field, every time he looks at something worthy of ... Yet the speed of action, the intricacy of .... physician, puzzled by a patient's reactions, strikes the trail established in studying an.

  7. Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Vikkelsø, Signe

    2012-01-01

    The notion of ‘change’ has become pervasive in contemporary organizational discourse. On the one hand, change is represented as an organizational imperative that increasingly appears to trump all other concerns. On the other hand, change is addressed as an abstract, generic entity that can be the...

  8. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Newton that there was a transition to the understanding and explanation of natural .... All of this again is accessible to human understanding, and new laws of nature couched in ..... able limits to communication with other individuals.

  9. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The modem picture of the basic constituents and their interactions is described by the so called ... According to him, however great the ... Finally, it is good to remember the words of Bhabha that only science and technology can solve the.

  10. Intraglomerular inhibition maintains mitral cell response contrast across input frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Shipley, Michael T

    2013-11-01

    Odor signals are transmitted to the olfactory bulb by olfactory nerve (ON) synapses onto mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs); ETCs provide additional feed-forward excitation to MTCs. Both are strongly regulated by intraglomerular inhibition that can last up to 1 s and, when blocked, dramatically increases ON-evoked MC spiking. Intraglomerular inhibition thus limits the magnitude and duration of MC spike responses to sensory input. In vivo, sensory input is repetitive, dictated by sniffing rates from 1 to 8 Hz, potentially summing intraglomerular inhibition. To investigate this, we recorded MTC responses to 1- to 8-Hz ON stimulation in slices. Inhibitory postsynaptic current area (charge) following each ON stimulation was unchanged from 1 to 5 Hz and modestly paired-pulse attenuated at 8 Hz, suggesting there is no summation and only limited decrement at the highest input frequencies. Next, we investigated frequency independence of intraglomerular inhibition on MC spiking. MCs respond to single ON shocks with an initial spike burst followed by reduced spiking decaying to baseline. Upon repetitive ON stimulation peak spiking is identical across input frequencies but the ratio of peak-to-minimum rate before the stimulus (max-min) diminishes from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 15:1 at 8 Hz. When intraglomerular inhibition is selectively blocked, peak spike rate is unchanged but trough spiking increases markedly decreasing max-min firing ratios from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 2:1 at 8 Hz. Together, these results suggest intraglomerular inhibition is relatively frequency independent and can "sharpen" MC responses to input across the range of frequencies. This suggests that glomerular circuits can maintain "contrast" in MC encoding during sniff-sampled inputs.

  11. Residents' numeric inputting error in computerized physician order entry prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Wu, Changxu; Zhang, Kan; Wei, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system with embedded clinical decision support (CDS) can significantly reduce certain types of prescription error. However, prescription errors still occur. Various factors such as the numeric inputting methods in human computer interaction (HCI) produce different error rates and types, but has received relatively little attention. This study aimed to examine the effects of numeric inputting methods and urgency levels on numeric inputting errors of prescription, as well as categorize the types of errors. Thirty residents participated in four prescribing tasks in which two factors were manipulated: numeric inputting methods (numeric row in the main keyboard vs. numeric keypad) and urgency levels (urgent situation vs. non-urgent situation). Multiple aspects of participants' prescribing behavior were measured in sober prescribing situations. The results revealed that in urgent situations, participants were prone to make mistakes when using the numeric row in the main keyboard. With control of performance in the sober prescribing situation, the effects of the input methods disappeared, and urgency was found to play a significant role in the generalized linear model. Most errors were either omission or substitution types, but the proportion of transposition and intrusion error types were significantly higher than that of the previous research. Among numbers 3, 8, and 9, which were the less common digits used in prescription, the error rate was higher, which was a great risk to patient safety. Urgency played a more important role in CPOE numeric typing error-making than typing skills and typing habits. It was recommended that inputting with the numeric keypad had lower error rates in urgent situation. An alternative design could consider increasing the sensitivity of the keys with lower frequency of occurrence and decimals. To improve the usability of CPOE, numeric keyboard design and error detection could benefit from spatial

  12. ATCA-based ATLAS FTK input interface system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Yasuyuki [Chicago U., EFI; Liu, Tiehui Ted [Fermilab; Olsen, Jamieson [Fermilab; Iizawa, Tomoya [Waseda U.; Mitani, Takashi [Waseda U.; Korikawa, Tomohiro [Waseda U.; Yorita, Kohei [Waseda U.; Annovi, Alberto [Frascati; Beretta, Matteo [Frascati; Gatta, Maurizio [Frascati; Sotiropoulou, C-L. [Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios [Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Kordas, Konstantinos [Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Kimura, Naoki [Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Cremonesi, Matteo [Chicago U., EFI; Yin, Hang [Fermilab; Xu, Zijun [Peking U.

