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Sample records for reflect structural differences

  1. Individual differences in personality traits reflect structural variance in specific brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Simona; Cloninger, C Robert; Venneri, Annalena

    2009-06-30

    Personality dimensions such as novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (PER) are said to be heritable, stable across time and dependent on genetic and neurobiological factors. Recently a better understanding of the relationship between personality traits and brain structures/systems has become possible due to advances in neuroimaging techniques. This Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) study investigated if individual differences in these personality traits reflected structural variance in specific brain regions. A large sample of eighty five young adult participants completed the Three-dimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and had their brain imaged with MRI. A voxel-based correlation analysis was carried out between individuals' personality trait scores and grey matter volume values extracted from 3D brain scans. NS correlated positively with grey matter volume in frontal and posterior cingulate regions. HA showed a negative correlation with grey matter volume in orbito-frontal, occipital and parietal structures. RD was negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the caudate nucleus and in the rectal frontal gyrus. PER showed a positive correlation with grey matter volume in the precuneus, paracentral lobule and parahippocampal gyrus. These results indicate that individual differences in the main personality dimensions of NS, HA, RD and PER, may reflect structural variance in specific brain areas.

  2. [Do online ratings reflect structural differences in healthcare? The example of German physician-rating websites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszmer, Nina; Jaegers, Lena; Schöffski, Oliver; Emmert, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Previous surveys have shown that patient satisfaction varies with the regional supply of physicians. Online ratings on physician-rating websites represent a relatively new instrument to display patient satisfaction results. The aim of this study was (1) to assess the current state of online ratings for two medical disciplines (dermatologists and ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialists), and (2) to analyze online derived patient satisfaction results according to the physician density in Germany. We collected online ratings for 420 dermatologists and 450 ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialists on twelve German physician-rating websites. We analyzed the online ratings according to the physician density (low, medium, high physician density). For this purpose, we collected secondary data from both physician-rating websites and the regional associations of statutory health insurance physicians. Data analysis was performed using Median tests and Chi-square tests. In total, 10,239 online ratings for dermatologists and 8,168 online ratings for ENT specialists were analyzed. Almost all dermatologists (99.3 %) and ENT specialists (98.9 %) were listed on one of the physician-rating websites. A total of 93.5 % of all listed dermatologists and 96.9 % of ENT-specialists were rated on at least one of the physician-rating websites. Significant differences were found in the distribution (i.e., percentage of listed or rated physicians) of the ratings according to the regional physician density on only one physician-rating website (pexample, dermatologist ratings were better in regions with a higher physician density compared to regions with a lower number of physicians (average rating: 2.16 vs. 2.67; p<0.001). Online ratings of dermatologists and ENT specialists hardly differ in terms of regional physician density. Physician-rating websites thus do not appear to be appropriate to mirror differences in the health service delivery structure. Our findings thus do not confirm the

  3. A workflow for sub-/seismic structure and deformation quantification of 3-D reflection seismic data sets across different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczyk, C.M.; Lohr, T.; Oncken, O. [GFZ Potsdam (Germany); Tanner, D.C. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). GZG; Endres, H. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)]|[TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany); Trappe, H.; Kukla, P. [TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    The evolution of a sedimentary basin is mostly affected by deformation. Large-scale, subsurface deformation is typically identified by seismic data, sub-seismic small-scale fractures by well data. Between these two methods, we lack a deeper understanding of how deformation scales. We analysed a 3-D reflection seismic data set in the North German Basin, in order to determine the magnitude and distribution of deformation and its accumulation in space and time. A five-step approach is introduced for quantitative deformation and fracture prediction. An increased resolution of subtle tectonic lineaments is achieved by coherency processing, allowing to unravel the kinematics in the North German Basin from structural interpretation. Extensional events during basin initiation and later inversion are evident. 3-D retrodeformation shows major-strain magnitudes between 0-20% up to 1.3 km away from a fault trace, and variable deviations of associated extensional fractures. Good correlation of FMI data, strain distribution from retro-deformation and from geostatistic tools (see also Trappe et al., this volume) allows the validation of the results and makes the prediction of small-scale faults/fractures possible. The temporal component will be gained in the future by analogue models. The suggested workflow is applicable to reflection seismic surveys and yields in great detail both the tectonic history of a region as well as predictions for hydrocarbon plays or deep groundwater or geothermal reservoirs. (orig.)

  4. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...

  5. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  6. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  7. 'My heart belongs to daddy'. Some reflections on the difference between generations as the organiser of the triangular structure of the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapisochin, G

    1999-08-01

    The author begins his paper with a historical review of the concept of the difference between generations, which is in his opinion a metaphorical transformation that underpins the three-dimensional functioning of the psychic apparatus by introducing a differentiating intergenerational space between subject and object. He postulates that at the point of intersection between the intersubjective and the intrapsychic the subject clings to the specific fragments of his parents' history that are consistent with a belief about himself and the oedipal couple in which intergenerational links are severed and infantile incestuous wishes are seen as fulfilled. Disavowal of this generation gap is considered to lead to failure of post-oedipal secondary identifications, resulting in disturbance of the triangular structuring of the mind and consequent impairment of the genesis of thought processes. These ideas are compared with related conceptions of other authors and illustrated, with an account of the associated transference/countertransference vicissitudes, by a clinical example of the constellation the author calls 'My heart belongs to daddy', which he sees as a way station in the negotiation of the female Oedipus complex.

  8. Structural properties of reflected Lévy processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nørvang; Mandjes, Michel

    This paper considers a number of structural properties of reflected Lévy processes, where both one-sided reflection (at 0) and two-sided reflection (at both 0 and K > 0) are examined. With Vt being the position of the reflected process at time t, we focus on the analysis of ζ(t) := EVt and ξ(t) :...

  9. Structural brain correlates of executive engagement in working memory: children's inter-individual differences are reflected in the anterior insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amélie; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Poirel, Nicolas; Cachia, Arnaud; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Although the development of executive functions has been extensively investigated at a neurofunctional level, studies of the structural relationships between executive functions and brain anatomy are still scarce. Based on our previous meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies examining executive functions in children (Houdé, Rossi, Lubin, and Joliot, (2010). Developmental Science, 13, 876-885), we investigated six a priori regions of interest: the left anterior insular cortex (AIC), the left and the right supplementary motor areas, the right middle and superior frontal gyri, and the left precentral gyrus. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 22 to 10-year-old children. Local gray matter volumes, assessed automatically using a standard voxel-based morphometry approach, were correlated with executive and storage working memory capacities evaluated using backward and forward digit span tasks, respectively. We found an association between smaller gray matter volume--i.e., an index of neural maturation--in the left AIC and high backward memory span while gray matter volumes in the a priori selected regions of interest were not linked with forward memory span. These results were corroborated by a whole-brain a priori free analysis that revealed a significant negative correlation in the frontal and prefrontal regions, including the left AIC, with the backward memory span, and in the right inferior parietal lobe, with the forward memory span. Taken together, these results suggest a distinct and specific association between regional gray matter volume and the executive component vs. the storage component of working memory. Moreover, they support a key role for the AIC in the executive network of children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reflections on Supervision and Culture: What Difference Does Difference Make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    For this commentary, the author went back and read most of her own writings on graduate education. Having only just retired but still working with supervisees and doing research, she reflects on supervision and culture. She has four questions for authors and readers: (1) What is supervision?; (2) What are the implications of "sameness" and…

  11. Angular dependance of spectral reflection for different materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Pascal M.

    2017-10-01

    Parameters like the sun angle as well as the measurement angle mostly are not taken into account when simulating because their influence on the reflectivity is weak. Therefore the impact of a changing measurement and illumination angle on the reflectivity is investigated. Furthermore the impact of humidity and chlorophyll in the scenery is studied by analyzing reflectance spectra of different vegetative background areas. It is shown that the measurement as well as the illumination angle has an important influence on the absolute reflection values which raises the importance of measurements of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF).

  12. Musical information processing reflecting its structure

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraga, Rumi

    1999-01-01

    In pursuit of generating expressive musical rendition with rules, the computer music project Psyche has greatly concerned musical structure. Although described implicitly, musical structure exists innately and absolutely in musical scores. This thesis demonstrates the successful introduction of musical structure to computer music systems that are related to performance synthesis. Two systems, a performance visualization system and a computer-assisted musical analysis system Daphne, are descri...

  13. Detection limit calculations for different total reflection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, theoretical calculations of detection limits for different total-reflection techniques are presented.. Calculations include grazing incidence (TXRF) and gracing exit (GEXRF) conditions. These calculations are compared with detection limits obtained for conventional x-ray fluorescence (XRF). In order to compute detection limits the Shiraiwa and Fujino's model to calculate x-ray fluorescence intensities was used. This model made certain assumptions and approximations to achieve the calculations, specially in the case of the geometrical conditions of the sample, and the incident and takeoff beams. Nevertheless the calculated data of detection limits for conventional XRF and total-reflection XRF show a good agreement with previous results. The model proposed here allows to analyze the different sources of background and the influence of the excitation geometry, which contribute to the understanding of the physical processes involved in the XRF analysis by total reflection. Finally, a comparison between detection limits in total-reflection analysis at grazing incidence and at grazing exit is carried out. Here a good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the reversibility principle is found, showing that detection limits are similar for both techniques. (author)

  14. Reflections on the different sides of idleness in contemporary times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Zaczuk Bassinello

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, idleness experienced a modernization and democratization process especially with the crisis of a society focused on work – the post-Industrial Revolution - and the emergence of new ideas that put the free time, the leisure and recreation in the role of structural elements of the new social context and like tools for the new ways of life. In this work, we we seek to focus on the significant aspects of reality and function of leisure in our time, clarifying their relationship with the processes of personal, social and economic innovation by establishing a balance of our acts in thinking the leisure and work and leisure and life from different angles of approach. In order to analyze this phenomenon, we were based on scientific sources which are representative in the context, and then we elaborated a general overview of the subject from the contributions of the bakhtinian perspectives. We observed that the increase in leisure options in the last decades of the twentieth century, along with the growth of the studies of the idleness phenomenon and its possibilities, allowed an evolution of its concepts, from activities or practices associated to the consumption and to digital entertainment, to its understanding as an experience whose key of the discussion is the subject living these experiences. We believe that this reflection about idleness may open possibilities of a better comprehension of its insertion in the social and human sciences field and, especially, in its contribution to a new attitude of the relational production, centered on the subject, which stimulates a society that creates and innovates goods and services and who deepens the studies of leisure from the dynamic experiential horizon to the right to the otherness and to its time – the own one and the others’ – such as "the right to unfunctionality", from listening to the other word.

  15. Improving design processes through structured reflection : a prototype software tool

    OpenAIRE

    Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Melby, E.

    2001-01-01

    A prototype software tool facilitating the use of a design method supporting structured reflection on design processes is presented. The prototype, called Echo, has been developed to explore the benefits of using a software system to facilitate the use of the design method. Both the prototype software tool and the design method are developed as part of the Ph.D. project of Isabelle Reymen. The goal of the design method is supporting designers with reflection on design processes in a systemati...

  16. Corrosion-resistant multilayer structures with improved reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Robinson, Jeff C.

    2013-04-09

    In one general embodiment, a thin film structure includes a substrate; a first corrosion barrier layer above the substrate; a reflective layer above the first corrosion barrier layer, wherein the reflective layer comprises at least one repeating set of sub-layers, wherein one of the sub-layers of each set of sub-layers being of a corrodible material; and a second corrosion barrier layer above the reflective layer. In another general embodiment, a system includes an optical element having a thin film structure as recited above; and an image capture or spectrometer device. In a further general embodiment, a laser according to one embodiment includes a light source and the thin film structure as recited above.

  17. Fragmentation mechanism reflecting the cluster structure of {sup 19}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, H.; Horiuchi, H. [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Ono, A.

    1999-08-01

    Clustering structure of neutron dripline nucleus {sup 19}B which was predicted theoritically is investigated by studying the fragmentation reaction of {sup 19}B. We compare {sup 19}B fragmentation with {sup 13}B fragmentation in {sup 19}B + {sup 14}N and {sup 13}B + {sup 14}N reactions by using antisymmetrized molecular dynamics, where {sup 13}B has no clustering feature in its structure. We find that the cluster structure of the {sup 19}B nucleus is reflected in its fragmentation as the simultaneous production of He and Li isotopes. Furthermore we investigate the dependence of the cluster decay of {sup 19}B on the incident energy, and find that the cluster structure of {sup 19}B in its ground state is more reflected in lower incident-energy reactions. (author)

  18. Structured Ethical Reflection in Practitioner Inquiry: Theory, Pedagogy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Douglas M.; Brydon-Miller, Mary; Raider-Roth, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Practitioner inquiry provides a powerful tool for improving practice and addressing critical issues in classrooms, schools, and broader communities. However, it also raises unique ethical challenges that often go unrecognized and unresolved. Structured Ethical Reflection (SER) provides teacher researchers with a process for identifying core values…

  19. Improving design processes through structured reflection : a prototype software tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Melby, E.

    2001-01-01

    A prototype software tool facilitating the use of a design method supporting structured reflection on design processes is presented. The prototype, called Echo, has been developed to explore the benefits of using a software system to facilitate the use of the design method. Both the prototype

  20. Model for the filamentary structure in the pleiades reflection nebulosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arny, T.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the filamentary structure in the Pleiades reflection nebula is caused by shearing of dust clumps in an interstellar cloud moving through the star cluster. Radiation pressure flattens a dust clump and causes it to flow around a star, forming a shell. The anisotropy of the radiation field shears clumps into long streamers

  1. How Do Pre-Service Teachers' Reflective Processes Differ in Relation to Different Contexts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasila, Raimo; Lauriala, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Reflective practice represents a central theme in teacher education. The focus of this study is to look at pre-service teachers' reflection processes and their breadth and depth in four different contexts. Our research data consist of 53 pre-service teachers' mathematics portfolios, from which three were selected for closer scrutiny. The chosen…

  2. Robust reflective ghost imaging against different partially polarized thermal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Guo; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Rui-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Liu, Hong-Chao; Li, Zong-Guo; Xiong, Jun

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study the influence of degree of polarization (DOP) of thermal light on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the reflective ghost imaging (RGI), which is a novel and indirect imaging modality. An expression for the CNR of RGI with partially polarized thermal light is carefully derived, which suggests a weak dependence of CNR on the DOP, especially when the ratio of the object size to the speckle size of thermal light has a large value. Different from conventional imaging approaches, our work reveals that RGI is much more robust against the DOP of the light source, which thereby has advantages in practical applications, such as remote sensing.

  3. Micro reflectance difference techniques: Optical probes for surface exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martinez, L.F.; Del Pozo-Zamudio, O.; Herrera-Jasso, R.; Ulloa-Castillo, N.A.; Balderas-Navarro, R.E.; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Micro reflectance difference spectroscopy ({mu}-RDS) is a promising tool for the in-situ and ex-situ characterization of semiconductors surfaces and interfaces. We discuss and compare two different approaches used to measure {mu}-RD spectra. One is based on a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, while the other uses a laser and a XY translation stage. To show the performance of these systems, we have measured surface optical anisotropies of GaSb(001) sample on which anisotropic strains have been generated by preferential mechanical polishing along [110] and [1 anti 10] directions. The spectrometers are complementary and the selection of one of them depends on the sample to be investigated and on experimental conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Leaders’ Smiles Reflect Cultural Differences in Ideal Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H.; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value (“ideal affect”). We conducted three studies to examine whether leaders’ smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief-executive-officers (CEOs), and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning vs. losing political candidates and higher vs. lower ranking CEOs and university presidents in the US and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N =266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then eight years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in GDP per capita, democratization, and human development. Together, these findings suggest that leaders’ smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  6. Monitoring structure development in milk acidification using diffuse reflectance profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Andersen, Ulf; Møller, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    are needed so that the production can be carried out consistently, regardless of day-to-day variations in the raw materials. Casein micelles aggregate during milk acidification, which leads to formation of a gel network. This change of structure is important for the development of a range of dairy products......, protein, and temperature in the acidification process is conducted. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate how the change of these parameters affects the diffuse reflectance properties as well as to demonstrate the relation between the optical parameters and structure formation in milk......The structure of dairy products is important for the consumer, and milk acidification plays a central role for structural development. To ensure the best possible consumer experience, it is important that a product’s structural properties are stable. Therefore process and quality control tools...

  7. Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference application for morphology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Zhao, Kun; Lü, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; Yang, Guozhen; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-10-20

    Analogous with scanning electron microscopy, we use an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) approach for morphology detection. By scanning the active carbon clusters in a one-dimensional way and the reservoir rocks in a two-dimensional way, the morphology of the samples' surface can be revealed in OIRD signal images. High OIRD signals of active carbon samples refer to the centralized distribution areas of carbon, and the fluctuations are caused by the uneven distribution of carbon pellets. OIRD intensity is proportional to the thickness of materials. In terms of rocks, the trough areas with smaller values refer to the low-lying fields. The areas with relatively large OIRD intensities correspond to the protuberance areas of rocks. Consequently, OIRD is a sensitive yet rapid measure of surface detection in material and petrogeology science.

  8. [Monitoring of Crack Propagation in Repaired Structures Based on Characteristics of FBG Sensors Reflecting Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shen-fang; Jin, Xin; Qiu, Lei; Huang, Hong-mei

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the security of aircraft repaired structures, a method of crack propagation monitoring in repaired structures is put forward basing on characteristics of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) reflecting spectra in this article. With the cyclic loading effecting on repaired structure, cracks propagate, while non-uniform strain field appears nearby the tip of crack which leads to the FBG sensors' reflecting spectra deformations. The crack propagating can be monitored by extracting the characteristics of FBG sensors' reflecting spectral deformations. A finite element model (FEM) of the specimen is established. Meanwhile, the distributions of strains which are under the action of cracks of different angles and lengths are obtained. The characteristics, such as main peak wavelength shift, area of reflecting spectra, second and third peak value and so on, are extracted from the FBGs' reflecting spectral which are calculated by transfer matrix algorithm. An artificial neural network is built to act as the model between the characteristics of the reflecting spectral and the propagation of crack. As a result, the crack propagation of repaired structures is monitored accurately and the error of crack length is less than 0.5 mm, the error of crack angle is less than 5 degree. The accurately monitoring problem of crack propagation of repaired structures is solved by taking use of this method. It has important significance in aircrafts safety improvement and maintenance cost reducing.

  9. Self-Reflection, Insight, and Individual Differences in Various Language Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of self-reflection and insight with individuals' performances on various language tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS; Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) assessed individual differences in three factors: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight. A high need for reflection was…

  10. Is Wikipedia link structure different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Koolen, M.; Baeza-Yates, R.; Boldi, P.; Ribeiro-Neto, B.; Cambazoglu, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the difference between Wikipedia and Web link structure with respect to their value as indicators of the relevance of a page for a given topic of request. Our experimental evidence is from two IR test-collections: the .GOV collection used at the TREC Web tracks and the

  11. Broadband reflected wavefronts manipulation using structured phase gradient metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Peng Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic metasurface (AMS is a good candidate to manipulate acoustic waves due to special acoustic performs that cannot be realized by traditional materials. In this paper, we design the AMS by using circular-holed cubic arrays. The advantages of our AMS are easy assemble, subwavelength thickness, and low energy loss for manipulating acoustic waves. According to the generalized Snell’s law, acoustic waves can be manipulated arbitrarily by using AMS with different phase gradients. By selecting suitable hole diameter of circular-holed cube (CHC, some interesting phenomena are demonstrated by our simulations based on finite element method, such as the conversion of incoming waves into surface waves, anomalous reflections (including negative reflection, acoustic focusing lens, and acoustic carpet cloak. Our results can provide a simple approach to design AMSes and use them in wavefront manipulation and manufacturing of acoustic devices.

  12. Supporting undergraduate nursing students through structured personal tutoring: Some reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tessa E

    2011-02-01

    Support is imperative for nursing students worldwide as they face the many challenges associated with learning and working. Moreover enhancing student retention is an increasing concern for institutions across the globe. The personal tutor is a frequently hidden yet potentially significant figure in many students' experience of higher education. This paper offers some critical reflections on a structured approach to personal tutoring within an undergraduate nursing programme in a research focused Welsh university. Structured personal tutoring can provide an organised, coherent and proactive support system throughout students' educational programmes. However the approach changes the shape of personal tutoring and has the potential to increase academics' workloads and with it costs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  14. Structure of ordered polyelectrolyte films from atomic-force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.V.; Tolstikhina, A.L.; Stepina, N.D.; Kayushina, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The possible application of atomic-force microscopy and X-ray reflectometry methods to structural studies of polyelectrolyte films obtained due to alternating adsorption of oppositely charged polyanion [sodium polysterenesulfonate (PSS)] and polycation [poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAA)] layers on solid substrates has been considered. The atomic-force microscopy study has revealed the characteristic features of the surface topography of samples consisting of different numbers of polyelectrolyte layers deposited from solutions characterized by different ionic strength values. It is shown that the shape of the reflectivity curves obtained from thin polyelectrolyte films depends on their surface structure

  15. Functional connectivity patterns reflect individual differences in conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Zhencai; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun; Chen, Antao

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in the ability to utilize previous conflict information to optimize current conflict resolution, which is termed the conflict adaptation effect. Previous studies have linked individual differences in conflict adaptation to distinct brain regions. However, the network-based neural mechanisms subserving the individual differences of the conflict adaptation effect have not been studied. The present study employed a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis with a color-naming Stroop task to examine this issue. The main results were as follows: (1) the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-seeded PPI revealed the involvement of the salience network (SN) in conflict adaptation, while the posterior parietal cortex (PPC)-seeded PPI revealed the engagement of the central executive network (CEN). (2) Participants with high conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-CEN connectivity and lower intra-SN connectivity; while those with low conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-SN connectivity and lower intra-CEN connectivity. (3) The PPC-centered intra-CEN connectivity positively predicted the conflict adaptation effect; while the ACC-centered intra-SN connectivity had a negative correlation with this effect. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that conflict adaptation is likely supported by the CEN and the SN, providing a new perspective on studying individual differences in conflict adaptation on the basis of large-scale networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested t...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  17. Twitter Language Use Reflects Psychological Differences between Democrats and Republicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, Karolina; Purver, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that political leanings correlate with various psychological factors. While surveys and experiments provide a rich source of information for political psychology, data from social networks can offer more naturalistic and robust material for analysis. This research investigates psychological differences between individuals of different political orientations on a social networking platform, Twitter. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the language used by liberals emphasizes their perception of uniqueness, contains more swear words, more anxiety-related words and more feeling-related words than conservatives' language. Conversely, we predicted that the language of conservatives emphasizes group membership and contains more references to achievement and religion than liberals' language. We analysed Twitter timelines of 5,373 followers of three Twitter accounts of the American Democratic and 5,386 followers of three accounts of the Republican parties' Congressional Organizations. The results support most of the predictions and previous findings, confirming that Twitter behaviour offers valid insights to offline behaviour.

  18. Different bacteriocin activities of Streptococcus mutans reflect distinct phylogenetic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, M; Simmonds, RS; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by mutans streptococci are known as mutacins. In this study 16 broadly active mutacin-producing Streptococcus mutans strains from New Zealand, North America and Europe were classified into four groups (A-D) on the basis of differences in their activity in deferred antagonism...... described by Caufield and co-workers. One of the New Zealand isolates of group A (S. mutans strain N) appeared to produce inhibitory activity similar to that of the group I prototype strain UA140. Four other New Zealand isolates of group B (S. mutans strains M19, M34, B34 and D14) had mutacin II......-like activity. The group B mutacin producers differed from the group A mutacin producers in their additional activity against Staph. aureus 46. Seven S. mutans strains (M46, B46, B57, M12, M28, B28 and 13M) were distinguished from the group A and group B mutacin producers in that they inhibited E. faecium TE1...

  19. Twitter Language Use Reflects Psychological Differences between Democrats and Republicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sylwester

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that political leanings correlate with various psychological factors. While surveys and experiments provide a rich source of information for political psychology, data from social networks can offer more naturalistic and robust material for analysis. This research investigates psychological differences between individuals of different political orientations on a social networking platform, Twitter. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the language used by liberals emphasizes their perception of uniqueness, contains more swear words, more anxiety-related words and more feeling-related words than conservatives' language. Conversely, we predicted that the language of conservatives emphasizes group membership and contains more references to achievement and religion than liberals' language. We analysed Twitter timelines of 5,373 followers of three Twitter accounts of the American Democratic and 5,386 followers of three accounts of the Republican parties' Congressional Organizations. The results support most of the predictions and previous findings, confirming that Twitter behaviour offers valid insights to offline behaviour.

  20. The contrasting nature of woody plant species in different neotropical forest biomes reflects differences in ecological stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lavin, Matt

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental premise of this review is that distinctive phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns in clades endemic to different major biomes illuminate the evolutionary process. In seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), phylogenies are geographically structured and multiple individuals representing single species coalesce. This pattern of monophyletic species, coupled with their old species stem ages, is indicative of maintenance of small effective population sizes over evolutionary timescales, which suggests that SDTF is difficult to immigrate into because of persistent resident lineages adapted to a stable, seasonally dry ecology. By contrast, lack of coalescence in conspecific accessions of abundant and often widespread species is more frequent in rain forests and is likely to reflect large effective population sizes maintained over huge areas by effective seed and pollen flow. Species nonmonophyly, young species stem ages and lack of geographical structure in rain forest phylogenies may reflect more widespread disturbance by drought and landscape evolution causing resident mortality that opens up greater opportunities for immigration and speciation. We recommend full species sampling and inclusion of multiple accessions representing individual species in phylogenies to highlight nonmonophyletic species, which we predict will be frequent in rain forest and savanna, and which represent excellent case studies of incipient speciation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Transmissive/Reflective Structural Color Filters: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural color filters, which obtain color selection by varying structures, have attracted extensive research interest in recent years due to the advantages of compactness, stability, multifunctions, and so on. In general, the mechanisms of structural colors are based on the interaction between light and structures, including light diffraction, cavity resonance, and surface plasmon resonance. This paper reviews recent progress of various structural color techniques and the integration applications of structural color filters in CMOS image sensors, solar cells, and display.

  2. Reflection characterization of nano-sized dielectric structure in Morpho butterfly wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong

    2017-10-01

    Morpho butterflies living in Central and South America are well-known for their structural-colored blue wings. The blue coloring originates from the interaction of light with nano-sized dielectric structures that are equipped on the external surface of scales covering over their wings. The high-accuracy nonstandard finite-difference time domain (NS-FDTD) method is used to investigate the reflection characterization from the nanostructures. In the NS-FDTD calculation, a computational model is built to mimic the actual tree-like multilayered structures wherever possible using the hyperbolic tangent functions. It is generally known that both multilayer interference and diffraction grating phenomena can occur when light enters the nano-sized multilayered structure. To answer the question that which phenomenon is mainly responsible for the blue coloring, the NS-FDTD calculation is performed under various incidence angles at wavelengths from 360 to 500 nm. The calculated results at one incident wavelength under different incidence angles are visualized in a two-dimensional mapping image, where horizontal and vertical axes are incidence and reflection angles, respectively. The images demonstrate a remarkable transition from a ring-like pattern at shorter wavelengths to a retro-reflection pattern at longer wavelengths. To clarify the origin of the pattern transition, the model is separated into several simpler parts and compared their mapping images with the theoretical diffraction calculations. It can be concluded that the blue coloring at longer wavelengths is mainly caused by the cooperation of multilayer interference and retro-reflection while the effect of diffraction grating is predominant at shorter wavelengths.

