WorldWideScience

Sample records for reflected appalachian values

  1. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  2. Structure and petroleum plays of the St. Lawrence Platform and Appalachians in southern Quebec : insights from interpretation of MRNQ seismic reflection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, S.; Lavoie, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Quebec Division; Dietrich, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Laliberte, J.Y. [Ministere des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune du Quebec, Charlesbourg, QC (Canada). Direction generale des hydrocarbures et des biocarburants

    2010-09-15

    This paper presented the results of a study in which 3 regional seismic reflection lines originally acquired in 1978 were reprocessed and reinterpreted using current techniques and methodologies. The profiles cross the Chambly-Fortierville syncline and provide images of the St. Lawrence Platform and the Appalachian foreland thrust belt of southern Quebec, including one that spans the entire width of the southern Quebec Appalachians. Post-stack seismic data processing and time migration were used to improve the quality of the original seismic sections, allowing interpretations that provide new information on subsurface geology, such as the recognition of complex structural patterns in platform and foreland units, the presence of a triangle zone at the structural front, and the geometry of thrust slices of platform units and Appalachian thrust beds, as well as images of the internal Humber Zone, including back-thrust faults and mega thrust wedges. The Saint-Flavien natural gas-field and other potential targets in the St. Lawrence Platform and Appalachian Foreland are imaged in the seismic profiles. The study provided new insights into the structure, geological evolution, and petroleum potential of the St. Lawrence Platform and the Appalachian foreland thrust belt of southern Quebec, including a potential, previously unrecognized Ordovician hydrothermal dolomite play. The new subsurface interpretations give a clearer view of the major structure affecting the Utica Shale, providing new insights into the limits of the unconventional shale gas play in the St. Lawrence Platform. 53 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Reflections on the value concept in accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Buys

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent meltdown in global finances and the reasons for it may make people doubtful about the stewardship function of accounting. In the global financial markets, there is a great fascination with the reality that accounting values intend to reflect. However, what many people considered valuable is now suddenly of no value. The question can therefore be asked what is meant by the value concept as a foundation to modern-day accountancy. “Value” is a concept that is open to different interpretations, based on the needs, perspectives and personal values of the interpreter. This article aims to reflect on the value concept from an accounting perspective in analysing the fundamental quali-tative perspectives and how these perspectives might affect the quantitative value measurements, as reported in the financial statements. From a quantitative perspective, accounttancy aims to measure and report the monetary values of items. However, there is a move towards a mixed valuation model with many financial statements, including both historical cost and value-based accounting information. The article concludes that this questionable development opens up many additional and subjective interpretations of accounting value measurement and reporting. Both valuation measurement methods have merit when considered in the overall purpose of accounting information. However, subjective value-based mea-surements may cast a shadow of doubt on the reliability and comparability requirements of accounting value information.

  4. Reflecting on future research concerning the added value of FM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, PA; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, C; Sarasoja, AL

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize recent research findings and reflections on The Added Value of Facilities Management and to outline perspectives for future research and development of the added value of FM.
    Methodology - The article is based on reflections on contributions to the recently published book

  5. Development of continental lithospheric mantle as reflected in the chemistry of the Mesozoic Appalachian Tholeiites, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegram, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of dikes, sills, and volcanic rocks of the Meoszoic Appalachian Tholeiite (MAT) Province of the easternmost United States provide evidence that continental tholeiites are derived from continental lithospheric mantle sources that are genetically and geochronologically related to the overlying continental crust. Nineteen olivine tholeiites and sixteen quartz tholeiites from the length of this province, associated in space and time with the last opening of the Atlantic, display significant isotopic heterogeneity: initial ε Nd = +3.8 to -5.7; initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7044-0.7072; 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 17.49-19.14; 207 Pb/ 204 Pb = 15.55-15.65; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 37.24-39.11. In Pb-Pb space, the MAT define a linear array displaced above the field for MORB and thus resemble oceanic basalts with DUPAL Pb isotopic traits. A regression of this array yields a secondary Pb-Pb isochron age of ≅ 1000 Ma (μ 1 = 8.26), similar to Sm/Nd isochrons from the southern half of the province and to the radiometric age of the Grenville crust underlying easternmost North America. The MAT exhibit significant trace element ratio heterogeneity (e.g., Sm/Nd = 0.226-0.327) and have trace element traits similar to convergent margin magmas [e.g., depletions of Nb and Ti relative to the rare earth elements on normalized trace element incompatibility diagrams, Ba/Nb ratios (19-75) that are significantly greater than those of MORB, and low TiO 2 (0.39-0.69%)]. Geochemical and geological considerations were strongly suggest that the MAT were not significantly contaminated during ascent through the continental crust. Further, isotope and trace element variations are not consistent with the involvement of contemporaneous MORB or OIB components. Rather, the materials that control the MAT incompatible element chemistry were derived from subcontinental lithospheric mantle. (orig./WB)

  6. Reflecting on future research concerning the added value of FM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    on contributions to the recently published book “The Added Value of Facilities Management” and related future studies, as well as further exploration of five main themes. Findings – Added value is expected to be central in the future development of FM, which is confirmed by recent foresight studies....... There is a need for a better understanding of alignment between FM and core business, performance measurement methods and how models such as the FM Value Map can be of value to the involved stakeholders. Corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainability and branding have great potential to add value......Purpose – This paper aims to summarize recent research findings and reflections on The Added Value of Facilities Management (FM) and to outline perspectives for future research and development of the added value of FM. Design/methodology/approach – The article is based on reflections...

  7. Private Studio to Public School: One Teacher's Reflection on Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Russell, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    This article evaluates strengths and limitations of some studio training. It focuses on values that private studio students bring to the public school setting. One teacher uses this as an opportunity to reflect on and claim her own values and desire to develop students as artists.

  8. Effects of irregular basement structure on the geometry and emplacement of frontal thrusts and duplexes in the Quebec Appalachians: Interpretations from well and seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovskaya, E.; Malo, M.; Badina, F.

    2014-12-01

    Irregular basement geometry may affect thrust propagation in foreland fold-thrust belts creating a perturbation in structural continuity of hydrocarbon fields. Here we investigate how the irregular pattern of normal faults, along with the presence of uplifts and transverse faults in the Grenvillian basement has influenced the geometry and emplacement of frontal thrusts and duplexes in the parautochthonous domain of the southern Quebec Appalachians during the middle-late Ordovician Taconian orogeny. Integration of data from surface geology, wells, and 2D and 3D seismic reflection surveys into a regional-scale structural model is used to reconstruct the 3D geometry and emplacement history of one- and two-horse duplexes in the Joly-Saint-Flavien gas storage area. The normal hinterland to foreland sequence of thrusting in this area is complicated by the differential emplacement of tectonic slices along strike of the orogenic front, starting in the SW and developing subsequently to the NE within each structural level. The shortening related to duplex emplacement decreases laterally over the distance of 20 km from - 49% in the SW (Joly area) to - 31% in the NE (Saint-Flavien area). Duplex emplacement resulted from the differential forward propagation, deflexion and vertical-axis rotation of the roof thrust (Logan's Line), which, in turn, has been induced by the presence of frontal uplift and transverse faults in the basement. The structural-lithological analysis of tectonic slices and restoration of their initial location allows us to consider the lower slice of the Joly duplex as a structural trap comparable to the fractured reservoir in lower Ordovician dolomites of the Saint-Flavien duplex.

  9. The Value of Reflective: Functioning within an Academic Therapeutic Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLonde, Mary M; Dreier, Mona; Aaronson, Gayle; O'Brien, John

    2015-01-01

    The self begins as a social self and is dependent on the other and the self-other relationship. Furthermore, shortly after birth, the intersubjective self is nurtured and sustained by the reciprocal interactions with the significant other. Recent research suggests that the significant other's reciprocity depends on his or her capacity for mentalization, and this reflective functioning capacity influences not only the child's developing sense of I, other, and we, but also his or her developing attachment pattern. Several studies have demonstrated that parental reflective functioning can be improved with intervention, and enhancing parental reflective functioning can lead to a more secure attachment pattern and better outcomes for the child and parent. Therefore, intervention with toddlers and their families requires us to consider this dynamic two-person psychology. In this paper, we describe an academic parent-child nursery program aimed at enhancing parental reflective functioning. A clinical example from the collaborative treatment of a mother and her two-year-old will demonstrate how reflective functioning can be enhanced in the parent-child dyad and lead to a more secure parent-child relationship. We will also discuss the value of reflective functioning to the interdisciplinary team and how we dealt with countertransference issues that arose during the treatment.

  10. Nursing Student Perceptions of Reflective Journaling: A Conjoint Value Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrix, Thomas J.; O'Malley, Maureen; Sullivan, Catherine; Carmon, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    This study used a statistical technique, conjoint value analysis, to determine student perceptions related to the importance of predetermined reflective journaling attributes. An expert Delphi panel determined these attributes and integrated them into a survey which presented students with multiple journaling experiences from which they had to choose. After obtaining IRB approval, a convenience sample of 66 baccalaureate nursing students completed the survey. The relative importance of the at...

  11. Estimating chlorophyll content from Eucalyptus dunnii leaves by reflectance values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate photosynthetic pigments contents from leaves of Eucalyptus dunni Maiden based on values of reflectance spectra of red, green and blue colors obtained with a digital color analyzer. We collected fifty leaves from the lower third of the crown of twenty trees including young as well as mature leaves. From each leaf an area of 14 cm2 of the leaf blade was cut in which we measured reflectance values on the red, green and blue spectra with a portable digital colorimeter, obtained relative index of chlorophyll with a SPAD – 502 and determined the content of the chlorophyll a, b, and a + b by classic method of solvent extraction. We submitted the data to multiple linear regression and nonlinear analysis at 5% of error probability. It was evaluated the occurrence of multicollinearity. The negative exponential model resulted in good fit when data from red spectrum was used for chlorophyll a, green spectrum for chlorophyll b and a + b, making possible correlation coefficients between the estimated values and the extracted above 0.85. Except for the chlorophyll a content, the accuracy in estimates of photosynthetic pigments were higher than estimated by the chlorophyll meter, even with linearity between methods. Therefore, it is possible to estimate photosynthetic pigments on E. dunni leaves through values of red and green wavelengths from a digital color analyser.

  12. Congruence and functions of personal and cultural values: do my values reflect my culture's values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald

    2006-11-01

    Two studies are described examining the correlation between self- and culture-referenced values at a culture level (Study 1) and correlation between self- and culture-referenced values and self-reported behavior at an individual level (Study 2). It is found that values related to individual-group relationships (embeddedness) and expression and experience of affective feelings and emotions (affective autonomy) are significantly correlated at a culture level. In Study 2, culture-referenced values are shown to correlate with behaviors attached to social norms, whereas self-rated values are found to correlate with behaviors that are not norm-governed. Implications for measurement of cultural values and cultural and cross-cultural research designs are discussed.

  13. Nursing student perceptions of reflective journaling: a conjoint value analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Thomas J; O'Malley, Maureen; Sullivan, Catherine; Carmon, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    This study used a statistical technique, conjoint value analysis, to determine student perceptions related to the importance of predetermined reflective journaling attributes. An expert Delphi panel determined these attributes and integrated them into a survey which presented students with multiple journaling experiences from which they had to choose. After obtaining IRB approval, a convenience sample of 66 baccalaureate nursing students completed the survey. The relative importance of the attributes varied from a low of 16.75% (format) to a high of 23.58% (time). The model explained 77% of the variability of student journaling preferences (r(2) = 0.77). Students preferred shorter time, complete confidentiality, one-time complete feedback, semistructured format, and behavior recognition. Students with more experience had a much greater preference for a free-form format (P journaling experience. Additionally, the results of English as a second language students were significantly different from the rest of the sample. In order to better serve them, educators must consider the relative importance of these attributes when developing journaling experiences for their students.

  14. Assessing Lost Ecosystem Service Benefits Due to Mining-Induced Stream Degradation in the Appalachian Region: Economic Approaches to Valuing Recreational Fishing Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sport fishing is a popular activity for Appalachian residents and visitors. The region’s coldwater streams support a strong regional outdoor tourism industry. We examined the influence of surface coal mining, in the context of other stressors, on freshwater sport fishing in...

  15. Reflecting Societal Values in Designing Flood Risk Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamson Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Office of Public Works (OPW began the National Catchment-based Flood Risk Assessment and Management (CFRAM Programme through a series of pilot studies. A Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA Framework was developed through the pilot studies that integrated a number of objectives related to a wide range of potential impacts and benefits into the core of process of appraising and selecting suitable flood risk management measures for a given area or location, and then for prioritising national investments for different schemes and projects. This MCA Framework, that provides a systematic process of developing a non-monetised but numerical indicator of benefit and impact, has since been implemented nationally in the preparation of the Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs. A key feature of the MCA is that it should represent societal values. To this end, nationally representative quantitative research was undertaken to determine global weights that reflect the perceived importance of each of the objectives for reducing economic, social and environmental / cultural risks in flood management strategies. Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, in conjunction with a pair-wise comparison of criteria relating to these risks, was utilised to determine weights. In excess of 1,000 structured interviews were completed where the relative importance of these objectives were assessed using a seven-point scale. The weighting given to each of the 13 specific objectives identified broadly followed expectations, with risk to people followed by risk to homes and properties being respectively the first and second most important, although some were given greater or less weighting than expected. The national application of the MCA Framework, using the weighted objectives based on this process, through the CFRAM Programme has generally lead to the identification of appropriate and, based on local consultation, acceptable options for each community.

  16. Social Work Values and Ethics: Reflections on the Profession's Odssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic G. Reamer

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Social workers' understanding of ethical issues has matured significantly. This article traces the evolution of the profession's approach to the values and ethics. During its history, social work has moved through four major periods-- the morality period, the values period, the ethical theories and decision-making period, and the ethical standards and risk-management (the prevention of ethics complaints and ethics related lawsuits is diverting social workers from in-depth exploration of core professional and personal values, ethical dilemmas, and the nature of the profession's moral mission. The author encourages the profession to recalibrate its focus on values and ethics.

  17. δ15N value does not reflect fasting in mysticetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Alex; Giménez, Joan; Gómez-Campos, Encarna; Cardona, Luís; Borrell, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    The finding that tissue δ(15)N values increase with protein catabolism has led researchers to apply this value to gauge nutritive condition in vertebrates. However, its application to marine mammals has in most occasions failed. We investigated the relationship between δ(15)N values and the fattening/fasting cycle in a model species, the fin whale, a migratory capital breeder that experiences severe seasonal variation in body condition. We analyzed two tissues providing complementary insights: one with isotopic turnover (muscle) and one that keeps a permanent record of variations in isotopic values (baleen plates). In both tissues δ(15)N values increased with intensive feeding but decreased with fasting, thus contradicting the pattern previously anticipated. The apparent inconsistency during fasting is explained by the fact that a) individuals migrate between different isotopic isoscapes, b) starvation may not trigger significant negative nitrogen balance, and c) excretion drops and elimination of 15N-depleted urine is minimized. Conversely, when intensive feeding is resumed in the northern grounds, protein anabolism and excretion start again, triggering 15N enrichment. It can be concluded that in whales and other mammals that accrue massive depots of lipids as energetic reserves and which have limited access to drinking water, the δ15N value is not affected by fasting and therefore cannot be used as an indication of nutritive condition.

  18. Shifting to triple value healthcare: Reflections from England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Anant; Jungmann, Sven; Gray, Muir

    2018-02-01

    Increasing need and demand because of growing and aging populations combined with stagnant or decreasing resources being invested into healthcare globally mean that a radical shift is needed to ensure that healthcare systems can meet current and future challenges. Quality-, safety- and efficiency-improvement approaches have been used as means to address many problems in healthcare and while they are essential and necessary, they are not sufficient to meet our current challenges. To build resilient and sustainable healthcare systems, we need a shift to focus on triple value healthcare, which will help healthcare professionals improve outcomes at the process, patient and population levels while also optimising resource utilisation. Here we present a brief history of the Quality and Evidence-based Healthcare model and then describe how value emerged as a predominant theme in England. We then highlight the four solutions that we, as part of the RightCare programme, designed and refined in the English NHS to turn theory into practice: We end with a description of how triple value is being introduced into Germany and steps that can be taken to facilitate its adoption. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Public invited to Appalachian Studies Film Series

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The Appalachian Studies Program at Virginia Tech is hosting a series of notable artistic and documentary films. The films deal with themes or issues covered in Appalachian Studies courses and are organized historically, touching upon issues common to all Appalachians.

  20. Self-reflection on personal values to support value-sensitive design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pommeranz, A.; Detweiler, C.A.; Wiggers, P.; Jonker, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of ubiquitous technology and social media on our lives is rapidly increasing. We explicitly need to consider personal values affected or violated by these systems. Value-sensitive design can guide a designer in building systems that account for human values. However, the framework lacks

  1. Exploring Students’ Reflections about Values inside the Implementation of Storied Lessons Based on Students’ Life Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castiblanco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article informs on students’ reflections about their life experiences and values based on the implementation of storied lessons compiled in a primer designed by the English teachers-researchers. Each storied lesson comes from some students’ life stories, the values promoted by the school such as respect, honesty, responsibility, and solidarity, and the English topic for each class in order to allow students to feel comfortable reflecting and giving opinions regarding the issues mentioned above.

  2. Values-Based Self-Reflective Action Research for Promoting Gender Equality: Some Unexpected Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    The idea of using values as a means of guiding our research decisions and judging the validity of our claims of knowledge is well established in literature on the self-reflective genre of action research. Values in action research should always result in virtuous behaviour--to promote the general social good. However, ideas of what constitutes the…

  3. Point Locations of 849 Continuous Record Streamflow Gages Used to Estmate Annual and Average Values of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  4. Can reflecting on personal values online increase positive beliefs about counseling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannin, Daniel G; Vogel, David L; Heath, Patrick J

    2017-04-01

    This research developed and tested an online values-affirmation exercise to attenuate threat and enhance positive beliefs about counseling among individuals struggling with mental health concerns. There is evidence that reflecting on personal values (values-affirmation) is an effective approach to eliciting self-affirmation-a psychological process that temporarily bolsters self-worth in order to forestall maladaptive, self-protective responses to counseling information. The present study utilized a randomized 2-group between-subjects design to test the effectiveness of a values-affirmation exercise with an online sample (N = 186) of adults who reported struggling with a mental health concern. It was predicted that values-affirmation would reduce threat related to reading mental health information and increase positive beliefs about counseling. Results indicated that those in the values-affirmation condition reported fewer negative emotions such as feeling upset, irritable, hostile, and scared after reading mental health information, indicating that the information was perceived as less threatening. There was also evidence that engaging in values-affirmation was associated with greater anticipated growth in counseling and greater intent to seek counseling, reflecting greater positive beliefs about counseling. Overall, the results suggest that reflecting on personal values may have the potential to enhance the positive effects of online psychoeducation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Social Values Reflected in "Batu Dara Muning" An Oral Literature of Dayak Keninjal Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martono Martono

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral literature has an important function in life because it can reflect people's lives and instil a sense of love for their own culture. Oral literature is a cultural heritage of the region passed down from generation to generation which is narrated from mouth to mouth and has a noble value. The noble value contained in oral literature reflects the local culture of the tribe. Certain noble values must be continuously preserved and implemented in the life of society and state. The noble value as a form of character education, such as social values. Therefore, positive social values must be maintained. The social values as many ancestral riches are also found in Dayak Keninjal oral literature titled Batu Dara Muning. The social value that can be found in oral literature entitled Batu Dara Muning is the value of a mother's love for a child, obedient to parents, forbidden marriage, obedience to customs. To analyze oral literature Batu Dara Muning used an approach of a sociology of literature. The reason literature is a mirror of the lives of the people who own the story. Stories or events expressed in oral literature are sourced from events in society with the narrator's imagination. The character used in oral literature is not the name of the character in his tribe, but the name made by the narrator.

  6. Attenuating initial beliefs: Increasing the acceptance of anthropogenic climate change information by reflecting on values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, A.M.; Sparks, P.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change information tends to be interpreted against the backdrop of initial environmental beliefs, which can lead to some people being resistant toward the information. In this article (N = 88), we examined whether self-affirmation via reflection on personally important values

  7. Social Values Reflections through the Use of EFL Storytelling: An Action Research with Primary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Combariza, Claudia Milena; Rodríguez Chapetón, María Ximena; Rojas Rincón, Vanessa Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the results of an action research project carried out with a group of third graders at a public school in Bogotá. The project aimed to gain insights into the use of English as foreign language storytelling and to analyze the way in which students reflect upon their own social values. The findings suggest that the use of…

  8. Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

  9. Core ethical values of radiological protection applied to Fukushima case: reflecting common morality and cultural diversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Chieko; Cho, Kunwoo; Toohey, Richard E

    2016-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established Task Group 94 (TG94) to develop a publication to clarify the ethical foundations of the radiological protection system it recommends. This TG identified four core ethical values which structure the system: beneficence and non-maleficence, prudence, justice, and dignity. Since the ICRP is an international organization, its recommendations and guidance should be globally applicable and acceptable. Therefore, first this paper presents the basic principles of the ICRP radiological protection system and its core ethical values, along with a reflection on the variation of these values in Western and Eastern cultural traditions. Secondly, this paper reflects upon how these values can be applied in difficult ethical dilemmas as in the case of the emergency and post-accident phases of a nuclear power plant accident, using the Fukushima case to illustrate the challenges at stake. We found that the core ethical values underlying the ICRP system of radiological protection seem to be quite common throughout the world, although there are some variations among various cultural contexts. Especially we found that 'prudence' would call for somewhat different implementation in each cultural context, balancing and integrating sometime conflicting values, but always with objectives to achieve the well-being of people, which is itself the ultimate aim of the radiological protection system.

  10. Characterization of major-ion chemistry and nutrients in headwater streams along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail and within adjacent watersheds, Maine to Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Denise M.; Pope, Jason P.; Dieffenbach, Fred

    2012-01-01

    An inventory of water-quality data on field parameters, major ions, and nutrients provided a summary of water quality in headwater (first- and second-order) streams within watersheds along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (Appalachian Trail). Data from 1,817 sampling sites in 831 catchments were used for the water-quality summary. Catchment delineations from NHDPlus were used as the fundamental geographic units for this project. Criteria used to evaluate sampling sites for inclusion were based on selected physical attributes of the catchments adjacent to the Appalachian Trail, including stream elevation, percentage of developed land cover, and percentage of agricultural land cover. The headwater streams of the Appalachian Trail are generally dilute waters, with low pH, low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and low concentrations of nutrients. The median pH value was slightly acidic at 6.7; the median specific conductance value was 23.6 microsiemens per centimeter, and the median ANC value was 98.7 milliequivalents per liter (μeq/L). Median concentrations of cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) were each less than 1.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and median concentrations of anions (bicarbonate, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate) were less than 10 mg/L. Differences in water-quality constituent levels along the Appalachian Trail may be related to elevation, atmospheric deposition, geology, and land cover. Spatial variations were summarized by ecological sections (ecosections) developed by the U.S. Forest Service. Specific conductance, pH, ANC, and concentrations of major ions (calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium, and sulfate) were all negatively correlated with elevation. The highest elevation ecosections (White Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, and Allegheny Mountains) had the lowest pH, ANC, and concentrations of major ions. The lowest elevation ecosections (Lower New England and Hudson Valley) generally had the highest pH, ANC, and

  11. Apparent diffusion coefficient value as a biomarker reflecting morphological and biological features of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyeyeol; Yoshida, Soichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ito, Eisaku; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Oya, Miyako; Nakayama, Takayuki; Takeshita, Hideki; Kijima, Toshiki; Ishioka, Junichiro; Numao, Noboru; Koga, Fumitaka; Saito, Kazutaka; Akashi, Takumi; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2014-03-01

    To assess whether there is an association between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the pathological characteristics of prostate cancer. The study cohort consisted of 29 consecutive patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. All patients underwent diffusion-weighted MRI before the prostate biopsy. In 42 tumor foci, the associations of the ADC values with the clinicopathological characteristics and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) were analyzed. High-grade cancers (Gleason score [GS] ≥ 4 + 3), larger cancers (maximum diameter (MD) ≥ 16 mm), and highly proliferating cancers (Ki-67 LI ≥ 4.43 %) had significantly lower ADC values, respectively (P value according to age, prostate-specific antigen, presence of extra-prostatic extension, and intra-tumoral stroma proportion. Multivariate analysis showed that GS, Ki-67 LI, and MD had independent and significant correlations with ADC value (P value to predict high-grade cancer foci are 81.8 and 93.5 %, respectively. A low ADC value reflects the morphological and biological features of prostate cancer. Analyzing the ADC value may make it possible to more precisely predict the cancer aggressiveness of each focus before treatment.

  12. Anhedonia reflects impairment in making relative value judgments between positive and neutral stimuli in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Visser, Katherine Frost; Keller, William R; Gold, James M; Buchanan, Robert W

    2018-02-27

    Anhedonia (i.e., diminished capacity to experience pleasure) has traditionally been viewed as a core symptom of schizophrenia (SZ). However, modern laboratory-based studies suggest that this definition may be incorrect, as hedonic capacity may be intact. Alternative conceptualizations have proposed that anhedonia may reflect an impairment in generating mental representations of affective value that are needed to guide decision-making and initiate motivated behavior. The current study evaluated this hypothesis in 42 outpatients with SZ and 19 healthy controls (CN) who completed two tasks: (a) an emotional experience task that required them to indicate how positive, negative, and calm/excited they felt in response to a single emotional or neutral photograph; (b) a relative value judgment task where they selected which of 2 photographs they preferred. Results indicated that SZ and CN reported similar levels of positive emotion and arousal in response to emotional and neutral stimuli; however, SZ reported higher negative affect for neutral and pleasant stimuli than CN. In the relative value judgment task, CN displayed clear preference for stimuli differing in valence; however, SZ showed less distinct preferences for positive over neutral stimuli. Findings suggest that although in-the-moment experiences of positive emotion to singular stimuli may be intact in SZ, the ability to make relative value judgments that are needed to guide decision-making is impaired. Original conceptualizations of anhedonia as a diminished capacity for pleasure in SZ may be inaccurate; anhedonia may more accurately reflect a deficit in relative value judgment that results from impaired value representation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seismological Constraints on Lithospheric Evolution in the Appalachian Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K. M.; Hopper, E.; Hawman, R. B.; Wagner, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Crust and mantle structures beneath the Appalachian orogen, recently resolved by seismic data from the EarthScope SESAME Flexible Array and Transportable Array, provide new constraints on the scale and style of the Appalachian collision and subsequent lithospheric evolution. In the southern Appalachians, imaging with Sp and Ps phases reveals the final (Alleghanian) suture between the crusts of Laurentia and the Gondwanan Suwannee terrane as a low angle (Kellogg, 2017) isostatic arguments indicate crustal thicknesses were 15-25 km larger at the end of the orogeny, indicating a thick crustal root across the region. The present-day residual crustal root beneath the Blue Ridge mountains is estimated to have a density contrast with the mantle of only 104±20 kg/m3. This value is comparable to other old orogens but lower than values typical of young or active orogens, indicating a loss of lower crustal buoyancy over time. At mantle depths, the negative shear velocity gradient that marks the transition from lithosphere to asthenosphere, as illuminated by Sp phases, varies across the Appalachian orogen. This boundary is shallow beneath the northeastern U.S. and in the zone of Eocene volcanism in Virginia, where low velocity anomalies occur in the upper mantle. These correlations suggest recent active lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction.

  14. Reflections on the added value of using mixed methods in the SCAPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kathy; Casey, Dympna; Devane, Declan; Meskell, Pauline; Higgins, Agnes; Elliot, Naomi; Lalor, Joan; Begley, Cecily

    2014-03-01

    To reflect on the added value that a mixed method design gave in a large national evaluation study of specialist and advanced practice (SCAPE), and to propose a reporting guide that could help make explicit the added value of mixed methods in other studies. Recently, researchers have focused on how to carry out mixed methods research (MMR) rigorously. The value-added claims for MMR include the capacity to exploit the strengths and compensate for weakness inherent in single designs, generate comprehensive description of phenomena, produce more convincing results for funders or policy-makers and build methodological expertise. Data illustrating value added claims were drawn from the SCAPE study. Studies about the purpose of mixed methods were identified from a search of literature. The authors explain why and how they undertook components of the study, and propose a guideline to facilitate such studies. If MMR is to become the third methodological paradigm, then articulation of what extra benefit MMR adds to a study is essential. The authors conclude that MMR has added value and found the guideline useful as a way of making value claims explicit. The clear articulation of the procedural aspects of mixed-methods research, and identification of a guideline to facilitate such research, will enable researchers to learn more effectively from each other.

  15. Automatic and improved radiometric correction of Landsat imagery using reference values from MODIS surface reflectance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, X.; Pesquer, L.; Cristóbal, J.; González-Guerrero, O.

    2014-12-01

    Radiometric correction is a prerequisite for generating high-quality scientific data, making it possible to discriminate between product artefacts and real changes in Earth processes as well as accurately produce land cover maps and detect changes. This work contributes to the automatic generation of surface reflectance products for Landsat satellite series. Surface reflectances are generated by a new approach developed from a previous simplified radiometric (atmospheric + topographic) correction model. The proposed model keeps the core of the old model (incidence angles and cast-shadows through a digital elevation model [DEM], Earth-Sun distance, etc.) and adds new characteristics to enhance and automatize ground reflectance retrieval. The new model includes the following new features: (1) A fitting model based on reference values from pseudoinvariant areas that have been automatically extracted from existing reflectance products (Terra MODIS MOD09GA) that were selected also automatically by applying quality criteria that include a geostatistical pattern model. This guarantees the consistency of the internal and external series, making it unnecessary to provide extra atmospheric data for the acquisition date and time, dark objects or dense vegetation. (2) A spatial model for atmospheric optical depth that uses detailed DEM and MODTRAN simulations. (3) It is designed so that large time-series of images can be processed automatically to produce consistent Landsat surface reflectance time-series. (4) The approach can handle most images, acquired now or in the past, regardless of the processing system, with the exception of those with extremely high cloud coverage. The new methodology has been successfully applied to a series of near 300 images of the same area including MSS, TM and ETM+ imagery as well as to different formats and processing systems (LPGS and NLAPS from the USGS; CEOS from ESA) for different degrees of cloud coverage (up to 60%) and SLC

  16. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  17. Do oxygen isotope values in collagen reflect the ecology and physiology of neotropical mammals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke eCrowley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope data provide insight into the foraging ecology of animals. Traditionally, carbon and nitrogen isotope values have been used to infer dietary and habitat preferences. Oxygen isotopes are used less frequently but may complement the ecological information provided by carbon and nitrogen, particularly in densely forested or arid environments. Additionally, because oxygen is preserved in both bioapatite and collagen, it is useful for paleoecological studies. To investigate the suitability of oxygen isotopes for complementing and building on ecological applications of carbon and nitrogen isotopes, we analyze all three isotopes in bone collagen for nearly identical assemblages of Costa Rican mammals in two ecologically distinct habitats - a evergreen rainforest and a seasonal dry forest. We assess the degree to which differences in habitat, activity pattern, diet, arboreality, and thermoregulation are revealed by each of the isotope systems. Our results highlight the potential of oxygen isotopes in modern and paleoecological contexts. In addition to reflecting habitat type, oxygen isotope values in collagen distinguish species on the basis of vertical habitat stratification and drinking behavior. Within a locality, individuals with low oxygen isotope values likely track meteoric water, whereas those with elevated values most likely consume evaporatively-enriched plant tissues, such as canopy leaves. These patterns will be useful in reconstructing paleoenvironments and interpreting ecological differences among taxa both extant and extinct.

  18. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  19. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  20. Thermal maturity of northern Appalachian Basin Devonian shales: Insights from sterane and terpane biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Alimi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    To better estimate thermal maturity of Devonian shales in the northern Appalachian Basin, eleven samples of Marcellus and Huron Shale were characterized via multiple analytical techniques. Vitrinite reflectance, Rock–Eval pyrolysis, gas chromatography (GC) of whole rock extracts, and GC–mass spectrometry (GCMS) of extract saturate fractions were evaluated on three transects that lie across previously documented regional thermal maturity isolines. Results from vitrinite reflectance suggest that most samples are immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. However, bulk geochemical data and sterane and terpane biomarker ratios from GCMS suggest that almost all samples are in the oil window. This observation is consistent with the presence of thermogenic gas in the study area and higher vitrinite reflectance values recorded from overlying Pennsylvanian coals. These results suggest that vitrinite reflectance is a poor predictor of thermal maturity in early mature areas of Devonian shale, perhaps because reported measurements often include determinations of solid bitumen reflectance. Vitrinite reflectance interpretations in areas of early mature Devonian shale should be supplanted by evaluation of thermal maturity information from biomarker ratios and bulk geochemical data.

  1. [Health and humanization Diploma: the value of reflection and face to face learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gutiérrez, Javiera; Magliozzi, Pietro; Torres, Patricio; Soto, Mauricio; Walker, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    In a rapidly changing culture like ours, with emphasis on productivity, there is a strong need to find the meaning of health care work using learning instances that privilege reflection and face to face contact with others. The Diploma in Health and Humanization (DSH), was developed as an interdisciplinary space for training on issues related to humanization. To analyze the experience of DSH aiming to identify the elements that students considered key factors for the success of the program. We conducted a focus group with DSH graduates, identifying factors associated with satisfaction. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two independent reviewers. DSH graduates valued a safe space, personal interaction, dialogue and respect as learning tools of the DSH. They also appreciates the opportunity to have emotional interactions among students and between them and the teacher as well as the opportunity to share personal stories and their own search for meaning. DSH is a learning experience in which their graduates value the ability to think about their vocation and the affective interaction with peers and teachers. We hope to contribute to the development of face to face courses in the area of humanization. Face to face methodology is an excellent teaching technique for contents related to the meaning of work, and more specifically, to a group of learners that require affective communication and a personal connection of their work with their own values and beliefs.

  2. The Case of Value Based Communication—Epistemological and Methodological Reflections from a System Theoretical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria von Groddeck

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reflect the epistemological and methodological aspects of an empirical research study which analyzes the phenomenon of increased value communication within business organizations from a system theoretical perspective in the tradition of Niklas LUHMANN. Drawing on the theoretical term of observation it shows how a research perspective can be developed which opens up the scope for an empirical analysis of communication practices. This analysis focuses on the reconstruction of these practices by first understanding how these practices stabilize themselves and second by contrasting different practices to educe an understanding of different forms of observation of the relevant phenomenon and of the functions of these forms. Thus, this approach combines system theoretical epistemology, analytical research strategies, such as form and functional analysis, and qualitative research methods, such as narrative interviews, participant observation and document analysis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003177

  3. Attenuating initial beliefs: increasing the acceptance of anthropogenic climate change information by reflecting on values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Anne-Marie; Sparks, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic climate change information tends to be interpreted against the backdrop of initial environmental beliefs, which can lead to some people being resistant toward the information. In this article (N = 88), we examined whether self-affirmation via reflection on personally important values could attenuate the impact of initial beliefs on the acceptance of anthropogenic climate change evidence. Our findings showed that initial beliefs about the human impact on ecological stability influenced the acceptance of information only among nonaffirmed participants. Self-affirmed participants who were initially resistant toward the information showed stronger beliefs in the existence of climate change risks and greater acknowledgment that individual efficacy has a role to play in reducing climate change risks than did their nonaffirmed counterparts. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Suitability of faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) predictions for estimating gross calorific value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Roza-Delgado, B.; Modroño, S.; Vicente, F.; Martínez-Fernández, A.; Soldado, A.

    2015-07-01

    A total of 220 faecal pig and poultry samples, collected from different experimental trials were employed with the aim to demonstrate the suitability of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) technology for estimation of gross calorific value on faeces as output products in energy balances studies. NIR spectra from dried and grounded faeces samples were analyzed using a Foss NIRSystem 6500 instrument, scanning over the wavelength range 400-2500 nm. Validation studies for quantitative analytical models were carried out to estimate the relevance of method performance associated to reference values to obtain an appropriate, accuracy and precision. The results for prediction of gross calorific value (GCV) of NIRS calibrations obtained for individual species showed high correlation coefficients comparing chemical analysis and NIRS predictions, ranged from 0.92 to 0.97 for poultry and pig. For external validation, the ratio between the standard error of cross validation (SECV) and the standard error of prediction (SEP) varied between 0.73 and 0.86 for poultry and pig respectively, indicating a sufficiently precision of calibrations. In addition a global model to estimate GCV in both species was developed and externally validated. It showed correlation coefficients of 0.99 for calibration, 0.98 for cross-validation and 0.97 for external validation. Finally, relative uncertainty was calculated for NIRS developed prediction models with the final value when applying individual NIRS species model of 1.3% and 1.5% for NIRS global prediction. This study suggests that NIRS is a suitable and accurate method for the determination of GCV in faeces, decreasing cost, timeless and for convenient handling of unpleasant samples.. (Author)

  5. Do Child-Rearing Values in Taiwan and the United States Reflect Cultural Values of Collectivism and Individualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyuan; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.

    2003-01-01

    Interviewed mothers of young children from Taiwanese and U.S. cities regarding their child rearing values. Mothers in both societies embraced both individualist and collectivist values, which could be grouped into five categories: individuality, achievement, proper demeanor, decency, and connectedness. U.S. mothers' values were somewhat consistent…

  6. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-01-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  7. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  8. Chapter 1: The Appalachian regional reforestation initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Angel; Vic Davis; Jim Burger; Don Graves; Carl. Zipper

    2017-01-01

    The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) is a cooperative effort by the States of the Appalachian region with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) to encourage restoration of high-quality forests on reclaimed coal mines in the eastern United States. The goals of ARRI are to communicate...

  9. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1982 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    Fiscal year 1982 was transitional for the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), as it was the last year of the broad economic development program and a year of reduced funding and new limits on programs. In 1981, Congress had requested that ARC prepare a plan for completion of the Appalachian highway system and for a 3 to 5 year ARC finish-up…

  10. The value of reflective journaling in undergraduate nursing education: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Sheila

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to ascertain the evidence for the use of reflective journaling as a tool to promote the pedagogical strategy of reflection for the purpose of learning from practice for practice in undergraduate nursing education. Concept-centric. The literature review involved structured searches of all OVID gateway databases, EBSCO host databases, and Blackwell Synergy. Qualitative and Quantitative Studies from 1992 to 2006 were included if they focused on reflective journaling in undergraduate clinical education. Due to the vast plethora of literature on reflection, keywords were utilized to focus the search. Approximately 150 abstracts were reviewed for primary sources of research. A total of nine studies met the inclusion criteria. The review subsequently divided the literature into four content themes allowing for appraisal and analysis of the findings, followed by summary and key recommendations for nursing education and research. There was evidence that educators struggle to incorporate reflective processes into education; however, the research provided rationale and support for engaging undergraduate students in the reflective process. Researchers found reasonable levels of reflection in undergraduate students' journaling and educators reported students' learning as a result of reflective journaling. Further to this, there was evidence that writing reflectively improved over time; a learned skill also dependent on a good facilitator and trust. Unfortunately, there was a paucity of research that explored the undergraduate nurses' experiences with the process of having to create written communication, with a critical reflective focus on practice. Nursing educators are correct in pursuing the teaching and learning of the reflective process in undergraduate nursing education. Nurse educators need to utilize various tools and strategies for facilitating the growth of undergraduate students into reflective practitioners. Indeed there was

  11. Examining value creation in a community of learning practice: Methodological reflections on story-telling and story-reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filitsa Dingyloudi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant research on communities in various shapes and settings, examination of what community members gained from their participation remains a thorny issue. For this purpose, we adopted and refined the value creation framework developed by Wenger, Trayner and De Laat (2011 to divulge experienced values by community members through “scaffolded narratives” and categorization of the values reported through their stories. However, in doing so two methodological issues emerged – in particular in relation to “values”. This paper reports on our methodological reflection on the challenging process of capturing community members’ value creation within a community of learning practice. More specifically, we reflect on the following questions: (1 To what extent can the values that the participants originally intended to report be identified as such by the researchers/analysts’ without bias due to the researchers/analysts’ own perspectives? and (2 To what extent does a theoretically-driven pre-defined typology of values confine or enrich the range of possible values that can be identified? What adds to this challenging research endeavour is the concept of value in theoretical terms and its associated typologies. Hence, these methodological questions need to be discussed in order to comprehend both the phenomenon of value (creation per se as well as how it is examined – as close to the participants’ reality as possible – since value creation is the driving force for the sustainability of a community.

  12. Elicitation of situated values : Need for tools to help stakeholders and designers to reflect and communicate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pommeranz, A.; Detweiler, C.; Wiggers, P.; Jonker, C.

    2012-01-01

    Explicitly considering human values in the design process of socio-technical systems has become a responsibility of designers. It is, however, challenging to design for values because (1) relevant values must be identified and communicated between all stakeholders and designers and (2) stakeholders’

  13. Phraseology as a means of moral values of Russian national personality reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko E. G.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article deals with the peculiarities of linguistic personality; examines the ideographic groups of phraseological units, an integral semantics of which reflects the most important semantic dominants of the concept of Russian national personality; restores on the basis of phraseology of the moral sphere of human the positive type (portrait of Russian national personality.

  14. For Our Patients, for Ourselves: The Value of Personal Reflection in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Lidia; Meisel, Jane Lowe; Srivastava, Ranjana

    2017-01-01

    Caring for patients with cancer is a great privilege as well as an emotionally and intellectually challenging task. Stress and burnout are prevalent among oncology clinicians, with serious repercussions for the care of patients. Professional societies must provide guidance for trainees and practicing physicians to mitigate the negative consequences of stress on their personal lives and medical practice. Reflection, reading, and writing about personal experiences provide outlets for fortifying personal reserves and promoting resilience to allow us to recognize the joy and meaning of our work and to forge connections with our peers. Herein, we present some of our own reflections on how and why one might take time to write, and about the power of the written word in oncology and medicine.

  15. Peers, stereotypes and health communication through the cultural lens of adolescent Appalachian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Elizabeth; Miller, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how young Appalachian mothers retrospectively construct sexual and reproductive health communication events. Sixteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with mothers between the ages of 18 and 22 from the South Central Appalachian region of the USA. Findings indicate that within this population, peer influence, stereotypes medical encounters and formal health education are experienced within a culture that exhibits tension between normalising and disparaging adolescent sexuality. Theoretical and applied implications acknowledge the role of Appalachian cultural values, including egalitarianism, traditional gender roles and fatalism, in understanding the social construction of young people's sexuality in this region. Practical implications for sexual education and the nature of communication in the healthcare setting can be applied to current education curricula and medical communication practices. We suggest that future programmes may be more effective if they are adapted to the specific culture within which they are taught.

