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Sample records for reflecting edge preferably

  1. Daughter preference in Japan: A reflection on gender role attitudes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Fuse

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to a noticeable daughter preference over the past few decades. This emergence of daughter preference is surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals' gender preferences are shaped by their gender role attitudes and evaluate whether daughter preference is a reflection of convergence or a persistent divergence in gender roles in Japan. METHODS I use data from the Single Persons subset of the 11th Japanese National Fertility Survey conducted by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research in 1997. Using multinomial logistic regression, I estimate the relationship between Japanese singles' gender role attitudes and their type of gender preference for children. RESULTS Findings suggest that the effect of gender role attitudes on one's child gender preference differs for men and women. Overall, while daughter preference is associated with nontraditional gender role attitudes for men, daughter preference is associated with traditional attitudes for women. CONCLUSIONS Traditionalism is still driving gender preference, though in a different way for men and women. Emerging daughter preference may not simply be a reflection of improvements in women's status, but in fact it is likely that persistent divergence in gender roles remain in Japan.

  2. Social Preferences and Cognitive Reflection: Evidence from Dictator Game Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Benedetto Ponti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides experimental evidence on the relationship between social preferences and cognitive abilities, which we measure using the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT. We elicit social preferences by way of 24 dictatorial situations, in which the Dictator’s choice sets include i standard Dictator games, where increasing the Dictator’s payoff yields a loss for the Recipient, ii efficient Dicator games, where increasing the Dictator’s payoff also increases that the Recipient’s; as well as other situations in which iii either the Dictator’s or iv the Recipient’s monetary payoff is held constant. We partition our subject pool in three groups: reflective (scoring 2 or more in the CRT, impulsive (opting twice or more for the intuitive but wrong answers in the CRT and the remainder. We find that impulsive Dictators show a marked inequity aversion attitude, especially in standard Dictator Games. By contrast, reflective Dictators show lower distributional concerns, except for the situations in which the Dictators’ payoff is held constant. In this case, reflective Dictators give significantly more.

  3. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koho, Karoliina A.; de Nooijer, Lennart J.; Fontanier, Christophe; Toyofuku, Takashi; Oguri, Kazumasa; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2017-06-01

    The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata) were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn) concentrations for the first time along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the continental slope along the NE Japan margin (western Pacific). The local bottom water oxygen (BWO) gradient differs from previous field study sites focusing on foraminiferal Mn / Ca and redox chemistry, therefore allowing further resolution of previously observed trends. The Mn / Ca ratios were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), allowing single-chamber determination of Mn / Ca. The incorporation of Mn into the carbonate tests reflects environmental conditions and is not influenced by ontogeny. The inter-species variability in Mn / Ca reflected foraminiferal in-sediment habitat preferences and associated pore water chemistry but also showed large interspecific differences in Mn partitioning. At each station, Mn / Ca ratios were always lower in the shallow infaunal E. batialis, occupying relatively oxygenated sediments, compared to intermediate infaunal species, Uvigerina spp. and B. spissa, which were typically found at greater depth, under more reducing conditions. The highest Mn / Ca was always recorded by the deep infaunal species N. labradorica and C. fimbriata. Our results suggest that although partitioning differs, Mn / Ca ratios in the intermediate infaunal taxa are promising tools for palaeoceanographic reconstructions as their microhabitat exposes them to higher variability in pore water Mn, thereby making them relatively sensitive recorders of redox conditions and/or bottom water oxygenation.

  4. Cost-reflective electricity pricing: Consumer preferences and perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Nina L.; Jeanneret, Talia D.; Rai, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, residential electricity peak demand has risen steeply in recent decades, leading to higher prices as new infrastructure was needed to satisfy demand. One way of limiting further infrastructure-induced retail price rises is via ‘cost-reflective’ electricity network pricing that incentivises users to shift their demand to non-peak periods. Empowering consumers with knowledge of their energy usage is critical to maximise the potential benefits of cost-reflective pricing. This research consulted residential electricity consumers in three Australian states on their perceptions and acceptance of two cost-reflective pricing scenarios (Time-of-Use and Peak Capacity pricing) and associated technologies to support such pricing (smart meters, in-home displays and direct load control devices). An energy economist presented information to focus groups on the merits and limitations of each scenario, and participants’ views were captured. Almost half of the 53 participants were agreeable to Time-of-Use pricing, but did not have a clear preference for Peak Capacity pricing, where the price was based on the daily maximum demand. Participants recommended further information to both understand and justify the potential benefits, and for technologies to be introduced to enhance the pricing options. The results have implications for utilities and providers who seek to reduce peak demand. - Highlights: •Electricity price rises can be limited by ‘cost-reflective’ pricing. •We consulted residential electricity consumers on Time-of-Use and Peak Capacity pricing. •Understanding of peak electricity demand must increase to enable demand shift. •Interactive website could enable consumers to evaluate pricing options. •Smart meter adoption may increase if voluntary and includes an in-home display.

  5. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Koho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn concentrations for the first time along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the continental slope along the NE Japan margin (western Pacific. The local bottom water oxygen (BWO gradient differs from previous field study sites focusing on foraminiferal Mn / Ca and redox chemistry, therefore allowing further resolution of previously observed trends. The Mn / Ca ratios were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS, allowing single-chamber determination of Mn / Ca. The incorporation of Mn into the carbonate tests reflects environmental conditions and is not influenced by ontogeny. The inter-species variability in Mn / Ca reflected foraminiferal in-sediment habitat preferences and associated pore water chemistry but also showed large interspecific differences in Mn partitioning. At each station, Mn / Ca ratios were always lower in the shallow infaunal E. batialis, occupying relatively oxygenated sediments, compared to intermediate infaunal species, Uvigerina spp. and B. spissa, which were typically found at greater depth, under more reducing conditions. The highest Mn / Ca was always recorded by the deep infaunal species N. labradorica and C. fimbriata. Our results suggest that although partitioning differs, Mn / Ca ratios in the intermediate infaunal taxa are promising tools for palaeoceanographic reconstructions as their microhabitat exposes them to higher variability in pore water Mn, thereby making them relatively sensitive recorders of redox conditions and/or bottom water oxygenation.

  6. Neutral particle transport modeling with a reflective source in the plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    A reflective source term is incorporated into the Boltzmann neutral particle transport equation to account for boundary reflection. This reflective neutral model is integrated over a uniform axis and subsequently discretized. The discrete two-dimensional equations are solved iteratively with a computer code. The results of the reflective neutral model computer code are benchmarked with the neutral particle transport code ONEDANT. The benchmark process demonstrates the validity of the reflective neutral model. The reflective neutral model is coupled to the Braams plasma particle and energy transport code. The coupled system generates self-consistent plasma edge transport solutions. These solutions, which utilize the transport equation are similar to solutions which utilize simple plasma edge neutral models when high recycle divertors are modeled. In the high recycle mode, the high electron density at the divertor plate reduces the mean free path of plate neutrals. Hence, the similarity in results. It is concluded that simple neutral models are sufficient for the analysis of high recycle power reactor edge plasmas. Low recycle edge plasmas were not examined

  7. Reflection of Lamb waves obliquely incident on the free edge of a plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Sridhar; Demirli, Ramazan

    2013-01-01

    The reflection of obliquely incident symmetric and anti-symmetric Lamb wave modes at the edge of a plate is studied. Both in-plane and Shear-Horizontal (SH) reflected wave modes are spawned by an obliquely incident in-plane Lamb wave mode. Energy reflection coefficients are calculated for the reflected wave modes as a function of frequency and angle of incidence. This is done by using the method of orthogonal mode decomposition and by enforcing traction free conditions at the plate edge using the method of collocation. A PZT sensor network, affixed to an Aluminum plate, is used to experimentally verify the predictions of the analysis. Experimental results provide support for the analytically determined results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Choosing Europe? Why Voter Preferences (sometimes) are not Reflected in National Positions in EU Constitutional Negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    ’; in other words the process whereby voter preferences are translated into actual national positions in EU constitutional negotiations. Using data drawn from the 1996-97 negotiation of the Treaty of Amsterdam, this paper attempts to explain why voter preferences are often not reflected in national positions...

  9. Probing spin-polarized edge state superconductivity by Andreev reflection in in-plane magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinthaler, Rolf W.; Tkachov, Grigory; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M. [Faculty of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Finding signatures of unconventional superconductivity in Quantum Spin Hall systems is one of the challenges of solid state physics. Here we induce superconductivity in a 3D topological insulator thin film to cause the formation of helical edge states, which are protected against backscattering even in finite magnetic fields. Above a critical in-plane magnetic field, which is much smaller than the critical field of typical superconductors, the quasi-particle gap closes, giving rise to energy-dependent spin polarization. In this regime the spin-polarized edge state superconductivity can be detected by Andreev reflection. We propose measurement setups to experimentally observe the spin-dependent excess current and dI/dV characteristics.

  10. Inter-band and intra-band reflections in graphene–insulator–superconductor junctions with zigzag or armchair edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, M.F., E-mail: mfduqued@unal.edu.co; Gomez P, S., E-mail: sgomezp@unal.edu.co; Herrera, W.J., E-mail: jherreraw@unal.edu.co

    2014-12-15

    We analyze electron–electron and Andreev reflections (AR) for a graphene–insulator–superconductor junction for zigzag and armchair edges, where the insulator is modeled as a potential barrier characterized by a strength. We calculate the reflection probabilities and differential conductance using the Bogoliubov–de Gennes–Dirac (BdGD) equations. For low doping values and zigzag edge the reflection coefficients have the same behavior that in a graphene–superconductor junction. However for high doping values the reflection probabilities have a periodicity of πwith the strength barrier values. For high doping values and armchair edge the electron–electron reflections associated to K′ valley increase and AR associated to K valley decrease. We compare our results with the differential conductance obtained by the Green formalism. We show that the effect of barrier strength for high doping resembles the behavior when a hopping between graphene and superconductor interfaces is considered.

  11. Adjustment of Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI Red-Edge Band Reflectance to Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR and Quantification of Red-Edge Band BRDF Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Roy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical wavelength satellite data have directional reflectance effects over non-Lambertian surfaces, described by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF. The Sentinel-2 multi-spectral instrument (MSI acquires data over a 20.6° field of view that have been shown to have non-negligible BRDF effects in the visible, near-infrared, and short wave infrared bands. MSI red-edge BRDF effects have not been investigated. In this study, they are quantified by an examination of 6.6 million (January 2016 and 10.7 million (April 2016 pairs of forward and back scatter reflectance observations extracted over approximately 20° × 10° of southern Africa. Non-negligible MSI red-edge BRDF effects up to 0.08 (reflectance units across the 290 km wide MSI swath are documented. A recently published MODIS BRDF parameter c-factor approach to adjust MSI visible, near-infrared, and short wave infrared reflectance to nadir BRDF-adjusted reflectance (NBAR is adapted for application to the MSI red-edge bands. The red-edge band BRDF parameters needed to implement the algorithm are provided. The parameters are derived by a linear wavelength interpolation of fixed global MODIS red and NIR BRDF model parameters. The efficacy of the interpolation is investigated using POLDER red, red-edge, and NIR BRDF model parameters, and is shown to be appropriate for the c-factor NBAR generation approach. After adjustment to NBAR, red-edge MSI BRDF effects were reduced for the January data (acquired close to the solar principal where BRDF effects are maximal and the April data (acquired close to the orthogonal plane for all the MSI red-edge bands.

  12. A hybrid scheme for absorbing edge reflections in numerical modeling of wave propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K.

    2010-01-01

    We propose an efficient scheme to absorb reflections from the model boundaries in numerical solutions of wave equations. This scheme divides the computational domain into boundary, transition, and inner areas. The wavefields within the inner and boundary areas are computed by the wave equation and the one-way wave equation, respectively. The wavefields within the transition area are determined by a weighted combination of the wavefields computed by the wave equation and the one-way wave equation to obtain a smooth variation from the inner area to the boundary via the transition zone. The results from our finite-difference numerical modeling tests of the 2D acoustic wave equation show that the absorption enforced by this scheme gradually increases with increasing width of the transition area. We obtain equally good performance using pseudospectral and finite-element modeling with the same scheme. Our numerical experiments demonstrate that use of 10 grid points for absorbing edge reflections attains nearly perfect absorption. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  13. A hybrid scheme for absorbing edge reflections in numerical modeling of wave propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2010-03-01

    We propose an efficient scheme to absorb reflections from the model boundaries in numerical solutions of wave equations. This scheme divides the computational domain into boundary, transition, and inner areas. The wavefields within the inner and boundary areas are computed by the wave equation and the one-way wave equation, respectively. The wavefields within the transition area are determined by a weighted combination of the wavefields computed by the wave equation and the one-way wave equation to obtain a smooth variation from the inner area to the boundary via the transition zone. The results from our finite-difference numerical modeling tests of the 2D acoustic wave equation show that the absorption enforced by this scheme gradually increases with increasing width of the transition area. We obtain equally good performance using pseudospectral and finite-element modeling with the same scheme. Our numerical experiments demonstrate that use of 10 grid points for absorbing edge reflections attains nearly perfect absorption. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. Application of Reflectance Transformation Imaging Technique to Improve Automated Edge Detection in a Fossilized Oyster Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuricic, Ana; Puttonen, Eetu; Harzhauser, Mathias; Dorninger, Peter; Székely, Balázs; Mandic, Oleg; Nothegger, Clemens; Molnár, Gábor; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The world's largest fossilized oyster reef is located in Stetten, Lower Austria excavated during field campaigns of the Natural History Museum Vienna between 2005 and 2008. It is studied in paleontology to learn about change in climate from past events. In order to support this study, a laser scanning and photogrammetric campaign was organized in 2014 for 3D documentation of the large and complex site. The 3D point clouds and high resolution images from this field campaign are visualized by photogrammetric methods in form of digital surface models (DSM, 1 mm resolution) and orthophoto (0.5 mm resolution) to help paleontological interpretation of data. Due to size of the reef, automated analysis techniques are needed to interpret all digital data obtained from the field. One of the key components in successful automation is detection of oyster shell edges. We have tested Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) to visualize the reef data sets for end-users through a cultural heritage viewing interface (RTIViewer). The implementation includes a Lambert shading method to visualize DSMs derived from terrestrial laser scanning using scientific software OPALS. In contrast to shaded RTI no devices consisting of a hardware system with LED lights, or a body to rotate the light source around the object are needed. The gray value for a given shaded pixel is related to the angle between light source and the normal at that position. Brighter values correspond to the slope surfaces facing the light source. Increasing of zenith angle results in internal shading all over the reef surface. In total, oyster reef surface contains 81 DSMs with 3 m x 2 m each. Their surface was illuminated by moving the virtual sun every 30 degrees (12 azimuth angles from 20-350) and every 20 degrees (4 zenith angles from 20-80). This technique provides paleontologists an interactive approach to virtually inspect the oyster reef, and to interpret the shell surface by changing the light source direction

  15. Do prey densities determine preferences of mammalian predators for habitat edges in an agricultural landscape?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Kreisinger, Jakub; Sedláček, František; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2010), s. 86-91 ISSN 0169-2046 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŠk 1P05OC078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mammalian predators * fragmentation * small mammals * edge effect * predator–prey * distribution * Mustelids Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2010

  16. EDGE EFFECT INFLUENCE TO REFLECTED IMPEDANCE OF EDDY-CURRENT PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Закревський

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to solve analytically the edge effect Eddy-Current Probe (ECP problem which helpto carry out mathematical research the edge effect influence to ECP precision and sensitivity ultrasonictransducer mechanical amplitude oscillation measurement mathematical research, pointed to cylindricalconductive objects radius control possibility with superimposed ECP.

  17. Adjustment of Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) Red-Edge Band Reflectance to Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) and Quantification of Red-Edge Band BRDF Effects

    OpenAIRE

    David P. Roy; Zhongbin Li; Hankui K. Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Optical wavelength satellite data have directional reflectance effects over non-Lambertian surfaces, described by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The Sentinel-2 multi-spectral instrument (MSI) acquires data over a 20.6° field of view that have been shown to have non-negligible BRDF effects in the visible, near-infrared, and short wave infrared bands. MSI red-edge BRDF effects have not been investigated. In this study, they are quantified by an examination of 6.6 mi...

  18. Injection current minimization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dot laser by optimization of its active region and reflectivity of laser cavity edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, V V; Savelyev, A V; Zhukov, A E; Maximov, M V

    2015-01-01

    The ways to optimize key parameters of active region and edge reflectivity of edge- emitting semiconductor quantum dot laser are provided. It is shown that in the case of optimal cavity length and sufficiently large dispersion lasing spectrum of a given width can be obtained at injection current up to an order of magnitude lower in comparison to non-optimized sample. The influence of internal loss and edge reflection is also studied in details. (paper)

  19. Injection current minimization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dot laser by optimization of its active region and reflectivity of laser cavity edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. V.; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Maximov, M. V.

    2015-11-01

    The ways to optimize key parameters of active region and edge reflectivity of edge- emitting semiconductor quantum dot laser are provided. It is shown that in the case of optimal cavity length and sufficiently large dispersion lasing spectrum of a given width can be obtained at injection current up to an order of magnitude lower in comparison to non-optimized sample. The influence of internal loss and edge reflection is also studied in details.

  20. X-ray reflectivity of cobalt and titanium in the vicinity of the Lsub(2,3) absorption edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, J.; Kaihola, L.; Keski-Kuha, R.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity across cobalt and titanium Lsub(2,3) absorption edges was measured as a function of energy by means of continuous radiation from a tungsten anode in a grating spectrometer. The real and imaginary parts of the refractive index were obtained from the absorption curves and an exact Kramers-Kronig analysis. A measured fine structure in the reflected intensities was interpreted as an effect of white lines in the absorption spectra. The x-ray intensity was calculated as a function of energy by means of the Fresnel formula. (author)

  1. Enhancing performance of a linear dielectric based concentrating photovoltaic system using a reflective film along the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Hasan; Sarmah, Nabin; Chemisana, Daniel; Rosell, Joan; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we model and analyse the performance of a dielectric based linear concentrating photovoltaic system using ray tracing and finite element methods. The results obtained are compared with the experiments. The system under study is a linear asymmetric CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) designed to operate under extreme incident angles of 0° and 55° and have a geometrical concentration ratio of 2.8×. Initial experiments showed a maximum PR (power ratio) of 2.2 compared to a non concentrating counterpart. An improvement to this has been proposed and verified by adding a reflective film along the edges of the concentrator to capture the escaping rays and minimise optical losses. The addition of the reflective film changes the incoming distribution on the solar cell. Results show an increase of 16% in the average power output while using this reflective film. On including the thermal effects it was found that the overall benefit changes to about 6% while using a reflective film. Additionally, the effects of the non-uniformity of the incoming radiation are also analysed and reported for both the cases. It is found that adding the reflective film drops the maximum power at the output by only 0.5% due to the effect of non-uniformity. - Highlights: • Optical, thermal and electrical analysis of a concentrating photovoltaic system. • Improvement in performance by use of reflective film along the edge. • Experimental validation of results. • Effects of non-uniform illumination on the performance of the CPV system. • Impact of temperature profile on the overall performance

  2. Optical second-harmonic and reflectance-anisotropy spectroscopy of molecular adsorption at Si(001) step-edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, Robert; Kwon, Jinhee; Downer, Michael C. [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, Austin, TX 78712-1081 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Reflectance-anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) and spectroscopic second harmonic generation (SHG) are used to probe a single-domain reconstructed stepped Si(001) surface offcut 6 toward[110] before and after dissociative adsorption of H{sub 2} at the D{sub B} step edges. Preliminary analysis with a simplified bond hyperpolarizability model supports the mutual consistency of RA and SHG spectra and suggests that hydrogen termination redistributes oscillator strength from the chemically active step dangling bond into the step back bonds. The data provide a benchmark for first-principles calculations of the optical response of stepped Si surfaces to step edge molecular adsorption. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. The Effects of Framing, Reflection, Probability, and Payoff on Risk Preference in Choice Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühberger; Schulte-Mecklenbeck; Perner

    1999-06-01

    A meta-analysis of Asian-disease-like studies is presented to identify the factors which determine risk preference. First the confoundings between probability levels, payoffs, and framing conditions are clarified in a task analysis. Then the role of framing, reflection, probability, type, and size of payoff is evaluated in a meta-analysis. It is shown that bidirectional framing effects exist for gains and for losses. Presenting outcomes as gains tends to induce risk aversion, while presenting outcomes as losses tends to induce risk seeking. Risk preference is also shown to depend on the size of the payoffs, on the probability levels, and on the type of good at stake (money/property vs human lives). In general, higher payoffs lead to increasing risk aversion. Higher probabilities lead to increasing risk aversion for gains and to increasing risk seeking for losses. These findings are confirmed by a subsequent empirical test. Shortcomings of existing formal theories, such as prospect theory, cumulative prospect theory, venture theory, and Markowitz's utility theory, are identified. It is shown that it is not probabilities or payoffs, but the framing condition, which explains most variance. These findings are interpreted as showing that no linear combination of formally relevant predictors is sufficient to capture the essence of the framing phenomenon. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence and Fe K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittschen, U.E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de; Meirer, F. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: fmeirer@ati.ac.at; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at; Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: wobi@ati.ac.at; Thiele, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Julian.Thiele@gmx.de; Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: falkenbe@mail.desy.de; Pepponi, G. [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy)], E-mail: pepponi@itc.it

    2008-12-15

    In this study a new procedure using Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) to characterize elemental amounts in atmospheric aerosols down to particle sizes of 0.015 um is presented. The procedure was thoroughly evaluated regarding bounce off effects and blank values. Additionally the potential of total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure (SR-TXRF-XANES) for speciation of FeII/III down to amounts of 34 pg in aerosols which were collected for 1 h is shown. The aerosols were collected in the city of Hamburg with a low pressure Berner impactor on Si carriers covered with silicone over time periods of 60 and 20 min each. The particles were collected in four and ten size fractions of 10.0-8.0 {mu}m, 8.0-2.0 {mu}m, 2.0-0.13 {mu}m 0.13-0.015 {mu}m (aerodynamic particle size) and 15-30 nm, 30-60 nm, 60-130 nm, 130-250 nm, 250-500 nm, 0.5-1 {mu}m, 1-2 {mu}m, 2-4 {mu}m, 4-8 {mu}m, 8-16 {mu}m. Prior to the sampling 'bounce off' effects on Silicone and Vaseline coated Si carriers were studied with total reflection X-ray fluorescence. According to the results silicone coated carriers were chosen for the analysis. Additionally, blank levels originating from the sampling device and the calibration procedure were studied. Blank levels of Fe corresponded to 1-10% of Fe in the aerosol samples. Blank levels stemming from the internal standard were found to be negligible. The results from the Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the aerosols showed that 20 min of sampling time gave still enough sample material for elemental determination of most elements. For the determination of the oxidation state of Fe in the aerosols different Fe salts were prepared as a reference from suspensions in isopropanol. The results from the Fe K-edge Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis of the aerosol samples showed that mainly Fe(III) was present in

  5. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence and Fe K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittschen, U.E.A.; Meirer, F.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Thiele, J.; Falkenberg, G.; Pepponi, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study a new procedure using Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) to characterize elemental amounts in atmospheric aerosols down to particle sizes of 0.015 um is presented. The procedure was thoroughly evaluated regarding bounce off effects and blank values. Additionally the potential of total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure (SR-TXRF-XANES) for speciation of FeII/III down to amounts of 34 pg in aerosols which were collected for 1 h is shown. The aerosols were collected in the city of Hamburg with a low pressure Berner impactor on Si carriers covered with silicone over time periods of 60 and 20 min each. The particles were collected in four and ten size fractions of 10.0-8.0 μm, 8.0-2.0 μm, 2.0-0.13 μm 0.13-0.015 μm (aerodynamic particle size) and 15-30 nm, 30-60 nm, 60-130 nm, 130-250 nm, 250-500 nm, 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-4 μm, 4-8 μm, 8-16 μm. Prior to the sampling 'bounce off' effects on Silicone and Vaseline coated Si carriers were studied with total reflection X-ray fluorescence. According to the results silicone coated carriers were chosen for the analysis. Additionally, blank levels originating from the sampling device and the calibration procedure were studied. Blank levels of Fe corresponded to 1-10% of Fe in the aerosol samples. Blank levels stemming from the internal standard were found to be negligible. The results from the Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the aerosols showed that 20 min of sampling time gave still enough sample material for elemental determination of most elements. For the determination of the oxidation state of Fe in the aerosols different Fe salts were prepared as a reference from suspensions in isopropanol. The results from the Fe K-edge Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis of the aerosol samples showed that mainly Fe(III) was present in all particle size fractions

  6. Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity of Me/B4C multilayers near the boron K edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksenzov, Dmitriy; Schlemper, Christoph; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2010-09-01

    Energy dependence of the optical constants of boron carbide in the short period Ru/B4C and Mo/B4C multilayers (MLs) are evaluated from complete reflectivity scans across the boron K edge using the energy-resolved photon-in-photon-out method. Differences between the refractive indices of the B4Cmaterial inside and close to the surface are obtained from the peak profile of the first order ML Bragg peak and the reflection profile near the critical angle of total external reflection close to the surface. Where a Mo/B4C ML with narrow barrier layers appears as a homogeneous ML at all energies, a Ru/B4C ML exhibits another chemical nature of boron at the surface compared to the bulk. From evaluation of the critical angle of total external reflection in the energy range between 184 and 186 eV, we found an enriched concentration of metallic boron inside the Ru-rich layer at the surface, which is not visible in other energy ranges.

  7. Segmentation of 3D ultrasound computer tomography reflection images using edge detection and surface fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, T.; Zapf, M.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2014-03-01

    An essential processing step for comparison of Ultrasound Computer Tomography images to other modalities, as well as for the use in further image processing, is to segment the breast from the background. In this work we present a (semi-) automated 3D segmentation method which is based on the detection of the breast boundary in coronal slice images and a subsequent surface fitting. The method was evaluated using a software phantom and in-vivo data. The fully automatically processed phantom results showed that a segmentation of approx. 10% of the slices of a dataset is sufficient to recover the overall breast shape. Application to 16 in-vivo datasets was performed successfully using semi-automated processing, i.e. using a graphical user interface for manual corrections of the automated breast boundary detection. The processing time for the segmentation of an in-vivo dataset could be significantly reduced by a factor of four compared to a fully manual segmentation. Comparison to manually segmented images identified a smoother surface for the semi-automated segmentation with an average of 11% of differing voxels and an average surface deviation of 2mm. Limitations of the edge detection may be overcome by future updates of the KIT USCT system, allowing a fully-automated usage of our segmentation approach.

  8. Reflections of Employers' Gender Preferences in Job Ads in India : An Analysis of Online Job Portal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Afra R.; Areias, Ana C.; Imaizumi, Saori; Nomura, Shinsaku; Yamauchi, Futoshi

    2018-01-01

    Using online job portal data and probabilistic regression estimations, the paper investigates the explicit gender bias and salary gap in the Indian job market, reflected in more than 800,000 job recruitment advertisements. Exploring formal and informal sector occupations, the study finds high existence of employers' gender bias in hiring. Explicit gender preferences are highly job specific...

  9. Are human mating preferences with respect to height reflected in actual pairings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V; Nettle, Daniel; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the actual partner. People value height in their partner and we investigated to what extent preferences for height are realised in actual couples. We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK) and compared the distribution of height difference in actual couples to simulations of random mating to test how established mate preferences map on to actual mating patterns. In line with mate preferences, we found evidence for: (i) assortative mating (r = .18), (ii) the male-taller norm, and, for the first time, (iii) for the male-not-too-tall norm. Couples where the male partner was shorter, or over 25 cm taller than the female partner, occurred at lower frequency in actual couples than expected by chance, but the magnitude of these effects was modest. We also investigated another preference rule, namely that short women (and tall men) prefer large height differences with their partner, whereas tall women (and short men) prefer small height differences. These patterns were also observed in our population, although the strengths of these associations were weaker than previously reported strength of preferences. We conclude that while preferences for partner height generally translate into actual pairing, they do so only modestly.

  10. Are human mating preferences with respect to height reflected in actual pairings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Stulp

    Full Text Available Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the actual partner. People value height in their partner and we investigated to what extent preferences for height are realised in actual couples. We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK and compared the distribution of height difference in actual couples to simulations of random mating to test how established mate preferences map on to actual mating patterns. In line with mate preferences, we found evidence for: (i assortative mating (r = .18, (ii the male-taller norm, and, for the first time, (iii for the male-not-too-tall norm. Couples where the male partner was shorter, or over 25 cm taller than the female partner, occurred at lower frequency in actual couples than expected by chance, but the magnitude of these effects was modest. We also investigated another preference rule, namely that short women (and tall men prefer large height differences with their partner, whereas tall women (and short men prefer small height differences. These patterns were also observed in our population, although the strengths of these associations were weaker than previously reported strength of preferences. We conclude that while preferences for partner height generally translate into actual pairing, they do so only modestly.

  11. Strong reflection and periodic resonant transmission of helical edge states in topological-insulator stub-like resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagaki, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The helical edge states of two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) experience appreciable quantum mechanical scattering in narrow channels when the width changes abruptly. The interference of the geometry scattering in narrow-wide-narrow waveguide structures is shown to give rise to the strong suppression of transmission when the incident energy is barely above the propagation threshold. Periodic resonant transmission takes place in this high reflection regime while the length of the wide section is varied. The resonance condition is governed by the transverse confinement in the wide section, where the form of quantization is manifested to differ for the two orthogonal directions. The confined energy levels in TI quantum dots are derived based on this observation. In addition, the off-diagonal spin-orbit term is found to produce an anomalous resonance state, which merges with the bottom ordinary resonance state to annihilate

  12. Are Human Mating Preferences with Respect to Height Reflected in Actual Pairings?

    OpenAIRE

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Nettle, Daniel; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the actual partner. People value height in their partner and we investigated to what extent preferences for height are realised in actual couples. We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK) and comp...

  13. Are human mating preferences with respect to height reflected in actual pairings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Nettle, Daniel; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the

  14. Are Human Mating Preferences with Respect to Height Reflected in Actual Pairings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, G.; Buunk, A.P.; Pollet, T.V.; Nettle, D.; Verhulst, S.

    2013-01-01

    Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the

  15. Mere Exposure: Preference Change for Novel Drinks Reflected in Human Ventral Tegmental Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ian C; Hennigan, Kelly; McClure, Samuel M

    2017-05-01

    Preferences for novel stimuli tend to develop slowly over many exposures. Psychological accounts of this effect suggest that it depends on changes in the brain's valuation system. Participants consumed a novel fluid daily for 10 days and underwent fMRI on the first and last days. We hypothesized that changes in activation in areas associated with the dopamine system would accompany changes in preference. The change in activation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) between sessions scaled with preference change. Furthermore, a network comprising the sensory thalamus, posterior insula, and ventrolateral striatum showed differential connectivity with the VTA that correlated with individual changes in preference. Our results suggest that the VTA is centrally involved in both assigning value to sensory stimuli and influencing downstream regions to translate these value signals into subjective preference. These results have important implications for models of dopaminergic function and behavioral addiction.

  16. The electrical resistivity of rough thin films: A model based on electron reflection at discrete step edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianji; Zheng, Pengyuan; Pandey, Sumeet C.; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Gall, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the surface roughness on the electrical resistivity of metallic thin films is described by electron reflection at discrete step edges. A Landauer formalism for incoherent scattering leads to a parameter-free expression for the resistivity contribution from surface mound-valley undulations that is additive to the resistivity associated with bulk and surface scattering. In the classical limit where the electron reflection probability matches the ratio of the step height h divided by the film thickness d, the additional resistivity Δρ = √{3 /2 } /(g0d) × ω/ξ, where g0 is the specific ballistic conductance and ω/ξ is the ratio of the root-mean-square surface roughness divided by the lateral correlation length of the surface morphology. First-principles non-equilibrium Green's function density functional theory transport simulations on 1-nm-thick Cu(001) layers validate the model, confirming that the electron reflection probability is equal to h/d and that the incoherent formalism matches the coherent scattering simulations for surface step separations ≥2 nm. Experimental confirmation is done using 4.5-52 nm thick epitaxial W(001) layers, where ω = 0.25-1.07 nm and ξ = 10.5-21.9 nm are varied by in situ annealing. Electron transport measurements at 77 and 295 K indicate a linear relationship between Δρ and ω/(ξd), confirming the model predictions. The model suggests a stronger resistivity size effect than predictions of existing models by Fuchs [Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 34, 100 (1938)], Sondheimer [Adv. Phys. 1, 1 (1952)], Rossnagel and Kuan [J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 22, 240 (2004)], or Namba [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 9, 1326 (1970)]. It provides a quantitative explanation for the empirical parameters in these models and may explain the recently reported deviations of experimental resistivity values from these models.

  17. Red-Edge Spectral Reflectance as an Indicator of Surface Moisture Content in an Alaskan Peatland Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, M.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.; Douglass, T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Montgomery, R.; Edwards, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic and boreal peatlands serve as major reservoirs of terrestrial organic carbon (C) because Net Primary Productivity (NPP) outstrips C loss from decomposition over long periods of time. Peatland productivity varies as a function of water table position and surface moisture content, making C storage in these systems particularly vulnerable to the climate warming and drying predicted for high latitudes. Detailed spatial knowledge of how aboveground vegetation communities respond to changes in hydrology would allow for ecosystem response to environmental change to be measured at the landscape scale. This study leverages remotely sensed data along with field measurements taken at the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) at the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research site to examine relationships between plant solar reflectance and surface moisture. APEX is a decade-long experiment investigating the effects of hydrologic change on peatland ecosystems using water table manipulation treatments (raised, lowered, and control). Water table levels were manipulated throughout the 2015 growing season, resulting in a maximum separation of 35 cm between raised and lowered treatment plots. Water table position, soil moisture content, depth to seasonal ice, soil temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), CO2 and CH4 fluxes were measured as predictors of C loss through decomposition and NPP. Vegetation was surveyed for percent cover of plant functional types. Remote sensing data was collected during peak growing season, when the separation between treatment plots was at maximum difference. Imagery was acquired via a SenseFly eBee airborne platform equipped with a Canon S110 red-edge camera capable of detecting spectral reflectance from plant tissue at 715 nm band center to within centimeters of spatial resolution. Here, we investigate empirical relationships between spectral reflectance, water table position, and surface moisture in relation to peat carbon balance.

  18. What men want: the role of reflective opposite-sex normative preferences in alcohol use among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Joseph W; Cail, Jessica; Hummer, Justin F; Lac, Andrew; Neighbors, Clayton

    2009-03-01

    Misperceptions of peer drinking norms have been found to be strongly associated with individual drinking behavior, especially for proximal reference groups such as same-sex friends. Less studied are the effects of perceived preferences from the opposite sex on alcohol use; that is, the behaviors an individual believes the opposite sex prefers from them. Research suggests that these perceived "reflective" normative preferences may be particularly salient among college women, who may drink in pursuit of intimate relationships and positive attention from male peers. Heterosexual undergraduate students from two universities participated in this project. Females answered questions regarding the amount of alcohol they believe a typical male would like his female friends, dates, or romantic partners to drink. Males answered the same questions, stating their actual preferences. Results showed that females overestimate the amount of alcohol males want their female friends, dating partners, and sexual partners to drink, and that this misperception was associated with their drinking behavior, even after controlling for perceived same-sex norms. These results suggest that reflective normative feedback may offer a powerful new tool for female-targeted interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Prey preferences of the jaguar Panthera onca reflect the post-Pleistocene demise of large prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt W Hayward

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the impacts of the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions on predator-prey interactions is a challenge because of the incomplete fossil record and depauperate extant community structure. We used a comparative ecological approach to investigate whether the existing prey preference patterns of jaguars Panthera onca were potentially affected by the Pleistocene extinctions in the Americas compared with large felids in Africa and Asia. We reviewed the literature and found 25 studies reporting 3214 jaguar kills recorded throughout the species’ distribution. We found that jaguars significantly preferred capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris and giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla, and avoided agoutis, carnivorans, primates, black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis and tapirs. Generalised linear models showed that jaguars select prey primarily based on socio-ecological and behavioural traits (abundance and herd size, rather than morphological characteristics (body size. Nonetheless, their accessible prey weight range was 6-60 kg, preferred prey weight range was 45-85 kg, and mean mass of significantly preferred prey was 32 ± 13 kg leading to a predator to prey body mass ratio of 1:0.53, which is much less than that of other solitary felids. Compared with other large, solitary felids, jaguars have an unusual predator to prey body mass ratio, show limited effect of prey morphology as a driver of prey selection, lack evidence of optimal foraging beyond their preferred prey, and an absence of preferentially hunting on Cetartiodactyla herbivores. These features, coupled with the reduction in jaguar body mass since the Pleistocene, suggest that the loss of larger potential prey items within the preferred and accessible weight ranges at the end-Pleistocene still affects jaguar predatory behaviour. It may be that jaguars survived this mass extinction event by preferentially preying on relatively small species.

  20. UniEdge: A first year transition program and its continued evolution through a reflective approach. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lefroy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phillipa Sturgess 14.00 800x600 The shift in Australian higher education policy to widen participation and ensure equity across all student cohorts has led to the need for specific, structured transition programs. The First Year Advisor Network at Murdoch University in Perth, Australia has designed and implemented a transition program for commencing students called UniEdge. The aims of the program are: (1 to help foster a sense of community for first year students; (2 to  make new students aware of the support services available; and (3 to improve the confidence and preparedness of new students. The program has received high praise from students, but rates of attendance have been problematic. By reflecting on student and staff feedback, the program has been adapted over multiple semesters, resulting in increased student attendance and therefore a greater impact on the first year experience at Murdoch University. Normal 0 false false false EN-AU X-NONE X-NONE

  1. Biotic resistance via granivory: Establishment by invasive, naturalized, and native asters reflects generalist preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway; John L. Maron

    2011-01-01

    Escape from specialist natural enemies is frequently invoked to explain exotic plant invasions, but little attention has been paid to how generalist consumers in the recipient range may influence invasion. We examined how seed preferences of the widespread generalist granivore Peromyscus maniculatus related to recruitment of the strongly invasive exotic Centaurea...

  2. Do Employer Pension Contributions Reflect Employee Preferences? Evidence from a Retirement Savings Reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadlon, Itzik; Laird, Jessica; Nielsen, Torben Heien

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how firms set contributions to employer provided 401(k)-type pension plans. Using a reform that decreased the subsidy to contributions to capital pension accounts for Danish workers in the top income tax bracket, we provide strong evidence that employers' contributions are based...... on their employees' savings preferences. We find an immediate decrease in employer contributions to capital accounts, whose magnitude increased in the share of employees directly affected by the reform. This response was large relative to average employee responses within private IRA-type plans and was accompanied...... by a similar magnitude shift of employer contributions to annuity accounts....