  3. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflective index and normalized difference vegetative index during plant senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordon, Gabriela; Lagorio, M Gabriela; Paruelo, José M

    2016-07-20

    The relationship between the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and chlorophyll fluorescence along senescence was investigated in this work. Reflectance and radiance measurements were performed at canopy level in grass species presenting different photosynthetic metabolism: Avena sativa (C3) and Setaria italica (C4), at different stages of the natural senescence process. Sun induced-chlorophyll fluorescence at 760nm (SIF 760 ) and the apparent fluorescence yield (SIF 760 /a, with a=irradiance at time of measurement) were extracted from the radiance spectra of canopies using the Fraunhofer Line Discrimination-method. The photosynthetic parameters derived from Kautsky kinetics and pigment content were also calculated at leaf level. Whilst stand level NDVI patterns were related to changes in the structure of canopies and not in pigment content, stand level PRI patterns suggested changes both in terms of canopy and of pigment content in leaves. Both SIF 760 /a and Φ PSII decreased progressively along senescence in both species. A strong increment in NPQ was evident in A. sativa while in S. italica NPQ values were lower. Our most important finding was that two chlorophyll fluorescence signals, Φ PSII and SIF 760 /a, correlated with the canopy PRI values in the two grasses assessed, even when tissues at different ontogenic stages were present. Even though significant changes occurred in the Total Chlr/Car ratio along senescence in both studied species, significant correlations between PRI and chlorophyll fluorescence signals might indicate the usefulness of this reflectance index as a proxy of photosynthetic RUE, at least under the conditions of this study. The relationships between stand level PRI and the fluorescence estimators (Φ PSII and SIF 760 /a) were positive in both cases. Therefore, an increase in PRI values as in the fluorescence parameters would indicate higher RUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All

  4. Tomographic inversion of prismatic reflections for the delineation of steeply dipping structures; Inversion tomographique des reflexions prismatiques en vue de la delineation des structures tres pentees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalca, M.

    2005-11-15

    Seismic imaging of salt flanks still remains a challenge for oil exploration. We propose here to exploit the kinematic information contained in prismatic reflections for the delineation of steeply dipping structures, such as faults or overhangs of salt bodies. This double reflection (on a steeply dipping structure and on a sedimentary interface) contains in fact precious information on the geometry of such structures, information that we try to exploit in travel-time tomography. We first carry out a precise kinematic analysis of these unusual reflections, to better understand under which conditions prismatic reflections can be observed in surface data; and we propose some interpretative guidelines, of great help for identifying such reflections in seismic data. We then study the tomographic inversion of prismatic reflections. Our first attempts at inverting prismatic reflections by standard travel-time tomography reveal a major difficulty due to the possible non definition of the standard forward map. We thus propose a new formulation of travel-time tomography which ensures the definition of the forward map and therefore a robust inversion of prismatic reflections. This approach shows its efficiency for delineating steeply dipping (and/or overhanging) structures on different synthetic experiments. We finally illustrate the benefit of jointly using the information contained in prismatic reflections and in primary events for the velocity model building (simultaneous determination of velocities and interface geometries), through the joint inversion of events interpreted and picked on a realistic synthetic dataset (BP-AIT 2004). (author)

  5. Effect of aperiodicity on the broadband reflection of silicon nanorod structures for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Huang, Ningfeng; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2012-01-02

    We carry out a systematic numerical study of the effects of aperiodicity on silicon nanorod anti-reflection structures. We use the scattering matrix method to calculate the average reflection loss over the solar spectrum for periodic and aperiodic arrangements of nanorods. We find that aperiodicity can either improve or deteriorate the anti-reflection performance, depending on the nanorod diameter. We use a guided random-walk algorithm to design optimal aperiodic structures that exhibit lower reflection loss than both optimal periodic and random aperiodic structures.

  6. Disruption, Dialogue, and Swerve: Reflective Structured Dialogue in Religious Studies Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTemple, Jill; Sarrouf, John

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on Reflective Structured Dialogue as a set of practices developed in the context of conflict resolution that are well suited to handling quotidian uneasiness and extraordinary moments of disruption in religious studies classrooms. After introducing Reflective Structured Dialogue's history, goals, and general practices, the…

  7. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) food web structure in different environmental settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormar, Jonas Gjaldbæk; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Baden, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    his study compares the structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and associated food webs in two eelgrass habitats in Denmark, differing in exposure, connection to the open sea, nutrient enrichment and water transparency. Meadow structure strongly reflected the environmental conditions...... composition and food web structure also differed markedly between sites with the eutrophicated, enclosed site having higher biomass of consumers and less complex food web. These relationships resulted in a column shaped biomass distribution of the consumers at the eutrophicated site whereas the less nutrient...

  8. Anti-reflection textured structures by wet etching and island lithography for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Bo-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Hsin-Hung [Department of Marine Engineering, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, Taipei 11174, Taiwan (China); Nien, Li-Wei; Chen, Miin-Jang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Nagao, Tadaaki [Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Li, Jia-Han [Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Chun-Hway, E-mail: hsuehc@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We fabricated textured SERS substrate with a high surface area and low reflectance. • Large surface area of substrate contains more gold nanodroplets to absorb analytes. • Low reflectance of textured SERS substrate enabled multiple reflections of incident laser light. • We obtained strong SERS enhancement from nanopillar-on-pyramid SERS substrate. - Abstract: A high surface area and low reflection textured surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with plasmonic gold nanodroplets fabricated by wet etching and island lithography was reported in the present study. Specifically, four textured substrates, planar, pyramid, nanopillar, and nanopillar-on-pyramid, were fabricated. The fabricated structures were simulated using the finite-difference time-domain method and the results agreed with the reflection and dark-field scattering measurements. Although the SERS signals varied in different measured regions because of the random nanostructure, the SERS substrates with nanopillar-on-pyramid structure always have the stronger enhancement factor than the SERS substrates with only pyramids or nanopillars. Based on the atomic force microscope and reflection measurements, the nanopillar-on-pyramid structure provided a large surface area and multiple reflections for SERS enhancement, which was about 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the planar substrate. Our results can be applied to fabricate the inexpensive, large surface area, and high SERS enhancement substrates.

  9. Optimal Capital Structure: Reflections on Economic and Other Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.J. Schauten (Marc); J. Spronk (Jaap)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDespite a vast literature on the capital structure of the firm there still is a big gap between theory and practice. Starting with the seminal work by Modigliani & Miller, much attention has been paid to the optimality of capital structure from the shareholders’ point of view. Over the

  10. Bio-inspired, subwavelength surface structures to control reflectivity, transmission, and scattering in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora Gonzalez, Federico

    increase Schottky-barrier detector efficiency. Absorbance enhancement of 70--200% in the lambda =1--2.5 micron range is demonstrated in crystalline PtSi films grown via electron beam evaporation of Pt and subsequent vacuum annealing. Low total reflectance (eye effect. Effective medium theory and transfer matrix calculations show that the large absorption enhancement at short wavelengths is partly due to light trapping, which increases the effective optical path length in PtSi. The demonstrated structures are promising candidates for efficient PtSi/p-Si Schottky barrier diode detectors in the NIR. Results further suggest a general method for relatively low-cost absorption enhancement of backside-illuminated detectors based on a wide variety of infrared absorptive materials. The methods presented here to fabricate quasi-ordered ME structures provide a general platform for creating antireflective structures in many different materials, devices, and bandwidths. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between protuberance shape, height, aspect ratio, etc. and performance (antireflection, scattering loss, etc.) can guide the design of antireflective surfaces for different applications (for example, in certain applications, large amounts of forward scattering is desired, e.g. photovoltaics).

  11. A new metasurface reflective structure for simultaneous enhancement of antenna bandwidth and gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib Ullah, M; Islam, M T

    2014-01-01

    A new bi-layered metasurface reflective structure (MRS) on a high-permittivity, low-loss, ceramic-filled, bio-plastic, sandwich-structured, dielectric substrate is proposed for the simultaneous enhancement of the bandwidth and gain of a dual band patch antenna. By incorporating the MRS with a 4 mm air gap between the MRS and the antenna, the bandwidth and gain of the dual band patch antenna are significantly enhanced. The reflection coefficient (S11 < −10 dB) bandwidth of the proposed MRS-loaded antenna increased by 240% (178%), and the average peak gain improved by 595% (128%) compared to the antenna alone in the lower (upper) band. Incremental improvements of the magnitude and directional patterns have been observed from the measured radiation patterns at the three resonant frequencies of 0.9 GHz, 3.7 GHz and 4.5 GHz. The effects of different configurations of the radiating patch and the ground plane on the reflection coefficient have been analyzed. In addition, the voltage standing wave ratio and input impedance have also been validated using a Smith chart. (paper)

  12. A new metasurface reflective structure for simultaneous enhancement of antenna bandwidth and gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M. Habib; Islam, M. T.

    2014-08-01

    A new bi-layered metasurface reflective structure (MRS) on a high-permittivity, low-loss, ceramic-filled, bio-plastic, sandwich-structured, dielectric substrate is proposed for the simultaneous enhancement of the bandwidth and gain of a dual band patch antenna. By incorporating the MRS with a 4 mm air gap between the MRS and the antenna, the bandwidth and gain of the dual band patch antenna are significantly enhanced. The reflection coefficient (S11 < -10 dB) bandwidth of the proposed MRS-loaded antenna increased by 240% (178%), and the average peak gain improved by 595% (128%) compared to the antenna alone in the lower (upper) band. Incremental improvements of the magnitude and directional patterns have been observed from the measured radiation patterns at the three resonant frequencies of 0.9 GHz, 3.7 GHz and 4.5 GHz. The effects of different configurations of the radiating patch and the ground plane on the reflection coefficient have been analyzed. In addition, the voltage standing wave ratio and input impedance have also been validated using a Smith chart.

  13. Characteristics of Wave Reflection for Vertical and Slit Caissons with Porous Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hwa Jung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore structures are occasionally located at a relatively deep water region, the outside of breakwater. In this case, these structures may be damaged by the supposition of incident and reflected waves from a vertical breakwater. To prevent the damage, the reflected waves are controlled by installing porous structures at the face of the vertical breakwater. In this study, numerical experiments are carried out to identify the characteristics of wave reflection from the porous structures installing in front of a vertical or slit caisson.

  14. Sparkling feather reflections of a bird-of-paradise explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2014-03-25

    Birds-of-paradise are nature's prime examples of the evolution of color by sexual selection. Their brilliant, structurally colored feathers play a principal role in mating displays. The structural coloration of both the occipital and breast feathers of the bird-of-paradise Lawes' parotia is produced by melanin rodlets arranged in layers, together acting as interference reflectors. Light reflection by the silvery colored occipital feathers is unidirectional as in a classical multilayer, but the reflection by the richly colored breast feathers is three-directional and extraordinarily complex. Here we show that the reflection properties of both feather types can be quantitatively explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling using realistic feather anatomies and experimentally determined refractive index dispersion values of keratin and melanin. The results elucidate the interplay between avian coloration and vision and indicate tuning of the mating displays to the spectral properties of the avian visual system.

  15. Gathering structured reflection in the furniture business by Trend Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Andrea Erika; Eriksen, Kaare Riise

    2015-01-01

    Setting up the direction for new product designs in the furniture business can be more or less structured and in many situations the idea for new design concepts, constructions, details, coloring or choice of material are directed by random input from retailers or external designers or from...

  16. New structural studies of liquid crystal by reflectivity and resonant X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, P.

    2007-04-01

    This memory presents three structural studies of smectic Liquid Crystals by reflectivity and resonant diffraction of X-rays. It is divided in five chapters. In the first a short introduction to Liquid Crystals is given. In particular, the smectic phases that are the object of this study are presented. The second chapter is consecrated to the X-ray experimental techniques that were used in this work. The three last chapters present the works on which this thesis can be divided. Chapter three demonstrates on free-standing films of MHPOBC (historic liquid crystal that possesses the antiferroelectric sub-phases) the possibility to extend the technique of resonant X-ray diffraction to liquid crystals without resonant element. In the fourth chapter the structure of the B 2 liquid crystal phase of bent-core molecules (or banana molecules) is elucidated by using resonant X-ray diffraction combined with polarization analysis of the diffracted beam. A model of the polarization of the resonant beam diffracted by four different structures proposed for the B 2 phase is developed in this chapter. In the fifth chapter a smectic binary mixture presenting a very original critical point of phase separation is studied by X-ray reflectivity and optical microscopy. A concentration gradient in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the film seems to be induced by the free-standing film geometry. The results of a simplified model of the system are compatible with this interpretation

  17. Reflections on protein splicing: structures, functions and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anraku, Yasuhiro; Satow, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, evidence that one gene produces two enzymes via protein splicing emerged from structural and expression studies of the VMA1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. VMA1 consists of a single open reading frame and contains two independent genetic information for Vma1p (a catalytic 70-kDa subunit of the vacuolar H+-ATPase) and VDE (a 50-kDa DNA endonuclease) as an in-frame spliced insert in the gene. Protein splicing is a posttranslational cellular process, in which an intervening polypeptide termed as the VMA1 intein is self-catalytically excised out from a nascent 120-kDa VMA1 precursor and two flanking polypeptides of the N- and C-exteins are ligated to produce the mature Vma1p. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that protein splicing is not unique to the VMA1 precursor and there are many operons in nature, which implement genetic information editing at protein level. To elucidate its structure-directed chemical mechanisms, a series of biochemical and crystal structural studies has been carried out with the use of various VMA1 recombinants. This article summarizes a VDE-mediated self-catalytic mechanism for protein splicing that is triggered and terminated solely via thiazolidine intermediates with tetrahedral configurations formed within the splicing sites where proton ingress and egress are driven by balanced protonation and deprotonation. PMID:19907126

  18. The impact of different reference panels on spectral reflectance coefficients of some biological water pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Walczykowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of water environment and ecosystem, detecting water contaminants and understanding water quality parameters are most important tasks in water management and protection of whole aquatic environment. Detection of biological contaminants play a very important role in preserving human health and water management. To obtain accurate and precise results of determination of the level of biological contamination and to distinguish its type it is necessary to determine precisely spectral reflectance coefficients of several water biological pollutants with inter alia spectroradiometer. This paper presents a methodology and preliminary results of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients with different reference panels (e.g. with 5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 96% of reflectivity) of several biological pollutants. The authors' main task was to measure spectral reflectance coefficients of different biological water pollutants with several reference panels and to select optimal reference standard, which would allow for distinguish different types of several biological contaminants. Moreover it was necessary to indicate the spectral range in which it is possible to discriminate investigated samples of biological contaminants. By conducting many series of measurements of several samples of different types of biological pollutants, authors had concluded how the reflectivity of reference panel influences the accuracy of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients. This research was crucial in order to be able to distinguish several types of biological pollutants and to determine the useful spectral range for detection of different kinds of biological contaminants with multispectral and hyperspectral imagery.

  19. Implementation of inquiry-based science education in different countries: some reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundgren, Carl-Johan

    2017-03-01

    In this forum article, I reflect on issues related to the implementation of inquiry-based science education (IBSE) in different countries. Regarding education within the European Union (EU), the Bologna system has in later years provided extended coordination and comparability at an organizational level. However, the possibility of the EU to influence the member countries regarding the actual teaching and learning in the classrooms is more limited. In later years, several EU-projects focusing on IBSE have been funded in order to make science education in Europe better, and more motivating for students. Highlighting what Heinz and her colleagues call the policy of `soft governance' of the EU regarding how to improve science education in Europe, I discuss the focus on IBSE in the seventh framework projects, and how it is possible to maintain more long-lasting results in schools through well-designed teacher professional development programs. Another aspect highlighted by Heinz and her colleagues is how global pressures on convergence in education interact with educational structures and traditions in the individual countries. The rise of science and science education as a global culture, encompassing contributions from all around the world, is a phenomenon of great potential and value to humankind. However, it is important to bear in mind that if science and science education is going to become a truly global culture, local variation and differences regarding foci and applications of science in different cultures must be acknowledged.

  20. Chaos, patterns, coherent structures, and turbulence: Reflections on nonlinear science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Robert E

    2015-09-01

    The paradigms of nonlinear science were succinctly articulated over 25 years ago as deterministic chaos, pattern formation, coherent structures, and adaptation/evolution/learning. For chaos, the main unifying concept was universal routes to chaos in general nonlinear dynamical systems, built upon a framework of bifurcation theory. Pattern formation focused on spatially extended nonlinear systems, taking advantage of symmetry properties to develop highly quantitative amplitude equations of the Ginzburg-Landau type to describe early nonlinear phenomena in the vicinity of critical points. Solitons, mathematically precise localized nonlinear wave states, were generalized to a larger and less precise class of coherent structures such as, for example, concentrated regions of vorticity from laboratory wake flows to the Jovian Great Red Spot. The combination of these three ideas was hoped to provide the tools and concepts for the understanding and characterization of the strongly nonlinear problem of fluid turbulence. Although this early promise has been largely unfulfilled, steady progress has been made using the approaches of nonlinear science. I provide a series of examples of bifurcations and chaos, of one-dimensional and two-dimensional pattern formation, and of turbulence to illustrate both the progress and limitations of the nonlinear science approach. As experimental and computational methods continue to improve, the promise of nonlinear science to elucidate fluid turbulence continues to advance in a steady manner, indicative of the grand challenge nature of strongly nonlinear multi-scale dynamical systems.

  1. Structural Molecular Biology-A Personal Reflection on the Occasion of John Kendrew's 100th Birthday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Patrick

    2017-08-18

    Here, I discuss the development and future of structural molecular biology, concentrating on the eukaryotic transcription machinery and reflecting on John Kendrew's legacy from a personal perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reversible unidirectional reflection and absorption of PT-symmetry structure under electro-optical modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun-tuan; Zhang, Yi-chi; Xia, Jing

    2018-06-01

    In order to obtain tunable unidirectional device, we assumed an ideal periodic layered Parity-Time (PT) symmetry structure inserted by doped LiNbO3 (LN) interlayers. LN is a typical electro-optical material of which the refractive index depends on the external electric field. In our work, we theoretically investigate the modulation effect of the external electric field on the transmittance and reflectance of the structure through numerical method. Through selected structural parameters, the one-way enhanced reflection and high absorption (above 0.9) behaviors are found. Within a special frequency band (not a single frequency), our theoretical model performs enhanced reflection in one incidence direction and high absorption in the other direction. Furthermore, the directions of enhanced reflection and absorption can be reversed through reversing the direction of applied electric field. Such structure with reversible properties has the potential in designing new optical devices.

  3. In vivo assessment of the structure of skin microcirculation by reflectance confocal-laser-scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugata, Keiichi; Osanai, Osamu; Kawada, Hiromitsu

    2012-02-01

    One of the major roles of the skin microcirculation is to supply oxygen and nutrition to the surrounding tissue. Regardless of the close relationship between the microcirculation and the surrounding tissue, there are few non-invasive methods that can evaluate both the microcirculation and its surrounding tissue at the same site. We visualized microcapillary plexus structures in human skin using in vivo reflectance confocal-laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM), Vivascope 3000® (Lucid Inc., USA) and Image J software (National Institutes of Health, USA) for video image processing. CLSM is a non-invasive technique that can visualize the internal structure of the skin at the cellular level. In addition to internal morphological information such as the extracellular matrix, our method reveals capillary structures up to the depth of the subpapillary plexus at the same site without the need for additional optical systems. Video images at specific depths of the inner forearm skin were recorded. By creating frame-to-frame difference images from the video images using off-line video image processing, we obtained images that emphasize the brightness depending on changes of intensity coming from the movement of blood cells. Merging images from different depths of the skin elucidates the 3-dimensional fine line-structure of the microcirculation. Overall our results show the feasibility of a non-invasive, high-resolution imaging technique to characterize the skin microcirculation and the surrounding tissue.

  4. 3D-Printed Broadband Dielectric Tube Terahertz Waveguide with Anti-Reflection Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Dominik Walter; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate broadband, low loss, and close-to-zero dispersion guidance of terahertz (THz) radiation in a dielectric tube with an anti-reflection structure (AR-tube waveguide) in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.0 THz. The anti-reflection structure (ARS) consists of close-packed cones in a hexagonal lattice arranged on the outer surface of the tube cladding. The feature size of the ARS is in the order of the wavelength between 0.2 and 1.0 THz. The waveguides are fabricated with the versatile and cost efficient 3D-printing method. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements as well as 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations (FDTD) are performed to extensively characterize the AR-tube waveguides. Spectrograms, attenuation spectra, effective phase refractive indices, and the group-velocity dispersion parameters β 2 of the AR-tube waveguides are presented. Both the experimental and numerical results confirm the extended bandwidth and smaller group-velocity dispersion of the AR-tube waveguide compared to a low loss plain dielectric tube THz waveguide. The AR-tube waveguide prototypes show an attenuation spectrum close to the theoretical limit given by the infinite cladding tube waveguide.

  5. Fine structural dependence of ultraviolet reflections in the King Penguin beak horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresp, Birgitta; Langley, Keith

    2006-03-01

    The visual perception of many birds extends into the near-ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and ultraviolet is used by some to communicate. The beak horn of the King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) intensely reflects in the ultraviolet and this appears to be implicated in partner choice. In a preliminary study, we recently demonstrated that this ultraviolet reflectance has a structural basis, resulting from crystal-like photonic structures, capable of reflecting in the near-UV. The present study attempted to define the origin of the photonic elements that produce the UV reflectance and to better understand how the UV signal is optimized by their fine structure. Using light and electron microscopic analysis combined with new spectrophotometric data, we describe here in detail the fine structure of the entire King Penguin beak horn in addition to that of its photonic crystals. The data obtained reveal a one-dimensional structural periodicity within this tissue and demonstrate a direct relationship between its fine structure and its function. In addition, they suggest how the photonic structures are produced and how they are stabilized. The measured lattice dimensions of the photonic crystals, together with morphological data on its composition, permit predictions of the wavelength of reflected light. These correlate well with experimentally observed values. The way the UV signal is optimized by the fine structure of the beak tissue is discussed with regard to its putative biological role.

  6. Cultural differences in emotion regulation during self-reflection on negative personal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, William; Lau, Anna S

    2013-01-01

    Reflecting on negative personal experiences has implications for mood that may vary as a function of specific domains (e.g., achievement vs. interpersonal) and cultural orientation (e.g., interdependence vs. independence). This study investigated cultural differences in the social-cognitive and affective processes undertaken as Easterners and Westerners reflected on negative interpersonal and performance experiences. One hundred Asian Americans and 92 European-American college students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: interpersonal rejection, achievement failure, or a control condition. Results revealed that Asian Americans experienced greater distress than European Americans after self-reflecting over a failed interpersonal experience, suggesting cultural sensitivity in the relational domain. Consistent with theoretical predictions, analysis of the social cognitive and affective processes that participants engaged in during self-reflection provided some evidence that self-enhancement may buffer distress for European Americans, while emotion suppression may be adaptive for Asian Americans.

  7. Design and Analysis of Multilayered Waveguide Structure With Metal-Dielectric Gratings for Sensing With Reflection Narrowband Notch Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiju ZHANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Developments in micro and nanofabrication technologies have led a variety of grating waveguide structures (GWS being proposed and implemented in optics and laser application systems. A new design of multilayered nanostructure double-grating is described for reflection notch filter. Thin metal film and dielectric film are used and designed with one-dimensional composite gratings. The results calculated by rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA present that the thin metal film between substrate and grating can produce significant attenuated reflections and efficiency in a broad reflected spectral range. The behavior of such a reflection filter is evaluated for refractive index sensing, which can be applied inside the integrated waveguide structure while succeeding cycles in measurement. The filter peaks are designed and obtained in a visible range with full width half maximum (FWHM of several nanometers to less than one nanometer. The multilayered structure shows a sensitivity of refractive index of 220nm/RIU as changing the surroundings. The reflection spectra are studied under different periods, depths and duty cycles. The passive structure and its characteristics can achieve practical applications in various fields, such as optical sensing, color filtering, Raman spectroscopy and laser technology.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9625

  8. Effect of reflective practice education on self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking among experienced nurses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Marilyn E; Fain, James A

    2013-01-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted to determine whether nurses' participation in a reflective practice continuing education program using a structured reflection model makes a difference in nurses' self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking about clinical practice situations. Findings suggested that use of structured reflection using question cues, written narratives, and peer-facilitated reflection increased nurses' engagement in self-reflection and enhanced reflective thinking in practice. Including reflective practice education in novice orientation and preceptor training may be beneficial.

  9. Gender differences in category-specificity do not reflect innate dispositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Gainotti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that certain categories of objects are processed more efficiently than others in specific tasks; a phenomenon known as category-specificity in perceptual and conceptual processing. In the last two decades there have also been several reports of gender differences in categor...... of this discrepancy is that previous reports of gender differences may have reflected differences in familiarity originating from socially-based gender roles....

  10. Using Structured Examples and Prompting Reflective Questions to Correct Misconceptions about Thermodynamic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakanmi, E. O.; Doyoyo, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of using "structured examples in concert with prompting reflective questions" to address misconceptions held by mechanical engineering students about thermodynamic principles by employing pre-test and post-test design, a structured questionnaire, lecture room observation, and participants'…

  11. Smart nanogels at the air/water interface: structural studies by neutron reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Katarzyna; Sun, Huihui; Campbell, Richard A.; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Resmini, Marina

    2016-02-01

    The development of effective transdermal drug delivery systems based on nanosized polymers requires a better understanding of the behaviour of such nanomaterials at interfaces. N-Isopropylacrylamide-based nanogels synthesized with different percentages of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as cross-linker, ranging from 10 to 30%, were characterized at physiological temperature at the air/water interface, using neutron reflectivity (NR), with isotopic contrast variation, and surface tension measurements; this allowed us to resolve the adsorbed amount and the volume fraction of nanogels at the interface. A large conformational change for the nanogels results in strong deformations at the interface. As the percentage of cross-linker incorporated in the nanogels becomes higher, more rigid matrices are obtained, although less deformed, and the amount of adsorbed nanogels is increased. The data provide the first experimental evidence of structural changes of nanogels as a function of the degree of cross-linking at the air/water interface.The development of effective transdermal drug delivery systems based on nanosized polymers requires a better understanding of the behaviour of such nanomaterials at interfaces. N-Isopropylacrylamide-based nanogels synthesized with different percentages of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as cross-linker, ranging from 10 to 30%, were characterized at physiological temperature at the air/water interface, using neutron reflectivity (NR), with isotopic contrast variation, and surface tension measurements; this allowed us to resolve the adsorbed amount and the volume fraction of nanogels at the interface. A large conformational change for the nanogels results in strong deformations at the interface. As the percentage of cross-linker incorporated in the nanogels becomes higher, more rigid matrices are obtained, although less deformed, and the amount of adsorbed nanogels is increased. The data provide the first experimental evidence of structural changes

  12. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  13. Individual Differences in EEG Spectral Power Reflect Genetic Variance in Gray and White Matter Volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, D.J.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Schnack, H.G.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The human electroencephalogram (EEG) consists of oscillations that reflect the summation of postsynaptic potentials at the dendritic tree of cortical neurons. The strength of the oscillations (EEG power) is a highly genetic trait that has been related to individual differences in many phenotypes,

  14. An investigation of the structure of plasma produced by reflected shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.G.R.; Pugatschew, A.A.