    2015-04-27

    The first stage of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is an ATCA-based input interface system, where hits from the entire silicon tracker are clustered and organized into overlapping eta-phi trigger towers before being sent to the tracking engines. First, FTK Input Mezzanine cards receive hit data and perform clustering to reduce data volume. Then, the ATCA-based Data Formatter system will organize the trigger tower data, sharing data among boards over full mesh backplanes and optic fibers. The board and system level design concepts and implementation details, as well as the operation experiences from the FTK full-chain testing, will be presented.

  13. Automation of Geometry Input for Building Code Compliance Check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrova, Ekaterina Aleksandrova; Johansen, Peter Lind; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2017-01-01

    Documentation of compliance with the energy performance regulations at the end of the detailed design phase is mandatory for building owners in Denmark. Therefore, besides multidisciplinary input, the building design process requires various iterative analyses, so that the optimal solutions can....... That has left the industry in constant pursuit of possibilities for integration of the tool within the Building Information Modelling environment so that the potential provided by the latter can be harvested and the processed can be optimized. This paper presents a solution for automated data extraction...... from building geometry created in Autodesk Revit and its translation to input for compliance check analysis....

  14. Evaluating nuclear physics inputs in core-collapse supernova models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, E.; Hix, W. R.; Baird, M. L.; Messer, O. E. B.; Mezzacappa, A.

    Core-collapse supernova models depend on the details of the nuclear and weak interaction physics inputs just as they depend on the details of the macroscopic physics (transport, hydrodynamics, etc.), numerical methods, and progenitors. We present preliminary results from our ongoing comparison studies of nuclear and weak interaction physics inputs to core collapse supernova models using the spherically-symmetric, general relativistic, neutrino radiation hydrodynamics code Agile-Boltztran. We focus on comparisons of the effects of the nuclear EoS and the effects of improving the opacities, particularly neutrino--nucleon interactions.

  15. Statistical screening of input variables in a complex computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is presented for ''statistical screening'' of input variables in a complex computer code. The object is to determine the ''effective'' or important input variables by estimating the relative magnitudes of their associated sensitivity coefficients. This is accomplished by performing a numerical experiment consisting of a relatively small number of computer runs with the code followed by a statistical analysis of the results. A formula for estimating the sensitivity coefficients is derived. Reference is made to an earlier work in which the method was applied to a complex reactor code with good results

  16. Adaptive distributed parameter and input estimation in linear parabolic PDEs

    KAUST Repository

    Mechhoud, Sarra

    2016-01-01

    First, new sufficient identifiability conditions of the input and the parameter simultaneous estimation are stated. Then, by means of Lyapunov-based design, an adaptive estimator is derived in the infinite-dimensional framework. It consists of a state observer and gradient-based parameter and input adaptation laws. The parameter convergence depends on the plant signal richness assumption, whereas the state convergence is established using a Lyapunov approach. The results of the paper are illustrated by simulation on tokamak plasma heat transport model using simulated data.

  17. Low noise niobium dc SQUID with a planar input coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, V. J.; van den Hamer, P.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    1983-02-01

    A practical all-niobium dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with a niobium spiral input coil has been developed. The SQUID utilizes submicron Josephson junctions. The best intrinsic energy resolution obtained with a 1-nH SQUID is 4×10-32 J/Hz. A 20-turn 1.2-μH input coil is coupled to a 2.3-nH SQUID with an efficiency of 0.5. The energy resolution with respect to the coil is 1×10-30 J/Hz.

  18. Low noise niobium dc SQUID with a planar input coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Waal, V.J.; van den Hamer, P.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    1983-02-15

    A practical all-niobium dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with a niobium spiral input coil has been developed. The SQUID utilizes submicron Josephson junctions. The best intrinsic energy resolution obtained with a 1-nH SQUID is 4 x 10/sup -32/ J/Hz. A 20-turn 1.2-..mu..H input coil is coupled to a 2.3-nH SQUID with an efficiency of 0.5. The energy resolution with respect to the coil is 1 x 10/sup -30/ J/Hz.