  16. The Value of a Brief Thought for the Day Reflection on an Academic Consult Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Thomas; Lyndale, Patricia; Szakatis, Kathryn; Fitzgerald, Tom

    2017-11-01

    Work in hospice and palliative medicine can be stressful. A variety of methods have been used to mitigate workplace stress including mindfulness mediation, reflective writing, and physical activity. An intervention implemented at our institution is a "Thought for the Day," a short reflection on a piece of poetry, music, or religious writing. Although this practice may be commonplace in the field of hospice and palliative medicine, no literature has been published about its perceived utility by team members with various competing demands on their time. This study's objective was to obtain a better understanding about the perception and utility of a Thought for the Day held by clinicians rounding on an academic palliative medicine consult service. A survey, containing qualitative and quantitative elements was sent to faculty, staff, and learners who participated in a Thought for the Day over the 18 months between March 2013 and October 2014. Twenty-eight responses were returned and analyzed. Most participants (23 of the 28) felt that the Thought for the Day was an important use of their time on the academic consult service. Differences were seen by gender and team role. Additionally, it was reported that the Thought for the Day improved the participants' perception of teamwork. The use of a Thought for the Day reflection may be beneficial and constructive even for a busy academic consult service.

  17. Reflections on Values, Vision, and Vitality: Perspectives for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleazer, Jr., Edmund J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the reassessment of values for community college development, based upon a recent Community College Futures Assembly. Affirms five fundamental values that have guided in the past and can serve well in future decision-making: (1) People; (2) Learning; (3) Connections; (4) Opportunity; and (5) Better lives. (VWC)

  18. Personal Values and Mission Statement: A Reflective Activity to Aid Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird-Magee, Tyler; Gayle, Barbra Mae; Preiss, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Personal values guide ethical decision-making behaviors. Business professors have traditionally addressed undergraduate ethics-based learning through a learn ethics approach using case studies, simulations, presentations, and other activities. Few offer a live ethics orientation requiring completion of a personal values self-assessment and…

  19. Scaffolding Peer Collaboration through Values Education: Social and Reflective Practices from a Primary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcom, Veronica E.

    2016-01-01

    Peers create one of the most significant contexts for developing prosocial values. This paper reports on a yearlong study of thirty one year 4/5 students where antisocial values were deep-seated. The aim of this qualitative research was to examine how to reduce antisocial behaviour and promote peer collaboration. The notion of whole-class…

  20. Communication as a Reflection of and a Source for Values in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David H.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the institution of health from the communication perspective. Discusses the new emphasis on preventing illness through individuals'"proper" behavior. Advocates a communication-based approach to values in health care: a person-centered value base including both reason and emotion, contrary to the principle-based, rational mode of…

  1. How do medical specialists value their own intercultural communication behaviour? A reflective practice study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternotte, E; Scheele, F; van Rossum, T R; Seeleman, M C; Scherpbier, A J J A; van Dulmen, A M

    2016-08-24

    Intercultural communication behaviour of doctors with patients requires specific intercultural communication skills, which do not seem structurally implemented in medical education. It is unclear what motivates doctors to apply intercultural communication skills. We investigated how purposefully medical specialists think they practise intercultural communication and how they reflect on their own communication behaviour. Using reflective practice, 17 medical specialists independently watched two fragments of videotapes of their own outpatient consultations: one with a native patient and one with a non-native patient. They were asked to reflect on their own communication and on challenges they experience in intercultural communication. The interviews were open coded and analysed using thematic network analysis. The participants experienced only little differences in their communication with native and non-native patients. They mainly mentioned generic communication skills, such as listening and checking if the patient understood. Many participants experienced their communication with non-native patients positively. The participants mentioned critical incidences of intercultural communication: language barriers, cultural differences, the presence of an interpreter, the role of the family and the atmosphere. Despite extensive experience in intercultural communication, the participants of this study noticed hardly any differences between their own communication behaviour with native and non-native patients. This could mean that they are unaware that consultations with non-native patients might cause them to communicate differently than with native patients. The reason for this could be that medical specialists lack the skills to reflect on the process of the communication. The participants focused on their generic communication skills rather than on specific intercultural communication skills, which could either indicate their lack of awareness, or demonstrate that

  2. Functional connectivity with ventromedial prefrontal cortex reflects subjective value for social rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David V; Clithero, John A; Boltuck, Sarah E; Huettel, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    According to many studies, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) encodes the subjective value of disparate rewards on a common scale. Yet, a host of other reward factors-likely represented outside of VMPFC-must be integrated to construct such signals for valuation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested whether the interactions between posterior VMPFC and functionally connected brain regions predict subjective value. During fMRI scanning, participants rated the attractiveness of unfamiliar faces. We found that activation in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior VMPFC and caudate increased with higher attractiveness ratings. Using data from a post-scan task in which participants spent money to view attractive faces, we quantified each individual's subjective value for attractiveness. We found that connectivity between posterior VMPFC and regions frequently modulated by social information-including the temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) and middle temporal gyrus-was correlated with individual differences in subjective value. Crucially, these additional regions explained unique variation in subjective value beyond that extracted from value regions alone. These findings indicate not only that posterior VMPFC interacts with additional brain regions during valuation, but also that these additional regions carry information employed to construct the subjective value for social reward. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. REFLECTING OF VALUE POLICY OF INTERETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE US MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Frolova; O. Y. Posukhova; A. V. Serikov

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the specifics of the US value policy in the sphere of interethnic and interracial relations. On the bases of the analysis of publications in the US media authors identify key trends and ideological constructs in building and settlement of interethnic relations. It is noted that the emerging trend is the promotion of the idea of erasing the boundaries between ethnic identities. The authors show that American society is in the process of value and ideological social and c...

  4. "Personal mission statement": An analysis of medical students' and general practitioners' reflections on personal beliefs, values and goals in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, B H; Lee, P Y; Ismail, I Z

    2014-01-01

    Personal mission in life can determine the motivation, happiness, career advancement and fulfilment in life of the medical students (MSs) along with improvement in professional/clinical performance of the family physicians. This study explored the personal beliefs, values and goals in the lives of MSs and general practitioners (GPs). Fourth-year MSs at the Universiti Putra Malaysia and GPs who participated in a 2-hour session on 'Ethics in Family Medicine' in 2012 were invited. All the participants submitted the post-session written reflections about their personal missions in life. The written reflections were analysed using thematic analysis. A total of 87 MSs and 31 GPs submitted their written reflections. The authors identified 17 categories from the reflections contained by four themes-good vs. smart doctor, professional improvement vs. self-improvement, self-fulfilment and expressed motivation. The most common categories were "to be a good doctor" (97/330) and "professional improvement" (65/330). Many MSs had expressed motivation and wanted to be a smart doctor as compared to the GPs, whereas a larger number of GPs wished to have a fulfilled life and be a good doctor through professional improvement. The difference between the two student groups might indicate different levels of maturity and life experiences. Medical teachers should engage students more effectively in orientating them towards the essential values needed in medical practice.

  5. Learning to care: medical students’ reported value and evaluation of palliative care teaching involving meeting patients and reflective writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Borgstrom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over recent years there has been an increase in teaching of both palliative care and reflective practice in UK medical schools. The palliative care teaching at the University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine is multi-faceted and involves students writing reflective essays after individually meeting patients approaching the end of life during their final year general practice and hospital medicine placements. This paper draws on two studies examining this teaching element to analyse what the students found valuable about it and to comment on the practice of meeting patients and subsequent reflective writing. Methods Two studies have explored students’ perceptions of these course components. The first was a thematic analysis of 234 reflective essays from 123 students written in 2007-2008, including examining what students wrote about the exercise itself. The second project involved a semi-structured questionnaire that students completed anonymously; this paper reports on the free text elements of that study [sample size =107]. Since similar themes were found in both studies, the coding structures from each project were compared and combined, enabling triangulation of the findings around what the students found valuable from the palliative care teaching involving meeting patients and reflective writing. Results Overall, students reported that these components of the palliative care teaching are valuable. Four main themes were identified as aspects that students valued: (1 dedicated time with patients, (2 learning about wider elements of treatment and holistic care, (3 practicing communication skills, and (4 learning about themselves through reflective writing. Some students expressed a dislike for having to formally write a reflective essay. Conclusion It is possible to arrange for all of the medical students to individually meet at least two patients receiving palliative or end of life care. Students found these

  6. Dynamics of Russian business culture values in the reflection of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Sverdlikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses practices of “Traditions and values of Russian business culture” course teaching at Lomonosov Moscow State University’s Faculty of Sociology. The experience allows drawing methodological and theoretical conclusions on the values of business culture which underlie models of the modern business behavior. The first part of the publication concerns analysis of tradition of studying Russian culture values, in the paradigm of which the Russian business culture exists. According to the findings, traditions are enrooted in the Orthodoxy and are determined by patrimonial memories and contradictions of the Russian people’s character, ideals and spiritual framework. A system of Russian business values is developed based on the traditions as well as literary heritage, biographies of famous Russian and Soviet economists and set of rules of ethics code of the pre-revolutionary Russian business class. The main elements of the system include the following values: faith, family, commitment to business, patriotism, natural ingenuity, ability to set and solve atask of extra complexity, original forms of labor organization, and prevalence of moral motivation forms over material ones. The second part of the article deals with succession of the above-mentioned values in the modern Russian business environment. The content analysis is applied to examine the continuity. The object of the research is the text corpus of the Russian business press. The findings of the research show dynamics of the Russian mass media attention to the business culture values for the period from 2010 to 2014. The mass media interest to the issue coverage has been on the constant rise: from 37,2% of the aggregate amount of information on the Russian business in 2012 to 39,8% in 2014. There have also been examined dynamics of mass media attention to certain business culture values. The mass media assignedtop priority in 2012, 2013 and 2014 to the following values

  7. Engineering Ethics Education Having Reflected Various Values and a Global Code of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemitsu, Hidekazu

    At the present day, a movement trying to establish a global code of ethics for science and engineering is in activity. The author overviews the context of this movement, and examines the possibility of engineering ethics education which uses global code of ethics. In this paper, the engineering ethics education which uses code of ethics in general will be considered, and an expected function of global code of ethics will be also. Engineering ethics education in the new century should be aimed to share the values among different countries and cultures. To use global code of ethics as a tool for such education, the code should include various values, especially Asian values which engineering ethics has paid little attention to.

  8. A Brief Talk on American Cultural Values: Reflected on the Movie the Pursuit of Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmy Temmy

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available America as one of world’s biggest developed countries has a very strong influence on global economy, politics, education, science, and military. America is also one of teaching Chinese as a foreign language destinations, therefore understanding American cultural values is very important. Article represents American cultural values based on a true story movie "The pursuit of Happiness". Research method applied was library research. It can be concluded that the characters, setting, and conflicts really presented the characteristics of American society.  

  9. Geometrid moth assemblages reflect high conservation value of naturally regenerated secondary forests in temperate China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The widespread destruction of mature forests in China has led to massive ecological degradation, counteracted in recent decades by substantial efforts to promote forest plantations and protect secondary forest ecosystems. The value of the resulting forests for biodiversity conservation is widely

  10. Fast and simultaneous prediction of animal feed nutritive values using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi; Wajizah, S.; Munawar, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Feed plays an important factor in animal production. The purpose of this study is to apply NIRS method in determining feed values. NIRS spectra data were acquired for feed samples in wavelength range of 1000 - 2500 nm with 32 scans and 0.2 nm wavelength. Spectral data were corrected by de-trending (DT) and standard normal variate (SNV) methods. Prediction of in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) were established as model by using principal component regression (PCR) and validated using leave one out cross validation (LOOCV). Prediction performance was quantified using coefficient correlation (r) and residual predictive deviation (RPD) index. The results showed that IVDMD and IVOMD can be predicted by using SNV spectra data with r and RPD index: 0.93 and 2.78 for IVDMD ; 0.90 and 2.35 for IVOMD respectively. In conclusion, NIRS technique appears feasible to predict animal feed nutritive values.

  11. Reflections on how to evaluate the professional value of scientific papers and their corresponding citations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, J.; Mareš, Jiří J.; Šesták, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2017), s. 697-709 ISSN 0138-9130 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : professional value * citation response * quantity versus quality * impact factor * databases Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 2.147, year: 2016

  12. The Value of Clinical Jazz: Teaching Critical Reflection on, in, and Toward Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapulla, Sharon; Longenecker, Randall; Beverly, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Clinical Jazz is a small-group strategy in medical education designed to develop interpersonal skills and improve doctor-patient and interprofessional relationships. The purpose of this study was to explore medical students' and faculty facilitators' perceived value of Clinical Jazz. We conducted a modified Nominal Group Process with participating medical students (n=21), faculty facilitators (n=5), and research team members (n=3). Students and faculty facilitators independently answered the question, "What do you value about Clinical Jazz?" We then conducted content and thematic analyses on the resulting data. Three themes emerged during analysis: (1) students and faculty appreciated the opportunity to learn and practice a thoughtful and structured process for problem solving, (2) students and faculty valued the safety of the group process in sharing a diversity of perspectives on topics in medicine, and (3) students and faculty acknowledged the importance of addressing real and challenging problems that are rarely addressed in formal lectures and other planned small-group settings. Clinical Jazz provides students and faculty with the opportunity to address the hidden and/or informal curriculum in medical education, while providing a safe space and time to solve important clinical and interprofessional problems.

  13. Paediatric renal length measurements from ultrasound and DMSA scans: does clinical practice reflect theoretical normal values?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.; Hassan, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Renal length measurement is a routine part of ultrasound examination in children and those results are plotted on a normogram style graph, so that each child's results are compared to a normal range (mean ± 2 S.D.). Renal length measurements from the posterior oblique views of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans in our department have not always correlated well with the ultrasound measurements on the same patients. Renal lengths from the DMSA scans of 120 patients with apparently normal kidneys were recorded and used to generate a normogram of renal length at different ages (0.5-7 years). This DMSA normogram was compared to the ultrasound (US) normogram used in the Paediatric Radiology Department, and it showed slight differences in renal lengths (3-8 mm), but that the US normogram had smaller coefficients of variation (US = 6.6%, NM 8.3%), implying a 'tighter' normal range. 39 of these patients had DMSA and ultrasound measurements of renal length within 3 months, and these were studied first by calculating the mean and CV values for different age groups, and then by plotting individual renal lengths on the appropriate normograms. The measured data produced much greater variability in the ultrasound measurements than the DTPA measurements, and the individual points produced 4/78 (5.1%) abnormal results for DMSA, but 21/78 (26.9%) abnormal results for ultrasound. Thus, in routine clinical use, using patients with apparently normal kidneys, ultrasound was unable to match the 'normal range' set by their current normogram, but the nuclear medicine showed 5.1% of values outside the normal (DMSA) range, which was completely appropriate for a range of ± 2 standard deviations

  14. Site quality in Appalachian hardwoods: the biological and economic response under selection silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris D. McCauley; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1975-01-01

    The relative or percentage value response after 12 years of selective cutting practices on low- and high-quality sites in Appalachian hardwoods amounted to a 119-percent increase on the low-quality site and 145 percent on the high-quality site. The absolute value or actual dollar response, on the other hand, showed that the low-quality site increased in value only $76/...

  15. Reflections on self in relation to other: core community values of a moral/ethical foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, William

    2014-01-01

    One of the first steps toward reaffirming the core community values of nursing as we see, feel, hear, and acknowledge them is the awareness of a moral/ethical foundation that preserves, promotes, and protects human dignity. This foundation serves as a starting point and evolutionary path for education, research, and practice (Watson, 2008). Nursing-specific malignancies of compassion fatigue, burnout, moral distress, and nurse-to-nurse bullying can metastasize throughout nursing communities in which caring environments are not nourished as priorities and starting points for being, doing, knowing, and belonging. An understanding that we all participate in holographic membership results in an ethical display of moral empathy, so that the complexities of nursing can be articulated and validated in safe environments. In addition, preparing for our deaths in a way that celebrates and honors life may potentially lead to peaceful relationships with self, other, and the community as a whole. The nature of such a community implies that nurses are invested in ensuring the integrity of the human experience, will serve as advocates of ethical/moral engagement, and are the embodiment of the sacred, if we so choose to honor it.

  16. National cultural values: reflections on the formation process of future leaders in international economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA NIKOLIC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards foreign investments in Serbia has been in rapid progress in recent years. The biggest and most valuable numbers of investments are coming from Italy. The authors’ expectation is that the trend of Italian investments in future will continue; therefore it is of high importance for the representatives of both countries’ business sectors to understand and accept differences and similarities to the other country’s business culture. Research of cultural differences between two nations , which are considered like a frame of business culture, helps avoiding possible misunderstandings and improving business cooperation between two countries. Having in mind students of economics and management, on one hand like future leaders of Italian and Serbian business and on other like representatives of the current education value system in the field of economics and management, this study consists of an application of the 7-D Hofstede Model. The application of the model takes place through the administration of two surveys done by students of Serbian Megatrend University, in Belgrade, and Italian Università degli Studi Gabriele d’Annunzio, in Pescara.

  17. Carbon Stable Isotope Values in Plankton and Mussels Reflect Changes in Carbonate Chemistry Associated with Nutrient Enhanced Net Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn Oczkowski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are inherently complex and potentially adaptive as they respond to changes in nutrient loads and climate. We documented the role that carbon stable isotope (δ13C measurements could play in understanding that adaptation with a series of three Ecostat (i.e., continuous culture experiments. We quantified linkages among δ13C, nutrients, carbonate chemistry, primary, and secondary production in temperate estuarine waters. Experimental culture vessels (9.1 L containing 33% whole and 67% filtered (0.2 μm seawater were amended with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N and phosphorous (P in low (3 vessels; 5 μM N, 0.3 μM P, moderate (3 vessels; 25 μM N, 1.6 μM P, and high amounts (3 vessels; 50 μM N, 3.1 μM P. The parameters necessary to calculate carbonate chemistry, chlorophyll-a concentrations, and particulate δ13C values were measured throughout the 14 day experiments. Outflow lines from the experimental vessels fed 250 ml containers seeded with juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis. Mussel subsamples were harvested on days 0, 7, and 14 and their tissues were analyzed for δ13C values. We consistently observed that particulate δ13C values were positively correlated with chlorophyll-a, carbonate chemistry, and to changes in the ratio of bicarbonate to dissolved carbon dioxide (HCO3-:CO2. While the relative proportion of HCO3- to CO2 increased over the 14 days, concentrations of each declined, reflecting the drawdown of carbon associated with enhanced production. Plankton δ13C values, like chlorophyll-a concentrations, increased over the course of each experiment, with the greatest increases in the moderate and high treatments. Trends in δ13C over time were also observed in the mussel tissues. Despite ecological variability and different plankton abundances the experiments consistently demonstrated how δ13C values in primary producers and consumers reflected nutrient availability, via its impact on carbonate chemistry. We

  18. Competition, Values and the Rhythm of Life: Some Reflections on Antiphon, Thucydides and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games had more than a gymnastic significance in ancient Greece, as is best attested by Pindar’s odes. The modern interpretation of Greek culture was first introduced to the notion of the ajgwvn and the concept of the agonistic or competitive, “das Agonale”, by J. Burckhardt. Nietzsche elaborated it further, perceiving the phenomenon of competition as the origin of the fundamental Greek values, especially of justice and truth, and as the prerequisite for any fair evaluation. In Antiphon, the idea of competition runs both through his forensic speeches and philosophical writings. His Tetralogies in particular reveal the competitive dynamics of judicial trials. A judicial procedure is a competition, ajgwnivzesqai, between the truth of facts and the truth of words, which may result in an unjust verdict. In that case injustice has prevailed over justice and truth. What is thus at stake is the truth of facts, ajlhv/qeia tw`n pragmavtwn. Antiphon uses the Olympic and Pythian competitions to elucidate the important decisions and activities in human life, such as education, marriage, and the pursuit of happiness in general. Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War provides not only a description of the historical facts but also their evaluation. The development of military events, which is a competition of actions, ajgw;n e[rgwn, is elucidated by speeches, which frequently occur in antithetic pairs as antilogies, ajgw;n lovgwn. Political competition, however, is not limited to foreign policy but can be seen in the Athenian home politics as well. According to Alcibiades, the Athenian polis could only retain its supremacy through incessant competition, ajgwnizomevnhn aijei;. Nor does Thucydides neglect the Panhellenic significance of the Olympic festival. Aristotle's philosophy, on the other hand, appears to distance itself from competition, being based on rJa/stwvnh, "easiness", and diagwgh, “pastime”. None the less, the

  19. Is fair value currently in compliance with the principle of true and real reflection in the Czech accounting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Information value of data provided by the accounting is in significant extent dependent on the method of valuation used in accounting of individual economic operations especially on the method of valuation of individual items in the financial statements. Financial expression of the individual value of assets and liabilities of the company (including the balance sheet of the company, as well as the amount of equity, depend just on specific method of valuation of assets and liabilities that each entity used in the accounting system. This fact has also a crucial influence on the overall level of financial analysis since mostly aggregated data in the appropriate valuation gained from various parts of the financial statements are the input data for financial analysis.Certain items of assets and liabilities are valued at fair value at the balance sheet day in the Czech accounting in compliance with the global developments. The concept of fair value in Czech accounting is regulated by Czech Accounting Act in § 27 paragraph 4 and 5. The Czech regulation of the concept of the fair value is based on its detailed definition of the IAS / IFRS, including cases of practical use.The aim of this paper is to answer the question whether currently the fair value in the Czech accounting reflects the reality, based on definition of its content in accordance with applicable legal regulation. Partial aim is to identify specific cases of its application in the accounting of various types of business entities in the Czech Republic in existing practice. The paper also identifies methodological procedure of recording changes resulting from the valuation or revaluation of various types of assets at fair value, including their impacts on the financial statements. An integral part of the paper is the perspective of IAS / IFRS on fair value in accounting, so the definition of the fair value and also there is historical development of valuation of assets according to IAS

  20. Examining substance use among rural Appalachian and urban non-Appalachian individuals participating in drug court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Lisa M; Perkins, Elizabeth B; Neal, Connie

    2014-02-01

    The study purpose was to examine differences in substance use among individuals in drug court (N = 583) in rural Appalachian (n = 301) and urban non-Appalachian areas (n = 282). A series of logistic regression analyses suggested individuals in the rural Appalachian area were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of cocaine, illicit opiates, and illicit benzodiazepines, but they were less likely to report methamphetamine use when compared with individuals in the urban non-Appalachian area. Regarding past 30-day use, a series of logistic regression analyses suggested individuals in the rural Appalachian area were significantly more likely to use marijuana, illicit opiates, and illicit benzodiazepines, but they were less likely to report crack cocaine use when compared with individuals in the urban non-Appalachian area. Identifying differences which exist in substance use is the first step in generating evidence-based structural changes in treatment drug court programs. Future research should focus on better understanding context in terms of demographic, geographic, and economic conditions, which may be of critical influence on substance use and treatment planning.

  1. Appalachian National Scenic Trail pilot survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Zarnoch; Michael Bowker; Ken Cordell; Matt Owens; Gary T. Green; Allison Ginn

    2011-01-01

    Visitation statistics on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) are important for management and Federal Government reporting purposes. However, no survey methodology has been developed to obtain accurate trailwide estimates over linear trails that traverse many hundreds of back-country miles. This research develops a stratified random survey design which utilizes...

  2. Synthetic rope applications in Appalachian logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben D. Spong; Jingxin Wang

    2008-01-01

    New ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene rope has shown good results as a replacement for wire rope in logging applications in the western United States. A single case study trial was performed in Appalachian forest conditions to assess the appropriateness of this technology for hardwood logging applications. The study focused on use of the rope in West Virginia...

  3. Conserving the Appalachian medicinal plant industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2006-01-01

    An industry based on plants that flourish in the mountains of Appalachia is at a critical crossroads. The medicinal plant industry has relied on the conservation of Appalachian forest resources for more than 300 years. There is growing and widespread concern that many of the species, on which this vibrant and substantial industry depends, are being depleted and...

  4. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  5. Oak Regeneration Guidelines for the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Peter J. Gould; Songlin Fei; Marc McDill

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the first explicit guidelines for regenerating oaks in the central Appalachians. The objectives of this paper are (1) to describe the research foundation on which the guidelines are based and (2) to provide users with the instructions, data collection forms, supplementary tables, and decision charts needed to apply the guidelines in the field. The...

  6. Risk perception for diabetes in Appalachian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Ishveen; Chopra, Avijeet

    2017-01-01

    The social and economic burden of diabetes is large and growing. Diabetes is a significant public health issue in the Appalachian region; women constitute approximately 50% of those diagnosed with diabetes. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors (cognitive and affective representations) and perceived risk of diabetes in non-diabetic, non-elderly (21-50 years) Appalachian women residing in West Virginia (N = 202). Participants were recruited through social media, flyers, and a newsletter from the West Virginia University Extension. The final survey was conducted from March 2015 to June 2015. Bivariate analyses were used to examine unadjusted relations among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors and comparative perceived risk of diabetes. In a multivariable logistic regression model, we found that younger age, higher body mass index, non-White race, greater diabetes knowledge, personal control, and moderate amounts of physical activity were significantly, positively associated with higher diabetes risk perception (p related to diabetes risk perception among Appalachian women. Understanding perceived diabetes-related risk may aid in the development of effective intervention strategies to reduce the burden of diabetes among Appalachian and other populations. These cross-sectional findings need further evaluation in longitudinal studies.

  7. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1979 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    Narrative text, tables, maps, and photographs present an overview of the Appalachian Regional Commission's (ARC) activities in fiscal year 1979, past achievements, and future goals. Major accomplishments of 1979 include: utilization of the $233 million appropriation for highway construction; approval of over $143 million in ARC funds for 985…

  8. Thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania: Chapter F.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Hower, James C.; Grady, William C.; Levine, Jeffrey R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin and part of the Black Warrior basin were determined by compiling previously published and unpublished percent-vitrinite-reflectance (%R0) measurements and preparing isograd maps on the basis of the measurements. The isograd values range from 0.6 %R0 in Ohio and the western side of the Eastern Kentucky coal field to 5.5 %R0 in the Southern field in the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, Schuylkill County, Pa. The vitrinite-reflectance values correspond to the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) coal-rank classes of high-volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite, respectively. In general, the isograds show that thermal maturity patterns of Pennsylvanian coals within the Appalachian basin generally decrease from east to west. In the Black Warrior basin of Alabama, the isograds show a circular pattern with the highest values (greater than 1.6 %R0) centered in Jefferson County, Ala. Most of the observed patterns can be explained by variations in the depth of burial, variations in geothermal gradient, or a combination of both; however, there are at least four areas of higher ranking coal in the Appalachian basin that are difficult to explain by these two processes alone: (1) a set of west- to northwest-trending salients centered in Somerset, Cambria, and Fayette Counties, Pa.; (2) an elliptically shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; (3) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region in eastern Pennsylvania; and (4) the eastern part of the Black Warrior coal field in Alabama. The areas of high-ranking coal in southwestern Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to the higher heat flow from these fluids, the Pennsylvania

  9. Identifying Communication Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening Adherence among Appalachian Kentuckians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Audrey Smith; Cohen, Elisia L; Collins, Tom; Hatcher, Jennifer; Crosby, Richard; Vanderpool, Robin C

    2017-08-18

    Utilizing data from 40 in-depth interviews, this article identifies both barriers and facilitators to colorectal screening guideline adherence among Appalachian Kentucky adults recruited through a community-based research network. Key findings identify (a) varying levels of knowledge about screening guidelines, (b) reticence to engage in screening processes, and (c) nuanced communication with healthcare providers and family members regarding screening adherence. What participants knew about the screening process was often derived from personal stories or recalled stories from family members about their screening experiences. Reticence to engage in screening processes reflected reports of cumbersome preparation, privacy issues, embarrassment, medical mistrust, fear of receiving a cancer diagnosis, and lack of symptoms. Participants cited many ways to enhance patient-centered communication, and the findings from this study have implications for health communication message design and communication strategies for healthcare practices in Appalachian Kentucky clinics.

  10. Take a Selfie of Life: A Qualitative Exploration of College Students' Self-Reflections on Free Time Use and Personal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Yarnal, Careen; Hustad, John T. P.; Sims, Damon

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a qualitative approach, this study explores college students' self-reflections on free time use and personal values. Data were collected from 111 students' final reflection papers for a class entitled "Leisure and Human Behavior." The findings suggest that leisure education may empower students with fundamental knowledge about…

  11. GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx dataset was collected during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) field...

  12. Measurement of the infrared optical constants for spectral modeling: n and k values for (NH4)2SO4 via single-angle reflectance and ellipsometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Kelly-Gorham, Molly Rose K.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bliss, Mary; Myers, Tanya L.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tiwald, Thomas E.

    2017-05-05

    The optical constants n and k can be used to model infrared spectra, including refraction, absorption, reflectance, and emissivity, but obtaining reliable values for solid materials (pure or otherwise) presents a challenge: In the past, the best results for n and k have been obtained from bulk, homogeneous materials, free of defects. That is, materials where the Fresnel equations are operant since there is no light scattering. Since it is often not possible to obtain a pure macroscopic (crystalline) material, it may be possible to press the material into a (uniform, void-free) disk. We have recently been able to do this with ammonium sulfate powder and then measured the n & k values via two independent methods: 1) Ellipsometry - which measures the changes in amplitude and phase of light reflected from the material of interest as a function of wavelength and angle of incidence, and 2) Single angle specular reflectance with an FT spectrometer using a specular reflectance device within an FT instrument which measures the change in amplitude of light reflected from the material of interest as a function of wavelength and angle of incidence over a wide wavelength range. The quality of the derived n & k values was tested by generating the reflectance spectra of the pellet and comparing to the calculated to measured reflectance spectra of the pure material which has been previously published. The comparison to literature values showed good accuracy and good agreement, indicating promise to measure other materials by such methods.

  13. Conversion Disorder in an Appalachian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Sarah; Holroyd, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is believed to be the manifestation of physical and/or neurological symptoms for primary gain without an identifiable organic cause. Although it is believed to be more common in rural areas, the literature examining this claim is sparse. To our knowledge, no study has been published evaluating the prevalence of CD in a rural Appalachian population. The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the prevalence of CD per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, criteria in a rural Appalachian psychiatric consultation service and to compare this population with control patients from the same service. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed as having CD per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, criteria on a psychiatric consultation service at a rural Appalachian academic medical center during a 13-month time period. For each case, two consecutive control patients were selected from the same service and time span. There were 21 cases and 42 controls in this study, with a CD prevalence rate of 6.0% (N = 21/351). Sociodemographic, comorbidity, and recent symptomatology data were obtained. Compared with controls, cases were significantly younger and were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse, seizure disorder, antiepileptic use, neurologic referral, electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and history of CD. We found it interesting that fewer cases reported alcohol and drug use. The observed prevalence of 6.0% does not support the historical theory that CD is more prevalent in rural or lower socioeconomic populations. Our data add to the characterization of the Appalachian CD population.

  14. Perspectives on healthy eating among Appalachian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana

    2013-08-01

    Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. During 8 focus groups (N = 99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N = 20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental, and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extraindividual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents' recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  15. Standard test method for measurement of light reflectance value and small color differences between pieces of ceramic tile

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of Light Reflectance Value (LRV) and visually small color difference between pieces of glazed or unglazed ceramic tile, using any spectrophotometer that meets the requirements specified in the test method. LRV and the magnitude and direction of the color difference are expressed numerically, with sufficient accuracy for use in product specification. 1.2 LRV may be measured for either solid-colored tile or tile having a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface. For tile that are not solid-colored, an average reading should be obtained from multiple measurements taken in a pattern representative of the overall sample as described in 9.2 of this test method. Small color difference between tiles should only be measured for solid-color tiles. Small color difference between tile that have a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface, are not valid. 1.3 For solid colored tile, a comparison of the test specimen and reference specimen should be made under incandescent, f...

  16. 7 CFR 1005.2 - Appalachian marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appalachian marketing area. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  17. Use and users of the Appalachian Trail: a geographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Manning; William Valliere; Jim Bacon; Alan Graefe; Gerard Kyle; Rita Hennessy

    2001-01-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) is a public footpath that spans 2,160 miles of Appalachian Mountain ridgelines from Maine to Georgia. This paper describes the first comprehensive study of recreational use and users of the AT. The primary study method was a survey of visitors to the AT. The Trail was divided into 22 relatively homogeneous sections within four...

  18. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Hylton Keller; Lingtian Xie; David B. Buchwalter; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Theodore R Simons

    2014-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope ä 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46...

  19. Predicting the regeneration of Appalachian hardwoods: adapting the REGEN model for the Appalachian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas R. Fox; David L. Loftis; David A. Boucugnani

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty of achieving reliable oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration is well documented. Application of silvicultural techniques to facilitate oak regeneration largely depends on current regeneration potential. A computer model to assess regeneration potential based on existing advanced reproduction in Appalachian hardwoods was developed by David...

  20. Is There a Need for a More Expansive Use of Ethics and Values in Reflecting on the Use of Animals in Scientific Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Debates about animal research are often polarized. On one side, increased knowledge, medical treatments or enhanced animal production are seen to justify harms. On the other, animals have rights constraining their use. Both sides fail to provide adequate support for this contentious use of animals. Reflecting the richness of ethics, it is suggested that empathy and respect for the animal, and greater acknowledgement of the value of experiences and care could also be considered. Along with a more informed understanding of the benefits of research and of the aims of animal rights, a more sophisticated ethic may reflect the common ground between the poles of the debate. Abstract Although reflecting a long tradition of moral reflection that the use of animals is acceptable as long as it is humane, the tension between causing harm to animals in research and the benefits to humans can nevertheless be troubling. Utilitarian arguments that appeal to the value of those practices in sustaining and enhancing human lives, and rights-based arguments which seek to constrain them, can be inadequate. Reflecting a more engaging, inclusive and sophisticated understanding of human activity, justification for animal use could be expanded to reflect the fullness and richness of ethical thinking. This might see more explicit inclusion of perspectives borne of virtues, caring, experiences, and respect for the essence of the animal, and different ways of understanding and knowing animals, values drawn from the middle ground of commonly acceptable human-animal relationships. Such values, already clearly evident in research, could be more widely integrated into arguments justifying animal use. A more expansive approach would not only reflect reality and acknowledge that costs and benefits are shared more widely, but it might result in more equitable, effective and humane science. It might also serve to reduce some of the tension long evident in the relationship between humans

  1. Is There a Need for a More Expansive Use of Ethics and Values in Reflecting on the Use of Animals in Scientific Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Fisher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although reflecting a long tradition of moral reflection that the use of animals is acceptable as long as it is humane, the tension between causing harm to animals in research and the benefits to humans can nevertheless be troubling. Utilitarian arguments that appeal to the value of those practices in sustaining and enhancing human lives, and rights-based arguments which seek to constrain them, can be inadequate. Reflecting a more engaging, inclusive and sophisticated understanding of human activity, justification for animal use could be expanded to reflect the fullness and richness of ethical thinking. This might see more explicit inclusion of perspectives borne of virtues, caring, experiences, and respect for the essence of the animal, and different ways of understanding and knowing animals, values drawn from the middle ground of commonly acceptable human-animal relationships. Such values, already clearly evident in research, could be more widely integrated into arguments justifying animal use. A more expansive approach would not only reflect reality and acknowledge that costs and benefits are shared more widely, but it might result in more equitable, effective and humane science. It might also serve to reduce some of the tension long evident in the relationship between humans and animals.

  2. Choices and Changes: Eccles' Expectancy-Value Model and Upper-Secondary School Students' Longitudinal Reflections about Their Choice of a STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, Eccles' comprehensive social-psychological Expectancy-Value Model of Motivated Behavioural Choices (EV-MBC model) has been proven suitable for studying educational choices related to Science, Technology, Engineering and/or Mathematics (STEM). The reflections of 15 students in their last year in upper-secondary school…

  3. 26 CFR 1.312-9 - Adjustments to earnings and profits reflecting increase in value accrued before March 1, 1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depreciation for the period subsequent to February 28, 1913, computed on such fair market value. If the amount...,000. Its fair market value as of March 1, 1913, was $12,000 and it was sold in 1955 for $15,000. The... accumulated since February 28, 1913, is $3,000. If the basis is determined without regard to the value as of...

  4. Geochemical and multi-isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 238U/235U) perspectives of sediment sources, depositional conditions, and diagenesis of the Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thai T.; Gardiner, James B.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate sediment sources, depositional conditions and diagenetic processes affecting the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian Basin, eastern USA, a major target of natural gas exploration. Multiple proxies, including trace metal contents, rare earth elements (REE), the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systems, and U isotopes were applied to whole rock digestions and sequentially extracted fractions of the Marcellus shale and adjacent units from two locations in the Appalachian Basin. The narrow range of εNd values (from -7.8 to -6.4 at 390 Ma) is consistent with derivation of the clastic sedimentary component of the Marcellus Shale from a well-mixed source of fluvial and eolian material of the Grenville orogenic belt, and indicate minimal post-depositional alteration of the Sm-Nd system. While silicate minerals host >80% of the REE in the shale, data from sequentially extracted fractions reflect post-depositional modifications at the mineralogical scale, which is not observed in whole rock REE patterns. Limestone units thought to have formed under open ocean (oxic) conditions have δ238U values and REE patterns consistent with modern seawater. The δ238U values in whole rock shale and authigenic phases are greater than those of modern seawater and the upper crust. The δ238U values of reduced phases (the oxidizable fraction consisting of organics and sulfide minerals) are ∼0.6‰ greater than that of modern seawater. Bulk shale and carbonate cement extracted from the shale have similar δ238U values, and are greater than δ238U values of adjacent limestone units. We suggest these trends are due to the accumulation of chemically and, more likely, biologically reduced U from anoxic to euxinic bottom water as well as the influence of diagenetic reactions between pore fluids and surrounding sediment and organic matter during diagenesis and catagenesis.

  5. Do serum ALAT values reflect the inflammatory activity in the liver of patients with chronic viral hepatitis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cahen, D. L.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; ten Kate, F. J.; Blok, A. P.; Oosting, J.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in 40 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, to assess whether serum alanine aminotransferase reflects the inflammatory process in the liver. Twenty liver biopsy specimens were included for each disease. Five histological aspects were scored: periportal

  6. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC value: a potential imaging biomarker that reflects the biological features of rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqun Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We elected to analyze the correlation between the pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical status of rectal cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine rectal cancer patients who received surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy were selected that underwent primary MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI. Tumor ADC values were determined and analyzed to identify any correlations between these values and pre-treatment CEA or CA19-9 levels, and/or the histological and immunohistochemical properties of the tumor. RESULTS: Inter-observer agreement of confidence levels from two separate observers was suitable for ADC measurement (k  =  0.775. The pre-treatment ADC values of different T stage tumors were not equal (p  =  0.003. The overall trend was that higher T stage values correlated with lower ADC values. ADC values were also significantly lower for the following conditions: tumors with the presence of extranodal tumor deposits (p  =  0.006 and tumors with CA19-9 levels ≥ 35 g/ml (p  =  0.006. There was a negative correlation between Ki-67 LI and the ADC value (r  =  -0.318, p  =  0.026 and between the AgNOR count and the ADC value (r  =  -0.310, p  =  0.030. CONCLUSION: Significant correlations were found between the pre-treatment ADC values and T stage, extranodal tumor deposits, CA19-9 levels, Ki-67 LI, and AgNOR counts in our study. Lower ADC values were associated with more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, the ADC value may represent a useful biomarker for assessing the biological features and possible relationship to the status of identified rectal cancers.

  7. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) value: a potential imaging biomarker that reflects the biological features of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiqun; Tong, Tong; Cai, Sanjun; Bi, Rui; Xin, Chao; Gu, Yajia

    2014-01-01

    We elected to analyze the correlation between the pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical status of rectal cancers. Forty-nine rectal cancer patients who received surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy were selected that underwent primary MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Tumor ADC values were determined and analyzed to identify any correlations between these values and pre-treatment CEA or CA19-9 levels, and/or the histological and immunohistochemical properties of the tumor. Inter-observer agreement of confidence levels from two separate observers was suitable for ADC measurement (k  =  0.775). The pre-treatment ADC values of different T stage tumors were not equal (p  =  0.003). The overall trend was that higher T stage values correlated with lower ADC values. ADC values were also significantly lower for the following conditions: tumors with the presence of extranodal tumor deposits (p  =  0.006) and tumors with CA19-9 levels ≥ 35 g/ml (p  =  0.006). There was a negative correlation between Ki-67 LI and the ADC value (r  =  -0.318, p  =  0.026) and between the AgNOR count and the ADC value (r  =  -0.310, p  =  0.030). Significant correlations were found between the pre-treatment ADC values and T stage, extranodal tumor deposits, CA19-9 levels, Ki-67 LI, and AgNOR counts in our study. Lower ADC values were associated with more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, the ADC value may represent a useful biomarker for assessing the biological features and possible relationship to the status of identified rectal cancers.

  8. Computed-tomography attenuation values of the peritoneum reflect the severity of peritonitis due to upper gastrointestinal perforations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Hironori; Yaguchi, Yoshihisa; Hiraki, Shuichi; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo; Ono, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate computed tomography (CT) attenuation values of the peritoneum and to relate these values to the severity of peritonitis in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) perforations. A total of 27 consecutive patients with UGI perforations who underwent CT and emergency laparotomy in our hospital were enrolled in this study. The CT attenuation values of the peritoneum were measured at a workstation by 2 independent investigators, and these values were analyzed in relation to the severity of illness. There were significant negative correlations between the peritoneal CT attenuation values and the sequential organ failure assessment score, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, and the Mannheim peritonitis index. There was a significant negative correlation between the peritoneal CT attenuation values and the length of stay in the intensive care unit. Furthermore, patients with dysfunctions in ≥3 organs had significantly lower peritoneal CT attenuation values than those with dysfunction in ≤2 organs. In conclusion, evaluation of peritoneal CT attenuation values in peritonitis patients is simple and can be employed for objective assessment of the severity of peritonitis. (author)

  9. The promotion of mental health through cultural values, institutions, and practices: a reflection on some aspects of botswana culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabone, Motshedisi B

    2009-12-01

    Botswana has seen rapid socioeconomic development since the 1970s that has contributed to the erosion of the values, institutions, and practices that are believed to be supportive of mental health. In this paper, the author argues that the aspects of culture that are supportive of mental health have been diluted by the process of urbanization and the interactions of Batswana (the indigenous people of Botswana) with other cultural groups, particularly those from the western hemisphere. The paper further highlights some of the values, institutions, and practices native to Botswana and describes how they promote mental health. Lastly, recommendations for reviving the cultural values, institutions, and practices of Botswana are discussed.