    1979-05-01

    Space and time resolved measurements of electron density and temperature have been made in the reflected-shock plasma produced by a Mach 20 incident shock wave propagating in argon at an initial pressure of 1.5 Torr. The peak electron density was found to decrease away from the reflecting wall in such a way that the plasma was fairly uniform at all times. Close to the reflecting wall (0.2 cm away) the measured peak electron density was close to (i.e. about 20% lower than) the predicted equilibrium value but further away (1.0 cm) it was lower by a factor 4. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Calculations of reflected-shock plasma structure based on incident shock structure are only partially supported by available experimental evidence

  15. Integration between well logging and seismic reflection techniques for structural a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel K. Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abu El Gharadig basin is located in the northern part of the Western Desert, Egypt. Geophysical investigation in the form of thirty (3D seismic lines and well logging data of five wells have been analyzed in the oil field BED-1 that is located in the northwestern part of Abu El Gharadig basin in the Western Desert of Egypt. The reflection sections have been used to shed more light on the tectonic setting of Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous rocks. While the well logging data have been analyzed for delineating the petrophysical characteristics of the two main reservoirs, Bahariya and Kharita Formations. The constructed subsurface geologic cross sections, seismic sections, and the isochronous reflection maps indicate that the area is structurally controlled by tectonic trends affecting the current shape of Abu El Gharadig basin. Different types of faults are well represented in the area, particularly normal one. The analysis of the average and interval velocities versus depth has shown their effect by facies changes and/or fluid content. On the other hand, the derived petrophysical parameters of Bahariya and Kharita Formations vary from well to another and they have been affected by the gas effect and/or the presence of organic matter, complex lithology, clay content of dispersed habitat, and the pore volume.

  16. Imaging near-subsurface subrosion structures and faults using SH-wave reflection seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja; Polom, Ulrich; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Subrosion is a term for underground leaching of soluble rocks and is a global phenomenon. It involves dissolution of evaporites due to the presence of unsaturated water, fractures and faults. Fractures and faults are pathways for water to circulate and to generate subsurface cavities. Depending on the leached material and the parameters of the generation process, especially the dissolution rate, different kinds of subrosion structures evolve in the subsurface. The two end members are collapse and depression structures. Subrosion is a natural process, but it can be enhanced by anthropogenic factors like manipulation of the aquifer system and groundwater flow and by e.g. extraction of saline water. The formation of sinkholes and depressions are a dangerous geohazard, especially if they occur in urban areas, which often leads to building and infrastructural damage and life-threatening situations. For this reason investigations of the processes that induce subrosion and a detailed analysis of the resulting structures are of importance. To develop a comprehensive model of near-subsurface subrosion structures, reflection seismics is one of the methods used by the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics. The study area is located in the city of Bad Frankenhausen in northern Thuringia, Germany. Most of the geological underground of Thuringia is characterized by Permian deposits. Bad Frankenhausen is situated directly south of the Kyffhäuser mountain range at the Kyffhäuser Southern Margin Fault. This major fault is one of the main pathways for the circulating ground- and meteoric waters that leach the Permian deposits, especially the Leine-, Staßfurt- and Werra Formations. 2014 and 2015 eight shear wave reflection seismic profiles were carried out in the urban area of Bad Frankenhausen and three profiles in the countrified surroundings. Altogether ca. 3.6 km were surveyed using a landstreamer as receiver and an electro-dynamic vibrator as source. The surveys were

  17. Stretched membrane heliostats: design and structural analysis of reflectance module and support of a heliostats of 9 m. diaform and 60 m''3 of reflectance surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figarola Torres, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    After having designed and built at CIEMAT a first prototype of a Btretched membrane heliostats of 3 m. diameter, the design and the structural analysis of the different components included in the reflectance module and support of another heliostats, this one of 9 m. diameter and 60 m2. of reflectance surface, are shown In this report. This last heliostats will be mounted on a pedestal and its driving device at the Solar Platform of Almeria. In order to optimize design and performance, the structural analysis of its basic components has been analyzed with the finite elements program ANSYS. The following elements have been subject to analysis: the membrane and their ring supports, stretching system and the structural support. A similar scheme to the one applied to the previous prototype has been used on the focus control system. That includes a linear transducer, a variable frequency and a fan. Finally it has to be pointed out that substantial improvements have been achieved with respect to the first prototype concerning design and cost. (Author) 5 refs

  18. Fine-Scale Human Population Structure in Southern Africa Reflects Ecogeographic Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Caitlin; Kim, Minju; Martin, Alicia R; Bobo, Dean; Gignoux, Christopher R; van Helden, Paul D; Möller, Marlo; Hoal, Eileen G; Henn, Brenna M

    2016-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have established that the KhoeSan populations of southern Africa are distinct from all other African populations and have remained largely isolated during human prehistory until ∼2000 years ago. Dozens of different KhoeSan groups exist, belonging to three different language families, but very little is known about their population history. We examine new genome-wide polymorphism data and whole mitochondrial genomes for >100 South Africans from the ≠Khomani San and Nama populations of the Northern Cape, analyzed in conjunction with 19 additional southern African populations. Our analyses reveal fine-scale population structure in and around the Kalahari Desert. Surprisingly, this structure does not always correspond to linguistic or subsistence categories as previously suggested, but rather reflects the role of geographic barriers and the ecology of the greater Kalahari Basin. Regardless of subsistence strategy, the indigenous Khoe-speaking Nama pastoralists and the N|u-speaking ≠Khomani (formerly hunter-gatherers) share ancestry with other Khoe-speaking forager populations that form a rim around the Kalahari Desert. We reconstruct earlier migration patterns and estimate that the southern Kalahari populations were among the last to experience gene flow from Bantu speakers, ∼14 generations ago. We conclude that local adoption of pastoralism, at least by the Nama, appears to have been primarily a cultural process with limited genetic impact from eastern Africa. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Bifurcation parameters of a reflected shock wave in cylindrical channels of different roughnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penyazkov, O.; Skilandz, A.

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effect of bifurcation on the induction time in cylindrical shock tubes used for chemical kinetic experiments, one should know the parameters of the bifurcation structure of a reflected shock wave. The dynamics and parameters of the shock wave bifurcation, which are caused by reflected shock wave-boundary layer interactions, are studied experimentally in argon, in air, and in a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture for Mach numbers M = 1.3-3.5 in a 76-mm-diameter shock tube without any ramp. Measurements were taken at a constant gas density behind the reflected shock wave. Over a wide range of experimental conditions, we studied the axial projection of the oblique shock wave and the pressure distribution in the vicinity of the triple Mach configuration at 50, 150, and 250 mm from the endwall, using side-wall schlieren and pressure measurements. Experiments on a polished shock tube and a shock tube with a surface roughness of 20 {μ }m Ra were carried out. The surface roughness was used for initiating small-scale turbulence in the boundary layer behind the incident shock wave. The effect of small-scale turbulence on the homogenization of the transition zone from the laminar to turbulent boundary layer along the shock tube perimeter was assessed, assuming its influence on a subsequent stabilization of the bifurcation structure size versus incident shock wave Mach number, as well as local flow parameters behind the reflected shock wave. The influence of surface roughness on the bifurcation development and pressure fluctuations near the wall, as well as on the Mach number, at which the bifurcation first develops, was analyzed. It was found that even small additional surface roughness can lead to an overshoot in pressure growth by a factor of two, but it can stabilize the bifurcation structure along the shock tube perimeter.

  20. The introspective may achieve more: Enhancing existing Geoscientific models with native-language emulated structural reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xinye; Shen, Chaopeng

    2018-01-01

    Geoscientific models manage myriad and increasingly complex data structures as trans-disciplinary models are integrated. They often incur significant redundancy with cross-cutting tasks. Reflection, the ability of a program to inspect and modify its structure and behavior at runtime, is known as a powerful tool to improve code reusability, abstraction, and separation of concerns. Reflection is rarely adopted in high-performance Geoscientific models, especially with Fortran, where it was previously deemed implausible. Practical constraints of language and legacy often limit us to feather-weight, native-language solutions. We demonstrate the usefulness of a structural-reflection-emulating, dynamically-linked metaObjects, gd. We show real-world examples including data structure self-assembly, effortless input/output (IO) and upgrade to parallel I/O, recursive actions and batch operations. We share gd and a derived module that reproduces MATLAB-like structure in Fortran and C++. We suggest that both a gd representation and a Fortran-native representation are maintained to access the data, each for separate purposes. Embracing emulated reflection allows generically-written codes that are highly re-usable across projects.

  1. Evaluation of structure models of Ho2PdSi3 using DAFS, inter alia at a satellite reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nentwich, M; Zschornak, M; Richter, C; Meyer, D C

    2014-01-01

    The compounds R 2 PdSi 3 , with R = rare earth, exhibit a very interesting magnetic behavior with two phase transitions. Substituting one in four Si atoms by Pd in HoSi 2 results in a modulation of the aristotype. There are several different variants discussed in literature about the nature of the modulation of this rare-earth compound. Two of the latest models were compared: a 2 × 2 × 1 layer and a 2 × 2 × 8 stack. The chosen method is Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS) and was applied both experimentally and by simulation at different absorption edges and reflections, i. a. a satellite reflection, aiming on finding the correct crystal structure

  2. Exploring the Effects of Cloud Vertical Structure on Cloud Microphysical Retrievals based on Polarized Reflectances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. J.; Zhang, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Ackerman, A. S.; Cornet, C.; Baum, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    A polarized cloud reflectance simulator was developed by coupling an LES cloud model with a polarized radiative transfer model to assess the capabilities of polarimetric cloud retrievals. With future remote sensing campaigns like NASA's Aerosols/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) planning to feature advanced polarimetric instruments it is important for the cloud remote sensing community to understand the retrievable information available and the related systematic/methodical limitations. The cloud retrieval simulator we have developed allows us to probe these important questions in a realistically relevant test bed. Our simulator utilizes a polarized adding-doubling radiative transfer model and an LES cloud field from a DHARMA simulation (Ackerman et al. 2004) with cloud properties based on the stratocumulus clouds observed during the DYCOMS-II field campaign. In this study we will focus on how the vertical structure of cloud microphysics can influence polarized cloud effective radius retrievals. Numerous previous studies have explored how retrievals based on total reflectance are affected by cloud vertical structure (Platnick 2000, Chang and Li 2002) but no such studies about the effects of vertical structure on polarized retrievals exist. Unlike the total cloud reflectance, which is predominantly multiply scattered light, the polarized reflectance is primarily the result of singly scattered photons. Thus the polarized reflectance is sensitive to only the uppermost region of the cloud (tau~influencer on the microphysical development of cloud droplets, can be potentially studied with polarimetric retrievals.

  3. Studies on microphase-separated structures of block copolymers by neutron reflectivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, Naoya; Noda, Ichiro; Matsushita, Yushu; Karim, A.; Satija, S.K.; Han, C.C.; Ebisawa, Toru.

    1996-01-01

    Segmental distributions of block copolymer chains in lamellar microphase-separated structure and those of homopolymers in block copolymer/homopolymer blends also with lamellar structures were studied by neutron reflectivity measurements. It was revealed that polystyrene and poly(2-vinylpyridine) lamellae were alternately stacked within the thin films of pure block copolymers spin-coated on silicon wafers, and they were preferentially oriented along the direction parallel to film surface. Polystyrene lamella appeared at air surfaces of the films, while poly(2-vinylpyridine) lamella did on silicon surfaces. Segment distribution at lamellar interface was well described by an error function, and the width of the lamellar interface, defined by a full-width half-maximum value of interfacial profile, was estimated to be about 4.5 nm. Segments of block chains adjacent to the chemical junction points connecting different block chains were strongly localized near the lamellar interfaces, while those on the free ends of block chains were distributed all over the lamellar microdomains with their distribution maxima at the centers of lamellae. On the other hand, it was clarified that homopolymers dissolved in the corresponding lamellar microdomains of block copolymers were also distributed throughout the microdomains with their concentration maxima at the centers of the lamellae. (author)

  4. Personality-dependent differences in problem-solving performance in a social context reflect foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L; Naguib, Marc; van Oers, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we investigated whether individual variation in problem-solving performance could be explained by differences in the likelihood of solving the task, or if they reflect differences in foraging strategy. We tested this by studying the use of a novel foraging skill in groups of great tits (Parus major), consisting of three naive individuals with different personality, and one knowledgeable tutor. We presented them with multiple, identical foraging devices over eight trials. Though birds of different personality type did not differ in solving latency; fast and slow explorers showed a steeper increase over time in their solving rate, compared to intermediate explorers. Despite equal solving potential, personality influenced the subsequent use of the skill, as well as the pay-off received from solving. Thus, variation in the tendency to solve the task reflected differences in foraging strategy among individuals linked to their personality. These results emphasize the importance of considering the social context to fully understand the implications of learning novel skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of reflectance properties on polymer micro-structured functional surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regi, Francesco; Li, Dongya; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    In this study, a functional micro-structure surface [1] has been developed as a combination of arrays of micro ridges. The scope of the surface is to achieve specific directional optical properties: that is, under constrained lighting, maximizing the reflectance from a certain viewing direction, ...

  6. Structure of the Gabon Margin from integrated seismic reflection and gravity data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupre, S.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Bertotti, G.V.

    2011-01-01

    In the South Gabon Basin, deep multi-channel seismic reflection and gravity modeling analysis have shed light on key features of the structure of the margin. The thinned continental crust beneath the Gabon Margin appears to be composed of two distinct layers, separated by a clear, strong and more or

  7. Crustal structure in the Kiruna area, northern Sweden, based on seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhojuntti, Niklas; Bergman, Stefan; Olsson, Sverker

    2013-04-01

    Northernmost Sweden is currently one of the most active mining areas in Europe. In order to better understand the regional three-dimensional crustal structure and to support deep ore exploration, we have acquired a 74 km long seismic reflection profile in the Kiruna area. The upper crust in this area is largely composed of various supracrustal units, which are dominated by metabasalts, acidic metavolcanics and clastic metasedimentary rocks, resting on an Archaean metagranitoid complex. All of these units have been intruded by plutonic rocks, and to variable degrees folded, sheared and metamorphosed, during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The profile crosses several steep ductile shear zones, some of which extend for hundreds of kilometres along strike. Many of the lithological contacts and deformation zones are expected to be seismically reflective. The profile is located only a few kilometres from the world's largest underground iron-ore mine in Kiruna, and closer to the profile there are several known ore bodies, some of which are active exploration targets. For the seismic recording we used approximately 350 geophones in split-spread configuration, at a separation of 25 m. The main seismic source was the Vibsist system (an impact source), which normally was employed at every geophone station. We also fired explosive charges (8-16 kg) at a few locations distributed along the profile to image deeper structures, although at very low resolution. Wireless seismometers were placed along and to the side of the profile, mainly in order to achieve better velocity control and to study out-of-the-plane reflections. Some mining blasts in Kiruna were also recorded. The upper crust in the area is quite reflective, most clearly demonstrated by the dynamite shot records. Some of the reflections appear to originate from steeply dipping structures. The dynamite shot records show a set of reflections at 3-4 s twt, corresponding to a depth of roughly 10 km, the explanation for which is

  8. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection: sex differences and relationship with left ventricular diastolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Palmieri, Vittorio; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2012-08-01

    Increased arterial stiffness and wave reflection have been reported in heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) and in asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, a precursor of HFNEF. It is unclear whether women, who have higher frequency of HFNEF, are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious effects of arterial stiffness on LV diastolic function. We investigated, in a large community-based cohort, whether sex differences exist in the relationship among arterial stiffness, wave reflection, and LV diastolic function. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed in 983 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions study using applanation tonometry. The central pulse pressure/stroke volume index, total arterial compliance, pulse pressure amplification, and augmentation index were used as parameters of arterial stiffness and wave reflection. LV diastolic function was evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography and tissue-Doppler imaging. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were greater in women compared with men, independent of body size and heart rate (all Pfunction in both sexes. Further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors attenuated these relationships; however, a higher central pulse pressure/stroke volume index predicted LV diastolic dysfunction in women (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence intervals, 1.03 to 2.30) and men (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 3.39), independent of other risk factors. In conclusion, in our community-based cohort study, higher arterial stiffness was associated with worse LV diastolic function in men and women. Women's higher arterial stiffness, independent of body size, may contribute to their greater susceptibility to develop HFNEF.

  9. Issues in reflection and debriefing: how nurse educators structure experiential activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenreg, Jenni

    2004-12-01

    Experiential learning is particularly useful in vocational education programs where theory needs to be linked to practice. Although experiential learning is often advocated in nursing education and the importance of debriefing and reflection is almost always espoused, the focus in the literature has tended to be on detailed descriptions of the action phase with little close analysis of how the reflective phase is facilitated. The Lewinian model described by Kolb [Experiential Learning. Experience as Source of Learning and Development, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1984] and the structuring approach suggested by Thiagarajan [Experiential Learning Packages, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980] have been used as the theoretical context for an exploration of how nurse teachers describe their facilitation of the debriefing and reflective phases of experiential learning activities. Explication of the entire planned experiential learning experience is important for increasing the chances of the student being able to close the experiential learning loop. The more covert reflective phases for facilitating experiential learning are crucial and if neglected, or inexpertly and insensitively handled, may at best lead to poor learning outcomes or at worst lead to emotional damage and ;unfinished business' for the student. Interviews with eight experienced university educators elicited descriptions of how they constructed experiential activities with special reference to their descriptions of how the debriefing or reflective phases were structured.

  10. 3-D Printed Anti-Reflection Structures for the Terahertz Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Jarosław; Suszek, Jarosław; Makowski, Michał; Sobczyk, Artur; Sypek, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz radiation has a growing number of applications in material characterization, where spectral fingerprinting and diffractive effects are the carriers of information. On the other hand, electromagnetic waves in the range of millimeters exhibit strong unwanted specular reflections, resulting in uncontrolled interferences. This problem is especially disturbing in the goniometric time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) configuration, where angular distribution of the field modified by the sample is altered by unwanted reflections. For this reason, low-cost anti-reflection layers are desired. Here, we present a simple way of designing and manufacturing one-sided and two-sided anti-reflection polyamide layers for the THz range. The structures were fabricated using 3-D printers based on selective laser sintering. We demonstrate experimentally in the goniometric time-domain spectroscopy the significant reduction of wavelength-dependent oscillations in Fabry-Perot configuration in the range between 0.1 and 0.3 THz. We also examine the influence of the anti-reflection layers on the distribution of THz energy in reflected, transmitted, and diffracted fields.

  11. Polarization contrast linear spectroscopies for cubic semiconductors under stress: macro- and micro-reflectance difference spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martinez, L.F.; Balderas-Navarro, R.E.; Castro-Garcia, R.; Herrera-Jasso, R.; Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Chavira-Rodriguez, M. [Departamento de Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    The technique to measure optical anisotropies (OA) in cubic semiconductors is termed either reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) or reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS). In this paper we report on the application of RDS/RAS to a number of cubic semiconductors. We discuss RD spectra of GaAs, Si, CdTe, GaP, InP and GaSb (001) surfaces, induced by an uniaxial stress applied along [110] crystal directions. We show that all RD spectra can be explained in terms of a phenomenological model based on a perturbative Hamiltonian. We further report on measurements of spatial-resolved RDS measurements of GaAs employing a newly developed micro-RD spectrometer with a spatial resolution of 5 {mu}m. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Developing Students’ Reflections about the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    position held by the modeler(s) and the practitioners in the extra-mathematical domain. For students to experience the significance of different scientific practices and cultures for the function and status of mathematical modeling in other sciences, students need to be placed in didactical situations......Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical...... where such differences are exposed and made into explicit objects of their reflections. It can be difficult to create such situations in the teaching of contemporary science in which modeling is part of the culture. In this paper we show how history can serve as a means for students to be engaged...

  13. Different zooplankton structures in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, P.; Brockmann, U.

    1993-06-01

    In August 1982, a net of 48 stations with altogether 208 samples was investigated in the eastern German Bight with respect to temperature, salinity, as well as the amount and species composition of the mesozooplankton (>80 μm). The data were arranged into different structures by means of a cluster analysis. Four different clusters were found: (a) a “Wadden sea water” with few holoplankton organisms but a higher amount of spionid larvae; (b) a “German Bight water” with a maximum occurrence of turbellaria ( Alaurina composita) and medium concentrations of copepods; (c) a mixing area between these two water masses with highest amounts of Oikopleura dioica, Temora longicornis, Acartia sp., mussel larvae and larvae of the spionid worms; (d) a “North Sea water” mass with highest concentrations of Pseudocalanus elongatus, Paracalanus parvus und Oithona similis. The differences in the concentrations of the species mentioned between the four clusters were significant on the 0.1%-level.

  14. Effect of black silicon disordered structures distribution on its wideband reduced reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saab, D Abi; Mostarshedi, S; Basset, P; Protat, S; Angelescu, D; Richalot, E

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple and accurate model for the reflectance simulation of black silicon (BSi) based on the finite element method (FEM). Normalized-root-mean-square error (NRMSE) with experimental measurements below 0.25% has been obtained for wavelength range between 450 and 950 nm. The model is made of a four basic shape cell whose dimensions are extracted from an accurate topography of the BSi obtained by FIB-SEM tomography. Additional BSi modelling techniques were studied, which take into account the BSi irregular topography, demonstrating an important influence of the local structure height variation in the BSi surface spectral reflectance. (paper)

  15. First-line managers' descriptions and reflections regarding their staff's access to empowering structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytt, Bernice; Hagerman, Heidi; Strömberg, Annika; Engström, Maria

    2015-11-01

    To elucidate first-line managers' descriptions and reflections regarding their staff's access to empowering structures using Kanter's theory of structural empowerment. Good structural conditions within workplaces are essential to employees' wellbeing, and their ability to access empowerment structures is largely dependent on the management. Twenty-eight first-line managers in elderly care were interviewed. Deductive qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data. Managers perceived that staff had varying degrees of access to the empowering structures described in Kanter's theory - and that they possessed formal power in their roles as contact persons and representatives. The descriptions mostly started from the managers' own actions, although some started from the needs of staff members. All managers described their staff's access to the empowering structures in Kanter's theory as important, yet it seemed as though this was not always reflected on and discussed as a strategic issue. Managers could make use of performance and appraisal dialogues to keep up to date on staff's access to empowering structures. Recurrent discussions in the management group based on such current information could promote staff's access to power through empowering structures and make job definitions a strategic issue in the organisation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Myoglobin solvent structure at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, B.V.; Korszun, Z.R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schoenborn, B.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The structure of the solvent surrounding myoglobin crystals has been analyzed using neutron diffraction data, and the results indicate that the water around the protein is not disordered, but rather lies in well-defined hydration shells. We have analyzed the structure of the solvent surrounding the protein by collecting neutron diffraction data at four different temperatures, namely, 80, 130, 180, and 240K. Relative Wilson Statistics applied to low resolution data showed evidence of a phase transition in the region of 180K. A plot of the liquidity factor, B{sub sn}, versus distance from the protein surface begins with a high plateau near the surface of the protein and drops to two minima at distances from the protein surface of about 2.35{Angstrom} and 3.85{Angstrom}. Two distinct hydration shells are observed. Both hydration shells are observed to expand as the temperature is increased.

  17. Different design approaches to structural fire safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Budny, I.

    2013-01-01

    -priori evaluate which design is the safest or the most economical one: a punctual analysis of the different aspects and a comparison of the resulting designs is therefore of interest and is presented in this paper with reference to the case study considered.The third approach refers instead to a performance......-based fire design of the structure(PBFD), where safety goals are explicitly defined and a deeper knowledge of the structural response to fire effects can be achieved, for example with the avail of finite element analyses (FEA). On the other hand, designers can’t follow established procedures when undertaking...... such advanced investigations, which are generally quite complex ones, due to the presence of material degradation and large displacements induced by fire, as well as the possible triggering of local mechanism in the system. An example of advanced investigations for fire design is given in the paper...

  18. Myoglobin solvent structure at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.V.; Korszun, Z.R.; Schoenborn, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the solvent surrounding myoglobin crystals has been analyzed using neutron diffraction data, and the results indicate that the water around the protein is not disordered, but rather lies in well-defined hydration shells. We have analyzed the structure of the solvent surrounding the protein by collecting neutron diffraction data at four different temperatures, namely, 80, 130, 180, and 240K. Relative Wilson Statistics applied to low resolution data showed evidence of a phase transition in the region of 180K. A plot of the liquidity factor, B sn , versus distance from the protein surface begins with a high plateau near the surface of the protein and drops to two minima at distances from the protein surface of about 2.35 Angstrom and 3.85 Angstrom. Two distinct hydration shells are observed. Both hydration shells are observed to expand as the temperature is increased

  19. Comparison of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A reflectance and normalized difference vegetation index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Roy, D. P.; Yan, L.; Li, Z.; Huang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The moderate spatial resolution satellite data from the polar-orbiting Landsat-8 (launched 2013) and Sentinel-2A (launched 2015) sensors provide 10 m to 30 m multi-spectral global coverage with a better than 5-day revisit. Although a national laboratory traceable cross-calibration comparison of the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Sentinel-2A MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) was undertaken pre-launch, there are a number of other sensor differences, notably due to spectral, spatial and angular differences. To examine these in a comprehensive way, Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A data for approximately 20° × 10° of southern Africa acquired in the summer (January to March) and winter (July to September) of 2016 were compared. Only Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A observations acquired within one-day apart were considered. The sensor data were registered and then each orbit projected into 30 m fixed global Web Enabled Landsat Data (GWELD) tiles defined in the MODIS sinusoidal equal area projection. Only corresponding sensor observations of each 30 m tile pixel that were flagged as cloud and snow-free, unsaturated, and that had no significant change in their one day separation, were compared. Both the Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A data were atmospherically corrected using the Landsat Surface Reflectance Code (LaSRC) and were also corrected to nadir BRDF adjusted reflectance (NBAR). Top of atmosphere and surface reflectance for the spectrally corresponding visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared OLI and MSI bands, and derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were compared and their differences quantified using regression analyses. The resulting statistical transformations may be used to improve the consistency between the Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2A MSI data. The importance and sensitivity of the results to correct filtering, atmospheric correction and adjustment to NBAR is demonstrated.