  19. Does Input Quality Drive Measured Differences in Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Jeremy T.; Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande

    is roughly of the same order of magnitude as some competitive effects found in the literature, but input quality measures do not explain most productivity dispersion, despite economically large production function coefficients. We find that the wage bill explains as much dispersion as human capital measures.......Firms in the same industry can differ in measured productivity by multiples of 3. Griliches (1957) suggests one explanation: the quality of inputs differs across firms. We add labor market history variables such as experience and firm and industry tenure, as well as general human capital measures...

  20. ATCA-based ATLAS FTK input interface system

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, Y; The ATLAS collaboration; Olsen, J; Iizawa, T; Mitani, T; Korikawa, T; Yorita, K; Annovi, A; Beretta, M; Gatta, M; Sotiropoulou, C; Gkaitatzis, S; Kordas, K; Kimura, N; Cremonesi, M; Yin, H; Xu, Z

    2014-01-01

    The first stage of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is an ATCA-based input interface system, where hits from the entire silicon tracker must be clustered and organized into overlapping eta-phi trigger towers before being sent to the tracking processors. First, FTK Input Mezzanine cards receive hit data and perform clustering to reduce data volume. Then, the ATCA-based Data Formatter system will organize the trigger tower data, sharing data among boards over a full-mesh backplane. The board and system level performance studies and implementation details, as well as the operation experiences from the FTK full-chain testing, will be presented.

  1. ETFOD: a point model physics code with arbitrary input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, K.E.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1980-06-01

    ETFOD is a zero-dimensional code which solves a set of physics equations by minimization. The technique used is different than normally used, in that the input is arbitrary. The user is supplied with a set of variables from which he specifies which variables are input (unchanging). The remaining variables become the output. Presently the code is being used for ETF reactor design studies. The code was written in a manner to allow easy modificaton of equations, variables, and physics calculations. The solution technique is presented along with hints for using the code

  2. From patient surveys to organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørn Flohr; Riiskjær, Erik

    2013-01-01

    From a rational perspective, patient surveys should be tools for purposeful planned change. They are feedback on performance and provide input to problem-solving processes. However, in public health care there are well-documented institutional forces, including doctors’ and nurses’ norms, which...

  3. MENTAL HEALTH AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Woodgate, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    We want to learn from university students about your experiences and perspectives on mental health and well-being in the context of being a student. Your input can help us develop evidence-based intervention programs that can help address the mental health needs of students. This survey should take 15-20 minutes to complete.

  4. Planning for shallow high resolution seismic surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the input wave. This information can be used in conjunction with this spreadsheet to aid the geophysicist in designing shallow high resolution seismic surveys to achieve maximum resolution and penetration. This Excel spreadsheet is available free from...

  5. The Effects of Detritus Input on Soil Organic Matter Content and Carbon Dioxide Emission in a Central European Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEKETE, István

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of our research was to survey soil biological activity and organic mattercontent reduction in a Central European oak forest during treatments of various detritus inputs within theSíkfkút DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatments Project. Beside the control, three detritusremoval and two detritus duplication treatments were applied. Our examinations have proven that soilorganic matter content declined relatively fast in detritus removal treatments. The reduction wasespecially remarkable in root detritus removal treatments, where – due to the lack of transpiration – soilswere moister during the whole year than in the other treatments. The higher moisture content, despite ofthe reduction of detritus input, produced an intense soil respiration. This can be explained by the fact thatdecomposing organisms have increased the use of soil organic matter. Detritus input reduction had asignificantly greater effect on soil respiration and organic matter content than detritus input duplicationof the same extent. The latter did not cause any significant change compared to the control.

  6. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  7. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, D.E.; Goward, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)

  8. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  9. Principles of shape from specular reflection

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    The reconstruction of (partially) specular object by means of deflectometric methods is a challenging task. It has a long and fairly branched history within the metrology and machine vision communities. We are not aware of any scientific publication surveying the state of the art in a unifying manner and thus stimulating further research. This contribution is intended to close this gap, bringing together prominent ideas from both fields. In avoidance of unnecessary technicality, we lay out the basic theory, including all known forward models of the reflection process. The corresponding inverse problem is ill-posed, so that special emphasis is put on the question of regularization. We embed some novel results on the uniqueness problem and the effectiveness of regularization approaches. Also an overview of numerical methods related to Shape from Specular Reflection is given. For the sake of completeness, we share some thoughts on the construction of an actual measurement system and discuss a practical example. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice....