  10. Evaluating a nursing erasmus exchange experience: Reflections on the use and value of the Nominal Group Technique for evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sheila

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Nominal Group Technique (NGT) for European nursing exchange evaluation at one university. The NGT is a semi-quantitative evaluation method derived from the Delphi method popular in the 1970s and 1980s. The NGT was modified from the traditional version retaining the structured cycles and but adding a broader group discussion. The NGT had been used for 2 successive years but required analysis and evaluation itself for credibility and 'fit' for purpose which is presented here. It aimed to explore nursing students' exchange experiences and aid programme development futures exchanges and closure from exchange. Results varied for the cohorts and students as participants enthusiastically engaged generating ample data which they ranked and categorised collectively. Evaluation of the NGT itself was two fold: by the programme team who considered purpose, audience, inclusivity, context and expertise. Secondly, students were asked for their thoughts using a graffiti board. Students avidly engaged with NGT but importantly also reported an effect from the process itself as an opportunity to reflect and share their experiences. The programme team concluded the NGT offered a credible evaluation tool which made use of authentic student voice and offered interactive group processes. Pedagogially, it enabled active reflection thus aiding reorientation back to the United Kingdom and awareness of 'transformative' consequences of their exchange experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of the nutritive value of maize silage using in vitro and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galassi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize silage is by far the most used forage in the diets for dairy cows and beef cattle in a large part of the Po plain, Italy. However, its chemical composition and its nutritive value range widely according to the genotype and to the climatic and agronomic conditions, particularly with regards to the plant maturity at harvest.

  12. Dropout and Functional Illiteracy Rates in Central Appalachia. Appalachian Data Bank Report #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, B. Keith; And Others

    Computerized analysis of 1980 Census data documented educational deficiencies in 85 Central Appalachian counties of Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Dropout rates among youth ages 16-19 were found to be higher in Central Appalachian counties than in non-Central Appalachian counties, the poorest counties had the highest dropout…

  13. Reflections on Ethics and Humanity in Pediatric Neurology: the Value of Recognizing Ethical Issues in Common Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Gabriel M; Rosenbaum, Peter L

    2017-05-01

    Our goals in this reflection are to (i) identify the ethical dimensions inherent in any clinical encounter and (ii) bring to the forefront of our pediatric neurology practice the myriad of opportunities to explore and learn from these ethical questions. We highlight specifically Beauchamp and Childress's principles of biomedical ethics. We use the terms ethics in common clinical practice and an ethical lens to remind people of the ubiquity of ethical situations and the usefulness of using existing ethical principles to analyze and resolve difficult situations in clinical practice. We start with a few common situations with which many of us tend to struggle. We describe what we understand as ethics and how and why developments in technology, novel potential interventions, policies, and societal perspectives challenge us to think about and debate ethical issues. Individual patients are not a singular population; each patient has their own unique life situations, culture, goals, and expectations that need to be considered with a good dose of humanity and humility. We believe that using an ethical lens-by which we mean making an explicit effort to identify and consider these issues openly-will help us to achieve this goal in practice, education, and research.

  14. A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women’s loss of reproductive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eMaestripieri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness represents an important component of an individual’s overall attractiveness as a potential mating partner. Perceptions of facial attractiveness are expected to vary with age-related changes in health, reproductive value, and power. In this study, we investigated perceptions of facial attractiveness, power, and personality in two groups of women of pre- and post-menopausal ages (35-50 years and 51-65 years, respectively and two corresponding groups of men. We tested three hypotheses: 1 that perceived facial attractiveness would be lower for older than for younger men and women; 2 that the age-related reduction in facial attractiveness would be greater for women than for men; and 3 that for men, there would be a larger increase in perceived power at older ages. Eighty facial stimuli were rated by 60 (30 male, 30 female middle-aged women and men using online surveys. Our three main hypotheses were supported by the data. Consistent with sex differences in mating strategies, the greater age-related decline in female facial attractiveness was driven by male respondents, while the greater age-related increase in male perceived power was driven by female respondents. In addition, we found evidence that some personality ratings were correlated with perceived attractiveness and power ratings. The results of this study are consistent with evolutionary theory and with previous research showing that faces can provide important information about characteristics that men and women value in a potential mating partner such as their health, reproductive value, and power or possession of resources.

  15. The extent to which the public health 'war on obesity' reflects the ethical values and principles of critical health promotion: a multimedia critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret

    2015-12-01

    The discipline of health promotion is responsible for implementing strategies within weight-related public health initiatives (WR-PHI). It is imperative that such initiatives be subjected to critical analysis through a health promotion ethics lens to help ensure ethical health promotion practice. Multimedia critical discourse analysis was used to examine the claims, values, assumptions, power relationships and ideologies within Australian WR-PHI. The Health Promotion Values and Principles Continuum was used as a heuristic to evaluate the extent to which the WR-PHI reflected the ethical values of critical health promotion: active participation of people in the initiative; respect for personal autonomy; beneficence; non-maleficence; and strong evidential and theoretical basis for practice. Ten initiatives were analysed. There was some discourse about the need for participation of people in the WR-PHI, but people were routinely labelled as 'target groups' requiring 'intervention'. Strong evidence of a coercive and paternalistic discourse about choice was identified, with minimal attention to respect for personal autonomy. There was significant emphasis on the beneficiaries of the WR-PHI but minimal attention to the health benefits, and nothing about the potential for harm. Discourse about the evidence of need was objectivist, and there was no discussion about the theoretical foundations of the WR-PHI. The WR-PHI were not reflective of the ethical values and principles of critical health promotion. So what? Health promotion researchers and practitioners engaged in WR-PHI should critically reflect on the extent to which they are consistent with the ethical aspects of critical health promotion practice.

  16. Choices and Changes: Eccles’ Expectancy-Value Model and Upper-Secondary School Students’ Longitudinal Reflections about their Choice of a STEM Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, Eccles’ comprehensive social-psychological Expectancy-Value Model of Motivated Behavioural Choices (EV-MBC model) has been proven suitable for studying educational choices related to Science, Technology, Engineering and/or Mathematics (STEM). The reflections of 15 students...... in their last year in upper-secondary school concerning their choice of tertiary education were examined using quantitative EV-MBC surveys and repeated qualitative interviews. This article presents the analyses of three cases in detail. The analytical focus was whether the factors indicated in the EV-MBC model......, and that significant changes in the students’ reflections were not captured by the factors of the EV-MBC model. This questions the validity of the EVMBC surveys. Moreover, the quantitative factors from the EV-MBC model did not sufficiently explain students’ dynamical educational choice processes where students...

  17. Exploring the Value of the Capability Approach for Vocational Education and Training Evaluation: Reflections from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Powell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1990s, South Africa faced the three-fold challenge of reforming the apartheid-divided institutional landscape of vocational education and training (VET institutions; ensuring equitable access to skills; and reorienting its skills development system in line with the nation’s reinsertion into the global economy. A wave of institutional reforms was enacted which was followed by a large programme of evaluative research. While this body of work was both valuable and necessary, it nonetheless had several limitations. As part of efforts to overcome these, the authors suggest an alternative evaluation method that draws on insights from the ‘capability approach’. By putting the needs of people first – rather than the needs of the economy – the capability approach emphasises social justice, human rights and poverty alleviation in VET evaluation. This approach is more focused on the values and goals of individuals and institutions, while retaining the economic rationale as a key analytical tool and emphasising the continued importance of evaluation for the improvement of delivery and outcomes.

  18. Study seeks to boost Appalachian gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    Ashland Exploration Inc. and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are trying to find ways to increase gas recovery in the Appalachian basin. They are working together to investigate Mississippian Berea sandstone and Devonian shale in a program designed to achieve better understanding and improved performance of tight natural gas formations in the area. This paper reports that three wells on Ashland Exploration acreage in Pike County, Ky., are involved in the research program. Findings from the first two wells will be used to optimize evaluation and completion of the third well. The first two wells have been drilled. Drilling of the third well was under way at last report. Ashland Exploration has been involved with GRI's Devonian shale research since 1988. GRI's initial focus was on well stimulation because Devonian shale wells it reviewed had much lower recoveries than could be expected, based on estimated gas in place. Research during the past few years was designed to improve the execution and quality control of well stimulation

  19. Complex contaminant mixtures in multistressor Appalachian riverscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R; Petty, J Todd; Strager, Michael P; Maxwell, Aaron E; Ziemkiewicz, Paul F

    2015-11-01

    Runoff from watersheds altered by mountaintop mining in the Appalachian region (USA) is known to pollute headwater streams, yet regional-scale assessments of water quality have focused on salinization and selenium. The authors conducted a comprehensive survey of inorganic contaminants found in 170 stream segments distributed across a spectrum of historic and contemporary human land use. Principal component analysis identified 3 important dimensions of variation in water chemistry that were significantly correlated with contemporary surface mining (principal component 1: elevated dominant ions, sulfate, alkalinity, and selenium), coal geology and legacy mines (principal component 2: elevated trace metals), and residential development (principal component 3: elevated sodium and chloride). The combination of these 3 dominant sources of pollutants produced a complex stream-to-stream patchwork of contaminant mixtures. Seventy-five percent of headwater streams (catchments  5 km(2) ) were classified as having reference chemistries, and chemistries indicative of combined mining and development contaminants accounted for 47% of larger streams (compared with 26% of headwater streams). Extreme degradation of larger streams can be attributed to accumulation of contaminants from multiple human land use activities that include contemporary mountaintop mining, underground mining, abandoned mines, and untreated domestic wastewater. Consequently, water quality improvements in this region will require a multicontaminant remediation approach. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Community strategies to address cancer disparities in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Fields, Nell

    2012-01-01

    Central Appalachian residents suffer disproportionate health disparities, including an all-cancer mortality rate 17% higher than the general population. During 10 focus groups and 19 key informant interviews, 91 Appalachian residents identified cancer screening challenges and strategies. Challenges included (1) inadequate awareness of screening need, (2) insufficient access to screening, and (3) lack of privacy. Strategies included (1) witnessing/storytelling, (2) capitalizing on family history, (3) improving publicity about screening resources, (4) relying on lay health advisors, and (5) bundling preventive services. These insights shaped our community-based participatory research intervention and offered strategies to others working in Appalachia, rural locales, and other traditionally underserved communities.

  1. Heat flow at the proposed Appalachian Ultradeep Core Hole (ADCOH) Site: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, John K.; Decker, Edward R.

    The heat flow in northwestern South Carolina at the Appalachian Ultradeep Core Hole (ADCOH) site area is approximately 55 mW/m². This data supplements other data to the east in the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain provinces where heat flows > 55 mW/m² are characteristic of post- and late-synmetamorphic granitoids. Piedmont heat flow and heat generation data for granites, metagranites, and one Slate Belt site, in a zone approximately parallel to major structural Appalachian trends, define a linear relation. Tectonic truncation of heat-producing crust at a depth of about 8 km (a depth equal to the slope of the heat flow-heat production line) is proposed to explain the linear relation. Using the value of reduced heat flow estimated from this empirical relation, and assuming thicknesses of heat-producing crust defined by new ADCOH seismic data, the heat flow and heat production at the ADCOH site are consistent with a depth to the base of the Inner Piedmont crystalline allochthon of about 5.5 km. Seismic data at the ADCOH site confirm that the Inner Piedmont is tectonically truncated at about 5.5 km by the Blue Ridge master decollement. Temperatures at 10 km at the ADCOH site are predicted to be less than 200 °C.

  2. Sawlog sizes: a comparison in two Appalachian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis D. Goho; A. Jeff Martin

    1973-01-01

    Frequency distributions of log diameter and length were prepared for eight Appalachian hardwood species. Data obtained in Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, were compared with information collected previously from West Virginia and New England. With the exception of red oak, significant regional differences were found.

  3. A logging residue "yield" table for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1976-01-01

    An equation for predicting logging-residue volume per acre for Appalachian hardwoods was developed from data collected on 20 timber sales in national forests in West Virginia and Virginia. The independent variables of type-of-cut, products removed, basal area per acre, and stand age explained 95 percent of the variation in residue volume per acre. A "yield"...

  4. Taper and volume equations for selected Appalachian hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1981-01-01

    Coefficients for five taper/volume models are developed for 18 Appalachian hardwood species. Each model can be used to estimate diameter at any point on the bole, height to any preselected diameter, and cubic-foot volume between any two points on the bole. The resulting equations were tested on six sets of independent data and an evaluation of these tests is included,...

  5. Fuels management in the southern Appalachian Mountains, hot continental division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Reilly; Thomas A. Waldrop; Joseph J. O’Brien

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Hot Continental Mountains Division, M220 (McNab and others 2007) are a topographically and biologically complex area with over 10 million ha of forested land, where complex environmental gradients have resulted in a great diversity of forest types. Abundant moisture and a long, warm growing season support high levels of productivity...

  6. Apple Stack Cake for Dessert: Appalachian Regional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, Barbara G.

    2005-01-01

    How is the culture of Appalachia conveyed through its foods? Local experts in Appalachian counties were asked to create a hypothetical menu for a meal that was representative of their home region. Fried chicken and ham were the preferred main dishes and dessert selections focused on apple pie and peach or blackberry cobbler. Virtually everyone…

  7. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  8. A 3D stand generator for central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Yaoxiang Li; Gary W. Miller

    2002-01-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) stand generator was developed for central Appalachian hardwood forests. It was designed for a harvesting simulator to examine the interactions of stand, harvest, and machine. The Component Object Model (COM) was used to design and implement the program. Input to the generator includes species composition, stand density, and spatial pattern. Output...

  9. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  10. Population characteristics of a central Appalachian white tailed deer herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Karl V. Miller; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Reliable estimates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population parameters are needed for effective population management. We used radiotelemetrv to compare survival and cause-specific mortality rates between male and female white-tailed deer and present reproductive data for a high-density deer herd in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during...

  11. Seed bank response to prescribed fire in the central Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa Thomas Van-Gundy; Mary B. Adams; W. Mark. Ford

    2010-01-01

    Pre- and post-treatment seed-bank characteristics of woody species were compared after two prescribed fires in a mesic mixed-oak forest in the central Appalachians. Nineteen woody species were identified from soil samples. Mean species richness declined but evenness did not after prescribed burning. The...

  12. Ruffed grouse population dynamics in the central and southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Giuliano Tirpak; C. Allan Miller; Thomas J. Allen; Steve Bittner; David A. Buehler; John W. Edwards; Craig A. Harper; William K. Igo; Gary W. Norman; M. Seamster; Dean F. Stauffer

    2006-01-01

    Ruffed grouse (Bonasa urnbellus; hereafter grouse) populations in the central and southern Appalachians are in decline. However, limited information on the dynamics of these populations prevents the development of effective management strategies to reverse these trends. We used radiotelemetry data collected on grouse to parameterize 6 models of...

  13. 50 years of Galtung and Ruge: Reflections on their model of news values and its relevance for the study of journalism and communication today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joye Stijn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1965, Galtung and Ruge initiated a rich strand of academic research on the notion of news values and the practice of gatekeeping in a context of international news reporting. Since its publication, many scholars have criticized, revisited, and put their findings to the test, often leading to somehow conflicting conclusions. In general, some studies tend to confirm their findings while others have uttered methodological concerns or came up with new or additional sets of news factors, hence arguing for a further specification of the model. In recent years, scholars also pointed towards the increasing impact of digital media on journalistic practices of news selection. Likewise, new perspectives on global journalism were introduced into the debate. In this article, we bring together these different perspectives in order to inform a broad discussion on Galtung and Ruge's legacy for the field of communication sciences in general and studies on journalism and international news selection in particular. We first assess how Galtung and Ruge's hypotheses hold up in an era of unlimited data. Second, we reflect on the need to integrate changing societal and cultural contexts of news selection, production and reception to understand news values today. Third, with contemporary journalistic practices and research in mind, we suggest an agenda for the study of news values in an era of global journalism.

  14. Objective evaluation by reflectance spectrophotometry can be of clinical value for the verification of blanching/non blanching erythema in the sacral area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Eila; Fossum, Bjöörn; Berg, Elisabeth; Lindholm, Christina; Stark, André

    2014-08-01

    Early detection of non blanching erythema (pressure ulcer category I) is necessary to prevent any further skin damage. An objective method to discriminate between blanching/non blanching erythema is presently not available. The purpose of this investigation was to explore if a non invasive objective method could differentiate between blanching/non blanching erythema in the sacral area of patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Seventy-eight patients were included. The sacral area of all patients was assessed using (i) conventional finger-press test and (ii) digital reading of the erythema index assessed with reflectance spectrophotometry. The patients were examined at admission and during 5 days postsurgery. Reflectance spectrophotometry measurements proved able to discriminate between blanching/non blanching erythema. The reliability, quantified by the intra-class correlation coefficient, was excellent between repeated measurements over the measurement period, varying between 0·82 and 0·96, and a significant change was recorded in the areas from day 1 to day 5 (P < 0·0001). The value from the reference point did not show any significant changes over the same period (P = 0·32). An objective method proven to identify early pressure damage to tissue can be a valuable tool in clinical practice. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Choices and changes: Eccles' Expectancy-Value model and upper-secondary school students' longitudinal reflections about their choice of a STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-03-01

    During the past 30 years, Eccles' comprehensive social-psychological Expectancy-Value Model of Motivated Behavioural Choices (EV-MBC model) has been proven suitable for studying educational choices related to Science, Technology, Engineering and/or Mathematics (STEM). The reflections of 15 students in their last year in upper-secondary school concerning their choice of tertiary education were examined using quantitative EV-MBC surveys and repeated qualitative interviews. This article presents the analyses of three cases in detail. The analytical focus was whether the factors indicated in the EV-MBC model could be used to detect significant changes in the students' educational choice processes. An important finding was that the quantitative EV-MBC surveys and the qualitative interviews gave quite different results concerning the students' considerations about the choice of tertiary education, and that significant changes in the students' reflections were not captured by the factors of the EV-MBC model. This questions the validity of the EV-MBC surveys. Moreover, the quantitative factors from the EV-MBC model did not sufficiently explain students' dynamical educational choice processes where students in parallel considered several different potential educational trajectories. We therefore call for further studies of the EV-MBC model's use in describing longitudinal choice processes and especially in investigating significant changes.

  16. Core Values in Nursing Care Based on the Experiences of Nurses Engaged in Neonatal Nursing: A Text-mining Approach for Analyzing Reflection Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Okuda, Reiko; Hagino, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Background Strong feelings about and enthusiasm for nursing care are reflected in nurses’ thoughts and behaviors in clinical practice and affect their profession. This study was conducted to identify the characteristics of core values in nursing care based on the experiences of nurses engaged in neonatal nursing through a process for recognizing the conceptualization of nursing. Methods We conceptualized nursing care in 43 nurses who were involved in neonatal nursing using a reflection sheet. We classified descriptions on a sheet based on the Three-Staged Recognition scheme and analyzed them using a text-mining approach. Results Nurses involved in neonatal nursing recognized that they must take care of the “child,” “mother,” and “family.” Important elements of nursing in nurses with less than 5 years versus 5 or more years of neonatal nursing experience were classified into seven clusters, respectively. These elements were mainly related to family members in both groups. In nurses with less than 5 years of experience, four clusters of one-way communication by nurses were observed in the analysis of the key elements in nursing. On the other hand, five clusters of mutual relationships between patients, their family members, and nurses were observed in nurses with 5 or more years of experience. Conclusion In conclusion, the core value of nurses engaged in neonatal nursing is family-oriented nursing. Nurses with 5 or more years of neonatal nursing experience understand patients and their family members well through establishing relationships and providing comfort and safety while taking care of them. PMID:29599621

  17. Reflecting the real value of health care resources in modelling and cost-effectiveness studies-The example of viral load informed differentiated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Paul; Walker, Simon; Cambiano, Valentina; Phillips, Andrew; Sculpher, Mark J

    2018-01-01

    The WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines suggest routine viral-load monitoring can be used to differentiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery and reduce the frequency of clinic visits for patients stable on ART. This recommendation was informed by economic analysis that showed the approach is very likely to be cost-effective, even in the most resource constrained of settings. The health benefits were shown to be modest but the costs of introducing and scaling up viral load monitoring can be offset by anticipated reductions in the costs of clinic visits, due to these being less frequent for many patients. The cost-effectiveness of introducing viral-load informed differentiated care depends upon whether cost reductions are possible if the number of clinic visits is reduced and/or how freed clinic capacity is used for alternative priorities. Where freed resources, either physical or financial, generate large health gains (e.g. if committed to patients failing ART or to other high value health care interventions), the benefits of differentiated care are expected to be high; if however these freed physical resources are already under-utilized or financial resources are used less efficiently and would not be put to as beneficial an alternative use, the policy may not be cost-effective. The implication is that the use of conventional unit costs to value resources may not well reflect the latter's value in contributing to health improvement. Analyses intended to inform resource allocated decisions in a number of settings may therefore have to be interpreted with due consideration to local context. In this paper we present methods of how economic analyses can reflect the real value of health care resources rather than simply applying their unit costs. The analyses informing the WHO Guidelines are re-estimated by implementing scenarios using this framework, informing how differentiated care can be prioritized to generate greatest gains in population health. The findings have

  18. Comparison of the Quantitative Values of C-14 and C-13 UBT to Reflect the Presence and Degree of Ongoing Helicobacter pylori Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2008-01-01

    A urea breath test (UBT) using C-14 or C-13 has been developed for identifying Helicobacter (H) pylori infection on the basis of urease production with release of labeled CO 2 . We investigated if the C-14 and C-13 UBT have the difference to reflect the presence and degree of H. pylori infection detected by gastroduodenoscopic biopsies (GBx) in the same patients. Thirty eight patients (M:F=28:10, age 53.4±13.0 yrs) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as indigestion, gastric fullness or pain consecutively underwent C-14 UBT, GBx and C-13 UBT within one week before medications. For the C-14 UBT, a single breath sample was collected at 10 minutes after ingestion of C-14 urea (37 KBq) capsule and counting was done in a liquid scintillation counter for 1 minute, and the results were classified as positive (≥200 dpm), intermediate (50∼199 dpm) or negative (<50 dpm). For the C-13 UBT, the results were classified as positive (≥2.5) or negative (<2.5). The results of GBx with Giemsa stain were graded 0 (normal) to 4 (diffuse) according to the distribution of H. pylori by the Wyatt method. We compared C-14 UBT and C-13 UBT results with GBx grade as a gold standard. The prevalence of H. pylori infection by GBx with Giemsa stain was 25/38 (65.8%). In the assessment of the presence of H. pylori infection, the C-14 UBT global performance yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of 92.0%, 92.3%, 95.8%, 91.7% and 92.1%, respectively. However, the C-13 UBT had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 96.0%, 84.6%, 92.3%, 91.7% and 92.1%, respectively. The more significant correlation in C-14 than C-13 UBT (r=0.948 vs r=0.819, p<0.001) was found between the value of UBT and the grade of distribution of H. pylori infection. We conclude that the diagnostic performance between C-14 and C-13 UBT to detect H. pylori infection is not significantly different, but the value of C-14 UBT more

  19. Comparison of the Quantitative Values of C-14 and C-13 UBT to Reflect the Presence and Degree of Ongoing Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    A urea breath test (UBT) using C-14 or C-13 has been developed for identifying Helicobacter (H) pylori infection on the basis of urease production with release of labeled CO{sub 2}. We investigated if the C-14 and C-13 UBT have the difference to reflect the presence and degree of H. pylori infection detected by gastroduodenoscopic biopsies (GBx) in the same patients. Thirty eight patients (M:F=28:10, age 53.4{+-}13.0 yrs) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as indigestion, gastric fullness or pain consecutively underwent C-14 UBT, GBx and C-13 UBT within one week before medications. For the C-14 UBT, a single breath sample was collected at 10 minutes after ingestion of C-14 urea (37 KBq) capsule and counting was done in a liquid scintillation counter for 1 minute, and the results were classified as positive ({>=}200 dpm), intermediate (50{approx}199 dpm) or negative (<50 dpm). For the C-13 UBT, the results were classified as positive ({>=}2.5) or negative (<2.5). The results of GBx with Giemsa stain were graded 0 (normal) to 4 (diffuse) according to the distribution of H. pylori by the Wyatt method. We compared C-14 UBT and C-13 UBT results with GBx grade as a gold standard. The prevalence of H. pylori infection by GBx with Giemsa stain was 25/38 (65.8%). In the assessment of the presence of H. pylori infection, the C-14 UBT global performance yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of 92.0%, 92.3%, 95.8%, 91.7% and 92.1%, respectively. However, the C-13 UBT had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 96.0%, 84.6%, 92.3%, 91.7% and 92.1%, respectively. The more significant correlation in C-14 than C-13 UBT (r=0.948 vs r=0.819, p<0.001) was found between the value of UBT and the grade of distribution of H. pylori infection. We conclude that the diagnostic performance between C-14 and C-13 UBT to detect H. pylori infection is not significantly different, but the value of C-14 UBT

  20. Reflecting the real value of health care resources in modelling and cost-effectiveness studies—The example of viral load informed differentiated care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon; Cambiano, Valentina; Phillips, Andrew; Sculpher, Mark J.

    2018-01-01

    Background The WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines suggest routine viral-load monitoring can be used to differentiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery and reduce the frequency of clinic visits for patients stable on ART. This recommendation was informed by economic analysis that showed the approach is very likely to be cost-effective, even in the most resource constrained of settings. The health benefits were shown to be modest but the costs of introducing and scaling up viral load monitoring can be offset by anticipated reductions in the costs of clinic visits, due to these being less frequent for many patients. Key issues for economic evaluation The cost-effectiveness of introducing viral-load informed differentiated care depends upon whether cost reductions are possible if the number of clinic visits is reduced and/or how freed clinic capacity is used for alternative priorities. Where freed resources, either physical or financial, generate large health gains (e.g. if committed to patients failing ART or to other high value health care interventions), the benefits of differentiated care are expected to be high; if however these freed physical resources are already under-utilized or financial resources are used less efficiently and would not be put to as beneficial an alternative use, the policy may not be cost-effective. The implication is that the use of conventional unit costs to value resources may not well reflect the latter’s value in contributing to health improvement. Analyses intended to inform resource allocated decisions in a number of settings may therefore have to be interpreted with due consideration to local context. In this paper we present methods of how economic analyses can reflect the real value of health care resources rather than simply applying their unit costs. The analyses informing the WHO Guidelines are re-estimated by implementing scenarios using this framework, informing how differentiated care can be prioritized to generate greatest

  1. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  2. Individual differences in cognitive processing of interdependency information. The influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information in interdependency situations and the reflection on the temporal aspects of decision-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, Francine Marie Jean

    1993-01-01

    The present thesis describes research on the influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information underlying decisions in interdependency situations. The research is based on the assumption that the cognitive processes are reflected in decision times. ... Zie: Summary

  3. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels from the Appalachian basin region have been major contributors to the Nation’s energy supplies over much of the last three centuries. Appalachian coal and petroleum resources are still available in sufficient quantities to contribute significantly to fulfilling the Nation’s energy needs. Although both conventional oil and gas continue to be produced in the Appalachian basin, most new wells in the region are drilled in shale reservoirs to produce natural gas.

  4. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  5. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet in a rural Appalachian food desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Fanning, F

    2013-01-01

    Rural Appalachian food deserts have disproportionately high cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates. The Mediterranean diet, consisting of plant-based dishes prepared with unsaturated fatty acids, contributes to decreased risk of CVD. Several factors can affect dietary choices in rural food deserts. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors that affect eating a Mediterranean diet in a rural Appalachian food desert with disproportionately high rates of cardiovascular disease. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model was used as an assessment framework in this study. Volunteers (n=43) were recruited from four churches in a rural Appalachian county to participate in this mixed methods convergent parallel design study. During each of four sessions with 8-12 participants each, a Mediterranean-style meal was prepared by a local caterer and included plant-based dishes prepared with unsaturated fatty acids. The nature of a Mediterranean diet was explained to participants using an illustrated pamphlet. Nominal group process was used to determine predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors that would affect adherence to a Mediterranean diet. Multivariate ANOVA and t-tests, using SPSS 18, were performed to determine factors associated with potential future adoption and adherence to a Mediterranean diet among a sample of rural residents and assess whether the factors varied based on age, gender and socioeconomic status. All p values of ≤0.05 were considered significant. Factors affecting future adherence to a Mediterranean diet included difficulty changing personal habits, limited access to healthy foods, cost, difficulty of preparation, limited knowledge of the health benefits of foods, family attitudes toward food and difficulty determining how to incorporate healthy foods into meals. Younger participants and those with lower incomes were more likely to identify food cost as a barrier to adherence compared to those who were older

  6. Summertime elevation of radon in southern Appalachian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Wilson, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    For houses in particular countries of the southern Appalachians, the atypical situation arises of higher indoor levels of radon during summertime rather than wintertime. Where such conditions prevail, it is recommended that houses be screened for elevated radon during warmer rather than colder seasons of the year. This paper discusses the materials and methods used for the screening, the results and conclusions, and presents some recommendations. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Sediment Sources, Depositional Environment, and Diagenetic Alteration of the Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin, USA: Nd, Sr, Li and U Isotopic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T. T.; Capo, R. C.; Gardiner, J. B.; Stewart, B. W.

    2017-12-01

    The organic-rich Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian Basin, eastern USA, is a major target of natural gas exploration. Constraints on local and regional sediment sources, depositional environments, and post-depositional processes are essential for understanding the evolution of the basin. In this study, multiple proxies, including trace metals, rare earth elements (REE), the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systems, and U and Li isotopes were applied to bulk rocks and authigenic fractions of the Marcellus Shale and adjacent limestone/sandstone units from two locations separated by 400 km. The range of ɛNd values (-7.8 to -6.4 at 390 Ma) is consistent with a clastic sedimentary component derived from a well-mixed source of fluvial and eolian material of the Grenville orogenic belt. The Sm-Nd isotope system and bulk REE distributions appear to have been minimally affected by post-depositional processes, while the Rb-Sr isotope system shows evidence of limited post-depositional redistribution. While REE are primarily associated with silicate minerals (80-95%), REE patterns of sequentially extracted fractions reflect post-depositional alteration at the intergranular scale. Although the chemical index of alteration (CIA = 54 to 60) suggests the sediment source was not heavily weathered, Li isotope data are consistent with progressively increasing weathering of the source region during Marcellus Shale deposition. δ238U values in bulk shale and reduced phases (oxidizable fraction) are higher than those of modern seawater and upper crust. The isotopically heavy U accumulated in these authigenic phases can be explained by the precipitation of insoluble U in anoxic/euxinic bottom water. Unlike carbonate cement within the shale, the similarity between δ238U values and REE patterns of the limestone units and those of modern seawater indicates that the limestone formed under open ocean (oxic) conditions.

  8. Correlation of Crustal Structures and Seismicity Patterns in Northern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    The earthquake distributions in northern Appalachians are bounded by major geologically-defined terrane boundaries. There is a distinct seismic gap within Taconic Belt between the Western Quebec Seismic Zone (WQSZ) to the west and the seismically active Ganderia terrane to the east. It is not clear, however, what crustal structures control the characteristics of earthquake clustering in this region. Here we present a newly constructed crustal shear velocity model for the northern Appalachians using Rayleigh wave data extracted from ambient noises. Our tomographic model reveals strongly heterogeneous seismic structures in the crust. We observe multiple NW-dipping patches of high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust beneath the southeastern WQSZ. The upper crust shear velocities in the Ganderia and Avalonia region are generally lower than those beneath the WQSZ. The middle crust has relatively lower velocities in the study area. The earthquakes in the study area are constrained within the upper crust. Most of the earthquake hypocenters within the WQSZ are concentrated along the NW-dipping boundaries separating the high-velocity anomalies. In contrast, most of the earthquake hypocenters in the Ganderia and Avalonia region are diffusely distributed without clear vertical lineaments. The orientations of maximum compressive stresses change from W-E in the Ganderia and Avalonia region to SW-NE in the WQSZ. The contrasts in seismicity, velocity, and stress field across the Taconic Belt indicate that the Taconic Belt terrane may act as a seismically inactive buffer zone in northern Appalachians.

  9. Determination of organic-matter content of Appalachian Devonian shales from gamma-ray logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoker, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The organic-matter content of the Devonian shale of the Appalachian basin is important for assessing the natural-gas resources of these rocks, and patterns of organic-matter distribution convey information on sedimentary processes and depositional environment. In most of the western part of the Appalachian basin the organic-matter content of the Devonian shale can be estimated from gamma-ray wire-line logs using the equation: phi 0 = (γ/sub B/ - γ)/1.378A, where phi 0 is the organic-matter content of the shale (fractional volume), γ the gamma-ray intensity (API units), γ/sub B/ the gamma-ray intensity if no organic matter is present (API units), and A the slope of the crossplot of gamma-ray intensity and formation density (API units/(g/cm 3 )). Organic-matter contents estimated using this equation are compared with organic-matter contents determined from direct laboratory analyses of organic carbon for 74 intervals of varying thickness from 12 widely separated wells. The organic-matter content of these intervals ranges from near zero to about 20% by volume. The gamma-ray intensity of the Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale and the lower part of the Olentangy Shale is anomalously low compared to other Devonian shales of similar richness, so that organic-matter content computed for each of these units from gamma-ray logs is likely to be too low. Wire-line methods for estimating organic-matter content have the advantages of economy, readily available sources of data, and continuous sampling of the vertically heterogenous shale section. The gamma-ray log, in particular, is commonly run in the Devonian shale, its response characteristics are well known, and the cumulative pool of gamma-ray logs forms a large and geographically broad data base. The quantitative computation of organic-matter content from gamma-ray logs should be of practical value in studies of the Appalachian Devonian shale. 16 figures

  10. 87Sr/86Sr Concentrations in the Appalachian Basin: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordensky, Stanley P. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Lieuallen, A. Erin [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Verba, Circe [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Hakala, Alexandra [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This document reviews 87Sr/86Sr isotope data across the Appalachian Basin from existing literature to show spatial and temporal variation. Isotope geochemistry presents a means of understanding the geochemical effects hydraulic fracturing may have on shallow ground substrates. Isotope fractionation is a naturally occurring phenomenon brought about by physical, chemical, and biological processes that partition isotopes between substances; therefore, stable isotope geochemistry allows geoscientists to understand several processes that shape the natural world. Strontium isotopes can be used as a tool to answer an array of geological and environmental inquiries. In some cases, strontium isotopes are sensitive to the introduction of a non-native fluid into a system. This ability allows strontium isotopes to serve as tracers in certain systems. Recently, it has been demonstrated that strontium isotopes can serve as a monitoring tool for groundwater and surface water systems that may be affected by hydraulic fracturing fluids (Chapman et al., 2013; Kolesar Kohl et al., 2014). These studies demonstrated that 87Sr/86Sr values have the potential to monitor subsurface fluid migration in regions where extraction of Marcellus Shale gas is occurring. This document reviews publicly available strontium isotope data from 39 sample locations in the Appalachian Basin (Hamel et al., 2010; Chapman et al., 2012; Osborn et al., 2012; Chapman et al., 2013; Capo et al., 2014; Kolesar Kohl et al., 2014). The data is divided into two sets: stratigraphic (Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippi, Middle Devonian, and Silurian) and groundwater. ArcMap™ (ESRI, Inc.) was used to complete inverse distance weighting (IDW) analyses for each dataset to create interpolated surfaces in an attempt to find regional trends or variations in strontium isotopic values across the Appalachian Basin. 87Sr/86Sr varies up to ~ 0.011 across the

  11. The encyclopedia of southern Appalachian forest ecosystems: A prototype of an online scientific knowledge management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems (ESAFE), a hyperdocument-based encyclopedia system available on the Internet, provides an organized synthesis of existing research on the management and ecology of Southern Appalachian forests ecosystems. The encyclopedia is dynamic, so that new or revised content can be submitted directly through the Internet...

  12. 75 FR 82146 - Appalachian Community Bank, FSB, McCaysville, GA, Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Appalachian Community Bank, FSB... contained in section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Appalachian Community Bank, FSB...

  13. The Role of Language in Interactions with Others on Campus for Rural Appalachian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Stephany Brett; Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Dialects of English spoken in rural, Southern Appalachia are heavily stigmatized in mainstream American culture, and speakers of Appalachian dialects are often subject to prejudice and stereotypes which can be detrimental in educational settings. We explored the experiences of rural, Southern Appalachian college students and the role speaking a…

  14. Chapter 11: Reforestation to enhance Appalachian mined lands as habitat for terrestrial wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petra Wood; Jeff Larkin; Jeremy Mizel; Carl Zipper; Patrick Angel

    2017-01-01

    Surface mining is widespread throughout the Appalachian coalfields, a region with extensive forests that are rich in wildlife. Game species for hunting, nongame wildlife species, and other organisms are important contributors to sustainable and productive ecosystems. Although small breaks in the forest canopy are important to wildlife diversity, most native Appalachian...

  15. Conservation and Environmental Education in Southern Appalachian Schools. A Report of a Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Woodward S.; Jarvis, Ralph W.

    An assessment of conservation and environmental education needs in southern Appalachian schools is provided in this survey. Superintendents of school districts and teachers within the southern Appalachian region responded to a questionnaire which was designed to determine: (1) the current status of conservation and environmental education; (2)…

  16. State Appalachian Development Plans and Investment Programs for Fiscal Year 1980. ABSTRACTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), established by Congress in 1965 as a means of relieving the chronic economic and social distresses of the Appalachian region, is composed of the governors of the 13 states that comprise Appalachia. Local development plans, based upon needs and priorities, are presented to ARC every year by the governor of…

  17. Multiple-stage diagenetic alteration and fluid history of Ordovician carbonate-hosted barite mineralization, Southern Quebec Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Suzanne; Lavoie, Denis

    1996-12-01

    Lower Ordovician bioclastic limestone of the Upton Group, southern Quebec Appalachians, hosts stratabound Ba-Zn-Pb mineralization. The Upton Group, a mixed platform carbonate-siliciclastic-volcanic succession, is exposed as windows within the tectonically overlying Cambrian siliciclastics of the Granby Nappe. Mineralization consists mostly of barite and minor amounts of sulfides (sphalerite, pyrite, galena, and chalcopyrite), in addition to calcite, quartz and bitumen cements. It is hosted by a bioclastic limestone which is interbedded with and capped by a black calcareous shale, and underlain by a mudstone-siltstone-volcanic succession and a lower poorly fossiliferous limestone. The lower limestone recorded early extensive dolomitization followed by meteoric alteration (dedolomitization, sulphate dissolution, vadose cements, soil pisoids, etc.), and burial diagenesis (recrystallization, fracturation, and cementation). The vadose gravitational calcite cements yield δ 18O PDB values of -8.4 to -11.0‰ andδ 13C PDB values of +2.4 to +2.8‰. The thin soil profiles with pisoids have a δ 18O PDB value of -8.2‰ and a δ 13C PDB value of +2.0‰. These data suggest an evaporative 18O-enrichment of near-surface trapped soil moisture (vadose water) in a rock-dominated diagenetic system. The recrystallized limestone hasδ 18O PDB values of -11.4 to -15.5‰ and near Early Ordovician marine δ 13C PDB values of -0.2 to +2.5‰. These data suggest a final stabilization of the limestone from high temperature fluids in a rock-dominated diagenetic system. The mineralized bioclastic limestone shows rare evidence of early submarine cementation which is overprinted by significant post-depositional recrystallization and hydrothermal alteration. The latter resulted in the generation of secondary porosity and precipitation of a subhedral barite cement, a bladed barite cement, and fracture-filling barite. Fracture- and void-filling calcite, sulfides, quartz and bitumen

  18. Cultural perceptions of healthy weight in rural Appalachian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K J; Taylor, C A; Wolf, K N; Lawson, R F; Crespo, R

    2008-01-01

    Rates of overweight among US children have been rising over the past three decades. Changes in lifestyle behaviors, including dietary and physical activity habits, have been examined thoroughly to identify correlates of weight status in children. Youth in rural US Appalachia are at a disproportionately greater risk for obesity and related health complications. Inadequate physical activity and poor dietary habits are two primary causes of obesity that have been noted in West Virginia adolescents. Few existing data describes the decisional balance in performing lifestyle behaviors, nor the perceptions of these youth regarding their beliefs about weight. The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of a healthy weight in rural Appalachian adolescents. Ninth grade students were recruited from classroom presentations in four high schools throughout West Virginia. Interested parent-caregiver pairs returned forms to indicate interest in participation. Separate focus group interviews were conducted concurrently with adolescent and parents or caregivers to identify the cultural perceptions of a healthy weight. Questions were developed using grounded theory to explore how a healthy weight was defined, what factors dictate body weight, the perceived severity of the obesity issue, and the social or health ramifications of the condition. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify dominant themes, and content analysis provided text segments to describe the themes. This article describes the data obtained from the adolescent focus groups. When asked what defined a healthy weight, the adolescents who participated in the focus groups placed great value on physical appearance and social acceptability. Students believed there was a particular number, either an absolute weight or body mass index value that determined a healthy weight. These numbers were usually conveyed by a physician; however, there was also a general acceptance of being 'thick' or a reliance on

  19. Faith Moves Mountains: An Appalachian Cervical Cancer Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. Methods FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. Results We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. Conclusions After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community. PMID:19320612

  20. Correlation of infrared reflectance ratios at 2.3 microns/1.6 micron and 1.1 micron/1.6 micron with delta O-18 values delineating fossil hydrothermal systems in the Idaho batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, A. R.; Criss, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reflectance ratios from laboratory spectra and airborne multispectral images are found to be strongly correlated with delta O-18 values of granite rocks in the Idaho batholith. The correlation is largely a result of interactions between hot water and rock, which lowered the delta O-18 values of the rocks and produced secondary hydrous material. Maps of the ratio of reflectivities at 2.3 and 1.6 microns should delineate fossil hydrothermal systems and provide estimates of alteration intensity. However, hydrous minerals produced during deuteric alteration or weathering cannot be unambiguously distinguished in remotely sensed images from the products of propylitic alteration without the use of narrow-band scanners. The reflectivity at 1.6 micron is strongly correlated with rock density and may be useful in distinguishing rock types in granitic terranes.