  20. Difference analysis for fluid-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giencke, E.; Forkel, M.

    1979-01-01

    For solving fluid structure interaction problems it is possible to organize the compter programs for the difference method in the same way as for the finite element method by establishing the difference equations with the principial of virtual work. In the finite element method the individual localized functions for the approximation of the potential function PHI will be chosen also as virtual functions delta PHI. Deriving difference equations the virtual states are simple as possible and the approximation of the potential function may be linear or parabolic. The equations become symmetric both for points in the interiour and the boundaries and for grids with rectangular and triangular elements. The boundary and edge-conditions shall established for elastic walls and for the free surface. For regular rectangular and triangular grids it is possible to derive on the same way multipoint difference equations, which for the same numbers of unknowns are two orders better in accuracy as the usual difference or the finite element equations. Some examples for the pressure distribution in a BWR-steel-containment due to steam bubble collaps at the condenser pipes will be shown. (orig.)

  1. Photonic-structured fibers assembled from cellulose nanocrystals with tunable polarized selective reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin; Pan, Hui; Lu, Tao; Chen, Zhixin; Chen, Yanru; Zhang, Di; Zhu, Shenmin

    2018-05-14

    Fibers with self-assembled photonic structures are of special interest for their unique photonic properties and potential applications in smart textile industry. Inspired by nature, photonic-structured fibers were fabricated through the self-assembly of chiral nematic cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and the fibers show tunable brilliant and selectively reflected colors under crossed-polarization. A simple wet-spinning method was applied to prepare composite fibers of mixed CNC matrix and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) additions. During the processing, cholesteric CNC phase formed photonic fibers through a self-assembly process. The selective reflection color of the composite fibers in polarized condition shows a typical red-shift tendency with the increase of the PVA content, which is attributed to the increased helical pitch of the CNC. Furthermore, polarized angle can also alter the reflected colors. Owing to the excellent selective reflection properties under polarized condition, CNC-based photonic fibers are promising as the next-generation smart fibers, applied in the fields of specific display and sensing. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Diversity in action: exchange of perspectives and reflections on taxonomies of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana; Trofimova, Irina; Sulis, William; Netter, Petra; Pessoa, Luiz; Posner, Michael I; Rothbart, Mary K; Rusalov, Vladimir; Peterson, Isaac T; Schmidt, Louis A

    2018-04-19

    Throughout the last 2500 years, the classification of individual differences in healthy people and their extreme expressions in mental disorders has remained one of the most difficult challenges in science that affects our ability to explore individuals' functioning, underlying psychobiological processes and pathways of development. To facilitate analyses of the principles required for studying individual differences, this theme issue brought together prominent scholars from diverse backgrounds of which many bring unique combinations of cross-disciplinary experiences and perspectives that help establish connections and promote exchange across disciplines. This final paper presents brief commentaries of some of our authors and further scholars exchanging perspectives and reflecting on the contributions of this theme issue.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Soft-sediment deformations (convolute lamination and load structures) in turbidites as indicators of flow reflections against bounding slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinterri, Roberto; Muzzi Magalhaes, Pierre; Tagliaferri, Alessio; Cunha, Rogerio S.; Laporta, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Soft-sediment deformations, such as convolute laminations, load structures and water escapes are very rapid deformations that occur in unconsolidated sediments near the depositional surface during or shortly after deposition and before significant diagenesis. These types of deformations develop when primary stratifications are deformed by a system of driving forces, while the sediment is temporarily in a weakened state due to the action of a deformation mechanism know as liquidization. This deformation occurs if the applied stress exceeds the sediment strength, either through an increase in the applied stress or through a temporary reduction in sediment strength. Liquidization mechanisms can be triggered by several agents, such as seismic shaking, rapid sedimentation with high-fallout rates or cyclic-pressure variations associated with storm waves or breaking waves. Consequently, soft-sediment deformations can be produced by different processes and form ubiquitous sedimentary structures characterizing many sedimentary environments. However, even though these types of structures are relatively well-known in terms of geometry and sedimentary characteristics, many doubts arise when the understanding of deformation and trigger mechanisms is attempted. As stressed also by the recent literature, the main problem lies in the fact that the existing approaches for the identification of triggering agents rely on criteria that are not diagnostic or not applicable to outcrop-based studies, because they are not always based on detailed facies analysis related to a paleoenvironmental-context approach. For this reason, this work discusses the significance of particular types of soft-sediment deformations that are very common in turbidite deposits, namely convolute laminations and load structures, especially on the basis of a deep knowledge of the stratigraphic framework and geological setting in which these structures are inserted. More precisely, detailed facies analyses of the

  4. Individual differences in competent consumer choice: the role of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffeo, Michele; Polonio, Luca; Bonini, Nicolao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether cognitive reflection and numeracy skills affect the quality of the consumers' decision-making process in a purchase decision context. In a first (field) experiment, an identical product was on sale in two shops with different initial prices and discounts. One of the two deals was better than the other and the consumers were asked to choose the best one and to describe which arithmetic operations they used to solve the problem; then they were asked to complete the numeracy scale (Lipkus et al., 2001). The choice procedures used by the consumers were classified as "complete decision approach" when all the arithmetic operations needed to solve the problem were computed, and as "partial decision approach" when only some operations were computed. A mediation model shows that higher numeracy is associated with use of the complete decision approach. In turn, this approach is positively associated with the quality of the purchase decision. Given that these findings highlight the importance of the decision processes, in a second (laboratory) experiment we used a supplementary method to study the type of information search used by the participants: eye-tracking. In this experiment the participants were presented with decision problems similar to those used in Experiment 1 and they completed the Lipkus numeracy scale and the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005). Participants with a high CRT score chose the best deal more frequently, and showed a more profound and detailed information search pattern compared to participants with a low CRT score. Overall, results indicate that higher levels of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills predict the use of a more thorough decision process (measured with two different techniques: retrospective verbal reports and eye movements). In both experiments the decision process is a crucial factor which greatly affects the quality of the purchase decision.

  5. Individual differences in competent consumer choice: the role of Cognitive Reflection and Numeracy skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eGraffeo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate whether cognitive reflection and numeracy skills affect the quality of the consumers’ decision-making process in a purchase decision context. In a first (field experiment, an identical product was on sale in two shops with different initial prices and discounts. One of the two deals was better than the other and the consumers were asked to choose the best one and to describe which arithmetic operations they used to solve the problem; then they were asked to complete the numeracy scale (Lipkus et al., 2001. The choice procedures used by the consumers were classified as complete decision approach when all the arithmetic operations needed to solve the problem were computed, and as partial decision approach when only some operations were computed. A mediation model shows that higher numeracy is associated with use of the complete decision approach. In turn, this approach is positively associated with the quality of the purchase decision. Given that these findings highlight the importance of the decision processes, in a second (laboratory experiment we used a supplementary method to study the type of information search used by the participants: eye-tracking. In this experiment the participants were presented with decision problems similar to those used in experiment 1 and they completed the Lipkus numeracy scale and the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT, (Frederick, 2005. Participants with a high CRT score chose the best deal more frequently, and showed a more profound and detailed information search pattern compared to participants with a low CRT score. Overall, results indicate that higher levels of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills predict the use of a more thorough decision process (measured with two different techniques: retrospective verbal reports and eye movements. In both experiments the decision process is a crucial factor which greatly affects the quality of the purchase decision.

  6. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation monochromatized by multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieder, R.; Wobrauschek, P.; Ladisich, W.; Streli, C.; Aiginger, H.; Garbe, S.; Gaul, G.; Knoechel, A.; Lechtenberg, F.

    1995-01-01

    To achieve lowest detection limits in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) synchrotron radiation has been monochromatized by a multilayer structure to obtain a relative broad energy band compared to Bragg single crystals for an efficient excitation. The energy has been set to 14 keV, 17.5 keV, 31 keV and about 55 keV. Detection limits of 20 fg and 150 fg have been achieved for Sr and Cd, respectively. ((orig.))

  7. Individual Differences in Numeracy and Cognitive Reflection, with Implications for Biases and Fallacies in Probability Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberali, Jordana M; Reyna, Valerie F; Furlan, Sarah; Stein, Lilian M; Pardo, Seth T

    2012-10-01

    Despite evidence that individual differences in numeracy affect judgment and decision making, the precise mechanisms underlying how such differences produce biases and fallacies remain unclear. Numeracy scales have been developed without sufficient theoretical grounding, and their relation to other cognitive tasks that assess numerical reasoning, such as the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), has been debated. In studies conducted in Brazil and in the USA, we administered an objective Numeracy Scale (NS), Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS), and the CRT to assess whether they measured similar constructs. The Rational-Experiential Inventory, inhibition (go/no-go task), and intelligence were also investigated. By examining factor solutions along with frequent errors for questions that loaded on each factor, we characterized different types of processing captured by different items on these scales. We also tested the predictive power of these factors to account for biases and fallacies in probability judgments. In the first study, 259 Brazilian undergraduates were tested on the conjunction and disjunction fallacies. In the second study, 190 American undergraduates responded to a ratio-bias task. Across the different samples, the results were remarkably similar. The results indicated that the CRT is not just another numeracy scale, that objective and subjective numeracy scales do not measure an identical construct, and that different aspects of numeracy predict different biases and fallacies. Dimensions of numeracy included computational skills such as multiplying, proportional reasoning, mindless or verbatim matching, metacognitive monitoring, and understanding the gist of relative magnitude, consistent with dual-process theories such as fuzzy-trace theory.

  8. On the use of colour reflectivity plots to monitor the structure of the troposphere and stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottger, J.; Fu, I. J.; Kuo, F. S.; Liu, C. H.; Chao, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    The radar reflectivity, defined as the range squared corrected power of VHF radar echoes, can be used to monitor and study the temporal development of inversion layer, frontal boundaries and convective turbulence. From typical featurs of upward or downward motion of reflectivity structures, the advection/convection of cold and warm air can be predicted. High resolution color plots appear to be useful to trace and to study the life history of these structures, particularly their persistency, descent and ascent. These displays allow an immediate determination of the tropopause height as well as the determination of the tropopause structure. The life history of warm fronts, cold fronts, and occlusions can be traced, and these reflectivity plots allow detection of even very weak events which cannot be seen in the traditional meteorological data sets. The life history of convective turbulence, particular evolving from the planetary boundary layer, can be tracked quite easily. Its development into strong convection reaching the middle troposphere can be followed and predicted.

  9. Real-time reflectance-difference spectroscopy of GaAs molecular beam epitaxy homoepitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martínez, A., E-mail: alm@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx, E-mail: alastras@gmail.com; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Guevara-Macías, L. E.; Nuñez-Olvera, O.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Lastras-Martínez, L. F. [Instituto de Investigación en Comunicación Optica, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Alvaro Obregón 64, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78000 (Mexico); Lastras-Montaño, L. A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Lastras-Montaño, M. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We report on real time-resolved Reflectance-difference (RD) spectroscopy of GaAs(001) grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with a time-resolution of 500 ms per spectrum within the 2.3–4.0 eV photon energy range. Through the analysis of transient RD spectra we demonstrated that RD line shapes are comprised of two components with different physical origins and determined their evolution during growth. Such components were ascribed to the subsurface strain induced by surface reconstruction and to surface stoichiometry. Results reported in this paper render RD spectroscopy as a powerful tool for the study of fundamental processes during the epitaxial growth of zincblende semiconductors.

  10. Real-time reflectance-difference spectroscopy of GaAs molecular beam epitaxy homoepitaxial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lastras-Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on real time-resolved Reflectance-difference (RD spectroscopy of GaAs(001 grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with a time-resolution of 500 ms per spectrum within the 2.3–4.0 eV photon energy range. Through the analysis of transient RD spectra we demonstrated that RD line shapes are comprised of two components with different physical origins and determined their evolution during growth. Such components were ascribed to the subsurface strain induced by surface reconstruction and to surface stoichiometry. Results reported in this paper render RD spectroscopy as a powerful tool for the study of fundamental processes during the epitaxial growth of zincblende semiconductors.

  11. Detection of the specific binding on protein microarrays by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Heng; Wen, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Kun; Lu, Huibin; Zhou, Yueliang; Jin, Kuijuan; Yang, Guozhen; Li, Wei; Ruan, Kangcheng

    2010-01-01

    The specific binding between Cy5-labeled goat anti-mouse Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mouse IgG with a concentration range from 625 to 10 4 µg ml −1 has been detected successfully by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) method in each procedure of microarray fabrication. The experimental data prove that the OI-RD method can be employed not only to distinguish the different concentrations in label-free fashion but also to detect the antibody–antigen capture. In addition, the differential treatment of the OI-RD signals can decrease the negative influences of glass slide as the microarray upholder. Therefore the OI-RD technique has promising applications for the label-free and high-throughput detection of protein microarrays

  12. Gender Differences in Performance Predictions: Evidence from the Cognitive Reflection Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Patrick; Neyse, Levent; David-Barett, Tamas; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies performance predictions in the 7-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and whether they differ by gender. After participants completed the CRT, they predicted their own (i), the other participants' (ii), men's (iii), and women's (iv) number of correct answers. In keeping with existing literature, men scored higher on the CRT than women and both men and women were too optimistic about their own performance. When we compare gender-specific predictions, we observe that men think they perform significantly better than other men and do so significantly more than women. The equality between women's predictions about their own performance and their female peers cannot be rejected. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on the underpinnings of behavior in economics and in psychology by uncovering gender differences in confidence about one's ability relative to same and opposite sex peers.

  13. Gender Differences in Performance Predictions: Evidence from the Cognitive Reflection Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ring

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies performance predictions in the 7-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT and whether they differ by gender. After participants completed the CRT, they predicted their own (i, the other participants’ (ii, men’s (iii, and women’s (iv number of correct answers. In keeping with existing literature, men scored higher on the CRT than women and both men and women were too optimistic about their own performance. When we compare gender-specific predictions, we observe that men think they perform significantly better than other men and do so significantly more than women. The equality between women’s predictions about their own performance and their female peers cannot be rejected. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on the underpinnings of behavior in economics and in psychology by uncovering gender differences in confidence about one’s ability relative to same and opposite sex peers.

  14. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central Indian Ocean: A model from gravity and seismic reflection data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Neprochnov, Y.P.

    Analyses of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection data of the diffusive plate boundary in the central Indian Ocean reveal a new kind of deformed structure besides the well-reported structures of long-wavelength anticlinal basement rises...

  15. The T-Reflection and the deep crustal structure of the Vøring Margin offshore Mid-Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalak, M. M.; Faleide, J. I.; Planke, S.; Gernigon, L.; Zastrozhnov, D.; Shephard, G. E.; Myklebust, R.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic passive margins are characterized by massive occurrence of mafic extrusive and intrusive rocks, before and during plate breakup, playing major role in determining the evolution pattern and the deep structure of magma-rich margins. Deep seismic reflection data frequently provide imaging of strong continuous reflections in the middle/lower crust. In this context, we have completed a detailed 2D seismic interpretation of the deep crustal structure of the Vøring volcanic margin, offshore mid-Norway, where high-quality seismic data allow the identification of high-amplitude reflections, locally referred to as the T-Reflection (TR). Using the dense seismic grid we have mapped the top of the TR in order to compare it with filtered Bouguer gravity anomalies and seismic refraction data. The TR is identified between 7 and 10 s. Sometimes it consists of one single smooth reflection. However, it is frequently associated with a set of rough multiple reflections displaying discontinuous segments with varying geometries, amplitude and contact relationships. The TR seems to be connected to deep sill networks and locally located at the continuation of basement high structures or terminates over fractures and faults. The spatial correlation between the filtered positive Bouguer gravity anomalies and the TR indicates that the latter represents a high impedance boundary contrast associated with a high-density/velocity body. Within an uncertainty of ± 2.5 km, the depth of the mapped TR is found to correspond to the depth of the top of the Lower Crustal Body (LCB), characterized by high P-wave velocities (>7 km/s), in 50% of the outer Vøring Margin areas, whereas different depths between the TR and the top LCB are estimated for the remaining areas. We present a tectonic scenario, where a large part of the deep structure could be composed of preserved upper continental basement and middle to lower crustal lenses of inherited and intruded high-grade metamorphic rocks. Deep

  16. Activation analyses for different fusion structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaya, H.; Smith, D.

    1991-01-01

    The leading candidate structural materials, viz., the vanadium alloys, the nickel or the manganese stabilized austenitic steels, and the ferritic steels, are analysed in terms of their induced activation in the TPSS fusion power reactor. The TPSS reactor has 1950 MW fusion power and inboard and outboard average neutron wall loading of 3.75 and 5.35 MW/m 2 respectively. The results shows that, after one year of continuous operation, the vanadium alloys have the least radioactivity at reactor shutdown. The maximum difference between the induced radioactivity in the vanadium alloys and in the other iron-based alloys occurs at about 10 years after reactor shutdown. At this time, the total reactor radioactivity, using the vanadium alloys, is about two orders of magnitude less than the total reactor radioactivity utilizing any other alloy. The difference is even larger in the first wall, the FW-vanadium activation is 3 orders of magnitude less than other alloys' FW activation. 2 refs., 7 figs

  17. Optical performance of random anti-reflection structured surfaces (rARSS) on spherical lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Courtney D.

    Random anti-reflection structured surfaces (rARSS) have been reported to improve transmittance of optical-grade fused silica planar substrates to values greater than 99%. These textures are fabricated directly on the substrates using reactive-ion/inductively-coupled plasma etching (RIE/ICP) techniques, and often result in transmitted spectra with no measurable interference effects (fringes) for a wide range of wavelengths. The RIE/ICP processes used in the fabrication process to etch the rARSS is anisotropic and thus well suited for planar components. The improvement in spectral transmission has been found to be independent of optical incidence angles for values from 0° to +/-30°. Qualifying and quantifying the rARSS performance on curved substrates, such as convex lenses, is required to optimize the fabrication of the desired AR effect on optical-power elements. In this work, rARSS was fabricated on fused silica plano-convex (PCX) and plano-concave (PCV) lenses using a planar-substrate optimized RIE process to maximize optical transmission in the range from 500 to 1100 nm. An additional set of lenses were etched in a non-optimized ICP process to provide additional comparisons. Results are presented from optical transmission and beam propagation tests (optimized lenses only) of rARSS lenses for both TE and TM incident polarizations at a wavelength of 633 nm and over a 70° full field of view in both singlet and doublet configurations. These results suggest optimization of the fabrication process is not required, mainly due to the wide angle-of-incidence AR tolerance performance of the rARSS lenses. Non-optimized recipe lenses showed low transmission enhancement, and confirmed the need to optimized etch recipes prior to process transfer of PCX/PCV lenses. Beam propagation tests indicated no major beam degradation through the optimized lens elements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed different structure between optimized and non-optimized samples

  18. Categories of difference in science and policy: Reflections on academic practices, conceptualizations and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bak Jørgensen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policy-making. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectionalist perspectives. Nevertheless, using categories of difference also creates something into existence and there may be implications through the particular application of specific categories. This article reflects on how categories of difference are constructed and employed in research, legislation and policy discourse. By looking at different approaches used by qualitative and quantitative researchers, as well as at how specific concepts enter policy-making and legislation, I want to address a number of questions about how we as researchers understand and work with categories of differences. The article will mainly consist of a theoretical discussion, but will use two main empirical examples of race and religion. The article aims to provide tentative answers about what the consequences of particular uses of categories and concepts could be.

  19. Paleothermal structure of the Nankai inner accretionary wedge estimated from vitrinite reflectance of cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Rina; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Ashi, Juichiro

    2017-08-01

    The paleothermal structure and tectonic evolution of an accretionary prism is basic information for understanding subduction zone seismogenesis. To evaluate the entire paleotemperature profile of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site C0002 located in the off-Kumano region of the Nankai Trough and penetrate the inner accretionary wedge down to 3058.5 m below the seafloor (mbsf), we performed a vitrinite reflectance analysis for cuttings and core samples during IODP expeditions 338 and 348: Nankai Trough seismogenic zone experiment. Although vitrinite reflectance values (Ro) tend to increase with depth, two reversals of these values suggested the existence of thrust fault zones with sufficient displacements to offset the paleothermal structure. The estimated maximum paleotemperatures are 42-70°C at 1200-1300 mbsf, 44-100°C at 1600-2400 mbsf, and 56-115°C at 2600-3000 mbsf, respectively. These temperatures roughly coincide with estimated modern temperatures; however, at a smaller scale, the reconstructed partial paleogeothermal gradient (˜60-150°C/km) recorded at the hanging- and footwall of the presumed thrust fault zone is higher than the modern geothermal gradient (˜30-40°C/km). This high paleogeothermal gradient was possibly obtained prior to subduction, reflecting the large heat flow of the young Philippine Sea Plate.

  20. Junior high school students’ reflective thinking on fraction problem solving: In case of gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, M. A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Lukito, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to describe reflective thinking of junior high school students on solving the fractions problem in terms of gender differences. This research is a qualitative approach involving one male student and one female student in seventh grade. The data were collected through the assignment of fractional problem solving and interview, then the data were triangulated and analyzed by three stages, namely data condensation, data display and conclusion. The results showed that the subjects of male and female were reacting, elaborating and contemplating at each stage of solving the fractions problem. But at the stage of devising the plan, the female subject was contemplating, relying more on their beliefs, did not consider their experience, in addition, the female subject didn’t use experience of the steps she planned to solve the problem of fractions.

  1. Individual Differences in Numeracy and Cognitive Reflection, with Implications for Biases and Fallacies in Probability Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIBERALI, JORDANA M.; REYNA, VALERIE F.; FURLAN, SARAH; STEIN, LILIAN M.; PARDO, SETH T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that individual differences in numeracy affect judgment and decision making, the precise mechanisms underlying how such differences produce biases and fallacies remain unclear. Numeracy scales have been developed without sufficient theoretical grounding, and their relation to other cognitive tasks that assess numerical reasoning, such as the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), has been debated. In studies conducted in Brazil and in the USA, we administered an objective Numeracy Scale (NS), Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS), and the CRT to assess whether they measured similar constructs. The Rational–Experiential Inventory, inhibition (go/no-go task), and intelligence were also investigated. By examining factor solutions along with frequent errors for questions that loaded on each factor, we characterized different types of processing captured by different items on these scales. We also tested the predictive power of these factors to account for biases and fallacies in probability judgments. In the first study, 259 Brazilian undergraduates were tested on the conjunction and disjunction fallacies. In the second study, 190 American undergraduates responded to a ratio-bias task. Across the different samples, the results were remarkably similar. The results indicated that the CRT is not just another numeracy scale, that objective and subjective numeracy scales do not measure an identical construct, and that different aspects of numeracy predict different biases and fallacies. Dimensions of numeracy included computational skills such as multiplying, proportional reasoning, mindless or verbatim matching, metacognitive monitoring, and understanding the gist of relative magnitude, consistent with dual-process theories such as fuzzy-trace theory. PMID:23878413

  2. Fire structures pine serotiny at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Pausas, Juli G

    2013-12-01

    Serotiny (delayed seed release with the consequent accumulation of a canopy seedbank) confers fitness benefits in environments with crown-fire regimes. Thus, we predicted that serotiny level should be higher in populations recurrently subjected to crown-fires than in populations where crown-fires are rare. In addition, under a high frequency of fires, space and resources are recurrently available, permitting recruitment around each mother to follow the seed rain shadow. Thus, we also predicted spatial aggregation of serotiny within populations. We compared serotiny, considering both the proportion and the age of serotinous cones, in populations living in contrasting fire regimes for two iconic Mediterranean pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster). We framed our results by quantitatively comparing the strength of the fire-serotiny relationship with previous studies worldwide. For the two species, populations living under high crown-fire recurrence regimes had a higher serotiny level than those populations where the recurrence of crown-fires was low. For P. halepensis (the species with higher serotiny), populations in high fire recurrence regimes had higher fine-scale spatial aggregation of serotiny than those inhabiting low fire recurrence systems. The strength of the observed fire-serotiny relationship in P. halepensis is among the highest in published literature. Fire regime shapes serotiny level among populations, and in populations with high serotiny, recurrent fires maintain a significant spatial structure for this trait. Consequently, fire has long-term evolutionary implications at different scales, emphasizing its prominent role in shaping the ecology of pines.

  3. Morphology and phase structures of CW laser-induced oxide layers on iron surface with evolving reflectivity and colors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Taotao, E-mail: wutaotao@nint.ac.cn; Wang, Lijun; Wei, Chenghua; Zhou, Menglian; He, Minbo; Wu, Lixiong

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Firstly, iron samples with different color features were obtained by continuous wave laser irradiation depending on progressive durations. The real-time reflectivity and temperature of samples were measured. The color and the reflectivity evolution were related. They were both caused by the forming oxide films. • Secondly, laser-induced oxidation process of iron was studied by microscope, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum. The first formed magnetite made the surface reflectivity decline rapidly and caused the “positive feedback” effect because of molecular absorption. The later formed hematite oscillated the reflectivity by interference effect. • Lastly, the laser-induced oxide films were thin, orientated and badly crystallized. The Wagner oxidation theory was incapable of describing the non-isothermal and early stage oxidation process. So we emphasized that a precise oxidation model depending on the experiment and the optical constants of the laser-induced oxides must be studied. - Abstract: Laser-induced oxidation will change the laser reflectivity and color features of metal surface. Both changes can be theoretically calculated based on the oxidation kinetics and the optical constants of oxides. For the purpose of calculation, the laser-induced oxidation process of pure polycrystalline iron was studied. Samples with various color features were obtained by continuous wave Nd:YAG fiber laser (1.06 μm) irradiation depending on progressive durations in the intensity of 1.90 W/cm{sup 2}. The real-time reflectivity and temperature were measured with integral sphere and thermocouples. The irradiated surface morphology and phase structures were characterized by microscope, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum. It was found that the first formed magnetite made the surface reflectivity decline rapidly and caused the “positive feedback” effect because of molecular absorption. The later formed hematite oscillated the reflectivity by

  4. Bioenergetics during calvarial osteoblast differentiation reflect strain differences in bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, Anyonya R; Le, Phuong T; Farber, Charles R; Rosen, Clifford J

    2014-05-01

    Osteoblastogenesis is the process by which mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts that synthesize collagen and mineralize matrix. The pace and magnitude of this process are determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Two inbred strains of mice, C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J, exhibit differences in peak bone mass and bone formation. Although all the heritable factors that differ between these strains have not been elucidated, a recent F1 hybrid expression panel (C3H × B6) revealed major genotypic differences in osteoblastic genes related to cellular respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, we hypothesized that the metabolic rate of energy utilization by osteoblasts differed by strain and would ultimately contribute to differences in bone formation. In order to study the bioenergetic profile of osteoblasts, we measured oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) first in a preosteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1C4 and subsequently in primary calvarial osteoblasts from C3H and B6 mice at days 7, 14, and 21 of differentiation. During osteoblast differentiation in media containing ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate, all 3 cell types increased their oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates compared with the same cells grown in regular media. These increases are sustained throughout differentiation. Importantly, C3H calvarial osteoblasts had greater oxygen consumption rates than B6 consistent with their in vivo phenotype of higher bone formation. Interestingly, osteoblasts utilized both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis during the differentiation process although mature osteoblasts were more dependent on glycolysis at the 21-day time point than oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, determinants of oxygen consumption reflect strain differences in bone mass and provide the first evidence that during collagen synthesis osteoblasts use both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to synthesize and

  5. Relative differences in strength and power from slow to fast isokinetic velocities may reflect dynapenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Palmer, Ty B; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Johnson, Glen O; Schmidt, Richard J; Cramer, Joel T

    2015-07-01

    We compared absolute and normalized values for peak torque (PT), mean power (MP), rate of velocity development, and electromyography (EMG) amplitude during maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic leg extension muscle actions, as well as the %decrease in PT and %increase in MP from 1.05 to 3.14 rad·s(-1) in younger versus older men. Measurements were performed twice for reliability. Isokinetic measurements were normalized to the isometric muscle actions. Absolute isometric PT, isokinetic PT and MP, and EMG amplitudes at 1.05 and 3.14 rad·s(-1) were greater in the younger men, although normalizing to isometric PT eliminated the age differences. The older men exhibited greater %decrease in PT (37.2% vs. 31.3%) and lower %increase in MP (87.6% vs. 126.4%) regardless of normalization. Normalization eliminated absolute differences in isokinetic strength and power, but the relative differences from slow to fast velocities may reflect dynapenia characterized by age-related decreases in fast-twitch fiber function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Qualitative Mapping of Structural Different Polypeptide Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Jensen, Jason; Castillo, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    that it is possible to distinguish between these three types of structures using this method. Further, an agreement between the detected signal and the structure of the hollow peptide was demonstrated; however only qualitative agreement with the mathematical expressing of the tubes is shown.......Biological self-assembled structures are receiving increasing focus within micro- and nanotechnology, for example, as sensing devices, due to the fact that they are cheap to produce and easy to functionalize. Therefore, methods for the characterization of these structures are much needed...