  3. Clermont Preferred Future: Stakeholder Reflections on a Community Foresight and Planning Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Parsons

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the potential of the mining industry to contribute to social development (community building, resilience and wellbeing and to economic transitioning post-mining. A number of factors may facilitate the realisation of this potential, in particular community engagement activities that build community resilience and capacity to adapt to changing environments. This paper reviews a community foresight initiative, named Clermont Preferred Future (CPF, which is associated with a coal mine development in the town of Clermont in Queensland, Australia. The purpose of CPF, which was adopted in 2008 and is intended to continue to 2020, is to facilitate a transition to a prosperous and sustainable future by leveraging opportunities from coal mining while reducing dependence on the industry. CPF has been cited as a successful model of engagement and community development, and was highly commended in the Community Economic Development category at the 2011 Australian National Awards for Economic Development Excellence. This review draws on the experiences of stakeholders involved in CPF, and on foresight, community engagement, and community development literature. It identifies what has worked well, what has fallen short of the project’s rhetorical aspirations, and how processes and outcomes might be improved. It also trials artwork as an engagement tool. The findings are valuable for Clermont specifically, but also for the mining industry and mining communities more broadly, as well as for other industries in the context of community engagement and strategic planning.

  4. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  6. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS WITH STRAIGHT EDGES AND THE 7.6/6.2 AND 8.6/6.2 INTENSITY RATIOS IN REFLECTION NEBULAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W; Roser, Joseph E; Peeters, Els

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the mid-infrared spectral characteristics of a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with straight edges and containing an even or odd number of carbons using density functional theory (DFT). For several even and odd-carbon PAHs, the 8.6/6.2 and 7.6/6.2 intensity ratios computed in emission after the absorption of a 8 eV photon match the observed ratios obtained for three reflection nebulae (RNe), namely NGC 1333, NGC 7023, and NGC 2023. Odd-carbon PAHs are favored, particularly for NGC 1333. Both cations and anions are present with the cations being predominant. Relevant PAHs span sizes ranging from 46 to 103-113 carbons for NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 and from 38 to 127 carbons for NGC 1333 and have symmetries ranging from D 2 h to C s . Our work suggests that even and odd-carbon PAHs with straight edges are viable candidates for the PAH emission seen towards irradiated Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs).

  7. Direct measurement of the static and transient magneto-optical permittivity of cobalt across the entire M -edge in reflection geometry by use of polarization scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusin, Dmitriy; Tengdin, Phoebe M.; Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Gentry, Christian; Blonsky, Adam; Gerrity, Michael; Legut, Dominik; Shaw, Justin M.; Nembach, Hans T.; Silva, T. J.; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2018-01-01

    The microscopic state of a magnetic material is characterized by its resonant magneto-optical response through the off-diagonal dielectric tensor component ɛx y. However, the measurement of the full complex ɛx y in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region covering the M absorption edges of 3 d ferromagnets is challenging due to the need for either a careful polarization analysis, which is complicated by a lack of efficient polarization analyzers, or scanning the angle of incidence in fine steps. Here, we propose and demonstrate a technique to extract the complex resonant permittivity ɛx y simply by scanning the polarization angle of linearly polarized high harmonics to measure the magneto-optical asymmetry in reflection geometry. Because this technique is more practical and faster to experimentally implement than previous approaches, we can directly measure the full time evolution of ɛx y(t ) during laser-induced demagnetization across the entire M2 ,3 absorption edge of cobalt with femtosecond time resolution. We find that for polycrystalline Co films on an insulating substrate, the changes in ɛx y are uniform throughout the spectrum, to within our experimental precision. This result suggests that, in the regime of strong demagnetization, the ultrafast demagnetization response is primarily dominated by magnon generation. We estimate the contribution of exchange-splitting reduction to the ultrafast demagnetization process to be no more than 25%.

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Straight Edges and the 7.6/6.2 and 8.6/6.2 Intensity Ratios in Reflection Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Roser, Joseph E.; Peeters, Els

    2018-02-01

    Using density functional theory, we have investigated the mid-infrared spectral characteristics of a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have straight edges and that contain an even or odd number of carbons. For several even and odd-carbon PAHs, the 8.6/6.2 and 7.6/6.2 intensity ratios computed in emission after the absorption of a 8 eV photon match the observed ratios obtained for three reflection nebulae (RNe), namely NGC 1333, NGC 7023, and NGC 2023. Odd-carbon PAHs are favored, particularly for NGC 1333. Both cations and anions are present, with the cations being predominant. Relevant PAHs span sizes ranging from 46 to 113 carbons for NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 and from 38 to 127 carbons for NGC 1333, and have symmetries ranging from D2h to C s . Our work suggests that even- and odd-carbon PAHs with straight edges are viable candidates for the PAH emission seen toward irradiated photodissociation regions.

  9. Parameter study of self-absorption effects in Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure analysis of arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirer, F.; Pepponi, G.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Kregsamer, P.; Zoeger, N.; Falkenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis in combination with X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis is a powerful method to perform chemical speciation studies at trace element levels. However, when measuring samples with higher concentrations and in particular standards, damping of the oscillations is observed. In this study the influence of self-absorption effects on TXRF-XANES measurements was investigated by comparing measurements with theoretical calculations. As(V) standard solutions were prepared at various concentrations and dried on flat substrates. The measurements showed a correlation between the damping of the oscillations and the As mass deposited. A Monte-Carlo simulation was developed using data of the samples shapes obtained from confocal white light microscopy. The results showed good agreement with the measurements; they confirmed that the key parameters are the density of the investigated atom in the dried residues and the shape of the residue, parameters that combined define the total mass crossed by a certain portion of the incident beam. The study presents a simple approach for an a priori evaluation of the self-absorption in TXRF X-ray absorption studies. The consequences for Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and XANES measurements under grazing incidence conditions are discussed, leading to the conclusion that the damping of the oscillations seems to make EXAFS of concentrated samples non feasible. For XANES 'fingerprint' analysis samples should be prepared with a deposited mass and sample shape leading to an acceptable absorption for the actual investigation

  10. Speciation of copper and zinc in size-fractionated atmospheric particulate matter using total reflection mode X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osan, Janos; Meirer, Florian; Groma, Veronika; Toeroek, Szabina; Ingerle, Dieter; Streli, Christina; Pepponi, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The health effects of aerosol depend on the size distribution and the chemical composition of the particles. Heavy metals of anthropogenic origin are bound to the fine aerosol fraction (PM 2.5 ). The composition and speciation of aerosol particles can be variable in time, due to the time-dependence of anthropogenic sources as well as meteorological conditions. Synchrotron-radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) provides very high sensitivity for characterization of atmospheric particulate matter. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectrometry in conjunction with TXRF detection can deliver speciation information on heavy metals in aerosol particles collected directly on the reflector surface. The suitability of TXRF-XANES for copper and zinc speciation in size-fractionated atmospheric particulate matter from a short sampling period is presented. For high size resolution analysis, atmospheric aerosol particles were collected at different urban and rural locations using a 7-stage May cascade impactor having adapted for sampling on Si wafers. The thin stripe geometry formed by the particulate matter deposited on the May-impactor plates is ideally suited to SR-TXRF. Capabilities of the combination of the May-impactor sampling and TXRF-XANES measurements at HASYLAB Beamline L to Cu and Zn speciation in size-fractionated atmospheric particulate matter are demonstrated. Information on Cu and Zn speciation could be performed for elemental concentrations as low as 140 pg/m 3 . The Cu and Zn speciation in the different size fraction was found to be very distinctive for samples of different origin. Zn and Cu chemical state typical for soils was detected only in the largest particles studied (2-4 μm fraction). The fine particles, however, contained the metals of interest in the sulfate and nitrate forms.

  11. Edge effects in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guz, A.N.; Kokhanenko, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article we survey papers on edge effects investigated by the rigorous approach. We interpret edge effects as stressed states created in a composite as a result of zones in which the stresses exhibit a rapidly changing behavior in comparison with the slow variation of the stresses outside such zones. Here the range of the edge effect is defined as the distance from the point of its inception to the boundary of the edge zone in a given direction. The transition of the stresses to the slowly varying state is determined within prescribed error limits. The size and configuration of the edge zone depends on the tolerated error. Clearly, the main difficulty associated with the rigorous approach is finding solutions of the elasticity problems. The finite-difference approach is suggested for the approximate solution of these problems. In light of the comparative time consumption of the finite-difference approach, it is best directed at certain classes of problems rather than at particular individual problems. Not too many papers on the investigation of edge effects by the rigorous approach have been published to date. Below, following in their footsteps, we formulate edge effect problems in composites, determine classes of problems, and investigate edge effects in composite materials and structural elements using them in Cartesian (planar and three-dimensional problems) and cylindrical (axisymmetric problems) coordinate frames. We note that the division of approaches to the study of edge effects into qualitative (nonrigorous) and quantitative (rigorous) reflects the authors own point of view. Of course, other schemes of classification of the approaches to the investigation of the regions of rapidly varying states in composites are possible

  12. Edge Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2013-01-01

    of this container is to separate inside from outside and to protect and provide privacy, psychological as well as physical (Venturi, 1966). But, if dwelling phenomenon takes place both inside and outside the private house – why is the urban house an enclosed box? What is the differentiation between inside...... and outside the contemporary urban house? And what is the interplay between them? The research argues for re-thinking the edge zone between inside and outside the urban house. Therefore, although, residential buildings in the city are the objects of study, the focal point here is the edge zone along...... the building. The research explores and develops the architectural characteristics of correlations between the resident, the singular unit, the building and the given location at the edge zone. It approaches the edge zone of the urban house as a platform for dynamic interactions between these behaviours...

  13. "I'm Just Not That Comfortable with Technology": Student Perceptions of and Preferences for Web 2.0 Technologies in Reflective Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Timothy S.; Dyment, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Encouraging reflective practice and developing reflective practitioners is a goal of many disciplines in higher education. A variety of pedagogical techniques have been used to promote critical reflection including portfolios, narratives and reflective journals. Over the past decade, the use of Web 2.0 technologies with students has been…

  14. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... of daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...

  15. Measurement of the ferric diffusion coefficient in agarose and gelatine gels by utilization of the evolution of a radiation induced edge as reflected in relaxation rate images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Torje V.; Olsen, Dag R.; Skretting, Arne

    1997-01-01

    A method has been developed to determine the diffusion coefficients of ferric ions in ferrous sulphate doped gels. A radiation induced edge was created in the gel, and two spin-echo sequences were used to acquire a pair of images of the gel at different points of time. For each of these image pairs, a longitudinal relaxation rate image was derived. From profiles through these images, the standard deviations of the Gaussian functions that characterize diffusion were determined. These data provided the basis for the determination of the ferric diffusion coefficients by two different methods. Simulations indicate that the use of single spin-echo images in this procedure may in some cases lead to a significant underestimation of the diffusion coefficient. The technique was applied to different agarose and gelatine gels that were prepared, irradiated and imaged simultaneously. The results indicate that the diffusion coefficient is lower in a gelatine gel than in an agarose gel. Addition of xylenol orange to a gelatine gel lowers the diffusion coefficient from 1.45 to 0.81 mm 2 h -1 , at the cost of significantly lower R 1 sensitivity. The addition of benzoic acid to the latter gel did not increase the R 1 sensitivity. (author) OK

  16. Do lions Panthera leo actively select prey or do prey preferences simply reflect chance responses via evolutionary adaptations to optimal foraging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt W Hayward

    Full Text Available Research on coursing predators has revealed that actions throughout the predatory behavioral sequence (using encounter rate, hunting rate, and kill rate as proxy measures of decisions drive observed prey preferences. We tested whether similar actions drive the observed prey preferences of a stalking predator, the African lion Panthera leo. We conducted two 96 hour, continuous follows of lions in Addo Elephant National Park seasonally from December 2003 until November 2005 (16 follows, and compared prey encounter rate with prey abundance, hunt rate with prey encounter rate, and kill rate with prey hunt rate for the major prey species in Addo using Jacobs' electivity index. We found that lions encountered preferred prey species far more frequently than expected based on their abundance, and they hunted these species more frequently than expected based on this higher encounter rate. Lions responded variably to non-preferred and avoided prey species throughout the predatory sequence, although they hunted avoided prey far less frequently than expected based on the number of encounters of them. We conclude that actions of lions throughout the predatory behavioural sequence, but particularly early on, drive the prey preferences that have been documented for this species. Once a hunt is initiated, evolutionary adaptations to the predator-prey interactions drive hunting success.

  17. Do lions Panthera leo actively select prey or do prey preferences simply reflect chance responses via evolutionary adaptations to optimal foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Matt W; Hayward, Gina J; Tambling, Craig J; Kerley, Graham I H

    2011-01-01

    Research on coursing predators has revealed that actions throughout the predatory behavioral sequence (using encounter rate, hunting rate, and kill rate as proxy measures of decisions) drive observed prey preferences. We tested whether similar actions drive the observed prey preferences of a stalking predator, the African lion Panthera leo. We conducted two 96 hour, continuous follows of lions in Addo Elephant National Park seasonally from December 2003 until November 2005 (16 follows), and compared prey encounter rate with prey abundance, hunt rate with prey encounter rate, and kill rate with prey hunt rate for the major prey species in Addo using Jacobs' electivity index. We found that lions encountered preferred prey species far more frequently than expected based on their abundance, and they hunted these species more frequently than expected based on this higher encounter rate. Lions responded variably to non-preferred and avoided prey species throughout the predatory sequence, although they hunted avoided prey far less frequently than expected based on the number of encounters of them. We conclude that actions of lions throughout the predatory behavioural sequence, but particularly early on, drive the prey preferences that have been documented for this species. Once a hunt is initiated, evolutionary adaptations to the predator-prey interactions drive hunting success.

  18. Edge Detection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    PROJECT. T ASK0 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA It WORK UNIT NUMBERS V 545 Technology Square ( Cambridge, HA 02139 I I* CONTOOL1LIN@4OFFICE NAME...ARD-A1t62 62 EDGE DETECTION(U) NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 1/1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB E C HILDRETH SEP 85 AI-M-8 N99SI4-8S-C-6595...used to carry out this analysis. cce~iO a N) ’.~" D LI’BL. P p ------------ Sj. t i MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY i ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  19. Living edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2014-01-01

    was originally introduced to enhance indoor qualities including light and view. Throughout the paper, it is argued that these ecological motives have grown to architectural and urban dimensions. The paper analyzes the characteristics and potentials of these dimensions and their interconnections. The paper...... on the ground level, but there is a lack of recognition in the significance of communicative characters as well at the higher part of the edge. The city’s planning approach is “Consider urban life before urban space. Consider urban space before buildings” This urban strategy neglects the possible architectural...... contribution to the street atmosphere and its effect on urban life. Bay balcony has been a common architectural element in Copenhagen’s residential buildings, since the end of the twenties. It is a domestic border with an architectural thickness combining window, door, windowsill and balcony. The bay balcony...

  20. Advertising execution styles as a reflection of culture : Cross-cultural analysis of messaging app advertising preferences in South Korea and China

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Increased globalization and the thought of converging values has lead marketing practitioners and academics to consider more standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies. Even though cultures seem to evolve closer to each other, cultural diversity still exists. Advertising reflects and influences our cultural values and therefore it cannot be ignored when building effective advertising. Results show that culture impacts execution more than creative strategy (Wei & Jiang...

  1. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  2. Degenerate band edge laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysi, Mehdi; Othman, Mohamed A. K.; Figotin, Alexander; Capolino, Filippo

    2018-05-01

    We propose a class of lasers based on a fourth-order exceptional point of degeneracy (EPD) referred to as the degenerate band edge (DBE). EPDs have been found in parity-time-symmetric photonic structures that require loss and/or gain; here we show that the DBE is a different kind of EPD since it occurs in periodic structures that are lossless and gainless. Because of this property, a small level of gain is sufficient to induce single-frequency lasing based on a synchronous operation of four degenerate Floquet-Bloch eigenwaves. This lasing scheme constitutes a light-matter interaction mechanism that leads also to a unique scaling law of the laser threshold with the inverse of the fifth power of the laser-cavity length. The DBE laser has the lowest lasing threshold in comparison to a regular band edge laser and to a conventional laser in cavities with the same loaded quality (Q ) factor and length. In particular, even without mirror reflectors the DBE laser exhibits a lasing threshold which is an order of magnitude lower than that of a uniform cavity laser of the same length and with very high mirror reflectivity. Importantly, this novel DBE lasing regime enforces mode selectivity and coherent single-frequency operation even for pumping rates well beyond the lasing threshold, in contrast to the multifrequency nature of conventional uniform cavity lasers.

  3. Magnetism of zigzag edge phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhili, E-mail: zlzhu@zzu.edu.cn, E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn; Li, Chong; Yu, Weiyang; Chang, Dahu; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu, E-mail: zlzhu@zzu.edu.cn, E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn [International Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2014-09-15

    We have investigated, by means of ab initio calculations, the electronic and magnetic structures of zigzag edge phosphorene nanoribbons (ZPNRs) with various widths. The stable magnetic state was found in pristine ZPNRs by allowing the systems to be spin-polarized. The ground state of pristine ZPNRs prefers ferromagnetic order in the same edge but antiferromagnetic order between two opposite edges. The magnetism arises from the dangling bond states as well as edge localized π-orbital states. The presence of a dangling bond is crucial to the formation of the magnetism of ZPNRs. The hydrogenated ZPNRs get nonmagnetic semiconductors with a direct band gap. While, the O-saturated ZPNRs show magnetic ground states due to the weak P-O bond in the ribbon plane between the p{sub z}-orbitals of the edge O and P atoms.

  4. Stability of edge states and edge magnetism in graphene nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Kunstmann, Jens; Özdoğan, Cem; Quandt, Alexander; Fehske, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We critically discuss the stability of edge states and edge magnetism in zigzag edge graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs). We point out that magnetic edge states might not exist in real systems, and show that there are at least three very natural mechanisms - edge reconstruction, edge passivation, and edge closure - which dramatically reduce the effect of edge states in ZGNRs or even totally eliminate them. Even if systems with magnetic edge states could be made, the intrinsic magnetism would not be ...

  5. Nanoindentation near the edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Jakes; C.R. Frihart; J.F. Beecher; R.J. Moon; P.J. Resto; Z.H. Melgarejo; O.M. Saurez; H. Baumgart; A.A. Elmustafa; D.S. Stone

    2009-01-01

    Whenever a nanoindent is placed near an edge, such as the free edge of the specimen or heterophase interface intersecting the surface, the elastic discontinuity associated with the edge produces artifacts in the load-depth data. Unless properly handled in the data analysis, the artifacts can produce spurious results that obscure any real trends in properties as...

  6. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  7. Natural and artificial spectral edges in exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingam, Manasvi; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-09-01

    Technological civilizations may rely upon large-scale photovoltaic arrays to harness energy from their host star. Photovoltaic materials, such as silicon, possess distinctive spectral features, including an 'artificial edge' that is characteristically shifted in wavelength shortwards of the 'red edge' of vegetation. Future observations of reflected light from exoplanets would be able to detect both natural and artificial edges photometrically, if a significant fraction of the planet's surface is covered by vegetation or photovoltaic arrays, respectively. The stellar energy thus tapped can be utilized for terraforming activities by transferring heat and light from the day side to the night side on tidally locked exoplanets, thereby producing detectable artefacts.

  8. An edge pedestal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacev, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    A new model for calculation of the gradient scale lengths in the edge pedestal region and of the edge transport barrier width in H-mode tokamak plasmas will be described. Model problem calculations which demonstrate the promise of this model for predicting experimental pedestal properties will be discussed. The density and Prague gradient scale lengths (L) in the edge are calculated from the particle and ion and electron energy radial transport equations, making use of (presumed) known particle and energy fluxes flowing across the edge transport barrier from the core into the SOL and of edge transport coefficients. The average values of the particle and heat fluxes in the edge transport barrier are calculated in terms of the fluxes crossing into the SOL and the atomic physics reaction rates (ionisation, charge-exchange, elastic scattering, impurity radiation) in the edge by integrating the respective transport equations from the pedestal to the separatrix. An important implication of this model is that the pedestal gradient scale lengths depend not just on local pedestal platers properties but also on particle and energy fluxes from the core plasma and on recycling neutral fluxes that penetrate into the plasma edge, both of which in turn depend on the pedestal properties. The MHD edge pressure gradient constraint α≤ α C is used to determine the pressure width of the edge transport barrier, Δ TB = Δ TB (α c ). Three different models for the MHD edge pressure gradient constraint have been investigated: (1) nominal ideal ballooning mode theory, (2) ballooning mode theory taking into account the edge geometry and shear to access He second stability region; and pedestal β-limit theory when the ballooning modes are stabilised by diamagnetic effects. A series of calculations have been made for a DIII-D model problem. The calculated gradient scale lengths and edge transport barrier widths are of the magnitude of values observed experimentally, and certain trends

  9. The SKED: speckle knife edge detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpies, S D; Light, R A; Achamfuo-Yeboah, S O; Clark, M; Somekh, M G

    2014-01-01

    The knife edge detector—also known as optical beam deflection—is a simple and robust method of detecting ultrasonic waves using a laser. It is particularly suitable for detection of high frequency surface acoustic waves as the response is proportional to variation of the local tilt of the surface. In the case of a specular reflection of the incident laser beam from a smooth surface, any lateral movement of the reflected beam caused by the ultrasonic waves is easily detected by a pair of photodiodes. The major disadvantage of the knife edge detector is that it does not cope well with optically rough surfaces, those that give a speckled reflection. The optical speckles from a rough surface adversely affect the efficiency of the knife edge detector, because 'dark' speckles move synchronously with 'bright' speckles, and their contributions to the ultrasonic signal cancel each other out. We have developed a new self-adapting sensor which can cope with the optical speckles reflected from a rough surface. It is inelegantly called the SKED—speckle knife edge detector—and like its smooth surface namesake it is simple, cheap, compact, and robust. We describe the theory of its operation, and present preliminary experimental results validating the overall concept and the operation of the prototype device

  10. The SKED: speckle knife edge detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpies, S. D.; Light, R. A.; Achamfuo-Yeboah, S. O.; Clark, M.; Somekh, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The knife edge detector—also known as optical beam deflection—is a simple and robust method of detecting ultrasonic waves using a laser. It is particularly suitable for detection of high frequency surface acoustic waves as the response is proportional to variation of the local tilt of the surface. In the case of a specular reflection of the incident laser beam from a smooth surface, any lateral movement of the reflected beam caused by the ultrasonic waves is easily detected by a pair of photodiodes. The major disadvantage of the knife edge detector is that it does not cope well with optically rough surfaces, those that give a speckled reflection. The optical speckles from a rough surface adversely affect the efficiency of the knife edge detector, because 'dark' speckles move synchronously with 'bright' speckles, and their contributions to the ultrasonic signal cancel each other out. We have developed a new self-adapting sensor which can cope with the optical speckles reflected from a rough surface. It is inelegantly called the SKED—speckle knife edge detector—and like its smooth surface namesake it is simple, cheap, compact, and robust. We describe the theory of its operation, and present preliminary experimental results validating the overall concept and the operation of the prototype device.

  11. Cone and trumpet concentrators in light of the general edge-ray theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Harald; Spirkl, Wolfgang; Winston, Roland

    1995-08-01

    Cone and trumpet are nonimaging concentrators which do not obey the traditional edge-ray principle. The latter states that edge rays from the source should be transferred to the edge of the target. These concentrators have traditionally been described in terms of the heuristic flow line principle. The edge-ray theorem has been generalized to include nonimaging reflectors with multiple reflections. One includes all multiply reflected rays as an auxiliary domain. The general edge-ray theorem then states that the edge rays to the union of source and auxiliary domain must be reflected to edge of the union of target and auxiliary domain by the first reflection. We show the setup for which cone and trumpet constitute perfect nonimaging concentrators in the light of the generalized edge-ray theorem. We discuss the cases where cones are very good approximations for the solutions of nonimaging problems.

  12. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  13. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Labrecque, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  14. Adobe Edge Preview 3

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Want to use an Adobe tool to design animated web graphics that work on iPhone and iPad? You've come to the right book. Adobe Edge Preview 3: The Missing Manual shows you how to build HTML5 graphics using simple visual tools. No programming experience? No problem. Adobe Edge writes the underlying code for you. With this eBook, you'll be designing great-looking web elements in no time. Get to know the workspace. Learn how Adobe Edge Preview 3 performs its magic.Create and import graphics. Make drawings with Edge's tools, or use art you designed in other programs.Work with text. Build menus, lab

  15. Pavement edge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Four projects were built over two construction seasons using special devices attached to the paving machine that produces a 30 slope on the outside pavement edge instead of the near vertical drop-off common with conventional paving equipment. This ...

  16. Edge Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Angus, Justin [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lee, Wonjae [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The goal of the Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) multi-institutional project is to advance scientific understanding of the edge plasma region of magnetic fusion devices via a coordinated effort utilizing modern computing resources, advanced algorithms, and ongoing theoretical development. The UCSD team was involved in the development of the COGENT code for kinetic studies across a magnetic separatrix. This work included a kinetic treatment of electrons and multiple ion species (impurities) and accurate collision operators.

  17. Edge responses are different in edges under natural versus anthropogenic influence: a meta-analysis using ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Tibor; Lövei, Gábor L; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2017-02-01

    Most edges are anthropogenic in origin, but are distinguishable by their maintaining processes (natural vs. continued anthropogenic interventions: forestry, agriculture, urbanization). We hypothesized that the dissimilar edge histories will be reflected in the diversity and assemblage composition of inhabitants. Testing this "history-based edge effect" hypothesis, we evaluated published information on a common insect group, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in forest edges. A meta-analysis showed that the diversity-enhancing properties of edges significantly differed according to their history. Forest edges maintained by natural processes had significantly higher species richness than their interiors, while edges with continued anthropogenic influence did not. The filter function of edges was also essentially different depending on their history. For forest specialist species, edges maintained by natural processes were penetrable, allowing these species to move right through the edges, while edges still under anthropogenic interventions were impenetrable, preventing the dispersal of forest specialists out of the forest. For species inhabiting the surrounding matrix (open-habitat and generalist species), edges created by forestry activities were penetrable, and such species also invaded the forest interior. However, natural forest edges constituted a barrier and prevented the invasion of matrix species into the forest interior. Preserving and protecting all edges maintained by natural processes, and preventing anthropogenic changes to their structure, composition, and characteristics are key factors to sustain biodiversity in forests. Moreover, the increasing presence of anthropogenic edges in a landscape is to be avoided, as they contribute to the loss of biodiversity. Simultaneously, edges under continued anthropogenic disturbance should be restored by increasing habitat heterogeneity.

  18. The Edge supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  19. Two-dimensionally confined topological edge states in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, Sabyasachi; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters. (paper)

  20. Properties on the edge: graphene edge energies, edge stresses, edge warping, and the Wulff shape of graphene flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branicio, Paulo S; Jhon, Mark H; Gan, Chee Kwan; Srolovitz, David J

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that the broken bonds of an unreconstructed graphene edge generate compressive edge stresses leading to edge warping. Here, we investigate edge energies and edge stresses of graphene nanoribbons with arbitrary orientations from armchair to zigzag, considering both flat and warped edge shapes in the presence and absence of hydrogen. We use the second generation reactive empirical bond order potential to calculate the edge energies and stresses for clean and hydrogenated edges. Using these energies, we perform a Wulff construction to determine the equilibrium shapes of flat graphene flakes as a function of hydrogen chemical potential. While edge stresses for clean, flat edges are compressive, they become tensile if allowed to warp. Conversely, we find that edge energies change little (∼1%) with edge warping. Hydrogenation of the edges virtually eliminates both the edge energy and edge stresses. For warped edges an approximately linear relationship is found between amplitudes and wavelengths. The equilibrium shape of a graphene flake is determined by the value of the hydrogen chemical potential. For very small (and large) values of it the flakes have a nearly hexagonal (dodecagon) shape with zigzag oriented edges, while for intermediate values graphene flakes are found with complex shapes

  1. Theory of edge radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Kocharyan, V.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2008-08-15

    We formulate a complete theory of Edge Radiation based on a novel method relying on Fourier Optics techniques. Similar types of radiation like Transition UndulatorRadiation are addressed in the framework of the same formalism. Special attention is payed in discussing the validity of approximations upon which the theory is built. Our study makes consistent use of both similarity techniques and comparisons with numerical results from simulation. We discuss both near and far zone. Physical understanding of many asymptotes is discussed. Based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, we also discuss an analytical model to describe the presence of a vacuum chamber. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Finally, we consider the use of Edge Radiation as a tool for electron beam diagnostics. We discuss Coherent Edge Radiation, Extraction of Edge Radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of Edge Radiation on XFEL setups and we discuss recent results. (orig.)

  2. Edge and core dynamics in harness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.

    2007-01-01

    Resistive kink oscillations in tokamak plasmas are usually treated as core localized events, yet there there are several mechanisms by which they may interact with the edge dynamics. This suggests that we may regulate edge oscillatory behaviour, or ELMs, by harnessing the natural or contrived sawtooth period and amplitude. In this work I investigate core-edge oscillatory entrainment through direct propagation of heat pulses, inductive coupling, and global higher order resonance effects. In the core of auxiliary heated tokamak plasmas the ineluctable rhythm of slow buildup and rapid conversion of potential energy governs electron and heat radial transport. The growth phase of the sawtooth is accompanied by significant reconnection, then during the collapse the temperature and density in the core fall dramatically. There is evidence from experiments in reversed field pinch devices that ensuing energy fluxes can affect flow shear and confinement at the edge. The basis for this study is the dynamical (BDS) model for edge plasma behavior that was derived from electrostatic resistive MHD equations. The BDS model reflects the major qualitative features of edge dynamics that have been observed, such as L-H transitions and associated ELMs, hysteresis, and spontaneous reversal of poloidal shear flow. Under poorly dissipative conditions the transient behavior of the model can exhibit period-doubling, blue-sky, homoclinic, and other exotic bifurcations. Thus we might ask questions such as: Is it possible to mode-lock the edge dynamics to the core sawteeth? Can we induce, or prevent, a change in direction of shear flow? What about MHD effects? Is core-edge communication one way or is there some feedback? In the simplest prototype for coupled core-edge dynamics I model the sawtooth crash as a periodic power input to the edge potential energy reservoir. This is effected by coupling the BDS model to the dynamical system u = u(1 - u 2 - x 2 ) - ω s x, x = x(1-u 2 -x 2 ) + ω s u

  3. High Speed Edge Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Norman F (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Analog circuits for detecting edges in pixel arrays are disclosed. A comparator may be configured to receive an all pass signal and a low pass signal for a pixel intensity in an array of pixels. A latch may be configured to receive a counter signal and a latching signal from the comparator. The comparator may be configured to send the latching signal to the latch when the all pass signal is below the low pass signal minus an offset. The latch may be configured to hold a last negative edge location when the latching signal is received from the comparator.

  4. Subharmonic edge waves on a large, shallow island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Mostafa A.

    1988-08-01

    Subharmonic resonance of edge waves by incident and reflected waves has been studied thus far for the case of a plane infinite beach. The analysis will be extended here to the case of a curved coastline, with a large radius of curvature and slowly varying beach slope in the longshore direction. It will be shown that the effects of such slow beach slope changes on a propagating edge wave are similar to the familiar shoaling effects on incident waves. The case of subharmonic edge wave generation on large shallow islands will be discussed in detail. The nonlinear analysis will show that within a certain range of island sizes, the generation mechanism can produce a stable standing edge wave around the island. For larger islands the solution disintegrates into two out-of-phase envelopes of opposite-going edge waves. For still larger islands, the generated progressive edge waves become unstable to sideband modulations.

  5. Edge detection in landing budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Bhagavatula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While considerable scientific effort has been devoted to studying how birds navigate over long distances, relatively little is known about how targets are detected, obstacles are avoided and smooth landings are orchestrated. Here we examine how visual features in the environment, such as contrasting edges, determine where a bird will land. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landing in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus was investigated by training them to fly from a perch to a feeder, and video-filming their landings. The feeder was placed on a grey disc that produced a contrasting edge against a uniformly blue background. We found that the birds tended to land primarily at the edge of the disc and walk to the feeder, even though the feeder was in the middle of the disc. This suggests that the birds were using the visual contrast at the boundary of the disc to target their landings. When the grey level of the disc was varied systematically, whilst keeping the blue background constant, there was one intermediate grey level at which the budgerigar's preference for the disc boundary disappeared. The budgerigars then landed randomly all over the test surface. Even though this disc is (for humans clearly distinguishable from the blue background, it offers very little contrast against the background, in the red and green regions of the spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that budgerigars use visual edges to target and guide landings. Calculations of photoreceptor excitation reveal that edge detection in landing budgerigars is performed by a color-blind luminance channel that sums the signals from the red and green photoreceptors, or, alternatively, receives input from the red double-cones. This finding has close parallels to vision in honeybees and primates, where edge detection and motion perception are also largely color-blind.

  6. The Inner Urban Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferebee, Ann; Carpenter, Edward K.

    1974-01-01

    In this article, renewal of the inner urban edge is discussed. Norfolk (Virginia) is attempting to blur the difference between old and new neighbor hoods through zoning and architectural controls. Cincinnati (Ohio) is developing an environmentally sound hillside design. Reading (Pennsylvania) is utilizing old railyards for greenbelts of hiking and…

  7. Swords with Blunt Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, W. James

    2004-01-01

    Many U.S. educators now wonder whether they're teachers or targets. This mentality stems from the specter of their school being sanctioned for failing the state accountability tests mandated under No Child Left Behind (NCLB). According to this author, most of those tests are like blunt-edged swords: They function badly in two directions. While…

  8. The visibility of IQHE at sharp edges: experimental proposals based on interactions and edge electrostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkarslan, U; Oylumluoglu, G; Grayson, M; Siddiki, A

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the incompressible strips on the integer quantized Hall effect (IQHE) is investigated, considering a cleaved-edge overgrown (CEO) sample as an experimentally realizable sharp edge system. We propose a set of experiments to clarify the distinction between the large-sample limit when bulk disorder defines the IQHE plateau width and the small-sample limit smaller than the disorder correlation length, when self-consistent edge electrostatics define the IQHE plateau width. The large-sample or bulk quantized Hall (QH) regime is described by the usual localization picture, whereas the small-sample or edge regime is discussed within the compressible/incompressible strips picture, known as the screening theory of QH edges. Utilizing the unusually sharp edge profiles of the CEO samples, a Hall bar design is proposed to manipulate the edge potential profile from smooth to extremely sharp. By making use of a side-gate perpendicular to the two-dimensional electron system, it is shown that the plateau widths can be changed or even eliminated altogether. Hence, the visibility of IQHE is strongly influenced when adjusting the edge potential profile and/or changing the dc current direction under high currents in the nonlinear transport regime. As a second investigation, we consider two different types of ohmic contacts, namely highly transmitting (ideal) and highly reflecting (non-ideal) contacts. We show that if the injection contacts are non-ideal, but still ohmic, it is possible to measure directly the non-quantized transport taking place at the bulk of the CEO samples. The results of the experiments we propose will clarify the influence of the edge potential profile and the quality of the contacts, under QH conditions. (paper)

  9. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  10. Low scatter edge blackening compounds for refractive optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, I.T.; Telkamp, A.R.; Ledebuhr, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on low scatter edge blackening compounds for refractive optical elements. Perkin-Elmer's Applied Optics Operation recently delivered several prototype wide-field-of-view (WFOV), F/2.8, 250 mm efl, near diffraction limited, concentric lenses toLawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In these lenses, special attention was paid to reducing stray light to allow viewing of very dim objects. Because of the very large FOV, the use of a long baffle to eliminate direct illumination of lens edges was not practical. With the existing relatively short baffle design, one-bounce stray light paths off the element edges are possible. The scattering off the inside edges thus had to be kept to an absolute minimum. While common means for blackening the edges of optical elements are easy to apply and quite cost effective for normal lens assemblies, their blackening effect is limited by the Fresnel reflection due to the index of refraction mismatch at the glass boundary. At high angles of incidence, total internal reflection (TIR) might occur ruining the effect of the blackening process. An index-match absorbing medium applied to the edges of such elements is the most effective approach for reducing the amount of undesired light reflection or scattered off these edges. The presence of such a medium provides an extended path outside the glass boundary in which an absorptive non-scattering dye can be used to eliminate light that might otherwise have propagated to the focal plane

  11. VIERS- User Preference Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Preferences service provides a means to store, retrieve, and manage user preferences. The service supports definition of enterprise wide preferences, as well as...

  12. ICRF edge modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the technical progress for the DOE sponsored grant, ''ICRF Edge Modeling.'' An emphasis is placed on the progress since the Technical Progress Report (January 10, 1990) was submitted to the Department of Energy. The design of ICRF antennas for C-Mod and TFTR was investigated during this period. In addition, quasilinear models for electron heating were refined and applied to the design of ICRF antennas. The relevant professional activities sponsored by this grant are given. 4 refs., 11 figs

  13. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, Nélida R; Driscoll, Don A; Escobar, Martín A H; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will

  14. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida R Villaseñor

    Full Text Available With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula. We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1 habitat quality/preference, (2 species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3 spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This

  15. ICRF edge modeling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehrman, I.S. (Grumman Corp. Research Center, Princeton, NJ (USA)); Colestock, P.L. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-04-01

    Theoretical models have been developed, and are currently being refined, to explain the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during ICRF heating. The periodic structure of a Faraday shielded antenna is found to result in strong ponderomotive force in the vicinity of the antenna. A fluid model, which incorporates the ponderomotive force, shows an increase in transport to the Faraday shield. A kinetic model shows that the strong antenna near fields act to increase the energy of deuterons which strike the shield, thereby increasing the sputtering of shield material. Estimates of edge impurity harmonic heating show no significant heating for either in or out-of-phase antenna operation. Additionally, a particle model for electrons near the shield shows that heating results from the parallel electric field associated with the fast wave. A quasilinear model for edge electron heating is presented and compared to the particle calculations. The models' predictions are shown to be consistent with measurements of enhanced transport. (orig.).

  16. Smoothness in Binomial Edge Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Damadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study some geometric properties of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. We study the singularity and smoothness of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. Some of these algebraic sets are irreducible and some of them are reducible. If every irreducible component of the algebraic set is smooth we call the graph an edge smooth graph, otherwise it is called an edge singular graph. We show that complete graphs are edge smooth and introduce two conditions such that the graph G is edge singular if and only if it satisfies these conditions. Then, it is shown that cycles and most of trees are edge singular. In addition, it is proved that complete bipartite graphs are edge smooth.

  17. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  18. High-resolution investigations of edge effects in neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Kuehne, G.; Frei, G.; Manke, I.