  1. Early Jurassic clay authigenesis in the Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge province; infiltration of surface-derived fluids during Pangean rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, E. A.; van der Pluijm, B.; Vennemann, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern margin of North America has a protracted and intricate tectonic history. The terminal collision of Gondwana and Laurentia in the late Paleozoic formed the Appalachian mountain belt, a trans-continental orogen that persisted for almost 100 million years until Mesozoic break-up of the supercontinent Pangea. A host of studies have targeted the evolution and migration of fluids through Appalachian crust in an effort to understand how fluid promotes mass and heat redistribution, and mediates crustal deformation, particularly during the assembly of Pangea. Folded clay units from the Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge province were sampled for stable and radiogenic isotope analysis. Separation of samples into different grain-size fractions characterizes detrital (host) and authigenic (neomineralized) clays. Stable H-isotope compositions reveal a systematic pattern with varying proportions of illite polytypes—the finer, younger fraction is D-depleted compared to the coarser, primarily detrital fraction. For each individual location, the H-isotopic composition of the fluid from which the authigenic population was grown is calculated. δDVSMOW of these fluids has a range from -77 to -52 ± 2 ‰, consistent with a surface-derived fluid source. The notably negative values for several samples indicates a meteoric composition of moderate to high elevation origin, suggesting that they are not connate waters, but instead preserve infiltration of fluids due to fracture-induced permeability. Key to this interpretation is 40Ar/39Ar-dating of a subset of these samples that reveals a post-orogenic age for authigenic clay mineralization in the Early Jurassic ( 180 Ma). These ages are evidence that surface fluid infiltration was unrelated to the Appalachian orogeny, but coeval with (upper) crustal extension from the initial break-up of Pangea and the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

  2. The value of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy in the diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory and infectious skin diseases: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogedoorn, L.; Peppelman, M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Erp, P.E.J. van; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    In vivo examination of the skin by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been performed for about 20 years, leading to a broad spectrum of imaged infectious and inflammatory skin diseases (ISD) with many described RCM features. We systematically reviewed all available literature concerning ISD

  3. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.10 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the Appalachian Basin Province is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. The total organic carbon (TOC) values for the Utica Shale are usually greater than 1 weight percent. TOC values ranging from 2 to 3 weight percent outline a broad, northeast-trending area that extends across western and southern Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, northern West Virginia, and southeastern New York. The Utica Shale is characterized by type II kerogen, which is a variety of kerogen that is typically prone to oil generation. Conondont color-alteration index (CAI) isograds, which are based on samples from the Upper Ordovician Trenton Limestone (or Group), indicate that a pod of mature Utica Shale source rocks occupies most of the TPS.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources in Upper Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.; Rouse, William A.; Dulong, Frank T.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2018-04-19

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 10.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in Upper Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin Province.

  5. Comparisons of Spatial Predictions of Conductivity on a Stream Network in an Appalachian Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    We made spatial predictions of specific conductance based on spatial stream network (SSN) modeling to compare conductivity measurements of components of the network, such as headwaters, tributaries, and mainstem, which have different spatial extents in a study Appalachian watersh...

  6. A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams. This report describes a method to characterize the relationship between the extirpation (the effective extinction) of invertebrate g...

  7. Two countries, one forest: Working beyond political boundaries in the Northern Appalachian/Acadian Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Sullivan

    2007-01-01

    Two Countries, One Forest (2C1Forest) is a collaboration of conservation organizations and researchers committed to the long-term ecological health of the Northern Appalachian/ Acadian ecoregion of the United States and Canada.

  8. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; James Drahovzal; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Chris Laughery; Katharine Lee Avary

    2004-04-01

    Private- and public-sector stakeholders formed the new ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' and began a two-year research effort that will lead to a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration throughout the Appalachian basin. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 gas exploration companies and 6 research team members, including the state geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks are being conducted by basin-wide research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. More than 3400 miles of Appalachian basin digital seismic data have been quality checked. In addition, inquiries have been made regarding the availability of additional seismic data from government and industry partners in the consortium. Interpretations of the seismic data have begun. Error checking is being performed by mapping the time to various prominent reflecting horizons, and analyzing for any anomalies. A regional geological velocity model is being created to make time-to-depth conversions. Members of the stratigraphy task team compiled a generalized, basin-wide correlation chart, began the process of scanning geophysical logs and laid out lines for 16 regional cross sections. Two preliminary cross sections were constructed, a database of all available Trenton-Black River cores was created, and a basin-wide map showing these core locations was produced. Two cores were examined, described and photographed in detail, and were correlated to the network of geophysical logs. Members of the petrology team began the process of determining the original distribution of porous and permeable facies within a sequence stratigraphic framework. A detailed sedimentologic and petrographic study of the Union Furnace road cut in central Pennsylvania was completed. This effort will facilitate the calibration

  9. An Appalachian portrait : black and white in Montgomery County, Virginia, before the Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    Montgomery County, Virginia, is a southern Appalachian county founded in 1776. Throughout the county's antebellum history, as with most other regions of the South, four major population groups were visibly present. There were slaves, free blacks, white slaveowners, and white non-slaveowners. Little research has previously been conducted on the antebellum people of the Appalachian South. This work is a social history consisting of cross tabulations of data found in the county...

  10. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  11. Timing of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization: Relation to Appalachian orogenic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, S.E.; van der Pluijm, B.A. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Although Mississippi Valley-type deposits in Lower Ordovician carbonate rocks of the Appalachian orogen are commonly interpreted to have been precipitated by basinal brines, the timing of brine migration remains poorly known. Late Paleozoic K-Ar isotopic ages on authigenic K-feldspar, which is widespread in Appalachian carbonate rocks, as well as evidence of paleomagnetic overprints of similar age, have focused attention on the possibility that these Mississippi Valley-type deposits formed as a result of late Paleozoic deformation. Geologic and geochemical similarities among most of these deposits, from Georgia to Newfoundland, including unusually high sphalerite/galena ratios, isotopically heavy sulfur, and relatively nonradiogenic lead, suggest that they are coeval. Sphalerite sand that parallels host-rock layering in many of the deposits indicates that mineralization occurred before regional deformation. Although the late Paleozoic age of deformation in the southern Appalachians provides little constraint on the age of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization, deformation of these deposits in the Newfoundland Appalachians is early to middle Paleozoic in age. Thus, if Ordovician-hosted, Appalachian Mississippi Valley-type deposits are coeval, they must have formed by middle Paleozoic time and cannot be the product of a late Paleozoic fluid-expulsion event. This hypothesis has important implications for basin evolution, fluid events, and remagnetization in the Appalachians.

  12. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  13. Social isolation and cognitive function in Appalachian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Wu, Bei; Scogin, Forrest

    2014-03-01

    Investigating the relation between social isolation and cognitive function will allow us to identify components to incorporate into cognitive interventions. Data were collected from 267 Appalachian older adults (M = 78.5, range 70-94 years). Overall cognitive functioning and specific cognitive domains were assessed from data of a self-assembled neuropsychological battery of frequently used tasks. Social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation were measured from the Lubben Social Network scale-6. Results indicated a significant positive association between all predictor variables (e.g., social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation) and outcome variables (e.g., overall cognitive function, memory, executive functioning, attention, and language abilities). Perceived isolation accounted for nearly double the amount of variance in overall cognitive functioning than social disconnectedness (10.2% vs. 5.7%). Findings suggest that social isolation is associated with poorer overall cognitive functioning and this remains true across varied cognitive domains. © The Author(s) 2012.

  14. Assessing the usability and potential value of seasonal climate forecasts in land management decisions in the southwest UK: challenges and reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta Bruno

    2017-06-01

    The potential usability and benefits of seasonal climate forecasts (SCF) to help inform decision-making processes is widely accepted. However, the practical use of SCF in Europe is still fairly recent and, as such, current knowledge of the added benefits of SCF in supporting and improving decision-making is limited. This study is based on research conducted to co-develop a semi-operational climate service prototype - the Land Management Tool (LMTool) - with farmers in South West regions of the UK. The value of the SCF provided to the farmers was examined to help us understand the usability and (potential) value of these forecasts in farmers' decisions during the winter months of 2015/2016. The findings from the study point to the need to explore and develop (new) research methods capable of addressing the complexity of the decision-making processes, such as those in the farming sector. The farmers who used the SCF perceived it as useful and usable as it helped them change and adapt their decision-making and thus, avoid unnecessary costs. However, to fully grasp the potential value of using SCF, farmers emphasised the need for the provision of SCF for longer periods of time to allow them to build trust and confidence in the information provided. This paper contributes to ongoing discussions about how to assess the use and value of SCF in decision-making processes in a meaningful and effective way.

  15. Geology of the Devonian black shales of the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roen, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Black shales of Devonian age in the Appalachian Basin are a unique rock sequence. The high content of organic matter, which imparts the characteristic lithology, has for years attracted considerable interest in the shales as a possible source of energy. The recent energy shortage prompted the U.S. Department of Energy through the Eastern Gas Shales Project of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center to underwrite a research program to determine the geologic, geochemical, and structural characteristics of the Devonian black shales in order to enhance the recovery of gas from the shales. Geologic studies by Federal and State agencies and academic institutions produced a regional stratigraphic network that correlates the 15 ft black shale sequence in Tennessee with 3000 ft of interbedded black and gray shales in central New York. These studies correlate the classic Devonian black shale sequence in New York with the Ohio Shale of Ohio and Kentucky and the Chattanooga Shale of Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic markers in conjunction with gamma-ray logs facilitated long-range correlations within the Appalachian Basin. Basinwide correlations, including the subsurface rocks, provided a basis for determining the areal distribution and thickness of the important black shale units. The organic carbon content of the dark shales generally increases from east to west across the basin and is sufficient to qualify as a hydrocarbon source rock. Significant structural features that involve the black shale and their hydrocarbon potential are the Rome trough, Kentucky River and Irvine-Paint Creek fault zone, and regional decollements and ramp zones. ?? 1984.

  16. Acid deposition and water use efficiency in Appalachian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcomb, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple studies have reported increases in forest water use efficiency in recent decades, but the drivers of these trends remain uncertain. While acid deposition has profoundly altered the biogeochemistry of Appalachian forests in the past century, its impacts on forest water use efficiency have been largely overlooked. Plant ecophysiology literature suggests that plants up-regulate transpiration in response to soil nutrient limitation in order to maintain sufficient mass flow of nutrients. To test the impacts of acid deposition on forest eco-hydrology in central Appalachia, we integrated dendrochronological techniques, including tree ring δ13C analysis, with catchment water balance data from the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. Tree cores from four species were collected in Fernow Watershed 3, which has received experimental ammonium sulfate additions since 1989, and Watershed 7, an adjacent control catchment. Initial results suggest that acidification treatments have not significantly influenced tree productivity compared to a control watershed, but the effect varies by species, with tulip poplar showing greatest sensitivity to acidification. Climatic water balance, defined as the difference between growing season precipitation and evapotranspiration, is significantly related to annual tree ring growth, suggesting that climate may be driving tree growth trends in chronically acidified Appalachian forests. Tree ring 13C analysis from Fernow cores is underway and these data will be integrated with catchment hydrology data from five other sites in central Appalachia and the U.S. Northeast, representing a range of forest types, soil base saturations, and acid deposition histories. This work will advance understanding of how climate and acid deposition interact to influence forest productivity and water use efficiency, and improve our ability to model carbon and water cycling in forested ecosystems impacted by acid deposition.

  17. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-12-15

    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  18. Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Check, I.J.; Kidd, M.R.; Staton, G.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis. We analyzed 32 paired sera and BAL fluids from sarcoidosis patients by high-resolution agarose electrophoresis to look for protein changes characteristic of systemic or local inflammation and compared the results with those from the above tests. Nine patients (group 1) had serum inflammatory protein changes and increased total protein, albumin, beta 1-globulin (transferrin), and gamma-globulin levels in fluid recovered by BAL. Thirteen patients (group 2) had normal protein levels in sera but abnormal protein levels in BAL specimens. Ten patients (group 3) had normal protein levels in sera and in BAL specimens. Patients in groups 1 and 2 had a disproportionate increase in beta 1-globulin (transferrin) and gamma-globulin levels in their BAL specimens. The BAL lymphocyte percentage changes paralleled the BAL protein level changes, suggesting relationships among the immunoregulatory role of these cells, increased local immunoglobulin synthesis, and the pathogenesis of altered alveolar permeability. Gallium-67 uptake was highest in patients with serum inflammatory protein changes. Thus, systemic inflammation may facilitate pulmonary gallium-67 uptake, possibly by changes in BAL fluid or serum transferrin saturation and/or kinetics. SACE levels showed no relationship to changes in the levels of serum or BAL proteins. These data suggest that the various proposed measures of disease activity reflect different aspects of inflammation in sarcoidosis

  19. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  20. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  1. How Closely Do the δ13C Values of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plants Reflect the Proportion of CO2 Fixed during Day and Night?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant δ13C values provide an index of the proportions of CO2 fixed during daytime and nighttime was assessed. Shoots of seven CAM species (Aloe vera, Hylocereus monocanthus, Kalanchoe beharensis, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, Kalanchoe pinnata, Vanilla pauciflora, and Xerosicyos danguyi) and two C3 species (teak [Tectona grandis] and Clusia sp.) were grown in a cuvette, and net CO2 exchange was monitored for up to 51 d. In species exhibiting net dark CO2 fixation, between 14% and 73.3% of the carbon gain occurred in the dark. δ13C values of tissues formed inside the cuvette ranged between −28.7‰ and −11.6‰, and correlated linearly with the percentages of carbon gained in the light and in the dark. The δ13C values for new biomass obtained solely during the dark and light were estimated as −8.7‰ and −26.9‰, respectively. For each 10% contribution of dark CO2 fixation integrated over the entire experiment, the δ13C content of the tissue was, thus, approximately 1.8‰ less negative. Extrapolation of the observations to plants previously surveyed under natural conditions suggests that the most commonly expressed version of CAM in the field, “the typical CAM plant,” involves plants that gain about 71% to 77% of their carbon by dark fixation, and that the isotopic signals of plants that obtain one-third or less of their carbon in the dark may be confused with C3 plants when identified on the basis of carbon isotope content alone. PMID:12177497

  2. Sustainable Radioactive Waste Management: Reflections on Building a Durable Relationship Between a Facility and the Local Community by Adding Value to Waste Management Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hove, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The appropriate model for radioactive waste management projects is clearly the insertion in the local economy. The author of this paper states that RWM initiatives need a committed and knowledgeable host community over a very long period. This can only be achieved if RWM projects are firmly localised and tied in with the daily life of the host community: RWM projects should go local and bring value to the community in multiple ways. As global economy rules very much dominate the present thinking and norm setting, a durable RWM initiative does not come about spontaneously, explicit value adding measures are required: attention to design (go outside the circle of utilitarian engineering and bring in some creativity and imagination), go for multi-functionality (visitor center, sports facility, etc.), distinctiveness (remarkable architecture, beautiful landscaping, unusual features in the engineering...), meaningful service to society. There are also some preconditions such as sustainable integration of projects in the local community (develop projects in local partnerships) and avoiding the trap of safety-through-adversarial-security

  3. White Infant Mortality in Appalachian States, 1976-1980 and 1996-2000: Changing Patterns and Persistent Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nengliang; Matthews, Stephen A.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Appalachian counties have historically had elevated infant mortality rates. Changes in infant mortality disparities over time in Appalachia are not well-understood. This study explores spatial inequalities in white infant mortality rates over time in the 13 Appalachian states, comparing counties in Appalachia with non-Appalachian…

  4. Less approach, more avoidance: Response inhibition has motivational consequences for sexual stimuli that reflect changes in affective value not a lingering global brake on behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Rachel L; de Launay, Keelia Quinn; Fenske, Mark J

    2018-02-01

    Response inhibition negatively impacts subsequent hedonic evaluations of motivationally relevant stimuli and reduces the behavioral incentive to seek and obtain such items. Here we expand the investigation of the motivational consequences of inhibition by presenting sexually appealing and nonappealing images in a go/no-go task and a subsequent image-viewing task. Each initially obscured image in the viewing task could either be made more visible or less visible by repeatedly pressing different keys. Fewer key presses were made to obtain better views of preferred-sex images when such images had previously been inhibited as no-go items than when previously encountered as noninhibited go items. This finding replicates prior results and is consistent with the possibility that motor-response suppression has lingering effects that include global reductions in all behavioral expression. However, for nonpreferred images, prior inhibition resulted in more key presses to obscure their visibility than when such images had not been inhibited. This novel finding suggests that the motivational consequences of response inhibition are not due to a global brake on action but are instead linked to negative changes in stimulus value that induce corresponding increases in avoidance and decreases in approach.

  5. The recent multi-ethnic global lung initiative 2012 (GLI2012) reference values don't reflect contemporary adult's North African spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Helmi; El Attar, Mohamed Nour; Hadj Mabrouk, Khaoula; Ben Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Abdelghani, Ahmed; Bousarssar, Mohamed; Limam, Khélifa; Maatoug, Chiraz; Bouslah, Hmida; Charrada, Ameur; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-12-01

    The applicability of the recent multi-ethnic reference equations derived by the ERS Global Lung Initiative (ERS/GLI) in interpreting spirometry data in North African adult subjects has not been studied. To ascertain how well the recent ERS/GLI reference equations fit contemporary adult Tunisian spirometric data. Spirometric data were recorded from 1192 consecutive spirometry procedures in adults aged 18-60 years. Reference values and lower limits of normality (LLN) were calculated using the local and the ERS/GLI reference equations. Applied definitions: large airway obstructive ventilatory defect (LAOVD): FEV1/FVC contemporary Tunisian spirometry. Using Tunisian reference equations, 71.31%, 6.71% and 19.04% of spirometry records were interpreted as normal, and as having, LAOVD and TRVD, respectively. Using the ERS/GLI reference equations, these figures were respectively, 85.82%, 4.19% and 8.39%. The mean ± SD Z-scores for the contemporary healthy North African subject's data were -0.55 ± 0.87 for FEV1, -0.62 ± 0.86 for FVC and 0.10 ± 0.73 for FEV1/FVC. The present study don't recommend the use of the recent ERS/GLI reference equations to interpret spirometry in North African adult population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cultural perspectives concerning adolescent use of tobacco and alcohol in the Appalachian mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael G; Toborg, Mary A; Denham, Sharon A; Mande, Mary J

    2008-01-01

    Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence.

  7. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  8. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  9. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  10. Reflections on the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Reflections on the field of special education offer six ideas: (1) the value of science; (2) the continuing value of separate and special education for some students; (3) the continuing importance of prevention; (4) the importance of academic instruction; (5) the importance of social justice for the poor; and (6) a renewed emphasis on human…

  11. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  12. Unraveling the origin of the Appalachian gametophyte, Vittaria appalachiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Jerald B; Schuettpelz, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Ferns and lycophytes are distinct among plants in producing two free-living life stages: a long-lived sporophyte phase and a (usually) short-lived gametophyte phase. Notably, however, some species have perennial, vegetatively reproducing gametophytes. Vittaria appalachiana is one of just three species in which mature sporophytes are unknown. It has a wide range throughout the Appalachian Mountains and Plateau, where it reproduces asexually via gemmae. The origin of V. appalachiana, however, has long been a mystery, with most previous studies suggesting it may have resulted from hybridization of two closely related Vittaria species (V. graminifolia and V. lineata). A four-gene plastid data set including 32 samples of six Vittaria species, plus samples of five outgroup species, was analyzed to uncover phylogenetic relationships. Additional analyses of nuclear DET1 gene sequences allowed for the examination of hypotheses involving a hybrid origin for V. appalachiana. In the plastid phylogeny, V. appalachiana is well supported as monophyletic, but is embedded within V. graminifolia. With the exception of a single aberrant allele, this result is mirrored in the nuclear tree. Through analyses of plastid and nuclear data sets, this study demonstrates that a hybrid origin for V. appalachiana is unlikely. Instead, it appears that this species emerged from within the V. graminifolia lineage. Further work is needed to fully elucidate the genetic structure within this group. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion

  14. A Müllerian mimicry ring in Appalachian millipedes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Paul E.; Bond, Jason E.

    2009-01-01

    Few biological phenomena provide such an elegant and straightforward example of evolution by natural selection as color mimicry among unrelated organisms. By mimicking the appearance of a heavily defended aposematic species, members of a second species gain protection from predators and, potentially, enhanced fitness. Mimicking a preexisting warning advertisement is economical because a potentially costly novel one can be avoided; simultaneously, the addition of more aposematic individuals enhances the overall warning effect. The better-known mimetic systems comprise tropical taxa, but here, we show a remarkable example of color mimicry in 7 species of blind, cyanide-generating millipedes endemic to the Appalachian Mountains of temperate North America. Because these millipedes lack eyes, there is no sexual selection or intraspecific signaling for coloration, providing an ideal system for mimicry studies. We document a Müllerian symbiosis where unrelated species vary in color and pattern over geographical space but appear identical where they co-occur. By using spectral color data, estimations of evolutionary history, and detailed field observations of species abundance, we test 4 predictions of Müllerian mimicry theory and begin to unravel the story of an elaborate mimetic diversification in the forests of Appalachia. PMID:19487663

  15. Disturbance alters local-regional richness relationships in appalachian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belote, R.T.; Sanders, N.J.; Jones, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Whether biological diversity within communities is limited by local interactions or regional species pools remains an important question in ecology. In this paper, we investigate how an experimentally applied tree-harvesting disturbance gradient influenced local-regional richness relationships. Plant species richness was measured at three spatial scales (2 ha = regional; 576 m2 and 1 m2 = local) on three occasions (one year pre-disturbance, one year post-disturbance, and 10 years post-disturbance) across five disturbance treatments (uncut control through clearcut) replicated throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We investigated whether species richness in 576-m2 plots and 1-m2 subplots depended on species richness in 2-ha experimental units and whether this relationship changed through time before and after canopy disturbance. We found that, before disturbance, the relationship between local and regional richness was weak or nonexistent. One year after disturbance local richness was a positive function of regional richness, because local sites were colonized from the regional species pool. Ten years after disturbance, the positive relationship persisted, but the slope had decreased by half. These results suggest that disturbance can set the stage for strong influences of regional species pools on local community assembly in temperate forests. However, as time since disturbance increases, local controls on community assembly decouple the relationships between regional and local diversity. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. IYA Outreach Plans for Appalachian State University's Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Pollock, J. T.; Saken, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Appalachian State University will provide a variety of observing opportunities for the public during the International Year of Astronomy. These will be focused at both the campus GoTo Telescope Facility used by Introductory Astronomy students and the research facilities at our Dark Sky Observatory. The campus facility is composed of a rooftop deck with a roll-off roof housing fifteen Celestron C11 telescopes. During astronomy lab class meetings these telescopes are used either in situ or remotely by computer control from the adjacent classroom. For the IYA we will host the public for regular observing sessions at these telescopes. The research facility features a 32-inch DFM Engineering telescope with its dome attached to the Cline Visitor Center. The Visitor Center is still under construction and we anticipate its completion for a spring opening during IYA. The CVC will provide areas for educational outreach displays and a view of the telescope control room. Visitors will view celestial objects directly at the eyepiece. We are grateful for the support of the National Science Foundation, through grant number DUE-0536287, which provided instrumentation for the GoTO facility, and to J. Donald Cline for support of the Visitor Center.

  17. Hydrologic budget and conditions of Permian, Pennsylvanian, and Mississippian aquifers in the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Kurt J.; Yager, Richard M.; Nelms, David L.; Ladd, David E.; Monti,, Jack; Kozar, Mark D.

    2015-08-13

    In response to challenges to groundwater availability posed by historic land-use practices, expanding development of hydrocarbon resources, and drought, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program began a regional assessment of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers in 2013 that incorporated a hydrologic landscape approach to estimate all components of the hydrologic system: surface runoff, base flow from groundwater, and interaction with atmospheric water (precipitation and evapotranspiration). This assessment was intended to complement other Federal and State investigations and provide foundational groundwater-related datasets in the Appalachian Plateaus.

  18. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  19. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  20. Experimental Evidence that Hemlock Mortality Enhances Carbon Stabilization in Southern Appalachian Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraterrigo, J.; Ream, K.; Knoepp, J.

    2017-12-01

    Forest insects and pathogens (FIPs) can cause uncertain changes in forest carbon balance, potentially influencing global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. We quantified the effects of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L. Carr.) mortality on soil carbon fluxes and pools for a decade following either girdling or natural infestation by hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) to improve mechanistic understanding of soil carbon cycling response to FIPs. Although soil respiration (Rsoil) was similar among reference plots and plots with hemlock mortality, both girdled and HWA-infested plots had greater activities of β-glucosidase, a cellulose-hydrolyzing extracellular enzyme, and decreased O-horizon mass and fine root biomass from 2005 to 2013. During this period, total mineral soil carbon accumulated at a higher rate in disturbed plots than in reference plots in both the surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-30 cm); increases were predominantly in the mineral-associated fraction of the soil organic matter. In contrast, particulate organic matter carbon accrued slowly in surface soils and declined in the subsurface of girdled plots. δ13C values of this fraction demonstrate that particulate organic matter carbon in the surface soil has become more microbially processed over time, suggesting enhanced decomposition of organic matter in this pool. Together, these findings indicate that hemlock mortality and subsequent forest regrowth has led to enhanced soil carbon stabilization in southern Appalachian forests through the translocation of carbon from detritus and particulate soil organic matter pools to the mineral-associated organic matter pool. These findings have implications for ecosystem management and modeling, demonstrating that forests may tolerate moderate disturbance without diminishing soil carbon storage when there is a compensatory growth response by non-host trees.

  1. Release of suppressed red spruce using canopy gap creation—Ecological restoration in the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentch, J.S.; Ford, W. Mark; Schuler, T.S.; Palmer, J.; Diggins, Corinne A.

    2016-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the results of an understory red spruce release experiment in hardwood-dominated stands that have a small component of understory red spruce. In 2005, 188 target spruce were identified in sample plots at six locations in central West Virginia. We projected a vertical cylinder above the crown of all target spruces, and in 2007, we performed a release treatment whereby overtopping hardwoods were treated with herbicide using a stem injection technique. Release treatments removed 0–10% (Control), 11–50% (Low), 51–89% (Medium), and ≤90% (High) of the basal area of overtopping trees. We also took canopy photographs at the time of each remeasurement in 2007, 2010, and 2013, and compared basal removal treatments and resulting 2010 canopy openness and understory light values. The high treatment level provided significantly greater six-year dbh and height growth than the other treatment levels. Based on these results, we propose that a tree-centered release approach utilizing small canopy gaps that emulate the historical, gap-phase disturbance regime provides a good strategy for red spruce restoration in hardwood forests where overstory spruce are virtually absent, and where red spruce is largely relegated to the understory.

  2. Data report: resource ratings of the RARE II tracts in the Idaho-Wyoming-Utah and the central Appalachian thrust belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelker, A.H.; Wedow, H.; Oakes, E.; Scheffler, P.K.

    1979-11-01

    The assessment forms contained in this report constitute the data used in two resource assessments described in A Systematic Method for Resource Rating with Two Applications to Potential Wilderness Areas (Voelker et al. 1979). The assessments were performed for two geologic subprovinces containing proposed wilderness areas identified in the Forest Service Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) program. The subprovinces studied are the Idaho-Wyoming-Utah thrust belt and the central Appalachians thrust belt. Each assessment form contains location data, resource ratings, and supporting information for a single tract. A unique dual rating that reflects geologic favorability and certainty of resource occurrence is assigned to each resource category evaluated. Individual ratings are synthesized into an overall tract-importance rating. Ratings created by others are included for comparative purposes wherever available. Supporting information consists of commentary and references that explain and document the ratings listed

  3. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  4. Manual herbicide application methods for managing vegetation in Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Four manual herbicide application methods are described for use in Appalachian hardwood forests. Stem injection, basal spray, cut-stump, and foliar spray techniques can be used to control interfering vegetation and promote the development of desirable reproduction and valuable crop trees in hardwood forests. Guidelines are presented to help the user select the...

  5. Trends in Tuberculosis Reported from the Appalachian Region: United States, 1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Armstrong, Lori R.; Pratt, Robert H.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Iademarco, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has been characterized by its poverty, a factor associated with tuberculosis, yet little is known about the disease in this region. Purpose: To determine whether Appalachian tuberculosis risk factors, trends, and rates differ from the rest of the United States. Methods: Analysis of tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for…

  6. Biscuits, Sausage, Gravy, Milk, and Orange Juice: School Breakfast Environment in 4 Rural Appalachian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Andrea; Haughton, Betsy; Jahns, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Eugene; Jones, Sonya J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the school breakfast environment in rural Appalachian schools to inform school environment intervention and policy change. Methods: A total of 4 rural schools with fourth- and fifth-grade students in East Tennessee were assessed. A cross-sectional descriptive examination of the school food…

  7. 77 FR 39733 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Appalachian Trail Management Partner Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [WASO-NRSS-10750; 2490-STC] Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Appalachian Trail Management Partner Survey AGENCY: National Park Service (NPS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of a currently approved information collection (1024-0259...

  8. Using hyperdocuments to manage scientific knowledge: the prototype Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor

    2005-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming body of research available on the ecology and management of Southern Appalachian forests, a gap exists between what scientists know and what the management community is able to apply on the ground. Most research knowledge still resides in highly technical, narrowly focused research publications housed in libraries. The internet, combined with...

  9. Fuels and predicted fire behavior in the southern Appalachian Mountains and fire and fire surrogate treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Waldrop; Ross J. Phillips; Dean A. Simon

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the success of fuel reduction treatments for mitigating wildfire behavior in an area that has had little previous research on fire, the southern Appalachian Mountains. A secondary objective of treatments was to restore the community to an open woodland condition. Three blocks of four treatments were installed in a mature hardwood forest in western...

  10. Plant succession and community restoration following felling and burning in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose

    2000-01-01

    Recent declines in the yellow pine component of pine-hardwood stands in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has prompted managers to increase the use of fire as a silvicultural tool. The fell and burn treatment is designed to remove competing vegetation (hardwoods and mountain laurel...

  11. Aboveground biomass and nutrient accumulation 20 years after clear-cutting a southern Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; Lindsay R. Boring; Wayne T. Swank

    2002-01-01

    In 1975, we initiated a long-term interdisciplinary study of forest watershed ecosystem response to clear- cutting and cable logging in watershed 7 at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. This paper describes ~20 years of change in species composition, aboveground biomass, leaf area index (LAI),...

  12. Using fire to restore pine/hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Barton D. Clinton; Ronald L. Hendrick; Amy E. Major

    1997-01-01

    In the Southern Appalachians, mixed pine/hardwood ecosystems occupy the most xeric sites (i.e., south/west aspect ridge sites). They are typically comprised of varying proportions of pitch pine (Pinus rigida), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and/or shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and a mixture of hardwoods, including scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), chestnut oak (...

  13. Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

  14. Seasonal dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in the southeastern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Jr. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton

    2008-01-01

    The potential for seasonal dynamics in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal assemblages has important implications for the ecology of both the host trees and the fungal associates. We compared EM fungus distributions on root systems of out-planted oak seedlings at two sites in mixed southeastern Appalachian Mountain forests at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina...

  15. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton

    2005-01-01

    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The...

  16. Imidacloprid movement in soils and impacts on soil microarthropods in southern Appalachian eastern hemlock stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; Jerry L. Michael; Barbara C. Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide effective in controlling the exotic pest Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid) in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees. Concerns over imidacloprid impacts on nontarget species have limited its application in southern Appalachian ecosystems. We quantified the movement and adsorption of imidacloprid in forest soils after soil...

  17. Vegetation response to large scale disturbance in a southern Appalachian forest: Hurricane Opal and salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; Stephanie L. Hitchcock; Lisa Krueger

    2002-01-01

    Disturbance such as catastrophic windthrow can play a major role in the structure and composition of southern Appalachian forests. We report effects of Hurricane Opal followed by salvage logging on vegetation dynamics (regeneration, composition, and diversity) the first three years after disturbance at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western North Carolina. The...

  18. Why Individuals Hike the Appalachian Trail: A Qualitative Approach to Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Marni; Hill, Eddie; Freidt, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The Appalachian Trail (AT) is a 2,175 mile-long National Scenic Trail extending from Maine to Georgia. Since its inception in the early 1920s, individuals, families, schools, and other organizations, just to name a few, have used the AT. Approximately 3 to 4 million visitors hike a portion of the AT each year (ATC, 2006). Throughout its 80-year…

  19. Modeling and simulating two cut-to-length harvesting systems in central Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Yaoxiang Li

    2003-01-01

    The production rates and costs of two cut-to-length harvesting systems was simulated using a modular ground-based simulation model and stand yield data from fully stocked, second growth even aged central Appalachian hardwood forests. The two harvesters simulated were a modified John Deere 988 tracked excavator with a model RP 1600 single grip sawhead and an excavator...

  20. Productivity and cost of manual felling and cable skidding in central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Charlie Long; Joe McNeel; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2004-01-01

    A field production study was conducted for a manual harvesting system using a chainsaw and cable skidder in a central Appalachian hardwood forest site. A partial cut was performed on a 50-acre tract with an average slope of 25 percent. Felling time pre tree was most affected by diameter at breast height and the distance between harvested trees while skidding cycle time...

  1. An economic assessment of implementing streamside management zones in central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoxiang Li; Chris B. LeDoux; Jingxin Wang

    2006-01-01

    The effects of variable width of streamside management zones (25, 50, 75, and 100 ft) (SMZs) and removal level of trees (10%, 30%, and 50% of basal area) on production and cost of implementing SMZs in central Appalachian hardwood forests were simulated by using a computer model. Harvesting operations were performed on an 80-year-old generated natural hardwood stand...

  2. Indiana bats, northern long-eared bats, and prescribed fire in the Appalachians: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Loeb; Joy O' Keefe

    2014-01-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalist) is an endangered species and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis) has been proposed for listing as endangered. Both species are found throughout the Appalachians, and they commonly inhabit fire-dependent ecosystems such as pine and pine-oak forests. Due to their legal status, prescribed burns in areas where these species...

  3. Effects of prescribed fire in a central Appalachian oak-hickory stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1986-01-01

    A prescribed fire in a central Appalachian mixed hardwood stand caused considerable damage to the butt logs of many overstory trees. Although there were increases in the abundance and distribution of several species of hardwoods, advanced red and chestnut oaks were poorly distributed 5-years after burning. An abundance of striped maple and other shrubs in the...

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) of the Central Appalachians, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John J; Murphy, Sean M; Augustine, Ben C; Guthrie, Joseph M; Hast, John T; Maehr, Sutton C; McDermott, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.

  5. 78 FR 57373 - Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application To Increase Water Withdraw and Construct Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... License Article 202 and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, Protests, and Recommendations Take..., protests, comments, or recommendations using the Commission's eFiling system at http://www.ferc.gov/docs... pursuant to article 202. b. Project No: 2376-048. c. Date Filed: July 31, 2013. d. Applicant: Appalachian...

  6. The Impact of International Students on American Students and Faculty at an Appalachian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdini, My Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to international students on American student and faculty perceptions at a regional Appalachian University. A revised and improved version of Jaleh Shabahang's (1993) "International Education Opinionnaire" was used to survey American students and faculty regarding their perceptions of the…

  7. Denitrification potential in sediments of headwater streams in the southern appalachian mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Martin; Patrick J. Mulholland; Jackson R. Webster; H. Maurice Vallett

    2001-01-01

    We investigated variations in resource availability (NOa-N and labile organic C [LOCJ] as determinants of potential denitrification in stream sediments in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. stream-water and sediments were sampled seasonally in 2 streams of contrasting NO3,-N availability, Noland Creek (high NO

  8. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  9. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third graders residing in 3 rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved…

  10. Persistence of Allegheny woodrats Neotoma magister across the mid-Atlantic Appalachian Highlands landscape, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Steven B. Castleberry; Michael T. Mengak; Jane L. Rodrigue; Daniel J. Feller; Kevin R. Russell

    2006-01-01

    We examined a suite of macro-habitat and landscape variables around active and inactive Allegheny woodrat Neotoma magister colony sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the mid-Atlantic Highlands of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia using an information-theoretic modeling approach. Logistic regression analyses suggested that Allegheny woodrat presence was related...

  11. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswalt, Ch.M.; Oswalt, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood hereafter dogwood) populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees) across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1) quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian eco region, (2) quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3) identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian eco region. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (ρ<.05) were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent) sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  12. Nitrogen deposition and cycling across an elevation and vegetation gradient in southern Appalachian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank

    2008-01-01

    We studied nitrogen (N) cycling pools and processes across vegetation and elevation gradients in. the southern Appalachian Mountains in SE USA. Measurements included bulk deposition input, watershed export, throughfall fluxes, litterfall, soil N pools and processes, and soil solution N. N deposition increased with elevation and ranged from 9.5 to 12.4 kg ha-...

  13. Using hyperdocuments for knowledge management: an encyclopedia of southern appalachian forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Patricia A. Flebbe; J.B. Jordin; W.G. Hubbard; M.C. Covington; N. Rushton

    2001-01-01

    Land managers increasingly need improved access to research knowledge that is thoroughly organized, condensed, and presented in a form that is useful for problem solving. In this paper, we describe the application of hyperdocuments for knowledge management, using an example of a newly developed hypertext encyclopedia on the southern Appalachians. The Encyclopedia of...

  14. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood—hereafter “dogwood” populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1 quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian ecoregion, (2 quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3 identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian ecoregion. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (<.05 were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  15. New methods for estimating non-timber forest product output: an Appalachian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Kruger; James. Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the size and structure of non-timber forest product (NTFP) markets is difficult due to a lack of knowledge about NTFP supply chains. Harvesting ginseng and other wild medicinal plants has long provided a source of income and cultural identity in Appalachian communities in the eastern United States. With the exception of ginseng, the extent of the harvest of...

  16. Adaptation and validation of the REGEN expert system for the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas R. Fox; David L. Loftis; David A. Boucugnani

    2011-01-01

    REGEN is an expert system that predicts future species composition at the onset of stem exclusion using preharvest stand conditions. To extend coverage into hardwood stands of the Central Appalachians, we developed REGEN knowledge bases for four site qualities (xeric, subxeric, submesic, mesic) based on relevant literature and expert opinion. Data were collected from...

  17. Interacting effects of wildfire severity and liming on nutrient cycling in a southern Appalachian wilderness area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Elliott; Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; William A. Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Aims Wilderness and other natural areas are threatened by large-scale disturbances (e.g., wildfire), air pollution, climate change, exotic diseases or pests, and a combination of these stress factors (i.e., stress complexes). Linville Gorge Wilderness (LGW) is one example of a high elevation wilderness in the southern Appalachian region that has been subject to stress...

  18. Evaluating relationships between natural resource management, land use changes, and flooding in the Appalachian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas P. Zegre; Samuel J. Lamont

    2013-01-01

    Th e Appalachian Region has a long history of natural resource management and recurrent history of frequent and large-scale floods. Land use activities such as urbanization, mining, forest harvesting, and agriculture can have a noticeable effect on the volume, magnitude, timing, and frequency of floods. Determining the effects of land use on flooding is difficult for...

  19. Tailoring Retention Theories to Meet the Needs of Rural Appalachian Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlinka, Karen R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Traditional-age students attending a rural community college in Kentucky's Appalachian region were interviewed, along with faculty members and administrators, to identify phenomena serving as sources of encouragement or as barriers to retention from the point of entry to the point of transfer. Method: Students' perspectives were…

  20. Establishing perennial seed-based energy crops on reclaimed surface mine soils in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie L. Schuler; Shawn Grushecky; Jingxin. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy has been at the forefront of the United States' energy policies. Cellulosic feedstocks have received considerable interest in the Appalachian region because of their abundance and availability, but cost competition from other energy sectors has limited their use in the region. Some other bioenergy feedstocks, such as corn and soybeans, are not a...

  1. Evolutionary history of two endemic Appalachian conifers revealed using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) and intermediate fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill. var. phanerolepis Fern.) exist in small populations in the Appalachian highlands of the southeastern United States. We used ten nuclear microsatellite markers to quantify genetic variation within Fraser fir and intermediate...

  2. Proceedings: Wildland Fire in the Appalachians: Discussions Among Managers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop

    2014-01-01

    Many challenges face fire managers and scientists in the Appalachian Mountains because of the region’s diverse topography and limited research supporting prescribed burning. This conference was designed to promote communication among managers, researchers, and other interested parties. These proceedings contain 30 papers and abstracts that describe ongoing research,...

  3. Effects of riparian zone buffer widths on vegetation diversity in southern Appalachian headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose

    2016-01-01

    In mountainous areas such as the southern Appalachians USA, riparian zones are difficult to define. Vegetation is a commonly used riparian indicator and plays a key role in protecting water resources, but adequate knowledge of floristic responses to riparian disturbances is lacking. Our objective was to quantify changes in stand-level floristic diversity of...

  4. Influence of forest road buffer zones on sediment transport in the Southern Appalachian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2013-01-01

    A gap exists in the understanding of the effectiveness of forest road best management practices (BMP) in controlling sediment movement and minimizing risks of sediment delivery to forest streams. The objective of this paper is to report the findings of investigations to assess sediment travel distances downslope of forest roads in the Appalachian region, relate...

  5. Changes to southern Appalachian water yield and stormflow after loss of a foundation species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven T. Brantley; Chelcy Ford Miniat; Katherine J. Elliott; Stephanie H. Laseter; James M. Vose

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined how insect outbreaks affect landscape-level hydrologic processes. We report the hydrologic effects of the invasive, exotic hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) in a headwater catchment in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The study watershed experienced complete mortality of an evergreen tree species, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (...

  6. Fish Habitat and Fish Populations in a Southern Appalachian Watershed before and after Hurricane Hugo

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Andrew Dolloff; Patricia A. Flebbe; Michael D. Owen

    1994-01-01

    Habitat features and relative abundance of all fish species were estimated in 8.4 km of a small mountain stream system before and 11 months after Hurricane Hugo crossed the southern Appalachians in September 1989. There was no change in the total amount (area) of each habitat type but the total number of habitat units decreased and average size and depth of habitat...

  7. Global climate change and fragmentation of native brook trout distribution in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1997-01-01

    Current distributions of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southern Appalachians are restricted to upper elevations by multiple factors, including habitat requirements, introduced rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown (Salmo trutta) trout, and other human activities. Present-day distribution of brook trout habitat is already fragmented. Increased...

  8. Managing Appalachian hardwood stands using four regeneration practices--34 year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1987-01-01

    Adjacent Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia established on excellent growing sites were managed for a 34-year period using four regeneration practices. These practices included a commercial clearcut, 15.5-in diameter-limit, and two single-tree selection practices. An uncut area was maintained as a control. Stand development, growth response, and some stumpage...

  9. Using silviculture to influence carbon sequestration in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Moore; R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long; Helga. van Miegroet

    2012-01-01

    Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C) sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled....

  10. Silvicultural and integrated pest management strategies for restoring eastern hemlock to degraded southern Appalachian mountain ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.A. Whittier; A.E. Mayfield III; R.M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    The ecologically foundational species eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, is being functionally eliminated from southern Appalachian forests by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae). The management of HWA has focused on chemical and biological control, conservation of hemlock genetic resources, and host resistance...