  7. Different size biomolecules anchoring on porous silicon surface: fluorescence and reflectivity pores infiltration comparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M.; Rossi, Andrea M. [National Institute for Metrological Research, Thermodynamic Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Renacco, Chiara; Farano, Alessandro [Ribes Ricecrhe Srl, Via Lavoratori Vittime del Col du Mont 24, 11100 Aosta (Italy); Derosas, Manuela [Biodiversity Srl, Via Corfu 71, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Enrico, Emanuele [National Institute for Metrological Research, Electromagnetism Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    The performance of porous silicon optical based biosensors strongly depends on material nanomorphology, on biomolecules distribution inside the pores and on the ability to link sensing species to the pore walls. In this paper we studied the immobilization of biomolecules with different size, such as antibody anti aflatoxin (anti Aflatox Ab, {proportional_to}150 KDa), malate dehydrogenase (MDH, {proportional_to}36KDa) and metallothionein (MT, {proportional_to}6KDa) at different concentrations on mesoporous silicon samples ({proportional_to}15 nm pores diameter). Fluorescence measurements using FITC- labeled biomolecules and refractive index analysis based on reflectivity spectra have been employed together to detect the amount of proteins bound to the surface and to evaluate their diffusion inside the pores. Here we suggest that these two techniques should be used together to have a better understanding of what happens at the porous silicon surface. In fact, when pores dimensions are not perfectly tuned to the protein size a higher fluorescence signal doesn't often correspond to a higher biomolecules distribution inside the pores. When a too much higher concentration of biomolecule is anchored on the surface, steric crowd effects and repulsive interactions probably take over and hinder pores infiltration, inducing a small or absent shift in the fringe pattern even if a higher fluorescence signal is registered. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Differences in Femoral Geometry and Structure Due to Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratli, Beatrice Jenny; Yamada, M.; Smith, A.; Marcus, R. M.; Arnaud, S.; vanderMeulen, M. C. H.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Reduction in bone mass of the lower extremity is well documented in individuals with paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI). The consequent osteopenia leads to elevated fracture risk with fractures occurring more commonly in the femoral shaft and supracondylar regions than the hip. A model has recently been described to estimate geometry and structure of the femoral midshaft from whole body scans by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Increases in femoral geometric and structural properties during growth were primarily related to mechanical loading as reflected by body mass. In this study, we investigate the relationship between body mass and femoral geometry and structure in adults with normal habitual mechanical loading patterns and those with severely reduced loading. The subjects were 78 ambulatory men (aged 20-72 yrs) and 113 men with complete paralysis from SCI of more than 4 years duration (aged 21 73 yrs). Subregional analysis was performed on DXA whole body scans to obtain bone mineral content (BMC, g), cortical thickness (cm), crosssectional moment of inertia (CSMI, cm4), and section modulus (cm3) of the femoral midshaft. All measured bone variables were significantly lower in SCI compared with ambulatory subjects: -29% (BMC), -33% (cortical thickness), -23% (CSMI), and -22% (section modulus) while body mass was not significantly different. However, the associations between body mass and bone properties were notably different; r2 values were higher for ambulatory than SCI subjects in regressions of body mass on BMC (0.48 vs 0.20), CSMI (0.59 vs 0.32), and section modulus (0.59 vs 0.31). No association was seen between body mass and cortical thickness for either group. The greatest difference between groups is in the femoral cortex, consistent with reduced bone mass via endosteal expansion. The relatively lesser difference in geometric and structural properties implies that there is less effect on mechanical integrity than would be expected from

  9. Characterization of swollen structure of high-density polyelectrolyte brushes in salt solution by neutron reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Motoyasu; Takahara, Atsushi [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Terayama, Yuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan); Hino, Masahiro [Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University (Japan); Ishihara, Kazuhiko, E-mail: takahara@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-08-01

    Zwitterionic and cationic polyelectrolyte brushes on quartz substrate were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (METAC), respectively. The effects of ionic strength on brush structure and surface properties of densely grafted polyelectrolyte brushes were analysed by neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements. NR at poly(METAC)/D{sub 2}O and poly(MPC)/D{sub 2}O interface revealed that the grafted polymer chains were fairly extended from the substrate surface, while the thickness reduction of poly(METAC) brush was observed in 5.6 M NaCl/D{sub 2}O solution due to the screening of the repulsive interaction between polycations by hydrated salt ions. Interestingly, no structural change was observed in poly(MPC) brush even in a salt solution probably due to the unique interaction properties of phosphorylcholine units.

  10. Crustal structure of the North Iberian continental margin from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Gallart, J.; Pulgar, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The structure and geodynamics of the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay have been investigated from a set of 11 multichannel seismic reflection profiles, recorded also at wide angle offsets in an onshore-offshore network of 24 OBS/OBH and 46 land sites. This contribution focuses on the analysis of the wide-angle reflection/refraction data along representative profiles. The results document strong lateral variations of the crustal structure along the margin and provide an extensive test of the crustal models previously proposed for the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore, the crust has a typical continental structure in the eastern tip of the bay, which disappears smoothly towards the NW to reach crustal thickness close to 10 km at the edge of the studied area ( 45°N, 6°W). The analysis of the velocity-depth profiles, altogether with additional information provided by the multichannel seismic data and magnetic surveys, led to the conclusion that the crust in this part of the bay should be interpreted as transitional from continental to oceanic. Typical oceanic crust has not been imaged in the investigated area. Onshore, the new results are in good agreement with previous results and document the indentation of the Bay of Biscay crust into the Iberian crust, forcing its subduction to the North. The interpreted profiles show that the extent of the southward indentation is not uniform, with an Alpine root less developed in the central and western sector of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. N-S to NE-SW transfer structures seem to control those variations in the indentation degree.

  11. Correlation between reflectance and photoluminescent properties of al-rich ZnO nano-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho; Ahmad, Nafis; Lee, Gun Hee; Seo, Tae Hoon; Suh, Eun-kyung; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Al rich zinc oxide nano-structured films were synthesized using spin coating sol-gel technique. The films were annealed in oxygen ambient in the temperature range of 200-700 °C. The structural, optical, and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the films were studied at various annealing temperatures using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence emission spectra measurement, and Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The optical band gap was found to decrease with the increase of the annealing temperature following the Gauss Amp function due to the confinement of the exciton. The PL peak intensity in the near band region (INBE) was found to increase with the increase of the annealing temperature up to 600 °C, then to decrease fast to a lower value for the annealing temperature of 700 °C due to crystalline quality. The Raman peak of E2 (low) was red shifted from 118 cm-1 to 126 cm-1 with the increase of the annealing temperature. The intensity of the second order phonon (TA+LO) at 674 cm-1 was found to decrease with the increase of the annealing temperature. The normalized values of the reflectance and the PL intensity in the NBE region were highest for the annealing temperature of 600 °C. A special correlation was found between the reflectance at λ = 1000 nm and the normalized PL intensity in the green region due to scattering due to presence of grains.

  12. Crustal structure of Shatsky Rise from joint refraction and reflection seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, J.; Sager, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Shatsky Rise in the western Pacific is one of a few gigantic oceanic plateaus in the world, with a surface area of ˜ 4.8 ± 105~km2 (about the same size as California). In contrast to other large oceanic plateaus formed during the Cretaceous Quite Period, Shatsky Rise formed during the frequent reversals of magnetic polarity, allowing its tectonic environment to be resolved in detail. It was formed at a rapidly spreading ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction, so the effect of lithospheric lid on magma migration is expected to be minimal, thereby facilitating the petrological interpretation of its seismic structure in terms of parental mantle processes. In the summer of 2010, a seismic refraction survey combined with multichannel seismic profiling was conducted across Shatsky Rise. Twenty eight ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed along two crossing perpendicular lines, and all of the instruments were recovered successfully, yielding a large volume of high-quality wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with the source-receiver distance often exceeding 200~km. In this contribution, we present the P-wave velocity structure of the Shatsky Rise crust, which is constructed by joint refraction and reflection travel time tomography, and also discuss its implications for the origin of Shatsky Rise.

  13. Reconstruction of structural damage based on reflection intensity spectra of fiber Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Guojun; Wei, Changben; Chen, Shiyuan; Yang, Guowei

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach for structural damage reconstruction based on the reflection intensity spectra of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). Our approach incorporates the finite element method, transfer matrix (T-matrix), and genetic algorithm to solve the inverse photo-elastic problem of damage reconstruction, i.e. to identify the location, size, and shape of a defect. By introducing a parameterized characterization of the damage information, the inverse photo-elastic problem is reduced to an optimization problem, and a relevant computational scheme was developed. The scheme iteratively searches for the solution to the corresponding direct photo-elastic problem until the simulated and measured (or target) reflection intensity spectra of the FBGs near the defect coincide within a prescribed error. Proof-of-concept validations of our approach were performed numerically and experimentally using both holed and cracked plate samples as typical cases of plane-stress problems. The damage identifiability was simulated by changing the deployment of the FBG sensors, including the total number of sensors and their distance to the defect. Both the numerical and experimental results demonstrate that our approach is effective and promising. It provides us with a photo-elastic method for developing a remote, automatic damage-imaging technique that substantially improves damage identification for structural health monitoring. (paper)

  14. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C.M.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The “competition” (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest – ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  15. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  16. Numerical simulation of white double-layer coating with different submicron particles on the spectral reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jiale; Cheng, Qiang; Si, Mengting; Su, Yang; Zhou, Yifan; Song, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    The spectral selective coating is becoming more and more popular against solar irradiation not only in keeping the coated objects stay cool but also retain the appearance of the objects by reducing the glare of reflected sunlight. In this work a numerical study is investigated to design the double-layer coating with different submicron particles to achieve better performance both in thermal and aesthetic aspects. By comparison, the performance of double-layer coating with TiO_2 and ZnO particles is better than that with single particles. What's more, the particle diameter, volume fraction of particle as well as substrate condition is also investigated. The results show that an optimized double-layer coating with particles should be the one with an appropriate particle diameter, volume fraction and the black substrate. - Highlights: • The double-layer coating has a great influence on both thermal and aesthetic aspects. • The double-layer coating performs better than the uniform one with single particles. • The volume fraction, particle diameter and substrate conditions are optimized.

  17. "Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference": reflection techniques for addiction psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballon, Bruce C; Skinner, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors aim to incorporate educational reflection techniques in an addiction psychiatry postgraduate core rotation in order to increase critical self-awareness of attitudes, values, and beliefs related to working with people with substance use and other addictive disorders. Reflection discussion times, reflection journaling, and mandatory end-of-rotation reflection papers were embedded into a core addiction psychiatry postgraduate training block. Qualitative analysis of 28 reflection papers was performed to determine key factors and constructs that impacted on the development of attitudes and professionalism. A number of constructs emerged that demonstrated the attitudes, beliefs, stereotypes, and stigmas students have regarding addictive disorders. Some constructs also highlighted that students felt much more comfortable dealing with addictive disorders after the training and would treat individuals with these conditions in a more effective manner. Reflection techniques were endorsed as extremely valuable by students, especially in the development of professional attitudes that will help clinicians effectively engage and provide appropriate care for individuals suffering from addictive disorders. The authors suggest that reflective practices be used more extensively in psychiatric training in order to build and establish reflexive self-awareness as a core professional competence essential to work effectively in clinical practice, especially in the most demanding contexts.

  18. Modelling of seismic reflection data for underground gas storage in the Pečarovci and Dankovci structures - Mura Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Two antiform structures in the Mura Depression were selected as the most promising in Slovenia for the construction of an underground gas storage facility in an aquifer. Seventeen reflection lines with a total length of 157km were recorded, and three boreholes were drilled. Structural models corresponding to two different horizons (the pre-Tertiary basement and the Badenian-Sarmatianboundary were constructed using the Sierra Mimic program. Evaluation of different velocity data (velocity analysis, sonic log, the down-hole method, and laboratory measurements on cores was carried out in order to perform correct timeto-depth conversion and to estabUsh lateral velocity variations. The porous rock in Pečarovci structure is 70m thick layer of dolomite, occurring at a depth of 1900m, whereas layers of marl, several hundred meter thick, represent the impermeable cap-rock. Due to faults, the Dankovci structure, at a depth of 1200m,where the reservoir rocks consist of thin layers of conglomerate and sandstone,was proved to be less reliable. ID synthetic seismograms were used to correlatethe geological and seismic data at the borehole locations, especially at intervals with thin layers. The raytracing method on 2D models (the Sierra Quik packagewas applied to confirm lateral continuity of some horizons and to improve the interpretation of faults which are the critical factor for gas storage.

  19. Asymmetry quantification from reflectance images of orthotic patients using structural similarity metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marc-Antoine; Watts, Nicolas; Gremillet, Frederic; Legare, Philippe; Kadoury, Samuel

    2018-02-01

    Pathologies like plantar fasciitis, a common soft tissue disorder of the foot, is frequently associated with older age, high BMI and little exercise. Like other pathologies associated with the foot, the knee or hip, foot orthoses can help the patient's posture and recent techniques allow the creation of personalized foot orthoses based on 3D foot model that are fitted with high accuracy to the foot surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the personalized orthoses on the patient's pose and balance, depth images with reflectance camera filters are acquired in order to evaluate the posture of the patient before and after the use of the orthoses. Images are analysed by clinicians to assess the region asymmetry and posture changes. However, this remains a subjective evaluation and a quantifiable measurement is required to follow patient progression. In this paper, we present a novel tool to assess and quantify the asymmetry of body regions using a color-based structural similarity metric calculated from paired regions. This provides a quantitative measure to evaluate the effect of the personalized orthoses on the patient. A user-friendly interface allows the user to select an area of the body and automatically generate a symmetry axis, along with a measure of asymmetry measuring reflectance variations from the skin. The tool was validated on 30 patients, demonstrating an 83% agreement rate compare to clinical observations.

  20. Widefield and total internal reflection fluorescent structured illumination microscopy with scanning galvo mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youhua; Cao, Ruizhi; Liu, Wenjie; Zhu, Dazhao; Zhang, Zhiming; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu

    2018-04-01

    We present an alternative approach to realize structured illumination microscopy (SIM), which is capable for live cell imaging. The prototype utilizes two sets of scanning galvo mirrors, a polarization converter and a piezo-platform to generate a fast shifted, s-polarization interfered and periodic variable illumination patterns. By changing the angle of the scanning galvanometer, we can change the position of the spots at the pupil plane of the objective lens arbitrarily, making it easy to switch between widefield and total internal reflection fluorescent-SIM mode and adapting the penetration depth in the sample. Also, a twofold resolution improvement is achieved in our experiments. The prototype offers more flexibility of pattern period and illumination orientation changing than previous systems.

  1. Multivariate stability of force-reflecting teleoperation: Structures of finite and infinite zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.W.; McAree, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a stability analysis of force-position teleoperation under general end-effector contact. The analysis is based on the finite and infinite zero structure of the multivariable root-locus resulting from modulation of the environment stiffness. The starting point is an analysis of the stability of robot force control, motivated by the observation that the human-operator in a force reflection loop acts as a force servo, generating position commands in response to reflected force. Asymptotic root loci properties are used to establish passivity conditions on force feedback to give root locus interpretations of the well-known results that (1) feedback via the inverse joint Jacobian can lead to (kinematic) instability and that (2) passivity is preserved by kinematically proper force feedback through the transpose of the joint angle Jacobian. It is demonstrated that a fully constrained force-position teleoperation loop has an identical infinite zero structure to that of a slave manipulation under kinematically proper force control and that the dominant vibration modes of a force-position loop are fully described by a multivariable analogue of the single-input single-output pseudo-system investigated in a study by Daniel and McAree. Extension of the analysis to cover partial end-effector constraint provides a design tool for teleoperation control and serves to aid selection of teleoperation slate-arms. The paper concludes by giving a passivity condition for multiple-input multiple-output force-position teleoperation for stable contact against all environments

  2. Metacognitive ability of male students: difference impulsive-reflective cognitive style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtarom; Sugiyanti; Utami, R. E.; Indriana, K.

    2018-03-01

    This study revealed the metacognitive activity of male students in impulsive cognitive and reflective cognitive style in solving mathematical problems, especially in the material of plane. One student of impulsive cognitive style and one student of reflective cognitive-style were selected to be the subjects of the study. Data were collected by giving written test of problem solving and interview. Data analysis was done through data reduction, data presentation, data interpretation and conclusion. The results showed that male student of reflective cognitive style was meticulous and careful in solving the problem so as to obtain correct answers, while the impulsive cognitive style student had the characteristics of using a short time in solving the problem, but less careful so that the answers tended to be wrong

  3. Conservation Through Different Lenses: Reflection, Responsibility, and the Politics of Participation in Conservation Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrash Walton, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers the arenas of advocacy, politics, and self-reflection in strengthening conservation and resource management initiatives. It frames key questions that reflective conservation practitioners may address in seeking to enhance the results of conservation projects, including equity and more inclusive participation by nonprivileged groups. The essay touches on the importance of understanding conservation work within particular political and historic dynamics, including the need to understand non-Western and/or indigenous or traditional perspectives on conservation. The author makes the case that Western or privileged conservation practitioners are uniquely situated to advocate effectively for change.

  4. Reflection of the energy structure of a tungsten monocrystal nearsurface area in the secondary electron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonov, O.M.; Smirnov, O.M.; Terekhov, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    Formation of secondary electron energy spectrum during emission from the crystal layer near the surface has been considered, at that layer energy structure can be different from volumetric energy structure. Its thickness depends on the predominant mechanism of electron scattering and is determined by corresponding phenomenological parameters. It is shown that the structure in the secondary electron spectrum appears in the case when energy structure of emitting monocrystal layer can not be described in the approximation of almost free electron gas and, as experimental investigations show, approaches energy zone structure of its volume. It is also show that in the case when the energy structure of the emitting layer is satisfactorily described with the model of almost free electron gas, the SE spectrum is characterized with traditional cascade minimum. Experimental investigation of SE energy distribution was carried out for the W monocrystalline face (110). It was established that distinct structure in the SE spectrum appears only after electrochemical polishing of the specimen surface. It is related to the appearance of ''far'' order in the monocrystal emission layer on initially disturbed tungsten surface during such treatment. Disturbance of tungsten monocrystal surface structure on its oxidation in O 2 atmosphere results in the appearance of the cascade maximum and disappearance of distinct peculiarities in the SE spectrum

  5. Effects of irradiation conditions and environment on the reflectivity of different steel mirrors for ITER diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Teresa; Martin, Piedad; Fernandez, Pilar; Hodgson, Eric R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work possible degradation of the reflectivity for mirrors made from various steels subjected to ionizing radiation, at moderate temperature and in different environments (vacuum, air, or nitrogen) up to a total dose of 9 MGy, has been examined. Mirrors were prepared from conventional austenitic stainless steel (316L) and also reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels (Eurofer, ODS-Eurofer, F82H), and the reflectivity studied from ultraviolet to near infrared, before and after different treatments. Under all conditions the austenitic steel mirrors only degrade slightly (<10%), however for the reduced activation steels important reflectivity degradation for wavelengths below 1000 nm are observed for the different conditions. Surface morphology and microstructure has been also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The production of near surface nitrides is considered to be the possible cause of the optical degradation.

  6. The electron irradiation effects in different structures of diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Quanfen; Wang Jiaxu

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the different electron irradiation effects in different structures of diodes and the different results produced by different irradiation ways. From this work, we can know how to choose proper manufacture arts and comprehensive factors according to the structures of diodes and the irradiation conditions

  7. Reflectance-difference spectroscopy as an optical probe for in situ determination of doping levels in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martinez, A.; Lara-Velazquez, I.; Balderas-Navarro, R.E.; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Guel-Sandoval, S.; Lastras-Martinez, L.F. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi, SLP 78000 (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    We report on in situ Reflectance Difference Spectroscopy measurements carried out on GaAs(001). Measurements were performed at temperatures of 580 C and 430 C, in both n and p-type doped films and for both (2 x 4) and c(4 x 4) reconstructions. Samples employed were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy with doping levels in the range from 10{sup 16}-10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. We demonstrate the potential of Reflectance Difference Spectroscopy for impurity level determinations under growth conditions. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Effects of Conceptual, Procedural, and Declarative Reflection on Students' Structural Knowledge in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Gul Shahzad; Trumpower, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Reflection has recently been emphasized as a constructive pedagogical activity. However, little attention has been given to the quality of reflections that students write. In this study, we explored the reflections that students make about their knowledge organization as part of a formative learning activity. More specifically, we assessed the…

  9. Higher order structure analysis of nano-materials by spectral reflectance of laser-plasma soft x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Hirozumi; Takeichi, Akihiro; Noda, Shoji

    1995-01-01

    We have proposed a new experimental arrangement to measure spectral reflectance of nano-materials for analyzing higher order structure with laser-plasma soft x-rays. Structure modification of annealed Mo/Si multilayers and a nylon-6/clay hybrid with poor periodicity was investigated. The measurement of the spectral reflectance of soft x-rays from laser-produced plasma was found to be a useful method for the structure analysis of nano-materials, especially those of rather poor periodicity

  10. Structures and mechanisms in clay nanopore trapping of structurally-different fluoroquinolone antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaikue-Woodi, Fanny E K; Kelch, Sabrina E; Schmidt, Michael P; Enid Martinez, Carmen; Youngman, Randall E; Aristilde, Ludmilla

    2018-03-01

    Smectite clay nanoparticles are implicated in the retention of antimicrobials within soils and sediments; these clays are also inspected as drug carriers in physiological systems. Cation exchange is considered the primary adsorption mechanism of antimicrobials within smectite nanopores. However, a dual role of acid-base chemistry and adsorptive structures is speculated by recent studies. Using the prototypical smectite clay montmorillonite, we employed a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interlayer nanopore trapping of two structurally-different fluoroquinolone (FQ) antimicrobials with similar acid-base chemistry: ciprofloxacin (a first-generation FQ) and moxifloxacin (a third-generation FQ). Greater sorption at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.0 for both FQs was consistent with cation-exchange of positively-charged species. However, the clay exhibited a near twofold higher sorption capacity for moxifloxacin than for ciprofloxacin. This difference was shown by the XRD data to be accompanied by enhanced trapping of moxifloxacin within the clay interlayers. Using the XRD-determined nanopore sizes, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of thermodynamically-favorable model adsorbates, which revealed that ciprofloxacin was adsorbed parallel to the clay surface but moxifloxacin adopted a tilted conformation across the nanopore. These conformations resulted in more slowly-exchanged than quickly-exchanged Na complexes with ciprofloxacin compared with moxifloxacin. These different Na populations were also captured by 23 Na nuclear magnetic resonance. Furthermore, the simulated adsorbates uncovered different complexation interactions that were corroborated by infrared spectroscopy. Therefore, beyond acid-base chemistry, our findings imply that distinct adsorbate structures control antimicrobial trapping within clay nanopores

  11. Differently Structured Advance Organizers Lead to Different Initial Schemata and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurlitt, Johannes; Dummel, Sebastian; Schuster, Silvia; Nuckles, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Does the specific structure of advance organizers influence learning outcomes? In the first experiment, 48 psychology students were randomly assigned to three differently structured advance organizers: a well-structured, a well-structured and key-concept emphasizing, and a less structured advance organizer. These were followed by a sorting task, a…

  12. Does the Structure of Female Rhesus Macaque Coo Calls Reflect Relatedness and/or Familiarity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Pfefferle

    Full Text Available In social animals, kin relations strongly shape the social structure of a group. In female-bonded species, maternal relatedness is likely to be mediated via familiarity, but evidence is accumulating that non-human primates are able to recognize kin that they are not familiar with and adjust their behavior accordingly. In playback experiments, female rhesus macaques showed increased interest in 'coo' calls produced by unfamiliar paternal half-sisters compared to 'coo' calls produced by unfamiliar unrelated females, suggesting that these calls should have some common structural characteristics that facilitate the discrimination of kin from non-kin. Here we analyzed 'coo' calls of 67 adult female rhesus macaques from four groups and seven matrilines living on the island of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico. We tested whether the call structure of closely maternal and/or paternal related females, as determined from extensive pedigree data, differed from the call structure of unrelated females, while controlling for familiarity (i.e., group-matrilineal membership and age difference of subjects. In contrast to our expectation, kinship did not predict similarities in 'coo' call structure, whereas 'coo' structure was more similar when produced by females of similar age as well as by females with higher familiarity, suggesting that experience is more decisive than genetic background. The high number of individuals in the analysis and the high accuracy of the assignment of calls to individuals render a lack of power as an unlikely explanation. Thus, based on the results of this study, kin recognition in rhesus monkeys does neither appear to be based on the assessment of self-similarity, nor on the comparison among related subjects (i.e., acoustic phenotype matching, but appears to be mediated by different or multiple cues. Furthermore, the results support the notion that frequent social interactions result in increasing acoustic similarity within largely innate

  13. High-order dynamic modeling and parameter identification of structural discontinuities in Timoshenko beams by using reflection coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiang; Huang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Dayue

    2013-02-01

    Properties of discontinuities, such as bolt joints and cracks in the waveguide structures, are difficult to evaluate by either analytical or numerical methods due to the complexity and uncertainty of the discontinuities. In this paper, the discontinuity in a Timoshenko beam is modeled with high-order parameters and then these parameters are identified by using reflection coefficients at the discontinuity. The high-order model is composed of several one-order sub-models in series and each sub-model consists of inertia, stiffness and damping components in parallel. The order of the discontinuity model is determined based on the characteristics of the reflection coefficient curve and the accuracy requirement of the dynamic modeling. The model parameters are identified through the least-square fitting iteration method, of which the undetermined model parameters are updated in iteration to fit the dynamic reflection coefficient curve with the wave-based one. By using the spectral super-element method (SSEM), simulation cases, including one-order discontinuities on infinite- and finite-beams and a two-order discontinuity on an infinite beam, were employed to evaluate both the accuracy of the discontinuity model and the effectiveness of the identification method. For practical considerations, effects of measurement noise on the discontinuity parameter identification are investigated by adding different levels of noise to the simulated data. The simulation results were then validated by the corresponding experiments. Both the simulation and experimental results show that (1) the one-order discontinuities can be identified accurately with the maximum errors of 6.8% and 8.7%, respectively; (2) and the high-order discontinuities can be identified with the maximum errors of 15.8% and 16.2%, respectively; and (3) the high-order model can predict the complex discontinuity much more accurately than the one-order discontinuity model.