    2009-01-01

    Edge enhancement is the main effect measured by the so-called inline or propagation-based neutron phase contrast imaging method. The effect has originally been explained by diffraction, and high spatial coherence has been claimed to be a necessary precondition. However, edge enhancement has also been found in conventional imaging with high resolution. In such cases the effects can produce artefacts and hinder quantification. In this letter the edge effects at cylindrical shaped samples and long straight edges have been studied in detail. The enhancement can be explained by refraction and total reflection. Using high-resolution imaging, where spatial resolutions better than 50 μm could be achieved, refraction and total reflection peaks - similar to diffraction patterns - could be separated and distinguished.

  19. Saturn's Rings Edge-on

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In one of nature's most dramatic examples of 'now-you see-them, now-you-don't', NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured Saturn on May 22, 1995 as the planet's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This ring-plane crossing occurs approximately every 15 years when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane.For comparison, the top picture was taken by Hubble on December 1, 1994 and shows the rings in a more familiar configuration for Earth observers.The bottom picture was taken shortly before the ring plane crossing. The rings do not disappear completely because the edge of the rings reflects sunlight. The dark band across the middle of Saturn is the shadow of the rings cast on the planet (the Sun is almost 3 degrees above the ring plane.) The bright stripe directly above the ring shadow is caused by sunlight reflected off the rings onto Saturn's atmosphere. Two of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are, from left to right, Tethys (slightly above the ring plane) and Dione.This observation will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).Both pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The top image was taken in visible light. Saturn's disk appears different in the bottom image because a narrowband filter (which only lets through light that is not absorbed by methane gas in Saturn's atmosphere) was used to reduce the bright glare of the planet. Though Saturn is approximately 900 million miles away, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles across.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and

  20. The influence of anthropogenic edge effects on primate populations and their habitat in a fragmented rainforest in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Laura M; Schreier, Amy L; Voss, Kristofor A; Sheehan, Elizabeth A; Barrickman, Nancy L; Pryor, Nathaniel P; Barton, Matthew C

    2018-05-01

    When a forest is fragmented, this increases the amount of forest edge relative to the interior. Edge effects can lead to loss of animal and plant species and decreased plant biomass near forest edges. We examined the influence of an anthropogenic forest edge comprising cattle pasture, coconut plantations, and human settlement on the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), and plant populations at La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), Costa Rica. We predicted that there would be lower monkey encounter rate, mean tree species richness, and diameter at breast height (DBH) in forest edge versus interior, and that monkeys would show species-specific responses to edge based on diet, body size, and canopy height preferences. Specifically, we predicted that howler monkeys would show positive or neutral edge effects due to their flexible folivorous diet, large body size, and preference for high canopy, capuchins would show positive edge effects due to their diverse diet, small body size, and preference for low to middle canopy, and spider monkeys would show negative edge effects due their reliance on ripe fruit, large body size, and preference for high upper canopy. We conducted population and vegetation surveys along edge and interior transects at LSBRS. Contrary to predictions, total monkey encounter rate did not vary between the forest edge and forest interior. Furthermore, all three species showed neutral edge effects with no significant differences in encounter rate between forest edge and interior. Interior transects had significantly higher mean tree species richness than edge transects, and interior trees had greater DBH than edge trees, although this difference was not significant. These results suggest that forest edges negatively impact plant populations at La Suerte but that the monkeys are able to withstand these differences in vegetation.

  1. Assessing Adult Learning Preferences Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doris; McCool, John; Napieralski, Laura

    2000-01-01

    Graduate students (n=134) used the analytic hierarchy process, which weights expressed preferences, to rate four learning activities: lectures, discussion/reflection, individual projects, and group projects. Their preferences for discussion/reflection and individual projects were independent of auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learning styles.…

  2. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…

  3. Spectral Reflectance and Vegetation Index Changes in Deciduous Forest Foliage Following Tree Removal: Potential for Deforestation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, D.; Hu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-05-01

    It is important to detect and quantify deforestation to guide strategic decisions regarding environment, socioeconomic development, and climate change. In the present study, we conducted a field experiment to examine spectral reflectance and vegetation index changes in poplar and locust tree foliage with different leaf area indices over the course of three sunny days, following tree removal from the canopy. The spectral reflectance of foliage from harvested trees was measured using an ASD FieldSpec Prospectroradiometer; synchronous meteorological data were also obtained. We found that reflectance in short-wave infrared and red-edge reflectance was more time sensitive after tree removal than reflectance in other spectral regions, and that the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the red-edge chlorophyll index (CIRE) were the preferred indicators of these changes from several indices evaluated. Synthesized meteorological environments were found to influence water and chlorophyll contents after tree removal, and this subsequently changed the spectral canopy reflectance. Our results indicate the potential for such tree removal to be detected with NDWI or CIRE from the second day of a deforestation event.

  4. Competing edge networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mark; Grindrod, Peter

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a model for a pair of nonlinear evolving networks, defined over a common set of vertices, subject to edgewise competition. Each network may grow new edges spontaneously or through triad closure. Both networks inhibit the other's growth and encourage the other's demise. These nonlinear stochastic competition equations yield to a mean field analysis resulting in a nonlinear deterministic system. There may be multiple equilibria; and bifurcations of different types are shown to occur within a reduced parameter space. This situation models competitive communication networks such as BlackBerry Messenger displacing SMS; or instant messaging displacing emails.

  5. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  6. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  7. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  8. Concordant preferences for actual height and facial cues to height

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Daniel Edward; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Physical height has a well-documented effect on human mate preferences. In general, both sexes prefer opposite-sex romantic relationships in which the man is taller than the woman, while individual preferences for height are affected by a person’s own height. Research in human mate choice has demonstrated that attraction to facial characteristics, such as facial adiposity, may reflect references for body characteristics. Here, we tested preferences for facial cues to height. In general, incre...

  9. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  10. Cheating on the edge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Alan Dugatkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an individual agent-based model of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Our model examines antibiotic resistance when two strategies exist: "producers"--who secrete a substance that breaks down antibiotics--and nonproducers ("cheats" who do not secrete, or carry the machinery associated with secretion. The model allows for populations of up to 10,000, in which bacteria are affected by their nearest neighbors, and we assume cheaters die when there are no producers in their neighborhood. Each of 10,000 slots on our grid (a torus could be occupied by a producer or a nonproducer, or could (temporarily be unoccupied. The most surprising and dramatic result we uncovered is that when producers and nonproducers coexist at equilibrium, nonproducers are almost always found on the edges of clusters of producers.

  11. Challenges in edge modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.

    2007-01-01

    Fluid models like B2, UEDGE or EDGE2D are the working horses for scrape-off layer physics, both for design and experimental support. The concept of a numerical tokamak, aiming at a predictive code for ITER, triggers the need to re-assess the available tools and their necessary extensions. These additional physics issues will be summarized from a personal point-of-view. Depending on the specific problem, several complexity levels of scrape-off layer models will be needed. Therefore, a hierarchy of tools is necessary, which will be discussed. Furthermore, the experience existing in other scientific fields with multi-scale problems and modeling should be used. Here, the coupling of different length and time scales are in particular of interest for fusion problems. (author)

  12. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  13. Playing on the edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak-Sassenrath, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    and specific ways. For instance, gambling for money, party and drinking games, professional play and show sports, art installations, violent and military propaganda computer games, pervasive/mobile gaming, live-action role playing, festivals, performances, and games such as Ghosting and Planking. It is argued......Everything gets more interesting, challenging, or intense the closer it gets to the edge, and so does play. How edgy can play become and still be play? Based on Huizinga’s notion of play, this chapter discusses how a wide range of playful activities pushes the boundaries of play in different...... that in concert with a number of characteristics that mark an activity as play, play is essentially a subjective perspective and individual decision of the player. Huizinga calls this attitude the play spirit, which informs a player’s actions and is in turn sustained by them. Edgy digital or mobile games do...

  14. Competing edge networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Mark; Grindrod, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a model for a pair of nonlinear evolving networks, defined over a common set of vertices, subject to edgewise competition. Each network may grow new edges spontaneously or through triad closure. Both networks inhibit the other's growth and encourage the other's demise. These nonlinear stochastic competition equations yield to a mean field analysis resulting in a nonlinear deterministic system. There may be multiple equilibria; and bifurcations of different types are shown to occur within a reduced parameter space. This situation models competitive communication networks such as BlackBerry Messenger displacing SMS; or instant messaging displacing emails. -- Highlights: ► A model for edgewise-competing evolving network pairs is introduced. ► Defined competition equations yield to a mean field analysis. ► Multiple equilibrium states and different bifurcation types can occur. ► The system is sensitive to sparse initial conditions and near unstable equilibriums.

  15. Crusading on the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land to Iberia and the Baltic region and the use of such ideas in local rhetoric and propaganda; the papal attitudes towards the Iberian and Baltic campaigns; the papal attitudes towards Muslims living in Christian Spain; ther interaction between conquered and conquerors as reflected in art...

  16. Community detection using preference networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasgin, Mursel; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2018-04-01

    Community detection is the task of identifying clusters or groups of nodes in a network where nodes within the same group are more connected with each other than with nodes in different groups. It has practical uses in identifying similar functions or roles of nodes in many biological, social and computer networks. With the availability of very large networks in recent years, performance and scalability of community detection algorithms become crucial, i.e. if time complexity of an algorithm is high, it cannot run on large networks. In this paper, we propose a new community detection algorithm, which has a local approach and is able to run on large networks. It has a simple and effective method; given a network, algorithm constructs a preference network of nodes where each node has a single outgoing edge showing its preferred node to be in the same community with. In such a preference network, each connected component is a community. Selection of the preferred node is performed using similarity based metrics of nodes. We use two alternatives for this purpose which can be calculated in 1-neighborhood of nodes, i.e. number of common neighbors of selector node and its neighbors and, the spread capability of neighbors around the selector node which is calculated by the gossip algorithm of Lind et.al. Our algorithm is tested on both computer generated LFR networks and real-life networks with ground-truth community structure. It can identify communities accurately in a fast way. It is local, scalable and suitable for distributed execution on large networks.

  17. Analytic Reflected Lightcurves for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Hal M.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2018-04-01

    The disk-integrated reflected brightness of an exoplanet changes as a function of time due to orbital and rotational motion coupled with an inhomogeneous albedo map. We have previously derived analytic reflected lightcurves for spherical harmonic albedo maps in the special case of a synchronously-rotating planet on an edge-on orbit (Cowan, Fuentes & Haggard 2013). In this letter, we present analytic reflected lightcurves for the general case of a planet on an inclined orbit, with arbitrary spin period and non-zero obliquity. We do so for two different albedo basis maps: bright points (δ-maps), and spherical harmonics (Y_l^m-maps). In particular, we use Wigner D-matrices to express an harmonic lightcurve for an arbitrary viewing geometry as a non-linear combination of harmonic lightcurves for the simpler edge-on, synchronously rotating geometry. These solutions will enable future exploration of the degeneracies and information content of reflected lightcurves, as well as fast calculation of lightcurves for mapping exoplanets based on time-resolved photometry. To these ends we make available Exoplanet Analytic Reflected Lightcurves (EARL), a simple open-source code that allows rapid computation of reflected lightcurves.

  18. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  19. Cutting Edge Localisation in an Edge Profile Milling Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Wear evaluation of cutting tools is a key issue for prolonging their lifetime and ensuring high quality of products. In this paper, we present a method for the effective localisation of cutting edges of inserts in digital images of an edge profile milling head. We introduce a new image data set of

  20. Edge effects and geometric constraints: a landscape-level empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Suzy E; Prevedello, Jayme A; Delciellos, Ana Cláudia; Vieira, Marcus Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects are pervasive in landscapes yet their causal mechanisms are still poorly understood. Traditionally, edge effects have been attributed to differences in habitat quality along the edge-interior gradient of habitat patches, under the assumption that no edge effects would occur if habitat quality was uniform. This assumption was questioned recently after the recognition that geometric constraints tend to reduce population abundances near the edges of habitat patches, the so-called geometric edge effect (GEE). Here, we present the first empirical, landscape-level evaluation of the importance of the GEE in shaping abundance patterns in fragmented landscapes. Using a data set on the distribution of small mammals across 18 forest fragments, we assessed whether the incorporation of the GEE into the analysis changes the interpretation of edge effects and the degree to which predictions based on the GEE match observed responses. Quantitative predictions were generated for each fragment using simulations that took into account home range, density and matrix use for each species. The incorporation of the GEE into the analysis changed substantially the interpretation of overall observed edge responses at the landscape scale. Observed abundances alone would lead to the conclusion that the small mammals as a group have no consistent preference for forest edges or interiors and that the black-eared opossum Didelphis aurita (a numerically dominant species in the community) has on average a preference for forest interiors. In contrast, incorporation of the GEE suggested that the small mammal community as a whole has a preference for forest edges, whereas D. aurita has no preference for forest edges or interiors. Unexplained variance in edge responses was reduced by the incorporation of GEE, but remained large, varying greatly on a fragment-by-fragment basis. This study demonstrates how to model and incorporate the GEE in analyses of edge effects and that this

  1. Full-waveform data for building roof step edge localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słota, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    Airborne laser scanning data perfectly represent flat or gently sloped areas; to date, however, accurate breakline detection is the main drawback of this technique. This issue becomes particularly important in the case of modeling buildings, where accuracy higher than the footprint size is often required. This article covers several issues related to full-waveform data registered on building step edges. First, the full-waveform data simulator was developed and presented in this paper. Second, this article provides a full description of the changes in echo amplitude, echo width and returned power caused by the presence of edges within the laser footprint. Additionally, two important properties of step edge echoes, peak shift and echo asymmetry, were noted and described. It was shown that these properties lead to incorrect echo positioning along the laser center line and can significantly reduce the edge points' accuracy. For these reasons and because all points are aligned with the center of the beam, regardless of the actual target position within the beam footprint, we can state that step edge points require geometric corrections. This article presents a novel algorithm for the refinement of step edge points. The main distinguishing advantage of the developed algorithm is the fact that none of the additional data, such as emitted signal parameters, beam divergence, approximate edge geometry or scanning settings, are required. The proposed algorithm works only on georeferenced profiles of reflected laser energy. Another major advantage is the simplicity of the calculation, allowing for very efficient data processing. Additionally, the developed method of point correction allows for the accurate determination of points lying on edges and edge point densification. For this reason, fully automatic localization of building roof step edges based on LiDAR full-waveform data with higher accuracy than the size of the lidar footprint is feasible.

  2. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    that subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk......We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although...... the methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence...

  3. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Johannes S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Assaad, Fakher F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schnyder, Andreas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground state degeneracy and a diverging density of states. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. Here, we employ Monte Carlo simulations combined with mean-field considerations to examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of d{sub xy}-wave superconductors. We find that attractive interactions induce a complex s-wave pairing instability together with a density wave instability. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism mixed with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. We discuss the implications of our findings for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  4. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  5. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  6. Network evolution by nonlinear preferential rewiring of edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Jian; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-Jie

    2011-06-01

    The mathematical framework for small-world networks proposed in a seminal paper by Watts and Strogatz sparked a widespread interest in modeling complex networks in the past decade. However, most of research contributing to static models is in contrast to real-world dynamic networks, such as social and biological networks, which are characterized by rearrangements of connections among agents. In this paper, we study dynamic networks evolved by nonlinear preferential rewiring of edges. The total numbers of vertices and edges of the network are conserved, but edges are continuously rewired according to the nonlinear preference. Assuming power-law kernels with exponents α and β, the network structures in stationary states display a distinct behavior, depending only on β. For β>1, the network is highly heterogeneous with the emergence of starlike structures. For β<1, the network is widely homogeneous with a typical connectivity. At β=1, the network is scale free with an exponential cutoff.

  7. Temporal Context, Preference, and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through…

  8. The edge of space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.

    1993-01-01

    What happened at the beginning of the expansion of the universe. Did space time have an edge at the Big Bang. The answer is that, if the boundary conditions of the universe are that it has no boundary, time ceases to be well-defined in the very early universe as the direction ''north'' ceases to be well defined at the North Pole of the Earth. The quantity that we measure as time has a beginning but that does not mean spacetime has an edge, just as the surface of the Earth does not have an edge at the North Pole. 8 figs

  9. Design lithium storage materials by lithium adatoms adsorption at the edges of zigzag silicene nanoribbon: A first principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gang; Mao, Yuliang; Zhong, Jianxin; Yuan, Jianmei; Zhao, Hongquan

    2017-06-01

    First-principles spin-polarized calculations are performed to design lithium storage materials using the active edges of zigzag silicene nanoribbon (ZSiNR). We predict that edge-adsorption of Li adatoms on zigzag silicene nanoribbon is preferred in energy to form new type lithium storage materials. Significant charge transfer from Li adatoms to Si atoms at the edges of ZSiNR is found, indicating the main ionic interactions. It is found that the band structures of ZSiNR with Li adsorptions are sensitive with the variation of sites of adatoms at the two edges. Ferro-magnetic to antiferro-magnetic change is found in ZSiNR with symmetrical adsorption of Li adatoms at its two edges. Other unsymmetrical Li adsorptions at the edges of ZSiNR prefer to stay in ferro-magnetic state as that in narrow pristine ZSiNR.

  10. Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhard, T; Carolus, T; Erbslöh, S

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length

  11. Compatibility of Mating Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bingol, Haluk O.; Basar, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Human mating is a complex phenomenon. Although men and women have different preferences in mate selection, there should be compatibility in these preferences since human mating requires agreement of both parties. We investigate how compatible the mating preferences of men and women are in a given property such as age, height, education and income. We use dataset of a large online dating site (N = 44, 255 users). (i) Our findings are based on the "actual behavior" of users trying to find a dat...

  12. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  13. Diffraction at a Straight Edge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 5. Diffraction at a Straight Edge: A Gem from Sommerfeld's Work in Classical Physics. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 20 Issue 5 May 2015 pp 389-400 ...

  14. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500Kred edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  15. Edge Fracture in Complex Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Ewan J; Kusumaatmaja, Halim; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2017-07-14

    We study theoretically the edge fracture instability in sheared complex fluids, by means of linear stability analysis and direct nonlinear simulations. We derive an exact analytical expression for the onset of edge fracture in terms of the shear-rate derivative of the fluid's second normal stress difference, the shear-rate derivative of the shear stress, the jump in shear stress across the interface between the fluid and the outside medium (usually air), the surface tension of that interface, and the rheometer gap size. We provide a full mechanistic understanding of the edge fracture instability, carefully validated against our simulations. These findings, which are robust with respect to choice of rheological constitutive model, also suggest a possible route to mitigating edge fracture, potentially allowing experimentalists to achieve and accurately measure flows stronger than hitherto possible.

  16. Edge of polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  17. Design lithium storage materials by lithium adatoms adsorption at the edges of zigzag silicene nanoribbon: A first principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Gang [Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro–Nano Energy Materials and Devices, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan, 411105 (China); Mao, Yuliang, E-mail: ylmao@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro–Nano Energy Materials and Devices, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan, 411105 (China); Zhong, Jianxin [Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro–Nano Energy Materials and Devices, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan, 411105 (China); Yuan, Jianmei [Hunan Key Laboratory for Computation and Simulation in Science and Engineering, School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Xiangtan University, Hunan, 411105 (China); Zhao, Hongquan, E-mail: hqzhao@cigit.ac.cn [Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 401120 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Edge-adsorption of Li adatoms on zigzag silicene nanoribbon is preferred in energy to form new type lithium storage materials. • Significant charge transfer from Li adatoms to Si atoms is found, indicating the main ionic interactions. • The band structures of zigzag silicene nanoribbon are sensitive with the variation of sites of Li adatoms at the two edges. • The local magnetic moments at the two edges of zigzag silicene nanoribbon are suppressed by the adsorptions of Li adatoms. - Abstract: First-principles spin-polarized calculations are performed to design lithium storage materials using the active edges of zigzag silicene nanoribbon (ZSiNR). We predict that edge-adsorption of Li adatoms on zigzag silicene nanoribbon is preferred in energy to form new type lithium storage materials. Significant charge transfer from Li adatoms to Si atoms at the edges of ZSiNR is found, indicating the main ionic interactions. It is found that the band structures of ZSiNR with Li adsorptions are sensitive with the variation of sites of adatoms at the two edges. Ferro-magnetic to antiferro-magnetic change is found in ZSiNR with symmetrical adsorption of Li adatoms at its two edges. Other unsymmetrical Li adsorptions at the edges of ZSiNR prefer to stay in ferro-magnetic state as that in narrow pristine ZSiNR.

  18. Design lithium storage materials by lithium adatoms adsorption at the edges of zigzag silicene nanoribbon: A first principle study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Gang; Mao, Yuliang; Zhong, Jianxin; Yuan, Jianmei; Zhao, Hongquan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Edge-adsorption of Li adatoms on zigzag silicene nanoribbon is preferred in energy to form new type lithium storage materials. • Significant charge transfer from Li adatoms to Si atoms is found, indicating the main ionic interactions. • The band structures of zigzag silicene nanoribbon are sensitive with the variation of sites of Li adatoms at the two edges. • The local magnetic moments at the two edges of zigzag silicene nanoribbon are suppressed by the adsorptions of Li adatoms. - Abstract: First-principles spin-polarized calculations are performed to design lithium storage materials using the active edges of zigzag silicene nanoribbon (ZSiNR). We predict that edge-adsorption of Li adatoms on zigzag silicene nanoribbon is preferred in energy to form new type lithium storage materials. Significant charge transfer from Li adatoms to Si atoms at the edges of ZSiNR is found, indicating the main ionic interactions. It is found that the band structures of ZSiNR with Li adsorptions are sensitive with the variation of sites of adatoms at the two edges. Ferro-magnetic to antiferro-magnetic change is found in ZSiNR with symmetrical adsorption of Li adatoms at its two edges. Other unsymmetrical Li adsorptions at the edges of ZSiNR prefer to stay in ferro-magnetic state as that in narrow pristine ZSiNR.

  19. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  20. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  1. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  2. Measuring Normative Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe results of eliciting risk preferences depend on the elicitation method. Different methods of measuring the same variable tend to produce different results. This raises the question whether normative risk preferences can be elicited at all. Using two types of manipulation, I assess

  3. The vehicle routing problem with edge set costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Pisinger, David

    We consider an important generalization of the vehicle routing problem with time windows in which a fixed cost must be paid for accessing a set of edges. This fixed cost could reflect payment for toll roads, investment in new facilities, the need for certifications and other costly investments....... The certifications and contributions impose a cost for the company while they also give unlimited usage of a set of roads to all vehicles belonging to the company. Different versions for defining the edge sets are discussed and formulated. A MIP-formulation of the problem is presented, and a solution method based...

  4. Sharpening the intangibles edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Baruch

    2004-06-01

    Intangible assets--patents and know-how, brands, a skilled workforce, strong customer relationships, software, unique processes and organizational designs, and the like--generate most of a company's growth and shareholder value. Yet extensive research indicates that investors systematically misprice the shares of intangibles-intensive enterprises. Clearly, overpricing wastes capital. But underpricing raises the cost of capital, hamstringing executives in their efforts to take advantage of further growth opportunities. How do you break this vicious cycle? By generating better information about your investments in intangibles, and by disclosing at least some of that data to the capital markets. Getting at that information is easier said than done, however. There are no markets generating visible prices for intellectual capital, brands, or human capital to assist investors in correctly valuing intangibles-intensive companies. And current accounting practices lump funds spent on intangibles with general expenses, so that investors and executives don't even know how much is being invested in them, let alone what a return on those investments might be. At the very least, companies should break out the amounts spent on intangibles and disclose them to the markets. More fundamentally, executives should start thinking of intangibles not as costs but as assets, so that they are recognized as investments whose returns are identified and monitored. The proposals laid down in this article are only a beginning, the author stresses. Corporations and accounting bodies should make systematic efforts to develop information that can reliably reflect the unique attributes of intangible assets. The current serious misallocations of resources should be incentive enough for businesses to join--and even lead--such developments.

  5. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koho, K.A.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Fontanier, C.; Toyofuku, T.; Oguri, K.; Kitazato, H.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata) were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn) concentrations for the first time along a

  6. Consumer participation in housing: reflecting on consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Graeme; Hemsley, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Historically, people living with mental illness have had limited chance to participate in mental health services other than as patients. Following on from a recent review focusing on consumer participation in mental health services, this paper looks at consumer participation in housing. Housing is a critical element in recovery from mental illness. Without suitable housing, people have little chance of maintaining other resources in their lives, such as supportive social relationships and meaningful activities. Consumer participation is not a common topic in the recent literature, despite the significant public policy push to promote it. The importance of appropriate housing to the recovery of people living with mental illness cannot be underestimated. Even well-meaning and well-resourced housing initiatives can fall short of meeting consumers' recovery goals when they do not incorporate the expressed needs of consumers. These expressed needs include keeping units small in size and employing drop-in support models.

  7. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  8. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  9. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  10. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  11. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  12. Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Levin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, K_{H}≠0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when K_{H}=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and K_{H}=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1 all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2 every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.

  13. Customer Preference-Based Information Retrieval to Build Module Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxing Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preference is viewed as an outer feeling of a product, also as a reflection of human's inner thought. It dominates the designers' decisions and affects our purchase intention. In the paper, a model of preference elicitation from customers is proposed to build module concepts. Firstly, the attributes of customer preference are classified in a hierarchy and make the surveys to build customer preference concepts. Secondly, the documents or catalogs of design requirements, perhaps containing some textual description and geometric data, are normalized by using semantic expressions. Some semantic rules are developed to describe low-level features of customer preference to construct a knowledge base of customer preference. Thirdly, designers' needs are used to map customer preference for generating module concepts. Finally, an empirical study of the stapler is surveyed to illustrate the validity of module concept generation.

  14. Composite polymer: Glass edge cladding for laser disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, H.T.; Wolfe, C.A.; Campbell, J.H.; Murray, J.E.; Riley, M.O.; Lyon, R.E.; Jessop, E.S.

    1987-11-02

    Large neodymium glass laser disks for disk amplifiers such as those used in the Nova laser require an edge cladding which absorbs at 1 micrometer. This cladding prevents edge reflections from causing parasitic oscillations which would otherwise deplete the gain. Nova now utilizes volume-absorbing monolithic-glass claddings which are fused at high temperature to the disks. These perform quite well but are expensive to produce. Absorbing glass strips are adhesively bonded to the edges of polygonal disks using a bonding agent whose index of refraction matches that of both the laser and absorbing glass. Optical finishing occurs after the strips are attached. Laser disks constructed with such claddings have shown identical gain performance to the previous Nova disks and have been tested for hundreds of shots without significant degradation. 18 figs.

  15. Composite polymer-glass edge cladding for laser disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Howard T.; Riley, Michael O.; Wolfe, Charles R.; Lyon, Richard E.; Campbell, John H.; Jessop, Edward S.; Murray, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Large neodymium glass laser disks for disk amplifiers such as those used in the Nova laser require an edge cladding which absorbs at 1 micrometer. This cladding prevents edge reflections from causing parasitic oscillations which would otherwise deplete the gain. Nova now utilizes volume-absorbing monolithic-glass claddings which are fused at high temperature to the disks. These perform quite well but are expensive to produce. Absorbing glass strips are adhesively bonded to the edges of polygonal disks using a bonding agent whose index of refraction matches that of both the laser and absorbing glass. Optical finishing occurs after the strips are attached. Laser disks constructed with such claddings have shown identical gain performance to the previous Nova disks and have been tested for hundreds of shots without significant degradation.

  16. The P K-near edge absorption spectra of phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, R.; Hormes, J.

    1995-12-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at the P K-edge in several orthophosphates with various cations, in condensed, and in substituted sodium phosphates have been measured using synchrotron radiation from the ELSA storage ring at the University of Bonn. The measured spectra demonstrate that chemical changes beyond the PO 4- tetrahedra are reflected by energy shifts of the pre-edge and continuum resonances, by the presence of characteristic shoulders and new peaks and by differences in the intensity of the white line. We discuss the energy differences between the white line positions and the corresponding P ls binding energies as a measure of half of the energy gap. The corresponding values correlate with the valence of the cations and the intensity of the white lines. The energy positions of the continuum resonances are discussed on the basis of an empirical bond-length correlation supporting a 1/ r2 - dependence.

  17. All-graphene edge contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kåre Wedel; Falkenberg, Jesper Toft; Papior, Nick Rübner

    2016-01-01

    Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures as a func......Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures...... to be in therange of 1-10 kΩμm which is comparable to the best contact resistance reportedfor edge-contacted graphene-metal contacts. We conclude that conductingall-carbon T-junctions should be feasible....

  18. A convolutional approach to reflection symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cicconet, Marcelo; Birodkar, Vighnesh; Lund, Mads

    2017-01-01

    We present a convolutional approach to reflection symmetry detection in 2D. Our model, built on the products of complex-valued wavelet convolutions, simplifies previous edge-based pairwise methods. Being parameter-centered, as opposed to feature-centered, it has certain computational advantages w...

  19. Improving color constancy by photometric edge weighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.; van de Weijer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Edge-based color constancy methods make use of image derivatives to estimate the illuminant. However, different edge types exist in real-world images, such as material, shadow, and highlight edges. These different edge types may have a distinctive influence on the performance of the illuminant

  20. A study of the effect of the position of an edge filter within a ratiometric wavelength measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiang; Wang, Pengfei; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the position of an edge filter within a ratiometric wavelength measurement system was investigated based on three cases: (1) the reflected fibre Bragg grating (FBG) signal passes through both the reference arm and the edge filter arm, (2) the reflected FBG signal is connected directly to the edge filter arm and does not pass through the reference arm, (3) the edge filter sits in line with the FBG and thus the source power is filtered prior to reaching the FBG. Both numerical simulations and experimental results show that cases 1 and 2 have similar system performance whilst case 3 is the best arrangement which offers the highest wavelength resolution

  1. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  2. Revealed smooth nontransitive preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the behavioural consequences of consumers having nontransitive preference relations. Data sets consist of finitely many observations of price vectors and consumption bundles. A preference relation rationalizes a data set provided that for every observed...... consumption bundle, all strictly preferred bundles are more expensive than the observed bundle. Our main result is that data sets can be rationalized by a smooth nontransitive preference relation if and only if prices can normalized such that the law of demand is satisfied. Market data sets consist of finitely...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....

  3. Consumers’ preferences for bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...

  4. The knife-edge chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, S.M.; Lee, B.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Popovic, M.; Smith, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the design for a new technology for particle track detectors is described. Using standard IC fabrication techniques, a pattern of microscopic knife edges and field-shaping electrodes can be fabricated on a silicon substrate. The knife-edge chamber uniquely offers attractive performance for the track chambers required for SSC detectors, for which no present technology is yet satisfactory. Its features include: excellent radiation hardness (10 Mrad), excellent spatial resolution (∼20 μm), short drift time (20 ns), and large pulse height (1 mV)

  5. One-dimensional in-plane edge domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ross G.; Muratov, Cyrill B.; Slastikov, Valeriy V.

    2018-03-01

    We study existence and properties of 1D edge domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic films with uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. In these materials, the magnetization vector is constrained to lie entirely in the film plane, with the preferred directions dictated by the magnetocrystalline easy axis. We consider magnetization profiles in the vicinity of a straight film edge oriented at an arbitrary angle with respect to the easy axis. To minimize the micromagnetic energy, these profiles form transition layers in which the magnetization vector rotates away from the direction of the easy axis to align with the film edge. We prove existence of edge domain walls as minimizers of the appropriate 1D micromagnetic energy functional and show that they are classical solutions of the associated Euler-Lagrange equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition at the edge. We also perform a numerical study of these 1D domain walls and uncover further properties of these domain wall profiles.

  6. A constricted quantum Hall system as a beam-splitter: understanding ballistic transport on the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Siddhartha

    2007-09-01

    We study transport in a model of a quantum Hall edge system with a gate-voltage controlled constriction. A finite backscattered current at finite edge-bias is explained from a Landauer- Buttiker analysis as arising from the splitting of edge current caused by the difference in the filling fractions of the bulk (ν 1 ) and constriction(ν 2 ) quantum Hall fluid regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model. The constriction region splits the incident long-wavelength chiral edge density-wave excitations among the transmitting and reflecting edge states encircling it. These findings provide satisfactory explanations for several puzzling recent experimental results. These results are confirmed by computing various correlators and chiral linear conductances of the system. In this way, our results find excellent agreement with some of the recent puzzling experimental results for the cases of ν 1 = 1/3, 1. (author)

  7. Teachers' preferences towards textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Darko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the method named Conjoint analysis, and with the goal of determining teacher's preferences in the process of textbook selection, and also defining the prototype of quality textbook which will could be used in the classroom. With consideration of criteria defined in the previous researches on this topic, an continuing the work on those results, we will create clear hypothetical prototype of the textbook which will satisfy the teacher's preference.

  8. Age Preferences for Professional Helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furchtgott, Ernest; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    1981-01-01

    For all occupations except clergyman, a relationship between the age of the respondent and preferred age of the professional existed. Older individuals preferred older service providers with one exception, their physician. Highly educated respondents preferred younger physicians. (Author)

  9. Preference Handling for Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Judy; University of Kentucky; Junker, Ulrich; ILOG

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of preferences for AI systems and draws a picture of current AI research on preference handling. It thus provides an introduction to the topics covered by this special issue on preference handling.

  10. Topographic and spectroscopic characterization of electronic edge states in CVD grown graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Minghu; Girão, E Costa; Jia, Xiaoting; Bhaviripudi, Sreekar; Li, Qing; Kong, Jing; Meunier, V; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-11

    We used scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) techniques to analyze the relationships between the edge shapes and the electronic structures in as-grown chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). A rich variety of single-layered graphene nanoribbons exhibiting a width of several to 100 nm and up to 1 μm long were studied. High-resolution STM images highlight highly crystalline nanoribbon structures with well-defined and clean edges. Theoretical calculations indicate clear spin-split edge states induced by electron-electron Coulomb repulsion. The edge defects can significantly modify these edge states, and different edge structures for both sides of a single ribbon produce asymmetric electronic edge states, which reflect the more realistic features of CVD grown GNRs. Three structural models are proposed and analyzed to explain the observations. By comparing the models with an atomic resolution image at the edge, a pristine (2,1) structure was ruled out in favor of a reconstructed edge structure composed of 5-7 member rings, showing a better match with experimental results, and thereby suggesting the possibility of a defective morphology at the edge of CVD grown nanoribbons. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  11. At the edge of intonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the 'edge of intonation' in a twofold sense. It focuses on utterance-final F0 movements and crosses the traditional segment-prosody divide by investigating the interplay of F0 and voiceless fricatives in speech production. An experiment was performed for German with four...

  12. Capillary Sharp Inner Edge Manufacturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jan; Studenovský, K.; Najdek, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 35 (2009), s. 19-25 ISSN 1584-5982. [MECAHITECH 09 /1./. Bukurešť, 08.10.2009-09.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : capillary * edge * manufacturing Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  13. Reflection-Based Learning for Professional Ethical Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, William T; George, Maura

    2017-04-01

    One way practitioners learn ethics is by reflecting on experience. They may reflect in the moment (reflection-in-action) or afterwards (reflection-on-action). We illustrate how a teaching clinician may transform relationships with patients and teach person-centered care through reflective learning. We discuss reflective learning pedagogies and present two case examples of our preferred method, guided group reflection using narratives. This method fosters moral development alongside professional identity formation in students and advanced learners. Our method for reflective learning addresses and enables processing of the most pressing ethical issues that learners encounter in practice. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by edge density and matrix type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological edge effects are sensitive to landscape context. In particular, edge effects can be altered by matrix type and by the presence of other nearby edges. We experimentally altered patch configurations in an African savanna to determine how edge density and matrix type influence edge effect de...

  15. Grouping by Closure Influences Subjective Regularity and Implicit Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Makin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A reflection between a pair of contours is more rapidly detected than a translation, but this effect is stronger when the contours are closed to form a single object compared to when they are closed to form 2 objects with a gap between them. That is, grouping changes the relative salience of different regularities. We tested whether this manipulation would also change preference for reflection or translation. We measured preference for these patterns using the Implicit Association Test (IAT. On some trials, participants saw words that were either positive or negative and had to classify them as quickly as possible. On interleaved trials, they saw reflection or translation patterns and again had to classify them. Participants were faster when 1 button was used for reflection and positive words and another button was used for translation and negative words, compared to when the reverse response mapping was used (translation and positive vs. reflection and negative. This reaction time difference indicates an implicit preference for reflection over translation. However, the size of the implicit preference was significantly reduced in the Two-objects condition. We concluded that factors that affect perceptual sensitivity also systematically affect implicit preference formation.

  16. Edge-injective and edge-surjective vertex labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Regen, F.

    2010-01-01

    For a graph G = (V, E) we consider vertex-k-labellings f : V → {1,2, ,k} for which the induced edge weighting w : E → {2, 3,., 2k} with w(uv) = f(u) + f(v) is injective or surjective or both. We study the relation between these labellings and the number theoretic notions of an additive basis and ...

  17. Generalized Multi-Edge Analysis for K-Edge Densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.

    1998-01-01

    In K-edge densitometry (KED), a continuous-energy x-ray beam is transmitted through a liquid sample. The actinide content of the sample can be measured through analysis of the transmitted portion of the x-ray beam. Traditional methods for KED analysis allow the simultaneous calculation of, at most, two actinide concentrations. A generalized multi-edge KED analytical method is presented, allowing up to six actinide concentrations to be calculated simultaneously. Applications of this method for hybrid KED/x-ray fluorescence (HKED) systems are discussed. Current HKED systems require the operator to know the approximate actinide content of each sample, and manually select the proper analysis mode. The new multi-edge KED technique allows rapid identification of the major actinide components in a sample, independent of actinide content. The proper HKED analysis mode can be selected automatically, without requiring sample content information from the user. Automatic HKED analysis would be especially useful in an analytical laboratory setting, where samples with truly unknown characteristics are encountered. Because this technique requires no hardware modifications, several facilities that use HKED may eventually benefit from this approach

  18. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  19. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Marczak, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Many systems administrators on the Mac need a way to manage machine configuration after initial setup and deployment. Apple's Managed Preferences system (also known as MCX) is under-documented, often misunderstood, and sometimes outright unknown by sys admins. MCX is usually deployed in conjunction with an OS X server, but it can also be used in Windows environments or where no dedicated server exists at all. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences is the definitive guide to Apple's Managed Client technology. With this book, you'll get the following: * An example-driven guide to Mac OS X Managed Pr

  20. Feasibility of compensating for EUV field edge effects through OPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Chris; Word, James; Fenger, Germain L.; Niroomand, Ardavan; Lorusso, Gian F.; Jonckheere, Rik; Hendrickx, Eric; Smith, Bruce W.