  11. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr, mortality will impact hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; James M. Vose

    2007-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is one of the principal riparian and cove canopy species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Throughout its range, eastern hemlock is facing potential widespread mortality from the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). If HWA-induced eastern hemlock mortality alters hydrologic function, land managers...

  12. Occurrence of an exotic earthworm (Amynthas agrestis) in undisturbed soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac. A. Callaham; Paul F. Hendrix; Ross J. Phillips

    2003-01-01

    This study documents the occurrence of an aggressive invasive earthworm species in undisturbed forest soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia, USA. Earthworms were sorted from samples collected in pitfall traps that had been set in mature, mesic oak-hickory forests in remote, high elevation, locations across northern Georgia. Specimens were...

  13. Successional dynamics and restoration implications of a montane coniferous forest in the central Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Schuler; Rachel J. Collins

    2002-01-01

    Central Appalachian montane red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) communities have been greatly reduced in extent and functional quality over the past century. This community decline has put several plant and animal species, such as the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus Shaw), at risk from habitat...

  14. Release of Suppressed Red Spruce Using Canopy Gap Creation--Ecological Restoration in the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Rentch; W.M. Ford; Thomas Schuler; Jeff Palmer; C.A. Diggins

    2016-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the...

  15. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  16. Reflecting on Writing Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The following reflections relate to the reasons for and an approach to an autobiographic task, the notions that underpin it, and some thoughts about the quality and value of such a project. The focus was on the ways one views curriculum change over time; and the intention was to provide an example that others may sense as either familiar or at…

  17. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  18. Appalachian Piedmont landscapes from the Permian to the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Between the Potomac and Susquehanna Rivers and from the Blue Ridge to the Fall Zone, landscapes of the Piedmont are illustrated for times in the Holocene, Late Wisconsin, Early Miocene, Early Cretaceous, Late Triassic, and Permian. Landscape evolution took place in tectonic settings marked by major plate collisions (Permian), arching and rifting (Late Triassic) and development of the Atlantic passive margin by sea floor spreading (Early Cretaceous). Erosion proceeded concurrently with tectonic uplift and continued after cessation of major tectonic activity. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf sediments record three major erosional periods: (1) Late Triassic-Early Jurassic; (2) Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous; and (3) Middle Miocene-Holocene. The Middle Miocene-Holocene pulse is related to neotectonic activity and major climatic fluctuations. In the Piedmont upland the Holocene landscape is interpreted as an upland surface of low relief undergoing dissection. Major rivers and streams are incised into a landscape on which the landforms show a delicate adjustment to rock lithologies. The Fall Zone has apparently evolved from a combination of warping, faulting, and differential erosion since Late Miocene. The periglacial environment of the Late Wisconsin (and earlier glacial epochs) resulted in increased physical erosion and reduced chemical weathering. Even with lowered saprolitization rates, geochemical modeling suggests that 80 m or more of saprolite may have formed since Late Miocene. This volume of saprolite suggests major erosion of upland surfaces and seemingly contradicts available field evidence. Greatly subdued relief characterized the Early Miocene time, near the end of a prolonged interval of tropical morphogenesis. The ancestral Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers occupied approximately their present locations. In Early Cretaceous time local relief may have been as much as 900 m, and a major axial river draining both the Piedmont and Appalachians flowed southeast

  19. Executive summary: Chapter A.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels from the Appalachian basin region have been major contributors to the Nation’s energy needs over much of the last three centuries. Early records indicate that Appalachian coal was first mined in the middle 1700s (Virginia and Pennsylvania) and was used sparingly to fuel colonial settlements and, later, a fledgling industrial-based economy along the eastern seaboard of the United States (de Witt and Milici, 1989). In 2011, central Appalachian basin coal production accounted for approximately 77 percent of all U.S. metallurgical (or coking) coal and 29 percent of total U.S. production (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2013). Following initial discoveries and commercial use in western New York (1821) and Ohio and West Virginia (mid-1830s), the Appalachian petroleum (oil and gas) industry began in earnest in 1859 with the discovery of oil at the Drake well in northwestern Pennsylvania. Between 1860 and 1989, the Appalachian basin produced more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 30 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) from more than 500,000 wells (de Witt and Milici, 1989). Although both oil and gas continue to be produced in the Appalachian basin, most new wells in the region are drilled in shale reservoirs to produce natural gas.

  20. Opportunity, community, and teen pregnancy in an Appalachian state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, R; Weaver, S; Williams, T; Lange, L

    1997-01-01

    This study examines female adolescents' responses to opportunities, costs, and community in West Virginia. It is posited that adolescent women's responses to structurally determined contextual factors will be the most important determinant of the teen birth rate. It is posited that girls avoid becoming pregnant and work to stay in school as a wise investment in their future. The variation in males' participation in contributing to teen pregnancy is not considered due to data limitations. West Virginia is a state with low teen abortion rates and limited teen mobility out of state. Community is construed as having a positive sense of affiliation and value for adolescents. Community is measured by school size and a range of 7 measures of community social organization: percentage of urban population in the district, percentage Black, percentage neither Black nor White, level of educational attainment, percentage of college preparatory students, percentage of college students, and percentage of service employees. The 7 factors were reduced with principal component analysis to a measure of modernity. Findings indicate that the birth rate increased by 8% for every increase of 100 students in average school size. The modern variable, which indicates departures from traditional patterns of community organization, was positively, statistically significantly related to the teenage birth rate. The college degree variable was related to increased teen pregnancy as a departure from traditional norms and decreased teen pregnancy as a measure of opportunity. Findings contrast with traditional interpretations of teen pregnancy. Findings indicate that teen pregnancy reflects a lack of opportunity, a decline in traditional community patterns, and the replacement of traditional social relations by shifting labor market relations. Teen births are consequences of disadvantage and disruption as context-driven factors.

  1. Reflective Practices for Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Kuswandono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on reflective practice in teacher education are increasingly getting more attention at least in the last 2 decades. This article discusses concepts of reflection and how it is implemented in educating pre-service teachers on their early stage of professional learning. The purposes of doing the reflection for pre-service teachers are not only for illuminating their professional learning experiences, but also to critically reflect their vocation as teachers, including the values which may be dictated to them through rigid regulations. Reflection in teacher education is crucial as it connects well with learning in that learners use reflection to exercise their mind and to evaluate their learning experiences. Besides, this article also highlights some perceived difficulties to implement reflective practice, as well as ways how to promote reflection.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150102

  2. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  3. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  4. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  5. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  6. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  7. Low Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis For The Appalachian Basin: Phase 1 Revised Report November 18, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Teresa E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Richards, Maria C. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Horowitz, Franklin G. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Camp, Erin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Smith, Jared D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Whealton, Calvin A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Stedinger, Jery R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Hornbach, Matthew J. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Frone, Zachary S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Tester, Jefferson W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Anderson, Brian [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Welcker, Kelydra [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Chickering Pace, Catherine [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); He, Xiaoning [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Magnani, Maria Beatrice [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Bolat, Rahmi [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-11-18

    Geothermal energy is an attractive sustainable energy source. Yet project developers need confirmation of the resource base to warrant their time and financial resources. The Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of the Appalachian Basin evaluated risk metrics that communicate the favorability of potential low-temperature geothermal energy resources in reservoirs more than 1000 m below the surface. This analysis is focused on the direct use of the heat, rather than on electricity production. Four risk factors of concern for direct-use geothermal plays in the Appalachian Basin portions of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia are examined individually, and then in combination: 1) thermal resource quality, 2) natural reservoir quality, 3) induced seismicity, and 4) utilization opportunities. Uncertainty in the risk estimation is quantified. Based on these metrics, geothermal plays in the Appalachian Basin were identified as potentially viable for a variety of direct-use-heat applications. The methodologies developed in this project may be applied in other sedimentary basins as a foundation for low temperature (50-150 °C), direct use geothermal resource, risk, and uncertainty assessment. Three methods with which to combine the four risk factors were used. Among these, the averaging of the individual risk factors indicates the most favorable counties within the study area are the West Virginia counties of Monongalia, Harrison, Lewis (dubbed the Morgantown–Clarksburg play fairway), Putnam, and Kanawha (Charleston play fairway), the New York counties of Chemung and Steuben plus adjacent Bradford county in Pennsylvania (Corning–Ithaca play fairway), and the Pennsylvania counties of Mercer, Crawford, Erie, and Warren, and adjacent Chautauqua county in New York (together, the Meadville–Jamestown play fairway). These higher priority regions are surrounded by broader medium priority zones. Also worthy of additional exploration is a broad region near Pittsburgh

  8. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  9. Coupled prediction of flood response and debris flow initiation during warm and cold season events in the Southern Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Barros, A. P.

    2013-07-01

    Debris flows associated with rainstorms are a frequent and devastating hazard in the Southern Appalachians in the United States. Whereas warm season events are clearly associated with heavy rainfall intensity, the same cannot be said for the cold season events. Instead, there is a relationship between large (cumulative) rainfall events independently of season, and thus hydrometeorological regime, and debris flows. This suggests that the dynamics of subsurface hydrologic processes play an important role as a trigger mechanism, specifically through soil moisture redistribution by interflow. The first objective of this study is to investigate this hypothesis. The second objective is to assess the physical basis for a regional coupled flood prediction and debris flow warning system. For this purpose, uncalibrated model simulations of well-documented debris flows in headwater catchments of the Southern Appalachians using a 3-D surface-groundwater hydrologic model coupled with slope stability models are examined in detail. Specifically, we focus on two vulnerable headwater catchments that experience frequent debris flows, the Big Creek and the Jonathan Creek in the Upper Pigeon River Basin, North Carolina, and three distinct weather systems: an extremely heavy summertime convective storm in 2011; a persistent winter storm lasting several days; and a severe winter storm in 2009. These events were selected due to the optimal availability of rainfall observations, availability of detailed field surveys of the landslides shortly after they occurred, which can be used to evaluate model predictions, and because they are representative of events that cause major economic losses in the region. The model results substantiate that interflow is a useful prognostic of conditions necessary for the initiation of slope instability, and should therefore be considered explicitly in landslide hazard assessments. Moreover, the relationships between slope stability and interflow are

  10. Appalachian States Compact Low-Level Radioactive Waste management survey, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.N.

    1989-03-01

    Since the enactment of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act in February 1988, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has undertaken major steps to develop a Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Disposal Facility within its borders for the exclusive use of radioactive material licensees in the Appalachian States Compact. In order to adequately plan for the design and development of that facility, it is essential to obtain accurate data on LLRW being generated in the Compact. To that end, the Division of Nuclear Safety of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) conducted a survey to determine volume and activity of LLRW shipped and stored in 1987 by the licensees in the Appalachian States Compact. The 1986 LLRW survey included licensees in Pennsylvania and Maryland, while surveys conducted prior to 1986 involved only Pennsylvania licensees. So this is the first survey conducted by BRP that has included all four states of the Compact

  11. Bat activity following restoration prescribed burning in the central Appalachian Upland and riparian habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Lauren V.; Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark; Muthersbaugh, Michael; Powers, Karen E.

    2018-01-01

    After decades of fire suppression in eastern North America, land managers now are prioritizing prescribed fire as a management tool to restore or maintain fire-adapted vegetation communities. However, in long—fire-suppressed landscapes, such as the central and southern Appalachians, it is unknown how bats will respond to prescribed fire in both riparian and upland forest habitats. To address these concerns, we conducted zero-crossing acoustic surveys of bat activity in burned, unburned, riparian, and non-riparian areas in the central Appalachians, Virginia, USA. Burn and riparian variables had model support (ΔAICc fire differently between upland and riparian forest habitats, but overall, large landscape-level prescribed fire has a slightly positive to neutral impact on all bats species identified at our study site post—fire application.

  12. Adult tooth loss for residents of US coal mining and Appalachian counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Ducatman, Alan M; Zullig, Keith J; Ahern, Melissa M; Crout, Richard

    2012-12-01

    The authors compared rates of tooth loss between adult residents of Appalachian coal-mining areas and other areas of the nation before and after control for covariate risks. The authors conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis that merged 2006 national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data (BRFSS) (N = 242 184) with county coal-mining data and other county characteristics. The hypothesis tested was that adult tooth loss would be greater in Appalachian mining areas after control for other risks. Primary independent variables included main effects for coal-mining present (yes/no) residence in Appalachia (yes/no), and their interaction. Data were weighted using the BRFSS final weights and analyzed using SUDAAN Proc Multilog to account for the multilevel complex sampling structure. The odds of two measures of tooth loss were examined controlling for age, race\\ethnicity, drinking, smoking, income, education, supply of dentists, receipt of dental care, fluoridation rate, and other variables. After covariate adjustment, the interaction variable for the residents of Appalachian coal-mining counties showed a significantly elevated odds for any tooth loss [odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.38], and greater tooth loss measured by a 4-level edentulism scale (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.36). The main effect for Appalachia was also significant for both measures, but the main effect for coal mining was not. Greater risk of tooth loss among adult residents of Appalachian coal-mining areas is present and is not explained by differences in reported receipt of dental care, fluoridation rates, supply of dentists or other behavioral or socioeconomic risks. Possible contributing factors include mining-specific disparities related to access, behavior or environmental exposures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Predicting climate change extirpation risk for central and southern Appalachian forest tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; William W. Hargrove; Frank H. Koch

    2010-01-01

    Climate change will likely pose a severe threat to the viability of certain forest tree species, which will be forced either to adapt to new conditions or to shift to more favorable environments if they are to survive. Several forest tree species of the central and southern Appalachians may be at particular risk, since they occur in limited high-elevation ranges and/or...

  14. Constraints on seismic anisotropy beneath the Appalachian Mountains from Love-to-Rayleigh wave scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servali, A.; Long, M. D.; Benoit, M.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern margin of North America has been affected by a series of mountain building and rifting events that have likely shaped the deep structure of the lithosphere. Observations of seismic anisotropy can provide insight into lithospheric deformation associated with these past tectonic events, as well as into present-day patterns of mantle flow beneath the passive margin. Previous work on SKS splitting beneath eastern North America has revealed fast splitting directions parallel to the strike of the Appalachian orogen in the central and southern Appalachians. A major challenge to the interpretation of SKS splitting measurements, however, is the lack of vertical resolution; isolating anisotropic structures at different depths is therefore difficult. Complementary constraints on the depth distribution of anisotropy can be provided by surface waves. In this study, we analyze the scattering of Love wave energy to Rayleigh waves, which is generated via sharp lateral gradients in anisotropic structure along the ray path. The scattered phases, known as quasi-Love (QL) waves, exhibit amplitude behavior that depend on the strength of the anisotropic contrast as well as the angle between the propagation azimuth and the anisotropic symmetry axis. We analyze data collected by the dense MAGIC seismic array across the central Appalachians. We examine teleseismic earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 and greater over a range of backazimuths, and isolate surface waves at periods between 100 and 500 seconds. We compare the data to synthetic seismograms generated by the Princeton Global ShakeMovie initiative to identify anomalous QL arrivals. We find evidence significant QL arrivals at MAGIC stations, with amplitudes depending on propagation azimuth and station location. Preliminary results are consistent with a sharp lateral gradient in seismic anisotropy across the Appalachian Mountains in the depth range between 100-200 km.

  15. Production and cost analysis of a feller-buncher in central Appalachian hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlie Long; Jingxin Wang; Joe McNeel; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2002-01-01

    A time study was conducted to evaluate the productivity and cost of a feller-buncher operating in a Central Appalachian hardwood forest. The sites harvested during observation consisted of primarily red maple and black cherry. Trees felled in the study had an average diameter at breast height (DBH) of 16.1 in. and a total merchantable height of 16 ft. A Timbco 445C...

  16. Prescribed Burning For Laurel and Rhodendron Control in the Southern appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph M. Hooper

    1969-01-01

    Prescribed fire shows promise as a tool for the control of laurel and rhododendron in the Southern Appalachian mountains. A recent prescribed fire killed the tops of 70 percent of ail laurel under 0.5 inch d.b.h. and 70 percent of the rhododendron under 1 inch d.b.h. Seventeen months after the bum, almost all of the top-killed laurel and rhododendron have...

  17. Effect of logging wounds on diameter growth of sawlog-size Appalachian hardwood crop trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1988-01-01

    In previously thinned, even-aged Appalachian hardwood stands, 5-year diameter growth of 102 wounded and 102 unwounded codominant crop trees were compared. A wounded crop tre was defined as one with at least one exposed sapwood logging wound at least 100 inch2 in size. An unwounded crop tree of the same species and size was selected near each of the 102 wounded trees....

  18. Leaf gas exchange of understory spruce-fir saplings in relict cloud forests, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, K.; Smith, W.K. [Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2008-01-15

    Global climate change is expected to increase regional cloud ceiling levels in many mountainous forested areas of the world. This study investigated environmental influences on the gas exchange physiology of understory red spruce and Fraser fir trees at 2 sites in the Appalachian mountains. The study hypothesized that the humid, cloudy environment would influence the photosynthetic performance of the trees, and that the species would adapt to low, diffuse light. The study also predicted that leaf conductance to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) would be high as a result of low leaf-to-air-vapour pressure deficit (LAVD). The study demonstrated that leaf conductance decreased exponentially as LAVD increased. Predawn leaf water potentials remained stable, while late afternoon values declined. It was concluded that leaf gas exchange was correlated with the response of leaf conductance and LAVD. The cloudy, humid environment strongly influenced tree leaf gas exchange and water relations. It was suggested that further research is needed to investigate cloud impacts on carbon gain and water relations. 72 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  19. Ethical Reflections on Becoming Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pamela Bolotin

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives written in a culminating graduate seminar on reflective practice by 36 new secondary teachers who were asked to consider their moral beliefs, moral values and system of ethics as they reflected on their recent student teaching experiences. The findings explore how the participants depicted their constructed moral…

  20. ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2002-12-01

    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that

  1. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  2. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-07-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  3. Evolutionary history and population genetics of fraser fir and intermediate fir, southern Appalachian endemic conifers imperiled by an exotic pest and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley Josserand; C. Dana. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Two Abies (true fir) taxa are endemic to high elevations of the Appalachian Mountains, where both are restricted to small populations and are imperiled by the same exotic insect. Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) exists in a handful of island-like populations on mountain ridges in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina, Tennessee and...

  4. Northern long-eared bat day-roosting and prescribed fire in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Silvis, Alexander; Johnson, Joshua B.; Edwards, John W.; Karp, Milu

    2016-01-01

    The northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis Trovessart) is a cavity-roosting species that forages in cluttered upland and riparian forests throughout the oak-dominated Appalachian and Central Hardwoods regions. Common prior to white-nose syndrome, the population of this bat species has declined to functional extirpation in some regions in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, including portions of the central Appalachians. Our long-term research in the central Appalachians has shown that maternity colonies of this species form non-random assorting networks in patches of suitable trees that result from long- and short-term forest disturbance processes, and that roost loss can occur with these disturbances. Following two consecutive prescribed burns on the Fernow Experimental Forest in the central Appalachians, West Virginia, USA, in 2007 to 2008, post-fire counts of suitable black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.; the most selected species for roosting) slightly decreased by 2012. Conversely, post-fire numbers of suitable maple (Acer spp. L.), primarily red maple (Acer rubrum L.), increased by a factor of three, thereby ameliorating black locust reduction. Maternity colony network metrics such as roost degree (use) and network density for two networks in the burned compartment were similar to the single network observed in unburned forest. However, roost clustering and degree of roost centralization was greater for the networks in the burned forest area. Accordingly, the short-term effects of prescribed fire are slightly or moderately positive in impact to day-roost habitat for the northern long-eared bat in the central Appalachians from a social dynamic perspective. Listing of northern long-eared bats as federally threatened will bring increased scrutiny of immediate fire impacts from direct take as well as indirect impacts from long-term changes to roosting and foraging habitat in stands being returned to historic fire-return conditions. Unfortunately, definitive

  5. Properties, origin and nomenclature of rodlets of the inertinite maceral group in coals of the central Appalachian basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Finkelman, R.B.; Thompson, C.L.; Brown, F.W.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Resin rodlets, sclerenchyma strands and woody splinters, which are collectively called rodlets, were studied by chemical, optical petrographic, and scanning-electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. A study was made of such rodlets from the bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin (Pennsylvanian; Upper Carboniferous) of the United States. Comparisons were made with rodlets from coal beds of the Illinois basin, the Southern Anthracite Field of Pennsylvania, the St. Rose coal field of Nova Scotia, and European and other coal fields. In order to determine their physical and chemical properties, a detailed study was made of the rodlets from the Pomeroy coal bed (high volatile A bituminous coal; Monongahela Formation; Upper Pennsylvanian) of Kanawha County, West Virginia. The origin of the rodlets was determined by a comparative analysis of a medullosan (seed fern) stem from the Herrin (No. 6) coal bed (high volatile C bituminous coal; Carbondale Formation) from Washington County, Illinois. Rodlets are commonly concentrated in fusain or carbominerite layers or lenses in bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin. Most of the rodlets examined in our study were probably derived from medullosan seed ferns. The three types of rodlets are distinguished on the basis of cellularity, morphology and fracture. The resin rodlets studied by us are noncellular and appear to be similar in properties and origin to those found in coal beds of the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian of the Illinois basin. The resin rodlets extracted from the Pomeroy coal bed exhibit high relief and high reflectance when polished and viewed in reflected light; they are opaque in transmitted light. In cross section, the resin rodlets are oval to round and have diameters ranging from 60 to 450 ??m. Many are solid, but some have vesicles, canals or cavities, which are commonly filled with clay, probably kaolinite. Typically, they have distinct fracture patterns ("kerfs") in longitudinal and

  6. North America as an exotic terrane'' and the origin of the Appalachian--Andean Mountain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalziel, I.W.D; Gahagan, L.M. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Geophysics); Dalla Salda, L.H. (Univ. Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas)

    1992-01-01

    North America was sutured to Gondwana in the terminal Alleghanian event of Appalachian orogenesis, thus completing the late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The suggestion that the Pacific margins of East Antarctica-Australia and Laurentia may have been juxtaposed during the Neoproterozoic prompts reevaluation of the widely held assumptions that the ancestral Appalachian margin rifted from northwestern Africa during the earliest Paleozoic opening of Iapetus, and remained juxtaposed to that margin, even though widely separated from it at times, until the assembly of Pangea. The lower Paleozoic carbonate platform of northwestern Argentina has been known for a long time to contain Olenellid trilobites of the Pacific or Columbian realm. Although normally regarded as some kind of far-travelled terrane that originated along the Appalachian margin of Laurentia, it has recently been interpreted as a fragment detached from the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia following Taconic-Famatinian collision with Gondwana during the Ordovician. The Oaxaca terrane of Mexico, on the other hand, contains a Tremadocian trilobite fauna of Argentine-Bolivian affinities, and appears to have been detached from Gondwana following the same collision. The Wilson cycle'' of Iapetus ocean basin opening and closing along the Appalachian and Andean orogens may have involved more than one such continental collision during clockwise drift of Laurentia around South America following late Neoproterozoic to earliest Cambrian separation. Together with the collisions of baltic and smaller terranes with Laurentia, this could explain the protracted Paleozoic orogenic history of both the Appalachian and proto-Andean orogens.

  7. Application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the Appalachians. Progress report no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutina, J.

    1979-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the U.S. It reviews analyses presented in previous reports which suggest that the basement of the Central and Eastern U.S. consists of large crustal blocks separated by major zones of tectonic weakness. The curvature of the Appalachian Fold Belt appears to be related to the east-west boundaries caused by subsiding and uplifting at these zones. A plot of epigenetic uranium occurrences reveals that they tend to cluster along the greater curvatures of the Appalachian orogeny. These findings have led to a systematic study of the regularities in the distribution of ore deposits in the Appalachians presented in this report. They include a description of geologic and geographic base maps, preparation of maps showing distribution of individual minerals, and regularities in the distribution of uranium in the Appalachians. Comments on the segmentation of the Appalachian orogeny by transverse lineaments are presented. The report contains seventeen maps of the eastern half of the U.S. showing specific mineral deposits in relation to geologic formations

  8. First definitive record of a stygobiotic fish (Percopsiformes, Amblyopsidae, Typhlichthys from the Appalachians karst region in the eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Niemiller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the central and eastern United States, cavefishes have been known historically only from the Interior Low Plateau and Ozarks karst regions. Previously, cavefishes were unknown from the Appalachians karst region, which extends from southeastern New York southwestward into eastern Tennessee, northwestern Georgia, and northeastern Alabama. Here we report the discovery of a new population of the amblyopsid cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1859 from a cave in Catoosa County, Georgia, that significantly extends the known distribution of the species. The cave is located in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province and Appalachians karst region, and represents the first definitive report of a stygobiotic fish from the Appalachians karst region. Genetic analyses of one mitochondrial and one nuclear locus from the cavefish indicate this population is closely allied with populations that occur along the western margins of Lookout and Fox mountains in Dade County, Georgia, and populations to the northwest in southern Marion County, Tennessee. It is likely that these populations are also related to those from Wills Valley, DeKalb County, Alabama. The distribution of this new population of T. subterraneus and its close allies pre-dates the emergence of a Tennessee-Coosa River drainage divide in the Pliocene. The potential exists to discover additional populations in caves within the Appalachians karst region in Catoosa County and northward into Hamilton County, Tennessee.

  9. Time Perspective and Physical Activity among Central Appalachian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Tauna

    2013-01-01

    Time perspective is a cultural behavioral concept that reflects individuals' orientations or attitudes toward the past, present, or future. Individuals' time perspectives influence their choices regarding daily activities. Time perspective is an important consideration when teaching adolescents about the importance of being physically active.…

  10. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  11. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  12. GPR Imaging of Fault Related Folds in a Gold-Bearing Metasedimentary Sequence, Carolina Terrane, Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, J. A.; Bobyarchick, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Carolina terrane comprises Ediacaran to earliest Paleozoic mixed magmatic and sedimentary assemblages in the central and eastern Piedmont of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. The terrane was primarily deformed during the Late Ordovician Cherokee orogeny, that reached greenschist facies metamorphism. The Albemarle arc, a younger component of the Carolina terrane, contains volcanogenic metasedimentary rocks with intercalated mainly rhyolitic volcanic rocks. Regional inclined to overturned folds with axial planar cleavage verge southeast. At mesoscopic scales (exposures of a few square meters), folds sympathetic with regional folds are attenuated or truncated by ductile shear zones or contractional faults. Shear and fault zones are most abundant near highly silicified strataform zones in metagraywacke of the Tillery Formation; these zones are also auriferous. GPR profiles were collected across strike of two silicified, gold-bearing zones and enclosing metagraywacke to characterize the scale and extent of folding in the vicinity of ore horizons. Several GSSI SIR-3000 / 100 MHz monostatic GPR profiles were collected in profiles up to 260 meters long. In pre-migration lines processed for time zero and background removal, several clusters of shallow, rolling sigmoidal reflectors appeared separated by sets of parallel, northwest-dipping reflective discontinuities. These features are inferred to be reverse faults carrying contractional folds. After migration with an average velocity of 0.105 m/ns, vertical heights of the inferred folds became attenuated but not removed, and contractional fault reflections remained prominent. After migration, a highly convex-up cluster of reflections initially assumed to be a fold culmination resolved to an elliptical patch of high amplitudes. The patch is likely an undisclosed shaft or covered trench left by earlier gold prospecting. In this survey, useful detail appeared to a depth of 7.5 meters, and only a few gently inclined

  13. Comparative Analysis of Health Care Needs among Children with Special Health Care Needs in Ohio's Metropolitan and Appalachian Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Elizabeth; Asti, Lindsey; Chisolm, Deena

    2015-08-01

    The study assessed whether children with special health care needs (CSHCN) living in Appalachian Ohio have differential health care utilization, unmet needs, and health outcomes compared with CSHCN in Ohio's metropolitan counties using a statewide Ohio survey. Based on this survey, an estimated 28% of children in Appalachian Ohio counties have special health care needs compared with 25% of children in metropolitan counties. In Appalachia, CSHCN are poorer and more likely to have Medicaid than their metropolitan counterparts, but had no reported significant differences in health outcomes or unmet needs. Data suggested a trend toward higher use of emergency department care and inpatient services and lower use of well-child visits but these differences did not reach significance. We conclude that CSHCN in Appalachian and metropolitan areas face similar levels of health status and unmet needs but results suggest a need for additional research on access to primary care services.

  14. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  15. Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-01-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling. PMID:21845150

  16. Predicting intensity of white-tailed deer herbivory in the Central Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniowski, Andrew B.; Ford, W. Mark

    2018-01-01

    In eastern North America, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have profound influences on forest biodiversity and forest successional processes. Moderate to high deer populations in the central Appalachians have resulted in lower forest biodiversity. Legacy effects in some areas persist even following deer population reductions or declines. This has prompted managers to consider deer population management goals in light of policies designed to support conservation of biodiversity and forest regeneration while continuing to support ample recreational hunting opportunities. However, despite known relationships between herbivory intensity and biodiversity impact, little information exists on the predictability of herbivory intensity across the varied and spatially diverse habitat conditions of the central Appalachians. We examined the predictability of browsing rates across central Appalachian landscapes at four environmental scales: vegetative community characteristics, physical environment, habitat configuration, and local human and deer population demographics. In an information-theoretic approach, we found that a model fitting the number of stems browsed relative to local vegetation characteristics received most (62%) of the overall support of all tested models assessing herbivory impact. Our data suggest that deer herbivory responded most predictably to differences in vegetation quantity and type. No other spatial factors or demographic factors consistently affected browsing intensity. Because herbivory, vegetation communities, and productivity vary spatially, we suggest that effective broad-scale herbivory impact assessment should include spatially-balanced vegetation monitoring that accounts for regional differences in deer forage preference. Effective monitoring is necessary to avoid biodiversity impacts and deleterious changes in vegetation community composition that are difficult to reverse and/or may not be detected using traditional deer

  17. Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Moran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  18. Hypogene caves of the central Appalachian Shenandoah Valley in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Orndorff, Wil

    2017-01-01

    Several caves in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia show evidence for early hypogenic conduit development with later-enhanced solution under partly confined phreatic conditions guided by geologic structures. Many (but not all) of these caves have been subsequently invaded by surface waters as a result of erosion and exhumation. Those not so affected are relict phreatic caves, bearing no relation to modern drainage patterns. Field and petrographic evidence shows that carbonate rocks hosting certain relict phreatic caves were dolomitized and/or silicified by early hydrothermal fluid migration in zones that served to locally enhance rock porosity, thus providing preferential pathways for later solution by groundwater flow, and making the surrounding bedrock more resistant to surficial weathering to result in caves that reside within isolated hills on the land surface. Features suggesting that deep phreatic processes dominated the development of these relict caves include (1) cave passage morphologies indicative of ascending fluids, (2) cave plans of irregular pattern, reflecting early maze or anastomosing development, (3) a general lack of cave breakdown and cave streams or cave stream deposits, and (4) calcite wall and pool coatings within isolated caves intersecting the local water table, and within unroofed caves at topographic locations elevated well above the local base level. Episodes of deep karstification were likely separated by long periods of geologic time, encompassing multiple phases of sedimentary fill and excavation within caves, and reflect a complex history of deep fluid migration that set the stage for later shallow speleogenesis that continues today.

  19. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    1999-07-29

    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  20. Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobba, W.A. Jr.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

  1. The role of catastrophic geomorphic events in central Appalachian landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R.B.; Miller, A.J.; Smith, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Catastrophic geomorphic events are taken as those that are large, sudden, and rare on human timescales. In the nonglaciated, low-seismicity central Appalachians, these are dominantly floods and landslides. Evaluation of the role of catastrophic events in landscape evolution includes assessment of their contributions to denudation and formation of prominent landscape features, and how they vary through space and time. Tropical storm paths and topographic barriers at the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Front create significant climatic variability across the Appalachians. For moderate floods, the influence of basin geology is apparent in modifying severity of flooding, but for the most extreme events, flood discharges relate mainly to rainfall characteristics such as intensity, duration, storm size, and location. Landslide susceptibility relates more directly to geologic controls that determine what intensity and duration of rainfall will trigger slope instability. Large floods and landslides are not necessarily effective in producing prominent geomorphic features. Large historic floods in the Piedmont have been minimally effective in producing prominent and persistent geomorphic features. In contrast, smaller floods in the Valley and Ridge produced erosional and depositional features that probably will require thousands of years to efface. Scars and deposits of debris slide-avalanches triggered on sandstone ridges recover slowly and persist much longer than scars and deposits of smaller landslides triggered on finer-grained regolith, even though the smaller landslides may have eroded greater aggregate volume. The surficial stratigraphic record can be used to extend the spatial and temporal limits of our knowledge of catastrophic events. Many prominent alluvial and colluvial landforms in the central Appalachians are composed of sediments that were deposited by processes similar to those observed in historic catastrophic events. Available stratigraphic evidence shows two

  2. Hillslope response to knickpoint migration in the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the evolution of post-orogenic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, S.F.G.; Franke, K.L.; Hughes, S.; Lewis, R.Q.; Lyons, N.; Paris, P.; Ross, K.; Bauer, J.B.; Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The southern Appalachians represent a landscape characterized by locally high topographic relief, steep slopes, and frequent mass movement in the absence of significant tectonic forcing for at least the last 200 Ma. The fundamental processes responsible for landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape remain enigmatic. The non-glaciated Cullasaja River basin of south-western North Carolina, with uniform lithology, frequent debris flows, and the availability of high-resolution airborne lidar DEMs, is an ideal natural setting to study landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape through the lens of hillslope-channel coupling. This investigation is limited to channels with upslope contributing areas >2.7 km2, a conservative estimate of the transition from fluvial to debris-flow dominated channel processes. Values of normalized hypsometry, hypsometric integral, and mean slope vs elevation are used for 14 tributary basins and the Cullasaja basin as a whole to characterize landscape evolution following upstream knickpoint migration. Results highlight the existence of a transient spatial relationship between knickpoints present along the fluvial network of the Cullasaja basin and adjacent hillslopes. Metrics of topography (relief, slope gradient) and hillslope activity (landslide frequency) exhibit significant downstream increases below the current position of major knickpoints. The transient effect of knickpoint-driven channel incision on basin hillslopes is captured by measuring the relief, mean slope steepness, and mass movement frequency of tributary basins and comparing these results with the distance from major knickpoints along the Cullasaja River. A conceptual model of area-elevation and slope distributions is presented that may be representative of post-orogenic landscape evolution in analogous geologic settings. Importantly, the model explains how knickpoint migration and channel- hillslope coupling is an important factor in tectonically-inactive (i

  3. Market Definition For Hardwood Timber in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye; Karen Lee Abt; David N. Wear

    1999-01-01

    Direct estimation of aggregate hardwood supply is seriously complicated by the diversity of prices, species, and site conditions in hardwood stands. An alternative approach is to aggregate regional supply based on stumpage values of individual stands, arguably the real driver of harvest decisions. Complicating this approach is that species-specific prices are only...

  4. Innovative Methodology for Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain; Stuart Loewenstein; Edward DeRidder; Bruce Hart

    2007-03-31

    For two consecutive years, 2004 and 2005, the largest natural gas well (in terms of gas flow/day) drilled onshore USA targeted the Ordovician Trenton/Black River (T/BR) play in the Appalachian Basin of New York State (NYS). Yet, little data were available concerning the characteristics of the play, or how to recognize and track T/BR prospects across the region. Traditional exploration techniques for entry into a hot play were of limited use here, since existing deep well logs and public domain seismic were almost non-existent. To help mitigate this problem, this research project was conceived with two objectives: (1) to demonstrate that integrative traditional and innovative techniques could be used as a cost-effective reconnaissance exploration methodology in this, and other, areas where existing data in targeted fracture-play horizons are almost non-existent, and (2) determine critical characteristics of the T/BR fields. The research region between Seneca and Cayuga lakes (in the Finger Lakes of NYS) is on strike and east of the discovery fields, and the southern boundary of the field area is about 8 km north of more recently discovered T/BR fields. Phase I, completed in 2004, consisted of integrating detailed outcrop fracture analyses with detailed soil gas analyses, lineaments, stratigraphy, seismic reflection data, well log data, and aeromagnetics. In the Seneca Lake region, Landsat lineaments (EarthSat, 1997) were coincident with fracture intensification domains (FIDs) and minor faults observed in outcrop and inferred from stratigraphy. Soil gas anomalies corresponded to ENE-trending lineaments and FIDs. N- and ENE-trending lineaments were parallel to aeromagnetic anomalies, whereas E-trending lineaments crossed aeromagnetic trends. 2-D seismic reflection data confirmed that the E-trending lineaments and FIDs occur where shallow level Alleghanian salt-cored thrust-faulted anticlines occur. In contrast, the ENE-trending FIDs and lineaments occur where Iapetan

  5. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Chris Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; James Drahovzal; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; John Bocan; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Katharine Lee Avary

    2004-10-01

    The ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' has reached the mid-point in a two-year research effort to produce a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 exploration and production companies and 6 research team members, including four state geological surveys, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks and one administrative and technology transfer task are being conducted basin-wide by research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined at least once. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 10 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York and Pennsylvania. In addition, three surfaces in that area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. In the Kentucky-Ohio-West Virginia portion of the study area, a velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Fifteen formation tops have been identified on seismic in that area. Preliminary conclusions based on the available seismic data do not support the extension of the Rome Trough into New York state. Members of the stratigraphy task team measured, described and photographed numerous cores from throughout the basin, and tied these data back to their network of geophysical log cross sections. Geophysical logs were scanned in raster files for use in detailed well examination and construction of cross sections. Logs on these cross sections that are only in raster format are being converted to vector format for final cross section displays. The petrology team measured and sampled one classic outcrop in Pennsylvania and ten cores in four states. More than 600 thin sections were prepared from samples in those four states. A seven-step procedure is being used to

  6. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  7. Population isolation results in low genetic variation and high differentiation in Carolina hemlock (tsuga caroliniana), an imperiled southern Appalachian conifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Lia Campbell; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson; Robert M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) is a rare conifer species that grows in small, isolated populations in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia. The species is additionally imperiled by the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an invasive insect that can...

  8. T-H-A-T-S: timber-harvesting-and-transport-simulator: with subroutines for Appalachian logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1975-01-01

    A computer program for simulating harvesting operations is presented. Written in FORTRAN IV, the program contains subroutines that were developed for Appalachian logging conditions. However, with appropriate modifications, the simulator would be applicable for most logging operations and locations. The details of model development and its methodology are presented,...

  9. Roost tree selection by northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates

    2009-01-01

    Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly...

  10. The 2014 assessment of stream quality in the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region of southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste Journey; Paul M. Bradley; Peter Van Metre

    2016-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) assessed stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region in the southeastern United States.

  11. Origin, development, and impact of mountain laurel thickets on the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose

    2016-01-01

    Throughout forests of the northern hemisphere, some species of ericaceous shrubs can form persistent understories that interfere with forest regeneration processes. In the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) may interfere in the regeneration of mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) forests. To...

  12. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ..., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202... recognizes the importance of this guidance to its Federal and state partners, to the regulated community, and... of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental...

  13. Age-class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic tree species found only in refugial mountain-top forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Very few studies have investigated the ecophysiology of this species in its natural environment. We measured and compared photosynthetic gas exchange and water relations of understory germinant...

  14. Forecasting Forest Type and Age Classes in the Appalachian-Cumberland Subregion of the Central Hardwood Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Robert Huggett

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes how forest type and age distributions might be expected to change in the Appalachian-Cumberland portions of the Central Hardwood Region over the next 50 years. Forecasting forest conditions requires accounting for a number of biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics within an internally consistent modeling framework. We used the US Forest...

  15. Ecophysiology of seedling establishment in contrasting spruce-fir forests of southern Appalachian and Rocky Mountain ecotones, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Smith; Keith N.C. Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poiret) and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) occur as codominant trees in six relic, mountain-top populations that make up the high-elevation forests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (SA). These two relic species of the former boreal forest have experienced a significant decline over the past...

  16. Effects of soil compaction on residual stand growth in central Appalachian hardwood forest: a preliminary case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris LeDoux; Michael Vanderberg; Li Yaoxiang

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study that quantified the impacts of soil compaction on residual tree growth associated with ground-based skidding traffic intensity and turn payload size was investigated in the central Appalachian hardwood forest. The field study was carried out on a 20-acre tract of the West Virginia University Research Forest. Skid trails were laid out in 170' -...

  17. Stand development and yields of Appalachian hardwood stands managed with single-tree selection for at least 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were managed for 30 or more years using single-tree selection regeneration practices. Stand yield data suggest that current stand growth will provide economical harvest cuts for several future cutting cycles. This case study indicates that the single-tree selection practice has potential for landowners who want to maintain...

  18. Regeneration response to midstory control following long-term single tree selection management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason R. Lewis; John W. Groninger; David L. Loftis

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability of the single tree selection system in the mixed hardwood forests of the southern Appalachians is compromised by insufficient recruitment of oak species. In 1986, portions of a stand at Bent Creek Experimental Forest that have been under single tree selection management since 1945 were subjected to a midstory herbicide treatment in an effort to improve...

  19. Effects of prescribed fire on the buried seed bank in mixed-hardwood forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara L. Keyser; Tracy L. Roof; Jacquelyne L. Adams; Dean Simon; Gordon Warburton

    2012-01-01

    This study characterizes the seed bank prior to and immediately following dormant-season prescribed fire in mature, mixed-Quercus spp. (oak) forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Thirty samples from the litter/duff (LD) and the top 5 cm of the mineral soil (MS) were collected from five 5-ha burn units (6 plots per experimental unit) before...

  20. Two-age silviculture: an innovative tool for enhancing species diversity and vertical structure in Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Petra B. Wood; Jeffrey V. Nichols; Jeffrey V. Nichols

    1995-01-01

    Silvicultural practices that promote a two-age stand structure provide an opportunity to maintain diversity of woody species and vertical structure for extended periods of time in Appalachian hardwoods. Data from four two-age stands initiated by deferment cutting in West Virginia are summarized for the first 10 to 15 years after treatment. Results indicated that 15...

  1. Cost of and soil loss on "minimum-standard" forest truck roads constructed in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Kochenderfer; G. W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith

    1984-01-01

    A "minimum-standard" forest truck road that provides efficient and environmentally acceptable access for several forest activities is described. Cost data are presented for eight of these roads constructed in the central Appalachians. The average cost per mile excluding gravel was $8,119. The range was $5,048 to $14,424. Soil loss was measured from several...