  14. Crustal structure of the southeast Greenland margin from joint refraction and reflection seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Kent, G. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Detrick, R. S.; Larsen, H.-C.; Hopper, J. R.; Dahl-Jensen, T.

    2000-09-01

    We present results from a combined multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) and wideangle onshore/offshore seismic experiment conducted in 1996 across the southeast Greenland continental margin. A new seismic tomographic method is developed to jointly invert refraction and reflection travel times for a two-dimensional velocity structure. We employ a hybrid ray-tracing scheme based on the graph method and the local ray-bending refinement to efficiently obtain an accurate forward solution, and we employ smoothing and optional damping constraints to regularize an iterative inversion. We invert 2318 Pg and 2078 PmP travel times to construct a compressional velocity model for the 350-km-long transect, and a long-wavelength structure with strong lateral heterogeneity is recovered, including (1) ˜30-km-thick, undeformed continental crust with a velocity of 6.0 to 7.0 km/s near the landward end, (2) 30- to 15-km-thick igneous crust within a 150-km-wide continent-ocean transition zone, and (3) 15- to 9-km-thick oceanic crust toward the seaward end. The thickness of the igneous upper crust characterized by a high-velocity gradient also varies from 6 km within the transition zone to ˜3 km seaward. The bottom half of the lower crust generally has a velocity higher than 7.0 km/s, reaching a maximum of 7.2 to 7.5 km/s at the Moho. A nonlinear Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis is performed to estimate the a posteriori model variance, showing that most velocity and depth nodes are well determined with one standard deviation of 0.05-0.10 km/s and 0.25-1.5 km, respectively. Despite significant variation in crustal thickness, the mean velocity of the igneous crust, which serves as a proxy for the bulk crustal composition, is surprisingly constant (˜7.0 km/s) along the transect. On the basis of a mantle melting model incorporating the effect of active mantle upwelling, this velocity-thickness relationship is used to constrain the mantle melting process during the breakup of Greenland

  15. Far field scattering pattern of differently structured butterfly scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, M. A.; Yoshioka, S.; Stavenga, D. G.

    The angular and spectral reflectance of single scales of five different butterfly species was measured and related to the scale anatomy. The scales of the pierids Pieris rapae and Delias nigrina scatter white light randomly, in close agreement with Lambert's cosine law, which can be well understood

  16. Reflecting on the structure of soil classification systems: insights from a proposal for integrating subsoil data into soil information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeyne, Stefaan; Juilleret, Jérôme; Vancampenhout, Karen; Deckers, Jozef; Hissler, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Classification of soils in both World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB) and Soil Taxonomy hinges on the identification of diagnostic horizons and characteristics. However as these features often occur within the first 100 cm, these classification systems convey little information on subsoil characteristics. An integrated knowledge of the soil, soil-to-substratum and deeper substratum continuum is required when dealing with environmental issues such as vegetation ecology, water quality or the Critical Zone in general. Therefore, we recently proposed a classification system of the subsolum complementing current soil classification systems. By reflecting on the structure of the subsoil classification system which is inspired by WRB, we aim at fostering a discussion on some potential future developments of WRB. For classifying the subsolum we define Regolite, Saprolite, Saprock and Bedrock as four Subsolum Reference Groups each corresponding to different weathering stages of the subsoil. Principal qualifiers can be used to categorize intergrades of these Subsoil Reference Groups while morphologic and lithologic characteristics can be presented with supplementary qualifiers. We argue that adopting a low hierarchical structure - akin to WRB and in contrast to a strong hierarchical structure as in Soil Taxonomy - offers the advantage of having an open classification system avoiding the need for a priori knowledge of all possible combinations which may be encountered in the field. Just as in WRB we also propose to use principal and supplementary qualifiers as a second level of classification. However, in contrast to WRB we propose to reserve the principal qualifiers for intergrades and to regroup the supplementary qualifiers into thematic categories (morphologic or lithologic). Structuring the qualifiers in this manner should facilitate the integration and handling of both soil and subsoil classification units into soil information systems and calls for paying

  17. Interspecific Plant Interactions Reflected in Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Nitrogen Cycling in Primary Succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Knelman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Past research demonstrating the importance plant–microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly. These studies, however, largely treat microbial communities as a black box. In this study, we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early successional Alnus viridus ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder to late successional Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce in primary succession may be reflected in specific belowground changes in bacterial community structure and nitrogen cycling related to the interaction of these two plants. We examined early successional alder-conditioned soils in a glacial forefield to delineate how alders alter the soil microbial community with increasing dominance. Further, we assessed the impact of late-successional spruce plants on these early successional alder-conditioned microbiomes and related nitrogen cycling through a leachate addition microcosm experiment. We show how increasingly abundant alder select for particular bacterial taxa. Additionally, we found that spruce leachate significantly alters the composition of these microbial communities in large part by driving declines in taxa that are enriched by alder, including bacterial symbionts. We found these effects to be spruce specific, beyond a general leachate effect. Our work also demonstrates a unique influence of spruce on ammonium availability. Such insights bolster theory relating the importance of plant–microbe interactions with late-successional plants and interspecific plant interactions more generally.

  18. Interspecific Plant Interactions Reflected in Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Nitrogen Cycling in Primary Succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knelman, Joseph E; Graham, Emily B; Prevéy, Janet S; Robeson, Michael S; Kelly, Patrick; Hood, Eran; Schmidt, Steve K

    2018-01-01

    Past research demonstrating the importance plant-microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly. These studies, however, largely treat microbial communities as a black box. In this study, we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early successional Alnus viridus ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder) to late successional Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) in primary succession may be reflected in specific belowground changes in bacterial community structure and nitrogen cycling related to the interaction of these two plants. We examined early successional alder-conditioned soils in a glacial forefield to delineate how alders alter the soil microbial community with increasing dominance. Further, we assessed the impact of late-successional spruce plants on these early successional alder-conditioned microbiomes and related nitrogen cycling through a leachate addition microcosm experiment. We show how increasingly abundant alder select for particular bacterial taxa. Additionally, we found that spruce leachate significantly alters the composition of these microbial communities in large part by driving declines in taxa that are enriched by alder, including bacterial symbionts. We found these effects to be spruce specific, beyond a general leachate effect. Our work also demonstrates a unique influence of spruce on ammonium availability. Such insights bolster theory relating the importance of plant-microbe interactions with late-successional plants and interspecific plant interactions more generally.

  19. Responses to olfactory signals reflect network structure of flower-visitor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Robert R; Höcherl, Nicole; Blüthgen, Nico

    2010-07-01

    1. Network analyses provide insights into the diversity and complexity of ecological interactions and have motivated conclusions about community stability and co-evolution. However, biological traits and mechanisms such as chemical signals regulating the interactions between individual species--the microstructure of a network--are poorly understood. 2. We linked the responses of receivers (flower visitors) towards signals (flower scent) to the structure of a highly diverse natural flower-insect network. For each interaction, we define link temperature--a newly developed metric--as the deviation of the observed interaction strength from neutrality, assuming that animals randomly interact with flowers. 3. Link temperature was positively correlated to the specific visitors' responses to floral scents, experimentally examined in a mobile olfactometer. Thus, communication between plants and consumers via phytochemical signals reflects a significant part of the microstructure in a complex network. Negative as well as positive responses towards floral scents contributed to these results, where individual experience was important apart from innate behaviour. 4. Our results indicate that: (1) biological mechanisms have a profound impact on the microstructure of complex networks that underlies the outcome of aggregate statistics, and (2) floral scents act as a filter, promoting the visitation of some flower visitors, but also inhibiting the visitation of others.

  20. Visual cortex responses reflect temporal structure of continuous quasi-rhythmic sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Christian; Thut, Gregor; Gross, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Neural processing of dynamic continuous visual input, and cognitive influences thereon, are frequently studied in paradigms employing strictly rhythmic stimulation. However, the temporal structure of natural stimuli is hardly ever fully rhythmic but possesses certain spectral bandwidths (e.g. lip movements in speech, gestures). Examining periodic brain responses elicited by strictly rhythmic stimulation might thus represent ideal, yet isolated cases. Here, we tested how the visual system reflects quasi-rhythmic stimulation with frequencies continuously varying within ranges of classical theta (4-7Hz), alpha (8-13Hz) and beta bands (14-20Hz) using EEG. Our findings substantiate a systematic and sustained neural phase-locking to stimulation in all three frequency ranges. Further, we found that allocation of spatial attention enhances EEG-stimulus locking to theta- and alpha-band stimulation. Our results bridge recent findings regarding phase locking ("entrainment") to quasi-rhythmic visual input and "frequency-tagging" experiments employing strictly rhythmic stimulation. We propose that sustained EEG-stimulus locking can be considered as a continuous neural signature of processing dynamic sensory input in early visual cortices. Accordingly, EEG-stimulus locking serves to trace the temporal evolution of rhythmic as well as quasi-rhythmic visual input and is subject to attentional bias. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Monte Carlo reflectance model for soil surfaces with three-dimensional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K. D.; Smith, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo soil reflectance model has been developed to study the effect of macroscopic surface irregularities larger than the wavelength of incident flux. The model treats incoherent multiple scattering from Lambertian facets distributed on a periodic surface. Resulting bidirectional reflectance distribution functions are non-Lambertian and compare well with experimental trends reported in the literature. Examples showing the coupling of the Monte Carlo soil model to an adding bidirectional canopy of reflectance model are also given.

  2. High-reflective colorful films fabricated by all-solid multi-layer cholesteric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Luo, D.

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate all-solid-state film with high-reflectivity based on cholesteric template. The adhesive (NOA81) is both filler and an adhesive, which can be avoids interfacial losses. The reflected right- and left-circularly polarized light has been developed by roll-to-roll method, and the reflectance of the films is more than 78%. Here, the all-solid film was used in distribute feedback laser with dye-doped. In addition, this films also used in include flexible reflective display, color pixels in digital photographs, printing and colored cladding of variety of objects.

  3. Independent introduction of two lactase-persistence alleles into human populations reflects different history of adaptation to milk culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enattah, Nabil Sabri; Jensen, Tine G K; Boyd, Mette

    2008-01-01

    the same history, probably related to the same cattle domestication event. In contrast, the compound Arab allele shows a different, highly divergent ancestral haplotype, suggesting that these two major global LP alleles have arisen independently, the latter perhaps in response to camel milk consumption....... These results support the convergent evolution of the LP in diverse populations, most probably reflecting different histories of adaptation to milk culture....

  4. In situ differential reflectance spectroscopy of thin crystalline films of PTCDA on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, Holger; Nitsche, Robert; Dienel, Thomas; Leo, Karl; Fritz, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    We report an investigation of the excitonic properties of thin crystalline films of the archetypal organic semiconductor PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride) grown on poly- and single crystalline surfaces. A sensitive setup capable of measuring the optical properties of ultrathin organic molecular crystals via differential reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is presented. This tool allows to carry out measurements in situ, i.e., during the actual film growth, and over a wide spectral range, even on single crystalline surfaces with high symmetry or metallic surfaces, where widely used techniques like reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) or fluorescence excitation spectroscopy fail. The spectra obtained by DRS resemble mainly the absorption of the films if transparent substrates are used, which simplifies the analysis. In the case of mono- to multilayer films of PTCDA on single crystalline muscovite mica(0001) and Au(111) substrates, the formation of the solid state absorption from monomer to dimer and further to crystal-like absorption spectra can be monitored

  5. Mathematical Skills and Motor Life Skills in Toddlers: Do Differences in Mathematical Skills Reflect Differences in Motor Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikerås, Elin; Moser, Thomas; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2017-01-01

    This study examines possible relations between early mathematical skills and motor life skills in 450 toddlers aged two years and nine months. The study employs baseline data from the longitudinal Stavanger Project--The Learning Child. The children's mathematical skills and motor life skills were assessed by structured observation in the natural…

  6. Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, J; Saris, I M J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Veltman, D J; Pouwels, P J W; Bakker, J

    Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY

  7. On the Eastern and Western Cultures as Reflected in Differences in Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卓; 张海南

    2015-01-01

    When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc.A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture.Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.

  8. On the Eastern and Western Cultures as Reflected in Differences in Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卓; 张海南

    2015-01-01

    When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc. A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture. Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.

  9. Dispersion Differences and Consistency of Artificial Periodic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhi-Bao; Lin, Wen-Kai; Shi, Zhi-Fei

    2017-10-01

    Dispersion differences and consistency of artificial periodic structures, including phononic crystals, elastic metamaterials, as well as periodic structures composited of phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials, are investigated in this paper. By developing a K(ω) method, complex dispersion relations and group/phase velocity curves of both the single-mechanism periodic structures and the mixing-mechanism periodic structures are calculated at first, from which dispersion differences of artificial periodic structures are discussed. Then, based on a unified formulation, dispersion consistency of artificial periodic structures is investigated. Through a comprehensive comparison study, the correctness for the unified formulation is verified. Mathematical derivations of the unified formulation for different artificial periodic structures are presented. Furthermore, physical meanings of the unified formulation are discussed in the energy-state space.

  10. Similarity between community structures of different online social networks and its impact on underlying community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Yeung, K. H.

    2015-03-01

    As social networking services are popular, many people may register in more than one online social network. In this paper we study a set of users who have accounts of three online social networks: namely Foursquare, Facebook and Twitter. Community structure of this set of users may be reflected in these three online social networks. Therefore, high correlation between these reflections and the underlying community structure may be observed. In this work, community structures are detected in all three online social networks. Also, we investigate the similarity level of community structures across different networks. It is found that they show strong correlation with each other. The similarity between different networks may be helpful to find a community structure close to the underlying one. To verify this, we propose a method to increase the weights of some connections in networks. With this method, new networks are generated to assist community detection. By doing this, value of modularity can be improved and the new community structure match network's natural structure better. In this paper we also show that the detected community structures of online social networks are correlated with users' locations which are identified on Foursquare. This information may also be useful for underlying community detection.

  11. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  12. Individual Differences in Numeracy and Cognitive Reflection, with Implications for Biases and Fallacies in Probability Judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Liberali (Jordana ); V.F. Reyna (Valerie ); S. Furlan (Sarah); L.M. Stein (Lilian ); S.T. Pardo (Seth )

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDespite evidence that individual differences in numeracy affect judgment and decision making, the precise mechanisms underlying how such differences produce biases and fallacies remain unclear. Numeracy scales have been developed without sufficient theoretical grounding, and their

  13. Tailored plasmon-induced transparency in attenuated total reflection response in a metal-insulator-metal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Kouki; Hirai, Yusuke; Neo, Yoichiro; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Tomita, Makoto

    2017-12-19

    We demonstrated tailored plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in a metal (Au)-insulator (SiO 2 )-metal (Ag) (MIM) structure, where the Fano interference between the MIM waveguide mode and the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonance mode induced a transparency window in an otherwise opaque wavenumber (k) region. A series of structures with different thicknesses of the Ag layer were prepared and the attenuated total reflection (ATR) response was examined. The height and width of the transparency window, as well as the relevant k-domain dispersion, were controlled by adjusting the Ag layer thickness. To confirm the dependency of PIT on Ag layer thickness, we performed numerical calculations to determine the electric field amplitude inside the layers. The steep k-domain dispersion in the transparency window is capable of creating a lateral beam shift known as the Goos-Hänchen shift, for optical device and sensor applications. We also discuss the Fano interference profiles in a ω - k two-dimensional domain on the basis of Akaike information criteria.

  14. Anatomically discrete sex differences in neuroplasticity in zebra finches as reflected by perineuronal nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornez, Gilles; ter Haar, Sita M; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Large morphological sex differences in the vertebrate brain were initially identified in song control nuclei of oscines. Besides gross differences between volumes of nuclei in males and females, sex differences also concern the size and dendritic arborization of neurons and various neurochemical

  15. Remote measurement of canopy reflectance shows the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on the structure and functioning of soybeans in a field setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S.; Dermody, O.; Delucia, E.

    2006-12-01

    By altering physiological processes and modifying canopy structure, elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 directly and indirectly change the productivity of agroecosystems. Remote sensing of canopy reflectance can be used to monitor physiological and structural changes in an ecosystem over a growing season. To examine effects of changing tropospheric chemistry on water content, chlorophyll content, and changes in leaf area index (LAI), Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) technology was used to expose large plots of soybean (Glycine max) to elevated atmospheric CO2, elevated O3 (1.5 x ambient), and combined elevated CO2 and O3. The following indices were calculated from weekly measurements of reflectance: water index (WI), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), chlorophyll index, near-infrared/ red (NIR/red), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). NIR/red and LAI were strongly correlated throughout the growth season; however NDVI and LAI were highly correlated only up to LAI of 3. Exposure to elevated CO2 accelerated early-season canopy development and delayed late-season senescence. Growth in elevated O3 had the opposite effect. Additionally, elevated CO2 compensated for negative effects of O3 when the canopy was exposed to both gases simultaneously. Reflectance indices revealed several physiological and structural responses of this agroecosystem to tropospheric change, and ultimately that elevated CO2 and O3 significantly affected this system's productivity and period for carbon gain.

  16. Structured learning and self-reflection: strategies to decrease anxiety in the psychiatric mental health clinical nursing experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Christine Anne; Zauderer, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to test a teaching-learning strategy to help nursing students decrease stress and anxiety that may be brought about by the psychiatric mental health clinical experience. Undergraduate nursing students are known to experience affective stress prior to their first psychiatric mental health clinical practicum. A stressful learning environment can affect the success of the student's clinical performance. Thirty nursing students participated in this study. A structured preclinical workshop combined with self-reflection provided insight into students' perceptions of the psychiatric mental health clinical experience. Overall, students reported that participating in the teaching-learning strategy and self-reflection helped mitigate Combining structured learning with self-reflection is a useful tool for helping nursing students increase self-awareness and ease anxiety that may interfere with learning.

  17. Optically controlled reflection modulator using GaAs-AlGaAs n-i-p-i/multiple-quantum-well structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, K.-K.; Simes, R. J.; Coldren, L. A.; Gossard, A. C.; Maserjian, J.

    1989-01-01

    An optically controlled reflection modulator has been demonstrated that consists of a combination of a GaAs-AlGaAs n-i-p-i doping structure with a multiple-quantum-well structures on top of a distributed Bragg reflector, all grown by MBE. A modulation of approximately 60 percent is obtained on the test structure, corresponding to a differential change of absorption coefficient in the quantum wells of approximately 7500/cm. Changes in reflectance can be observed with a control beam power as low as 1.5 microW. This device structure has the potential of being developed as an optically addressed spatial light modulator for optical information processing.

  18. Lattice-parameter-difference measurement of heteroepitaxial structures by means of extremely asymmetrical Bragg diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.; Borchard, W.

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivity of measurements of the lattice-parameter difference in monocrystalline heterostructures can be enhanced by use of an extremely asymmetrical diffraction geometry. If the angle of incidence is somewhat higher than the critical angle for total external reflection, the Bragg peak is shifted from the position calculated by kinematic theory. The amount of shift depends on the angle of incidence as well as on the mass density of the material used. For heteroepitaxial structures both the layer and the substrate peaks are shifted but by different amounts. Therefore it becomes possible to characterize layers of totally lattice-matched structures also. (orig.)

  19. Influence of copper single crystal structures on the reflection of low energy hydrogen and helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijen, H.H.W.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical basis for the 'wedge-focussing' phenomenon is outlined. Investigations have been made to check up to what extent proton reflection can be simulated by using H 2 + or H 3 + as incident ions and analysing the reflected protons. The results of an experimental study of the influence of surface semi-channels on the reflection of low energy ( + , H 2 + and He + ions from copper single crystals with attention to the wedge-focussing effect are presented (G.T.H.)

  20. Structure and Agency in Learning: A Critical Realist Theory of the Development of Capacity to Reflect on Academic Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter; Qualter, Anne; Young, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Theories of learning typically downplay the interplay between social structure and student agency. In this article, we adapt a causal hypothesis from realist social theory and draw on wider perspectives from critical realism to account for the development of capacity to engage in reflection on professional practice in academic roles. We thereby…

  1. Structured self-reflection as a tool to enhance perceived performance and maintain effort in adult recreational salsa dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of structured self-reflection in community dance classes would influence achievement goal orientations, levels of intrinsic motivation, or perceived dance performance. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic...

  2. Crustal-scale pop-up structure in cratonic lithosphere: DOBREdeep seismic reflection study of the Donbas fold belt, Ukraine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maystrenko, Yu.; Stovba, S.; Stephenson, R.A.; Bayer, U.; Menyoli, E.; Gajewski, D.; Huebscher, Ch.; Rabbel, W.; Saintot, A.N.; Starostenko, V.I.; Thybo, H.; Tolkunov, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    The DOBRE project investigated the interplay of geologic and geodynamic processes that controlled the evolution of the Donbas fold belt, Ukraine, as an example of an inverted intracratonic rift basin. A deep seismic reflection profile provides an excellent image of the structure of the Donbas fold

  3. Analysis of Wave Reflection from Structures with Berms Through an Extensive Database and 2DV Numerical Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, Barbara; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses wave reflection from permeable structures with a berm, including reshaping cases. Data are obtained from recent wave flume experiments and from 2DV numerical simulations performed with the COBRAS-UC code. The objectives of this research were to identify the proper representation...

  4. The Minimum Data Set Depression Quality Indicator: Does It Reflect Differences in Care Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S.F.; Cadogan, M.P.; Cabrera, G.R.; Al-Samarrai, N.R.; Jorge, J.S.; Levy-Storms, L.; Osterweil, D.; Schnelle, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of this work was to determine if nursing homes that score differently on prevalence of depression, according to the Minimum Data Set (MDS) quality indicator, also provide different processes of care related to depression. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study with 396 long-term residents in 14 skilled nursing…

  5. An assimilation test of Doppler radar reflectivity and radial velocity from different height layers in improving the WRF rainfall forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiyang; Liu, Jia; Yan, Denghua; Li, Chuanzhe; Chu, Zhigang; Yu, Fuliang

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological forecasts require high-resolution and accurate rainfall information, which is one of the most difficult variables to be captured by the mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems. Radar data assimilation is an effective method for improving rainfall forecasts by correcting the initial and lateral boundary conditions of the NWP system. The aim of this study is to explore an efficient way of utilizing the Doppler radar observations for data assimilation, which is implemented by exploring the effect of assimilating radar data from different height layers on the improvement of the NWP rainfall accuracy. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for numerical rainfall forecast in the Zijingguan catchment located in the ;Jing-Jin-Ji; (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) Region of Northern China, and the three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3-DVar) technique is adopted to assimilate the radar data. Radar reflectivity and radial velocity are assimilated separately and jointly. Each type of radar data is divided into seven data sets according to the height layers: (1) 2000 m, and (7) all layers. The results show that radar reflectivity assimilation leads to better results than radial velocity assimilation. The accuracy of the forecasted rainfall deteriorates with the rise of the height of the assimilated radar reflectivity. The same results can be found when assimilating radar reflectivity and radial velocity at the same time. The conclusions of this study provide a reference for efficient assimilation of the radar data in improving the NWP rainfall products.

  6. Qualitative evaluation of the implementation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool: a reflective tool to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork using Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Smith, Tony; Ariss, Steven; Enderby, Pamela M

    2015-07-01

    Reflective practice is used increasingly to enhance team functioning and service effectiveness; however, there is little evidence of its use in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents the qualitative evaluation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool (IMT), an evidence-based change tool designed to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork through structured team reflection. The IMT incorporates three components: an evidence-based resource guide; a reflective implementation framework based on Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation methodology; and formative and summative evaluation components. The IMT was implemented with intermediate care teams supported by independent facilitators in England. Each intervention lasted 6 months and was evaluated over a 12-month period. Data sources include interviews, a focus group with facilitators, questionnaires completed by team members and documentary feedback from structured team reports. Data were analysed qualitatively using the Framework approach. The IMT was implemented with 10 teams, including 253 staff from more than 10 different disciplines. Team challenges included lack of clear vision; communication issues; limited career progression opportunities; inefficient resource use; need for role clarity and service development. The IMT successfully engaged staff in the change process, and resulted in teams developing creative strategies to address the issues identified. Participants valued dedicated time to focus on the processes of team functioning; however, some were uncomfortable with a focus on teamwork at the expense of delivering direct patient care. The IMT is a relatively low-cost, structured, reflective way to enhance team function. It empowers individuals to understand and value their own, and others' roles and responsibilities within the team; identify barriers to effective teamwork, and develop and implement appropriate solutions to these. To be successful, teams need protected time to take

  7. Response time in economic games reflects different types of decision conflict for prosocial and proself individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Matsumoto, Yoshie; Kiyonari, Toko; Takagishi, Haruto; Li, Yang; Kanai, Ryota; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2017-06-13

    Behavioral and neuroscientific studies explore two pathways through which internalized social norms promote prosocial behavior. One pathway involves internal control of impulsive selfishness, and the other involves emotion-based prosocial preferences that are translated into behavior when they evade cognitive control for pursuing self-interest. We measured 443 participants' overall prosocial behavior in four economic games. Participants' predispositions [social value orientation (SVO)] were more strongly reflected in their overall game behavior when they made decisions quickly than when they spent a longer time. Prosocially (or selfishly) predisposed participants behaved less prosocially (or less selfishly) when they spent more time in decision making, such that their SVO prosociality yielded limited effects in actual behavior in their slow decisions. The increase (or decrease) in slower decision makers was prominent among consistent prosocials (or proselfs) whose strong preference for prosocial (or proself) goals would make it less likely to experience conflict between prosocial and proself goals. The strong effect of RT on behavior in consistent prosocials (or proselfs) suggests that conflict between prosocial and selfish goals alone is not responsible for slow decisions. Specifically, we found that contemplation of the risk of being exploited by others (social risk aversion) was partly responsible for making consistent prosocials (but not consistent proselfs) spend longer time in decision making and behave less prosocially. Conflict between means rather than between goals (immediate versus strategic pursuit of self-interest) was suggested to be responsible for the time-related increase in consistent proselfs' prosocial behavior. The findings of this study are generally in favor of the intuitive cooperation model of prosocial behavior.