    2014-04-01

    As EUV Lithography (EUVL) continues to evolve, it offers a possible solution to the problems of additional masks and lithography steps that drive up the cost and complexity of 193i multiple patterning. EUVL requires a non-telecentric reflective optical system for operation. This requirement causes EUV specific effects such as shadowing. The absorber physically shadows the reflective multilayer (ML) on an EUV reticle resulting in pattern fidelity degradation. To reduce this degradation, a thinner absorber may help. Yet, as the absorber thickness decreases, reflectivity increases in the `dark' region around the image field, resulting in a loss of contrast. The region around the edge of the die on the mask of unpatterned absorber material deposited on top of ML, known as the image border, is also susceptible to undesirable reflections in an ideally dark region. For EUVL to be enabled for high-volume manufacturing (HVM), reticle masking (REMA) blades are used to shield light from the image border to allow for the printing of densely spaced die. When die are printed densely, the image border of each neighboring die will overlap with the edge of a given die resulting in an increase of dose that overexposes features at the edge of the field. This effect is convolved with a fingerprint from the edge of the REMA blades. This phenomenon will be referred to as a field edge effect. One such mitigation strategy that has been investigated to reduce the field edge effect is to fully remove the ML along the image border to ensure that no actinic-EUV radiation can be reflected onto neighboring die. This has proven to suppress the effect, but residual out-of-band radiation still provides additional dose to features near the image border, especially in the corners where three neighboring fields overlap. Measurements of dense contact holes (CHs) have been made along the image border with and without a ML-etched border at IMEC in collaboration with Micron using the ASML NXE:3100. The

  1. Edge imaging in intense beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of rings of charge observed near the edge of beams from high-perveance guns is described with a simple ray tracing technique inspired by the particle-core model. We illustrate the technique, which has no analog in light optics, with examples from experiments employing solenoid focusing of an electron beam. The rings of charge result from the combined effects of external focusing and space-charge forces acting on paraxial fringe particles with relatively large initial transverse velocities. The model is independent of the physical mechanisms responsible for the fringe particles. Furthermore, the focal length for edge imaging in a uniform focusing channel is derived using a linearized trajectory equation for the motion of fringe particles. Counterintuitively, the focal length decreases as the beam current increases.

  2. Humans and mice express similar olfactory preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mandairon

    Full Text Available In humans, the pleasantness of odors is a major contributor to social relationships and food intake. Smells evoke attraction and repulsion responses, reflecting the hedonic value of the odorant. While olfactory preferences are known to be strongly modulated by experience and learning, it has been recently suggested that, in humans, the pleasantness of odors may be partly explained by the physicochemical properties of the odorant molecules themselves. If odor hedonic value is indeed predetermined by odorant structure, then it could be hypothesized that other species will show similar odor preferences to humans. Combining behavioral and psychophysical approaches, we here show that odorants rated as pleasant by humans were also those which, behaviorally, mice investigated longer and human subjects sniffed longer, thereby revealing for the first time a component of olfactory hedonic perception conserved across species. Consistent with this, we further show that odor pleasantness rating in humans and investigation time in mice were both correlated with the physicochemical properties of the molecules, suggesting that olfactory preferences are indeed partly engraved in the physicochemical structure of the odorant. That odor preferences are shared between mammal species and are guided by physicochemical features of odorant stimuli strengthens the view that odor preference is partially predetermined. These findings open up new perspectives for the study of the neural mechanisms of hedonic perception.

  3. Nonreference Medical Image Edge Map Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Panetta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Edge detection is a key step in medical image processing. It is widely used to extract features, perform segmentation, and further assist in diagnosis. A poor quality edge map can result in false alarms and misses in cancer detection algorithms. Therefore, it is necessary to have a reliable edge measure to assist in selecting the optimal edge map. Existing reference based edge measures require a ground truth edge map to evaluate the similarity between the generated edge map and the ground truth. However, the ground truth images are not available for medical images. Therefore, a nonreference edge measure is ideal for medical image processing applications. In this paper, a nonreference reconstruction based edge map evaluation (NREM is proposed. The theoretical basis is that a good edge map keeps the structure and details of the original image thus would yield a good reconstructed image. The NREM is based on comparing the similarity between the reconstructed image with the original image using this concept. The edge measure is used for selecting the optimal edge detection algorithm and optimal parameters for the algorithm. Experimental results show that the quantitative evaluations given by the edge measure have good correlations with human visual analysis.

  4. Gyrosheath near the tokamak edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Xiao, H.; Valanju, P.M.

    1993-03-01

    A new model for the structure of the radial electric field profile in the edge during the H-mode is proposed. Charge separation caused by the difference between electron and ion gyromotion, or more importantly in a tokamak, the banana motion (halo effect) can self-consistently produce an electric dipole moment that causes the sheared radial electric field. The calculated results based on the model are consistent with D-III D and TEXTOR experimental results

  5. A model to predict the sound reflection from forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wunderli, J.M.; Salomons, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    A model is presented to predict the reflection of sound at forest edges. A single tree is modelled as a vertical cylinder. For the reflection at a cylinder an analytical solution is given based on the theory of scattering of spherical waves. The entire forest is represented by a line of cylinders

  6. Magnetoplasma reflectivity studies on Cd3As2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Ortenberg, von M.; Gelten, M.J.; Blom, F.A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetoplasma reflectivity measurements were performed on Cd3As2 in order to obtain more experimental details about the structure of the plasma reflectivity edge. The experimental results can be explained by assuming the existence of a surface layer with a carrier concentration-gradient which is

  7. Achieving a competitive edge -- A comparison/contrast of two examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholl, P.L.; Ward, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    As the electric power industry moves from the regulated monopoly environment to one of open competition, the need to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage becomes critical. In the competitive market, having a competitive edge means having goods and services that the market prefers, i.e., buyers in the market prefer to purchase your goods and services rather than your competitors'. For electric power generating facilities, the market is the wholesale market, and because electric power is essentially a commodity, i.e., a megawatthour from one generating facility is the same as a megawatthour from another generating facility, the primary distinguishing factor in the market is price.d therefore, having a competitive edge in the market means having a lower price than the competition. This paper describes the basic elements of achieving a competitive edge and discusses how these elements are being used by two utilities with very different circumstances to improve their competitive positions

  8. Constructive Preference Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dragone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers (DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. They do so by interactively learning the DM’s preferences through appropriately chosen queries and suggesting high-quality outcomes based on the preference estimates. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. In presenting them, we especially focus on novel issues that the constructive setting brings forth, such as how to deal with sparsity of the DM’s preferences, how to properly frame the interaction, and how to achieve efficient synthesis of custom instances.

  9. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  10. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  11. Preferred Dance Tempo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia; Huron, David; Brod, Garvin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments participants tuned a drum machine to their preferred dance tempo. Measurements of height, shoulder width, leg length, and weight were taken for each participant, and their sex recorded. Using a multiple regression analysis, height and leg length combined was found to be the bes...

  12. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  13. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) REST Interface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  14. Organizing on the Edge: Appreciation and Critique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, W. R

    2006-01-01

    .... Hayes, "Power to the Edge: Command, Control in the Information Age" (2003). The author places the "edge" perspective in the broader context of organizational studies, noting both its strengths and limitations...

  15. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horváth

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest interior was significantly lower than that of the forest edge and the meadow. The composition of the spider assemblage of the edge was more similar to the forest, while the composition of weevils in the edge was more similar to the meadow. Our results based on two invertebrate groups operating on different trophic levels suggest that there is a significant edge effect for the studied taxa resulting in higher species richness in the edge.

  16. Spectral image reconstruction using an edge preserving spatio-spectral Wiener estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Philipp; Rosen, Mitchell R; Berns, Roy S

    2009-08-01

    Reconstruction of spectral images from camera responses is investigated using an edge preserving spatio-spectral Wiener estimation. A Wiener denoising filter and a spectral reconstruction Wiener filter are combined into a single spatio-spectral filter using local propagation of the noise covariance matrix. To preserve edges the local mean and covariance matrix of camera responses is estimated by bilateral weighting of neighboring pixels. We derive the edge-preserving spatio-spectral Wiener estimation by means of Bayesian inference and show that it fades into the standard Wiener reflectance estimation shifted by a constant reflectance in case of vanishing noise. Simulation experiments conducted on a six-channel camera system and on multispectral test images show the performance of the filter, especially for edge regions. A test implementation of the method is provided as a MATLAB script at the first author's website.

  17. CFAR Edge Detector for Polarimetric SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Skriver, Henning; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2003-01-01

    Finding the edges between different regions in an image is one of the fundamental steps of image analysis, and several edge detectors suitable for the special statistics of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images have previously been developed. In this paper, a new edge detector for polar...

  18. Energetics of highly kinked step edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the step edge free energy, the step edge stiffness and dimensionless inverse step edge stiffness of the highly kinked < 010> oriented step on a (001) surface of a simple square lattice within the framework of a solid-on-solid model. We have found an exact expression for the step

  19. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type...

  20. Edge and coupled core/edge transport modelling in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodestro, L.L.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and modelling of tokamak edge, scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas are described. The effects of the poloidal E x B drift on inner/outer divertor-plate asymmetries within a 1D analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experimental trends; above a critical v ExB , the model predicts transitions to supersonic flow at the inboard midplane. 2D simulations show the importance of E x B flow in the private-flux region and of ∇ B-drifts. A theory of rough plasma-facing surfaces is given, predicting modifications to the SOL plasma. The parametric dependence of detached-plasma states in slab geometry has been explored; with sufficient pumping, the location of the ionization front can be controlled; otherwise only fronts near the plate or the X-point are stable. Studies with a more accurate Monte-Carlo neutrals model and a detailed non-LTE radiation-transport code indicate various effects are important for quantitative modelling. Detailed simulations of the DIII-D core and edge are presented; impurity and plasma flow are discussed and shown to be well modelled with UEDGE. (author)

  1. Edge and coupled core-edge transport modelling in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodestro, L.L.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and modelling of tokamak edge, scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas are described. The effects of the poloidal ExB drift on inner/outer divertor-plate asymmetries within a 1D analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experimental trends; above a critical v ExB, the model predicts transitions to supersonic SOL flow at the inboard midplane. 2D simulations show the importance of ExB flow in the private-flux region and of ∇ B-drifts. A theory of rough plasma-facing surfaces is given, predicting modifications to the SOL plasma. The parametric dependence of detached-plasma states in slab geometry has been explored; with sufficient pumping, the location of the ionization front can be controlled; otherwise only fronts near the plate or the X-point are stable. Studies with a more accurate Monte-Carlo neutrals model and a detailed non-LTE radiation-transport code indicate various effects are important for quantitative modelling. Detailed simulations of the DIII-D core and edge are presented; impurity and plasma flow are discussed and shown to be well modelled with UEDGE. (author)

  2. Optimal Shape of a Gamma-ray Collimator: single vs double knife edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Albert; Hogenbirk, Alfred

    2017-09-01

    Gamma-ray collimators in nuclear waste scanners are used for selecting a narrow vertical segment in activity measurements of waste vessels. The system that is used by NRG uses tapered slit collimators of both the single and double knife edge type. The properties of these collimators were investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We found that single knife edge collimators are highly preferable for a conservative estimate of the activity of the waste vessels. These collimators show much less dependence on the angle of incidence of the radiation than double knife edge collimators. This conclusion also applies to cylindrical collimators of the single knife edge type, that are generally used in medical imaging spectroscopy.

  3. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal......Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily...... utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...

  4. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  5. Emotions and Economic Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Tamara; Ramachandran, Bharath

    2005-01-01

    We wish to examine critically the viewpoint that: a) economists take too narrow a view of rationality and do not recognize the role of emotions as a component of rationality and b) do not address the question of whether preferences are rational or not, and instead take them as just given. We trace the relationship between economics and emotions showing some economic dimensions of emotional states. We illustrate them with examples of economic behavior based on emotional reactions.

  6. Image Edge Tracking via Ant Colony Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruowei; Wu, Hongkun; Liu, Shilong; Rahman, M. A.; Liu, Sanchi; Kwok, Ngai Ming

    2018-04-01

    A good edge plot should use continuous thin lines to describe the complete contour of the captured object. However, the detection of weak edges is a challenging task because of the associated low pixel intensities. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) has been employed by many researchers to address this problem. The algorithm is a meta-heuristic method developed by mimicking the natural behaviour of ants. It uses iterative searches to find the optimal solution that cannot be found via traditional optimization approaches. In this work, ACO is employed to track and repair broken edges obtained via conventional Sobel edge detector to produced a result with more connected edges.

  7. K-edge densitometer (KED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinkle, J.K.; Hansen, W.J.

    1993-02-11

    In 1979, a K-edge densitometer (KED) was installed by the Safeguards Assay group from Los Alamos National Laboratory in the PNC reprocessing plant at Tokai-mura, Japan. It uses an active nondestructive assay technique, KED, to measure the plutonium concentration of the product solution. The measurement uncertainty of an assay depends on the count time chosen, but can be 0.5% or better. The computer hardware and software were upgraded in 1992. This manual describes the operation of the instrument, with an emphasis on the user interface to the software.

  8. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  9. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities (>1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark...... is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between...... the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge...

  10. Energetics of edge oxidization of graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuma, Airi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2018-06-01

    On the basis of the density functional theory, we studied the geometries and energetics of O atoms adsorbed on graphene edges for simulating the initial stage of the edge oxidization of graphene. Our calculations showed that oxygen atoms are preferentially adsorbed onto the graphene edges with the zigzag portion, resulting in a large adsorption energy of about 5 eV. On the other hand, the edges with armchair shape are rarely oxidized, or the oxidization causes substantial structural reconstructions, because of the stable covalent bond at the armchair edge with the triple bond nature. Furthermore, the energetics sensitively depends on the edge angles owing to the inhomogeneity of the charge density at the edge atomic sites.

  11. Si K EDGE STRUCTURE AND VARIABILITY IN GALACTIC X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Corrales, Lia; Canizares, Claude R. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    We survey the Si K edge structure in various absorbed Galactic low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) to study states of silicon in the inter- and circum-stellar medium. The bulk of these LMXBs lie toward the Galactic bulge region and all have column densities above 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}. The observations were performed using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The Si K edge in all sources appears at an energy value of 1844 ± 0.001 eV. The edge exhibits significant substructure that can be described by a near edge absorption feature at 1849 ± 0.002 eV and a far edge absorption feature at 1865 ± 0.002 eV. Both of these absorption features appear variable with equivalent widths up to several mÅ. We can describe the edge structure using several components: multiple edge functions, near edge absorption excesses from silicates in dust form, signatures from X-ray scattering optical depths, and a variable warm absorber from ionized atomic silicon. The measured optical depths of the edges indicate much higher values than expected from atomic silicon cross sections and interstellar medium abundances, and they appear consistent with predictions from silicate X-ray absorption and scattering. A comparison with models also indicates a preference for larger dust grain sizes. In many cases, we identify Si xiii resonance absorption and determine ionization parameters between log ξ = 1.8 and 2.8 and turbulent velocities between 300 and 1000 km s{sup −1}. This places the warm absorber in close vicinity of the X-ray binaries. In some data, we observe a weak edge at 1.840 keV, potentially from a lesser contribution of neutral atomic silicon.

  12. The Vocational Preference Inventory Scores and Environmental Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunce, Joseph T.; Kappes, Bruno Maurice

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocational interest measured by the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and preferences of 175 undergraduates for structured or unstructured environments. Males having clear-cut preferences for structured situations had significantly higher Realistic-Conventional scores than those without…

  13. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals.

  14. Muscle Dysmorphia and the Perception of Men's Peer Muscularity Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linda; DeCusati, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Research suggests that peer muscularity norms preferences are related to men's body image, but little information is known about how perceptions of specific peer group norms preferences are related to men's body image disturbances and specific health behaviors. This study investigated how men perceived the muscularity preferences of male, female, close, and distant peers and whether the perceptions of specific peer preferences were related to muscle dysmorphia and steroid use. Data on muscle dysmorphia and the perceptions of peer muscularity norms were collected from 117 male college students. Results indicated that men perceived distant and male peers as having the most exaggerated preferences for muscularity and that those perceptions were not an accurate reflection of their distant male peers' reported preferences. Results also indicated that perceptions of close female peer muscularity preferences were predictive of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, but this relationship did not exist for other peer groups, suggesting that the perceptions of close female peer preferences may play a role in the development of muscle dysmorphia. No relationship was found between perceptions of peer muscularity preferences and steroid use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Correlated Male Preferences for Femininity in Female Faces and Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Fraccaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexually dimorphic physical traits are important for mate choice and mate preference in many species, including humans. Several previous studies have observed that women's preferences for physical cues of male masculinity in different domains (e.g., visual and vocal are correlated. These correlations demonstrate systematic, rather than arbitrary, variation in women's preferences for masculine men and are consistent with the proposal that sexually dimorphic cues in different domains reflect a common underlying aspect of male quality. Here we present evidence for a similar correlation between men's preferences for different cues of femininity in women; although men generally preferred feminized to masculinized versions of both women's faces and voices, the strength of men's preferences for feminized versions of female faces was positively and significantly correlated with the strength of their preferences for feminized versions of women's voices. In a second study, this correlation occurred when men judged women's attractiveness as long-term, but not short-term, mates, which is consistent with previous research. Collectively, these findings (1 present novel evidence for systematic variation in men's preferences for feminine women, (2 present converging evidence for concordant preferences for sexually dimorphic traits in different domains, and (3 complement findings of correlations between women's facial and vocal femininity.

  16. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  17. Music preferences and personality among Japanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R A

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted outside of the European-North American cultural area concerning the personality-based determinants of musical genre preferences The present research investigated the personality profiles and general music genre preferences of 268 Japanese college students. Six dimensions and 24 facets of personality, and 12 music genres, were assessed. Results indicated that, consistent with much previous research, openness (to experience) and particularly the facet of "aesthetic appreciation" were associated with a preference for "reflective" music (jazz, classical, opera, gospel, enka), while one extraversion facet (sociability) was associated with the preference for pop music. Other personality dimensions were less consistently associated with musical preferences, pointing to cultural differences and the need to assess both personality and music genres at more specific levels.

  18. Students’ Preferred Characteristics of Learning Environments in Vocational Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Placklé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available If teachers and teacher educators are willing to support the learning of students, it is important for them to learn what motivates students to engage in learning. Students have their own preferences on design characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. We developed an instrument - the Inventory Powerful Learning Environments in Vocational Education - to measure students’ preferences on characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. We investigated whether student preferences on the design of their learning environments are in line with what is described in the literature as beneficial for learning. Data of 544 students show that the preferences of students support most characteristics of PLEs in vocational education. Looking through the eyes of students, teachers have to challenge their students and encourage them to take their learning in their own hands. Adaptive learning support is needed. Remarkable, students do not prefer having reflective dialogues with teachers or peers.

  19. VARIATION OF STRIKE INCENTIVES WITH DAMAGE PREFERENCES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-01-01

    For START III level forces, strike allocations and magnitudes vary little with L, but first strike costs vary directly with L, which means that for K reflecting a preference for the survival of high value targets over their destruction and a preference for high value over military targets, the costs of action are far greater than those of inaction for a wide range of values of damage preference L. Thus, if both sides have much greater preferences for the survival of their high value targets than for military targets or destruction, they do not see a net incentive to strike, and crises are terminated by inaction. Recent decades suggest strong preferences for the survival of high value and that this has contributed to the lack of direct conflict during that period

  20. Preferred nasolabial angle in Middle Eastern population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharethy, Sami

    2017-05-01

    To define the preferred nasolabial angle measurement in Middle Eastern population. An observational study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2016 at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1027 raters, 506 males, and 521 females were asked to choose the most ideal nasolabial angle for 5 males and 5 females lateral photographs whose nasolabial angle were modified with Photoshop into the following angles (85°, 90°, 95°, 100°, 105°, and 110°). Male raters preferred the angle of 89.5° ± 3.5° (mean ± SD) for males and 90.8° ± 5.6° for females. While female raters preferred the angle of 89.3° ± 3.8° for males and 90.5° ± 4.8° for females. ANOVA test compare means among groups: p: 0.342, and there is no statistically significant difference between groups. The results of our study showed an even more acute angles than degrees found in the literature. It shows that what young generation in our region prefers and clearly reflects that what could be explained as under rotation of the nasal tip in other cultures is just the ideal for some Middle Eastern population.

  1. Fingerprinting the type of line edge roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Herrero, A.; Pflüger, M.; Scholze, F.; Soltwisch, V.

    2017-06-01

    Lamellar gratings are widely used diffractive optical elements and are prototypes of structural elements in integrated electronic circuits. EUV scatterometry is very sensitive to structure details and imperfections, which makes it suitable for the characterization of nanostructured surfaces. As compared to X-ray methods, EUV scattering allows for steeper angles of incidence, which is highly preferable for the investigation of small measurement fields on semiconductor wafers. For the control of the lithographic manufacturing process, a rapid in-line characterization of nanostructures is indispensable. Numerous studies on the determination of regular geometry parameters of lamellar gratings from optical and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) scattering also investigated the impact of roughness on the respective results. The challenge is to appropriately model the influence of structure roughness on the diffraction intensities used for the reconstruction of the surface profile. The impact of roughness was already studied analytically but for gratings with a periodic pseudoroughness, because of practical restrictions of the computational domain. Our investigation aims at a better understanding of the scattering caused by line roughness. We designed a set of nine lamellar Si-gratings to be studied by EUV scatterometry. It includes one reference grating with no artificial roughness added, four gratings with a periodic roughness distribution, two with a prevailing line edge roughness (LER) and another two with line width roughness (LWR), and four gratings with a stochastic roughness distribution (two with LER and two with LWR). We show that the type of line roughness has a strong impact on the diffuse scatter angular distribution. Our experimental results are not described well by the present modelling approach based on small, periodically repeated domains.

  2. The Causes of Preference Reversal.

    OpenAIRE

    Tversky, Amos; Slovic, Paul; Kahneman, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Observed preference reversal cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence, the reduction axiom, or transitivity. The primary cause of preference reversal is the failure of procedure invariance, especially the overpricing of low-probability, high-payoff bets. This result violates regret theory and generalized (nonindependent) utility models. Preference reversal and a new reversal involving time preferences are explained by scale compatibility, which implies that payoffs are wei...

  3. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  4. Predicted solar cell edge radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Cell Orbital Test (ASCOT) will test six types of solar cells in a high energy proton environment. During the design of the experiment a question was raised about the effects of proton radiation incident on the edge of the solar cells and whether edge radiation shielding was required. Historical geosynchronous data indicated that edge radiation damage is not detectable over the normal end of life solar cell degradation; however because the ASCOT radiation environment has a much higher and more energetic fluence of protons, considerably more edge damage is expected. A computer analysis of the problem was made by modeling the expected radiation damage at the cell edge and using a network model of small interconnected solar cells to predict degradation in the cell's electrical output. The model indicated that the deepest penetration of edge radiation was at the top of the cell near the junction where the protons have access to the cell through the low density cell/cover adhesive layer. The network model indicated that the cells could tolerate high fluences at their edge as long as there was high electrical resistance between the edge radiated region and the contact system on top of the cell. The predicted edge radiation related loss was less than 2% of maximum power for GaAs/Ge solar cells. As a result, no edge radiation protection was used for ASCOT

  5. Automatic specular reflections removal for endoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ke; Wang, Bin; Gao, Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopy imaging is utilized to provide a realistic view about the surfaces of organs inside the human body. Owing to the damp internal environment, these surfaces usually have a glossy appearance showing specular reflections. For many computer vision algorithms, the highlights created by specular reflections may become a significant source of error. In this paper, we present a novel method for restoration of the specular reflection regions from a single image. Specular restoration process starts with generating a substitute specular-free image with RPCA method. Then the specular removed image was obtained by taking the binary weighting template of highlight regions as the weighting for merging the original specular image and the substitute image. The modified template was furthermore discussed for the concealment of artificial effects in the edge of specular regions. Experimental results on the removal of the endoscopic image with specular reflections demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method comparing to the existing methods.

  6. Ethical decisions at the edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant

    2008-05-01

    Medicine grows incrementally in its ability to treat patients and at the growing edge it poses problems about the appropriateness of treatments that are different from those where good practice conforms to widely agreed standards. The growth of access to medical knowledge and the diversity of contemporary theoretical and clinical medicine have spawned deep divisions in the profession and divergent opinions about what constitutes reasonable care. That hallmark of acceptable practice is also under pressures from the threat of litigation, a highly commercialised contemporary medical environment, patient demands based on medical journalism and the internet and the exponential growth of bio-medical technology. Patient empowerment can result in complaints arising in new and complex areas and expert opinion can often differ markedly depending on where on the medical spectrum the experts are aligned. This column lays out some broad-brush principles to assess the adequacy of medical advice in such a climate.

  7. Imaging edges of nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Jens; Cagliani, Alberto; Booth, T. J.

    Graphene, as the forefather of 2D-materials, attracts much attention due to its extraordinary properties like transparency, flexibility and outstanding high conductivity, together with a thickness of only one atom. However, graphene also possesses no band gap, which makes it unsuitable for many...... electronic applications like transistors. It has been shown theoretically that by nanostructuring pristine graphene, e.g. with regular holes, the electronic properties can be tuned and a band gap introduced. The size, distance and edge termination of these “defects” influence the adaptability....... Such nanostructuring can be done experimentally, but especially characterization at atomic level is a huge challenge. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) is used to characterize the atomic structure of graphene. We optimized the imaging conditions used for the FEI Titan ETEM. To reduce the knock-on damage of the carbon atoms...

  8. Treatment preference in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Vincent, N; Furer, P; Cox, B; Kjernisted, K

    1999-12-01

    Promising cognitive-behavioral and medication treatments for hypochondriasis are in the early stages of evaluation. Little is known about the treatment preferences and opinions of individuals seeking help for this problem. In this exploratory study, 23 volunteers from the community with a DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis were recruited through a newspaper advertisement. Participants were presented with a survey which included balanced descriptions of both a medication and a cognitive-behavioral treatment for intense illness concerns (hypochondriasis). The brief descriptions of the treatments discussed the time commitment required as well as the major advantages and disadvantages of each. Results showed that, relative to medication treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment was predicted to be more effective in both the short and long terms and was rated as more acceptable. Psychological treatment was indicated as the first choice by 74% of respondents, medication by 4%, and 22% indicated an equal preference. Forty-eight percent of respondents would only accept the psychological treatment.

  9. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time-differentiated cong......Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time...... from the underlying scheduling preferences (Noland and Small, 1995, Bates et al., 2001, Fosgerau and Karlström, 2010). The scheduling preferences can be formally represented as time-dependent rates of utility derived at different locations. Assuming that the travellers are rational and choose departure......’ departure time choice. The assumption underlying the scheduling approach is that the traveller rationally maximises her total utility obtained during a period of time. The total utility depends on time of departure from the origin and time of arrival to the destination. The total utility is usually assumed...

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Hastie, R.J.; Wilson, H.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    A new formalism for analyzing the magnetohydrodynamic stability of a limiter tokamak edge plasma is developed. Two radially localized, high toroidal mode number n instabilities are studied in detail: a peeling mode and an edge ballooning mode. The peeling mode, driven by edge current density and stabilized by edge pressure gradient, has features which are consistent with several properties of tokamak behavior in the high confinement open-quotes Hclose quotes-mode of operation, and edge localized modes (or ELMs) in particular. The edge ballooning mode, driven by the pressure gradient, is identified; this penetrates ∼n 1/3 rational surfaces into the plasma (rather than ∼n 1/2 , expected from conventional ballooning mode theory). Furthermore, there exists a coupling between these two modes and this coupling provides a picture of the ELM cycle

  11. Edge and line detection of complicated and blurred objects

    OpenAIRE

    Haugsdal, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This report deals with edge and line detection in pictures with complicated and/or blurred objects. It explores the alternatives available, in edge detection, edge linking and object recognition. Choice of methods are the Canny edge detection and Local edge search processing combined with regional edge search processing in the form of polygon approximation.

  12. Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc....

  13. Selective Electroless Silver Deposition on Graphene Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, D.; Larsen, M. V.; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a method of electroless selective silver deposition on graphene edges or between graphene islands without covering the surface of graphene. Modifications of the deposition recipe allow for decoration of graphene edges with silver nanoparticles or filling holes in damaged graphene...... on silica substrate and thus potentially restoring electric connectivity with minimal influence on the overall graphene electrical and optical properties. The presented technique could find applications in graphene based transparent conductors as well as selective edge functionalization and can be extended...

  14. Discursive Maps at the Edge of Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Discursive Maps at the Edge of Chaos A Monograph by Major Mathieu Primeau Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Engineer School of Advanced Military...Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Discursive Maps at the Edge of Chaos 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...meaning of boundaries and polarize conflict towards violence. The edge of chaos is the fine line between disorder and coherence. Discursive maps

  15. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, R.; Magura, T.; Péter, G.; Tóthmérész, B.

    2002-01-01

    The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest...

  16. Edge Turbulence Imaging on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.J. Zweben; R.A. Maqueda; J.L. Terry; B. Bai; C.J. Boswell; C.E. Bush; D. D'Ippolito; E.D. Fredrickson; M. Greenwald; K. Hallatschek; S. Kaye; B. LaBombard; R. Maingi; J. Myra; W.M. Nevins; B.N. Rogers; D.P. Stotler; J. Wilgen; and X.Q. Xu

    2002-01-01

    Edge turbulence images have been made using an ultra-high speed CCD camera on both NSTX and Alcator C-Mod. In both cases, the D-alpha or HeI (587.6 nm) line emission from localized deuterium or helium gas puffs was viewed along a local magnetic field line near the outer midplane. Fluctuations in this line emission reflect fluctuations in electron density and/or electron temperature through the atomic excitation rates, which can be modeled using the DEGAS-2 code. The 2-D structure of the measured turbulence can be compared with theoretical simulations based on 3-D fluid models

  17. Moveable Leading Edge Device for a Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Dale M. (Inventor); Eckstein, Nicholas Stephen (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for managing a flight control surface system. A leading edge section on a wing of an aircraft is extended into a deployed position. A deformable section connects the leading edge section to a trailing section. The deformable section changes from a deformed shape to an original shape when the leading edge section is moved into the deployed position. The leading edge section on the wing is moved from the deployed position to an undeployed position. The deformable section changes to the deformed shape inside of the wing.

  18. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.; Maqueda, R.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radical heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of gas puff imaging to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  19. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  20. Object detection using categorised 3D edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiforenko, Lilita; Buch, Anders Glent; Bodenhagen, Leon

    2015-01-01

    is made possible by the explicit use of edge categories in the feature descriptor. We quantitatively compare our approach with the state-of-the-art template based Linemod method, which also provides an effective way of dealing with texture-less objects, tests were performed on our own object dataset. Our...... categorisation algorithm for describing objects in terms of its different edge types. Relying on edge information allow our system to deal with objects with little or no texture or surface variation. We show that edge categorisation improves matching performance due to the higher level of discrimination, which...

  1. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Zweben; R. Maqueda; K. Hill; D. Johnson; S. Kaye; H. Kugel; F. Levinton; R. Maingi; L. Roquemore; S. Sabbagh; G. Wurden

    2000-01-01

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radial heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of ''gas puff imaging'' to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  2. Uniform surface-to-line integral reduction of physical optics for curved surfaces by modified edge representation with higher-order correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Pengfei; Ando, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    The modified edge representation is one of the equivalent edge currents approximation methods for calculating the physical optics surface radiation integrals in diffraction analysis. The Stokes' theorem is used in the derivation of the modified edge representation from the physical optics for the planar scatterer case, which implies that the surface integral is rigorously reduced into the line integral of the modified edge representation equivalent edge currents, defined in terms of the local shape of the edge. On the contrary, for curved surfaces, the results of radiation integrals depend upon the global shape of the scatterer. The physical optics surface integral consists of two components, from the inner stationary phase point and the edge. The modified edge representation is defined independently from the orientation of the actual edge, and therefore, it could be available not only at the edge but also at the arbitrary points on the scatterer except the stationary phase point where the modified edge representation equivalent edge currents becomes infinite. If stationary phase point exists inside the illuminated region, the physical optics surface integration is reduced into two kinds of the modified edge representation line integrations, along the edge and infinitesimally small integration around the inner stationary phase point, the former and the latter give the diffraction and reflection components, respectively. The accuracy of the latter has been discussed for the curved surfaces and published. This paper focuses on the errors of the former and discusses its correction. It has been numerically observed that the modified edge representation works well for the physical optics diffraction in flat and concave surfaces; errors appear especially for the observer near the reflection shadow boundary if the frequency is low for the convex scatterer. This paper gives the explicit expression of the higher-order correction for the modified edge representation.

  3. Edge passivation induced single-edge ferromagnetism of zigzag MoS_2 nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Hui; Ma, Ben; Hu, Jingguo; Pan, Jing

    2017-01-01

    We performed density functional theory study on electronic structure, magnetic properties and stability of zigzag MoS_2 nanoribbons (ZMoS_2NRs) with and without oxygen (O) passivation. The bare ZMoS_2NRs are magnetic metal with ferromagnetic edge states, edge passivation decreases their magnetism because of the decrease of edge unsaturated electrons. Obviously, the electronic structure and magnetic properties of ZMoS_2NRs greatly depend on edge states. When both edges are passivated by O atoms, ZMoS_2NRs are nonmagnetic metals. When either edge is passivated by O atoms, the systems exhibit single-edge ferromagnetism and magnetism concentrates on the non-passivated edge. Edge passivation can not only tune the magnetism of ZMoS_2NRs, but also enhance their stability by eliminating dangling bonds. These interesting findings on ZMoS_2NRs may open the possibility of their application in nanodevices and spintronics. - Highlights: • Edge passivation for tuning magnetism of zigzag MoS_2 nanoribbons (ZMoS_2NRs) is proposed. • Edge passivation can tune ZMoS_2NRs from nonmagnetic metal to ferromagnetic metal. • When either edge is passivated, the systems exhibit single-edge ferromagnetic states. • These findings may inspire great interest in the community of ZMoS_2NRs and motivate numerous experimental researches.

  4. Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Janice M.; Siebert, Erin R.; Wallen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Socialization processes, parents, or peers encouraging play with gender specific toys are thought to be the primary force shaping sex differences in toy preference. A contrast in view is that toy preferences reflect biologically determined preferences for specific activities facilitated by specific toys. Sex differences in juvenile activities, such as rough and tumble play, peer preferences, and infant interest, share similarities in humans and monkeys. Thus if activity preferences shape toy preferences, male and female monkeys may show toy preferences similar to those seen in boys and girls. We compared the interactions of 34 rhesus monkeys, living within a 135 monkey troop, with human wheeled toys and plush toys. Male monkeys, like boys, showed consistent and strong preferences for wheeled toys, while female monkeys, like girls, showed greater variability in preferences. Thus, the magnitude of preference for wheeled over plush toys differed significantly between males and females. The similarities to human findings demonstrate that such preferences can develop without explicit gendered socialization. We offer the hypothesis that toy preferences reflect hormonally influenced behavioral and cognitive biases which are sculpted by social processes into the sex differences seen in monkeys and humans. PMID:18452921

  5. Color preferences are not universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Competitive edge through technological innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, M.

    1997-01-01

    The vital role of advanced technology in natural gas cost reduction has been described. Among advanced technologies, seismic, drilling and fracturing technologies have been singled out as being the most important. Access to new supply frontiers (aided by the application of advanced technology), and more effective business strategies were considered as the other most influential factors in efficiently exploiting oil and gas resources. In view of predictions of substantially increased demand, advanced technology is poised to be even more important in the future. With this as background, an examination of the level of investment for the development of advanced technology revealed that energy industry R and D expenditures were lowest among industries in the U.S. (only 0.7 per cent of sales). It was concluded that notwithstanding industry's ability to improve output per R and D dollar invested, the achievement of the necessary technological advancements is a strategic imperative for both the industry and the U.S. as a whole. As far as the industry is concerned, its ability to maintain a competitive edge over competing energy forms, will be determined largely on the basis of its willingness to invest in future advanced technology development. 2 refs., 14 figs

  7. CMS kinematic edge from sbottoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Peisi; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present two scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) that can lead to an explanation of the excess in the invariant mass distribution of two opposite charged, same flavor leptons, and the corresponding edge at an energy of about 78 GeV, recently reported by the CMS Collaboration. In both scenarios, sbottoms are pair produced, and decay to neutralinos and a b-jet. The heavier neutralinos further decay to a pair of leptons and the lightest neutralino through on-shell sleptons or off-shell neutral gauge bosons. These scenarios are consistent with the current limits on the sbottoms, neutralinos, and sleptons. Assuming that the lightest neutralino is stable we discuss the predicted relic density as well as the implications for darkmatter direct detection. We show that consistency between the predicted and the measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment may be obtained in both scenarios. Finally, we define the signatures of these models that may be tested at the 13 TeV run of the LHC

  8. Trapping of low-mass planets outside the truncated inner edges of protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ryan; Lai, Dong

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the migration of a low-mass (≲10 M⊕) planet near the inner edge of a protoplanetary disc using two-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics simulations. We employ an inner boundary condition representing the truncation of the disc at the stellar corotation radius. As described by Tsang, wave reflection at the inner disc boundary modifies the Type I migration torque on the planet, allowing migration to be halted before the planet reaches the inner edge of the disc. For low-viscosity discs (α ≲ 10-3), planets may be trapped with semi-major axes as large as three to five times the inner disc radius. In general, planets are trapped closer to the inner edge as either the planet mass or the disc viscosity parameter α increases, and farther from the inner edge as the disc thickness is increased. This planet trapping mechanism may impact the formation and migration history of close-in compact multiplanet systems.

  9. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform...

  10. Automatic Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a potential to increase hardwood lumber value by more than 20 percent through optimum edging and trimming. Even a small portion of this percentage can boost the profitability of hardwood lumber manufacturers substantially. The objective of this research project is to develop an automated system which would assist in correct edging and...

  11. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  12. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  13. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  14. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Corrigan, G.

    2005-01-01

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables

  15. Edge separation using diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B.; Bouldin, C.E.; Renevier, H.; Hodeau, J.L.; Berar, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    We exploit the crystallographic sensitivity of the Diffraction Anomalous Fine-Structure (DAFS) measurement to separate the fine structure contributions of different atomic species with closely spaced resonant energies. In BaTiO 3 the Ti K edge and Ba Lm edges are separated by 281 eV, or about 8.2 Angstrom -1 ), thus severely limiting the information content of the Ti K edge signal. Using the site selectivity of DAFS we can separate the two fine structure spectra using an iterative Kramers-Kronig method, thus extending the range of the Ti K edge spectrum. This technique has application to many rare earth/transition metal compounds, including many magnetic materials of technological significance for which K and L edges overlap in energy. (au)

  16. Resistive foil edge grading for accelerator and other high voltage structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen F.; Sanders, David M.