  2. Metagonimoides oregonensis (Heterophyidae:Digenea) Infection in pleurocerid snails and Desmognathus quadramaculatus salamander larvae in southern Appalachian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa K. Belden; William E. Peterman; Stephen A. Smith; Lauren R. Brooks; E.F. Benfield; Wesley P. Black; Zhaomin Yang; Jeremy M. Wojdak

    2012-01-01

    Metagonimoides oregonensis (Heterophyidae) is a little-known digenetic trematode that uses raccoons and possibly mink as definitive hosts, and stream snails and amphibians as intermediate hosts. Some variation in the life cycle and adult morphology in western and eastern populations has been previously noted. In the southern Appalachians, Pleurocera snails and stream...

  3. Response of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.) to Mechanical Release, Competition, and Drought in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; Katherine J. Elliott; Wayne T. Swank

    1997-01-01

    Conversion of low-quality, natural mixed pine hardwood ecosystems, containing a mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) dominated understory, to more productive eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.)/mixed-hardwood systems is a common prescription on relatively xeric southern Appalachian forest sites. We examined the effects of...

  4. A Regional View of the Margin: Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1994-01-01

    In the southern Appalachian Mountains, native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are at the southern extremes of their distributions, an often overlooked kind of marginal habitat. At a regional scale composed of the states of Virginia...

  5. Comparative Susceptibility of Plants Native to the Appalachian Range of the United States to Inoculation With Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Linderman; Patricia B. de Sá; E.A. Davis

    2008-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death of trees or ramorum blight of other plant species, has many hosts. Some geographic regions, such as the Appalachian range of the eastern United States, are considered high risk of becoming infested with the pathogen because known susceptible plants occur there and climatic characteristics appear...

  6. Science delivery is a two-way street – development of the Consortium Of Appalachian Fire Managers and Scientists (CAFMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr; Zoe Hoyle

    2012-01-01

    The Appalachian region stretches along the Blue Ridge Mountains from Pennsylvania south into Georgia and Alabama. The region’s lands shelter some of the greatest biological diversity in the United States. The heavily forested public lands are in great need of science-based fire management after decades of fire suppression. Fire-related research is relatively new to the...

  7. Predictive habitat models derived from nest-box occupancy for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Andrew M. Evans; Richard H. Odom; Jane L. Rodrigue; Christine A. Kelly; Nicole Abaid; Corinne A. Diggins; Douglas Newcomb

    2015-01-01

    In the southern Appalachians, artificial nest-boxes are used to survey for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus), a disjunct subspecies associated with high elevation (>1385 m) forests. Using environmental parameters diagnostic of squirrel habitat, we created 35 a priori occupancy...

  8. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...

  9. Overview of Appalachian Basin high-angle and horizontal air and mud drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, A.B. III; Javins, B.H.

    1991-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center has been investigating the potential of using high angle and horizontal drilling technology to improve gas production from low permeability reservoirs for more than 20 years. A chronology of 45 high angle and horizontal wells have been identified to show the date, type well, type build curve, location, formation and the type of application. The historical well drilling events that have taken place since the first well are discussed to evaluate the progress in developing the technology. Detailed discussion about how the drilling technology developed in the Appalachian Basin for directional drilling and completion was provided. A discussion of the types of applications for high and horizontal drilling in the Appalachian Basin were identified. A summary of four jointly funded DOE/Industry horizontal wells were discussed to illustrate how the air horizontal drilling technology developed and learning curves for drilling cost and feet per day were provided to illustrate the improvement in the technology and equipment reliability

  10. Chronic cardiovascular disease mortality in mountaintop mining areas of central Appalachian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for counties in 4 Appalachian states where MTM occurs (N = 404) were linked with county coal mining data. Three groups of counties were compared: MTM, coal mining but not MTM, and nonmining. Covariates included smoking rate, rural-urban status, percent male population, primary care physician supply, obesity rate, diabetes rate, poverty rate, race/ethnicity rates, high school and college education rates, and Appalachian county. Linear regression analyses examined the association of mortality rates with mining in MTM areas and non-MTM areas and the association of mortality with quantity of surface coal mined in MTM areas. Prior to covariate adjustment, chronic CVD mortality rates were significantly higher in both mining areas compared to nonmining areas and significantly highest in MTM areas. After adjustment, mortality rates in MTM areas remained significantly higher and increased as a function of greater levels of surface mining. Higher obesity and poverty rates and lower college education rates also significantly predicted CVD mortality overall and in rural counties. MTM activity is significantly associated with elevated chronic CVD mortality rates. Future research is necessary to examine the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of MTM on health to reduce health disparities in rural coal mining areas. © 2011 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Zullig, Keith J

    2009-11-01

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N=235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.14-1.30), angina or CHD (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  12. Fungal Communities and Functional Guilds Shift Along an Elevational Gradient in the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veach, Allison M; Stokes, C Elizabeth; Knoepp, Jennifer; Jumpponen, Ari; Baird, Richard

    2017-12-04

    Nitrogen deposition alters forest ecosystems particularly in high elevation, montane habitats where nitrogen deposition is greatest and continues to increase. We collected soils across an elevational (788-1940 m) gradient, encompassing both abiotic (soil chemistry) and biotic (vegetation community) gradients, at eight locations in the southern Appalachian Mountains of southwestern North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. We measured soil chemistry (total N, C, extractable PO 4 , soil pH, cation exchange capacity [ECEC], percent base saturation [% BS]) and dissected soil fungal communities using ITS2 metabarcode Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Total soil N, C, PO 4 , % BS, and pH increased with elevation and plateaued at approximately 1400 m, whereas ECEC linearly increased and C/N decreased with elevation. Fungal communities differed among locations and were correlated with all chemical variables, except PO 4 , whereas OTU richness increased with total N. Several ecological guilds (i.e., ectomycorrhizae, saprotrophs, plant pathogens) differed in abundance among locations; specifically, saprotroph abundance, primarily attributable to genus Mortierella, was positively correlated with elevation. Ectomycorrhizae declined with total N and soil pH and increased with total C and PO 4 where plant pathogens increased with total N and decreased with total C. Our results demonstrate significant turnover in taxonomic and functional fungal groups across elevational gradients which facilitate future predictions on forest ecosystem change in the southern Appalachians as nitrogen deposition rates increase and regional temperature and precipitation regimes shift.

  13. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  14. Cardiovascular risk in minority and underserved women in Appalachian Tennessee: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera Lea

    2010-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to translate current knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors, screening, and prevention to a disparate population of women and to ascertain the cardiovascular health status and risk factors in a sample of minority and underserved Appalachian women. Demographic data were collected from a voluntary sample of women from a disparate population living in Appalachian Tennessee. A coronary risk profile recorded family health history, personal health history, and lifestyle habits affecting risk for cardiovascular disease. Physiologic measurements included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol levels, ankle brachial index, and carotid artery stenosis. Women in Appalachia Tennessee from a disparate population have high risks for heart disease and stroke. This is a critical time to address any modifiable risk factors and aggressively treat underlying cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Nurse practitioners (NPs) often provide primary care to women who may not be aware of their cardiovascular risks or actual disease. NPs can ensure that their practice incorporates primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention through screening, individual health education, and aggressive evidence-based treatment plans for women.

  15. Effects of exurban development and temperature on bird species in the southern Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Heather A; Pearson, Scott M

    2013-10-01

    Land-use dynamics and climatic gradients have large effects on many terrestrial systems. Exurban development, one of the fastest growing forms of land use in the United States, may affect wildlife through habitat fragmentation and building presence may alter habitat quality. We studied the effects of residential development and temperature gradients on bird species occurrence at 140 study sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (North Carolina, U.S.A.) that varied with respect to building density and elevation. We used occupancy models to determine 36 bird species' associations with building density, forest canopy cover, average daily mean temperature, and an interaction between building density and mean temperature. Responses varied with habitat requirement, breeding range, and migration distance. Building density and mean temperature were both included in the top occupancy models for 19 of 36 species and a building density by temperature interaction was included in models for 8 bird species. As exurban development expands in the southern Appalachians, interior forest species and Neotropical migrants are likely to decline, but shrubland or edge species are not likely to benefit. Overall, effects of building density were greater than those of forest canopy cover. Exurban development had a greater effect on birds at high elevations due to a greater abundance of sensitive forest-interior species and Neotropical migrants. A warming climate may exacerbate these negative effects. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Distinguishing the Source of Natural Gas Accumulations with a Combined Gas and Co-produced Formation Water Geochemical Approach: a Case Study from the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the use of gas and co-produced formation water geochemistry for identifying the source of natural gas and present gas geochemistry for the northern Appalachian Basin.

  17. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  18. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  19. Reflective Drawing as a Tool for Reflection in Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mirian

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of drawing as a tool for reflection. It reports on a PhD research project that aims to identify and analyse the value that co-design processes can bring to participants and their communities. The research is associated with Leapfrog, a three-year project funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).…

  20. Does using the ecosystem services concept provoke the risk of assigning virtual prices instead of real values to nature? Some reflections on the benefit of ecosystem services for planning and policy consulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fürst Christine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This forum article intends to discuss the question if using the ecosystem services concept in planning, management and decision-making can impair nature conservation objectives by hiding the intrinsic values of nature through overemphasizing monetary aspects in environmental assessments. The conclusion is drawn that using ecosystem services in a holistic social-ecological system understanding would help to overcome justified criticisms of a too narrow perspective on the real values of nature.

  1. Value representations: a value based dialogue tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  2. The Role of Remote Sensing in Assessing Forest Biomass in Appalachian South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, W.; Nix, L.

    1982-01-01

    Information is presented on the use of color infrared aerial photographs and ground sampling methods to quantify standing forest biomass in Appalachian South Carolina. Local tree biomass equations are given and subsequent evaluation of stand density and size classes using remote sensing methods is presented. Methods of terrain analysis, environmental hazard rating, and subsequent determination of accessibility of forest biomass are discussed. Computer-based statistical analyses are used to expand individual cover-type specific ground sample data to area-wide cover type inventory figures based on aerial photographic interpretation and area measurement. Forest biomass data are presented for the study area in terms of discriminant size classes, merchantability limits, accessibility (as related to terrain and yield/harvest constraints), and potential environmental impact of harvest.

  3. Explanatory models of black lung: understanding the health-related behavior of Appalachian coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, J

    1982-03-01

    Many retired coal miners who are eligible for care in a black lung treatment center at little or no cost to themselves do not enter into available programs or discontinue soon after beginning therapy. Reasons for this behavior are related to the prevalent beliefs among Appalachians concerning the course of black lung and the appropriate treatment for it. The miners' health beliefs are clearly at odds with those of the health care providers who work in the centers. Using the concept of explanatory model, popular and professional health cultures are analyzed, focusing on course of disease, sick role, appropriate treatment, and expected outcome. Differences in explanatory models are discussed with regard to implications for the organization and delivery of care to retired coal miners with black lung.

  4. Modelling streambank erosion potential using maximum entropy in a central Appalachian watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pitchford

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We used maximum entropy to model streambank erosion potential (SEP in a central Appalachian watershed to help prioritize sites for management. Model development included measuring erosion rates, application of a quantitative approach to locate Target Eroding Areas (TEAs, and creation of maps of boundary conditions. We successfully constructed a probability distribution of TEAs using the program Maxent. All model evaluation procedures indicated that the model was an excellent predictor, and that the major environmental variables controlling these processes were streambank slope, soil characteristics, bank position, and underlying geology. A classification scheme with low, moderate, and high levels of SEP derived from logistic model output was able to differentiate sites with low erosion potential from sites with moderate and high erosion potential. A major application of this type of modelling framework is to address uncertainty in stream restoration planning, ultimately helping to bridge the gap between restoration science and practice.

  5. Visitor evaluations of management actions at a highly impacted Appalachian Trail camping area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Melissa L; Marion, Jeffrey L

    2006-12-01

    Protected area management involves balancing environmental and social objectives. This is particularly difficult at high-use/high-impact recreation sites, because resource protection objectives may require substantial site management or visitor regulation. This study examined visitors' reactions to both of these types of actions at Annapolis Rocks, Maryland, a popular Appalachian Trail camping area. We surveyed visitors before and after implementation of camping policies that included shifting camping to designated newly constructed campsites and prohibiting campfires. Survey results reveal that visitors were more satisfied with all social and environmental indicators after the changes were enacted. An Importance-Performance analysis also determined that management actions improved conditions for factors of greatest concern to campers prior to the changes. Posttreatment visitors were least satisfied with factors related to reduced freedom and to some characteristics of the constructed campsites. Although there was evidence of visitor displacement, the camping changes met management goals by protecting the camping area's natural resources and improving social conditions.

  6. Depositional facies mosaics and their time lines in Lower Ordovician carbonates of central Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, C.T.; Goldhammer, R.K.; Hardie, L.A.

    1985-02-01

    A comparative sedimentology and facies stratigraphy study of the Lower Ordovician carbonate of the central Appalachians (Beekmantown Group and equivalents) has been carried out. Our approach used subfacies (rock record of subenvironments) as the basin units of section measurement. The authors differentiated related sets of subfacies into larger facies units (rock record of environments). Facies were then correlated from section to section using fossils and lithostratigraphy to make a 3-dimensional facies mosaic. Within this mosaic, time lines were constructed using onlap-offlap tongues and cyclic sequences. These time lines cut across facies boundaries. Using this approach, the authors have established that the lower 600 m of the Lower Ordovician carbonate sequence is made up of 4 main facies: (1) cyclic laminite facies composed of a package of shoaling-upward shelf lagoon-peritidal cycles, (2) thin-bedded grainstone facies deposited in a shelf lagoon, (3) Renalcis bioherm facies recording a shelf lagoon patch-reef environment, and (4) Epiphyton bioherm facies recording a shelf-edge reef system. The distribution of these facies along time lines across the strike of the central Appalachians is markedly zoned. Epiphyton bioherm facies dominate the eastern margin while cyclic laminite facies dominate the western margin, with thin-bedded grainstone and Renalcis bioherm facies making up the central belt. This zonation of facies is a typical shallow carbonate shelf system with fringing reefs along the eastern, seaward margin and tidal flats along the western, landward margin. Vertical distribution of these facies across strike records 3 major sea level changes during deposition of the lower 600 m of this extensive Lower Ordovician carbonate shelf.

  7. Appalachian mine soil morphology and properties: Effects of weathering and mining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, K.C.; Daniels, W.L.; Galbraith, J.M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Surface coal mining and reclamation methods in the Appalachians have changed dramatically since the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977 and subsequent improvements in mining and reclamation technology. In this study, 30 pre-SMCRA mine soil profiles (4-20 yr old) were examined and sampled in 1980 and compared with 20 mine soil profiles (8-13 yr old) described in the same area in 2002 after it had been completely remined by modern deep cut methods. Mine soils in both sampling years had high rock fragment content (42-81%), relatively well-developed A horizons, and generally exhibited A-C or A-AC-C horizonation. Although six Bw horizons were described in 1980, only two met all requirements for cambic horizons. The 1980 mine soils developed in overburden dominated by oxidized, preweathered material due to relatively shallow mining cuts. The 1980 mine soils had lower rock fragment content, finer textures, lower pH, and tended to be more heterogeneous in horizonation, morphology, and texture than soils observed in 2002, which had formed primarily in unweathered overburden from deeper cuts. Half the pedons sampled in both years had densic materials within 70 cm of the surface. Four poorly to very poorly drained soil profiles were described in each sampling year containing distinct hydric soil indicators in surface horizons. While older pre-SMCRA mine soils do have many properties in common with newer mine soils, their properties are highly influenced by the fact that they generally have formed in more weathered overburden from higher in the geologic column. Overall, Appalachian mine soils are much more complex in subsoil morphology than commonly assumed, and differential compaction greatly complicates their internal drainage and limits their overall productivity potential.

  8. Multiple drivers, scales, and interactions influence southern Appalachian stream salamander occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecala, Kristen K.; Maerz, John C.; Halstead, Brian J.; Frisch, John R.; Gragson, Ted L.; Hepinstall-Cymerman, Jeffrey; Leigh, David S.; Jackson, C. Rhett; Peterson, James T.; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how factors that vary in spatial scale relate to population abundance is vital to forecasting species responses to environmental change. Stream and river ecosystems are inherently hierarchical, potentially resulting in organismal responses to fine‐scale changes in patch characteristics that are conditional on the watershed context. Here, we address how populations of two salamander species are affected by interactions among hierarchical processes operating at different scales within a rapidly changing landscape of the southern Appalachian Mountains. We modeled reach‐level occupancy of larval and adult black‐bellied salamanders (Desmognathus quadramaculatus) and larval Blue Ridge two‐lined salamanders (Eurycea wilderae) as a function of 17 different terrestrial and aquatic predictor variables that varied in spatial extent. We found that salamander occurrence varied widely among streams within fully forested catchments, but also exhibited species‐specific responses to changes in local conditions. While D. quadramaculatus declined predictably in relation to losses in forest cover, larval occupancy exhibited the strongest negative response to forest loss as well as decreases in elevation. Conversely, occupancy of E. wilderae was unassociated with watershed conditions, only responding negatively to higher proportions of fast‐flowing stream habitat types. Evaluation of hierarchical relationships demonstrated that most fine‐scale variables were closely correlated with broad watershed‐scale variables, suggesting that local reach‐scale factors have relatively smaller effects within the context of the larger landscape. Our results imply that effective management of southern Appalachian stream salamanders must first focus on the larger scale condition of watersheds before management of local‐scale conditions should proceed. Our findings confirm the results of some studies while refuting the results of others, which may indicate that

  9. Coupled prediction of flood response and debris flow initiation during warm- and cold-season events in the Southern Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Barros, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Debris flows associated with rainstorms are a frequent and devastating hazard in the Southern Appalachians in the United States. Whereas warm-season events are clearly associated with heavy rainfall intensity, the same cannot be said for the cold-season events. Instead, there is a relationship between large (cumulative) rainfall events independently of season, and thus hydrometeorological regime, and debris flows. This suggests that the dynamics of subsurface hydrologic processes play an important role as a trigger mechanism, specifically through soil moisture redistribution by interflow. We further hypothesize that the transient mass fluxes associated with the temporal-spatial dynamics of interflow govern the timing of shallow landslide initiation, and subsequent debris flow mobilization. The first objective of this study is to investigate this relationship. The second objective is to assess the physical basis for a regional coupled flood prediction and debris flow warning system. For this purpose, uncalibrated model simulations of well-documented debris flows in headwater catchments of the Southern Appalachians using a 3-D surface-groundwater hydrologic model coupled with slope stability models are examined in detail. Specifically, we focus on two vulnerable headwater catchments that experience frequent debris flows, the Big Creek and the Jonathan Creek in the Upper Pigeon River Basin, North Carolina, and three distinct weather systems: an extremely heavy summertime convective storm in 2011; a persistent winter storm lasting several days; and a severe winter storm in 2009. These events were selected due to the optimal availability of rainfall observations; availability of detailed field surveys of the landslides shortly after they occurred, which can be used to evaluate model predictions; and because they are representative of events that cause major economic losses in the region. The model results substantiate that interflow is a useful prognostic of conditions

  10. Seismic reflection imaging with conventional and unconventional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros Ugalde, Diego Alonso

    This manuscript reports the results of research using both conventional and unconventional energy sources as well as conventional and unconventional analysis to image crustal structure using reflected seismic waves. The work presented here includes the use of explosions to investigate the Taiwanese lithosphere, the use of 'noise' from railroads to investigate the shallow subsurface of the Rio Grande rift, and the use of microearthquakes to image subsurface structure near an active fault zone within the Appalachian mountains. Chapter 1 uses recordings from the land refraction and wide-angle reflection component of the Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research (TAIGER) project. The most prominent reflection feature imaged by these surveys is an anomalously strong reflector found in northeastern Taiwan. The goal of this chapter is to analyze the TAIGER recordings and to place the reflector into a geologic framework that fits with the modern tectonic kinematics of the region. Chapter 2 uses railroad traffic as a source for reflection profiling within the Rio Grande rift. Here the railroad recordings are treated in an analogous way to Vibroseis recordings. These results suggest that railroad noise in general can be a valuable new tool in imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface in environmental and geotechnical studies. In chapters 3 and 4, earthquakes serve as the seismic imaging source. In these studies the methodology of Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) is borrowed from the oil and gas industry to develop reflection images. In chapter 3, a single earthquake is used to probe a small area beneath Waterboro, Maine. In chapter 4, the same method is applied to multiple earthquakes to take advantage of the increased redundancy that results from multiple events illuminating the same structure. The latter study demonstrates how dense arrays can be a powerful new tool for delineating, and monitoring temporal changes of deep structure in areas characterized by significant

  11. A presence-only model of suitable roosting habitat for the endangered Indiana bat in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.R. Hammond; J.M. O’Keefe; S.P. Aldrich; Susan Loeb

    2016-01-01

    We know little about how forest bats, which are cryptic and mobile, use roosts on a landscape scale. For widely distributed species like the endangered Indiana bat Myotis sodalis, identifying landscape-scale roost habitat associations will be important for managing the species in different regions where it occurs. For example, in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA...

  12. Repeated application of fuel reduction treatments in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA: implications for achieving management goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Donald L. Hagan; Dean M. Simon

    2016-01-01

    Fire and resource managers of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, have many questions about the use of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments to meet various land management objectives. Three common objectives include restoration to an open woodland, oak regeneration, and fuel reduction. This paper provides information about reaching each of these three...

  13. Biostratigraphic analysis of core samples from wells drilled in the Devonian shale interval of the Appalachian and Illinois Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.J.; Zielinski, R.E.

    1978-07-14

    A palynological investigation was performed on 55 samples of core material from four wells drilled in the Devonian Shale interval of the Appalachian and Illinois Basins. Using a combination of spores and acritarchs, it was possible to divide the Middle Devonian from the Upper Devonian and to make subdivisions within the Middle and Upper Devonian. The age of the palynomorphs encountered in this study is Upper Devonian.

  14. Palynology, geochemistry and Re-Os age of the Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian stage boundary, central Appalachian basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, N.; Tripathy, G. R.; Ruppert, L. F.; Eble, C. F.; Blake, B. M.; Hannah, J. L.; Stein, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The central Appalachian basin (CAB) in the eastern United States contains complicated sedimentary sequences often with thin and discontinuous strata. As an economically important coal-producing region, the basin's architectural framework and depositional history are important to understand. Typically, eustatic marine incursions, marked with black shale deposits, are used for basin-wide correlation. The Betsie Shale Member of the Kanawha Formation represents one of these relatively thick and laterally extensive marine zones. This study examines the palynoflora of the Matewan coalbed, which conformably underlies the Betsie, in the context of a new Re-Os date for the Betsie Shale Member and additional geochemical measures. At its base, the Matewan contains abundant lycopsid tree spores, indicative of a submerged, flooded paleomire. Upsection, biodiversity increases to include small fern and calamite spores as well as cordaite pollen. Combined with an observed increase of inertinite, the diversification of palynoflora suggests surficial peat exposure and drying out of the paleomire. A S-rich (28 wt. %) shaley parting separates these lower and upper benches of the Matewan and may represent an initial marine pulse prior to the glacioeustatic incursion that ultimately flooded the Matewan and deposited the overlying Betsie Shale. The Betsie is organic-rich (3.05 - 4.89 wt. % TOC) with Re and Os content ranging from 320 - 1,200 ppb and 1.5 - 5.3 ppb, respectively. The highly enriched Re values result in notably high parent:daughter ratios (187Re/188Os = 3,644 - 5,737). The Re-Os isotopic data yield a Model 1 age of 323 ± 7.8 Ma (n = 7; MSWD = 0.63) with evidence that the true age lies closer to the younger end of the uncertainty. This age is consistent with previous paleontologic-based interpretations but represents the first directly measured radiometric date for the Betsie. An absolute age for the Betsie is a critical result, as the member is correlated with units in

  15. Time perspective and the theory of planned behavior: moderate predictors of physical activity among central Appalachian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Tauna; Boggs, Dusta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how well time perspective and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predicted physical activity among adolescents residing in the central Appalachian region of the United States. A descriptive, correlational design was used. The setting was a rural high school in central Appalachia. The sample included 185 students in grades 9 through 12. Data were collected in school. Variables included components of the TPB, time perspective, and various levels of exercise. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The TPB was a moderate predictor of exercise frequency among central Appalachian adolescents, accounting for 42% of the variance. Time perspective did not add to the predictive ability of the TPB to predict exercise frequency in this sample. This study provides support for the TPB for predicting frequency of exercise among central Appalachian adolescents. By understanding the role of the TPB in predicting physical activity among adolescents, nurse practitioners will be able to adapt intervention strategies to improve the physical activity behaviors of this population. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reflections on Student Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tinto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Feature for this issue Reflections on Student Persistence has been prepared by Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, United States of America (USA and a longtime friend and supporter of STARS. Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue. He synthesises this extensive, detailed, rich but often somewhat impenetrable data into a trilogy of clear and credible key dimensions of the motivation construct student self efficacy, sense of belonging and perceived value of the curriculum. This interpretation of the literature is a personal but informed reflection and is a timely piece which highlights the breadth and profundity of the presentations at this year's conference in Adelaide, Australia where students in all their diversity are central to our focus on enhancing the student experience. In this opening article, Vincent refers directly to the STARS papers selected for this Conference issue of the Journal which also address the importance of student persistence, self-efficacy and building the sense of belonging within their own institutional communities (Fernandes, Ford, Rayner & Pretorius; Kahu, Nelson, & Picton; McFarlane, Spes-Skrbis & Taib; Naylor; Smallhorn. Echoing his position on social justice and his advocacy for underserved students, Vincent reminds us that educational equity gaps still exist, and he encourages us to see the issue of persistence through the eyes of the students to support their perseverance and completion and thereby help reduce educational disadvantage.

  17. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  18. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  19. Talking Online: Reflecting on Online Communication Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greener, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the value and constraints of varied online communication tools from web 2.0 to e-mail in a higher education (HE) teaching and learning context, where these tools are used to support or be the main focus of learning. Design/methodology/approach: A structured reflection is produced with the aid of…

  20. Stand and within-stand factors influencing Golden-winged Warbler use of regenerating stands in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja H. Bakermans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera is currently being considered for protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The creation of breeding habitat in the Appalachian Mountains is considered a conservation priority for this songbird, which is dependent on extensively forested landscapes with adequate availability of young forest. We modeled abundance of Golden-winged Warbler males in regenerating harvested forest stands that were 0-17 years postharvest at both mid-Appalachian and northeast Pennsylvania regional scales using stand and within-stand characteristics of 222 regenerating stands, 2010-2011. Variables that were most influential at the mid-Appalachian scale were different than those in the northeast region. Across the mid-Appalachian ecoregion, the proportion of young forest cover, i.e., shrub/scrub cover, within 1 km of regenerating stands best explained abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Golden-winged Warbler response was best explained by a concave quadratic relationship in which abundance was highest with 5-15% land in young forest cover. We also found evidence that the amount of herbaceous cover, i.e., the amount of grasses and forbs, within a regenerating stand positively influenced abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. In northeastern Pennsylvania, where young forest cover is found in high proportions, the distance to the nearest regenerating stand best explained variation in abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Abundance of Golden-winged Warblers was 1500 m away. When modeling within-stand features in the northeast region, many of the models were closely ranked, indicating that multiple variables likely explained Golden-winged Warbler response to within-stand conditions. Based on our findings, we have proposed several management guidelines for land managers interested in creating breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers using commercial timber operations. For example, we recommend when managing for

  1. CMP reflection imaging via interferometry of distributed subsurface sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Brown, L. D.; Quiros, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The theoretical foundations of recovering body wave energy via seismic interferometry are well established. However in practice, such recovery remains problematic. Here, synthetic seismograms computed for subsurface sources are used to evaluate the geometrical combinations of realistic ambient source and receiver distributions that result in useful recovery of virtual body waves. This study illustrates how surface receiver arrays that span a limited distribution suite of sources, can be processed to reproduce virtual shot gathers that result in CMP gathers which can be effectively stacked with traditional normal moveout corrections. To verify the feasibility of the approach in practice, seismic recordings of 50 aftershocks following the magnitude of 5.8 Virginia earthquake occurred in August, 2011 have been processed using seismic interferometry to produce seismic reflection images of the crustal structure above and beneath the aftershock cluster. Although monotonic noise proved to be problematic by significantly reducing the number of usable recordings, the edited dataset resulted in stacked seismic sections characterized by coherent reflections that resemble those seen on a nearby conventional reflection survey. In particular, "virtual" reflections at travel times of 3 to 4 seconds suggest reflector sat approximately 7 to 12 km depth that would seem to correspond to imbricate thrust structures formed during the Appalachian orogeny. The approach described here represents a promising new means of body wave imaging of 3D structure that can be applied to a wide array of geologic and energy problems. Unlike other imaging techniques using natural sources, this technique does not require precise source locations or times. It can thus exploit aftershocks too small for conventional analyses. This method can be applied to any type of microseismic cloud, whether tectonic, volcanic or man-made.

  2. Values in dialogic pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Matusov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In November 2014 on the Dialogic Pedagogy Journal Facebook page, there was an interesting discussion of the issue of values in dialogic pedagogy[1]. The main issue can be characterized as the following. Should dialogic pedagogy teach values? Should it avoid teaching values? Is there some kind of a third approach? The participants of the Facebook discussions were focusing on teaching values in dialogic pedagogy and not about teaching aboutvalues. On the one hand, it seems to be impossible to avoid teaching values. However, on the other hand, shaping students in some preset molding is apparently non-dialogic and uncritical (Matusov, 2009. In the former case, successful teaching is defined by how well and deeply the students accept and commit to the taught values. In the latter case, successful dialogic teaching may be defined by students’ critical examination of their own values against alternative values in a critical dialogue. Below, Eugene Matusov and Jay Lemke, active participants of this Facebook dialogue, provide their reflection on this important issue and encourage readers to join their reflective dialogue.[1] See in a public Facebook domain: https://www.facebook.com/DialogicPedagogyJournal/posts/894734337204533, https://www.facebook.com/DialogicPedagogyJournal/posts/896916850319615

  3. Field trip guidebook for the post-meeting field trip: The Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John F.; Loch, James D.; Ganis, G. Robert; Repetski, John E.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Blackmer, Gale C.; Brezinski, David K.; Goldman, Daniel; Orndorff, Randall C.; Sell, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    The lower Paleozoic rocks to be examined on this trip through the central Appalachians represent an extreme range of depositional environments. The lithofacies we will examine range from pelagic radiolarian chert and interbedded mudstone that originated on the deep floor of the Iapetus Ocean, through mud cracked supratidal dolomitic laminites that formed during episodes of emergence of the long-lived Laurentian carbonate platform, to meandering fluvial conglomerate and interstratified overbank mudstone packages deposited in the latest stages of infilling of the Taconic foredeep. In many ways this field trip is about contrasts. The Upper Cambrian (Furongian) and Lower Ordovician deposits of the Sauk megasequence record deposition controlled primarily by eustatic sea level sea level fluctuations that influenced deposition along the passive, southern (Appalachian) margin of the paleocontinent of Laurentia. The only tectonic influence apparent in these passive margin deposits is the expected thickening of the carbonate stack toward the platform margin as compared to the thinner (and typically shallower) facies that formed farther in toward the paleoshoreline. Carbonates overwhelmingly dominate the passive margin succession. Clastic influx was minimal and consisted largely of eastward transport of clean cratonic sands across the platform from the adjacent inner detrital belt to the west during higher order (2nd and 3rd order) regressions.In contrast, Middle and Upper Ordovician deposits of the Tippecanoe megasequence record the strong influence of tectonics, specifically Iapetus closure. The first signal of this tectonic transformation was the arrival of arc-related ash beds that abound in the active margin carbonates. Subsequent intensification of Taconic orogenesis resulted in the foundering of the carbonate platform under the onslaught of fine siliciclastics arriving from offshore tectonic sources to the east, creating a deep marine flysch basin where graptolitic

  4. New insight into the origin of manganese oxide ore deposits in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge of northeastern Tennessee and northern Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Sarah K.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Wilson, Crystal G.; Feierstein, Joshua; McAleer, Ryan J.

    2017-01-01

    Manganese oxide deposits have long been observed in association with carbonates within the Appalachian Mountains, but their origin has remained enigmatic for well over a century. Ore deposits of Mn oxides from several productive sites located in eastern Tennessee and northern Virginia display morphologies that include botryoidal and branching forms, massive nodules, breccia matrix cements, and fracture fills. The primary ore minerals include hollandite, cryptomelane, and romanèchite. Samples of Mn oxides from multiple localities in these regions were analyzed using electron microscopy, X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and trace and rare earth element (REE) geochemistry. The samples from eastern Tennessee have biological morphologies, contain residual biopolymers, and exhibit REE signatures that suggest the ore formation was due to supergene enrichment (likely coupled with microbial activity). In contrast, several northern Virginia ores hosted within quartz-sandstone breccias exhibit petrographic relations, mineral morphologies, and REE signatures indicating inorganic precipitation, and a likely hydrothermal origin with supergene overprinting. Nodular accumulations of Mn oxides within weathered alluvial deposits that occur close to breccia-hosted Mn deposits in Virginia show geochemical signatures that are distinct from the breccia matrices and appear to reflect remobilization of earlier-emplaced Mn and concentration within supergene traps. Based on the proximity of all of the productive ore deposits to mapped faults or other zones of deformation, we suggest that the primary source of all of the Mn may have been deep seated, and that Mn oxides with supergene and/or biological characteristics resulted from the local remobilization and concentration of this primary Mn.

  5. Lessons in collaboration and effective field research from the Appalachian Headwaters Research Experience for Undergraduates Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. L.; Fox, J.; Wilder, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    In the summer of 2009, the authors launched year one of a three-year National Science Foundation-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates entitled "Carbon Storage and Headwater Health in the Appalachian Headwaters." Eight undergraduates selected from a nationally competitive field of more than 60 applicants participated in the ten-week field- and laboratory-based program along with three middle- and high-school teachers. Each student developed and completed an independent research project related to coal mining’s impact on soil organic carbon and sediment transport processes. Specifically, they used isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signature of soils and sediments in the Appalachian headwater landscapes and first order streams of Kentucky's southeastern coalfields. Among the program's innovative features was its fundamentally collaborative nature--which was represented in several ways. First, the background of the three program leaders was very different: an environmental planner with an academic background in land use planning and administration (Jones); a civil engineer trained in biogeochemistry and watershed modeling (Fox); and an environmental educator experienced in both formal and nonformal educator training and certification (Wilder). The program was also a collaboration between a Carnegie 1 research-oriented institution and an undergraduate/ teaching -focused regional comprehensive university. Finally, the participants themselves represented a diversity of disciplines and institutional backgrounds--including biology, geology, chemistry, environmental science and civil engineering. The Research Experience for Teachers component was another innovative program element. The teachers participated in all field and laboratory research activities during the first six weeks, then developed a unit of study for their own classrooms to be implemented during the current school year. In addition to the six

  6. Assessment of 21st century change of climate drivers to hydrological change across the Appalachian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, R.; Zegre, N.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric water supply and demand largely drives the available water in the land surface. Precipitation (P) is the main supply of water to the land surface, while water demand largely depends on energy supply. Most frameworks that analyze climate change have limit their scope to changes in P and temperature as an indicator of energy. However, atmospheric water demand is not only dependent on temperature but also on variables such as solar radiation, air humidity and wind. For this study, we use the downscaled GCM outputs of (P) and calculate atmospheric water demand by aggregating solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, and wind as potential evapotranspiration (EP) using the Penman-Monteith equation across the Appalachian Region. We investigate absolute changes in P and EP and changes in their relation or aridity index (AI=EP/P) to spatially determine places becoming wetter or drier. Moreover, we explore how their changes are distributed throughout the year, i.e. changes in the seasonality for P and widening of the intra-annual cycle of EP. The changes in seasonality can act as a further indicator of the partition of precipitation into evaporation or land surface water. Changes of precipitation that occur during summer are likely to be partitioned towards evapotranspiration whereas changes in winter are likely to be absorbed by land surface components of storage and runoff. Furthermore, widening of the intra-annual cycle of EP means that there will be water demand for a longer part of the year (earlier in spring and later in autumn). Our results show that places with lower mean annual temperature are likely to experience larger temperature changes. Regarding the AI, the Eastern Coasts of North and South Carolina, and Georgia as well as Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee and Kentucky are likely to get drier. The states of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, and inland North and South Carolina and Alabama are likely to become wetter, with West Virginia

  7. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  8. Values Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    that individualistic employees in individualistic organizations and collectivistic employees in collectivistic organizations show greater job...with Parsons’ causal assumption, in the nineties values were recognized on top of the cultural control –values control norms which in turn control...determines intention which may end in behavior. 7 Defining Human Values Cross- cultural theories on values emerged in the 80s developed by three main

  9. CVD molybdenum films of high infrared reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carver, G. E.

    1979-01-01

    Molybdenum thin films of high infrared reflectance have been deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of molybdenum carbonyl (Mo(CO)/sub 6/), and by hydrogen reduction of molybdenum pentachloride (MoCl/sub 5/). Reflectance values within 0.7% of the reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum have been attained by annealing films of lower reflectance in both reducing and non-reducing atmospheres. All depositions and anneals proceed at atmospheric pressure, facilitating a continuous, flow-through fabrication. These reflectors combine the high temperature stability of molybdenum thin films with the infrared reflectance of a material such as aluminum. Deposition from Mo(CO)/sub 6/ under oxidizing conditions, and subsequent anneal in a reducing atmosphere, results in films that combine high solar absorptance with low thermal emittance. If anti-reflected, black molybdenum films can serve as highly selective single layer photothermal converters. Structural, compositional, and crystallographic properties have been measured after both deposition and anneal.

  10. Principles of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  11. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  12. Na-Cl-Br systematics of fluid inclusions from Mississippi Valley-type deposits, Appalachian Basin: Constraints on solute origin and migration paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, S.E.; Martini, A.M.; Appold, M.S.; Walter, L.M.; Huston, T.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Furman, F.C. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated Na-Cl-Br systematics of fluid inclusion-hosted brines in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits from the Appalachian Basin. Unlike other geochemical tracers such as lead and strontium isotopes which constrain metal sources, Na-Cl-Br systematics identify sources of brine salinity. Saline formation waters can vary systematically within and between basins with regard to their Na-Cl-Br compositions depending on the importance of halite dissolution relative to retention of subaerially evaporated seawater for the halogen budget. Oil field brine compositions from the Illinois and Appalachian basins are quite distinct in their Na-Cl-Br systematics. Compositions of saline fluid inclusions in MVT deposits generally are consistent with these regional differences. These results shed new light on the extent of regional flow systems and on the geochemical evolution of saline fluids responsible for mineralization. Nearly all fluid inclusions analyzed from the Appalachian MVT deposits have Na/Br and Cl/Br ratios less than modern seawater, consistent with ratios observed in marine brines involved in halite precipitation. The Na-Cl-Br systematics of the brines responsible for Appalachian MVT deposits may be inherited from original marine brines refluxed into the porous carbonate shelf sediments that host these deposits. The Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of most fluid inclusion-hosted brines from Appalachian MVT sphalerites and fluorites fall into two compositional groups, one from the Lower Cambrian paleoaquifer and another from the Lower Ordovician paleoaquifer. Leachates from most MVT barite deposits form a third compositional group having lower Na/Br and Cl/Br ratios than the other two. Appalachian MVT leachate compositions differ significantly from those in MVT deposits in the Cincinnati arch-midcontinent region suggesting that these two MVT provinces formed from brines of different origin or flow path. 59 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Evaluating the effect of lithology on porosity development in ridgetops in the Appalachian Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, V.; Gu, X.; Fisher, B.; Brantley, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    Together, chemical and physical processes transform fresh bedrock into friable weathered material. Even in systems where lithology, tectonic history, and climatic history are all known, it is challenging to predict the depth of weathering because the mechanisms that control the rate of regolith formation are not understood. In the Appalachian Piedmont, where rates of regolith formation and erosion are thought to be in a rough steady state, the depth of weathering varies with lithology. The Piedmont provides a controlled natural environment to isolate the effects of lithology on weathering processes so we can start to understand the mechanisms that initiate and drive weathering. Weathering is deepest over feldspathic rocks (schist/granite) with regolith 20-30m thick and thinnest over mafic and ultramafic rocks (diabase/serpentinite) with regolith serpentinization reactions and lost from collapse during weathering. Serpentinite consists of easily weathered hydrous minerals with little quartz. Comparatively, rocks with more quartz (e.g. schist) have a supportive skeleton as the rock weathers. This quartz skeleton could prevent the collapse of pores and result in isovolumetric weathering. Non-isovolumetric weathering limits infiltration of reactive fluids deeper into the rock, minimizing regolith formation in serpentinite due to its lack of a quartz skeleton. Given this, fracture toughness may be an important parameter to consider in terms of predicting regolith thickness.

  14. Using food as a tool to teach science to 3 grade students in Appalachian Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-04-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007-2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3(rd)-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these classrooms implemented 45 hands-on foods activities that covered 10 food topics. Subjects included measurement; food safety; vegetables; fruits; milk and cheese; meat, poultry, and fish; eggs; fats; grains; and meal management. Students in four other classrooms served as the control group. Mainstream 3(rd)-grade students were targeted because of their receptiveness to the subject matter, science standards for upper elementary grades, and testing that the students would undergo in 4(th) grade. Teachers and students alike reported that the hands-on FoodMASTER curriculum experience was worthwhile and enjoyable. Our initial classroom observation indicated that the majority of students, girls and boys included, were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations.

  15. Effectiveness of a primary care practice intervention for increasing colorectal cancer screening in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignan, Mark; Shelton, Brent; Slone, Stacey A; Tolle, Cheri; Mohammad, Sohail; Schoenberg, Nancy; Pearce, Kevin; Van Meter, Emily; Ely, Gretchen

    2014-01-01

    This report describes findings from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in primary care practices in Appalachian Kentucky. Sixty-six primary care practices were randomized to early or delayed intervention groups. The intervention was provided at practices using academic detailing, a method of education where providers receive information on a specific topic through personal contact. Data were collected in cross-sectional surveys of medical records at baseline and six months post-intervention. A total of 3844 medical records were reviewed at baseline and 3751 at the six-month follow-up. At baselines, colonoscopy was recommended more frequently (43.4%) than any other screening modality, followed by fecal occult blood testing (18.0%), flexible sigmoidoscopy (0.4%), and double-contrast barium enema (0.3%). Rates of documented screening results were higher for all practices at the six-month follow-up for colonoscopy (31.8% vs 29.6%) and fecal occult blood testing (12.2% vs 11.2%). For early intervention practices that recommended screening, colonoscopy rates increased by 15.7% at six months compared to an increase of 2.4% in the delayed intervention practices (p=.01). Using academic detailing to reach rural primary care providers with a CRC screening intervention was associated with an increase in colonoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of coal mining, forestry, and road construction on southern Appalachian stream invertebrates and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Michael M; Perkins, Michael; Blum, Peter W; Walker, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Coal has been extracted via surface and sub-surface mining for decades throughout the Appalachian Mountains. New interest in ridge-top mining has raised concerns about possible waterway impacts. We examined effects of forestry, mining, and road construction-based disturbance on physico-chemistry and macroinvertebrate communities in east-central Tennessee headwater streams. Although 11 of 30 sites failed Tennessee's biocriteria scoring system, invertebrate richness was moderately high and we did not find significant differences in any water chemistry or habitat parameters between sites with passing and failing scores. However, conductivity and dissolved solid concentrations appeared elevated in the majority of study streams. Principal components (PCs) analysis indicated that six PCs accounted for ~77 % of among-site habitat variability. One PC associated with dissolved oxygen and specific conductance explained the second highest proportion of among-site variability after catchment area. Specific conductance was not correlated with catchment area but was strongly correlated with mining activity. Composition and success of multivariate models using habitat PCs to predict macroinvertebrate metrics was highly variable. PC scores associated with water chemistry and substrate composition were most frequently included in significant models. These results suggest that impacts of historical and current coal mining remain a source of water quality and macroinvertebrate community impairment in this region, but effects are subtle. Our results suggest that surface mining may have chronic and system-wide effects on habitat conditions and invertebrate communities in Cumberland Plateau streams.