  8. Exercises Abroad: How Differing National Experiences are Reflected in Emergency Response Planning and Exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marianno, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Recently a member of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Consequence Management Response Team took part in outreaches and an exercise in different foreign countries. In Brazil and South Korea, the outreaches revolved around a nuclear power plant exercise. In Canada, participation was limited to a table top Consequence Management exercise. This talk will briefly discuss each event and resulting pertinent observations. In each case, it became evident that governments respond to disasters very differently, and that these differences are not only culturally based, but also influenced by each government's respective experience in dealing with natural disasters

  9. Proteomic response of Bacillus subtilis to lantibiotics reflects differences in interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzel, M.; Kohl, B.; Münch, D.; Raatschen, N.; Albada, H.B.; Hamoen, L.; Metzler-Nolte, N.; Sahl, H.G.; Bandow, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Mersacidin, gallidermin, and nisin are lantibiotics, antimicrobial peptides containing lanthionine. They show potent antibacterial activity. All three interfere with cell wall biosynthesis by binding lipid II, but they display different levels of interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane. On one end

  10. Through Solidarity to "Fluidarity": Understanding Difference and Developing Change Agency through Narrative Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruggi, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the development of the concept of solidarity as expressing a sense of shared humanity, while detailing critiques of its current use, especially when it implies a privileged center setting the agenda for the sake of marginalized others. My research demonstrates how solidarity can be modified when encountering difference, and how…

  11. Different Oceanographic Regimes in the Vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula Reflected in Benthic Nematode Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freija Hauquier

    Full Text Available Marine free-living nematode communities were studied at similar depths (~500 m at two sides of the Antarctic Peninsula, characterised by different environmental and oceanographic conditions. At the Weddell Sea side, benthic communities are influenced by cold deep-water formation and seasonal sea-ice conditions, whereas the Drake Passage side experiences milder oceanic conditions and strong dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. This resulted in different surface primary productivity, which contrasted with observed benthic pigment patterns and varied according to the area studied: chlorophyll a concentrations (as a proxy for primary production were high in the Weddell Sea sediments, but low in the surface waters above; this pattern was reversed in the Drake Passage. Differences between areas were largely mirrored by the nematode communities: nematode densities peaked in Weddell stations and showed deeper vertical occurrence in the sediment, associated with deeper penetration of chlorophyll a and indicative of a strong bentho-pelagic coupling. Generic composition showed some similarities across both areas, though differences in the relative contribution of certain genera were noted, together with distinct community shifts with depth in the sediment at all locations.

  12. Are population differences in plant quality reflected in the preference and performance of two endoparasitoid wasps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Dam, van N.M.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Dicke, M.; Harvey, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid in exploring the role of direct plant defence, through the production of allelochemicals, on the performance of parasitoid wasps and their hosts. However, few studies have determined if parasitoids can detect differences in plant quality and thus

  13. Personality-dependent differences in problem-solving performance in a social context reflect foraging strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L.; Naguib, Marc; van Oers, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we

  14. Personality-dependent differences in problem-solving performance in a social context reflect foraging strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L.; Naguib, Marc; Oers, Van Kees

    2016-01-01

    Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we investigated

  15. Individual Differences in Temporal Selective Attention as Reflected in Pupil Dilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Willems

    Full Text Available Attention is restricted for the second of two targets when it is presented within 200-500 ms of the first target. This attentional blink (AB phenomenon allows one to study the dynamics of temporal selective attention by varying the interval between the two targets (T1 and T2. Whereas the AB has long been considered as a robust and universal cognitive limitation, several studies have demonstrated that AB task performance greatly differs between individuals, with some individuals showing no AB whatsoever.Here, we studied these individual differences in AB task performance in relation to differences in attentional timing. Furthermore, we investigated whether AB magnitude is predictive for the amount of attention allocated to T1. For both these purposes pupil dilation was measured, and analyzed with our recently developed deconvolution method. We found that the dynamics of temporal attention in small versus large blinkers differ in a number of ways. Individuals with a relatively small AB magnitude seem better able to preserve temporal order information. In addition, they are quicker to allocate attention to both T1 and T2 than large blinkers. Although a popular explanation of the AB is that it is caused by an unnecessary overinvestment of attention allocated to T1, a more complex picture emerged from our data, suggesting that this may depend on whether one is a small or a large blinker.The use of pupil dilation deconvolution seems to be a powerful approach to study the temporal dynamics of attention, bringing us a step closer to understanding the elusive nature of the AB. We conclude that the timing of attention to targets may be more important than the amount of allocated attention in accounting for individual differences.

  16. Individual Differences in Temporal Selective Attention as Reflected in Pupil Dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Charlotte; Herdzin, Johannes; Martens, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Attention is restricted for the second of two targets when it is presented within 200-500 ms of the first target. This attentional blink (AB) phenomenon allows one to study the dynamics of temporal selective attention by varying the interval between the two targets (T1 and T2). Whereas the AB has long been considered as a robust and universal cognitive limitation, several studies have demonstrated that AB task performance greatly differs between individuals, with some individuals showing no AB whatsoever. Here, we studied these individual differences in AB task performance in relation to differences in attentional timing. Furthermore, we investigated whether AB magnitude is predictive for the amount of attention allocated to T1. For both these purposes pupil dilation was measured, and analyzed with our recently developed deconvolution method. We found that the dynamics of temporal attention in small versus large blinkers differ in a number of ways. Individuals with a relatively small AB magnitude seem better able to preserve temporal order information. In addition, they are quicker to allocate attention to both T1 and T2 than large blinkers. Although a popular explanation of the AB is that it is caused by an unnecessary overinvestment of attention allocated to T1, a more complex picture emerged from our data, suggesting that this may depend on whether one is a small or a large blinker. The use of pupil dilation deconvolution seems to be a powerful approach to study the temporal dynamics of attention, bringing us a step closer to understanding the elusive nature of the AB. We conclude that the timing of attention to targets may be more important than the amount of allocated attention in accounting for individual differences.

  17. Soil-Borne Microbial Functional Structure across Different Land Uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Zhou, J.Z.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; van Veen, J.A..

    2014-01-01

    Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate

  18. Soil-borne microbial functional structure across different land uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, Eiko E; Zhou, Jizhong Z; Kowalchuk, George A; van Veen, Johannes A

    2014-01-01

    Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate

  19. Comparison of Cellulose Supramolecular Structures Between Nanocrystals of Different Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Christopher G. Hunt; Jeffery Catchmark; E. Johan Foster; Akira Isogai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, morphologies and supramolecular structures of CNCs from wood-pulp, cotton, bacteria, tunicate, and cladophora were investigated. TEM was used to study the morphological aspects of the nanocrystals whereas Raman spectroscopy provided information on the cellulose molecular structure and its organization within a CNC. Dimensional differences between the...

  20. Fractional order analysis of Sephadex gel structures: NMR measurements reflecting anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Richard L.; Akpa, Belinda S.; Neuberger, Thomas; Webb, Andrew G.

    2011-12-01

    We report the appearance of anomalous water diffusion in hydrophilic Sephadex gels observed using pulse field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The NMR diffusion data was collected using a Varian 14.1 Tesla imaging system with a home-built RF saddle coil. A fractional order analysis of the data was used to characterize heterogeneity in the gels for the dynamics of water diffusion in this restricted environment. Several recent studies of anomalous diffusion have used the stretched exponential function to model the decay of the NMR signal, i.e., exp[-( bD) α], where D is the apparent diffusion constant, b is determined the experimental conditions (gradient pulse separation, durations and strength), and α is a measure of structural complexity. In this work, we consider a different case where the spatial Laplacian in the Bloch-Torrey equation is generalized to a fractional order model of diffusivity via a complexity parameter, β, a space constant, μ, and a diffusion coefficient, D. This treatment reverts to the classical result for the integer order case. The fractional order decay model was fit to the diffusion-weighted signal attenuation for a range of b-values (0 < b < 4000 s mm -2). Throughout this range of b values, the parameters β, μ and D, were found to correlate with the porosity and tortuosity of the gel structure.

  1. Does NDVI reflect variation in the structural attributes associated with increasing shrub dominance in arctic tundra?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boelman, Natalie T; Gough, Laura; McLaren, Jennie R; Greaves, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This study explores relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and structural characteristics associated with deciduous shrub dominance in arctic tundra. Our structural measures of shrub dominance are stature, branch abundance, aerial per cent woody stem cover (deciduous and evergreen species), and per cent deciduous shrub canopy cover. All measurements were taken across a suite of transects that together represent a gradient of deciduous shrub height. The transects include tussock tundra shrub and riparian shrub tundra communities located in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, in northern Alaska. Plot-level NDVI measurements were made in 2010 during the snow-free period prior to deciduous shrub leaf-out (early June, NDVI pre-leaf ), at the point in the growing season when canopy NDVI has reached half of its maximum growing season value (mid-June, NDVI demi-leaf ) and during the period of maximum leaf-out (late July, NDVI peak-leaf ). We found that: (1) NDVI pre-leaf is best suited to capturing variation in the per cent woody stem cover, maximum shrub height, and branch abundance, particularly between 10 and 50 cm height in the canopy; (2) NDVI peak-leaf is best suited to capturing variation in deciduous canopy cover; and (3) NDVI demi-leaf does not capture variability in any of our measures of shrub dominance. These findings suggest that in situ NDVI measurements made prior to deciduous canopy leaf-out could be used to identify small differences in maximum shrub height, woody stem cover, and branch abundance (particularly between 10 and 50 cm height in the canopy). Because shrubs are increasing in size and regional extent in several regions of the Arctic, investigation into spectrally based tools for monitoring these changes are worthwhile as they provide a first step towards development of remotely sensed techniques for quantifying associated changes in regional carbon cycling, albedo, radiative energy balance, and wildlife

  2. Genetic affinity among five different population groups in India reflecting a Y-chromosome gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anjana; Sharma, Swarkar; Bhat, Audesh; Pandit, Awadesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Four binary polymorphisms and four multiallelic short tandem repeat (STR) loci from the nonrecombining region of the human Y-chromosome were typed in different Indian population groups from Uttar Pradeh (UP), Bihar (BI), Punjab (PUNJ), and Bengal (WB) speaking the Indo-Aryan dialects and from South India (SI) with the root in the Dravidian language. We identified four major haplogroups [(P) 1+, (C and F) 2+, (R1a) 3, (K) 26+] and 114 combinations of Y-STR haplotypes. Analyses of the haplogroups indicated no single origin from any lineage but a result of a conglomeration of different lineages from time to time. The phylogenetic analyses indicate a high degree of population admixture and a greater genetic proximity for the studied population groups when compared with other world populations.

  3. Seismic reflection and structuring characterization of deep aquifer system in the Dakhla syncline (Cap Bon, North-Eastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Abir; Jarraya Horriche, Faten; Gabtni, Hakim; Bédir, Mourad

    2018-04-01

    The Dakhla syncline is located in the North-Eastern Tunisia. It is bounded by Abd El Rahmene anticline to the North-West, El Haouaria Graben to the North-East, Grombalia Graben to the South-West and the Mediterranean Sea to the East. The main aquifer reservoirs of Dakhla syncline are constituted by stacks of fluvial to deltaic Neogene sequences and carbonates. The interpretation of eight seismic reflection profiles, calibrated by wire line logging data of three oil wells, hydraulic wells and geologic field sections highlighted the impact of tectonics on the structuring geometry of aquifers and their distribution in elevated structures and subsurface depressions. Lithostratigraphic correlations and seismic profiles analysis through the syncline show that the principal aquifers are thickest within the central and northern part of the study area and thinnest to the southern part of the syncline. Seismic sections shows that the fracture/fault pattern in this syncline is mainly concentrated along corridors with a major direction of NW-SE and secondary directions of N-S, E-W and NE-SW with different release. This is proved by the complexity structure of Eastern Tunisia, resulted from the interaction between the African and Eurasiatic plates. Isochron maps of aquifers systems exhibited the structuring of this syncline in sub-surface characterized by important lateral and vertical geometric and thickness variations. Seismic sections L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 and petroleum wells showed an heterogeneous multilayer aquifers of Miocene formed by the arrangement of ten sandstone bodies, separated by impermeable clay packages. Oligo-Miocene deposits correspond to the most great potential aquifers, with respectively an average transmissivity estimated: Somaa aquifer 6.5 10-4 m2/s, Sandstone level aquifer 2.6 10-3 m2/s, Beglia aquifer 1.1 10-3 m2/s, Ain Ghrab aquifer 1.3 10-4 m2/s and Oligocene aquifer 2 10-3 m2/s. The interpretation of spatial variations of seismic units and the

  4. Individual Differences in Temporal Selective Attention as Reflected in Pupil Dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Charlotte; Herdzin, Johannes; Martens, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention is restricted for the second of two targets when it is presented within 200-500 ms of the first target. This attentional blink (AB) phenomenon allows one to study the dynamics of temporal selective attention by varying the interval between the two targets (T1 and T2). Whereas the AB has long been considered as a robust and universal cognitive limitation, several studies have demonstrated that AB task performance greatly differs between individuals, with some individuals s...

  5. The becoming of an entrepreneurial opportunity.:– reflections on different ‘opportunity-ontologies’.

    OpenAIRE

    Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria

    2015-01-01

    As innovation and entrepreneurship is about bringing something “new” into the world, a key point must be focusing on the entrepreneurial opportunity and how we get access to entrepreneurial opportunities. Contemporary research within entrepreneurship and innovation are mainly based in different forms of constructivist and social-constructivist approaches, by Alvarez and Barney (Alvarez & Barney 2007; Alvarez & Barney 2010) named creation theory. Within these approaches the entrepreneu...

  6. Roll-to-roll fabrication of a low-reflectance transparent conducting oxide film with subwavelength structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ta-Hsin; Cheng, Kuei-Yuan; Hsieh, Chih-Wei; Takaya, Yasuhiro

    2012-04-01

    The transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film is a significant component in flat panel display, e-paper and touch panel. The tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) material is one of the most popular TCOs. However, ITO has high refractive index, so the phenomenon of high-reflectance limits the wide use of ITO. In this study, the structure and mass production process of new low-reflectance TCO film is verified. Laser interference lithography and the roll-to-roll UV embossing process are used to fabricate subwavelength structures on PET film; then ITO was deposited on structures by roll-to-roll sputtering. When the dimension of structures reaches 300 nm pitch, the optical reflectance and electrical performance of film are reduced to 8.1% at wavelength 550 nm and its transmittance rate is 84.3% at the same wavelength, and the sheet resistance of this film is 50.44 Ω/□. This result indicates that the new TCO proposed in this study is suitable for touch panel and other display applications.

  7. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles with different atomistic structural characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza, R.; Rosas, G.; Lopez Fuentes, M.; Sanchez Ramirez, J.F.; Pal, U.; Ascencio, J.A.; Perez, R.

    2007-01-01

    A chemical reduction method was used to produce nanometric gold particles. Depending on the concentration of the main reactant compound different nanometric sizes and consequently different atomic structural configurations of the particles are obtained. Insights on the structural nature of the gold nanoparticles are obtained through a comparison between digitally-processed experimental high-resolution electron microscopy images and theoretically-simulated images obtained with a multislice approach of the dynamical theory of electron diffraction. Quantum molecular mechanical calculations, based on density functional theory, are carried out to explain the relationships between the stability of the gold nanoparticles, the atomic structural configurations and the size of nanoparticles

  8. Do Performance-based Health Measures Reflect Differences in Frailty Among Immigrants Age 50+ in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Thomas D; Theou, Olga; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    Life course influences, including country of residence and country of birth, are associated with frailty index scores. We investigated these associations using performance-based health measures. Among 33,745 participants age 50+ (mean age 64.8 ± 10.1; 55% women) in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe, grip strength, delayed word recall, and semantic verbal fluency were assessed. Participants were grouped by country of residence (Northern/Western Europe or Southern/Eastern Europe), and by country of birth (native-born, immigrants born in low- and middle-income countries [LMICs], or immigrants born in high-income countries [HICs]). Participants in Southern/Eastern Europe had lower mean test scores than those in Northern/Western Europe, and their scores did not differ by country of birth group. In Northern/Western Europe, compared with native-born participants, LMIC-born immigrants demonstrated lower mean grip strength (32.8 ± 7.6 kg vs. 35.7 ± 7.7 kg), delayed recall (2.9 ± 1.9 vs. 3.6 ± 1.9), and verbal fluency scores (16.0 ± 6.9 vs. 20.3 ± 7.0). HIC-born immigrants had mean scores higher than LMIC-born immigrants, but lower than native-born participants (all pnational income levels of both country of residence and country of birth. This was similar to previously observed differences in frailty index scores.

  9. Recent trends in local-scale marine biodiversity reflect community structure and human impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elahi, Robin; O'Connor, Mary I; Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Dunic, Jillian; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Hensel, Marc J S; Kearns, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    The modern biodiversity crisis reflects global extinctions and local introductions. Human activities have dramatically altered rates and scales of processes that regulate biodiversity at local scales [1-7]. Reconciling the threat of global biodiversity loss [2, 4, 6-9] with recent evidence of

  10. Gender Differences in the Structure of Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Christopher R; Marcus, Katherine; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E

    2018-05-01

    Marriages consist of shared experiences and interactions between husbands and wives that may lead to different impressions of the quality of the relationship. Few studies, unfortunately, have tested gender differences in the structure of marital quality, and even fewer studies have evaluated whether genetic and environmental influences on marital quality differ across gender. In this study, we evaluated gender differences in the structure of marital quality using independent samples of married male (n = 2406) and married female (n = 2215) participants from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States who provided ratings on twenty-eight marital quality items encompassing six marital quality constructs. We further explored gender differences in genetic and environmental influences on marital quality constructs in a subsample of 491 pairs of twins. Results suggest partial metric invariance across gender but structural variability in marital quality constructs. Notably, correlations between constructs were stronger in women than men. Results also support gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on different aspects of marital quality. We discuss that men and women may approach and react to marriage differently as the primary reason why we observed differences in the structure of marital quality.

  11. CARABID BEATLES AS INDICATORS REFLECTING RIVERINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RIVER REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kędzior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to estimate factors responsible for sustaining riverine communities in stream sections with various bank regulation systems. The research were conducted on Porebianka stream in the Polish Western Carpathians, where 10 different types of river regulations were chosen for the analysis (strong incision without alluvial deposits, redeposition with sand and gravel banks, concrete revetment walls along the banks, channel with banks lined with rip-rap and reference unmanaged cross- section. We conclude that the carabid beetles assemblages of the studied river sections respond mainly to hydraulic parameters of the stream. Elimination of frequent natural bank inundation (due to the regulations of the banks is the main factor responsible for the impoverishment and extinction of riverine communities.

  12. The cuticular hydrocarbons profiles in the stingless bee Melipona marginata reflect task-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Caliman, M J; Nascimento, F S; Turatti, I C; Mateus, S; Lopes, N P; Zucchi, R

    2010-07-01

    Members of social insect colonies employ a large variety of chemical signals during their life. Of these, cuticular hydrocarbons are of primary importance for social insects since they allow for the recognition of conspecifics, nestmates and even members of different castes. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the variation of the chemical profiles among workers of the stingless bee Melipona marginata, and (2) to investigate the dependence of the chemical profiles on the age and on the behavior of the studied individuals. The results showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers were composed of alkanes, alkenes and alkadienes that varied quantitatively and qualitatively according to function of workers in the colony. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cortical potentials in an auditory oddball task reflect individual differences in working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurgil, Kate A; Golob, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    This study determined whether auditory cortical responses associated with mechanisms of attention vary with individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) and perceptual load. The operation span test defined subjects with low versus high WMC, who then discriminated target/nontarget tones while EEG was recorded. Infrequent white noise distracters were presented at midline or ±90° locations, and perceptual load was manipulated by varying nontarget frequency. Amplitude of the N100 to distracters was negatively correlated with WMC. Relative to targets, only high WMC subjects showed attenuated N100 amplitudes to nontargets. In the higher WMC group, increased perceptual load was associated with decreased P3a amplitudes to distracters and longer-lasting negative slow wave to nontargets. Results show that auditory cortical processing is associated with multiple facets of attention related to WMC and possibly higher-level cognition. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  15. Different Structures of PVA Nanofibrous Membrane for Sound Absorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mohrova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thin nanofibrous layer has different properties in the field of sound absorption in comparison with porous fibrous material which works on a principle of friction of air particles in contact with walls of pores. In case of the thin nanofibrous layer, which represents a sound absorber here, the energy of sonic waves is absorbed by the principle of membrane resonance. The structure of the membrane can play an important role in the process of converting the sonic energy to a different energy type. The vibration system acts differently depending on the presence of smooth fibers in the structure, amount of partly merged fibers, or structure of polymer foil as extreme. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA was used as a polymer because of its good water solubility. It is possible to influence the structure of nanofibrous layer during the production process thanks to this property of polyvinyl alcohol.

  16. Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascelli, Samantha; Fasulo, Daniel; Noy, Karin; Wittemberg, Gayle; Pignatelli, Sara; Piatelli, Gianluca; Cama, Armando; Garré, Maria Luisa; Capra, Valeria; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa; Raso, Alessandro; Mosci, Sofia; Nozza, Paolo; Biassoni, Roberto; Morana, Giovanni; Huber, Martin; Mircean, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Paediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) encompass a heterogeneous set of tumours of different histologies, site of lesion, age and gender distribution, growth potential, morphological features, tendency to progression and clinical course. Among LGGs, Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children. They are typically well-circumscribed, classified as grade I by the World Health Organization (WHO), but recurrence or progressive disease occurs in about 10-20% of cases. Despite radiological and neuropathological features deemed as classic are acknowledged, PA may present a bewildering variety of microscopic features. Indeed, tumours containing both neoplastic ganglion and astrocytic cells occur at a lower frequency. Gene expression profiling on 40 primary LGGs including PAs and mixed glial-neuronal tumours comprising gangliogliomas (GG) and desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIG) using Affymetrix array platform was performed. A biologically validated machine learning workflow for the identification of microarray-based gene signatures was devised. The method is based on a sparsity inducing regularization algorithm l 1 l 2 that selects relevant variables and takes into account their correlation. The most significant genetic signatures emerging from gene-chip analysis were confirmed and validated by qPCR. We identified an expression signature composed by a biologically validated list of 15 genes, able to distinguish infratentorial from supratentorial LGGs. In addition, a specific molecular fingerprinting distinguishes the supratentorial PAs from those originating in the posterior fossa. Lastly, within supratentorial tumours, we also identified a gene expression pattern composed by neurogenesis, cell motility and cell growth genes which dichotomize mixed glial-neuronal tumours versus PAs. Our results reinforce previous observations about aberrant activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in LGGs

  17. Review and reflection of research on the knowledge structure of physical education teachers in the past 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Bochun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available From the view of knowledge,methodology and other perspectives of regression and reflection on the knowledge structure of the PE teachers of the status quo in the past 20 years,it is considered that the base of the existing knowledge of research is primarily on the knowledge view of objectivism,the perspective of research is restricted.For many years research category of the knowledge structure of PE teachers was consistently confined to discipline knowledge + educational knowledge + culture knowledge.Research Methodology and methods are mainly confined to Speculative theory research guided by rational debate methodology and questionnaire survey research guided by positivist methodology.Due to the impact of the knowledge view of objectivism,rational debate focuses on the objectivity theory knowledge ought status in knowledge structure of PE teachers.Questionnaire survey research is mainly based on attitude survey research,reflecting the ideal state of knowledge structure of physical education teachers.Suggestion: update knowledge,enrich methodological the guidance,pay more attention to the actual condition of knowledge structure of physical education teachers,reveal physical education teachers in the context of the formation,development,and application patterns of their knowledge structure in sports teaching situation,etc.

  18. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  19. Does the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall reflect differences in appraisal or memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Emily; Ross, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall is the result of age differences in appraisal and memory. In Study 1, older and younger participants reported 1 pleasant and 1 unpleasant event for 5 days. Participants attempted to recall those events a week later. In Study 2, older and younger participants imagined that positive, negative, and neutral hypothetical events had occurred either to themselves or to an acquaintance and were later asked to recall those events. In Study 1, younger adults reported a complete set of positive and negative events. Older adults reported a pleasant event each day, but 38% did not report an unpleasant event on at least 1 day. A week later, older and younger adults were equally likely to recall the events they had reported. In Study 2, older adults who imagined events happened to themselves rated events as more positive in valence than younger adults did. Older and younger adults were equally likely to remember pleasant and unpleasant events at the end of the study. The data suggest that the age-related positivity effect resides in the appraisal rather than the recall of autobiographical events. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Different Endosymbiotic Interactions in Two Hydra Species Reflect the Evolutionary History of Endosymbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Yuyama, Ikuko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary event for organisms, and there is widespread interest in understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis establishment. Hydra is one of the most suitable organisms for studying the evolution of endosymbiosis. Within the genus Hydra, H. viridissima and H. vulgaris show endosymbiosis with green algae. Previous studies suggested that the endosymbiosis in H. vulgaris took place much more recently than that in H. viridissima, noting that the establishment of the interaction between H. vulgaris and its algae is not as stable as in H. viridissima. To investigate the on-going process of endosymbiosis, we first compared growth and tolerance to starvation in symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of both species. The results revealed that symbiotic H. viridissima had a higher growth rate and greater tolerance to starvation than aposymbiotic polyps. By contrast, growth of symbiotic H. vulgaris was identical to that of aposymbiotic polyps, and symbiotic H. vulgaris was less tolerant to starvation. Moreover, our gene expression analysis showed a pattern of differential gene expression in H. viridissima similar to that in other endosymbiotically established organisms, and contrary to that observed in H. vulgaris. We also showed that H. viridissima could cope with oxidative stress that caused damage, such as cell death, in H. vulgaris. These observations support the idea that oxidative stress related genes play an important role in the on-going process of endosymbiosis evolution. The different evolutionary stages of endosymbiosis studied here provide a deeper insight into the evolutionary processes occurring toward a stable endosymbiosis.