  11. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    surfaces in use have changed - for instance to road surface types with less noise from wheel passages. Because of this, a co-operation between the road administrations of the Nordic countries (abbreviated NMF) decided to construct a portable instrument to be used on selections of traffic roads within......Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  12. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...

  13. Assessing Reflection: Understanding Skill Development through Reflective Learning Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathro, Virginia; O'Kane, Paula; Gilbertson, Deb

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest ways in which business educators can interact successfully with reflective learning journals (RLJs). Specifically, the research was interested in how students used RLJs and how educators assessed these RLJs. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 31 RLJs, submitted as part of an international…

  14. Reflective Drawing as a Tool for Reflection in Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mirian

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of drawing as a tool for reflection. It reports on a PhD research project that aims to identify and analyse the value that co-design processes can bring to participants and their communities. The research is associated with Leapfrog, a three-year project funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).…

  15. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    with both youth and the parental generation with ethnic minority background in Denmark. These reflections include implications and challenges related to researcher’s national, ethnic background and educational, professional position in encounter with   diverse ‘researched persons’ such as youth......This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...

  16. A guidance on MELCOR input preparation : An input deck for Ul-Chin 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Song Won

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance the capability of assessing the severe accident sequence analyses and the containment behavior using MELCOR computer code and to provide the guideline of its efficient use. This report shows the method of the input deck preparation as well as the assessment strategy for the MELCOR code. MELCOR code is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The code is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. NRC as a second generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the source term code package. The accident sequence of the reference input deck prepared in this study for Ulchin unit 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, is the total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) without any success of safety systems, which is similar to station blackout (TLMB). It is very useful to simulate a well-known sequence through the best estimated code or experiment, because the results of the simulation before core melt can be compared with the FSAR, but no data is available after core melt. The precalculation for the TLOFW using the reference input deck is performed successfully as expected. The other sequences will be carried out with minor changes in the reference input. This input deck will be improved continually by the adding of the safety systems not included in this input deck, and also through the sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (author). 19 refs., 10 tabs., 55 figs.

  17. A guidance on MELCOR input preparation : An input deck for Ul-Chin 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Song Won.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance the capability of assessing the severe accident sequence analyses and the containment behavior using MELCOR computer code and to provide the guideline of its efficient use. This report shows the method of the input deck preparation as well as the assessment strategy for the MELCOR code. MELCOR code is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The code is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. NRC as a second generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the source term code package. The accident sequence of the reference input deck prepared in this study for Ulchin unit 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, is the total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) without any success of safety systems, which is similar to station blackout (TLMB). It is very useful to simulate a well-known sequence through the best estimated code or experiment, because the results of the simulation before core melt can be compared with the FSAR, but no data is available after core melt. The precalculation for the TLOFW using the reference input deck is performed successfully as expected. The other sequences will be carried out with minor changes in the reference input. This input deck will be improved continually by the adding of the safety systems not included in this input deck, and also through the sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (author). 19 refs., 10 tabs., 55 figs

  18. Environmental surveys of the Heidrun field. Supplementary baseline survey 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oug, E.; Konieczny, R.M.; Bakke, T.; Lind, K.

    1993-02-01

    The present survey is a re-investigation of the sea bottom sediments at six sites in the Heidrun oil and gas field, May 1992. Petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals were at background levels. Compared to the baseline survey in 1988 values of hydrocarbons and barium were decreased. The sediment fauna was sparse with low numbers of species and individuals. Densities were strongly reduced and diversity decreased compared to 1988. There is no indication of anthropogenic factors or other large scale disturbances in the area to explain the faunal changes, which may reflect a large natural variation in the sediment fauna. 22 refs., 16 figs., 35 tabs

  19. Input Variability Facilitates Unguided Subcategory Learning in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvåg, Sunniva Sørhus; Austad, Margit; Plante, Elena; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This experiment investigated whether input variability would affect initial learning of noun gender subcategories in an unfamiliar, natural language (Russian), as it is known to assist learning of other grammatical forms. Method: Forty adults (20 men, 20 women) were familiarized with examples of masculine and feminine Russian words. Half…

  20. External Nutrient Inputs into Lake Kivu: Rivers and Atmospheric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantifying the external nutrients inputs is a key factor for understanding the formation of methane in Lake Kivu. This tectonic lake located between Rwanda and DRC contains a big quantity of dissolved gases predominated by carbon dioxide, methane and sulphide. The CH4 is most probably produced in the lake, mainly in ...