    2014-06-10

    In a structure or device having a pair of electrical conductors separated by an insulator across which a voltage is placed, resistive layers are formed around the conductors to force the electric potential within the insulator to distribute more uniformly so as to decrease or eliminate electric field enhancement at the conductor edges. This is done by utilizing the properties of resistive layers to allow the voltage on the electrode to diffuse outwards, reducing the field stress at the conductor edge. Preferably, the resistive layer has a tapered resistivity, with a lower resistivity adjacent to the conductor and a higher resistivity away from the conductor. Generally, a resistive path across the insulator is provided, preferably by providing a resistive region in the bulk of the insulator, with the resistive layer extending over the resistive region.

  17. The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education: Linking Science to Policy for a New Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K., Ed.; Jones, Stephanie M., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education" aims to support the effort to simultaneously scale up and improve the quality of early childhood education by bringing together relevant insights from emerging research to provide guidance for this critical, fledgling field. It reflects the growing recognition that early childhood…

  18. Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-04-29

    In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  19. Human Preferences for Colorful Birds: Vivid Colors or Pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Lišková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern, and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  20. Subjective preference evaluation of sound fields by performing singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noson, Dennis

    2003-08-01

    A model of the auditory process is proposed for performing singers, which incorporates the added signal from bone conduction, as well as the psychological distance for subjective preference of the performer from the acoustic sound field of the stage. The explanatory power of previous scientific studies of vocal stage acoustics has been limited by a lack of an underlying theory of performer preference. Ando's theory, using the autocorrelation function (ACF) for parametrizing temporal factors, was applied to interpretation of singer sound field preference determined by the pair comparison method. Melisma style singing (no lyrics) was shown to increase the preferred delay time of reflections from a mean of 14 ms with lyrics to 23 ms without (pThesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis are available from the author by inquiry at BRC Acoustics, 1741 First Avenue South, Seattle, WA 98134 USA. E-mail address: dnoson@brcacoustics.com

  1. Back or to the future? Preferences of time travelers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Hertwig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Popular culture reflects whatever piques our imagination. Think of the myriad movies and books that take viewers and readers on an imaginary journey to the past or the future (e.g., Gladiator, The Time Machine. Despite the ubiquity of time travel as a theme in cultural expression, the factors that underlie people's preferences concerning the direction of time travel have gone unexplored. What determines whether a person would prefer to visit the (certain past or explore the (uncertain future? We identified three factors that markedly affect people's preference for (hypothetical travel to the past or the future, respectively. Those who think of themselves as courageous, those with a more conservative worldview, and---perhaps counterintuitively---those who are advanced in age prefer to travel into the future. We discuss implications of these initial results.

  2. Elastically Deformable Side-Edge Link for Trailing-Edge Flap Aeroacoustic Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); Moore, James B. (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Lin, John C. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Kahng, Seun K. (Inventor); Verden, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system is provided for reducing aeroacoustic noise generated by an aircraft having wings equipped with trailing-edge flaps. The system includes a plurality of elastically deformable structures. Each structure is coupled to and along one of the side edges of one of the trailing-edge flaps, and is coupled to a portion of one of the wings that is adjacent to the one of the side edges. The structures elastically deform when the trailing-edge flaps are deployed away from the wings.

  3. Localized Edge Vibrations and Edge Reconstruction by Joule Heating in Graphene Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Mads; Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Control of the edge topology of graphene nanostructures is critical to graphene-based electronics. A means of producing atomically smooth zigzag edges using electronic current has recently been demonstrated in experiments [Jia et al., Science 323, 1701 (2009)]. We develop a microscopic theory...... for current-induced edge reconstruction using density functional theory. Our calculations provide evidence for localized vibrations at edge interfaces involving unpassivated armchair edges. We demonstrate that these vibrations couple to the current, estimate their excitation by Joule heating, and argue...

  4. Edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Junga; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gunn; Hong, Suklyun

    2017-06-21

    Using density functional theory calculations, we have studied the edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures. While the AGNRs with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures (labeled (5,6)-AGNRs) are metallic, the edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs with substitutional atoms opens a band gap. We find that the band structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-N-AGNRs by substitution resemble those of defect-free (N-1)-AGNR at the Γ point, whereas those at the X point show the original ones of the defect-free N-AGNR. The overall electronic structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs depend on the number of electrons, supplied by substitutional atoms, at the edges of functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs.

  5. Power deposition on misaligned edges in COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dejarnac

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available If the decision is made not to apply a toroidal chamfer to tungsten monoblocks at ITER divertor vertical targets, exposed leading edges will arise as a result of assembly tolerances between adjacent plasma-facing components. Then, the advantage of glancing magnetic field angles for spreading plasma heat flux on top surfaces is lost at the misaligned edges with an interaction occurring at near normal incidence, which can drive melting for the expected inter-ELM heat fluxes. A dedicated experiment has been performed on the COMPASS tokamak to thoroughly study power deposition on misaligned edges using inner-wall limited discharges on a special graphite tile presenting gaps and leading edges directly viewed by a high resolution infra-red camera. The parallel power flux deducted from the unperturbed measurement far from the gap is fully consistent with the observed temperature increase at the leading edge, respecting the power balance. All the power flowing into the gap is deposited at the leading edge and no mitigation factor is required to explain the thermal response. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the ion Larmor smoothing effect is weak and that the power deposition on misaligned edges is well described by the optical approximation because of an electron dominated regime associated with non-ambipolar parallel current flow.

  6. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnasco, S; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cerello, P G; Saiz, P

    2003-01-01

    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Storage Element and Computing Element), and act as interface nodes between the systems. An EDG Resource Broker is seen by the AliEn server as a single Computing Element, while the EDG storage is seen by AliEn as a single, large Storage Element; files produced in EDG sites are registered in both the EDG Replica Catalogue and in the AliEn Data Catalogue, thus ensuring accessibility from both worlds. In fact, both registrations are required: the AliEn one is used for the data management, the EDG one to guarantee the integrity and...

  7. Children Reason about Shared Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two-year-old children's reasoning about the relation between their own and others' preferences was investigated across two studies. In Experiment 1, children first observed 2 actors display their individual preferences for various toys. Children were then asked to make inferences about new, visually inaccessible toys and books that were described…

  8. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music....

  9. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  10. Job satisfaction and preference drift.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Most empirical studies do not find that higher wages lead to more job satisfaction. In this paper we argue that the insignificant effect of wages on job satisfaction is due to preference drift. We adapt the standard ordered response model to allow for preference shifts. The empirical results support

  11. Great apes prefer cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period.

  12. Data sets for hydrogen reflection and their use in neutral transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, W.; Heifetz, D.B.

    1986-08-01

    A realistic characterization of the interaction of ions and neutral particles with device walls is important for any edge plasma calculation. Present reflection models vary in detail and computational efficiency. This paper presents a data set for the distribution of the reflection coefficient, R N , over reflected energy, polar, and azimuthal angles, as functions of incident polar angle and energy. These results have been computed using a vectorized version of the TRIM Monte Carlo code. The data are stored using an algorithm for reducing the data into three one-dimensional distributions, resulting in a realistic reflection model which can be used very efficiently in plasma edge calculations. (orig.)

  13. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  14. Edge-Disjoint Fibonacci Trees in Hypercube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhumathi Raman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fibonacci tree is a rooted binary tree whose number of vertices admit a recursive definition similar to the Fibonacci numbers. In this paper, we prove that a hypercube of dimension h admits two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-2, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-4 and so on, as subgraphs. The result shows that an algorithm with Fibonacci trees as underlying data structure can be implemented concurrently on a hypercube network with no communication latency.

  15. Adobe Edge Animate CC for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to build HTML5 mobile and web apps using Adobe's new Edge Animate CC Edge Animate CC is an approachable WYSIWYG alternative for leveraging the power of languages like HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript to design and develop for the web and mobile devices, even if you have no programming experience. Written by Michael Rohde, the book calls on this seasoned web developer's wealth of experience using Edge Animate CC, and a companion website includes all code from the book to help you apply what you learn as you go. Features an easy-to-use interface, with a propert

  16. Edge-Matching Problems with Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Martin; Fischer, Paul; Witt, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Edge-matching problems, also called puzzles, are abstractions of placement problems with neighborhood conditions. Pieces with colored edges have to be placed on a board such that adjacent edges have the same color. The problem has gained interest recently with the (now terminated) Eternity II...... puzzle, and new complexity results. In this paper we consider a number of settings which differ in size of the puzzles and the manipulations allowed on the pieces. We investigate the effect of allowing rotations of the pieces on the complexity of the problem, an aspect that is only marginally treated so...

  17. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  18. Edge enhancement improves disruptive camouflage by emphasising false edges and creating pictorial relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, John; Sharman, Rebecca J; Scott-Brown, Kenneth C; Lovell, Paul George

    2016-12-06

    Disruptive colouration is a visual camouflage composed of false edges and boundaries. Many disruptively camouflaged animals feature enhanced edges; light patches are surrounded by a lighter outline and/or a dark patches are surrounded by a darker outline. This camouflage is particularly common in amphibians, reptiles and lepidopterans. We explored the role that this pattern has in creating effective camouflage. In a visual search task utilising an ultra-large display area mimicking search tasks that might be found in nature, edge enhanced disruptive camouflage increases crypsis, even on substrates that do not provide an obvious visual match. Specifically, edge enhanced camouflage is effective on backgrounds both with and without shadows; i.e. this is not solely due to background matching of the dark edge enhancement element with the shadows. Furthermore, when the dark component of the edge enhancement is omitted the camouflage still provided better crypsis than control patterns without edge enhancement. This kind of edge enhancement improved camouflage on all background types. Lastly, we show that edge enhancement can create a perception of multiple surfaces. We conclude that edge enhancement increases the effectiveness of disruptive camouflage through mechanisms that may include the improved disruption of the object outline by implying pictorial relief.

  19. Flow distortion at a dense forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The flow near tall forest edges is complex, yet poorly described. A field experiment using two meteorological masts equipped with sonic anemometers and a horizontally staring lidar was performed upwind and downwind of the interface between an open flat farmland and a tall (hc = 24 m) beech forest......, relative to the measurements upwind of the edge. The lidar data taken at several positions between the masts at 1.25hc show that the minimum wind speed occurred just upwind of the edge. At the 1.25hc level, at the forest mast, the momentum flux (\\documentclass...... qualitatively be explained with the concept of eddy‐blocking by the canopy top, which could also explain the observed increase in lateral variance and the decrease in the vertical variance. Despite the short distance to the edge of approximately 1.5hc, the beginning of a new internal boundary layer was visible...

  20. Floquet edge states in germanene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, Muhammad; Zhang, Qingyun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate versatile electronic properties of germanene monolayers under circularly, linearly, and elliptically polarized light. We show for the high frequency regime that the edge states can be controlled by tuning the amplitude

  1. Edge energies and shapes of nanoprecipitates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, John C.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present a model to explain the size-dependent shapes of lead nano-precipitates in aluminum. Size-dependent shape transitions, frequently observed at nanolength scales, are commonly attributed to edge energy effects. This report resolves an ambiguity in the definition and calculation of edge energies and presents an atomistic calculation of edge energies for free clusters. We also present a theory for size-dependent shapes of Pb nanoprecipitates in Al, introducing the concept of ''magic-shapes'' defined as precipitate shapes having near zero elastic strains when inserted into similarly shaped voids in the Al matrix. An algorithm for constructing a complete set of magic-shapes is presented. The experimental observations are explained by elastic strain energies and interfacial energies; edge energies play a negligible role. We replicate the experimental observations by selecting precipitates having magic-shapes and interfacial energies less than a cutoff value.

  2. Thermal stability of the tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The general linear, fluid, thermal instability theory for the plasma edge has been extended. An analysis of a two-dimensional fluid model of the plasma edge has identified the importance of many previously unappreciated phenomena associated with parallel and gyroviscous forces in the presence of large radial gradients, with large radial or parallel flows, with the temperature dependence of transport coefficients, and with the coupling of temperature, flow and density perturbations. The radiative condensation effect is generalized to include a further destabilizing condensation effect associated with radial heat conduction. Representative plasma edge neutral and impurity densities are found to be capable of driving thermal instabilities in the edge transport barrier and radiative mantle, respectively. (author)

  3. Folded membrane dialyzer with mechanically sealed edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markley, F.W.

    A semipermeable membrane is folded in accordion fashion to form a stack of pleats and the edges are sealed so as to isolate the opposite surfaces of the membrane. The stack is contained within a case that provides ports for flow of blood in contact with one surface of the membrane through channels formed by the pleats and also provides ports for flow of a dialysate through channels formed by the pleats in contact with the other surface of the membrane. The serpentine side edges of the membrane are sealed by a solidified plastic material, whereas effective mechanical means are provided to seal the end edges of the folded membrane. The mechanical means include a clamping strip which biases case sealing flanges into a sealed relationship with end portions of the membrane near the end edges, which portions extend from the stack and between the sealing flanges.

  4. Cover Art: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonee Kulman Brigham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artist's Statement for the cover art of IJPS volume 4, issue 3: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward, 2015. Mixed Media: photograph, inkjet printed on presentation matte of colored pencil over photograph.

  5. Men's strategic preferences for femininity in female faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I

    2014-08-01

    Several evolutionarily relevant sources of individual differences in face preference have been documented for women. Here, we examine three such sources of individual variation in men's preference for female facial femininity: term of relationship, partnership status and self-perceived attractiveness. We show that men prefer more feminine female faces when rating for a short-term relationship and when they have a partner (Study 1). These variables were found to interact in a follow-up study (Study 2). Men who thought themselves attractive also preferred more feminized female faces for short-term relationships than men who thought themselves less attractive (Study 1 and Study 2). In women, similar findings for masculine preferences in male faces have been interpreted as adaptive. In men, such preferences potentially reflect that attractive males are able to compete for high-quality female partners in short-term contexts. When a man has secured a mate, the potential cost of being discovered may increase his choosiness regarding short-term partners relative to unpartnered men, who can better increase their short-term mating success by relaxing their standards. Such potentially strategic preferences imply that men also face trade-offs when choosing relatively masculine or feminine faced partners. In line with a trade-off, women with feminine faces were seen as more likely to be unfaithful and more likely to pursue short-term relationships (Study 3), suggesting that risk of cuckoldry is one factor that may limit men's preferences for femininity in women and could additionally lead to preferences for femininity in short-term mates. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Numerical simulation of edge plasma in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yiping; Qiu Lijian

    1996-02-01

    The transport process and transport property of plasma in edge layer of Tokamak are simulated by solving numerically two-dimensional and multi-fluid plasma transport equations using suitable simulation code. The simulation results can show plasma parameter distribution characteristics in the area of edge layer, especially the characteristics near the first wall and divertor target plate. The simulation results play an important role in the design of divertor and first wall of Tokamak. (2 figs)

  7. Edge on Impact Simulations and Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Leavy, R. Brian; Clayton, John D.; Strack, O. Erik; Brannon, Rebecca M.; Strassburger, Elmar

    2013-01-01

    In the quest to understand damage and failure of ceramics in ballistic events, simplified experiments have been developed to benchmark behavior. One such experiment is known as edge on impact (EOI). In this experiment, an impactor strikes the edge of a thin square plate, and damage and cracking that occur on the free surface are captured in real time with high speed photography. If the material of interest is transparent, additional information regarding damage and wave mechanics within the s...

  8. Integrated core-edge-divertor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated calculation model for simulating the interaction of physics phenomena taking place in the plasma core, in the plasma edge and in the SOL and divertor of tokamaks has been developed and applied to study such interactions. The model synthesises a combination of numerical calculations (1) the power and particle balances for the core plasma, using empirical confinement scaling laws and taking into account radiation losses (2), the particle, momentum and power balances in the SOL and divertor, taking into account the effects of radiation and recycling neutrals, (3) the transport of feeling and recycling neutrals, explicitly representing divertor and pumping geometry, and (4) edge pedestal gradient scale lengths and widths, evaluation of theoretical predictions (5) confinement degradation due to thermal instabilities in the edge pedestals, (6) detachment and divertor MARFE onset, (7) core MARFE onsets leading to a H-L transition, and (8) radiative collapse leading to a disruption and evaluation of empirical fits (9) power thresholds for the L-H and H-L transitions and (10) the width of the edge pedestals. The various components of the calculation model are coupled and must be iterated to a self-consistent convergence. The model was developed over several years for the purpose of interpreting various edge phenomena observed in DIII-D experiments and thereby, to some extent, has been benchmarked against experiment. Because the model treats the interactions of various phenomena in the core, edge and divertor, yet is computationally efficient, it lends itself to the investigation of the effects of different choices of various edge plasma operating conditions on overall divertor and core plasma performance. Studies of the effect of feeling location and rate, divertor geometry, plasma shape, pumping and over 'edge parameters' on core plasma properties (line average density, confinement, density limit, etc.) have been performed for DIII-D model problems. A

  9. Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBombard, B.; Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; Lehmer, R.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.

    1988-04-01

    The PISCES plasma surface interaction facility at UCLA generates plasmas with characteristics similar to those found in the edge plasmas of tokamaks. Steady state magnetized plasmas produced by this device are used to study plasma-wall interaction phenomena which are relevant to tokamak devices. We report here progress on some detailed investigations of the presheath region that extends from a wall surface into these /open quotes/simulated tokamak/close quotes/ edge plasma discharges along magnetic field lines

  10. What's happening at the edge of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Handling the power deposition at the walls of a plasma fusion device and controlling the particle fueling of the plasma originated the interest in the edge of the plasma by magnetic fusion scientists. Recently this interest has intensified because of clear evidence that the quality of the central plasma confinement depends in unexpected ways on details of how the edge plasma is managed. Significant efforts are being pursued to understand and exploit the improved plasma confinement observed in the 'H-mode' obtained with divertors and in the 'super-shots' obtained with low neutral particle flux from the edge of TFTR limiter plasmas. The controls, that determine whether or not these well-confined plasmas are obtained, are applied in the edge plasma where a wealth of atomic and molecular processes occur. A qualitative overview of current research related to plasma edge and desirable features is presented to guide thoughts about atomic processes to be included in modeling and interpreting the plasma edge of tokamaks. (orig.)

  11. Unsteady phenomena in the edge tone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paal, G.; Vaik, I.

    2007-01-01

    Despite its geometrical simplicity, the edge tone displays a remarkably complex behaviour. A plane jet oscillates around the wedge-shaped object with a relatively stable frequency and under certain circumstances emits an audible tone. This configuration plays a central role in the sound production of several wind instruments but occurs in industrial situations too. The flow exhibits various interesting nonlinear phenomena reported in the literature which are not entirely explained. In this paper, detailed high precision numerical simulations of the flow are reported under various conditions. Several phenomena are reproduced in agreement with the literature such as the existence of 'stages', the dependence of oscillation frequency on the outflow velocity and the orifice-edge distance within one stage, the pressure distribution on the edge surface, etc. A criterion for the appropriate time step for constant accuracy has been derived. The location of force action is surprisingly stable; it remains in a very narrow region of the wedge surface independently of the Reynolds number and the orifice-edge distance but it is much further behind the edge tip than reported in the literature. The various stages can coexist in different ways: jumping back and forth between stages or being superposed on each other. Regardless of the form, the first stage continues to be dominant even when the second and third stage appears. The question of disturbance propagation velocity and disturbance wavelength is also investigated. The development of higher harmonics of a single stage along the orifice-edge tip distance is presented

  12. Edge effect correction using ion beam figuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Furen; Zhou, Lin

    2017-11-10

    The edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, as it can greatly reduce the key performance of the optical system. Ion beam figuring (IBF) has the advantage of no edge effect, so we can use it to remove high points on the edge and improve surface accuracy. The edge local correction method (ELCM) of IBF processes only the surface edge zone, and is very different from the current full caliber figuring method (FCFM). Therefore, it is necessary to study the ELCM of IBF. In this paper, the key factors of ELCM are analyzed, such as dwell time algorithm, edge data extension methods, and the outward dimension of the starting figuring point. At the same time, the distinctions between ELCM and FCFM are compared. Finally, a 142 mm diameter fused silica mirror is fabricated to verify the validity of the theoretical of ELCM. The experimental results indicate that the figuring precision and efficiency can be obviously improved by ELCM.

  13. Stated preference methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Stated Preference Methods Using R explains how to use stated preference (SP) methods, which are a family of survey methods, to measure people's preferences based on decision making in hypothetical choice situations. Along with giving introductory explanations of the methods, the book collates information on existing R functions and packages as well as those prepared by the authors. It focuses on core SP methods, including contingent valuation (CV), discrete choice experiments (DCEs), and best-worst scaling (BWS). Several example data sets illustrate empirical applications of each method with R

  14. Preferences in Data Production Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Keith; Brafman, Ronen; Pang, Wanlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the data production problem, which consists of transforming a set of (initial) input data into a set of (goal) output data. There are typically many choices among input data and processing algorithms, each leading to significantly different end products. To discriminate among these choices, the planner supports an input language that provides a number of constructs for specifying user preferences over data (and plan) properties. We discuss these preference constructs, how we handle them to guide search, and additional challenges in the area of preference management that this important application domain offers.

  15. Optimal margin and edge-enhanced intensity maps in the presence of motion and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Timothy C Y; Tsitsiklis, John N; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In radiation therapy, intensity maps involving margins have long been used to counteract the effects of dose blurring arising from motion. More recently, intensity maps with increased intensity near the edge of the tumour (edge enhancements) have been studied to evaluate their ability to offset similar effects that affect tumour coverage. In this paper, we present a mathematical methodology to derive margin and edge-enhanced intensity maps that aim to provide tumour coverage while delivering minimum total dose. We show that if the tumour is at most about twice as large as the standard deviation of the blurring distribution, the optimal intensity map is a pure scaling increase of the static intensity map without any margins or edge enhancements. Otherwise, if the tumour size is roughly twice (or more) the standard deviation of motion, then margins and edge enhancements are preferred, and we present formulae to calculate the exact dimensions of these intensity maps. Furthermore, we extend our analysis to include scenarios where the parameters of the motion distribution are not known with certainty, but rather can take any value in some range. In these cases, we derive a similar threshold to determine the structure of an optimal margin intensity map.

  16. Dynamics of the pedestal structure in the edge transport barrier in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, S.; Oishi, T.; Tanaka, S.

    2006-10-01

    The dynamic behavior of the edge pedestal in the edge transport barrier (ETB) formation discharge (H-mode) in the compact helical system (CHS) is investigated. Edge Harmonic Oscillations (EHOs) having a fundamental frequency of 2-4.5 kHz, depending on the magnetic configuration, and their second harmonic are observed when the density gradient of the pedestal reaches a certain threshold. There are two groups of so-called EHOs in the CHS. One is located in the edge region where the ι=1 surface exists, and the other is in the core region (although we also call it EHO in this paper) around the half radius where the ι=0.5 surface exists. The magnetic probe signal is revealed to reflect the latter mode, showing the poloidal mode number of 2, while that for the edge BES channel is 1. The density build-up saturates simultaneously with the increase of EHOs in the edge BES channel, which suggests that to a considerable extend the mode increases the particle transport. (author)

  17. Development of composite polymer-glass edge claddings for Nova Laser Disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Edwards, G.; Frick, F.A.; Gemmell, D.S.; Gim, B.M.; Jancaitis, K.S.; Jessop, E.S.; Kong, M.K.; Lyon, R.E.; Murray, J.E.; Patton, H.G.; Pitts, J.H.; Powell, H.T.; Riley, M.O.; Wallerstein, E.P.; Wolfe, C.R.; Woods, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Large Nd:glass laser disks for disk amplifiers require an edge cladding which absorbs at 1 μ m. This cladding prevents edge reflections from causing parasitic oscillations that would otherwise deplete the gain. The authors have developed a composite polymer-glass edge cladding that consists of absorbing glass strips bonded to the edges of laser glass disks using an epoxy adhesive. The edge cladding must survive a fluence of approximately 20 J/cm 2 in a 0.5-ms pulse. Failure can occur either by decomposition of the polymer or by mechanical failure from thermal stresses which leads to bond delamination. An epoxy has been developed that gives the required damage resistance, refractive index match and processing characteristics. A slight tilt of the disk edges greatly reduces the threat from parasitic oscillations and a glass surface treatment is used to promote bond adhesion. Laser disks fabricated with this new cladding show identical gain performance to disks using conventional fused-glass cladding and have been tested for over 2000 shots (equivalent to about a 4-year lifetime on Nova) with out degradation

  18. Propagation of superconducting coherence via chiral quantum-Hall edge channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geon-Hyoung; Kim, Minsoo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2017-09-08

    Recently, there has been significant interest in superconducting coherence via chiral quantum-Hall (QH) edge channels at an interface between a two-dimensional normal conductor and a superconductor (N-S) in a strong transverse magnetic field. In the field range where the superconductivity and the QH state coexist, the coherent confinement of electron- and hole-like quasiparticles by the interplay of Andreev reflection and the QH effect leads to the formation of Andreev edge states (AES) along the N-S interface. Here, we report the electrical conductance characteristics via the AES formed in graphene-superconductor hybrid systems in a three-terminal configuration. This measurement configuration, involving the QH edge states outside a graphene-S interface, allows the detection of the longitudinal and QH conductance separately, excluding the bulk contribution. Convincing evidence for the superconducting coherence and its propagation via the chiral QH edge channels is provided by the conductance enhancement on both the upstream and the downstream sides of the superconducting electrode as well as in bias spectroscopy results below the superconducting critical temperature. Propagation of superconducting coherence via QH edge states was more evident as more edge channels participate in the Andreev process for high filling factors with reduced valley-mixing scattering.

  19. Edge subdivision and edge multisubdivision versus some domination related parameters in generalized corona graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dettlaff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph \\(G=(V,E\\, the subdivision of an edge \\(e=uv\\in E(G\\ means the substitution of the edge \\(e\\ by a vertex \\(x\\ and the new edges \\(ux\\ and \\(xv\\. The domination subdivision number of a graph \\(G\\ is the minimum number of edges of \\(G\\ which must be subdivided (where each edge can be subdivided at most once in order to increase the domination number. Also, the domination multisubdivision number of \\(G\\ is the minimum number of subdivisions which must be done in one edge such that the domination number increases. Moreover, the concepts of paired domination and independent domination subdivision (respectively multisubdivision numbers are defined similarly. In this paper we study the domination, paired domination and independent domination (subdivision and multisubdivision numbers of the generalized corona graphs.

  20. Transaortic Alfieri Edge-to-Edge Repair for Functional Mitral Regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasaka, Ken-Ichi; Tayama, Eiki; Morita, Shigeki; Toriya, Ryohei; Tomita, Yukihiro

    2018-03-01

    There is controversy about handling functional mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing aortic valve or proximal aortic operations. We describe a transaortic Alfieri edge-to-edge repair for functional mitral regurgitation that reduces operative excessive invasion and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time. Between May 2013 and December 2016, 10 patients underwent transaortic Alfieri edge-to-edge mitral repair. There were no operative deaths. The severity of mitral regurgitation immediately after the operation by transesophageal echocardiography was none or trivial in all patients. A transaortic Alfieri edge-to-edge repair for functional mitral regurgitation is a simple and safe approach. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Red photoluminescence and band edge shift from ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotti, Ricardo E.; Badan, Juan A.; Quagliata, Eduardo; Dalchiele, Enrique A.

    2007-01-01

    The red photoluminescence (PL) band (peaked between 610 and 640 nm) from electrochemically deposited ZnO thin films is studied. The absorption coefficient is obtained from diffuse reflectance measurements. The absorption band edge depends on deposition conditions. The PL peak follows the shift of the band edge. A similar correlation appears when cooling down to 20 K. This suggests that PL is due to a transition from an intrinsic shallow state to an intrinsic deep state. Comparing against ZnO samples showing green PL, the shallow nature of the state is confirmed

  2. Further results for crack-edge mappings by ray methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, A.N.; Achenbach, J.D.; Ahlberg, L.; Tittman, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses further extensions of the local edge mapping method to the pulse-echo case and to configurations of water-immersed specimens and transducers. Crack edges are mapped by the use of arrival times of edge-diffracted signals. Topics considered include local edge mapping in a homogeneous medium, local edge mapping algorithms, local edge mapping through an interface, and edge mapping through an interface using synthetic data. Local edge mapping is iterative, with two or three iterations required for convergence

  3. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Leggett, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it

  4. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.

  5. Forests on the edge: Microenvironmental drivers of carbon cycle response to edge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmann, A.; Hutyra, L.; Smith, I. A.; Thompson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Twenty percent of the world's forest is within 100 m of a forest edge, but much of our understanding of forest carbon (C) cycling comes from large, intact ecosystems, which creates an important mismatch between the landscapes we study and those we aim to characterize. The temperate broadleaf forest is the most heavily fragmented forest biome in the world and its growth and carbon storage responses to forest edge effects appear to be the opposite of those in the tropical and boreal regions. We used field measurements to quantify the drivers of temperate forest C cycling response to edge effects, characterizing vegetative growth, respiration, and forest structure. We find large gradients in air and soil temperature from the forest interior to edge (up to 4 and 10° C, respectively) and the magnitude of this gradient is inversely correlated to the size of the forest edge growth enhancement. Further, leaf area index increases with proximity to the forest edge. While we also find increases in soil respiration between the forest interior and edge, this flux is small relative to aboveground growth enhancement near the edge. These findings represent an important advancement in our understanding of forest C cycle response to edge effects and will greatly improve our capacity to constrain biogenic C fluxes in fragmented and heterogeneous landscapes.

  6. The effect of surface texture on total reflection of neutrons and X-rays from modified interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldar, A.; Roser, S.J.; Hughes, A.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray and neutron scattering from macroscopically rough surfaces and interfaces is considered and a new method of analysis based on the variation of the shape of the total reflection edge in the reflectivity profile is proposed. It was shown that in the limit that the correlation length and the h......X-ray and neutron scattering from macroscopically rough surfaces and interfaces is considered and a new method of analysis based on the variation of the shape of the total reflection edge in the reflectivity profile is proposed. It was shown that in the limit that the correlation length...... and the height of the surface roughness are larger than the wavelength (at least 100 times bigger) of the incoming beam, the total reflection edge in the reflection profile becomes rounded. This technique allows direct analysis of the variation of the reflectivity pro le in terms of the structure of the surface...

  7. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find & compare doctors, hospitals, & other providers Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans How PPO Plans Work A Medicare ... extra for these benefits. Related Resources Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) Special Needs ...

  8. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery. Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements...... in stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements...... in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...

  9. Influence of Personal Preferences on Link Dynamics in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Bahulkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a unique network dataset including periodic surveys and electronic logs of dyadic contacts via smartphones. The participants were a sample of freshmen entering university in the Fall 2011. Their opinions on a variety of political and social issues and lists of activities on campus were regularly recorded at the beginning and end of each semester for the first three years of study. We identify a behavioral network defined by call and text data, and a cognitive network based on friendship nominations in ego-network surveys. Both networks are limited to study participants. Since a wide range of attributes on each node were collected in self-reports, we refer to these networks as attribute-rich networks. We study whether student preferences for certain attributes of friends can predict formation and dissolution of edges in both networks. We introduce a method for computing student preferences for different attributes which we use to predict link formation and dissolution. We then rank these attributes according to their importance for making predictions. We find that personal preferences, in particular political views, and preferences for common activities help predict link formation and dissolution in both the behavioral and cognitive networks.

  10. Preferences for 'New' Treatments Diminish in the Face of Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark; Marra, Carlo A; Bansback, Nick

    2017-06-01

    New products usually offer advantages over existing products, but in health care, most new drugs are 'me-too', comparable in effectiveness and side effects to existing drugs, but with a more ambiguous evidence base around adverse effects. Despite this, new treatments drive increased health care spending, suggesting a preference for 'newness' in this setting. We explore (1) whether preferences for treatments labeled 'new' exist and (2) persist once the ambiguity in the evidence base reflecting newness is described. We use a Canadian general population sample (n = 2837) characterized by their innovativeness in adopting new products in normal markets. We found that innovators/early adopters (n = 173) had significant preferences for 'newer' treatments (B = 0.162, p = 0.038) irrespective of comparable benefits and side effects and all respondents had significant preferences for less ambiguity in benefit/side effect estimates. Notably, when 'newness' was combined with ambiguity, no significant preferences for new treatments were observed regardless of respondent innovativeness. We conclude that preferences for new products exist for some people in health care markets but disappear when the implication of ambiguity in the evidence base for new treatments is communicated. Physicians should avoid describing treatments as 'new' or be mindful to qualify the implications of 'new' treatments in terms of evidence ambiguity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method.

  12. Good genes, complementary genes and human mate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C

    2008-09-01

    The past decade has witnessed a rapidly growing interest in the biological basis of human mate choice. Here we review recent studies that demonstrate preferences for traits which might reveal genetic quality to prospective mates, with potential but still largely unknown influence on offspring fitness. These include studies assessing visual, olfactory and auditory preferences for potential good-gene indicator traits, such as dominance or bilateral symmetry. Individual differences in these robust preferences mainly arise through within and between individual variation in condition and reproductive status. Another set of studies have revealed preferences for traits indicating complementary genes, focussing on discrimination of dissimilarity at genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). As in animal studies, we are only just beginning to understand how preferences for specific traits vary and inter-relate, how consideration of good and compatible genes can lead to substantial variability in individual mate choice decisions and how preferences expressed in one sensory modality may reflect those in another. Humans may be an ideal model species in which to explore these interesting complexities.

  13. Counseling women with early pregnancy failure: utilizing evidence, preserving preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robin R; Goodman, Suzan; Freedman, Lori R; Dalton, Vanessa K; Harris, Lisa H

    2010-12-01

    To apply principles of shared decision-making to EPF management counseling. To present a patient treatment priority checklist developed from review of available literature on patient priorities for EPF management. Review of evidence for patient preferences; personal, emotional, physical and clinical factors that may influence patient priorities for EPF management; and the clinical factors, resources, and provider bias that may influence current practice. Women have strong and diverse preferences for EPF management and report higher satisfaction when treated according to these preferences. However, estimates of actual treatment patterns suggest that current practice does not reflect the evidence for safety and acceptability of all options, or patient preferences. Multiple practice barriers and biases exist that may be influencing provider counseling about options for EPF management. Choosing management for EPF is a preference-sensitive decision. A patient-centered approach to EPF management should incorporate counseling about all treatment options. Providers can integrate a counseling model into EPF management practice that utilizes principles of shared decision-making and an organized method for eliciting patient preferences, priorities, and concerns about treatment options. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use.

  15. Blurred edges to population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1992-05-01

    Fertility is now below replacement level in most European countries, especially the industrialized ones. In the last 20 years, several countries have developed or improved pronatalist programs containing incentives that are designed to motivate couples to have a 2nd and especially a 3rd child, to maintain a stable population. The WHO Sexuality and Family Planning Unit called a short consultation on this subject last October. What actually constitutes a pronatalist population program and the connections between public policies and private reproductive behavior were not very clear. Nor is it easy to assess the longer--term demographic effects of pronatalist policies or what influences their effectiveness. The outcome usually reflects the country's history, cultural and religious traditions, changes in lifestyle, and the value given to the family and children. Incentives are defined as monetary or nonmonetary inducements to voluntary reproductive behavior that conforms to specified population policies. They may be small or large, in cash or kind, parity-specific or income-linked, immediate or developed, one-time or incremental, or any combination of these. Disincentives are negative sanctions that are either incurred or thought likely as a result of violating the policy. But both incentives and disincentives are difficult to define. Pronatalist policies designed to encourage early marriage and larger families, thereby raising the future total fertility rate should not be confused with traditional social welfare policies designed simply to ease the burden of childbearing. Some policies have both demographic and social welfare aims. Strong pronatalist policies may be linked with restrictions on contraceptive availability and legal abortion. Moreover, other public policies affecting social security, education, employment, housing, regional planning and the emancipation of women may unintentionally influence demographic behavior. Population policies are the product of

  16. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  17. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  18. Edge Modeling by Two Blur Parameters in Varying Contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Suyoung

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a method of modeling edge profiles with two blur parameters, and estimating and predicting those edge parameters with varying brightness combinations and camera-to-object distances (COD). First, the validity of the edge model is proven mathematically. Then, it is proven experimentally with edges from a set of images captured for specifically designed target sheets and with edges from natural images. Estimation of the two blur parameters for each observed edge profile is performed with a brute-force method to find parameters that produce global minimum errors. Then, using the estimated blur parameters, actual blur parameters of edges with arbitrary brightness combinations are predicted using a surface interpolation method (i.e., kriging). The predicted surfaces show that the two blur parameters of the proposed edge model depend on both dark-side edge brightness and light-side edge brightness following a certain global trend. This is similar across varying CODs. The proposed edge model is compared with a one-blur parameter edge model using experiments of the root mean squared error for fitting the edge models to each observed edge profile. The comparison results suggest that the proposed edge model has superiority over the one-blur parameter edge model in most cases where edges have varying brightness combinations.

  19. Principles of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  20. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  1. Power spectrum weighted edge analysis for straight edge detection in images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvir, Hrishikesh V.; Skipper, Julie A.

    2007-04-01

    Most man-made objects provide characteristic straight line edges and, therefore, edge extraction is a commonly used target detection tool. However, noisy images often yield broken edges that lead to missed detections, and extraneous edges that may contribute to false target detections. We present a sliding-block approach for target detection using weighted power spectral analysis. In general, straight line edges appearing at a given frequency are represented as a peak in the Fourier domain at a radius corresponding to that frequency, and a direction corresponding to the orientation of the edges in the spatial domain. Knowing the edge width and spacing between the edges, a band-pass filter is designed to extract the Fourier peaks corresponding to the target edges and suppress image noise. These peaks are then detected by amplitude thresholding. The frequency band width and the subsequent spatial filter mask size are variable parameters to facilitate detection of target objects of different sizes under known imaging geometries. Many military objects, such as trucks, tanks and missile launchers, produce definite signatures with parallel lines and the algorithm proves to be ideal for detecting such objects. Moreover, shadow-casting objects generally provide sharp edges and are readily detected. The block operation procedure offers advantages of significant reduction in noise influence, improved edge detection, faster processing speed and versatility to detect diverse objects of different sizes in the image. With Scud missile launcher replicas as target objects, the method has been successfully tested on terrain board test images under different backgrounds, illumination and imaging geometries with cameras of differing spatial resolution and bit-depth.