  17. Examining smoking and cessation during pregnancy among an Appalachian sample: a preliminary view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Traci

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several transitions that a woman experiences prenatally may influence her desire or ability to discontinue smoking. This study explores the role of smoking for young, Appalachian, nulliparous pregnant women and their plans for smoking during their pregnancies. Results The reports of women and their male partners were taken from baseline interviews conducted during the first trimester of pregnancy. Cigarette smoking appeared to be more than an isolated addictive activity; rather, smoking was interwoven in women's social and personal realms, often changing as their perceptions of self changed. Women and their partners who continued to smoke appeared to be depressed, reject authority, and perceived little control over issues related to being pregnant. Conclusion These findings support the argument that standard substance use treatments and polices based on stages-of-change theories may not be effective for all individuals particularly those experiencing significant developmental changes in their lives. Greater success might be obtained from treatment programs designed to recognize the impact of these transitions as it relates to the substance use. The changing experiences of pregnant women in terms of their identity development, views of others, and their relationships have not been adequately addressed in existing cessation programs. Empirically-based interventions targeting these lifestyle characteristics may lead to increased cessation success among pregnant women.

  18. The Role of Terrestrial N along a Frasnian/Famennian Boundary Transect of the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Michael; Macko, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    A causal link between the Late Devonian emergence of forest ecosystems and episodic black shale deposition has been proposed by several authors. Most attribute increases in epicontinental basin productivity to elevated rates of terrestrial phosphorus weathering facilitated by the co-evolution of root systems and soils. Two reasons to suspect that an increase in the P weathering flux was not the primary cause of organic-rich shale deposition are as follows. First, most Late Devonian black shales were deposited during sea level transgressions, periods when riverine fluxes of sediment and mineral nutrients such as P to marine basins were diminished. Second, Late Devonian forests were restricted to warm, moist lowlands where P was sequestered in soils as inorganic, occluded forms. However, the export flux of reactive N from these forests to adjacent epeiric seas by riverine and atmospheric deposition was enhanced by the warm, wet climate and expanding areal extent of forests. Abundant terrestrial reactive N primed the marine eutrophication pump by extending the residence time of P in the photic zone, permitting extensive growth of primary biomass. The consequent flux of organic matter to the sea floor created anoxic bottom waters that, in turn, allowed for the remobilization of P into the water column. Based on abundance and isotopic analyses of organic and inorganic C, N, P, and S from terrestrial and marine environments within and adjacent to the Late Devonian Appalachian Basin, this latter scenario is supported.

  19. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  20. Unexpected rarity of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Appalachian Plethodon Salamanders: 1957-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Muletz

    Full Text Available Widespread population declines in terrestrial Plethodon salamanders occurred by the 1980s throughout the Appalachian Mountains, the center of global salamander diversity, with no evident recovery. We tested the hypothesis that the historic introduction and spread of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd into the eastern US was followed by Plethodon population declines. We expected to detect elevated prevalence of Bd prior to population declines as observed for Central American plethodontids. We tested 1,498 Plethodon salamanders of 12 species (892 museum specimens, 606 wild individuals for the presence of Bd, and tested 94 of those for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bs and for ranavirus. Field samples were collected in 2011 from 48 field sites across a 767 km transect. Historic samples from museum specimens were collected at five sites with the greatest number and longest duration of collection (1957-987, four of which were sampled in the field in 2011. None of the museum specimens were positive for Bd, but four P. cinereus from field surveys were positive. The overall Bd prevalence from 1957-2011 for 12 Plethodon species sampled across a 757 km transect was 0.2% (95% CI 0.1-0.7%. All 94 samples were negative for Bs and ranavirus. We conclude that known amphibian pathogens are unlikely causes for declines in these Plethodon populations. Furthermore, these exceptionally low levels of Bd, in a region known to harbor Bd, may indicate that Plethodon specific traits limit Bd infection.

  1. Bankfull Curves for the Temperate Rainforests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICKEY B. HENSON

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bankfull hydraulic geometry relationships, also called regional curves, relate bankfull stream channel dimensions and discharge to watershed drainage area. This paper describes results of bankfull curve relationships developed for the temperate rainforests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains primarily on Western North Carolina Mountain streams in the Southeastern United States. Gauge stations for small and larger catchments were selected with a range of 10 to 50 years of continuous or peak discharge measurements, no major impoundments, no significant change in land use over the past 10 years, and impervious cover ranges of <20%. Cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys were measured at each study reach to determine channel dimension, pattern, and profile information. Log-Pearson Type III distributions were used to analyze annual peak discharge data for nine small watersheds sites gauged by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and for eleven larger watersheds gauged by the United States Geological Survey (USGS. Power function relationships were developed using regression analyses for bankfull discharge, channel cross-sectional area, mean depth, and width as functions of watershed drainage area.

  2. Skeletal deformities in smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieui, from southern Appalachian reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Avyle, M J; Garvick, S J; Blazer, V S; Hamilton, S J; Brumbaugh, W G

    1989-09-01

    Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) populations in two of five reservoirs sampled in the southern Appalachian Mountains contained high percentages of individuals with lordosis, kyphosis, or scoliosis. Deformities of the vertebral column occurred in several year classes and varied with fish size; they were absent in small fish, present in 25-30% of the fish 241-300 mm long, and then decreased in occurrence with increased length. Because environmental contamination is often responsible for high occurrences of deformed fish, whole-body concentrations of contaminants, bone development characteristics, and blood plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in normal and deformed fish were measured and compared the results with those for fish from reservoirs where no deformities were found. Vertebrae were significantly weaker and more elastic in deformed than in normal fish, but biochemical properties of vertebrae were similar among the groups tested. Concentrations of pesticides and metals were not elevated in deformed fish, and concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in blood plasma were similar in normal and deformed groups. Most environmental contaminants that have been shown to cause fish deformities could be discounted as causative agents on the basis of these results; however, the exact cause was not determined. Further attempts to diagnose the cause of the deformities were limited by the lack of background information on relationships among bone development processes, types of stresses that cause deformities, and types of bone tissue in fish.

  3. Terrestrial P and Reactive N and Marine Productivity in the Late Devonian Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, M. L.; Macko, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    A causal link between the Late Devonian emergence of forest ecosystems and episodic black shale deposition has been proposed by several authors. Most attribute increases in epicontinental basin productivity to elevated rates of terrestrial phosphorus weathering facilitated by the co-evolution of root systems and soils. Two reasons to suspect that an increase in the P weathering flux was not the primary cause of organic-rich shale deposition are as follows. First, most Late Devonian black shales were deposited during sea level transgressions, periods when riverine fluxes of sediment and mineral nutrients such as P to marine basins were diminished. Second, Late Devonian forests were restricted to warm, moist lowlands where P was sequestered in soils as inorganic, occluded forms. However, the export flux of reactive N from these forests to adjacent epeiric seas by riverine and atmospheric deposition was enhanced by the warm, wet climate and expanding areal extent of forests. Abundant terrestrial reactive N primed the marine eutrophication pump by extending the residence time of P in the photic zone, permitting extensive growth of primary biomass. The consequent flux of organic matter to the sea floor created anoxic bottom waters that, in turn, allowed for the remobilization of P into the water column. Based on abundance and isotopic analyses of organic and inorganic C, N, P, and S from terrestrial and marine environments within and adjacent to the Late Devonian Appalachian Basin, this latter scenario is supported.

  4. Fire History of Appalachian Forests of the Lower St-Lawrence Region (Southern Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Payette

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar maple (Acer saccharum forests are among the main forest types of eastern North America. Sugar maple stands growing on Appalachian soils of the Lower St-Lawrence region are located at the northeastern limit of the northern hardwood forest zone. Given the biogeographical position of these forests at the edge of the boreal biome, we aimed to reconstruct the fire history and document the occurrence of temperate and boreal trees in sugar maple sites during the Holocene based on soil macrocharcoal analysis. Despite having experienced a different number of fire events, the fire history of the maple sites was broadly similar, with two main periods of fire activity, i.e., early- to mid-Holocene and late-Holocene. A long fire-free interval of at least 3500 years separated the two periods from the mid-Holocene to 2000 years ago. The maple sites differ with respect to fire frequency and synchronicity of the last millennia. According to the botanical composition of charcoal, forest vegetation remained relatively homogenous during the Holocene, except recently. Conifer and broadleaf species coexisted in mixed forests during the Holocene, in phase with fire events promoting the regeneration of boreal and temperate tree assemblages including balsam fir (Abies balsamea and sugar maple.

  5. Large quaternary landslides in the central appalachian valley and ridge province near Petersburg, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, C. Scott

    1988-01-01

    Geological mapping and photointerpretation of side-looking airborne radar images and color-infrared aerial photographs reveal two large Quaternary landslides in the Valley and Ridge province of the central Appalachians near Petersburg, W. Va. The Elkhorn Mountain rock avalanche occurs on the thrust-faulted northwestern flank of the Elkhorn Mountain anticlinorium. A minimum of 7 ?? 106 m3 of quartzite colluvium was transported more than 3 km from a 91 m high escarpment of Silurian Tuscarora Quartzite. The extensively vegetated deposit may owe, in part, its transport and weathering to periglacial conditions during the Pleistocene. In contrast, the Gap Mountain rock block slide is a single allochthonous block that is 1.2 km long, 0.6 km wide, and at least 60 m thick. The 43 ?? 106 m3 block is composed of limestone of the Helderberg Group and the Oriskany Sanstone of Early Devonian age. Planar detachment probably occurred along a dissolution bedding plane near the Shriver Chert and the Oriskany Sandstone contact. Failure probably was initiated by downcutting of the South Branch Potomac River during the Pleistocene. Landslides of this magnitude suggest accelerated erosion during periglacial climates in the Pleistocene. The recognition of these large slope failures may provide evidence of paleoclimatic conditions and, thereby, increase our understanding of the geomorphologic development of the Valley and Ridge province. ?? 1988.

  6. Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L Erb

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT, a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana and coyotes (Canis latrans. Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus and bobcats (Lynx rufus, while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor. Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions.

  7. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields: Chapter C.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Kinney, Scott A.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more recent maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields (and the adjoining Black Warrior basin) is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compilation by Mast and others (1998) (see Trippi and others, this volume, chap. I.1). This map is part of a larger oil and gas field map for the conterminous United States that was derived by Mast and others (1998) from the Well History Control System (WHCS) database of Petroleum Information, Inc. (now IHS Energy Group). Rather than constructing the map from the approximately 500,000 proprietary wells in the Appalachian and Black Warrior part of the WHCS database, Mast and others (1998) subdivided the region into a grid of 1-mi2 (square mile) cells and allocated an appropriate type of hydrocarbon production (oil production, gas production, oil and gas production, or explored but no production) to each cell. Each 1-mi2 cell contains from 0 to 5 or more exploratory and (or) development wells. For example, if the wells in the 1-mi2 cell consisted of three oil wells, one gas well, and one dry well, then the cell would be characterized on the map as an area of oil and gas production. The map by Mast and others (1998) accurately shows the distribution and types of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Appalachian and Black Warrior basins, but it does not show the names of individual fields. To determine the locality and name of individual oil and gas fields, one must refer to State oil and gas maps (for example, Harper and others, 1982), which are generally published at scales of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 (see References Cited), and (or) published journal articles.

  8. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  9. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain...

  10. Digital data in support of studies and assessments of coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: Chapter I.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gunther, Gregory; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is a mature basin containing abundant oil, gas, and coal resources. Its fossil-fuel-bearing strata range in age from Cambrian to Permian and extend over the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The basin has provided abundant fossil fuels to support the Nation’s economic growth for at least 150 years and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments suggest that substantial untapped resources remain. A merger of new and old geologic data and ideas is required to locate and extract those remaining resources.

  11. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  12. Reactions to Western Values as Reflected in African Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ella

    1987-01-01

    Earlier African novels, addressed to a Western audience, defend the traditional culture of the authors and attack the hypocrisy of the West. Later novels, written after 1960, are addressed to an African audience, and present balanced appraisals of Western culture and religion. Discusses rhetorical devices and other aspects of African novels. (BJV)

  13. Reflections on the Law and Curricular Values in American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.; Thro, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The Supreme Court's 1925 ruling in "Pierce v. Society of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary" ("Pierce"), striking down a law from Oregon that would have required all children, other than those needing special education, between the ages of 8 and 16 to attend public schools, essentially upheld the right of nonpublic…

  14. On loneliness and the value of slow reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin van Marle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author considers the relationship of law, morality and reconciliation. Intrigued by the political and ethical stances taken by Arendt and McCarthy, the author supports notions of detachment, slowness and social reconciliation concerning contemporary political and ethical questions.

  15. Optimal Capital Structure: Reflections on Economic and Other Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.J. Schauten (Marc); J. Spronk (Jaap)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDespite a vast literature on the capital structure of the firm there still is a big gap between theory and practice. Starting with the seminal work by Modigliani & Miller, much attention has been paid to the optimality of capital structure from the shareholders’ point of view. Over the

  16. Default values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In making calculations for the purposes of radiation protection, numerical values for parameters used in the calculations are selected. In some cases, data directly applicable to the set of conditions for which the calculations are to be made are unavailable. Therefore, the selection of the values for these parameters may be based on more general data available from the literature or other sources. These values may be referred to as 'default values', that is, values used in default of those based on directly applicable data. The following policy will be applied by Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff in reviewing the radiation protection aspects of submissions associated with licensing, in participating with other organizations in the development of codes and standards, and in any other work which relies to some extent on using default values

  17. Woodland salamander responses to a shelterwood harvest-prescribed burn silvicultural treatment within Appalachian mixed-oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Mahoney, Kathleen R.; Russell, Kevin R.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Riddle, Jason D.; Schuler, Thomas M.; Adams, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Forest management practices that mimic natural canopy disturbances, including prescribed fire and timber harvests, may reduce competition and facilitate establishment of favorable vegetative species within various ecosystems. Fire suppression in the central Appalachian region for almost a century has contributed to a transition from oak-dominated to more mesophytic, fire-intolerant forest communities. Prescribed fire coupled with timber removal is currently implemented to aid in oak regeneration and establishment but responses of woodland salamanders to this complex silvicultural system is poorly documented. The purpose of our research was to determine how woodland salamanders respond to shelterwood harvests following successive burns in a central Appalachian mixed-oak forest. Woodland salamanders were surveyed using coverboard arrays in May, July, and August–September 2011 and 2012. Surveys were conducted within fenced shelterwood-burn (prescribed fires, shelterwood harvest, and fencing to prevent white-tailed deer [Odocoileus virginianus] herbivory), shelterwood-burn (prescribed fires and shelterwood harvest), and control plots. Relative abundance was modeled in relation to habitat variables measured within treatments for mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus), slimy salamanders (Plethodon glutinosus), and eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus). Mountain dusky salamander relative abundance was positively associated with canopy cover and there were significantly more individuals within controls than either shelterwood-burn or fenced shelterwood-burn treatments. Conversely, habitat variables associated with slimy salamanders and eastern red-backed salamanders did not differ among treatments. Salamander age-class structure within controls did not differ from shelterwood-burn or fenced shelterwood-burn treatments for any species. Overall, the woodland salamander assemblage remained relatively intact throughout the shelterwoodburn

  18. Prevalence and correlates of high body mass index in rural Appalachian children aged 6-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Reagan, Karen; Bianco, Joseph A; Heh, Victor; Rettos, Jean; Huston, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In rural regions of the United States of America, estimates of pediatric obesity often exceed national averages. This problem may be particularly pronounced in Appalachian regions, where significant health and economic disparities abound. This study presents the findings of a body mass index (BMI) screening program for 6-11 year old children living in a rural Appalachian community. County-wide estimates of high BMI (>or=85th percentile) were obtained to understand the health status and needs of our pediatric community and to compare obesity prevalence rates with national averages. An additional aim was to identify subpopulations of children who may warrant clinical intervention due to demographic and behavioral risks factors of high BMI. A school-based BMI screening was conducted of 6-11 year old children in southeastern Ohio. Investigators collected 3 sets of height and weight measurements from approximately 2000 elementary school students between 2006 and 2007. Caregivers for a subset of this population also completed a health behaviors questionnaire. Thirty-eight percent of children had high BMI, with 17% at risk for overweight and 20.9% overweight. Boys were 23% more likely than girls to be overweight (chi(2)(1) = 95% CI = 1.08, 1.40) and 11% more likely to become overweight with each year of age (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.15). Overweight children were more likely to view television, eat meals at school, and live with a caregiver who smokes. Consistent with expectations, prevalence of high BMI in this sample of rural Appalachian children exceeds national averages. Prevalence of overweight varied by age and sex; boys are particularly vulnerable to developing obesity, especially as they age. Preliminary survey data suggest that eating breakfast at home and at school and increased hours of television viewing may be associated with higher BMI, especially in younger boys.

  19. Energy analysis of the coal fuel cycle: Community health and resource change in an Appalachian coal county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    In spite of steadily expanding coal development in this decade in the USA, there has been little systematic assessment of occupational and public health implications of increased production in specific regions of the USA. Preliminary analysis of a prototype Appalachian area is presented. Anderson County, Tennessee, the prototype area chosen for evaluation, lies in the Upper East Tennessee Coalfield. This county is uniquely suited for study since every process of the coal fuel cycle (extraction, transport, combustion, power production and waste disposal) takes place within the county boundary. By extensive exploitation of both surface and underground methods of extraction, this county has maintained a leading position in Tennessee's coal production for several years. Concepts of energy analysis and systematized data presentation were used to convert information gathered from diverse sources into comparable energy units (kcal). Concepts and methodology implemented in the analysis can be applied most appropriately to existing conditions in other counties of the Appalachian Coal Basin. Findings are presented for calendar year 1978. For the year of study, the major energy loss to the county was depletion of the coal resource base by use of inefficient mining techniques (a loss of 10.5x10 12 kcal fuel equivalents). Another loss is to community health, which is depleted by lost productivity of, and compensation payments to, victims of mining accidents and occupational disease such as 'black lung' (15x10 9 kcal). Another countywide depletion process is roadbed and bridge deterioration caused by large volumes of heavy coal-haul vehicular traffic (10x10 9 kcal). These losses are being borne mainly by residents of the Appalachian host region, with little systematic compensation by consumers of the coal resource. It is expected that these losses will increase in magnitude as national coal use increases. (author)

  20. Provenance of Late Ordovician Sandstones along the southeastern Appalachian Mountains: Implications for the Tectonic Model of the Taconic Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J. C.; Herrmann, A. D.; Haynes, J.

    2017-12-01

    A provenance study of sandstones along the southeastern Appalachian Mountains has been conducted in order to test the current volcanic arc-continent collision and foreland basin formation model of the Taconic Orogeny. Samples along the southeastern Appalachians were taken from sandstone sequences deposited between 460-450 Ma. Results from these sandstones show three dominate age ranges: 465-685 Ma, 980-1300 Ma, and 1300-1500 Ma. The 980-1300 Ma and 1300-1500 Ma ages are seen throughout the study area and are compatible with previously reported ages of the Grenville Orogeny and the Rhyolite-Granite Province. The northernmost samples have a small quantity of 465-685 Ma zircons which is attributed to an accretionary wedge that formed as a result of the continent-island arc collision and acted as a physical barrier keeping sediment from depositing within the basin. The younger age signal becomes stronger to the south, as samples in Georgia and Alabama show strong concentrations of 465-685 zircons. These ages are attributed to exotic terranes (Dalhonega Terrane and Carolina Terrane) that were accreted onto Laurentia during the Taconic Orogeny and/or a possible change in subduction direction leading to a back-arc basin model for the southern Appalachian Taconic Orogeny. The results from this provenance analysis support previous studies indicating that the model for the Taconic Orogeny is a combined A-type subduction for the north and a B-type subduction model for the southern part of the orogeny.

  1. Values and entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Urbanová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the importance of values ​​in business development. The authors remind M. Weber and his study about the impact of Protestantism on business development. After defining the concept of value, attention is focused on the theory of R.K. Merton, T. Parsons, R. Inglehart. Using the critical sociological approach the authors reflect on the research strategies in the area of values. In this context is mentioned for example the issue of ideal and real cultures – ideal cultures consist of norms and values to which people officially claim, e.g. values of Christian civilization, values of Central Europe; so-called universal values are very often (or should be a base for legal norms. Real cultures represent a pattern according to which people act and regard it socially acceptable. In this context is also discussed the question of individualism without responsibility that is typical for current western society as well as for the Czech society of last decades. Value orientations are patterns for expected roles, culturally defined types of human relations, expressing the basic attitudes in social interaction. The level of prevailing business values is visible also in many multinational corporations espousing the concept of corporate social responsibility within their promotion but violating it in reality.

  2. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  3. Unaustralia: Strangeness and Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Frow

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the flawed legal regime governing national security in Australia. It focuses on legislation related to anti-terrorism and discusses the negative effects of the bills, particularly in relation to the treatment of refugees and asylum seekers. The author reflects on the harsh political and social climate of Australia during the era of the Howard government and One Nation party, noting that democratic and the liberal values can be in conflict.

  4. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  5. Forestland values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Beuter; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the journal of Forestry is devoted to articles about forestland values. Viewed broadly, natural resources and humans are our two basic resources. An expression of the importance of land as a foundation for forest ecosystems is forestland value. Our attitudes about land and the forest ecosystems that they support have changed considerably in recent years....

  6. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  7. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    The world over classrooms in business schools are being taught that corporate values can impact performance. The argument is typically that culture matter more than strategy plans and culture can be influenced and indeed changed by a shared corporate value set. While the claim seems intuitively a...... a unique contribution to the effects of investment in shared company values, and to whether agent rationality can be fundamentally changed by committed organizational efforts....

  8. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  9. Fragments on teachers' reflective practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Predrag Ž.

    2013-01-01

    (Schon, 1987. This presents, almost unexpectedly and suddenly, two types of reflection (1 reflection on action which occurs during the action interrupting and interfering with it, and (2 reflections in action which appears in the action as well as in the disruption and interruption, so that we think about her and about how to reshape the action that takes place in the moments of reflection. The idea of reflective practitioners (educators, adult educators, sociologists, etc., or a practitioner who thinks about his/her own practice and the practice of reflection draws on its theoretical origins that Schon develops almost like an original idea that became well-known. He assumes that the practice of practical activities (such as teaching, instruction, therapeutic work of doctors or therapists constitutes an original and very specific epistemology. Contrary to the dominant technical rationality that underpins modern professional education, Schon believes that professional knowledge and competence includes the effect of successful practitioners (educators, adult educators, teachers, etc., especially in reflection-in-action (''reflection of what we do while doing'' (Schon, 1986, which appears in problem situations. Hence, the practical education of the profession, according to the author, necessarily follows the model of learning by doing a particular kind of apprenticeship modelled on the training of musicians, artists and drama artists. In his second book (The Reflective Practitioner, Schon develops reflective practicum and confronts it with a dominant, normative curriculum, which constitutes the basis of theoretical knowledge to solve practical, instrumental problems. Practice, however, that is often characterized by uncertainty in this case does not become one solution, but the solution depends on the choice of the value of paragraph, depending on what aspect of the situation we pay more attention to. Schon distinguishes knowledge in action, what implicit knowledge is

  10. Constraints from geochemistry and oxygen isotopes for the hydrothermal origin of orthoamphibole mafic gneiss in the New Jersey Highlands, north-central Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Richard A.; Peck, William H.

    2017-12-01

    Rare exposures of orthoamphibole mafic (Oam) gneiss of Mesoproterozoic age in the north-central Appalachians are confined to the northwestern New Jersey Highlands where they form thin lens-shaped bodies composed of gedrite and sparse anthophyllite, oligoclase (An13-An20), biotite, magnetite, and local fluorapatite, rutile, and ilmenite. The gneiss is penetratively foliated and has sharp, conformable contacts against enclosing supracrustal paragneiss and marble. Orthoamphibole mafic gneiss is characterized by low SiO2 (48 ± 2.5 wt%), CaO (1.9 ± 1.3 wt%), and high Al2O3 (18 ± 1.2 wt%), Fe2O3 (10.5 ± 1.6 wt%), and MgO (12 ± 2.3 wt%). Trace element abundances overlap those of unaltered amphibolites in the study area and, coupled with δ18O values of 9.45 ± 0.6‰ (VSMOW) from gedrite separates, support an origin from a basalt protolith. The geochemical and isotopic data are consistent with the formation of Oam gneiss through sea floor hydrothermal alteration of basalt at low temperature of 150-200 °C. Mass-balance calculations indicate gains during alteration mainly in MgO and Al2O3 and losses in CaO, Sr, and light rare earth elements. Our results are compatible with the pre-metamorphic alteration of the basalt protoliths through chloritization and plagioclase dissolution that produced a Mg-rich and Ca-poor rock. Subsequent metamorphism of this chlorite-rich rock to the current mineral assemblage of Oam gneiss took place at ca. 1045 Ma, during the Ottawan phase of the Grenvillian Orogeny. The close spatial association in the study area of Oam gneiss bodies and sulfide occurrences suggests an affinity to the style of mineralization associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS)-type deposits.

  11. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  12. Appalachian basin oil and natural gas: stratigraphic framework, total petroleum systems, and estimated ultimate recovery: Chapter C.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Appalachian basin was completed in 2002 (Milici and others, 2003). This assessment was based on the total petroleum system (TPS), a concept introduced by Magoon and Dow (1994) and developed during subsequent studies such as those by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) and by Biteau and others (2003a,b). Each TPS is based on specific geologic elements that include source rocks, traps and seals, reservoir rocks, and the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. This chapter identifies the TPSs defined in the 2002 Appalachian basin oil and gas assessment and places them in the context of the stratigraphic framework associated with regional geologic cross sections D–D′ (Ryder and others, 2009, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.1) and E–E′ (Ryder and others, 2008, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.2). Furthermore, the chapter presents a recent estimate of the ultimate recoverable oil and natural gas in the basin.

  13. Particle reflection and TFTR neutral beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O'Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-04-01

    Determination of two critical neutral beam parameters, power and divergence, are affected by the reflection of a fraction of the incident energy from the surface of the measuring calorimeter. On the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand, greater than 30% of the incident power directed at the target chamber calorimeter was unaccounted for. Most of this loss is believed due to reflection from the surface of the flat calorimeter, which was struck at a near grazing incidence (12 degrees). Beamline calorimeters, of a ''V''-shape design, while retaining the beam power, also suffer from reflection effects. Reflection, in this latter case, artificially peaks the power toward the apex of the ''V'', complicating the fitting technique, and increasing the power density on axis by 10 to 20%; an effect of import to future beamline designers. Agreement is found between measured and expected divergence values, even with 24% of the incident energy reflected

  14. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  15. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  16. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20

    has been validated for softwoods (white pine) on several reclaimed mine sites in the southern Appalachian coal region. The classification model is a viable method for classifying post-SMCRA abandoned mined lands into productivity classes for white pine. A thinning study was established as a random complete block design to evaluate the response to thinning of a 26-year-old white pine stand growing on a reclaimed surface mine in southwest Virginia. Stand parameters were projected to age 30 using a stand table projection. Site index of the stand was found to be 32.3 m at base age 50 years. Thinning rapidly increased the diameter growth of the residual trees to 0.84 cm yr{sup -1} compared to 0.58 cm yr{sup -1} for the unthinned treatment; however, at age 26, there was no difference in volume or value per hectare. At age 30, the unthinned treatment had a volume of 457.1 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} but was only worth $8807 ha{sup -1}, while the thinned treatment was projected to have 465.8 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1}, which was worth $11265 ha{sup -1} due to a larger percentage of the volume being in sawtimber size classes.

  17. Current perspectives on unconventional shale gas extraction in the Appalachian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, David J; Stolz, John F

    2015-01-01

    The Appalachian Basin is home to three major shales, the Upper Devonian, Marcellus, and Utica. Together, they contain significant quantities of tight oil, gas, and mixed hydrocarbons. The Marcellus alone is estimated to contain upwards of 500 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. The extraction of these deposits is facilitated by a combination of horizontal drilling and slick water stimulation (e.g., hydraulic fracturing) or "fracking." The process of fracking requires large volumes of water, proppant, and chemicals as well as a large well pad (3-7 acres) and an extensive network of gathering and transmission pipelines. Drilling can generate about 1,000 tons of drill cuttings depending on the depth of the formation and the length of the horizontal bore. The flowback and produced waters that return to the surface during production are high in total dissolved solids (TDS, 60,000-350,000 mg L(-1)) and contain halides (e.g., chloride, bromide, fluoride), strontium, barium, and often naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) as well as organics. The condensate tanks used to store these fluids can off gas a plethora of volatile organic compounds. The waste water, with its high TDS may be recycled, treated, or disposed of through deep well injection. Where allowed, open impoundments used for recycling are a source of air borne contamination as they are often aerated. The gas may be "dry" (mostly methane) or "wet," the latter containing a mixture of light hydrocarbons and liquids that need to be separated from the methane. Although the wells can produce significant quantities of natural gas, from 2-7 bcf, their initial decline rates are significant (50-75%) and may cease to be economic within a few years. This review presents an overview of unconventional gas extraction highlighting the environmental impacts and challenges.

  18. Soil Carbon Dynamics Along an Elevation Gradient in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten Jr., C.T.

    2004-04-13

    The role of soil C dynamics in the exchange of CO{sub 2} between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is at the center of many science questions related to global climate change. The purpose of this report is to summarize measured trends in environmental factors and ecosystem processes that affect soil C balance along elevation gradients in the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, USA. Three environmental factors that have potentially significant effects on soil C dynamics (temperature, precipitation, and soil N availability) vary in a predictable manner with altitude. Forest soil C stocks and calculated turnover times of labile soil C increase with elevation, and there is an apparent inverse relationship between soil C storage and mean annual temperature. Relationships between climate variables and soil C dynamics along elevation gradients must be interpreted with caution because litter chemistry, soil moisture, N availability, and temperature are confounded; all potentially interact in complex ways to regulate soil C storage through effects on decomposition. Some recommendations are presented for untangling these complexities. It is concluded that past studies along elevation gradients have contributed to a better but not complete understanding of environmental factors and processes that potentially affect soil C balance. Furthermore, there are advantages linked to the use of elevation gradients as an approach to climate change research when hypotheses are placed in a strong theoretical or mechanistic framework. Climate change research along elevation gradients can be both convenient and economical. More importantly, ecosystem processes and attributes affecting soil C dynamics along elevation gradients are usually the product of the long-term interactions between climate, vegetation, and soil type. Investigations along elevation gradients are a useful approach to the study of environmental change, and its effect

  19. Using Silviculture to Influence Carbon Sequestration in Southern Appalachian Spruce-Fir Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. Moore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled. We explicitly considered C stored in standing forest stocks and the fate of forest products derived from harvesting. Over a 100-year simulation period the even-aged scenario (250 Mg C ha1 outperformed the no-action scenario (241 Mg C ha1 in total carbon (TC sequestered. The uneven-aged scenario approached 220 Mg C ha1, but did not outperform the no-action scenario within the simulation period. While the average annual change in C (AAC of the no-action scenario approached zero, or carbon neutral, during the simulation, both the even-aged and uneven-aged scenarios surpassed the no-action by year 30 and maintained positive AAC throughout the 100-year simulation. This study demonstrates that silvicultural treatment of forest stands can increase potential C storage, but that careful consideration of: (1 accounting method (i.e., TC versus AAC; (2 fate of harvested products and; (3 length of the planning horizon (e.g., 100 years will strongly influence the evaluation of C sequestration.

  20. Food Insecurity and Behavioral Characteristics for Academic Success in Young Adults Attending an Appalachian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Rebecca L; Olfert, Melissa D

    2018-03-16

    In order to investigate the impact of food insecurity on college students in a highly health disparate region we (1) assessed the prevalence of food insecurity among young adults at a large, rural university in Appalachia, and (2) investigated the relationship between food insecurity and behavioral characteristics including academic performance, coping strategies, and money expenditure. A cross-sectional design was used to capture a representative sample of young adults attending a large, central Appalachian university in Fall 2016. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Adult Food Security Survey was used to measure food insecurity. Independent variables include money expenditure (MES), coping strategies (CSS), academic performance (APS), and demographic, health, economic and culinary variables. Participant responses ( n = 692) showed one third (36.6%) of respondents were food-insecure. Students with higher scores for MES and CSS had significantly higher odds of being food-insecure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.81 to 2.38 and OR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.23, respectively). The odds of high APS scores (OR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.86) were inversely related to food insecurity. Results of the logistic regression showed MES, CSS, health, and school year remained a significant predictor of food insecurity in college students. These findings suggest behavioral differences in terms of coping strategies, money expenditure, and academic progress among food-insecure students and can be used to identify and target at-risk students to promote student food security and well-being.

  1. Assessing Whether Northeastern Earthquakes and Warm Springs Are Produced by the Northern Appalachian Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, A. M.; Abbott, D. H.; Menke, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    The passive margin of eastern North America has been tectonically quiescent for >100 Ma. However, earthquakes, mantle-derived 3He in ground water and warm springs hint at continued activity. The recent proposal of asthenospheric upwelling (the Northern Appalachian Anomaly, NAA) beneath southern New England (SNE) raises the possibility that this activity is due to mantle melt. Its delivery to the lithosphere may lower density and cause stress, open pathways for 3He, and heat the crust. We examine isostatic balance along the Levin et al. [2017] receiver function profile for which crustal thickness H and compressional-to-shear velocity ratio R are published. It crosses the continental margin north of the NAA and acts as a control against which regions closer to it may be compared. We use Christensen's [1996] measurements of rocks to predict crustal density Dc from R. Isostatic balance is estimated by combining H, Dc, elevation and mantle density Dm. We assume a constant Dm, which allows us to assess the imbalance due to factors other than mantle heterogeneities. The crust along the profile is not in isostatic balance, with very large disequilibrium pressure P (up to -33.6 MPa). We use the horizontal gradient of P as a proxy for crustal shear force and compare it to seismicity. The signals show significant correlation, indicating that both the isostatic imbalance and the crustal seismicity may be due to crustal features that are thought to be mostly "fossil'; that is, originating hundreds of millions of year ago when the crust was formed. While our results do not preclude the possibility that the present-day NAA is influencing isostatic disequilibria and seismicity in SNE, they indicate that distinguishing its effect from the very large ancient causes may be problematical. We also study warm springs underlain by the NAA and show that their temperatures have been stable over the last 100 years, suggesting their importance in long-term heat transport.

  2. Depression, Smoking, and Ego-Centric Social Network Characteristics in Ohio Appalachian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jeffrey; Lu, Bo; Doogan, Nate; Thomson, Tiffany; Ferketich, Amy; Paskett, Electra D; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a serious, costly, and debilitating disorder that is understudied in rural women. Studies show that depression is associated with low social integration and support, but few studies investigate the relationship between depression and social network characteristics. This study examined the associations among women from three Ohio Appalachian counties enrolled in a health study, which aimed to collect information for a future social network smoking cessation intervention. An address-based sampling method was used to randomly select and recruit 404 women. A cross-sectional survey and interview were used to collect information about demographic, psychosocial, behavioral factors, and ego-centric social network characteristics, which are variables derived from an individual (ego) and her first degree contacts (alters). The CES-D scale assessed depressive symptoms. A multivariable logistic regression analysis described the association between these factors and participants with depression (defined as CES-D≥16). Higher network density, or greater number of relationships among alters divided by the total amount of alters, reduced the risk for depression (OR = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.95). Additionally, women with a high percentage of smoking alters were at greater risk for depression (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.39). Other factors associated with risk for depression included perceived stress score (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.24-1.45), loneliness score (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.05-1.80), and days with poor physical health (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11). Findings suggest that psychosocial factors and social networks should be considered when addressing depression in clinical practice.

  3. Behavior and reproductive ecology of the Sicklefin Redhorse: An imperiled southern Appalachian Mountain fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Scott D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Many nongame fishes are poorly understood but are essential to maintaining healthy aquatic ecosystems globally. The undescribed Sicklefin Redhorse Moxostoma sp. is a rare, imperiled, nongame fish endemic to two southern Appalachian Mountain river basins. Little is known of its behavior and ecology, but this information is urgently needed for conservation planning. We assessed the spatial and temporal bounds of spawning migration, quantified seasonal weekly movement patterns, and characterized seasonal and spawning behavior using radiotelemetry and weir sampling in the Hiwassee River basin, North Carolina–Georgia, during 2006 and 2007. Hiwassee River tributaries were occupied predominantly during the fish's spawning season, lower reaches of the tributaries and the Hiwassee River were primarily occupied during the postspawning season (i.e., summer and fall), and lower lotic reaches of Hiwassee River (upstream from Hiwassee Lake) were occupied during winter. Adults occupied Hiwassee Lake only as a movement corridor during spawning migrations. Both sexes conducted upstream spawning migrations simultaneously, but males occupied spawning tributaries longer than females. Sicklefin Redhorse exhibited interannual spawning‐area and tributary fidelity. Cold water temperatures associated with hypolimnetic releases from reservoirs and meteorological conditions influenced spawning migration distance and timing. During 2007, decreased discharges during the spawning season were associated with decreases in migration distance and spawning tributary occupancy duration. Foraging was the dominant behavior observed annually, followed by reproductive behaviors (courting and spawning) during the spawning season. No agonistic reproductive behavior was observed, but females exhibited a repetitious postspawning digging behavior that may be unique in the family Catostomidae. Our findings suggest that protection and restoration of river continuity, natural flow regimes, seasonally

  4. Assessing effects of stocked trout on nongame fish assemblages in southern Appalachian Mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries managers are faced with the challenge of balancing the management of recreational fisheries with that of conserving native species and preserving ecological integrity. The negative effects that nonnative trout species exert on native trout are well documented and include alteration of competitive interactions, habitat use, and production. However, the effects that nonnative trout may exert on nongame fish assemblages are poorly understood. Our objectives were to quantify the effects of trout stocking on native nongame fish assemblages intensively on one newly stocked river, the North Toe River, North Carolina, and extensively on other southern Appalachian Mountain streams that are annually stocked with trout. In the intensive study, we adopted a before-after, control-impact (BACI) experimental design to detect short-term effects on the nongame fish assemblage and found no significant differences in fish density, species richness, species diversity, or fish microhabitat use associated with trout stocking. We observed differences in fish microhabitat use between years, however, which suggests there is a response to environmental changes, such as the flow regime, which influence available habitat. In the extensive study, we sampled paired stocked and unstocked stream reaches to detect long-term effects from trout stocking; however, we detected no differences in nongame fish density, species richness, species diversity, or population size structure between paired sites. Our results revealed high inherent system variation caused by natural and anthropogenic factors that appear to overwhelm any acute or chronic effect of stocked trout. Furthermore, hatchery-reared trout may be poor competitors in a natural setting and exert a minimal or undetectable impact on native fish assemblages in these streams. These findings provide quantitative results necessary to assist agencies in strategic planning and decision making associated with trout fisheries, stream

  5. A computational fluid dynamics approach to wind prospecting: Lessons from the U.S. Appalachian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womeldorf, Carole A.; Chimeli, Ariaster B.

    2014-01-01

    A number of technological, institutional and market developments have lowered the minimally economic viable wind speeds for wind power generation while contributing to increasing profitability of the wind power industry in recent decades. Yet, information on the potential for wind power generation is still highly uncertain in many regions of the globe, particularly those with complex terrain features. We focus on an area by the foothills of the Appalachian region. Because we do not have precise wind measurements for this area, we do not attempt to produce an actual wind map, but instead use a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model to demonstrate the calculation of high resolution wind speeds with complex terrain information. Using this approach, we show how finer wind speed information can impact the status of an overlooked region in terms of its wind potential and improve wind prospecting by enabling investors to focus on the most promising sub-regions of a study area. Since private sector investors might not have the incentive to invest in finer-scale wind resource assessment that can be easily observed by competitors, public sector incentives or direct investments can help to promote wind power generation in overlooked but viable regions. - Highlights: • Costly expansion of transmission stimulates wind prospecting in accessible regions. • A search model motivates the rationale for wind prospecting in a given region. • A computational fluid dynamics model simulates finer wind information. • The distribution of wind speeds is estimated using finer wind information. • An initially overlooked region might become attractive for wind prospecting

  6. Unravelling Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Matthew

    Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania.......Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania....

  7. Environmental equity and the conservation of unique ecosystems: an analysis of the distribution of benefits for protecting Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Aldy; Randall A. Kramer; Thomas P. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    Some critics in the environmental equity literature argue that low-income populations disproportionately have environmental risks, while the wealthy and better educated gain disproportionately from protecting unique ecosystems. The authors test this hypothesis in an analysis of the decline of Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. They calculate willingness-to-pay...

  8. An evaluation of seven methods for controlling mountain laurel thickets in the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose

    2017-01-01

    In the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) thickets in mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) stands can lead to hazardous fuel situations, forest regeneration problems, and possible forest health concerns. Therefore, land managers need techniques to control mountain laurel thickets and limit...

  9. Economic analysis of the potential impact of climate change on recreational trout fishing in the Southern Appalachian Mountains: An appication of a nested multinomial logti model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeun Ahn; Joseph E. de Steiguer; Raymond B. Palmquist; Thomas P. Holmes

    2000-01-01

    Global warming due to the enhanced greenhouse effect through human activities has become a major public policy issue in recent years. The present study focuses on the potential economic impact of climate change on recreational trout fishing in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Significant reductions in trout habitat and/or populations are...