  2. Blue shift of the plasma edge of a ferromagnetic semimetal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, P.; Bommeli, F.; Degiorgi, L.; Burlet, P.; Bourdarot, F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In general rare earth pnictides are semimetals and antiferromagnets. Only some nitrides are quoted as ferri or ferromagnetic. However, it has been shown when prepared stoichiometrically and in single crystalline form the free carrier concentration is only in the percent per cation range, thus they are typical low carrier systems. Under these conditions the nitrides are all canted antiferromagnets and metamagnets, i.e. they show Abstract only. The full magnetic moment only with an applied magnetic field. However, when prepared as single crystals but with excess of the rare earths they become spontaneously ferromagnets due to the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction in addition to the superexchange mechanisms. On such ferromagnetic compositions of TbN and GdN and also in EuB 6 a new magneto-optic effect has been discovered, a spontaneous blue shift of the plasma edge upon magnetic order. The plasma edge is measured with optical reflectivity and it depends on the free carrier concentration. In other words the free carrier concentration increases upon ferromagnetic order. This effect can be understood with the spontaneous exchange splitting of mainly the 5d conduction band, lowering the bottom of the spin up 5d band, thus increasing the indirect overlap with the valence p band of the anions and thus enhancing the carrier concentration. This blue shift of the plasma edge follows a spin correlation function. An external magnetic field applied near TC enhances the blue shift since the magnetization is not yet saturated. For T→0 a magnetic field has no effect since the magnetization is spontaneously saturated

  3. Divergence and Convergence of Risky Decision Making Across Prospective Gains and Losses: Preferences and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A

    2015-01-01

    People choose differently when facing potential gains than when facing potential losses. Clear gross differences in decision making between gains and losses have been empirically demonstrated in numerous studies (e.g., framing effect, risk preference, loss aversion). However, theories maintain that there are strong underlying connections (e.g., reflection effect). We investigated the relationship between gains and losses decision making, examining risk preferences, and choice strategies (the reliance on option information) using a monetary gamble task with interleaved trials. For risk preferences, participants were on average risk averse in the gains domain and risk neutral/seeking in the losses domain. We specifically tested for a theoretically hypothesized correlation between individual risk preferences across the gains and losses domains (the reflection effect), but found no significant relationship in the predicted direction. Interestingly, despite the lack of reflected risk preferences, cross-domain risk preferences were still informative of individual choice behavior. For choice strategies, in both domains participants relied more heavily on the maximizing strategy than the satisficing strategy, with increased reliance on the maximizing strategy in the losses domain. Additionally, while there is no mathematical reliance between the risk preference and strategy metrics, within both domains there were significant relationships between risk preferences and strategies-the more participants relied upon the maximizing strategy the more risk neutral they were (equating value and utility maximization). These results demonstrate the complexity of gains and losses decision making, indicating the apparent contradiction that their underlying cognitive/neural processes are both dissociable and overlapping.

  4. Content-Based Multimedia Retrieval in the Presence of Unknown User Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beecks, Christian; Assent, Ira; Seidl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Content-based multimedia retrieval requires an appropriate similarity model which reflects user preferences. When these preferences are unknown or when the structure of the data collection is unclear, retrieving the most preferable objects the user has in mind is challenging, as the notion...... address the problem of content-based multimedia retrieval in the presence of unknown user preferences. Our idea consists in performing content-based retrieval by considering all possibilities in a family of similarity models simultaneously. To this end, we propose a novel content-based retrieval approach...

  5. Edge strength of CAD/CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeilschifter, Maria; Preis, Verena; Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin

    2018-05-16

    To investigate the edge force of CAD/CAM materials as a function of (a) material, (b) thickness, and (c) distance from the margin. Materials intended for processing with CAD/CAM were investigated: eight resin composites, one resin-infiltrated ceramic, and a clinically proven lithiumdisilicate ceramic (reference). To measure edge force (that is, load to failure/crack), plates (d = 1 mm) were fixed and loaded with a Vickers diamond indenter (1 mm/min, Zwick 1446) at a distance of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 mm from the edge. Edge force was defined as a loading force at a distance of 0.5 mm. The type of failure was determined. To investigate the influence of the thickness, all data were determined on 1-mm and 2-mm plates. To test the influence of bonding and an underlying dentin, individual 1-mm plates were bonded to a 1-mm-thick dentin-like (concerning modulus of elasticity) resin composite. For the 1-mm plates, edge force varied between 64.4 ± 24.2 N (Shofu Block HC) and 183.2 ± 63.3 N (ceramic reference), with significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences between the materials. For the 2-mm plates, values between 129.2 ± 32.5 N (Lava Ultimate) and 230.3 ± 67.5 N (Cerasmart) were found. Statistical comparison revealed no significant differences (p > 0.109) between the materials. Brilliant Crios (p = 0.023), Enamic (p = 0.000), Shofu Blocks HC (p = 0.009), and Grandio Bloc (p = 0.002) showed significantly different edge force between the 1-mm- and 2-mm-thick plates. The failure pattern was either cracking, (severe) chipping, or fracture. Material, material thickness, and distance from the edge impact the edge force of CAD/CAM materials. CAD/CAM materials should be carefully selected on the basis of their individual edge force and performance during milling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying preferences for the natural world using monetary and nonmonetary assessments of value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tinch, Dugald; Hanley, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Given that funds for biodiversity conservation are limited, there is a need to understand people's preferences for its different components. To date, such preferences have largely been measured in monetary terms. However, how people value biodiversity may differ from economic theory, and there is...... in an assessment of environmental preferences, although which approach is preferable depends on why one wishes to measure values for the natural world......., but showed strong associations with self-reported well-being. Both approaches are likely to reflect a combination of the environmental properties of a site and unobserved individual preference heterogeneity for the natural world. Our results suggest that either metric will deliver mutually consistent results...... axes derived from environmental psychology theories (reflection, attachment, continuity with past). The 2 metrics were broadly congruent. Participants with above-median self-reported well-being scores were willing to pay significantly higher amounts for enhancing species richness than those with below...

  7. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type i......+1, i=1,2,3,4. The first three types are equivalent to the absence of PC cycles, PC closed trails, and PC closed walks, respectively. While graphs of types 1, 2 and 3 can be recognized in polynomial time, the problem of recognizing graphs of type 4 is, somewhat surprisingly, NP-hard even for 2-edge-colored...... graphs (i.e., when only two colors are used). The same problem with respect to type 5 is polynomial-time solvable for all edge-colored graphs. Using the five types, we investigate the border between intractability and tractability for the problems of finding the maximum number of internally vertex...

  8. Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue

    Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...

  9. Recent advances in fuzzy preference modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Walle, B.; De Baets, B.; Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    Preference structures are well-known mathematical concepts having numerous applications in a variety of disciplines, such as economics, sociology and psychology. The generalization of preference structures to the fuzzy case has received considerable attention over the past years. Fuzzy preference structures allow a decision maker to express degrees of preference instead of the rigid classical yes-or-no preference assignment. This paper reports on the recent insights gained into the existence, construction and characterization of these fuzzy preference structures

  10. Exposure of tungsten nano-structure to TEXTOR edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Y.; Miyata, K.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Lee, H.T.; Fukumoto, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J.W.; Kreter, A.; Litnovsky, A.; Philipps, V.; Schweer, B.; Sergienko, G.; Hirai, T.; Taguchi, A.; Torikai, Y.; Sugiyama, K.; Tanabe, T.; Kajita, S.; Ohno, N.

    2011-01-01

    W nano-structures (fuzz), produced in the linear high plasma device, NAGDIS, were exposed to TEXTOR edge plasmas (ohmic He/D mixed plasma and pure D plasma) to study formation, erosion and C deposition on W fuzz in tokamak plasmas for the first time. Fuzz layers were either completely eroded or covered by C deposit. There was no clear indication of W fuzz growth under the present conditions. There was no significant difference of C deposition between 'thick' fuzz (500-600 nm in thickness) and 'thin' fuzz (300-400 nm) in the He/D plasma. On the W fuzz surface, C deposition was enhanced probably due to reduction of effective sputtering yield and effective reflection coefficient of carbon ions, similar to roughness effects. Formation and erosion of W fuzz in tokamak devices and role of impurities are discussed.

  11. [Medicine at the "edge of chaos". Life, entropy and complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, Eduardo L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to help physicians and health professionals, who constantly seek to improve their knowledge for the benefit of the ill, to incorporate new conceptual and methodological tools to understand the complexity inherent to the field of medicine. This article contains notions that are unfamiliar to these professionals and are intended to foster reflection and learning. It poses the need to define life from a thermodynamic point of view, linking it closely to complex systems, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior, as well as to redefine conventional physiological control mechanisms based on the concept of homeostasis, and to travel the path that starts with the search for extraterrestrial life up to exposing medicine "near the edge of chaos". Complexity transcends the biological aspects; it includes a subjective and symbolic/social dimension. Viewing disease as a heterogeneous and multi-causal phenomenon can give rise to new approaches for the sick.

  12. Quantized charge transport in chiral Majorana edge modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Stephan; Mascot, Eric; Cocklin, Sagen; Vojta, Matthias; Morr, Dirk K.

    2017-11-01

    Majorana fermions can be realized as quasiparticles in topological superconductors, with potential applications in topological quantum computing. Recently, lattices of magnetic adatoms deposited on the surface of s -wave superconductors—Shiba lattices—have been proposed as a new platform for topological superconductivity. These systems possess the great advantage that they are accessible via scanning-probe techniques and thus enable the local manipulation and detection of Majorana modes. Using a nonequilibrium Green's function technique we demonstrate that the topological Majorana edge modes of nanoscopic Shiba islands display universal electronic and transport properties. Most remarkably, these Majorana modes possess a quantized charge conductance that is proportional to the topological Chern number, C , and carry a supercurrent whose chirality reflects the sign of C . These results establish nanoscopic Shiba islands as promising components in future topology-based devices.

  13. Scattering of ECRF waves by edge density fluctuations and blobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Abhay K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of electron cyclotron waves by density blobs embedded in the edge region of a fusion plasma is studied using a full-wave model. The full-wave theory is a generalization of the usual approach of geometric optics ray scattering by blobs. While the latter allows for only refraction of waves, the former, more general formulation, includes refraction, reflection, and diffraction of waves. Furthermore, the geometric optics, ray tracing, model is limited to blob densities that are slightly different from the background plasma density. Observations in tokamak experiments show that the fluctuating density differs from the background plasma density by 20% or more. Thus, the geometric optics model is not a physically realistic model of scattering of electron cyclotron waves by plasma blobs. The differences between the ray tracing approach and the full-wave approach to scattering are illustrated in this paper.

  14. Infective endocarditis following transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmarats, Lluis; Rodriguez-Gabella, Tania; Chamandi, Chekrallah; Bernier, Mathieu; Beaudoin, Jonathan; O'Connor, Kim; Dumont, Eric; Dagenais, François; Paradis, Jean-Michel; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2018-05-10

    To assess the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis (IE) after edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with the MitraClip device. Transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair has emerged as an alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. However, few data exist on IE following transcatheter mitral procedures. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for original published studies on IE after edge-to-edge transcatheter mitral valve repair from 2003 to 2017. A total of 10 publications describing 12 patients with definitive IE (median age 76 years, 55% men) were found. The mean logistic EuroSCORE/EuroSCORE II were 41% and 45%, respectively. The IE episode occurred early (within 12 months post-procedure) in nine patients (75%; within the first month in five patients). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent (60%) causal microorganism, and severe mitral regurgitation was present in all cases but one. Surgical mitral valve replacement (SMVR) was performed in most (67%) patients, and the mortality associated with the IE episode was high (42%). IE following transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair is a rare but life-threatening complication, usually necessitating SMVR despite the high-risk profile of the patients. These results highlight the importance of adequate preventive measures and a prompt diagnosis and treatment of this serious complication. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Size effect model for the edge strength of glass with cut and ground edge finishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebroek, M.; Louter, C.; Caspeele, R.; Ensslen, F.; Belis, J.L.I.F.

    2014-01-01

    The edge strength of glass is influenced by the size of the surface (near the edge) which is subjected to tensile stresses. To quantify this size effect, 8 series of single layer annealed glass beam specimens (as-received glass) were subjected to in-plane four-point bending with linearly increased

  16. Edge printability: techniques used to evaluate and improve extreme wafer edge printability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bill; Demmert, Cort; Jekauc, Igor; Tiffany, Jason P.

    2004-05-01

    The economics of semiconductor manufacturing have forced process engineers to develop techniques to increase wafer yield. Improvements in process controls and uniformities in all areas of the fab have reduced film thickness variations at the very edge of the wafer surface. This improved uniformity has provided the opportunity to consider decreasing edge exclusions, and now the outermost extents of the wafer must be considered in the yield model and expectations. These changes have increased the requirements on lithography to improve wafer edge printability in areas that previously were not even coated. This has taxed all software and hardware components used in defining the optical focal plane at the wafer edge. We have explored techniques to determine the capabilities of extreme wafer edge printability and the components of the systems that influence this printability. We will present current capabilities and new detection techniques and the influence that the individual hardware and software components have on edge printability. We will show effects of focus sensor designs, wafer layout, utilization of dummy edge fields, the use of non-zero overlay targets and chemical/optical edge bead optimization.

  17. Patient preferences versus physicians' judgement: does it make a difference in healthcare decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians and public health experts make evidence-based decisions for individual patients, patient groups and even whole populations. In addition to the principles of internal and external validity (evidence), patient preferences must also influence decision making. Great Britain, Australia and Germany are currently discussing methods and procedures for valuing patient preferences in regulatory (authorization and pricing) and in health policy decision making. However, many questions remain on how to best balance patient and public preferences with physicians' judgement in healthcare and health policy decision making. For example, how to define evaluation criteria regarding the perceived value from a patient's perspective? How do physicians' fact-based opinions also reflect patients' preferences based on personal values? Can empirically grounded theories explain differences between patients and experts-and, if so, how? This article aims to identify and compare studies that used different preference elicitation methods and to highlight differences between patient and physician preferences. Therefore, studies comparing patient preferences and physician judgements were analysed in a review. This review shows a limited amount of literature analysing and comparing patient and physician preferences for healthcare interventions and outcomes. Moreover, it shows that methodology used to compare preferences is diverse. A total of 46 studies used the following methods-discrete-choice experiments, conjoint analyses, standard gamble, time trade-offs and paired comparisons-to compare patient preferences with doctor judgements. All studies were published between 1985 and 2011. Most studies reveal a disparity between the preferences of actual patients and those of physicians. For most conditions, physicians underestimated the impact of intervention characteristics on patients' decision making. Differentiated perceptions may reflect ineffective communication between the provider

  18. Comparing group deliberation to other forms of preference aggregation in valuing ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie B. Murphy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Deliberative methods for valuing ecosystem services are hypothesized to yield group preferences that differ systematically from those that would be obtained through calculative aggregation of the preferences of participating individuals. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the group consensus results of structured deliberations against a variety of aggregation methods applied to individual participant preferences that were elicited both before and after the deliberations. Participants were also asked about their perceptions of the deliberative process, which we used to assess their ability to detect preference changes and identify the causes of any changes. For five of the seven groups tested, the group consensus results could not have been predicted from individual predeliberation preferences using any of the aggregation rules. However, individual postdeliberation preferences could be used to reconstruct the group preferences using consensual and rank-based aggregation rules. These results imply that the preferences of participants changed over the course of the deliberation and that the group preferences reflected a broad consensus on overall rankings rather than simply the pairwise preferences of the majority. Changes in individual preferences seem to have gone largely unnoticed by participants, as most stated that they did not believe their preferences had substantially changed. Most participants were satisfied with the outcome of the deliberation, and their degree of satisfaction was correlated with the feeling that their opinion was heard and that they had an influence on the outcome. Based on our results, group deliberation shows promise as a means of generating ecosystem service valuations that reflect a consensus opinion rather than simply a collection of personal preferences.

  19. Solar reflection panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Reshetnik, Michael [Boulder, CO

    2006-07-18

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  20. Relationship between Student Pharmacist Decision Making Preferences and Experiential Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charlene R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C; Shepherd, Greene

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To determine if student pharmacists' preferences towards experiential and rational thinking are associated with performance on advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and whether thinking style preference changes following APPEs. Methods. The Rational Experiential Inventory (REI), a validated survey of thinking style, was administered to student pharmacists before starting APPEs and re-administered after completing APPEs. APPE grades were compared to initial REI scores. Results. Rational Experiential Inventory scores remained consistent before and after APPEs. Overall, APPE grades were independent of REI scores. In a regression model, the REI experiential score was a significant negative predictor of hospital APPE grades. Conclusion. These findings suggest that overall APPE performance is independent of decision-making preference, and decision-making style does not change following immersion into APPEs. Instead of targeting teaching strategies towards a specific decision-making style, preceptors may use pedagogical approaches that promote sound clinical decision-making skills through critical thinking and reflection.

  1. Relationship between Student Pharmacist Decision Making Preferences and Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; Cox, Wendy C.; Shepherd, Greene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine if student pharmacists’ preferences towards experiential and rational thinking are associated with performance on advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and whether thinking style preference changes following APPEs. Methods. The Rational Experiential Inventory (REI), a validated survey of thinking style, was administered to student pharmacists before starting APPEs and re-administered after completing APPEs. APPE grades were compared to initial REI scores. Results. Rational Experiential Inventory scores remained consistent before and after APPEs. Overall, APPE grades were independent of REI scores. In a regression model, the REI experiential score was a significant negative predictor of hospital APPE grades. Conclusion. These findings suggest that overall APPE performance is independent of decision-making preference, and decision-making style does not change following immersion into APPEs. Instead of targeting teaching strategies towards a specific decision-making style, preceptors may use pedagogical approaches that promote sound clinical decision-making skills through critical thinking and reflection. PMID:27756927

  2. Cervical Length & Leading Placental Edge to Internal OS Measurements - TA vs TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerway, Sue Campbell; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Hyett, Jon

    Brief Description of the Purpose of the Study: To compare cervical length/leading placental edge from the internal cervical os measurements obtained by both transabdominal (TA) and transvaginal (TV) approach and to assess intra / inter-observer variation for these measurements. Methods: Cross...... sectional study of 374 consecutive pregnancies with gestation 12 weeks to term. The cervical length was estimated as the distance from internal to external os, and the placenta / cervix distance as the leading placental edge to internal cervical os. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the two methods....... Importance of the Conclusions: TA estimates of cervix and placental edge position did not reflect the estimates obtained by TV assessment. As both measures are important markers of pregnancy outcome and management, the transabdominal method in the present form is insuffi- cient in clinical management....

  3. Topological edge modes in multilayer graphene systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Lixin

    2015-08-10

    Plasmons can be supported on graphene sheets as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively. A tight-binding model for graphene plasmons is a good description as the field confinement in the normal direction is strong. With this model, the topological properties of plasmonic bands in multilayer graphene systems are investigated. The Zak phases of periodic graphene sheet arrays are obtained for different configurations. Analogous to Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model in electronic systems, topological edge plasmon modes emerge when two periodic graphene sheet arrays with different Zak phases are connected. Interestingly, the dispersion of these topological edge modes is the same as that in the monolayer graphene and is invariant as the geometric parameters of the structure such as the separation and period change. These plasmonic edge states in multilayer graphene systems can be further tuned by electrical gating or chemical doping. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  4. Performance of active edge pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomben, M.; Ducourthial, A.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Calderini, G.; D'Eramo, L.; Giacomini, G.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.; Rummler, A.; Weingarten, J.

    2017-05-01

    To cope with the High Luminosity LHC harsh conditions, the ATLAS inner tracker has to be upgraded to meet requirements in terms of radiation hardness, pile up and geometrical acceptance. The active edge technology allows to reduce the insensitive area at the border of the sensor thanks to an ion etched trench which avoids the crystal damage produced by the standard mechanical dicing process. Thin planar n-on-p pixel sensors with active edge have been designed and produced by LPNHE and FBK foundry. Two detector module prototypes, consisting of pixel sensors connected to FE-I4B readout chips, have been tested with beams at CERN and DESY. In this paper the performance of these modules are reported. In particular the lateral extension of the detection volume, beyond the pixel region, is investigated and the results show high hit efficiency also at the detector edge, even in presence of guard rings.

  5. Floquet edge states in germanene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-08-23

    We theoretically demonstrate versatile electronic properties of germanene monolayers under circularly, linearly, and elliptically polarized light. We show for the high frequency regime that the edge states can be controlled by tuning the amplitude of the light and by applying a static electric field. For circularly polarized light the band gap in one valley is reduced and in the other enhanced, enabling single valley edge states. For linearly polarized light spin-split states are found for both valleys, being connected by time reversal symmetry. The effects of elliptically polarized light are similar to those of circularly polarized light. The transport properties of zigzag nanoribbons in the presence of disorder confirm a nontrivial nature of the edge states under circularly and elliptically polarized light.

  6. Controllable edge feature sharpening for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ran; Jin, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to sharpen blurred edge features in scanned tooth preparation surfaces generated by structured-light scanners. It aims to efficiently enhance the edge features so that the embedded feature lines can be easily identified in dental CAD systems, and to avoid unnatural oversharpening geometry. We first separate the feature regions using graph-cut segmentation, which does not require a user-defined threshold. Then, we filter the face normal vectors to propagate the geometry from the smooth region to the feature region. In order to control the degree of the sharpness, we propose a feature distance measure which is based on normal tensor voting. Finally, the vertex positions are updated according to the modified face normal vectors. We have applied the approach to scanned tooth preparation models. The results show that the blurred edge features are enhanced without unnatural oversharpening geometry.

  7. Controllable Edge Feature Sharpening for Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to sharpen blurred edge features in scanned tooth preparation surfaces generated by structured-light scanners. It aims to efficiently enhance the edge features so that the embedded feature lines can be easily identified in dental CAD systems, and to avoid unnatural oversharpening geometry. We first separate the feature regions using graph-cut segmentation, which does not require a user-defined threshold. Then, we filter the face normal vectors to propagate the geometry from the smooth region to the feature region. In order to control the degree of the sharpness, we propose a feature distance measure which is based on normal tensor voting. Finally, the vertex positions are updated according to the modified face normal vectors. We have applied the approach to scanned tooth preparation models. The results show that the blurred edge features are enhanced without unnatural oversharpening geometry.

  8. Edge database analysis for extrapolation to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, M.; Janeschitz, G.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    An edge database has been archived to facilitate cross-machine comparisons of SOL and edge pedestal characteristics, and to enable comparison with theoretical models with an aim to extrapolate to ITER. The SOL decay lengths of power, density and temperature become broader for increasing density and q 95 . The power decay length is predicted to be 1.4-3.5 cm (L-mode) and 1.4-2.7 cm (H-mode) at the midplane in ITER. Analysis of Type I ELMs suggests that each giant ELM on ITER would exceed the ablation threshold of the divertor plates. Theoretical models are proposed for the H-mode transition, for Type I and Type III ELMs and are compared with the edge pedestal database. (author)

  9. Long coherence times for edge spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Jack; Yao, Norman Y.; Laumann, Christopher R.; Fendley, Paul

    2017-06-01

    We show that in certain one-dimensional spin chains with open boundary conditions, the edge spins retain memory of their initial state for very long times, even at infinite temperature. The long coherence times do not require disorder, only an ordered phase. In the integrable Ising and XYZ chains, the presence of a strong zero mode means the coherence time is infinite. When Ising is perturbed by interactions breaking the integrability, the coherence time remains exponentially long in the perturbing couplings. We show that this is a consequence of an edge ‘almost’ strong zero mode that almost commutes with the Hamiltonian. We compute this operator explicitly, allowing us to estimate accurately the plateau value of edge spin autocorrelator.

  10. Preparation of edge states by shaking boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.C. [Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Center for Quantum Sciences and School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Hou, S.C. [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Wang, L.C. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yi, X.X., E-mail: yixx@nenu.edu.cn [Center for Quantum Sciences and School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Preparing topological states of quantum matter, such as edge states, is one of the most important directions in condensed matter physics. In this work, we present a proposal to prepare edge states in Aubry–André–Harper (AAH) model with open boundaries, which takes advantage of Lyapunov control to design operations. We show that edge states can be obtained with almost arbitrary initial states. A numerical optimalization for the control is performed and the dependence of control process on the system size is discussed. The merit of this proposal is that the shaking exerts only on the boundaries of the model. As a by-product, a topological entangled state is achieved by elaborately designing the shaking scheme.

  11. Evolution of Edge Pedestal Profiles Between ELMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, J. P.; Stacey, W. M.; Groebner, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    The measured edge profile evolution in DIII-D discharges is analyzed in terms of the implied thermal diffusivities, ion diffusion coefficients and pinch velocities, using the momentum-balance methodology of Ref. [1], extended to take into account ion orbit loss and X-point loss. The evolution of the density, temperature, rotation and radial electric field profiles in the edge pedestal between edge localized modes (ELMs) provides information of these diffusive and non-diffusive transport processes in the pedestal of H-mode plasmas. This methodology is incorporated in the GTEDGE code developed for DIII-D data interpretation. Using a smaller integration time for the charge exchange recombination measurements than in Ref. [1] allows a more detailed examination of the time evolution of the ion temperature and rotation profiles. 6pt [1] W.M. Stacey and R.J. Groebner, Nucl. Fusion 51, 063024 (2011).

  12. Edge effects in composites by moire interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnek, R.; Post, D.; Herakovich, C.

    1983-01-01

    The very high sensitivity of moire interferometry has permitted the present edge effect experiments to be conducted at a low average stress and strain level, assuring linear and elastic behavior in the composite material samples tested. Sensitivity corresponding to 2450 line/mm moire was achieved with a 0.408 micron/fringe. Simultaneous observations of the specimen face and edge displacement fields showed good fringe definition despite the 1-mm thickness of the specimens and the high gradients, and it is noted that the use of a carrier pattern and optical filtering was effective in even these conditions. Edge effects and dramatic displacement gradients were confirmed in angle-ply composite laminates.

  13. Properties of the tokamak edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, H.

    1988-01-01

    A short review of some features of the edge plasma in limiter tokamaks is given. The limits of the simple one-dimensional scrape-off layer (SOL) model and the relation between the core plasma are discussed. Multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) phenomena and detached plasma are closely connected with the particle and energy balance of the SOL. Their occurrence is based on the relation of plasma parameters of the edge plasma to those of the core. Important problems of plasma wall interactions are the detection of the impurity sources and sinks and the study of the impurity transport and shielding. The non-uniform character of plasma wall interactions and their dependence on the discharge performance still renders difficult any theoretical forecast of impurity distribution and transport and calls for better diagnostics. (author)

  14. Leading-edge vortex lifts swifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, J J; Stamhuis, E J; Povel, G D E

    2004-12-10

    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60 degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel. Interactions with the flow were measured quantitatively with digital particle image velocimetry at Reynolds numbers realistic for the gliding flight of a swift between 3750 and 37,500. The results show that gliding swifts can generate stable leading-edge vortices at small (5 degrees to 10 degrees) angles of attack. We suggest that the flow around the arm-wings of most birds can remain conventionally attached, whereas the swept-back hand-wings generate lift with leading-edge vortices.

  15. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  16. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain...

  17. Preference for tap, bottled, and recycled water: Relations to PTC taste sensitivity and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Daniel; Gauvain, Mary; Z Reisz; Arthur, Isaac; Story, S Drew

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated people's preferences for different water sources and factors that predict such preferences using a blind taste test. Water preferences of 143 participants for one name-brand bottled water, one groundwater-sourced tap water, and one indirect potable reuse (IDR) water were assessed. For predictors of water preference, we measured each participant's PTC taste sensitivity and assessed two personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). We also explored participants' descriptions of each water source. Results indicate a preference for water treated with Reverse Osmosis (RO) (bottled and IDR water) over groundwater-sourced water, which had higher pH levels and lower concentrations of Ca and HCO 3 - . PTC taste sensitivity did not predict preferences, while Openness to Experience and Neuroticism predicted preference for IDR water. Positive relations between Openness to Experience and preferences for bottled and IDR water were moderated by gender and were stronger among females. Participants described water primarily by its taste and texture. Findings suggest that (1) tap water treated by RO is equally preferable to some bottled water, (2) personality traits may affect water preferences, and (3) prior findings of gender differences in preferences for bottled water may reflect personality characteristics. Efforts to increase acceptance for sustainable water alternatives, such as IDR, may be more successful by assuring consumers about taste and addressing personality traits that encourage or inhibit use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Edge modulation of electronics and transport properties of cliff-edge phosphorene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Caixia; Wang, Tianxing; Xia, Congxin; Liu, Yufang

    2017-12-01

    Based on the first-principles calculations, we study the electronic structures and transport properties of cliff-like edge phosphorene nanoribbons (CPNRs), considering different types of edge passivation. The band structures of bare CPNRs possess the metallic features; while hydrogen (H), fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl) and oxygen (O) atoms-passivated CPNRs are semiconductor materials, and the band gap values monotonically decrease when the ribbon width increases. Moreover, the H and F-passivated CPNRs exhibit the direct band gap characteristics, while the Cl and O-passivated cases show the features of indirect band gap. In addition, the edge passivated CPNRs are more energetically stable than bare edge case. Meanwhile, our results also show that the transport properties of the CPNRs can be obviously influenced by the different edge passivation.

  19. The early emergence of sociomoral evaluation: infants prefer prosocial others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2018-04-01

    Humans readily evaluate third-parties' prosocial and antisocial acts. Recent evidence reveals that this tendency emerges early in development-even preverbal infants selectively approach prosocial others and avoid antisocial ones. Rather than reflecting attraction toward or away from low-level characteristics of the displays or simple behavioral rules, infants are sensitive to characteristics of both the agents and recipients of prosocial and antisocial acts. Specifically, infants' preferences require that the recipients of positive and negative acts be social agents with clear unfulfilled goals, who have not previously harmed others. In addition, prosocial and antisocial agents must act intentionally, in the service of positive and negative goals. It is an open question whether these prosocial preferences reflect self-interested and/or moral concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physics-based edge evaluation for improved color constancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.; van de Weijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Edge-based color constancy makes use of image derivatives to estimate the illuminant. However, different edge types exist in real-world images such as shadow, geometry, material and highlight edges. These different edge types may have a distinctive influence on the performance of the illuminant

  1. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  2. The Allometry of Prey Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkat, Gregor; Rall, Björn Christian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Brose, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses) across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles) simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses) as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems. PMID:21998724

  3. The allometry of prey preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Kalinkat

    Full Text Available The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems.

  4. Value Preferences of Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Walsh, Sophie D

    2018-04-01

    The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations.

  5. Plasma edge modelling with ICRF coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of Radio-Frequency (RF wave heating in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF in the core plasmas of fusion devices are relatively well understood while those in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL remain still unresolved. This paper is dedicated to study the ICRF interactions with the plasma edge, mainly from the theoretical and numerical point of view, in particular with the 3D edge plasma fluid and neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE and various wave codes. Here emphasis is given to the improvement of ICRF coupling with local gas puffing and to the ICRF induced density convection in the SOL.

  6. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng

    2008-01-01

    In contrast with recent advances on the dynamics of the flow at a forest edge, few studies have considered its role on scalar transport and, in particular, on CO2 transfer. The present study addresses the influence of the abrupt roughness change on forest atmosphere CO2 exchange and contrasts...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...

  7. Edge detection techniques for iris recognition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tania, U T; Motakabber, S M A; Ibrahimy, M I

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays security and authentication are the major parts of our daily life. Iris is one of the most reliable organ or part of human body which can be used for identification and authentication purpose. To develop an iris authentication algorithm for personal identification, this paper examines two edge detection techniques for iris recognition system. Between the Sobel and the Canny edge detection techniques, the experimental result shows that the Canny's technique has better ability to detect points in a digital image where image gray level changes even at slow rate

  8. Radiative edge layers in limiter tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monier-Garbet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of the highly radiative edge layers produced in the limiter configuration and with an open ergodic divertor are reviewed, with emphasis on the results obtained in TEXTOR and Tore Supra. In these two experiments an impurity injection technique is used to obtain highly radiating homogeneous peripheral layers. This requires that the peripheral radiation capability be maximized, while at the same time avoiding plasma core contamination; it is also necessary to insure the stability of the radiating layer. These physics issues, governing the success of the highly radiative edge scenario, are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Wing Leading Edge Concepts for Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Pitera, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of wing leading edge concepts for noise reduction during high-lift operations, without compromising landing stall speeds, stall characteristics or cruise performance. High-lift geometries, which can be obtained by conventional mechanical systems or morphing structures have been considered. A systematic aerodynamic analysis procedure was used to arrive at several promising configurations. The aerodynamic design of new wing leading edge shapes is obtained from a robust Computational Fluid Dynamics procedure. Acoustic benefits are qualitatively established through the evaluation of the computed flow fields.

  10. X-point effect on edge stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarelma, S; Kirk, A; Kwon, O J

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the X-point configuration on edge localized mode (ELM) triggering peeling and ballooning modes using fixed boundary equilibria and modifying the plasma shape to approach the limit of a true X-point. The current driven pure peeling modes are asymptotically stabilized by the X-point while the stabilizing effect on ballooning modes depends on the poloidal location of the X-point. The coupled peeling-ballooning modes experience the elimination of the peeling component as the X-point is introduced. This can significantly affect the edge stability diagrams used to analyse the ELM triggering mechanisms.

  11. Edge Cut Domination, Irredundance, and Independence in Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Fenstermacher, Todd; Hedetniemi, Stephen; Laskar, Renu

    2016-01-01

    An edge dominating set $F$ of a graph $G=(V,E)$ is an \\textit{edge cut dominating set} if the subgraph $\\langle V,G-F \\rangle$ is disconnected. The \\textit{edge cut domination number} $\\gamma_{ct}(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum cardinality of an edge cut dominating set of $G.$ In this paper we study the edge cut domination number and investigate its relationships with other parameters of graphs. We also introduce the properties edge cut irredundance and edge cut independence.

  12. Societal Preferences for Interventions with the Same Efficiency: Assessment and Application to Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroiwa, Takeru; Saito, Shinya; Shimozuma, Kojiro; Kodama, Satoshi; Noto, Shinichi; Fukuda, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Although quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) may not completely reflect the value of a healthcare technology, it remains unclear how to adjust the cost per QALY threshold. First, the present study compares two survey methods of measuring people's preferences for a specific healthcare technology when each choice has the same efficiency. The second objective was to consider how this information regarding preferences could be used in decision making. We conducted single-attribute (budget allocation) and multi-attribute (discrete-choice) experiments to survey public medical care preferences. Approximately 1000 respondents were sampled for each experiment. Six questions were prepared to address the attributes included in the study: (a) age; (b) objective of care; (c) disease severity; (d) prior medical care; (e) cause of disease; and (f) disease frequency. For the discrete-choice experiment (a) age, (b) objective of care, (c) disease severity, and (d) prior medical care were orthogonally combined. All assumed medical care had the same costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; cost per life-year or QALY). We also calculated the preference-adjusted threshold (PAT) to reflect people's preferences in a threshold range. The results of both experiments revealed similar preferences: intervention for younger patients was strongly preferred, followed by interventions for treatment and severe disease states being preferred, despite the same cost per life-year or QALY. The single-attribute experiment revealed that many people prefer an option in which resources are equally allocated between two interventions. Marginal PATs were calculated for age, objective of care, disease severity, and prior medical care. The single- and multi-attribute experiments revealed similar preferences. PAT can reflect people's preferences within the decision-maker's threshold range in a numerical manner.

  13. Thermal preference predicts animal personality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Marco; Rey, Sonia; Silva, Tome; Featherstone, Zoe; Crumlish, Margaret; MacKenzie, Simon

    2016-09-01

    Environmental temperature gradients provide habitat structure in which fish orientate and individual thermal choice may reflect an essential integrated response to the environment. The use of subtle thermal gradients likely impacts upon specific physiological and behavioural processes reflected as a suite of traits described by animal personality. In this study, we examine the relationship between thermal choice, animal personality and the impact of infection upon this interaction. We predicted that thermal choice in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reflects distinct personality traits and that under a challenge individuals exhibit differential thermal distribution. Nile tilapia were screened following two different protocols: 1) a suite of individual behavioural tests to screen for personality and 2) thermal choice in a custom-built tank with a thermal gradient (TCH tank) ranging from 21 to 33 °C. A first set of fish were screened for behaviour and then thermal preference, and a second set were tested in the opposite fashion: thermal then behaviour. The final thermal distribution of the fish after 48 h was assessed reflecting final thermal preferendum. Additionally, fish were then challenged using a bacterial Streptococcus iniae model infection to assess the behavioural fever response of proactive and reactive fish. Results showed that individuals with preference for higher temperatures were also classified as proactive with behavioural tests and reactive contemporaries chose significantly lower water temperatures. All groups exhibited behavioural fever recovering personality-specific thermal preferences after 5 days. Our results show that thermal preference can be used as a proxy to assess personality traits in Nile tilapia and it is a central factor to understand the adaptive meaning of animal personality within a population. Importantly, response to infection by expressing behavioural fever overrides personality-related thermal choice. © 2016 The Authors

  14. Multivariate representation of food preferences in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoda, Luca; Holzer, Matthias; Mormann, Florian; Weber, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    One major goal in decision neuroscience is to investigate the neuronal mechanisms being responsible for the computation of product preferences. The aim of the present fMRI study was to investigate whether similar patterns of brain activity, reflecting category dependent and category independent preference signals, can be observed in case of different food product categories (i.e. chocolate bars and salty snacks). To that end we used a multivariate searchlight approach in which a linear support vector machine (l-SVM) was trained to distinguish preferred from non-preferred chocolate bars and subsequently tested its predictive power in case of chocolate bars (within category prediction) and salty snacks (across category prediction). Preferences were measured by a binary forced choice decision paradigm before the fMRI task. In the scanner, subjects saw only one product per trial which they had to rate after presentation. Consistent with previous multi voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) studies, we found category dependent preference signals in the ventral parts of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but also in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Category independent preference signals were observed in the dorsal parts of mPFC, dACC, and dlPFC. While the first two results have also been reported in a closely related study, the activation in dlPFC is new in this context. We propose that the dlPFC activity does not reflect the products' value computation per se, but rather a modulatory signal which is computed in anticipation of the forthcoming product rating after stimulus presentation. Furthermore we postulate that this kind of dlPFC activation emerges only if the anticipated choices fall into the domain of primary rewards, such as foods. Thus, in contrast to previous studies which investigated preference decoding for stimuli from utterly different categories, the present study revealed some food domain specific aspects of

  15. On the Cutting Edge: Workshops, Online Resources, and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Fox, S.; Iverson, E. A. R.; Beane, R. J.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Wiese, K.; Wysession, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    On the Cutting Edge, funded by NSF since 2002, offers a comprehensive professional development program for geoscience faculty. The program includes an annual integrated in-person and virtual workshop series, has developed an extensive collection of peer-reviewed instructional activities and related online resources, and supports continuing community development through sponsorship of webinars, listservs, opportunities for community contributions, and dissemination of resources to keep faculty current in their science and pedagogic practices. On the Cutting Edge (CE) has offered more than 100 face-to-face and virtual workshops, webinars, journal clubs, and other events to more than 3000 participants. The award-winning website has more than 5000 pages including 47 modules on career management, pedagogy, and geoscience topics. It has more than 1800 instructional activities contributed by the community, the majority of which have been peer-reviewed. The website had more than one million visitors last year. We have worked to support a community in which faculty improve their teaching by designing courses using research-based methods to foster higher-order thinking, incorporate geoscience data, and address cognitive and affective aspects of learning as well as a community in which faculty are comfortable and successful in managing their careers. The program addresses the needs of faculty in all career stages at the full spectrum of institutions and covering the breadth of the geoscience curriculum. We select timely and compelling topics that attract different groups of participants. CE workshops are interactive, model best pedagogical practices, emphasize participant learning, provide opportunities for participants to share their knowledge and experience, provide high-quality resources, give participants time to reflect and to develop action plans, and help transform their ideas about teaching. On the Cutting Edge has had an impact on teaching based on data from national

  16. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i......We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely...... and is indistinguishable from that of a generalized version of the classical Vickrey bottleneck model, based on exogenous trip-timing preferences, but optimal policies differ: the Vickrey model will misstate the benefits of a capacity increase, it will underpredict the benefits of congestion pricing, and pricing may make...

  17. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  18. The do re mi's of everyday life: the structure and personality correlates of music preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2003-06-01

    The present research examined individual differences in music preferences. A series of 6 studies investigated lay beliefs about music, the structure underlying music preferences, and the links between music preferences and personality. The data indicated that people consider music an important aspect of their lives and listening to music an activity they engaged in frequently. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, analyses of the music preferences of over 3,500 individuals converged to reveal 4 music-preference dimensions: Reflective and Complex, Intense and Rebellious, Upbeat and Conventional, and Energetic and Rhythmic. Preferences for these music dimensions were related to a wide array of personality dimensions (e.g., Openness), self-views (e.g., political orientation), and cognitive abilities (e.g., verbal IQ).

  19. Enabling devices, empowering people: the design and evaluation of Trackball EdgeWrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobbrock, Jacob O; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    To describe the research and development that led to Trackball EdgeWrite, a gestural text entry method that improves desktop input for some people with motor impairments. To compare the character-level version of this technique with a new word-level version. Further, to compare the technique with competitor techniques that use on-screen keyboards. A rapid and iterative design-and-test approach was used to generate working prototypes and elicit quantitative and qualitative feedback from a veteran trackball user. In addition, theoretical modelling based on the Steering law was used to compare competing designs. One result is a refined software artifact, Trackball EdgeWrite, which represents the outcome of this investigation. A theoretical result shows the speed benefit of word-level stroking compared to character-level stroking, which resulted in a 45.0% improvement. Empirical results of a trackball user with a spinal cord injury indicate a peak performance of 8.25 wpm with the character-level version of Trackball EdgeWrite and 12.09 wpm with the word-level version, a 46.5% improvement. Log file analysis of extended real-world text entry shows stroke savings of 43.9% with the word-level version. Both versions of Trackball EdgeWrite were better than on-screen keyboards, particularly regarding user preferences. Follow-up correspondence shows that the veteran trackball user with a spinal cord injury still uses Trackball EdgeWrite on a daily basis 2 years after his initial exposure to the software. Trackball EdgeWrite is a successful new method for desktop text entry and may have further implications for able-bodied users of mobile technologies. Theoretical modelling is useful in combination with empirical testing to explore design alternatives. Single-user lab and field studies can be useful for driving a rapid iterative cycle of innovation and development.

  20. Pristine Basal- and Edge-Plane-Oriented Molybdenite MoS2 Exhibiting Highly Anisotropic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu Min; Ambrosi, Adriano; Sofer, Zdenĕk; Huber, Štěpán; Sedmidubský, David; Pumera, Martin

    2015-05-04

    The layered structure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) is structurally similar to that of graphite, with individual sheets strongly covalently bonded within but held together through weak van der Waals interactions. This results in two distinct surfaces of MoS2 : basal and edge planes. The edge plane was theoretically predicted to be more electroactive than the basal plane, but evidence from direct experimental comparison is elusive. Herein, the first study comparing the two surfaces of MoS2 by using macroscopic crystals is presented. A careful investigation of the electrochemical properties of macroscopic MoS2 pristine crystals with precise control over the exposure of one plane surface, that is, basal plane or edge plane, was performed. These crystals were characterized thoroughly by AFM, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, voltammetry, digital simulation, and DFT calculations. In the Raman spectra, the basal and edge planes show anisotropy in the preferred excitation of E2g and A1g phonon modes, respectively. The edge plane exhibits a much larger heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant k(0) of 4.96×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3)  cm s(-1) for [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) and [Ru(NH3 )6 ](3+/2+) redox probes, respectively, compared to the basal plane, which yielded k(0) tending towards zero for [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) and about 9.3×10(-4)  cm s(-1) for [Ru(NH3 )6 ](3+/2+) . The industrially important hydrogen evolution reaction follows the trend observed for [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) in that the basal plane is basically inactive. The experimental comparison of the edge and basal planes of MoS2 crystals is supported by DFT calculations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Social Preferences and Strategic Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrales, Antonio; Miniaci, Raffaele; Piovesan, Marco

    This paper reports experimental evidence on a stylized labor market. The experiment is designed as a sequence of three phases. In the first two phases, P1 and P2; agents face simple games, which we use to estimate subjects' social and reciprocity concerns, together with their beliefs. In the last......, for both principals and agents. Finally, we also see that social preferences explain, to a large extent, matching between principals and agents, since agents display a marked propensity to work for principals with similar social preferences...

  2. The value of customer preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  3. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  4. The value of customer preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A.

    1996-01-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed

  5. Fabrication of high edge-definition steel-tape gratings for optical encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guoyong; Liu, Hongzhong; Yan, Jiawei; Ban, Yaowen; Fan, Shanjin; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei

    2017-10-01

    High edge definition of a scale grating is the basic prerequisite for high measurement accuracy of optical encoders. This paper presents a novel fabrication method of steel tape gratings using graphene oxide nanoparticles as anti-reflective grating strips. Roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography is adopted to manufacture the steel tape with hydrophobic and hydrophilic pattern arrays. Self-assembly technology is employed to obtain anti-reflective grating strips by depositing the graphene oxide nanoparticles on hydrophobic regions. A thin SiO2 coating is deposited on the grating to protect the grating strips. Experimental results confirm that the proposed fabrication process enables a higher edge definition in making steel-tape gratings, and the new steel tape gratings offer better performance than conventional gratings.

  6. Quantum discord and classical correlation signatures of mobility edges in one-dimensional aperiodic single-electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Longyan; Zhu, Hao; Zhao, Shengmei; Cheng, Weiwen; Sheng, Yubo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate numerically the quantum discord and the classical correlation in a one-dimensional slowly varying potential model and a one-dimensional Soukoulis–Economou ones, respectively. There are well-defined mobility edges in the slowly varying potential model, while there are discrepancies on mobility edges in the Soukoulis–Economou ones. In the slowly varying potential model, we find that extended and localized states can be distinguished by both the quantum discord and the classical correlation. There are sharp transitions in the quantum discord and the classical correlation at mobility edges. Based on these, we study “mobility edges” in the Soukoulis–Economou model using the quantum discord and the classical correlation, which gives another perspectives for these “mobility edges”. All these provide us good quantities, i.e., the quantum discord and the classical correlation, to reflect mobility edges in these one-dimensional aperiodic single-electron systems. Moreover, our studies propose a consistent interpretation of the discrepancies between previous numerical results about the Soukoulis–Economou model. -- Highlights: ► Quantum discord and classical correlation can signal mobility edges in two models. ► An interpretation for mobility edges in the Soukoulis–Economou model is proposed. ► Quantum discord and classical correlation can reflect well localization properties.

  7. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  8. Cultural Distance-Aware Service Recommendation Approach in Mobile Edge Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of big data, traditional computing systems and paradigms are not efficient and even difficult to use. For high performance big data processing, mobile edge computing is emerging as a complement framework of cloud computing. In this new computing architecture, services are provided within a close proximity of mobile users by servers at the edge of network. Traditional collaborative filtering recommendation approach only focuses on the similarity extracted from the rating data, which may lead to an inaccuracy expression of user preference. In this paper, we propose a cultural distance-aware service recommendation approach which focuses on not only the similarity but also the local characteristics and preference of users. Our approach employs the cultural distance to express the user preference and combines it with similarity to predict the user ratings and recommend the services with higher rating. In addition, considering the extreme sparsity of the rating data, missing rating prediction based on collaboration filtering is introduced in our approach. The experimental results based on real-world datasets show that our approach outperforms the traditional recommendation approaches in terms of the reliability of recommendation.

  9. Optically Unraveling the Edge Chirality-Dependent Band Structure and Plasmon Damping in Graphene Edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jiahua; Chen, Runkun; Cheng, Yuan; Yang, Tianzhong; Zhai, Feng; Dai, Qing; Chen, Jianing

    2018-05-01

    The nontrivial topological origin and pseudospinorial character of electron wavefunctions make edge states possess unusual electronic properties. Twenty years ago, the tight-binding model calculation predicted that zigzag termination of 2D sheets of carbon atoms have peculiar edge states, which show potential application in spintronics and modern information technologies. Although scanning probe microscopy is employed to capture this phenomenon, the experimental demonstration of its optical response remains challenging. Here, the propagating graphene plasmon provides an edge-selective polaritonic probe to directly detect and control the electronic edge state at ambient condition. Compared with armchair, the edge-band structure in the bandgap gives rise to additional optical absorption and strongly absorbed rim at zigzag edge. Furthermore, the optical conductivity is reconstructed and the anisotropic plasmon damping in graphene systems is revealed. The reported approach paves the way for detecting edge-specific phenomena in other van der Waals materials and topological insulators. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Tangential 2-D Edge Imaging for GPI and Edge/Impurity Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqueda, Ricardo; Levinton, Fred M.

    2011-01-01

    Nova Photonics, Inc. has a collaborative effort at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This collaboration, based on fast imaging of visible phenomena, has provided key insights on edge turbulence, intermittency, and edge phenomena such as edge localized modes (ELMs) and multi-faceted axisymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE). Studies have been performed in all these areas. The edge turbulence/intermittency studies make use of the Gas Puff Imaging diagnostic developed by the Principal Investigator (Ricardo Maqueda) together with colleagues from PPPL. This effort is part of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) edge, scrape-off layer and divertor group joint activity (DSOL-15: Inter-machine comparison of blob characteristics). The edge turbulence/blob study has been extended from the current location near the midplane of the device to the lower divertor region of NSTX. The goal of this effort was to study turbulence born blobs in the vicinity of the X-point region and their circuit closure on divertor sheaths or high density regions in the divertor. In the area of ELMs and MARFEs we have studied and characterized the mode structure and evolution of the ELM types observed in NSTX, as well as the study of the observed interaction between MARFEs and ELMs. This interaction could have substantial implications for future devices where radiative divertor regions are required to maintain detachment from the divertor plasma facing components.

  11. Edge control in CNC polishing, paper 2: simulation and validation of tool influence functions on edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Sayle, Andrew; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2013-01-14

    Edge mis-figure is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for manufacturing the segments of extremely large telescopes, which can dominate key aspects of performance. A novel edge-control technique has been developed, based on 'Precessions' polishing technique and for which accurate and stable edge tool influence functions (TIFs) are crucial. In the first paper in this series [D. Walker Opt. Express 20, 19787-19798 (2012)], multiple parameters were experimentally optimized using an extended set of experiments. The first purpose of this new work is to 'short circuit' this procedure through modeling. This also gives the prospect of optimizing local (as distinct from global) polishing for edge mis-figure, now under separate development. This paper presents a model that can predict edge TIFs based on surface-speed profiles and pressure distributions over the polishing spot at the edge of the part, the latter calculated by finite element analysis and verified by direct force measurement. This paper also presents a hybrid-measurement method for edge TIFs to verify the simulation results. Experimental and simulation results show good agreement.

  12. Optimization of the poro-serrated trailing edges for airfoil broadband noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Tze Pei; Dubois, Elisa

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports an aeroacoustic investigation of a NACA0012 airfoil with a number of poro-serrated trailing edge devices that contain porous materials of various air flow resistances at the gaps between adjacent members of the serrated-sawtooth trailing edge. The main objective of this work is to determine whether multiple-mechanisms on the broadband noise reduction can co-exist on a poro-serrated trailing edge. When the sawtooth gaps are filled with porous material of low-flow resistivity, the vortex shedding tone at low-frequency could not be completely suppressed at high-velocity, but a reasonably good broadband noise reduction can be achieved at high-frequency. When the sawtooth gaps are filled with porous material of very high-flow resistivity, no vortex shedding tone is present, but the serration effect on the broadband noise reduction becomes less effective. An optimal choice of the flow resistivity for a poro-serrated configuration has been identified, where it can surpass the conventional serrated trailing edge of the same geometry by achieving a further 1.5 dB reduction in the broadband noise while completely suppressing the vortex shedding tone. A weakened turbulent boundary layer noise scattering at the poro-serrated trailing edge is reflected by the lower-turbulence intensity at the near wake centreline across the whole spanwise wavelength of the sawtooth.

  13. Edge currents in frustrated Josephson junction ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, A. M.; Santos, F. D. R.; Dias, R. G.

    2016-09-01

    We present a numerical study of quasi-1D frustrated Josephson junction ladders with diagonal couplings and open boundary conditions, in the large capacitance limit. We derive a correspondence between the energy of this Josephson junction ladder and the expectation value of the Hamiltonian of an analogous tight-binding model, and show how the overall superconducting state of the chain is equivalent to the minimum energy state of the tight-binding model in the subspace of one-particle states with uniform density. To satisfy the constraint of uniform density, the superconducting state of the ladder is written as a linear combination of the allowed k-states of the tight-binding model with open boundaries. Above a critical value of the parameter t (ratio between the intra-rung and inter-rung Josephson couplings) the ladder spontaneously develops currents at the edges, which spread to the bulk as t is increased until complete coverage is reached. Above a certain value of t, which varies with ladder size (t = 1 for an infinite-sized ladder), the edge currents are destroyed. The value t = 1 corresponds, in the tight-binding model, to the opening of a gap between two bands. We argue that the disappearance of the edge currents with this gap opening is not coincidental, and that this points to a topological origin for these edge current states.

  14. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  15. Edge maps: Representing flow with bounded error

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, Harsh

    2011-03-01

    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Many analysis techniques rely on computing streamlines, a task often hampered by numerical instabilities. Approaches that ignore the resulting errors can lead to inconsistencies that may produce unreliable visualizations and ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with linear maps defined on its boundary. This representation, called edge maps, is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. In spite of this error, all the streamlines computed using edge maps will be pairwise disjoint. Furthermore, our representation stores the error explicitly, and thus can be used to produce more informative visualizations. Given a piecewise-linear interpolated vector field, a recent result [15] shows that there are only 23 possible map classes for a triangle, permitting a concise description of flow behaviors. This work describes the details of computing edge maps, provides techniques to quantify and refine edge map error, and gives qualitative and visual comparisons to more traditional techniques. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Nonlinear neoclassical transport in toroidal edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, T.

    2002-01-01

    Edge plasma processes play a critical role for the global confinement of the plasma in a tokamak. In the edge region, where impurity ions are abundant and the temperature and density gradients are large, the assumptions of standard neoclassical theory break down. This paper reviews recent extensions of neoclassical theory to treat this problem, in particular our own work, which focuses on the nonlinear aspects of transport in a plasma with heavy impurity ions. In this theory, the pressure and temperature gradients are allowed to be steeper than in conventional theory neoclassical theory, so that the friction force between the bulk ions and heavy impurities is comparable to the parallel impurity pressure gradient. The impurity ions are then found to undergo a spontaneous rearrangement on each flux surface. This reduces their parallel friction with the bulk ions and causes the neoclassical ion flux to become a non-monotonic function of the gradients for plasma parameters typical of the tokamak edge. Thus, the neoclassical confinement is improved in regions where the gradients are large, such as in the edge pedestal. (orig.)

  17. Nonlinear neoclassical theory for toroidal edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, T.; Helander, P.

    2001-01-01

    Edge plasma processes play a critical role for the global confinement of the plasma. In the edge region, where impurity ions are abundant and the temperature and density gradients are large, the assumptions of the standard neoclassical theory break down. We have extended the theory of neoclassical transport in an impure plasma with arbitrary cross section and aspect ratio to allow for steeper pressure and temperature gradients than are usually considered in the conventional theory. The gradients are allowed to be so large that the friction force between the bulk ions and heavy impurities is comparable to the parallel impurity pressure gradient. In this case the impurity ions are found to undergo a spontaneous rearrangement on each flux surface. This reduces their parallel friction with the bulk ions and causes the neoclassical ion flux to become a non-monotonic function of the gradients for plasma parameters typical of the tokamak edge. Thus, the neoclassical confinement is improved in regions where the gradients are large, such as in the edge pedestal. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data from several tokamaks. (orig.)

  18. Anomalous transport in the tokamak edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayakis, G.

    1991-04-01

    The tokamak edge has been studied with arrays of Langmuir and magnetic probes on the DITE and COMPASS-C devices. Measurements of plasma parameters such as density, temperature and radial magnetic field were taken in order to elucidate the character, effect on transport and origin of edge fluctuations. The tokamak edge is a strongly-turbulent environment, with large electrostatic fluctuation levels and broad spectra. The observations, including direct correlation measurements, are consistent with a picture in which the observed magnetic field fluctuations are driven by the perturbations in electrostatic parameters. The propagation characteristics of the turbulence, investigated using digital spectral techniques, appear to be dominated by the variation of the radial electric field, both in limiter and divertor plasmas. A shear layer is formed, associated in each case with the last closed flux surface. In the shear layer, the electrostatic wavenumber spectra are significantly broader. The predictions of a drift wave model (DDGDT) and of a family of models evolving from the rippling mode (RGDT group), are compared with experimental results. RGDT, augmented by impurity radiation effects, is shown to be the most reasonable candidate to explain the nature of the edge turbulence, only failing in its estimate of the wavenumber range. (Author)

  19. Edge Sheared Flows and Blob Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myra, J.; D' Ippolito, D.; Russell, D., E-mail: jrmyra@lodestar.com [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder (United States); Davis, W. M.; Zweben, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Terry, J.; LaBombard, B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: A study of sheared flows in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) and their interaction with blob-filaments is presented. Edge sheared flows are believed to be important for the L-H, and H-L transitions. Blob generation and dynamics impacts both the (near-separatrix) scrape-off-layer (SOL) width critical for power handling in the divertor, and the interaction of plasma in the far SOL with plasma-facing components. These topics are critical for ITER and future devices. A fluid-based 2D curvature-interchange model embedded in the SOLT code is employed to study these issues. Sheared binormal flows both regulate the power flux crossing the separatrix and control the character of emitted turbulence structures such as blob-filaments. At a critical power level (depending on parameters) the laminar flows containing intermittent, but bound, structures give way to full-blown blob emissions signifying a transition from quasi-diffusive to convective transport. In order to diagnose sheared flows in experiments and assess their interaction with blobs, a blob-tracking algorithm has been developed and applied to both NSTX and Alcator C-Mod data. Blob motion and ellipticity can be affected by sheared flows, and are diagnosed and compared with seeded blob simulations. A picture of the interaction of blobs and sheared flows is emerging from advances in the theory and simulation of edge turbulence, combined with ever-improving capabilities for edge diagnostics and their analysis. (author)

  20. Edge Delamination of Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Yun, Seok Joon; Thi, Quoc Huy; Zhao, Jiong

    2017-07-25

    Delamination of thin films from the supportive substrates is a critical issue within the thin film industry. The emergent two-dimensional, atomic layered materials, including transition metal dichalcogenides, are highly flexible; thus buckles and wrinkles can be easily generated and play vital roles in the corresponding physical properties. Here we introduce one kind of patterned buckling behavior caused by the delamination from a substrate initiated at the edges of the chemical vapor deposition synthesized monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, led by thermal expansion mismatch. The atomic force microscopy and optical characterizations clearly showed the puckered structures associated with the strain, whereas the transmission electron microscopy revealed the special sawtooth-shaped edges, which break the geometrical symmetry for the buckling behavior of hexagonal samples. The condition of the edge delamination is in accordance with the fracture behavior of thin film interfaces. This edge delamination and buckling process is universal for most ultrathin two-dimensional materials, which requires more attention in various future applications.

  1. Evaluation of alternative snow plow cutting edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    With approximately 450 snow plow trucks, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) uses in : excess of 10,000 linear feet of plow cutting edges each winter season. Using the 2008-2009 cost per linear : foot of $48.32, the Departments total co...

  2. Edge diagnostics for tandem mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    The edge plasma in a tandem mirror machine shields the plasma core from cold neutral gas and impurities. A variety of diagnostics are used to measure the fueling, shielding, and confinement of the edge plasma in both the end plug and central cell regions. Fast ion gauges and residual gas analyzers measure the gas pressure and composition outside of the plasma. An array of Langmuir probes is used to measure the electron density and temperature. Extreme ultraviolet (euv) and visible spectroscopy are used to measure both the impurity and deuterium densities and to estimate the shielding factor for the core plasma. The linear geometry of a tandem mirror also allows direct measurements of the edge plasma by sampling the ions and electrons lost but the ends of the machine. Representative data obtained by these diagnostics during operation of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) and Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) experiments are presented. Diagnostics that are currently being developed to diagnose the edge plasma are also discussed

  3. Commercial Technology at the Tactical Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Software defined Networking ( SDN ), Autonomic Networking , and Cognitive Radios for Spectrum Sharing. Software defined ...www.opennetworking.org/. 41 Pan, P., “ Software Defined Network ( SDN ) Problem Statement and Use Cases for Data Center Applications,” IETF, 2011, http://tools.ietf.org/id...routinely at the tactical edge in the near future. These include software defined networking , autonomous networks , cognitive

  4. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish

    2014-07-01

    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  5. Edge-disjoint Hamiltonian cycles in hypertournaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a method for reducing k-tournament problems, for k >= 3, to ordinary tournaments, that is, 2-tournaments. It is applied to show that a k-tournament on n >= k + 1 + 24d vertices (when k >= 4) or on n >= 30d + 2 vertices (when k = 3) has d edge-disjoint Hamiltonian cycles if and only...

  6. Leading-Edge Vortex lifts swifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Povel, GDE

    2004-01-01

    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel.

  7. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  8. Robotic edge machining using elastic abrasive tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, A. V.; Semyonov, E. N.; Belomestnykh, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article describes a robotic center designed for automation of finishing operations, and analyzes technological aspects of an elastic abrasive tool applied for edge machining. Based on the experimental studies, practical recommendations on the application of the robotic center for finishing operations were developed.

  9. Simultaneous embedding: edge orderings, relative positions, cutvertices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläsius, T.; Karrer, A.; Rutter, I.

    A simultaneous embedding (with fixed edges) of two graphs (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) with common graph (Formula presented.) is a pair of planar drawings of (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) that coincide on G. It is an open question whether there is a polynomial-time

  10. Increased heat fluxes near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W; van Breugel, PB; Moors, EJ; Nieveen, JP

    2002-01-01

    Observations of sensible and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest. The enhancement averages to 56 W m(-2), or 16% of the net radiation, at fetches less than 400 m, equivalent to fetch to height ratios less

  11. Increased heat fluxes near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.; Breugel, van P.B.; Moors, E.J.; Nieveen, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Observations of sensible and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest. The enhancement averages to 56 W mm2, or 16 f the net radiation, at fetches less than 400 m, equivalent to fetch to height ratios less than

  12. Plasma edge cooling during RF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Hawryluk, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    A new approach to prevent the influx of high-Z impurities into the core of a tokamak discharge by using RF power to modify the edge plasma temperature profile is presented. This concept is based on spectroscopic measurements on PLT during ohmic heating and ATC during RF heating. A one dimensional impurity transport model is used to interpret the ATC results

  13. The structure of musical preferences: a five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentfrow, Peter J; Goldberg, Lewis R; Levitin, Daniel J

    2011-06-01

    Music is a cross-cultural universal, a ubiquitous activity found in every known human culture. Individuals demonstrate manifestly different preferences in music, and yet relatively little is known about the underlying structure of those preferences. Here, we introduce a model of musical preferences based on listeners' affective reactions to excerpts of music from a wide variety of musical genres. The findings from 3 independent studies converged to suggest that there exists a latent 5-factor structure underlying music preferences that is genre free and reflects primarily emotional/affective responses to music. We have interpreted and labeled these factors as (a) a Mellow factor comprising smooth and relaxing styles; (b) an Unpretentious factor comprising a variety of different styles of sincere and rootsy music such as is often found in country and singer-songwriter genres; (c) a Sophisticated factor that includes classical, operatic, world, and jazz; (d) an Intense factor defined by loud, forceful, and energetic music; and (e) a Contemporary factor defined largely by rhythmic and percussive music, such as is found in rap, funk, and acid jazz. The findings from a fourth study suggest that preferences for the MUSIC factors are affected by both the social and the auditory characteristics of the music. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Personality influences temporal discounting preferences: behavioral and brain evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Joshua; Hedden, Trey; Wickens, Nina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Prelec, Drazen; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-09-01

    Personality traits are stable predictors of many life outcomes that are associated with important decisions that involve tradeoffs over time. Therefore, a fundamental question is how tradeoffs over time vary from person to person in relation to stable personality traits. We investigated the influence of personality, as measured by the Five-Factor Model, on time preferences and on neural activity engaged by intertemporal choice. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants made choices between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. For each participant, we estimated a constant-sensitivity discount function that dissociates impatience (devaluation of future consequences) from time sensitivity (consistency with rational, exponential discounting). Overall, higher neuroticism was associated with a relatively greater preference for immediate rewards and higher conscientiousness with a relatively greater preference for delayed rewards. Specifically, higher conscientiousness correlated positively with lower short-term impatience and more exponential time preferences, whereas higher neuroticism (lower emotional stability) correlated positively with higher short-term impatience and less exponential time preferences. Cognitive-control and reward brain regions were more activated when higher conscientiousness participants selected a smaller-sooner reward and, conversely, when higher neuroticism participants selected a larger-later reward. The greater activations that occurred when choosing rewards that contradicted personality predispositions may reflect the greater recruitment of mental resources needed to override those predispositions. These findings reveal that stable personality traits fundamentally influence how rewards are chosen over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical constants from mirror reflectivities measured at synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, R.L.; Davis, J.C.; Burbine, T.H.; Graessle, D.E.; Gullikson, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    Improved mirror reflectivity measurement techniques have been introduced to permit more accurate determinations of optical constants δ and β in the complex index of refraction n = 1 - δ-iβ over the energy range 50 to 5000 eV. When the density has been determined by x-ray or other means, one can calculate the real and imaginary parts f' and f double-prime, of the complex atomic scattering factor f = f o + f ' + if double-prime from δ and β. Preliminary results are given for the Ni LIII edge around 852 eV, and the Au M edge region from 2150 to 3500 eV. Since these are the first experimental evaluations of δ for these element edges, they are compared with appropriate reservations to semi-empirical tabulations. There is much potential for this technique applied to synchrotron sources

  16. Help Preferences Among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-08-01

    To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e., wellness service). Respondents to an electronic questionnaire who acknowledged wishing to change health behaviors in relation to smoking (n = 845), alcohol (n = 684), eating (n = 4,431), and physical activity (n = 5,179) were asked to choose up to three help alternatives on a predefined list. In descending order, smokers preferred help from nicotine gum, no help, and help and support from family and friends. Alcohol consumers preferred no help or help and support from family and friends or "other" forms. Employees who wanted to change eating habits preferred a free fruit bowl, free nutritional guidance, and healthy food at work. Employees who wanted to change physical activity patterns preferred exercise at work, offers of free exercise, and exercise in a social/collegial context. Wishing to change health behaviors is not always accompanied by perceiving a need for assistance. The no-help option was selected fairly frequently and mostly in relation to alcohol and smoking. A fruit bowl was the most preferred option for help, followed by exercise at work and free exercise. Help from traditional health services was ranked low, possibly reflecting that they are primarily viewed as a solution for stopping disease rather than promoting health. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.

  17. Unconventional quantized edge transport in the presence of inter-edge coupling in intercalated graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanchang

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that the inter-edge coupling destroys the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect along with the gap opening at the Dirac points. Using first-principles calculations, we find that the quantized edge transport persists in the presence of inter-edge coupling in Ta intercalated epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001), being a QSH insulator with the non-trivial gap of 81 meV. In this case, the band is characterized by two perfect Dirac cones with different Fermi velocities, yet only one m...

  18. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  19. Mapping Forest Edge Using Aerial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Slightly more than 60% of Massachusetts is covered with forest and this land cover type is invaluable for the protection and maintenance of our natural resources and is a carbon sink for the state. However, Massachusetts is currently experiencing a decline in forested lands, primarily due to the expansion of human development (Thompson et al., 2011). Of particular concern is the loss of "core areas" or the areas within forests that are not influenced by other land cover types. These areas are of significant importance to native flora and fauna, since they generally are not subject to invasion by exotic species and are more resilient to the effects of climate change (Campbell et al., 2009). However, the expansion of development has reduced the amount of this core area, but the exact amount is still unknown. Current methods of estimating core area are not particularly precise, since edge, or the area of the forest that is most influenced by other land cover types, is quite variable and situation dependent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to devise a new method for identifying areas that could qualify as "edge" within the Harvard Forest, in Petersham MA, using new remote sensing techniques. We sampled along eight transects perpendicular to the edge of an abandoned golf course within the Harvard Forest property. Vegetation inventories as well as Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) at different heights within the canopy were used to determine edge depth. These measurements were then compared with small-footprint waveform aerial LiDAR datasets and imagery to model edge depths within Harvard Forest.

  20. Associations between film preferences and risk factors for suicide: an online survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Till

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content.

  1. Associations between film preferences and risk factors for suicide: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content.

  2. Associations between Film Preferences and Risk Factors for Suicide: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content. PMID:25028966

  3. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  4. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, H J

    1979-09-01

    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  5. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  6. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  7. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  8. Educational Homogamy: Preferences or Opportunities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Svarer, Michael

    Individuals match on length and type of education. We investigate whether thesystematic relationship between educations of partners is explained by opportuni-ties (e.g. low search frictions) or preferences (e.g. complementarities in householdproduction or portfolio optimization). We find that half...

  9. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  10. Gaming Preferences of Aging Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Kenneth A.; Wright, Timothy J.; Boot, Walter R.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that action digital game training can improve a variety of perceptual and cognitive abilities, including those that decline most with age. Unfortunately, previous work has found that older adults dislike these games and adherence may be poor for action game-based interventions. The focus of the current study was to better understand the types of games older adults are willing to play and explore predictors of game preference (e.g., gender, age, technology experience, personality). With this information action games might be modified or developed to maximize adherence and cognitive benefit. Older adults were administered a modified version of an existing game questionnaire and a custom game preference survey. Clear preferences were observed that were similar between participants with and without previous digital game experience (with puzzle and intellectually stimulating games being most interesting to older adults in our sample, and massively multiplayer online games and first-person shooters being least interesting). Personality, demographic, and technology experience variables were also collected. Interesting trends suggested the possibility that several demographic and personality variables might be predictive of game preference. Results have implications for future directions of research, designing games that would appeal to older adult audiences, and for how to design custom games to maximize intervention adherence based on individual difference characteristics. PMID:29033699

  11. Gaming Preferences of Aging Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Kenneth A; Wright, Timothy J; Boot, Walter R

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that action digital game training can improve a variety of perceptual and cognitive abilities, including those that decline most with age. Unfortunately, previous work has found that older adults dislike these games and adherence may be poor for action game-based interventions. The focus of the current study was to better understand the types of games older adults are willing to play and explore predictors of game preference (e.g., gender, age, technology experience, personality). With this information action games might be modified or developed to maximize adherence and cognitive benefit. Older adults were administered a modified version of an existing game questionnaire and a custom game preference survey. Clear preferences were observed that were similar between participants with and without previous digital game experience (with puzzle and intellectually stimulating games being most interesting to older adults in our sample, and massively multiplayer online games and first-person shooters being least interesting). Personality, demographic, and technology experience variables were also collected. Interesting trends suggested the possibility that several demographic and personality variables might be predictive of game preference. Results have implications for future directions of research, designing games that would appeal to older adult audiences, and for how to design custom games to maximize intervention adherence based on individual difference characteristics.

  12. Measuring higher order ambiguity preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Baillon (Aurélien); Schlesinger, H. (Harris); G. van de Kuilen (Gijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe report the results from an experiment designed to measure attitudes towards ambiguity beyond ambiguity aversion. In particular, we implement recently-proposed model-free preference conditions of ambiguity prudence and ambiguity temperance. Ambiguity prudence has been shown to play an

  13. Market mechanisms and customer preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boethius, O. [Volvo Car Corporation, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    The paper relates to market mechanisms and customer preferences regarding alternative fuels for road transports. Globally, road transports are to 99% dependent on crude oil. According to the author, one third of the crude oil is consumed for road transports. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is discussed in this connection

  14. Risk preferences under acute stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, Jana; Cingl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  15. Risk preferences under acute stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, Jana; Cingl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 265801/2012 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  16. Lighting preferences in individual offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Gomes de Faria

    Full Text Available Abstract Workplaces with good daylighting offer visual comfort to users, give them a series of physiological and psychological benefits and allow good performance of visual activities, besides saving energy. However, this solution is not always adopted: lighting type preferences involve many variables besides the availability of daylight. This paper explores a case study through the analysis of questionnaire answers and computer simulations of a series of metrics related to quality of lighting with the aim of finding explanations for the lighting preferences of individual office users. The results show that, although the offices present good daylighting conditions and no glare potential, and users are satisfied with daylighting, these parameters are not sufficient to explain the predominant lighting preferences. The findings have also shown that there is no consensus about which parameters potentially cause visual comfort, while the parameters that cause discomfort are clearly identified. In addition, in this study, 49% of the preference for mixed lighting (daylight plus electrical light can be explained by the fact that mixed lighting produces better modeling than daylighting alone.

  17. Lichen species preference by reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleman, D F; Luick, J R

    1977-08-01

    The preference by reindeer for five species of lichens commonly found on Central Alaska rangelands was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that reindeer are strongly selective species in their lichen grazing habits. The five tested species ranged as follows in order of decreasing acceptibility: Caldonia alpestris, C. rangiferina, Stereocaulon paschale, Cetraria richardsonii, and Peltigera aphthosa.

  18. Birth Order and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Robert M.; Lynch, Janet

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between vocational preferences of adolescents and their birth order was examined. Firstborns were found to be overrepresented in the conventional and enterprising areas; later borns were found to be overrepresented in the social and investigative areas. (Author/GK)

  19. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  20. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  1. Wanting, liking, and preference construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianchi; Brendl, C Miguel; Ariely, Dan

    2010-06-01

    According to theories on preference construction, multiple preferences result from multiple contexts (e.g., loss vs. gain frames). This implies that people can have different representations of a preference in different contexts. Drawing on Berridge's (1999) distinction between unconscious liking and wanting, we hypothesize that people may have multiple representations of a preference toward an object even within a single context. Specifically, we propose that people can have different representations of an object's motivational value, or incentive value, versus its emotional value, or likability, even when the object is placed in the same context. Study 1 establishes a divergence between incentive value and likability of faces using behavioral measures. Studies 2A and 2B, using self-report measures, provide support for our main hypothesis that people are perfectly aware of these distinct representations and are able to access them concurrently at will. We also discuss implications of our findings for the truism that people seek pleasure and for expectancy-value theories.

  2. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  3. Premium Auctions and Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, A.; Offerman, T.J.S.; Zou, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a premium auction, the seller offers some "pay back", called premium, to the highest bidders. This paper investigates how the performance of such premium tactic is related to the participant's risk preferences. By developing an English premium auction model with symmetric interdependent values,

  4. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  5. Seasonal Variations in Color Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  7. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  8. Dynamics of surface solitons at the edge of chirped optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Torner, Lluis; Vysloukh, Victor A.

    2007-01-01

    We address soliton formation at the edge of chirped optical lattices imprinted in Kerr-type nonlinear media. We find families of power thresholdless surface waves that do not exist at other types of lattice interfaces. Such solitons form due to combined action of internal reflection at the interface, distributed Bragg-type reflection, and focusing nonlinearity. Remarkably, we discover that surfaces of chirped lattices are soliton attractors: Below an energy threshold, solitons launched well within the lattice self-bend toward the interface, and then stick to it

  9. Near band edge emission characteristics of sputtered nano-crystalline ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-01-01

    Sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited on unheated glass substrate under different sputtering gas mixtures (Ar+O_2) have been investigated using X-ray diffraction and photo luminescence spectroscopy. Earlier reported studies on ZnO films prepared by different techniques exhibit either a sharp/broad near band edge (NBE) emission peak depending on the crystalline quality of the film. In the present study zinc oxide films, grown on unheated substrates, are seen to possess a preferred (002) orientation with a microstructure consisting of clustered nano-sized crystallites. The splitting in the near band edge emission (NBE) into three characteristic peaks is attributed to quantum confinement effect, and is observed specifically under an excitation of 270 nm. Deep level emission (DLE) in the range 400 to 700 nm is not observed indicating absence of deep level radiative defects.

  10. Near band edge emission characteristics of sputtered nano-crystalline ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited on unheated glass substrate under different sputtering gas mixtures (Ar+O2) have been investigated using X-ray diffraction and photo luminescence spectroscopy. Earlier reported studies on ZnO films prepared by different techniques exhibit either a sharp/broad near band edge (NBE) emission peak depending on the crystalline quality of the film. In the present study zinc oxide films, grown on unheated substrates, are seen to possess a preferred (002) orientation with a microstructure consisting of clustered nano-sized crystallites. The splitting in the near band edge emission (NBE) into three characteristic peaks is attributed to quantum confinement effect, and is observed specifically under an excitation of 270 nm. Deep level emission (DLE) in the range 400 to 700 nm is not observed indicating absence of deep level radiative defects.

  11. Near band edge emission characteristics of sputtered nano-crystalline ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 INDIA (India)

    2016-05-06

    Sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited on unheated glass substrate under different sputtering gas mixtures (Ar+O{sub 2}) have been investigated using X-ray diffraction and photo luminescence spectroscopy. Earlier reported studies on ZnO films prepared by different techniques exhibit either a sharp/broad near band edge (NBE) emission peak depending on the crystalline quality of the film. In the present study zinc oxide films, grown on unheated substrates, are seen to possess a preferred (002) orientation with a microstructure consisting of clustered nano-sized crystallites. The splitting in the near band edge emission (NBE) into three characteristic peaks is attributed to quantum confinement effect, and is observed specifically under an excitation of 270 nm. Deep level emission (DLE) in the range 400 to 700 nm is not observed indicating absence of deep level radiative defects.