  10. Baseline capture rates and roosting habits of Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-Eared Bat) prior to white-nose syndrome  detection in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanessa G. Rojas; Joy M. O' Keefe; Susan C. Loeb

    2017-01-01

    Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) is a federally threatened insectivorous bat facing devastating population declines due to white-nose syndrome (WNS). Our study provides pre-WNS (2009) capture rates and roosting-behavior data for Northern Long-eared Bats in the southern Appalachians. We conducted mist-net surveys at 37 sites and...

  11. Areas of residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains are characterized by low riparian zone nitrogen cycling and no increase in soil greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Baas; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Daniel Markewitz; Jacqueline E. Mohan

    2017-01-01

    The critical role streamside riparian zones play in mitigating the movement of nitrogen (N) and other elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems could be threatened by residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Many studies have investigated the influence of agriculture on N loading to streams but less is known about the impacts of residential...

  12. Total C and N Pools and fluxes vary with time, soil temperature, and moisture along an elevation, precipitation, and vegetation gradient in southern Appalachian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Craig R. See; James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; James S. Clark

    2018-01-01

    The interactions of terrestrial C pools and fluxes with spatial and temporal variation in climate are not well understood. We conducted this study in the southern Appalachian Mountains where complex topography provides variability in temperature, precipitation, and forest communities. In 1990, we established five large plots across an elevation gradient...

  13. Effect of forest harvesting best management practices on coarse woody debris distribution in stream and riparian zones in three Appalachian watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. McClure; R. K. Kolka; A. White

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of coarse woody debris (CWD) was analyzed in three Appalachian watersheds in eastern Kentucky, eighteen years after harvest. The three watersheds included an unharvested control (Control), a second watershed with best management practices (BMPs) applied that included a 15.2 m unharvested zone near the stream (BMP watershed), and a third watershed that...

  14. Short-term response of ground-dwelling arthropods to prescribed fire and mechanical fuel reduction in a Southern Appalachian upland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; T.G. Forrest; Thomas. Waldrop

    2010-01-01

    As part of the multidisciplinary National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study, we used drift fences with pitfall traps to determine how three fuel reduction treatments affected ground-dwelling macroarthropods in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Four experimental units, each

  15. Influence of elevation and forest type on community assemblage and species distribution of shrews in the central and southern Appalachian mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Timothy S. McCay; Michael A. Menzel; W. David Webster; Cathryn H. Greenberg; John F. Pagels; Joseph F. Merritt; Joseph F. Merritt

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed shrew community data from 398,832 pitfall trapnights at 303 sites across the upper Piedmont, Blue Ridge, northern Ridge and Valley, southern Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau and Allegheny Mountains and Plateau sections of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains from Alabama to Pennsylvania. The objectives of our research were to describe regional...

  16. Total internal reflection effect on gyrotropic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushchenko, Alexander G.; Glushchenko, Eugene P.; Zhukov, Sergey V.

    2018-02-01

    This article considers the physical features of total internal reflection at gyrotropic and isotropic interfaces for two cases: electrical gyrotropy (plasma) and magnetic gyrotropy (ferrite). It is shown that the plasma magnetization may lead to the formation of the total internal reflection effect, which does not occur in isotropic plasma. The threshold values of the magnetic field, which are necessary for the total internal reflection effect, are determined. The total internal reflection effect on a ferrite-dielectric interface for waves emanating from different angles is observed in various frequency ranges and magnetization fields. The study points out the possibility of changing the total internal reflection angle value in large limits due to a change in the external magnetic field magnitude. The calculation results of the total internal reflection angle dependence on the external magnetic field magnitude are presented. The formulas are elaborated for calculating the total internal reflection angles of different interfaces for gyrotropic and isotropic media. The generalized formulas are defined for calculating the Doppler effect in the gyrotropic media. The study demonstrates how the velocity of the media interface affects the limiting angle of total internal refection.

  17. Late Frasnian sedimentation cycles in the Appalachian basin—possible evidence for high frequency eustatic sea-level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filer, Jonathan K.

    2002-12-01

    During the late Frasnian, 11 fourth-order progradational/retrogradational marine sedimentation cycles were deposited in the Appalachian foreland basin. Mapping based primarily on subsurface data demonstrates the continuity of these cycles over a distance of 700 km. Cyclicity in distal facies occurs as alternations of organic-rich and organic-poor shales, two of the organic shales can be correlated with the transgressive "Kellwasser Beds" of Europe. In more proximal facies, recurring lobes of siltstone and sandstone were deposited. Based on lithologic indices, the temporal pattern shows significant variation in the strength of relative facies change during deposition. In particular, two times of particularly pronounced progradation correspond to previously recognized eustatic sea-level falls. The correlation of portions of Appalachian basin depositional cyclicity with global sea-level events suggests that the entire sequence of 11 cycles, with estimated average duration of around 100-150 ka, were the result of high-frequency eustatic sea-level changes. This in turn would be consistent with a brief period of late Frasnian glaciation, as others have previously suggested.

  18. Engaging Rural Appalachian High School Girls in College Science Laboratories to Foster STEM-Related Career Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Louise Kelly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Setting students on a path to success in careers in science is a challenge in poor rural Appalachian public schools. Students face many socioeconomic obstacles. Their teachers are also limited by many factors including inadequate facilities, under-funding, geographical isolation of the schools, and state-testing constraints. Additionally, students and teachers lack the availability of outside science educational opportunities. In an effort to address this situation, 24 academically strong high school junior girls and their teachers from the Carter County School System in rural east Tennessee were invited for a laboratory day at Milligan College, a small liberal arts college in the heart of the county. Science faculty, female science majors, and admissions staff volunteered in service to the project. The event included three laboratory sessions, lunch in the college cafeteria, and campus tours. This successful example, as evidenced by positive evaluations by the invited girls and their teachers, of educational outreach by a local, small liberal arts college to a rural county school system provides a model for establishing a relationship between higher education institutions and these underprivileged schools, with the intention of drawing more of these poor, rural Appalachian students, particularly girls, into a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM career path.

  19. First-Year Vitality of Reforestation Plantings in Response to Herbivore Exclusion on Reclaimed Appalachian Surface-Mined Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J. Hackworth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Appalachian surface-mine reclamation techniques repress natural forest regeneration, and tree plantings are often necessary for reforestation. Reclaimed Appalachian surface mines harbor a suite of mammal herbivores that forage on recently planted seedlings. Anecdotal reports across Appalachia have implicated herbivory in the hindrance and failure of reforestation efforts, yet empirical evaluation of herbivory impacts on planted seedling vitality in this region remains relatively uninitiated. First growing-season survival, height growth, and mammal herbivory damage of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L., shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill., and white oak (Quercus alba L. are presented in response to varying intensities of herbivore exclusion. Seedling survival was generally high, and height growth was positive for all species. The highest herbivory incidence of all tree species was observed in treatments offering no herbivore exclusion. While seedling protectors lowered herbivory incidence compared with no exclusion, full exclusion treatments resulted in the greatest reduction of herbivore damage. Although herbivory from rabbits, small mammals, and domestic animals was observed, cervids (deer and elk were responsible for 95.8% of all damaged seedlings. This study indicates that cervids forage heavily on planted seedlings during the first growing-season, but exclusion is effective at reducing herbivory.

  20. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  1. Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, M B; Vote, D J; Belk, K E; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2009-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine if reflectance measurements made in the near-infrared region of the spectrum were additive to reflectance measurements made in the visible region of the spectrum for predicting Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values. Eighty seven strip loins were collected following fabrication over 3d at a commercial beef processing facility from heifer carcasses with Slight or Traces marbling scores. Spectroscopic measurements were made at approximately 50h postmortem using a Hunter-Lab UltraScan. Subsequently, all strip loins were aged for 14d, cooked to an internal temperature of 70°C, and sheared to obtain WBSF values. Reflectance measurements obtained in the near-infrared region of the spectrum were correlated with WBSF values, however, these measurements were not additive to the predictive ability of reflectance measurements (R(2) values did not differ) made in the visible portion of the spectrum when the use of broad-band wavelength filters were simulated. It was therefore determined, that both the visible and near-infrared spectra measure reflectance and that both methods are acceptable methods of tenderness prediction.

  2. Work values of future teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Liniauskaitė, Audronė; Zališčevskis, Antanas

    2005-01-01

    Learning to live under the network conditions, Lithuanian society is forced to change many things, including the approach towards the work values, which describe human work aspirations and reflect person's understanding of what is correct, good, and acceptable, etc. There is such a trend in the network society, that rational work values are being gradually replaced by the personality growth and interrelation-oriented values. The article presents the research, which aims at the examination of ...

  3. Public Value: rethinking value creation

    OpenAIRE

    Meynhardt, Timo; Gomez, Peter; Strathoff, Pepe; Hermann, Carolin

    2014-01-01

    Managers might refute public criticism of their business as an attitude of taking everything for granted in a saturated society, but ignoring Public Value aspects can threaten the success of new products and even the survival of entire firms.

  4. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  5. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earth’s atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values

  6. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  7. Worship, Reflection, Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Dong,

    2012-01-01

    In my youth, I was a worshipper of Mao Zedong. From the latter stage of the Mao Era to the early years of Reform and Opening, I began to reflect on Mao and the Communist Revolution he launched. In recent years I’ve devoted myself to empirical historical research on Mao, seeking the truth about Mao and China’s modern history.

  8. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  9. Reflections on 21 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.; Mandel, H.; Teller, E.

    1977-01-01

    Personal reflections after twenty one years of nuclear power are presented by a number of those who were international figures in the nuclear energy field during that period. Lessons learnt, achievements, prospects and predictions for the future are discussed in eleven brief surveys. (U.K.)

  10. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  11. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  12. Onward: Reflections on Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberley Buster

    2018-01-01

    The author has been blessed with great mentors throughout her career. When she was invited to participate in the Leadership University of Mary Washington (UMW), a mentoring program at her institution, she did not hesitate to say yes. In this article, the author shares her reflections on mentoring.

  13. Interferometric reflection moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Combell, Olivier

    1995-06-01

    A new reflection moire technique is introduced in this paper. The basic equations that relate the measurement of slopes to the basic geometric and optical parameters of the system are derived. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are discussed. Examples of application to the study of silicon wafers and electronic chips are given.

  14. Reflection on robotic intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the development or robots, both their physical shape as well as their intelligence. The later strongly depends on the progress made in the artificial intelligence (AI) community which does not yet provide the models and tools necessary to create intelligent robots. It is time

  15. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  16. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  17. Add Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbelgaard, Cecilie Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    "Add Value – kend din kunde" er et brætspil, som giver både offentlige og private virksomheder unikke muligheder for at forbedre deres service overfor kunderne. Spillet giver, på en alternativ og handlingsorienteret måde, mulighed for at blive skarpere på kundeoplevelsen – hvor er der værdi...... at hente, og hvor kan der spares på tid og ressourcer? Dette samtidig med, at kunderne får den oplevelse og service, de forventer. Når I spiller "Add Value – kend din kunde" sættes der fokus på Jeres kundeservice ud fra kundens perspektiv, og det er i alle Jeres kontaktflader med kunden. Lige fra kunden...

  18. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  19. Cambrian-lower Middle Ordovician passive carbonate margin, southern Appalachians: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J. Fred; Repetski, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The southern Appalachian part of the Cambrian–Ordovician passive margin succession of the great American carbonate bank extends from the Lower Cambrian to the lower Middle Ordovician, is as much as 3.5 km (2.2 mi) thick, and has long-term subsidence rates exceeding 5 cm (2 in.)/k.y. Subsiding depocenters separated by arches controlled sediment thickness. The succession consists of five supersequences, each of which contains several third-order sequences, and numerous meter-scale parasequences. Siliciclastic-prone supersequence 1 (Lower Cambrian Chilhowee Group fluvial rift clastics grading up into shelf siliciclastics) underlies the passive margin carbonates. Supersequence 2 consists of the Lower Cambrian Shady Dolomite–Rome-Waynesboro Formations. This is a shallowing-upward ramp succession of thinly bedded to nodular lime mudstones up into carbonate mud-mound facies, overlain by lowstand quartzose carbonates, and then a rimmed shelf succession capped by highly cyclic regressive carbonates and red beds (Rome-Waynesboro Formations). Foreslope facies include megabreccias, grainstone, and thin-bedded carbonate turbidites and deep-water rhythmites. Supersequence 3 rests on a major unconformity and consists of a Middle Cambrian differentiated rimmed shelf carbonate with highly cyclic facies (Elbrook Formation) extending in from the rim and passing via an oolitic ramp into a large structurally controlled intrashelf basin (Conasauga Shale). Filling of the intrashelf basin caused widespread deposition of thin quartz sandstones at the base of supersequence 4, overlain by widespread cyclic carbonates (Upper Cambrian lower Knox Group Copper Ridge Dolomite in the south; Conococheague Formation in the north). Supersequence 5 (Lower Ordovician upper Knox in the south; Lower to Middle Ordovician Beekmantown Group in the north) has a basal quartz sandstone-prone unit, overlain by cyclic ramp carbonates, that grade downdip into thrombolite grainstone and then storm

  20. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  1. Determining the source and genetic fingerprint of natural gases using noble gas geochemistry: a northern Appalachian Basin case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Poreda, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Silurian and Devonian natural gas reservoirs present within New York state represent an example of unconventional gas accumulations within the northern Appalachian Basin. These unconventional energy resources, previously thought to be noneconomically viable, have come into play following advances in drilling (i.e., horizontal drilling) and extraction (i.e., hydraulic fracturing) capabilities. Therefore, efforts to understand these and other domestic and global natural gas reserves have recently increased. The suspicion of fugitive mass migration issues within current Appalachian production fields has catalyzed the need to develop a greater understanding of the genetic grouping (source) and migrational history of natural gases in this area. We introduce new noble gas data in the context of published hydrocarbon carbon (C1,C2+) (13C) data to explore the genesis of thermogenic gases in the Appalachian Basin. This study includes natural gases from two distinct genetic groups: group 1, Upper Devonian (Marcellus shale and Canadaway Group) gases generated in situ, characterized by early mature (13C[C1  C2][13C113C2]: –9), isotopically light methane, with low (4He) (average, 1  103 cc/cc) elevated 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar (where the asterisk denotes excess radiogenic or nucleogenic production beyond the atmospheric ratio), and a variable, atmospherically (air-saturated–water) derived noble gas component; and group 2, a migratory natural gas that emanated from Lower Ordovician source rocks (i.e., most likely, Middle Ordovician Trenton or Black River group) that is currently hosted primarily in Lower Silurian sands (i.e., Medina or Clinton group) characterized by isotopically heavy, mature methane (13C[C1 – C2] [13C113C2]: 3), with high (4He) (average, 1.85  103 cc/cc) 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar near crustal production levels and elevated crustal noble gas content (enriched 4He,21Ne, 40Ar). Because the release of each crustal noble gas (i.e., He, Ne, Ar

  2. Water resources and shale gas/oil production in the Appalachian Basin: critical issues and evolving developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, William M.; Williams, John H.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas and oil resources in the United States are important components of a national energy program. While the Nation seeks greater energy independence and greener sources of energy, Federal agencies with environmental responsibilities, state and local regulators and water-resource agencies, and citizens throughout areas of unconventional shale gas development have concerns about the environmental effects of high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF), including those in the Appalachian Basin in the northeastern United States (fig. 1). Environmental concerns posing critical challenges include the availability and use of surface water and groundwater for hydraulic fracturing; the migration of stray gas and potential effects on overlying aquifers; the potential for flowback, formation fluids, and other wastes to contaminate surface water and groundwater; and the effects from drill pads, roads, and pipeline infrastructure on land disturbance in small watersheds and headwater streams (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2012). Federal, state, regional and local agencies, along with the gas industry, are striving to use the best science and technology to develop these unconventional resources in an environmentally safe manner. Some of these concerns were addressed in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet 2009–3032 (Soeder and Kappel, 2009) about potential critical effects on water resources associated with the development of gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale of the Hamilton Group (Ver Straeten and others, 1994). Since that time, (1) the extraction process has evolved, (2) environmental awareness related to high-volume hydraulic fracturing process has increased, (3) state regulations concerning gas well drilling have been modified, and (4) the practices used by industry to obtain, transport, recover, treat, recycle, and ultimately dispose of the spent fluids and solid waste materials have evolved. This report updates and expands on Fact Sheet 2009

  3. ENGLISH FOLK BALLADS COLLECTED BY CECIL JAMES SHARP IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS: GENESIS, TRANSFORMATION AND UKRAINIAN PARALLELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Karbashevska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research, presented at the Conference sectional meeting, is to trace peculiarities of transformation of British folk medieval ballads, which were brought to the Southern Appalachians in the east of the USA by British immigrants at the end of the XVIIIth – beginning of the XIXth century and retained by their descendants, through analyzing certain texts on the levels of motifs, dramatis personae, composition, style and artistic means, as well as to outline relevant Ukrainian parallels. The analysis of such ballads, plot types and epic songs was carried out: 1 British № 10: “The Twa Sisters” (21 variants; American “The Two Sisters”(5 variants and Ukrainian plot type I – C-5: “the elder sister drowns the younger one because of envy and jealousy” (8 variants; 2 British № 26: The Three Ravens” (2, “The Twa Corbies” (2; American “The Three Ravens” (1, “The Two Crows”(1 and Ukrainian epic songs with the motif of lonely death of a Cossack warrior on the steppe (4. In our study British traditional ballads are classified according to the grouping worked out by the American scholar Francis Child (305 numbers, Ukrainian folk ballads – the plot-thematic catalogue developed by the Ukrainian folklorist Оleksiy Dey (here 288 plots are divided into 3 spheres, cycles and plot types. The investigation and comparison of the above indicated texts witness such main tendencies: 1 the American counterparts, collected in the Appalachian Mountains, preserve the historic-national memory and cultural heritage of the British immigrant bearers on the level of leading motifs, dramatis personae, composition peculiarities, traditional medieval images, epithets, similes, commonplaces; 2 some motifs, characters, images, artistic means, archaic and dialectal English of the Child ballads are reduced or substituted in the Appalachian texts; 3 realism of American ballad transformations, which overshadows fantasy and

  4. Temporal evolution of carbon budgets of the Appalachian forests in the U.S. from 1972 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    Estimating dynamic terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) sources and sinks over large areas is difficult. The scaling of C sources and sinks from the field level to the regional level has been challenging due to the variations of climate, soil, vegetation, and disturbances. As part of an effort to estimate the spatial, temporal, and sectional dimensions of the United States C sources and sinks (the U.S. Carbon Trends Project), this study estimated the forest ecosystem C sequestration of the Appalachian region (186,000 km2) for the period of 1972–2000 using the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) that has a strong capability of assimilating land use and land cover change (LUCC) data. On 82 sampling blocks in the Appalachian region, GEMS used sequential 60 m resolution land cover change maps to capture forest stand-replacing events and used forest inventory data to estimate non-stand-replacing changes. GEMS also used Monte Carlo approaches to deal with spatial scaling issues such as initialization of forest age and soil properties. Ensemble simulations were performed to incorporate the uncertainties of input data. Simulated results show that from 1972 to 2000 the net primary productivity (NPP), net ecosystem productivity (NEP), and net biome productivity (NBP) averaged 6.2 Mg C ha−1 y−1 (±1.1), 2.2 Mg C ha−1 y−1 (±0.6), and 1.8 Mg C ha−1 y−1(±0.6), respectively. The inter-annual variability was driven mostly by climate. Detailed C budgets for the year 2000 were also calculated. Within a total 148,000 km2 forested area, average forest ecosystem C density was estimated to be 186 Mg C ha−1 (±20), of which 98 Mg C ha−1 (±12) was in biomass and 88 Mg C ha−1 (±13) was in litter and soil. The total simulated C stock of the Appalachian forests was estimated to be 2751 Tg C (±296), including 1454 Tg C (±178) in living biomass and 1297 Tg C (±192) in litter and soil. The total net C sequestration (i

  5. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  6. A convolutional approach to reflection symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cicconet, Marcelo; Birodkar, Vighnesh; Lund, Mads

    2017-01-01

    We present a convolutional approach to reflection symmetry detection in 2D. Our model, built on the products of complex-valued wavelet convolutions, simplifies previous edge-based pairwise methods. Being parameter-centered, as opposed to feature-centered, it has certain computational advantages w...

  7. The in situ measurement of road reflection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure that has been designed to measure P(0;0), P(2;0) and P(1;90), the three values that are the basis for the C1-C2 system for measuring road reflection of light. The system was proposed in The Netherlands, and subsequently adopted by the CIE as an alternative to the

  8. Bragg reflection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.W.

    This user's guide to the Bragg Reflection Program (BRP) is in the nature of an informal report. The general purpose of BRP is to scan a series of Bragg reflections automatically in order to obtain profiles and integrated intensities. The program is used in conjunction with the SUPERVISOR and READ packages, and the procedures for using it are similar to those for the Triple-Axis Control program. All the general features of the system, SUPERVISOR and READ packages as described in the Spectrometer Control Systems User's Guide are preserved. The presentation assumes that the reader is familiar with these. Sections are given on the READ package, execution and use, error messages, and output. A few sample problems are shown. (1 figure) (U.S.)

  9. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  10. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  11. Superradiance or total reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    László, András

    2014-01-01

    Numerical evolution of massless scalar fields on Kerr background is studied. The initial data specifications are chosen to have compact support separated from the ergoregion and to yield nearly monochromatic incident wave packets. The initial data is also tuned to maximize the effect of superradiance. Evidences are shown indicating that instead of the anticipated energy extraction from black hole the incident radiation fail to reach the ergoregion rather it suffers a nearly perfect reflection.

  12. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

    1980-01-01

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  13. The seismic reflection inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symes, W W

    2009-01-01

    The seismic reflection method seeks to extract maps of the Earth's sedimentary crust from transient near-surface recording of echoes, stimulated by explosions or other controlled sound sources positioned near the surface. Reasonably accurate models of seismic energy propagation take the form of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, in which the coefficients represent the spatial distribution of various mechanical characteristics of rock (density, stiffness, etc). Thus the fundamental problem of reflection seismology is an inverse problem in partial differential equations: to find the coefficients (or at least some of their properties) of a linear hyperbolic system, given the values of a family of solutions in some part of their domains. The exploration geophysics community has developed various methods for estimating the Earth's structure from seismic data and is also well aware of the inverse point of view. This article reviews mathematical developments in this subject over the last 25 years, to show how the mathematics has both illuminated innovations of practitioners and led to new directions in practice. Two themes naturally emerge: the importance of single scattering dominance and compensation for spectral incompleteness by spatial redundancy. (topical review)

  14. The Relevance of Reflection: An Empirical Examination of the Role of Reflection in Ethic of Caring, Leadership, and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Millora, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    This article is an empirical examination of reflection for first-year and third-year students using data from the College Students' Beliefs and Values survey. Frequency of self-reflection increased between the first and third years of college. Two self-reported measures of reflection, engaging in self-reflection and having classes that…

  15. Entropy inequalities from reflection positivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, H

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the question of whether the entropy and the Renyi entropies of the vacuum state reduced to a region of space can be represented in terms of correlators in quantum field theory. In this case, the positivity relations for the correlators are mapped into inequalities for the entropies. We write them using a real-time version of reflection positivity, which can be generalized to general quantum systems. Using this generalization we can prove an infinite sequence of inequalities which are obeyed by the Renyi entropies of integer index. There is one independent inequality involving any number of different subsystems. In quantum field theory the inequalities acquire a simple geometrical form and are consistent with the integer index Renyi entropies being given by vacuum expectation values of twisting operators in the Euclidean formulation. Several possible generalizations and specific examples are analyzed

  16. A coordinated school health approach to obesity prevention among Appalachian youth: the Winning with Wellness Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetzina, Karen E; Dalton, William T; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Azzazy, Nora; VonWerssowetz, Katrina M; Givens, Connie; Pfortmiller, Deborah T; Stern, H Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has been an increasing problem in the United States, especially in rural areas. Effective prevention approaches are needed. This article describes the development, implementation, effectiveness, feasibility, and sustainability of a school-based obesity prevention pilot project, Winning with Wellness. The program was based on the coordinated school health model and included a community-based participatory research approach aimed at promoting healthy eating and physical activity in a rural Appalachian elementary school. Findings from this preliminary project revealed improvements in nutrition offerings and increased physical activity during the school day. In addition, the program was found to be acceptable to teachers, successfully implemented utilizing both existing and newly developed resources, and sustainable as evidenced in continued practice and expansion to other area schools.

  17. Reflection Revisited: The Class Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Through the regular use of what Donald Schon has termed reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, students can learn to improve their "reflection-in-presentation," in Kathleen Blake Yancey's term. Students are often asked to do this type of reflection-in-presentation as a capstone to first-year or basic writing courses. However, a number of…

  18. Reflection as Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how reflection can be used as self-assessment. Reflection involves not only thinking about a learning experience, but also questioning parts of the experience. Reflection is thinking about what one knows from the learning experience, what one might do differently the next time. Reflection is wondering about…

  19. Valuing hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  20. The Frasnian-Famennian boundary (Upper Devonian) in black shale sequences: US Southern Midcontinent, Illinois Basin, and northern Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Over, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Geneseo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-04-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian (F/F) boundary in the Woodford Shale of the US southern Midcontinent, Sweetland Creek Shale of the Illinois Basin, and the Hanover Shale of the northern Appalachian Basin is recognized to a discrete horizon. In each locality the boundary is marked by evidence of a disconformity: phosphate nodules, concentration of conodonts, or coated and corroded grains. The Woodford Shale consists of finely laminated pyritic organic-rich shale containing interbeds of greenish shale and chert. The F/F boundary horizon is marked by a concentration of conodonts and phosphatic nodules. The boundary lag horizon contains Pa. linguliformis, Pa. subperlobtata, Pa. delicatula delicatula, and Pa. triangularis. Underlying laminations contain Ancyrognathus ubiquitus and Pa. triangularis indicating that the disconformity is within the uppermost MN Zone 13 or Lower triangularis Zone. The upper portion of the Type Sweetland Creek Shale consists of dark organic-rich shales. The F/F boundary is located within an interval containing three green shale interbeds. Palmatolepis triangularis in the absence of Frasnian species first occurs in the middle green shale. In the thick Upper Devonian clastic sequence of the northern Appalachian Basin the F/F boundary is within an interval of interbedded pyritic green and organic-rich silty shales of the Hanover Shale. At Irish Gulf strata containing Pa. triangularis overlie finely laminated dark shales containing Pa. bogartensis, Pa. triangularis, Pa. winchell, Ancyrodella curvata, and Icriodus alternatus. The conodont fauna transition is below a conodont-rich laminae containing a Famennian fauna that marks the boundary horizon.

  1. Episodic reactivation of a Late Precambrian mylonite zone on the Gondwanan Margin of the Appalachians, southern Newfoundland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, B. H.; O'Brien, S. J.; Dunning, G. R.; Tucker, R. D.

    1993-08-01

    The Grand Bruit Fault Zone of southern Newfoundland is a fundamental structure within Late Precambrian basement on the Gondwanan margin of the Appalachian orogen. Within the fault zone, a sequence of structures documents changes in the sense of ductile displacement from (1) reverse dip slip, to (2) dextral strike slip, to (3) sinistral oblique slip, and, finally, to (4) dextral lateral offsets. Fault movements along this structure were punctuated by emplacement of a variety of plutons and minor intrusions which, when precisely dated, allow these movements to be bracketed at between 571 Ma and 564 Ma, 497 Ma and 427 Ma, 424 Ma and 420 Ma, and 421 Ma and 387 Ma, respectively. The tectonic evolution of the Gondwanan inlier of southern Newfoundland is mirrored, in large part, by the record of mylonite development within the Grand Bruit Fault Zone. These tectonic events are attributable to well-constrained, regional orogenic events of both the Pan-African and Appalachian cycles. Newly formed shear zones in the fault zone reactivate parts of much older faults of similar regional orientation and are, in some cases, kinematically indistinguishable from the ancestral structures. Integration of precise geochronological data with the sequence of overprinted fault structures demonstrates that, although the role of progressive deformation in shear zone development was important, the observed disposition of structures and rock units is primarily a function of polyorogenic accretion. As a multiple-reactivated structural lineament in a Gondwanan basement inlier, the fault zone exerted fundamental control over the tectonic development of the leading edge of the convergent southeast margin of the orogen.

  2. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  3. Angular dependance of spectral reflection for different materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Pascal M.

    2017-10-01

    Parameters like the sun angle as well as the measurement angle mostly are not taken into account when simulating because their influence on the reflectivity is weak. Therefore the impact of a changing measurement and illumination angle on the reflectivity is investigated. Furthermore the impact of humidity and chlorophyll in the scenery is studied by analyzing reflectance spectra of different vegetative background areas. It is shown that the measurement as well as the illumination angle has an important influence on the absolute reflection values which raises the importance of measurements of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF).

  4. Seismic reflection imaging, accounting for primary and multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Thorbecke, Jan; Broggini, Filippo; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2015-04-01

    Imaging of seismic reflection data is usually based on the assumption that the seismic response consists of primary reflections only. Multiple reflections, i.e. waves that have reflected more than once, are treated as primaries and are imaged at wrong positions. There are two classes of multiple reflections, which we will call surface-related multiples and internal multiples. Surface-related multiples are those multiples that contain at least one reflection at the earth's surface, whereas internal multiples consist of waves that have reflected only at subsurface interfaces. Surface-related multiples are the strongest, but also relatively easy to deal with because the reflecting boundary (the earth's surface) is known. Internal multiples constitute a much more difficult problem for seismic imaging, because the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces are not known. We are developing reflection imaging methodology which deals with internal multiples. Starting with the Marchenko equation for 1D inverse scattering problems, we derived 3D Marchenko-type equations, which relate reflection data at the surface to Green's functions between virtual sources anywhere in the subsurface and receivers at the surface. Based on these equations, we derived an iterative scheme by which these Green's functions can be retrieved from the reflection data at the surface. This iterative scheme requires an estimate of the direct wave of the Green's functions in a background medium. Note that this is precisely the same information that is also required by standard reflection imaging schemes. However, unlike in standard imaging, our iterative Marchenko scheme retrieves the multiple reflections of the Green's functions from the reflection data at the surface. For this, no knowledge of the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces is required. Once the full Green's functions are retrieved, reflection imaging can be carried out by which the primaries and multiples are

  5. Handcraft: merchandise, value and fetish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Kelly Ribeiro da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to expose reflections on the handcraft as a symbolic differential for fashion products and design. The text presents reflections on the representations of craft production to the consumer market from the study of the categories: commodity fetish and value. Therefore, they were used with theoretical support the concepts erected by Karl Marx and empirical observations on the exploitation of handcraft by the current luxury market, for example. The methodological routes adopted for the construction of research guided in field research, specifically with participant observation, and literature review. The results point to the construction of interesting reflections on the exploitation of cultural goods and elements derived from popular culture as agregators value to drivers of consumption today.

  6. A fiberoptic reflection oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, M L; Knop, N; Kwant, G; Mook, G A; Zijlstra, W G

    1978-03-20

    A catheter tip oximeter is described consisting of a cardiac catheter containing optical fibers, and incandescent light source, a light detection unit and a processing unit. Half of the optical fibers guide the light to the blood at the tip of the catheter, the other half the backscattered (reflected) light to the detection unit. The detection unit contains a dichroic mirror, transmitting most of the light with lambda less than 800 nm and reflecting most of the light with lambda greater than 900 nm, thus splitting the light into two beams. These pass through interference filters with nominal wavelengths of 640 and 920 nm respectively, and are focused on silicium barrier layer photocells. The photocell signals are amplified and fed into a divider giving the ratio of measuring (R640) and compensating (R920) photocell output. The relationship between log R640/R920 and oxygen saturation is represented by a slightly curved line. The relation may be linearized by subtracting a constant voltage from the divided output before taking the logarithm. The slope of the calibration line is dependent on the total haemoglobin concentration. Nonetheless an average calibration line can be used between 70 and 100% oxygen saturation. For 78 measurements of pig blood samples in this range (haemoglobin concentration between 96 and 161 g.1(-1)), the standard deviation of the difference between the fiberoptic oximeter and a Radiometer OSM1 oxygen saturation meter was 1.9% saturation, for 152 samples over the entire saturation range the standard deviation of the difference was 3.1% saturation. The influence of the flow velocity of blood on the light reflection depends on wavelength as well as on oxygen saturation. Therefore, complete compensation for the flow effect is not possible by simple means.

  7. Valuing vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-08-26

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.

  8. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  10. Neurocognitive Mechanisms Underlying Value-Based Decision-Making: From Core Values to Economic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eBrosch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Value plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC, ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making.

  11. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying value-based decision-making: from core values to economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2013-01-01

    VALUE PLAYS A CENTRAL ROLE IN PRACTICALLY EVERY ASPECT OF HUMAN LIFE THAT REQUIRES A DECISION: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making.

  12. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying value-based decision-making: from core values to economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2013-01-01

    Value plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making. PMID:23898252

  13. Properties of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae are the closest analog in the interstellar medium to studies of cometary dust in our solar system. The presence of a bright star near the reflection nebula dust provides the opportunity to study both the reflection and emission characteristics of interstellar dust. At 0.1 to 1 micrometer, the reflection nebula emission is due to starlight scattered by dust. The albedo and scattering phase function of the dust is determined from observations of the scattered light. At 50 to 200 micrometers, thermal emission from the dust in equilibrium with the stellar radiation field is observed. The derived dust temperature determines the relative values of the absorption coefficient of the dust at wavelengths where the stellar energy is absorbed and at far infrared wavelengths where the absorbed energy is reradiated. These emission mechanisms directly relate to those seen in the near and mid infrared spectra of comets. In a reflection nebula the dust is observed at much larger distances from the star than in our solar system, so that the equilibrium dust temperature is 50 K rather than 300 K. Thus, in reflection nebulae, thermal emission from dust is emitted at 50 to 200 micrometer

  14. Islands in the Sky: Ecophysiological Cloud-Vegetation Linkages in Southern Appalachian Mountain Cloud Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K.; Emanuel, R. E.; Johnson, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain cloud forest (MCF) ecosystems are characterized by a high frequency of cloud fog, with vegetation enshrouded in fog. The altitudinal boundaries of cloud-fog zones co-occur with conspicuous, sharp vegetation ecotones between MCF- and non-MCF-vegetation. This suggests linkages between cloud-fog and vegetation physiology and ecosystem functioning. However, very few studies have provided a mechanistic explanation for the sharp changes in vegetation communities, or how (if) cloud-fog and vegetation are linked. We investigated ecophysiological linkages between clouds and trees in Southern Appalachian spruce-fir MCF. These refugial forests occur in only six mountain-top, sky-island populations, and are immersed in clouds on up to 80% of all growing season days. Our fundamental research questions was: How are cloud-fog and cloud-forest trees linked? We measured microclimate and physiology of canopy tree species across a range of sky conditions (cloud immersed, partly cloudy, sunny). Measurements included: 1) sunlight intensity and spectral quality; 2) carbon gain and photosynthetic capacity at leaf (gas exchange) and ecosystem (eddy covariance) scales; and 3) relative limitations to carbon gain (biochemical, stomatal, hydraulic). RESULTS: 1) Midday sunlight intensity ranged from very dark (2500 μmol m-2 s-1), and was highly variable on minute-to-minute timescales whenever clouds were present in the sky. Clouds and cloud-fog increased the proportion of blue-light wavelengths 5-15% compared to sunny conditions, and altered blue:red and red:far red ratios, both of which have been shown to strongly affect stomatal functioning. 2) Cloud-fog resulted in ~50% decreased carbon gain at leaf and ecosystem scales, due to sunlight levels below photosynthetic light-saturation-points. However, greenhouse studies and light-response-curve analyses demonstrated that MCF tree species have low light-compensation points (can photosynthesize even at low light levels), and maximum

  15. Ground-water quality in the Appalachian Plateaus, Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Charlynn J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples collected from 30 privately-owned and small public-supply wells in the Appalachian Plateaus of the Kanawha River Basin were analyzed for a wide range of constituents, including bacteria, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of most constituents from samples analyzed did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Constituents that exceeded drinking-water standards in at least one sample were total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), iron, manganese, and sulfate. Total coliform bacteria were present in samples from five sites, and E. coli were present at only one site. USEPA secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) were exceeded for three constituents -- sulfate exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in samples from 2 of 30 wells; iron exceeded the SMCL of 300 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) in samples from 12 of the wells, and manganese exceeded the SMCL of 50 ?g/L in samples from 17 of the wells sampled. None of the samples contained concentrations of nutrients that exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for these constituents. The maximum concentration of nitrate detected was only 4.1 mg/L, which is below the MCL of 10 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in precipitation and shallow ground water are similar, potentially indicating that precipitation may be a source of nitrate in shallow ground water in the study area. Radon concentrations exceeded the recently proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 pCi/L at 50 percent of the sites sampled. The median concentration of radon was only 290 pCi/L. Radon-222 is a naturally occurring, carcinogenic, radioactive decay product of uranium. Concentrations, however, did not exceed the alternate maximum contaminant level (AMCL) for radon of 4,000 pCi/L in any of the 30 samples. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the proposed MCL of 5?g/L at 4 of the 30 sites. No samples exceeded the

  16. Temporal processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    reflection delays and enhances the test reflection for large delays. Employing a 200-ms-long broadband noise burst as input signal, the critical delay separating these two binaural phenomena was found to be 7–10 ms. It was suggested that the critical delay refers to a temporal window that is employed......, resulting in a critical delay of about 2–3 ms for 20-ms-long stimuli. Hence, for very short stimuli the temporal window or critical delay exhibits values similar to the auditory temporal resolution as, for instance, observed in gap-detection tasks. It is suggested that the larger critical delay observed...

  17. Matter reflects Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A.; Cristiano, A.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is common belief that the interaction between antimatter and ordinary solid matter is dominated by annihilation. However, non-destructive processes may play a relevant role too. One century ago E. Rutherford wrote about the "diffuse reflection" of alpha and beta particles by thin layers of different metals: "The observations ... of Geiger and Marsden on the scattering of alpha rays indicate that some of the alpha particles must suffer a deflexion of more than a right angle at a single encounter.... It will be shown that the main deductions from the theory are independent of whether the central charge is supposed to be positive or negative". Although the theory of electromagnetic scattering is in first approximation independent of the relative sign of the colliding particles, in the case where projectile antiprotons are shot against a wall of solid matter the Rutherford diffuse reflection mechanism competes with the annihilation process. So it is not obvious at all that a relevant part of an antiproton beam...

  18. Reflection, Interrogatory, Provocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    This invited paper advances a framing context for considering next steps in HOF and organizational culture in light of the presentations and discussions that occur during the conference. Many of the contributions during the conference will represent results of scholarly research, structured investigations, or formal organizational improvement efforts. This contribution is intended as informal reflection by a 40-year nuclear veteran on themes from other presentations considering questions such as: ''Where do we think we are?, Are we better off as an industry based on what we have done?, Where do we think we need to go?, What do we think we need to do?, and, Why do we think these things?'' Our coming together on this occasion marks 30 years since the publication of INSAG-l. As we reflect on the past, perhaps it is time to pose a series of questions. Are we sustainers of a mature technology that is in some places declining and being replaced by other energy sources? If we consider nuclear a mature technology, should we focus most on operational excellence with renewed attention to managing the unexpected? Or, is innovation still a vital part of our industry?

  19. Evidence for the potential influence of chemocline fluctuations on the Frasnian-Famennian Biotic Crisis in the Illinois and Appalachian Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uveges, B. T.; Junium, C. K.; Boyer, D.; Cohen, P.; Day, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian Biotic Crisis (FFBC) is among the `Big Five' mass extinctions in ecological severity, and was particularly devastating to shallow water tropical faunas and reefs. The FFBC is associated with two organic rich black shale beds collectively known as the Lower and Upper Kellwasser Events(KWEs). Sedimentary N and C isotopes offer insight into the biogeochemical processing of nutrients, and therefore the oceanographic conditions in a basin. In particular, biological production within and around the chemocline can impart a distinct signature to the particulate organic matter (POM) preserved in sediments. Here we present bulk δ15N and δ13Corg isotope data from the Late Devonian Appalachian, and Illinois Basins (AB and IB), with a focus on intervals encompassing the KWEs. Broadly, δ15N values were depleted (-1.0 to +4.0‰), and are consistent with other intervals of black shale deposition, such as OAEs, with the IB being generally more enriched. In both the IB and AB, black shales were 15N depleted compared to the interbedded grey shales on average by 2.3 and 1.0‰ respectively. Organic carbon isotopes exhibit the broad, positive excursions that are typical of the KWEs globally ( 3.5‰ from background). Superimposed over the increase in δ13Corg are sharp decreases in δ13Corg, to as low as -30‰, found at the base of the black shale beds in the both basins. In the context of the pattern of δ15N, this suggests that the mobility of the chemocline and the degree of stratification exert a primary control on both δ15N and δ13Corg. Chemocline movement, or alternatively chemocline collapse, would lead to greater areal extent/upwelling of low oxygen deep waters, rich in isotopically depleted remineralized nutrients (DIN and DIC), leading to the production and eventual preservation of depleted POM in the black shales. Applying this model to the KWEs, which saw more expansive deposits of anoxic facies, we propose that the black shales associated with

  20. Species richness alone does not predict cultural ecosystem service value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Rose A.; Pearson, Scott M.; Turner, Monica G.

    2017-01-01

    Many biodiversity-ecosystem services studies omit cultural ecosystem services (CES) or use species richness as a proxy and assume that more species confer greater CES value. We studied wildflower viewing, a key biodiversity-based CES in amenity-based landscapes, in Southern Appalachian Mountain forests and asked (i) How do aesthetic preferences for wildflower communities vary with components of biodiversity, including species richness?; (ii) How do aesthetic preferences for wildflower communities vary across psychographic groups?; and (iii) How well does species richness perform as an indicator of CES value compared with revealed social preferences for wildflower communities? Public forest visitors (n = 293) were surveyed during the summer of 2015 and asked to choose among images of wildflower communities in which flower species richness, flower abundance, species evenness, color diversity, and presence of charismatic species had been digitally manipulated. Aesthetic preferences among images were unrelated to species richness but increased with more abundant flowers, greater species evenness, and greater color diversity. Aesthetic preferences were consistent across psychographic groups and unaffected by knowledge of local flora or value placed on wildflower viewing. When actual wildflower communities (n = 54) were ranked based on empirically measured flower species richness or wildflower viewing utility based on multinomial logit models of revealed preferences, rankings were broadly similar. However, designation of hotspots (CES values above the median) based on species richness alone missed 27% of wildflower viewing utility hotspots. Thus, conservation priorities for sustaining CES should incorporate social preferences and consider multiple dimensions of biodiversity that underpin CES supply. PMID:28320953