  12. Neural correlates of cognitive dissonance and choice-induced preference change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuma, Keise; Matsumoto, Madoka; Murayama, Kou; Samejima, Kazuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2010-12-21

    According to many modern economic theories, actions simply reflect an individual's preferences, whereas a psychological phenomenon called "cognitive dissonance" claims that actions can also create preference. Cognitive dissonance theory states that after making a difficult choice between two equally preferred items, the act of rejecting a favorite item induces an uncomfortable feeling (cognitive dissonance), which in turn motivates individuals to change their preferences to match their prior decision (i.e., reducing preference for rejected items). Recently, however, Chen and Risen [Chen K, Risen J (2010) J Pers Soc Psychol 99:573-594] pointed out a serious methodological problem, which casts a doubt on the very existence of this choice-induced preference change as studied over the past 50 y. Here, using a proper control condition and two measures of preferences (self-report and brain activity), we found that the mere act of making a choice can change self-report preference as well as its neural representation (i.e., striatum activity), thus providing strong evidence for choice-induced preference change. Furthermore, our data indicate that the anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tracked the degree of cognitive dissonance on a trial-by-trial basis. Our findings provide important insights into the neural basis of how actions can alter an individual's preferences.

  13. Mortality after percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair: a contemporary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortlandt, Friso A; de Beenhouwer, Thomas; Swaans, Martin J; Post, Marco C; van der Heyden, Jan A S; Eefting, Frank D; Rensing, Benno J W M

    2016-04-01

    Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve (MV) repair is a relatively new treatment option for mitral regurgitation (MR). After the feasibility and safety having been proved in low-surgical-risk patients, the use of this procedure has shifted more to the treatment of high-risk patients. With the absence of randomized controlled trials (RCT) for this particular subgroup, observational studies try to add evidence to the safety aspect of this procedure. These also provide short- and mid-term mortality figures. Several mortality predictors have been identified, which may help the optimal selection of patients who will benefit most from this technique. In this article we provide an overview of the literature about mortality and its predictors in patients treated with the percutaneous edge-to-edge device.

  14. A prospective cohort study examining the preferred learning styles of acute care registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrow, Judy; Yevchak, Andrea; Lewis, Peter

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the preferred learning styles of Registered Nurses practicing in acute care environments and relationships between gender, age, post-graduate experience and the identified preferred learning styles. A prospective cohort study design was used. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and the Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire to determine preferred learning styles. Most of the Registered Nurse participants were balanced across the Active-Reflective (n = 77, 54%), and Sequential-Global (n = 96, 68%) scales. Across the other scales, sensing (n = 97, 68%) and visual (n = 76, 53%) were the most common preferred learning style. There were only a small proportion who had a preferred learning style of reflective (n = 21, 15%), intuitive (n = 5, 4%), verbal (n = 11, 8%) or global learning (n = 15, 11%). Results indicated that gender, age and years since undergraduate education were not related to the identified preferred learning styles. The identification of Registered Nurses' learning style provides information that nurse educators and others can use to make informed choices about modification, development and strengthening of professional hospital-based educational programs. The use of the Index of Learning Styles questionnaire and its ability to identify 'balanced' learning style preferences may potentially yield additional preferred learning style information for other health-related disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Why do Manduca sexta feed from white flowers? Innate and learnt colour preferences in a hawkmoth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyret, Joaquín; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A.; Kelber, Almut

    2008-06-01

    Flower colour is an important signal used by flowering plants to attract pollinators. Many anthophilous insects have an innate colour preference that is displayed during their first foraging bouts and which could help them locate their first nectar reward. Nevertheless, learning capabilities allow insects to switch their colour preferences with experience and thus, to track variation in floral nectar availability. Manduca sexta, a crepuscular hawkmoth widely studied as a model system for sensory physiology and behaviour, visits mostly white, night-blooming flowers lacking UV reflectance throughout its range in the Americas. Nevertheless, the spectral sensitivity of the feeding behaviour of naïve moths shows a narrow peak around 450 nm wavelengths, suggesting an innate preference for the colour blue. Under more natural conditions (i.e. broader wavelength reflectance) than in previous studies, we used dual choice experiments with blue- and white-coloured feeders to investigate the innate preference of naïve moths and trained different groups to each colour to evaluate their learning capabilities. We confirmed the innate preference of M. sexta for blue and found that these moths were able to switch colour preferences after training experience. These results unequivocally demonstrate that M. sexta moths innately prefer blue when presented against white flower models and offer novel experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that learning capabilities could be involved in their foraging preferences, including their widely observed attraction to white flowers in nature.

  16. Edge-effect interactions in fragmented and patchy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porensky, Lauren M; Young, Truman P

    2013-06-01

    Ecological edges are increasingly recognized as drivers of landscape patterns and ecosystem processes. In fragmented and patchy landscapes (e.g., a fragmented forest or a savanna with scattered termite mounds), edges can become so numerous that their effects pervade the entire landscape. Results of recent studies in such landscapes show that edge effects can be altered by the presence or proximity of other nearby edges. We considered the theoretical significance of edge-effect interactions, illustrated various landscape configurations that support them and reviewed existing research on this topic. Results of studies from a variety of locations and ecosystem types show that edge-effect interactions can have significant consequences for ecosystems and conservation, including higher tree mortality rates in tropical rainforest fragments, reduced bird densities in grassland fragments, and bush encroachment and reduced wildlife densities in a tropical savanna. To clarify this underappreciated concept and synthesize existing work, we devised a conceptual framework for edge-effect interactions. We first worked to reduce terminological confusion by clarifying differences among terms such as edge intersection and edge interaction. For cases in which nearby edge effects interact, we proposed three possible forms of interaction: strengthening (presence of a second edge causes stronger edge effects), weakening (presence of a second edge causes weaker edge effects), and emergent (edge effects change completely in the presence of a second edge). By clarifying terms and concepts, this framework enables more precise descriptions of edge-effect interactions and facilitates comparisons of results among disparate study systems and response variables. A better understanding of edge-effect interactions will pave the way for more appropriate modeling, conservation, and management in complex landscapes. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Recent diversification of a marine genus (Tursiops spp.) Tracks habitat preference and environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moura, Andre E.; Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup

    2013-01-01

    in diversification was also seen for dates after the last glacial maximum. Together these data suggest the tracking of habitat preference during geographic expansions, followed by transition points reflecting habitat shifts, which were likely associated with periods of environmental change....

  18. Are conservatives less likely to be prosocial than liberals? From games to ideology, political preferences and voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lange, P.A.M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Chirumbolo, A.; Leone, L.

    2012-01-01

    Do political preferences reflect individual differences in interpersonal orientations? Are conservatives less other-regarding than liberals? On the basis of past theorising, we hypothesised that, relative to individuals with prosocial orientations, those with individualistic and competitive

  19. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  20. Functional and Biomechanical Effects of the Edge-to-Edge Repair in the Setting of Mitral Regurgitation: Consolidated Knowledge and Novel Tools to Gain Insight into Its Percutaneous Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Francesco; Redaelli, Alberto; Puppini, Giovanni; Onorati, Francesco; Faggian, Giuseppe; Votta, Emiliano

    2015-06-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent heart valve disease in the western population. When severe, it requires surgical treatment, repair being the preferred option. The edge-to-edge repair technique treats mitral regurgitation by suturing the leaflets together and creating a double-orifice valve. Due to its relative simplicity and versatility, it has become progressively more widespread. Recently, its percutaneous version has become feasible, and has raised interest thanks to the positive results of the Mitraclip(®) device. Edge-to-edge features and evolution have stimulated debate and multidisciplinary research by both clinicians and engineers. After providing an overview of representative studies in the field, here we propose a novel computational approach to the most recent percutaneous evolution of the edge-to-edge technique. Image-based structural finite element models of three mitral valves affected by posterior prolapse were derived from cine-cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The models accounted for the patient-specific 3D geometry of the valve, including leaflet compound curvature pattern, patient-specific motion of annulus and papillary muscles, and hyperelastic and anisotropic mechanical properties of tissues. The biomechanics of the three valves throughout the entire cardiac cycle was simulated before and after Mitraclip(®) implantation, assessing the biomechanical impact of the procedure. For all three simulated MVs, Mitraclip(®) implantation significantly improved systolic leaflets coaptation, without inducing major alterations in systolic peak stresses. Diastolic orifice area was decreased, by up to 58.9%, and leaflets diastolic stresses became comparable, although lower, to systolic ones. Despite established knowledge on the edge-to-edge surgical repair, latest technological advances make its percutanoues implementation a challenging field of research. The modeling approach herein proposed may be expanded to analyze clinical scenarios that

  1. Urbanization Impacts on Mammals across Urban-Forest Edges and a Predictive Model of Edge Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Villaseñor, Nélida R.; Driscoll, Don A.; Escobar, Martín A. H.; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing den...

  2. Balancing the edge effects budget: bay scallop settlement and loss along a seagrass edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John M; Furman, Bradley T; Tettelbach, Stephen T; Peterson, Bradley J

    2012-07-01

    Edge effects are a dominant subject in landscape ecology literature, yet they are highly variable and poorly understood. Often, the literature suggests simple models for edge effects-positive (enhancement at the edge), negative (enhancement at the interior), or no effect (neutral)--on a variety of metrics, including abundance, diversity, and mortality. In the marine realm, much of this work has focused on fragmented seagrass habitats due to their importance for a variety of commercially important species. In this study, the settlement, recruitment, and survival of bay scallops was investigated across a variety of seagrass patch treatments. By simultaneously collecting settlers (those viable larvae available to settle and metamorphose) and recruits (those settlers that survive some period of time, in this case, 6 weeks) on the same collectors, we were able to demonstrate a "balance" between positive and negative edge effects, resulting in a net neutral effect. Scallop settlement was significantly enhanced along seagrass edges, regardless of patch type while survival was elevated within patch interiors. However, recruitment (the net result of settlement and post-settlement loss) did not vary significantly from edge to center, representing a neutral effect. Further, results suggest that post-settlement loss, most likely due to predation, appears to be the dominant mechanism structuring scallop abundance, not patterns in settlement. These data illustrate the complexity of edge effects, and suggest that the metric used to investigate the effect (be it abundance, survival, or other metrics) can often influence the magnitude and direction of the perceived effect. Traditionally, high predation along a habitat edge would have indicated an "ecological trap" for the species in question; however, this study demonstrates that, at the population level, an ecological trap may not exist.

  3. Independent component analysis of edge information for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Karande, Kailash Jagannath

    2013-01-01

    The book presents research work on face recognition using edge information as features for face recognition with ICA algorithms. The independent components are extracted from edge information. These independent components are used with classifiers to match the facial images for recognition purpose. In their study, authors have explored Canny and LOG edge detectors as standard edge detection methods. Oriented Laplacian of Gaussian (OLOG) method is explored to extract the edge information with different orientations of Laplacian pyramid. Multiscale wavelet model for edge detection is also propos

  4. Edge-detect interpolation for direct digital periapical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Nam Kyu; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to aid in the use of the digital images by edge-detect interpolation for direct digital periapical images using edge-deted interpolation. This study was performed by image processing of 20 digital periapical images; pixel replication, linear non-interpolation, linear interpolation, and edge-sensitive interpolation. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. Pixel replication showed blocking artifact and serious image distortion. 2. Linear interpolation showed smoothing effect on the edge. 3. Edge-sensitive interpolation overcame the smoothing effect on the edge and showed better image.

  5. Edge states in a ferromagnetic honeycomb lattice with armchair boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleón, Pierre A.; Xian, Y.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the properties of magnon edge states in a ferromagnetic honeycomb lattice with armchair boundaries. In contrast with fermionic graphene, we find novel edge states due to the missing bonds along the boundary sites. After introducing an external on-site potential at the outermost sites we find that the energy spectra of the edge states are tunable. Additionally, when a non-trivial gap is induced, we find that some of the edge states are topologically protected and also tunable. Our results may explain the origin of the novel edge states recently observed in photonic lattices. We also discuss the behavior of these edge states for further experimental confirmations.

  6. Crystallographic study of grain refinement in aluminum alloys using the edge-to-edge matching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.-X.; Kelly, P.M.; Easton, M.A.; Taylor, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The edge-to-edge matching model for describing the interfacial crystallographic characteristics between two phases that are related by reproducible orientation relationships has been applied to the typical grain refiners in aluminum alloys. Excellent atomic matching between Al 3 Ti nucleating substrates, known to be effective nucleation sites for primary Al, and the Al matrix in both close packed directions and close packed planes containing these directions have been identified. The crystallographic features of the grain refiner and the Al matrix are very consistent with the edge-to-edge matching model. For three other typical grain refiners for Al alloys, TiC (when a = 0.4328 nm), TiB 2 and AlB 2 , the matching only occurs between the close packed directions in both phases and between the second close packed plane of the Al matrix and the second close packed plane of the refiners. According to the model, it is predicted that Al 3 Ti is a more powerful nucleating substrate for Al alloy than TiC, TiB 2 and AlB 2 . This agrees with the previous experimental results. The present work shows that the edge-to-edge matching model has the potential to be a powerful tool in discovering new and more powerful grain refiners for Al alloys

  7. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

    1993-05-18

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  8. Responding to Students' Learning Preferences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on a teacher's and his students' responsiveness to a new tetrahedral-oriented (Mahaffy in J Chem Educ 83(1):49-55, 2006) curriculum requiring more discursive classroom practices in the teaching of chemistry. In this instrumental case study, we identify the intentions of this learner-centered curriculum and a teacher's development in response to this curriculum. We also explore the tensions this teacher experiences as students subsequently respond to his adjusted teaching. We use a Chemistry Teacher Inventory (Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Res Sci Educ 40(11):667-689, 2011; Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Can J Math Sci Technol Educ 12(1):36-61, 2012; Lewthwaite in Chem Educ Res Pract. doi:10.1039/C3RP00122A, 2014) to assist the teacher in monitoring how he teaches and how he would like to improve his teaching. We also use a student form of the instrument, the Chemistry Classroom Inventory and Classroom Observation Protocol (Lewthwaite and Wiebe 2011) to verify the teacher's teaching and perception of student preferences for his teaching especially in terms of the discursive processes the curriculum encourages. By so doing, the teacher is able to use both sets of data as a foundation for critical reflection and work towards resolution of the incongruence in data arising from students' preferred learning orientations and his teaching aspirations. Implications of this study in regards to the authority of students' voice in triggering teachers' pedagogical change and the adjustments in `teachering' and `studenting' required by such curricula are considered.

  9. Novelty preference in patients with developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, M; Chadwick, M; Perez-Hernandez, E; Vargha-Khadem, F; Mishkin, M

    2011-12-01

    To re-examine whether or not selective hippocampal damage reduces novelty preference in visual paired comparison (VPC), we presented two different versions of the task to a group of patients with developmental amnesia (DA), each of whom sustained this form of pathology early in life. Compared with normal control participants, the DA group showed a delay-dependent reduction in novelty preference on one version of the task and an overall reduction on both versions combined. Because VPC is widely considered to be a measure of incidental recognition, the results appear to support the view that the hippocampus contributes to recognition memory. A difficulty for this conclusion, however, is that according to one current view the hippocampal contribution to recognition is limited to task conditions that encourage recollection of an item in some associated context, and according to another current view, to recognition of an item with the high confidence judgment that reflects a strong memory. By contrast, VPC, throughout which the participant remains entirely uninstructed other than to view the stimuli, would seem to lack such task conditions and so would likely lead to recognition based on familiarity rather than recollection or, alternatively, weak memories rather than strong. However, before concluding that the VPC impairment therefore contradicts both current views regarding the role of the hippocampus in recognition memory, two possibilities that would resolve this issue need to be investigated. One is that some variable in VPC, such as the extended period of stimulus encoding during familiarization, overrides its incidental nature, and, because this condition promotes either recollection- or strength-based recognition, renders the task hippocampal-dependent. The other possibility is that VPC, rather than providing a measure of incidental recognition, actually assesses an implicit, information-gathering process modulated by habituation, for which the hippocampus is

  10. Edge effects enhance selfing and seed harvesting efforts in the insect-pollinated Neotropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazi, R; Sebbenn, A M; Kageyama, P Y; Vencovsky, R

    2013-06-01

    Edge effects may affect the mating system of tropical tree species and reduce the genetic diversity and variance effective size of collected seeds at the boundaries of forest fragments because of a reduction in the density of reproductive trees, neighbour size and changes in the behaviour of pollinators. Here, edge effects on the genetic diversity, mating system and pollen pool of the insect-pollinated Neotropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii were investigated using eight microsatellite loci. Open-pollinated seeds were collected from 17 seed trees within continuous savannah woodland (SW) and were compared with seeds from 11 seed trees at the edge of the savannah remnant. Seeds collected from the SW had significantly higher heterozygosity levels (Ho=0.780; He=0.831) than seeds from the edge (Ho=0.702; He=0.800). The multilocus outcrossing rate was significantly higher in the SW (tm=0.859) than in the edge (tm=0.759). Pollen pool differentiation was significant, however, it did not differ between the SW (=0.105) and the edge (=0.135). The variance effective size within the progenies was significantly higher in the SW (Ne=2.65) than at the edge (Ne=2.30). The number of seed trees to retain the reference variance effective size of 500 was 189 at the SW and 217 at the edge. Therefore, it is preferable that seed harvesting for conservation and environmental restoration strategies be conducted in the SW, where genetic diversity and variance effective size within progenies are higher.

  11. Effects of knife edge angle and speed on peak force and specific energy when cutting vegetables of diverse texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutting tool parameters such as edge-sharpness and speed of cut directly influence the shape of final samples and the required cutting force and specific energy for slicing or cutting operations. Cutting force and specific energy studies on different vegetables help to design the appropriate slicing or cutting devices. Peak cutting force and specific energy requirements for the transverse cutting of nine vegetables, differing in their textural characteristics of rind and flesh, were determined at cutting speeds of 20, 30, 40 mm min-1 and single-cut knife-edge angles of 15, 20 and 25° using a Universal Testing Machine. Low speed (20 mm min-1 cutting with a sharper knife-edge angle (15° required less peak force and specific energy than that of high-speed cutting (40 mm min-1 with a wider knife-edge angle (25°. The vegetables with the maximum and minimum variation in the average peak cutting force were aubergine, at 79.05 (for knife speed 20 mm min-1 and edge angle 150 to 285.1 N (40 mm min-1 and 250, and cucumber, at 11.61 (20 mm min-1 and 150 to 21.41 N (40 mm min-1 and 250, respectively. High speed (40 mm min-1, with a large knife-edge angle (25°, required the highest force and specific energy to cut the vegetables, however, low speed (20 mm min-1, with a small knife-edge angle (150, is preferred. Effects of cutting speed and knife-edge angle on peak force and specific energy responses were found significant (p<0.05. Linear or quadratic regressions gave a good fit of these variables. 

  12. GSGG edge cladding development: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumitani, T.; Meissner, H.E.; Toratani, H.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this project have been: (1) Investigate the possibility of chemical etching of GSGG crystal slabs to obtain increased strength. (2) Design and construct a simplified mold assembly for casting cladding glass to the edges of crystal slabs of different dimensions. (3) Conduct casting experiments to evaluate the redesigned mold assembly and to determine stresses as function of thermal expansion coefficient of cladding glass. (4) Clad larger sizes of GGG slabs as they become available. These tasks have been achieved. Chemical etching of GSGG slabs does not appear possible with any other acid than H 3 PO 4 at temperatures above 300 0 C. A mold assembly has been constructed which allowed casting cladding glass around the edges of the largest GGG slabs available (10 x 20 x 160 mm) without causing breakage through the annealing step

  13. Quantum nature of edge magnetism in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golor, Michael; Wessel, Stefan; Schmidt, Manuel J

    2014-01-31

    It is argued that the subtle crossover from decoherence-dominated classical magnetism to fluctuation-dominated quantum magnetism is experimentally accessible in graphene nanoribbons. We show that the width of a nanoribbon determines whether the edge magnetism is on the classical side, on the quantum side, or in between. In the classical regime, decoherence is dominant and leads to static spin polarizations at the ribbon edges, which are well described by mean-field theories. The quantum Zeno effect is identified as the basic mechanism which is responsible for the spin polarization and thereby enables the application of graphene in spintronics. On the quantum side, however, the spin polarization is destroyed by dynamical processes. The great tunability of graphene magnetism thus offers a viable route for the study of the quantum-classical crossover.

  14. Emergent properties of patch shapes affect edge permeability to animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilis O Nams

    Full Text Available Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1 find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2 generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight. When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance.

  15. Constructing a Measurement Method of Differences in Group Preferences Based on Relative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research and data analysis of the differences involved in group preferences, conventional statistical methods cannot reflect the integrity and preferences of human minds; in particular, it is difficult to exclude humans’ irrational factors. This paper introduces a preference amount model based on relative entropy theory. A related expansion is made based on the characteristics of the questionnaire data, and we also construct the parameters to measure differences in the data distribution of different groups on the whole. In this paper, this parameter is called the center distance, and it effectively reflects the preferences of human minds. Using the survey data of securities market participants as an example, this paper analyzes differences in market participants’ attitudes toward the effectiveness of securities regulation. Based on this method, differences between groups that were overlooked by analysis of variance are found, and certain aspects obscured by general data characteristics are also found.

  16. Gaining the Edge: Connecting with the Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Cleaver’s and Partridge’s) entered Americans’ living rooms nightly. The Osmond’s and Beatles captivated music of the Boomer’s youth. Powerful...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GAINING THE EDGE: CONNECTING WITH THE MILLENNIALS by Kay A. Smith, Lt Col, USAF A Research Report Submitted to... the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements 1 December 2008 DISCLAIMER The views expressed in this academic research

  17. Lived citizenship on the edge of society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    work. Drawing on the notion of intimate citizenship and an understanding of citizenship as socio-spatial, the theoretical framework addresses the challenges of enhancing the agency of social work clients and of promoting inclusive citizenship, and how these challenges are shaped by emotions, affect......, rationality, materiality, power relations, policies and managerial strategies. Lived Citizenship on the Edge of Society will be of interest to students and scholars across a range of disciplines including social policy and social work....

  18. Images of Edge Turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Bush, C.E.; Maqueda, R.; Munsat, T.; Stotler, D.; Lowrance, J.; Mastracola, V.; Renda, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 2-D structure of edge plasma turbulence has been measured in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by viewing the emission of the Da spectral line of deuterium. Images have been made at framing rates of up to 250,000 frames/sec using an ultra-high speed CCD camera developed by Princeton Scientific Instruments. A sequence of images showing the transition between L-mode and H-mode states is shown

  19. Transport in the tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental observations characterize the edge plasma or boundary layer in magnetically confined plasmas as a region of great complexity. Evidence suggests the edge physics plays a key role in plasma confinement although the mechanism remains unresolved. This study focuses on issues in two areas: observed poloidal asymmetries in the Scrape Off Layer (SOL) edge plasma and the physical nature of the plasma-neutral recycling. A computational model solves the coupled two dimensional partial differential equations governing the plasma fluid density, parallel and radial velocities, electron and ion temperatures and neutral density under assumptions of toroidal symmetry, ambipolarity, anomalous diffusive radial flux, and neutral-ion thermal equilibrium. Drift flow and plasma potential are calculated as dependent quantities. Computational results are compared to experimental data for the CCT and TEXTOR:ALT-II tokamak limiter cases. Comparisons show drift flux is a major component of the poloidal flow in the SOL along the tangency/separatrix. Plasma-neutral recycling is characterized in several tokamak divertors, including the C-MOD device using magnetic flux surface coordinates. Recycling is characterized by time constant, τ rc , on the order of tens of milliseconds. Heat flux transients from the core into the edge on shorter time scales significantly increase the plasma temperatures at the target and may increase sputtering. Recycling conditions in divertors vary considerably depending on recycled flux to the core. The high density, low temperature solution requires that the neutral mean free path be small compared to the divertor target to x-point distance. The simulations and analysis support H-mode confinement and transition models based on the recycling divertor solution bifurcation

  20. The transition-edge microbolometer (TREMBOL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentworth, S.M.; Neikirk, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The TREMBOL (transition-edge microbolometer) and the composite TREMBOL are introduced as detectors for FIR imaging arrays. The TREMBOL uses a superconductor's sharp change in resistance at the normal conduction to superconduction transition. The structure of the composite TREMBOL enables heating of the individual detectors in an array up to their transition temperature, and can thus be used in multiplexing, which would be very advantageous for two-dimensional arrays. 23 refs

  1. Multi-scale Regions from Edge Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    In this article we introduce a novel method for detecting multi-scale salient regions around edges using a graph based image compression algorithm. Images are recursively decomposed into triangles arranged into a binary tree using linear interpolation. The entropy of any local region of the image......), their performance is comparable to SIFT (Lowe, 2004).We also show that when they are used together with MSERs (Matas et al., 2002), the performance of MSERs is boosted....

  2. Edge rotational magnons in magnonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisenkov, Ivan; Kalyabin, Dmitry; Nikitov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    It is predicted that in 2D magnonic crystals the edge rotational magnons of forward volume magnetostatic spin waves can exist. Under certain conditions, locally bounded magnons may appear within the crystal consisting of the ferromagnetic matrix and periodically inserted magnetic/non-magnetic inclusions. It is also shown that interplay of different resonances in 2D magnonic crystal may provide conditions for spin wave modes existence with negative group velocity

  3. Edge modelling for W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.; Borchardt, M.; Riemann, J.; Bonnin, X.; Nuehrenberg, J.; Mutzke, A.

    2001-01-01

    The edge modelling activities for W7-X are summarized. The status of the new 3D SOL transport code BoRiS is presented, including an algorithm for calculation of magnetic coordinates and metric coefficients. In addition, the analysis of a toroidally averaged island topology with respect to the effect of drift and currents is discussed using the 2D B2-solps5.0 code. (author)

  4. ICRF/edge physics research on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oost, G. van; Nieuwenhove, R. van; Koch, R.; Messiaen, A.M.; Vandenplas, P.E.; Weynants, R.R.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Lie, Y.T.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Samm, U.; Schweer, B.; Conn, R.W.; Corbett, W.J.; Goebel, D.M.; Moyer, R.A.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1990-01-01

    Extensive investigations of ICRF-induced effects on the edge plasma and on plasma-wall interaction were conducted on TEXTOR under different wall- and limiter as well as plasma- and heating conditions. Several strong effects of ICRF on the edge parameters were observed on TEXTOR, such as density rise, instantaneous electron heating, modification of SOL profiles, influx of ligth and/or heavy impurities, increased heat flux to the limiters, and production of energetic ions in the SOL. The fast response time of some of the changes and the observation of a maximum in the SOL profile of electron temperature, heat flux and metal sputtering clearly demonstrated that RF power is directly absorbed in the SOL. Estimates of this power amount to several percent of the total RF power launched into the plasma. Plasma-wall interaction during ICRF was substantially reduced by an appropriate choice of the wall conditioning procedures (wall carbonization with liner at 400degC or, above all, boronization). As a result record low values of the radiated power fraction were achieved during ICRF and long pulse, high power, low impurity operation was possible. Further improvement was obtained by ICRF antenna phasing. When ICRF power is coupled to the plasma, several effects on the core and edge plasma influence the operation of the toroidal pump limiter ALT-II. Experimental and theoretical studies were performed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the ICRF-induced effects, including the propagation of plasma waves in the edge plasma and nonlinear phenomena such as parametric decay, important changes in the DC current between the antenna structure and the liner due to the sheath effect at the antennas, and the generation of waves at harmonics of the RF generator frequency. Radial profiles of the DC radial and poloidal electric fields as well as a localized RF electric field structure were measured in the SOL using a fast scanning probe. (orig.)

  5. Depth from Edge and Intensity Based Stereo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    a Mars Viking vehicle, and a random dotted coffee jar. Assessment of the algorithm is a bit difficult: it uses a fairly simple control structure with...correspondences. This use of an evaluation function estimator allowed the introduction of the extensive pruning of a branch and bound algorithm. Even with it...Figure 3-6). This is the edge reversal constraint, and was integral to the pruning . As it happens, this same constraint is the key to the use of the

  6. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms

  7. Preferences for Simultaneous Polydrug Use:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jeanette; Østergaard, Stine Vernstrøm; Fletcher, Adam

    2016-01-01

    among those reporting drug use, according to sociodemographics, alcohol intake, frequency of intoxication, and smoking. Illicit drug use was more prevalent among young adults in England than Denmark. The difference was smallest for cannabis use: Lifetime cannabis use is 66% in England and 58% in Denmark......Cross-national surveys of young adults’ simultaneous polydrug use (SPU) are rare, as measuring polydrug use requires multiple questions capturing the timing, sequence, and dosage of mixing drugs. This study proposes a new way of measuring SPU by examining how preferences for simultaneous polydrug...... use (PSPU) vary among club/bar-goers in two European countries, Denmark and England, typically cited as exemplars of the normalization of illegal drug use. The study considers the utility of the normalization thesis for understanding preferences for polydrug use in the European nighttime economy...

  8. Cultural legacies and political preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siroky, David S.; Mueller, Sean; Hechter, Michael

    2017-01-01

    crucial in explaining the decision to secede, but not in a conventional pocketbook manner. To examine this theory, we analyze the 2013 referendum on the secession of the Jura Bernois region from the Canton of Berne in Switzerland, using municipal level census and referendum data. The results lend support......, ecological constraints such as geography and topography affect social interaction with like-minded individuals. On the basis of both these political preferences and ecological constraints, individuals then make rational choices about the desirability of secession. Instrumental considerations are therefore...... to the theory and suggest one way in which the politics of identity, based on factors like language and religion, can be fused with the politics of interest (preferences for more or less state intervention into the polity and economy) to better understand group behavior....

  9. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  10. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  11. Direct Reflectance Measurements from Drones: Sensor Absolute Radiometric Calibration and System Tests for Forest Reflectance Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Teemu; Scott, Barry; Theocharous, Theo; Näsi, Roope; Suomalainen, Juha; Greenwell, Claire; Fox, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Drone-based remote sensing has evolved rapidly in recent years. Miniaturized hyperspectral imaging sensors are becoming more common as they provide more abundant information of the object compared to traditional cameras. Reflectance is a physically defined object property and therefore often preferred output of the remote sensing data capture to be used in the further processes. Absolute calibration of the sensor provides a possibility for physical modelling of the imaging process and enables efficient procedures for reflectance correction. Our objective is to develop a method for direct reflectance measurements for drone-based remote sensing. It is based on an imaging spectrometer and irradiance spectrometer. This approach is highly attractive for many practical applications as it does not require in situ reflectance panels for converting the sensor radiance to ground reflectance factors. We performed SI-traceable spectral and radiance calibration of a tuneable Fabry-Pérot Interferometer -based (FPI) hyperspectral camera at the National Physical Laboratory NPL (Teddington, UK). The camera represents novel technology by collecting 2D format hyperspectral image cubes using time sequential spectral scanning principle. The radiance accuracy of different channels varied between ±4% when evaluated using independent test data, and linearity of the camera response was on average 0.9994. The spectral response calibration showed side peaks on several channels that were due to the multiple orders of interference of the FPI. The drone-based direct reflectance measurement system showed promising results with imagery collected over Wytham Forest (Oxford, UK). PMID:29751560

  12. Direct Reflectance Measurements from Drones: Sensor Absolute Radiometric Calibration and System Tests for Forest Reflectance Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Teemu; Markelin, Lauri; Honkavaara, Eija; Scott, Barry; Theocharous, Theo; Nevalainen, Olli; Näsi, Roope; Suomalainen, Juha; Viljanen, Niko; Greenwell, Claire; Fox, Nigel

    2018-05-03

    Drone-based remote sensing has evolved rapidly in recent years. Miniaturized hyperspectral imaging sensors are becoming more common as they provide more abundant information of the object compared to traditional cameras. Reflectance is a physically defined object property and therefore often preferred output of the remote sensing data capture to be used in the further processes. Absolute calibration of the sensor provides a possibility for physical modelling of the imaging process and enables efficient procedures for reflectance correction. Our objective is to develop a method for direct reflectance measurements for drone-based remote sensing. It is based on an imaging spectrometer and irradiance spectrometer. This approach is highly attractive for many practical applications as it does not require in situ reflectance panels for converting the sensor radiance to ground reflectance factors. We performed SI-traceable spectral and radiance calibration of a tuneable Fabry-Pérot Interferometer -based (FPI) hyperspectral camera at the National Physical Laboratory NPL (Teddington, UK). The camera represents novel technology by collecting 2D format hyperspectral image cubes using time sequential spectral scanning principle. The radiance accuracy of different channels varied between ±4% when evaluated using independent test data, and linearity of the camera response was on average 0.9994. The spectral response calibration showed side peaks on several channels that were due to the multiple orders of interference of the FPI. The drone-based direct reflectance measurement system showed promising results with imagery collected over Wytham Forest (Oxford, UK).

  13. Canny edge-based deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Vasant; Huang, Yihui; Mao, Weihua; Yuan, Baohong; Tang, Liping

    2017-02-07

    This work focuses on developing a 2D Canny edge-based deformable image registration (Canny DIR) algorithm to register in vivo white light images taken at various time points. This method uses a sparse interpolation deformation algorithm to sparsely register regions of the image with strong edge information. A stability criterion is enforced which removes regions of edges that do not deform in a smooth uniform manner. Using a synthetic mouse surface ground truth model, the accuracy of the Canny DIR algorithm was evaluated under axial rotation in the presence of deformation. The accuracy was also tested using fluorescent dye injections, which were then used for gamma analysis to establish a second ground truth. The results indicate that the Canny DIR algorithm performs better than rigid registration, intensity corrected Demons, and distinctive features for all evaluation matrices and ground truth scenarios. In conclusion Canny DIR performs well in the presence of the unique lighting and shading variations associated with white-light-based image registration.

  14. DIII-D edge physics database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, R.A.; Porter, G.D.; Hill, D.N.; Buchenauer, D.A.; Bramson, G.

    1992-03-01

    We have developed an edge-physics database containing data for the plasma in the divertor region and the scrape-off layer (SOL) for the DIII-D tokamak. The database provides many of the parameters necessary to model the power flow to the divertor and other plasma processes in the plasma edge. It will also facilitate the analysis of DIII-D data for comparison with other divertor tokamaks. In addition to the core plasma parameters, edge-specific data are included in this database. Initial results using the database show good agreement between the pressure profiles measured by the Langmuir probes and those determined from the Thomson data for the inner strike point, but not for the outer strike point region. We also find that the ratio of separatrix density to average core density, as well as the in/out asymmetry in the SOL power at the divertor in DIII-D do not agree with values currently assumed in modeling the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

  15. The edge plasma and divertor in TIBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, W.L.

    1987-10-16

    An open divertor configuration has been adopted for TIBER. Most recent designs, including DIII-D, NET and CIT use open configurations and rely on a dense edge plasma to shield the plasma from the gas produced at the neutralizer plate. Experiments on ASDEX, PDX, D-III, and recently on DIII-D have shown that a dense edge plasma can be produced by re-ionizing most of the gas produced at the plate. This high recycling mode allows a large flux of particles to carry the heat to the plate, so that the mean energy per particle can be low. Erosion of the plate can be greatly reduced if the average impact energy of the ions at the plate can be reduced to near or below the threshold for sputtering of the plate material. The present configuration allows part of the flux of edge plasma ions to be neutralized at the entrance to the pumping duct so that helium is pumped as well as hydrogen. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Bilayer graphene: gap tunability and edge properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Eduardo V; Santos, J M B Lopes dos; Peres, N M R; Guinea, F; Castro Neto, A H

    2008-01-01

    Bilayer graphene - two coupled single graphene layers stacked as in graphite - provides the only known semiconductor with a gap that can be tuned externally through electric field effect. Here we use a tight binding approach to study how the gap changes with the applied electric field. Within a parallel plate capacitor model and taking into account screening of the external field, we describe real back gated and/or chemically doped bilayer devices. We show that a gap between zero and midinfrared energies can be induced and externally tuned in these devices, making bilayer graphene very appealing from the point of view of applications. However, applications to nanotechnology require careful treatment of the effect of sample boundaries. This being particularly true in graphene, where the presence of edge states at zero energy - the Fermi level of the undoped system - has been extensively reported. Here we show that also bilayer graphene supports surface states localized at zigzag edges. The presence of two layers, however, allows for a new type of edge state which shows an enhanced penetration into the bulk and gives rise to band crossing phenomenon inside the gap of the biased bilayer system.

  17. The edge plasma and divertor in TIBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    An open divertor configuration has been adopted for TIBER. Most recent designs, including DIII-D, NET and CIT use open configurations and rely on a dense edge plasma to shield the plasma from the gas produced at the neutralizer plate. Experiments on ASDEX, PDX, D-III, and recently on DIII-D have shown that a dense edge plasma can be produced by re-ionizing most of the gas produced at the plate. This high recycling mode allows a large flux of particles to carry the heat to the plate, so that the mean energy per particle can be low. Erosion of the plate can be greatly reduced if the average impact energy of the ions at the plate can be reduced to near or below the threshold for sputtering of the plate material. The present configuration allows part of the flux of edge plasma ions to be neutralized at the entrance to the pumping duct so that helium is pumped as well as hydrogen. 7 refs., 3 figs

  18. Economic Beliefs and Party Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W.M. Roos; Andreas Orland

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a questionnaire study used to explore the economic understanding, normative positions along the egalitarian-libertarian spectrum, and the party preferences of a large student sample. The aim of the study is both to find socio-economic determinants of normative and positive beliefs and to explore how beliefs about the economy influence party support. We find that positive beliefs of lay people differ systematically from those of economic experts. Positive beli...

  19. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Velandia Morales, Andrea; Universidad de Granada; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Universidad de Granada

    2011-01-01

    According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996) there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms). The results showed that se...

  20. Patient preferences for partner notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoola, A; Radcliffe, K W; Das, S; Robshaw, V; Gilleran, G; Kumari, B S; Boothby, M; Rajakumar, R

    2006-08-01

    To identify patient preferences for notification of sexual contacts when a sexually transmitted infection (STI) is diagnosed. A questionnaire survey of 2544 patients attending three large genitourinary clinics at Derby, Birmingham, and Coventry in the United Kingdom. The median age of the respondents was 24 with 1474 (57.9%) women, 1835 (72.1%) white, 1826 (71.8%) single. The most favoured method of partner notification was patient referral, which was rated a "good" method by 65.8% when they had to be contacted because a sexual partner has an STI. Notifying contacts by letter as a method of provider partner notification is more acceptable than phoning, text messaging, or email. Respondents with access to mobile telephones, private emails, and private letters were more likely to rate a method of partner notification using that mode of communication as "good" compared to those without. With provider referral methods of partner notification respondents preferred to receive a letter, email, or text message asking them to contact the clinic rather than a letter, email or text message informing them that they may have an STI. Most respondents think that being informed directly by a partner is the best method of being notified of the risk of an STI. Some of the newer methods may not be acceptable to all but a significant minority of respondents prefer these methods of partner notification. The wording of letters, emails, or text messages when used for partner notification has an influence on the acceptability of the method and may influence success of the partner notification method. Services should be flexible enough to utilise the patients' preferred method of partner notification.