  1. Sunk cost and work ethic effects reflect suboptimal choice between different work requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Paula; White, K Geoffrey

    2013-03-01

    We investigated suboptimal choice between different work requirements in pigeons (Columba livia), namely the sunk cost effect, an irrational tendency to persist with an initial investment, despite the availability of a better option. Pigeons chose between two keys, one with a fixed work requirement to food of 20 pecks (left key), and the other with a work requirement to food which varied across conditions (center key). On some trials within each session, such choices were preceded by an investment of 35 pecks on the center key, whereas on others they were not. On choice trials preceded by the investment, the pigeons tended to stay and complete the schedule associated with the center key, even when the number of pecks to obtain reward was greater than for the concurrently available left key. This result indicates that pigeons, like humans, commit the sunk cost effect. With higher work requirements, this preference was extended to trials where there was no initial investment, so an overall preference for the key associated with more work was evident, consistent with the work ethic effect. We conclude that a more general work ethic effect is amplified by the effect of the prior investment, that is, the sunk cost effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Different Endosymbiotic Interactions in Two Hydra Species Reflect the Evolutionary History of Endosymbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-06-19

    Endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary event for organisms, and there is widespread interest in understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis establishment. Hydra is one of the most suitable organisms for studying the evolution of endosymbiosis. Within the genus Hydra, H. viridissima and H. vulgaris show endosymbiosis with green algae. Previous studies suggested that the endosymbiosis in H. vulgaris took place much more recently than that in H. viridissima, noting that the establishment of the interaction between H. vulgaris and its algae is not as stable as in H. viridissima. To investigate the on-going process of endosymbiosis, we first compared growth and tolerance to starvation in symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of both species. The results revealed that symbiotic H. viridissima had a higher growth rate and greater tolerance to starvation than aposymbiotic polyps. By contrast, growth of symbiotic H. vulgaris was identical to that of aposymbiotic polyps, and symbiotic H. vulgaris was less tolerant to starvation. Moreover, our gene expression analysis showed a pattern of differential gene expression in H. viridissima similar to that in other endosymbiotically established organisms, and contrary to that observed in H. vulgaris. We also showed that H. viridissima could cope with oxidative stress that caused damage, such as cell death, in H. vulgaris. These observations support the idea that oxidative stress related genes play an important role in the on-going process of endosymbiosis evolution. The different evolutionary stages of endosymbiosis studied here provide a deeper insight into the evolutionary processes occurring toward a stable endosymbiosis.

  3. Evaluation of retro-reflective coating performance by reflectance and perceived relative brightness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luse, Kaiva; Pausus, Anete; Karitans, Varis; Ozolins, Maris; Tukisa, Madara, E-mail: kaiva.luse@gmail.com [University of Latvia, Optometry and Vision Science Department, Kengaraga street 8, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    Retro-reflective properties of six types and five different colors or retro-reflective materials were discussed in this paper. Reflectance optical indicatrix of samples was determined and compared to obtained psychophyisical data of perceived brightness of human observer. Microscopic structure of the retro-reflective active regions of RR's was studied. Statistically significant differences in reflectivity and brightness of various types and colors of RR's were found.

  4. Evaluation of retro-reflective coating performance by reflectance and perceived relative brightness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luse, Kaiva; Pausus, Anete; Karitans, Varis; Ozolins, Maris; Tukisa, Madara

    2011-01-01

    Retro-reflective properties of six types and five different colors or retro-reflective materials were discussed in this paper. Reflectance optical indicatrix of samples was determined and compared to obtained psychophyisical data of perceived brightness of human observer. Microscopic structure of the retro-reflective active regions of RR's was studied. Statistically significant differences in reflectivity and brightness of various types and colors of RR's were found.

  5. Structuration theory:reflections on its further potential for management accounting research

    OpenAIRE

    Coad, Alan; Jack, Lisa; Kholeif, Ahmed Othman Rashwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to examine the potential of strong structuration theory in management accounting research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper explains how the ontological perspective of strong structuration theory extends the work of Giddens and explores how the perspective overcomes a number of the limitations of existing management accounting research based on structuration theory. Findings – Strong structuration theory develops and extends the work of Giddens, providing grea...

  6. Does NDVI reflect variation in the structural attributes associated with increasing shrub dominance in arctic tundra?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelman, Natalie T [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Gough, Laura; McLaren, Jennie R [Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Greaves, Heather, E-mail: nboelman@ldeo.columbia.edu [Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, 321 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study explores relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and structural characteristics associated with deciduous shrub dominance in arctic tundra. Our structural measures of shrub dominance are stature, branch abundance, aerial per cent woody stem cover (deciduous and evergreen species), and per cent deciduous shrub canopy cover. All measurements were taken across a suite of transects that together represent a gradient of deciduous shrub height. The transects include tussock tundra shrub and riparian shrub tundra communities located in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, in northern Alaska. Plot-level NDVI measurements were made in 2010 during the snow-free period prior to deciduous shrub leaf-out (early June, NDVI{sub pre-leaf}), at the point in the growing season when canopy NDVI has reached half of its maximum growing season value (mid-June, NDVI{sub demi-leaf}) and during the period of maximum leaf-out (late July, NDVI{sub peak-leaf}). We found that: (1) NDVI{sub pre-leaf} is best suited to capturing variation in the per cent woody stem cover, maximum shrub height, and branch abundance, particularly between 10 and 50 cm height in the canopy; (2) NDVI{sub peak-leaf} is best suited to capturing variation in deciduous canopy cover; and (3) NDVI{sub demi-leaf} does not capture variability in any of our measures of shrub dominance. These findings suggest that in situ NDVI measurements made prior to deciduous canopy leaf-out could be used to identify small differences in maximum shrub height, woody stem cover, and branch abundance (particularly between 10 and 50 cm height in the canopy). Because shrubs are increasing in size and regional extent in several regions of the Arctic, investigation into spectrally based tools for monitoring these changes are worthwhile as they provide a first step towards development of remotely sensed techniques for quantifying associated changes in regional carbon cycling, albedo, radiative

  7. Different measures of structural similarity tap different aspects of visual object processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The structural similarity of objects has been an important variable in explaining why some objects are easier to categorize at a superordinate level than to individuate, and also why some patients with brain injury have more difficulties in recognizing natural (structurally similar) objects than...... artifacts (structurally distinct objects). In spite of its merits as an explanatory variable, structural similarity is not a unitary construct, and it has been operationalized in different ways. Furthermore, even though measures of structural similarity have been successful in explaining task and category-effects...

  8. Modeling Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function of One-dimensional Random Rough Surfaces with the Finite Difference Time Domain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jhong Gu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of a suite of programs that is capable of simulating the radiation properties of a random rough surface (RRS. The fundamental approach involves the generation, by fast Fourier transform (FFT built with rigorous finite difference time domain (FDTD, as the theoretical basis for the simulation of a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF of the RRS. The results are compared with the measurements and modeling of existing work to verify the feasibility of customized programming. It was found that the results of this study were a better match to the measurement data than those achieved in other modeling work.

  9. REFLECTION OF A COMPETENCE-PROFESSIONAL MODEL OF THE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE IN THE STRUCTURE OF UNIVERSITY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю В Фролов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process of designing an interdisciplinary tutorial on the basics of business informatics in the context of the requirements Federal state educational and professional standards. Proposed by competence-professional model, which describes the requirements for the training of specialists in the IT industry. Shown comparison between the hierarchy of educational results, which are reflected in the structural elements of the textbook, and levels of skill requirements in the professional standard.

  10. Different Phases of Earthquake Cycle Reflected in GPS Measured Crustal Deformations along the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaradze, G.; Klotz, J.

    2001-12-01

    largest ever recorded earthquake on the earth. To properly interpret given observations, we developed the fully \\textsc{3D} Andean Elastic Dislocation Model (AEDM), which is used to explain the dominant inter-seismic signal. The subtraction of the AEDM predicted deformation rates from the observations leads towards the "filtered" residual velocity field, that can be used to highlight, for example, the post-seismic deformation effects. Also, in the central section of the SAGA network, the residual velocity field indicates the existence of more long-term (i.e. geologic) deformations. In summary, the changing spatial-temporal pattern of GPS measured crustal deformation rates along the central and southern Andes is governed by the relative importance of different phases of earthquake deformation cycle.

  11. Movement dynamics reflect a functional role for weak coupling and role structure in dyadic problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Drew H; Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T

    2015-11-01

    Successful interaction requires complex coordination of body movements. Previous research has suggested a functional role for coordination and especially synchronization (i.e., time-locked movement across individuals) in different types of human interaction contexts. Although such coordination has been shown to be nearly ubiquitous in human interaction, less is known about its function. One proposal is that synchrony supports and facilitates communication (Topics Cogn Sci 1:305-319, 2009). However, questions still remain about what the properties of coordination for optimizing communication might look like. In the present study, dyads worked together to construct towers from uncooked spaghetti and marshmallows. Using cross-recurrence quantification analysis, we found that dyads with loosely coupled gross body movements performed better, supporting recent work suggesting that simple synchrony may not be the key to effective performance (Riley et al. 2011). We also found evidence that leader-follower dynamics-when sensitive to the specific role structure of the interaction-impact task performance. We discuss our results with respect to the functional role of coordination in human interaction.

  12. Localizing age-related individual differences in a hierarchical structure

    OpenAIRE

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Data from 33 separate studies were combined to create an aggregate data set consisting of 16 cognitive variables and 6832 different individuals who ranged between 18 and 95 years of age. Analyses were conducted to determine where in a hierarchical structure of cognitive abilities individual differences associated with age, gender, education, and self-reported health could be localized. The results indicated that each type of individual difference characteristic exhibited a d...

  13. Composition, structure, and properties of iron-rich nontronites of different origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palchik, N. A., E-mail: nadezhda@igm.nsc.ru; Grigorieva, T. N.; Moroz, T. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    The composition, structure, and properties of smectites of different origins have been studied by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microprobe analysis. The results showed that nontronites of different origins differ in composition, properties, morphology, and IR spectroscopic characteristics. Depending on the degree of structural order and the negative charge of iron-silicate layers in nontronites, the shift of the 001 reflection to smaller angles as a result of impregnation with ethylene glycol (this shift is characteristic of the smectite group) occurs differently. The calculated values of the parameter b (from 9.11 to 9.14A) are valid for the extreme terms of dioctahedral smectite representatives: nontronites.

  14. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence and Fe K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittschen, U.E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de; Meirer, F. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: fmeirer@ati.ac.at; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at; Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: wobi@ati.ac.at; Thiele, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Julian.Thiele@gmx.de; Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: falkenbe@mail.desy.de; Pepponi, G. [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy)], E-mail: pepponi@itc.it

    2008-12-15

    In this study a new procedure using Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) to characterize elemental amounts in atmospheric aerosols down to particle sizes of 0.015 um is presented. The procedure was thoroughly evaluated regarding bounce off effects and blank values. Additionally the potential of total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure (SR-TXRF-XANES) for speciation of FeII/III down to amounts of 34 pg in aerosols which were collected for 1 h is shown. The aerosols were collected in the city of Hamburg with a low pressure Berner impactor on Si carriers covered with silicone over time periods of 60 and 20 min each. The particles were collected in four and ten size fractions of 10.0-8.0 {mu}m, 8.0-2.0 {mu}m, 2.0-0.13 {mu}m 0.13-0.015 {mu}m (aerodynamic particle size) and 15-30 nm, 30-60 nm, 60-130 nm, 130-250 nm, 250-500 nm, 0.5-1 {mu}m, 1-2 {mu}m, 2-4 {mu}m, 4-8 {mu}m, 8-16 {mu}m. Prior to the sampling 'bounce off' effects on Silicone and Vaseline coated Si carriers were studied with total reflection X-ray fluorescence. According to the results silicone coated carriers were chosen for the analysis. Additionally, blank levels originating from the sampling device and the calibration procedure were studied. Blank levels of Fe corresponded to 1-10% of Fe in the aerosol samples. Blank levels stemming from the internal standard were found to be negligible. The results from the Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the aerosols showed that 20 min of sampling time gave still enough sample material for elemental determination of most elements. For the determination of the oxidation state of Fe in the aerosols different Fe salts were prepared as a reference from suspensions in isopropanol. The results from the Fe K-edge Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis of the aerosol samples showed that mainly Fe(III) was present in

  15. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence and Fe K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittschen, U.E.A.; Meirer, F.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Thiele, J.; Falkenberg, G.; Pepponi, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study a new procedure using Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) to characterize elemental amounts in atmospheric aerosols down to particle sizes of 0.015 um is presented. The procedure was thoroughly evaluated regarding bounce off effects and blank values. Additionally the potential of total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure (SR-TXRF-XANES) for speciation of FeII/III down to amounts of 34 pg in aerosols which were collected for 1 h is shown. The aerosols were collected in the city of Hamburg with a low pressure Berner impactor on Si carriers covered with silicone over time periods of 60 and 20 min each. The particles were collected in four and ten size fractions of 10.0-8.0 μm, 8.0-2.0 μm, 2.0-0.13 μm 0.13-0.015 μm (aerodynamic particle size) and 15-30 nm, 30-60 nm, 60-130 nm, 130-250 nm, 250-500 nm, 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-4 μm, 4-8 μm, 8-16 μm. Prior to the sampling 'bounce off' effects on Silicone and Vaseline coated Si carriers were studied with total reflection X-ray fluorescence. According to the results silicone coated carriers were chosen for the analysis. Additionally, blank levels originating from the sampling device and the calibration procedure were studied. Blank levels of Fe corresponded to 1-10% of Fe in the aerosol samples. Blank levels stemming from the internal standard were found to be negligible. The results from the Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the aerosols showed that 20 min of sampling time gave still enough sample material for elemental determination of most elements. For the determination of the oxidation state of Fe in the aerosols different Fe salts were prepared as a reference from suspensions in isopropanol. The results from the Fe K-edge Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis of the aerosol samples showed that mainly Fe(III) was present in all particle size fractions

  16. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  17. Structural differences between yeast and mammalian microtubules revealed by cryo-EM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, Stuart C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Biophysics Graduate Group; Geyer, Elisabeth A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biophysics; Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; LaFrance, Benjamin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular and Cell Biology Graduate Program; Zhang, Rui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Kellogg, Elizabeth H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Westermann, Stefan [Univ. of Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany). Dept. of Molecular Genetics, Center for Medical Biotechnology; Rice, Luke M. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biophysics; Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Nogales, Eva [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular Biology and California Inst. for Quantitative Biosciences; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division

    2017-06-26

    Microtubules are polymers of αβ-tubulin heterodimers essential for all eukaryotes. Despite sequence conservation, there are significant structural differences between microtubules assembled in vitro from mammalian or budding yeast tubulin. Yeast MTs were not observed to undergo compaction at the interdimer interface as seen for mammalian microtubules upon GTP hydrolysis. Lack of compaction might reflect slower GTP hydrolysis or a different degree of allosteric coupling in the lattice. The microtubule plus end–tracking protein Bim1 binds yeast microtubules both between αβ-tubulin heterodimers, as seen for other organisms, and within tubulin dimers, but binds mammalian tubulin only at interdimer contacts. At the concentrations used in cryo-electron microscopy, Bim1 causes the compaction of yeast microtubules and induces their rapid disassembly. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate structural differences between yeast and mammalian microtubules that likely underlie their differing polymerization dynamics. These differences may reflect adaptations to the demands of different cell size or range of physiological growth temperatures.

  18. Reflections of the Capitalization on Operational Leasing in Transport Subsector Companie's Structure Indicators Listed on Bovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Gomes Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leasing is an alternative to financing the acquisition of assets for entities, and it has like modalities the operating procedures and financial leasing. This type of operation has caused several theoretical obstacles, among them the issue of off-balance sheet transactions. To reduce these accounting inconsistencies, the IASB and FASB have been working together to standardize the subject, this result was the publication of Exposure Draft 2010/09 (ED, which promises significant changes in the treatment of such transactions. Given this, this study aimed to analyze the impacts of the proposed changes contained in the ED, as the capitalization of operating leases, in the structure indicators at transportation subsector companies listed on the Bovespa. For this, we used the simulation methodology of the proposals in ED, confirming previous research. After the simulation accomplished, we proceeded with the Student's t test for paired samples, in order to check if the expected changes may cause significant differences in the indicators tested. The evidence points in the year of 2011, an amount of $ 3.8 billion, related to operating leases, not moved by the balance sheet (off-balance sheet of their respective companies. It was also observed that, on average, sample firms have operating leases to pay equivalent to 18.46% equity and 16.14% of debt. Finally, by simulating the proposals in the ED, it was found that the indicators of debt, equity and immobilization of the detention of non-current resources show significant variation from the statistical point of view, due to the capitalization of operating lease balances.

  19. Quantitative structural analysis of lignin by diffuse reflectance fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, T.P.; Glasser, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    Empirical quantitative relationships were established between infrared (IR) spectral information and several structural features in lignins as determined by conventional methods. The structural composition of average phenylpropane (C g ) units which significantly correlated (0.01 level) with IR peak intensities included methoxy content, aromatic hydrogen content, phenolic hydroxy content, guaiacyl/syringyl ratio, and ''hydrolysis'' and ''condensation'' ratios

  20. Asymmetric bistable reflection and polarization switching in a magnetic nonlinear multilayer structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuz, Vladimir R.; Novitsky, Denis V.; Prosvirnin, Sergey L.

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties of one-dimensional photonic structures consisting of Kerr-type nonlinear and magnetic layers under the action of an external static magnetic field in the Faraday geometry are investigated. The structure is a periodic arrangement of alternating nonlinear and magnetic layers (a o...

  1. Intense structures of different momentum fluxes in turbulent channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kosuke; Jiménez, Javier

    2018-04-01

    The effect of different definitions of the momentum flux on the properties of the coherent structures of the logarithmic region of wall-bounded turbulence is investigated by comparing the structures of intense tangential Reynolds stress with those of the alternative flux proposed in [Jimenez (2016) J. Fluid Mech. 809:585]. Despite the fairly different statistical properties of the two flux definitions, it is found that their intense structures show many similarities, such as the dominance of ‘wall-attached’ objects, and geometric self-similarity. However, the new structures are wider, although not taller, than the classical ones, and include both high- and low-momentum regions within the same object. It is concluded that they represent the same phenomenon as the classical group of a sweep, an ejection, and a roller, which should thus be considered as the fundamental coherent structure of the momentum flux. The present results suggest that the properties of these momentum structures are robust with respect to the definition of the fluxes.

  2. THE PRENATAL PARENTAL REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING QUESTIONNAIRE: EXPLORING FACTOR STRUCTURE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A NEW MEASURE IN THE FINN BRAIN BIRTH COHORT PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Linnea; Halme-Chowdhury, Elina; Öst, Camilla; Luyten, Patrick; Mayes, Linda; Karlsson, Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Parental reflective functioning (PRF) is the capacity to focus on experience and feelings in oneself and in the child. Individual differences in PRF reportedly affect child attachment and socioemotional development. In this study, we report work on developing a questionnaire to assess PRF during pregnancy (Prenatal Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire; P-PRFQ). The factor structure of the 33-item version of the P-PRFQ was explored using pilot study data from the Finn Brain Birth Cohort Study (n = 124 mothers, n = 82 fathers). Construct validity was assessed against the Pregnancy Interview (PI; A. Slade, L. Grunebaum, L. Huganir, & M. Reeves, 1987, 2002, 2011) in a subsample of 29 mothers from the same pilot sample. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a 14-item P-PRFQ, with three factors which seem to capture relevant aspects of prenatal parental mentalization-F1: "Opacity of mental states," F2: "Reflecting on the fetus-child," and F3: "The dynamic nature of the mental states." Functioning of the factor structure was further tested in the large cohort with 600 mothers and 600 fathers. Correlations with the PI result were high, both regarding total and factor scores of the P-PRFQ. Cost-effective tools to assess key areas of early parenting are needed for both research and clinical purposes. The 14-item P-PRFQ seems to be an applicable and promising new tool for assessing very early parental mentalizing capacity. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Structural differences between native Hen egg white lysozyme and its fibrils under different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Susmita; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Dasgupta, Swagata; Roy, Anushree

    2013-10-01

    The difference in molecular structure of native HEWL and its fibrils, grown at a pH value near physiological pH 7.4 and at a pH value just above the pI, 10.7 in presence and absence of Cu(II) ions, is discussed. We focus on differences between the molecular structure of the native protein and fibrils using principal component analysis of their Raman spectra. The overlap areas of the scores of each species are used to quantify the difference in the structure of the native HEWL and fibrils in different environments. The overall molecular structures are significantly different for fibrils grown at two pH values. However, in presence of Cu(II) ions, the fibrils have similarities in their molecular structures at these pH environments. Spectral variation within each species, as obtained from the standard deviations of the scores in PCA plots, reveals the variability in the structure within a particular species.

  4. Adult age-differences in subjective impression of emotional faces are reflected in emotion-related attention and memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim eSvard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although younger and older adults appear to attend to and remember emotional faces differently, less is known about age-related differences in the subjective emotional impression (arousal, potency, and valence of emotional faces and how these differences, in turn, are reflected in age differences in various emotional tasks. In the current study, we used the same facial emotional stimuli (angry and happy faces in four tasks: emotional rating, attention, categorical perception, and visual short-term memory (VSTM. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of age on the subjective emotional impression of angry and happy faces and to examine whether any age differences were mirrored in measures of emotional behavior (attention, categorical perception, and memory.In addition, regression analyses were used to further study impression-behavior associations. Forty younger adults (range 20-30 years and thirty-nine older adults (range 65-75 years participated in the experiment. The emotional rating task showed that older adults perceived less arousal, potency, and valence than younger adults and that the difference was more pronounced for angry than happy faces. Similarly, the results of the attention and memory tasks demonstrated interaction effects between emotion and age, and age differences on these measures were larger for angry than for happy faces. Regression analyses confirmed that in both age groups, higher potency ratings predicted both visual search and visual short-term memory efficiency. Future studies should consider the possibility that age differences in the subjective emotional impression of facial emotional stimuli may explain age differences in attention to and memory of such stimuli.

  5. Structural differences of xylans affect their interaction with cellulose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.; Borne, van den H.; Vincken, J.P.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The affinity of xylan to cellulose is an important aspect of many industrial processes, e.g. production of cellulose, paper making and bio-ethanol production. However, little is known about the adsorption of structurally different xylans to cellulose. Therefore, the adsorption of various xylans to

  6. STRUCTURE OF ECAP ALUMINIUM AFTER DIFFERENT NUMBER OF PASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ilucová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of high purity (99.99% aluminium processed by equal channel angular pressing in the as pressed state after different number of passes was examined using various stereological methods. An extreme inhomogeneity and complicated anisotropy was observed along the body of rod-like specimens.

  7. Tectonic characteristics and structural styles of a continental rifted basin: Revelation from deep seismic reflection profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Fushan Depression is a half-graben rifted sub-basin located in the southeast of the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. The Paleogene Liushagang sequence is the main hydrocarbon-bearing stratigraphic unit in the sub-basin. Using three-dimensional (3-D seismic data and logging data over the sub-basin, we analyzed structural styles and sedimentary characteristics of the Liushagang sequence. Five types of structural styles were defined: ancient horst, traditional slope, flexure slope-break, faulted slope-break and multiple-stage faults slope, and interpretations for positions, background and development formations of each structural style were discussed. Structural framework across the sub-basin reveals that the most remarkable tectonic setting is represented by the central transfer zone (CTZ which divides the sub-basin into two independent depressions, and two kinds of sequence architectures are summarized: (i the western multi-stage faults slope; (ii the eastern flexure slope break belt. Combined with regional stress field of the Fushan Depression, we got plane combinations of the faults, and finally built up plan distribution maps of structural system for main sequence. Also, we discussed the controlling factors mainly focused on subsidence history and background tectonic activities such as volcanic activity and earthquakes. The analysis of structural styles and tectonic evolution provides strong theoretical support for future prospecting in the Fushan sub-basin and other similar rifted basins of the Beibuwan Basin in South China Sea.

  8. Detecting Difference between Process Models Based on the Refined Process Structure Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mobile workflow management systems (mWfMS leads to large number of business process models. In the meantime, the location restriction embedded in mWfMS may result in different process models for a single business process. In order to help users quickly locate the difference and rebuild the process model, detecting the difference between different process models is needed. Existing detection methods either provide a dissimilarity value to represent the difference or use predefined difference template to generate the result, which cannot reflect the entire composition of the difference. Hence, in this paper, we present a new approach to solve this problem. Firstly, we parse the process models to their corresponding refined process structure trees (PSTs, that is, decomposing a process model into a hierarchy of subprocess models. Then we design a method to convert the PST to its corresponding task based process structure tree (TPST. As a consequence, the problem of detecting difference between two process models is transformed to detect difference between their corresponding TPSTs. Finally, we obtain the difference between two TPSTs based on the divide and conquer strategy, where the difference is described by an edit script and we make the cost of the edit script close to minimum. The extensive experimental evaluation shows that our method can meet the real requirements in terms of precision and efficiency.

  9. Ectoparasites and endoparasites of fish form networks with different structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellay, S; DE Oliveira, E F; Almeida-Neto, M; Mello, M A R; Takemoto, R M; Luque, J L

    2015-06-01

    Hosts and parasites interact with each other in a variety of ways, and this diversity of interactions is reflected in the networks they form. To test for differences in interaction patterns of ecto- and endoparasites we analysed subnetworks formed by each kind of parasites and their host fish species in fish-parasite networks for 22 localities. We assessed the proportion of parasite species per host species, the relationship between parasite fauna composition and host taxonomy, connectance, nestedness and modularity of each subnetwork (n = 44). Furthermore, we evaluated the similarity in host species composition among modules in ecto- and endoparasite subnetworks. We found several differences between subnetworks of fish ecto- and endoparasites. The association with a higher number of host species observed among endoparasites resulted in higher connectance and nestedness, and lower values of modularity in their subnetworks than in those of ectoparasites. Taxonomically related host species tended to share ecto- or endoparasites with the same interaction intensity, but the species composition of hosts tended to differ between modules formed by ecto- and endoparasites. Our results suggest that different evolutionary and ecological processes are responsible for organizing the networks formed by ecto- and endoparasites and fish.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION AND COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT CIC FILTER STRUCTURE FOR DECIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madheswaran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefs an implementation of different CIC filter architectures for decimation. The different decimation filter structures are implemented using cascaded integrator-comb filter to work for the down sampling ratio of 8. The prototype is designed with MATLAB Simulink model and it is converted to VHDL code using Xilinx system generator. Prototype is implemented in Virtex V- XC5VLX110T-3ff1136 FPGA kit and simulation results and device utilization reports are generated and tabulated. Finally different architectures are compared using number of used LUTs, Registers, Power consumption etc.

  11. Worldwide distribution of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence instrumentation and its different fields of application: A survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockenkämper, Reinhold, E-mail: reinhold.klockenkaemper@isas.de; Bohlen, Alex von

    2014-09-01

    A survey was carried out with users and manufacturers of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence instrumentation in order to demonstrate the worldwide distribution of TXRF equipment and the different fields of applications. In general, TXRF users come from universities and scientific institutes, from working places at synchrotron beam-lines, or laboratories in semiconductor fabs. TXRF instrumentation is distributed in more than 50 countries on six continents and is applied at about 200 institutes and laboratories. The number of running desktop instruments amounts to nearly 300 units. About 60 beamlines run working places dedicated to TXRF. About 300 floor-mounted instruments are estimated to be used in about 150 fabs of the semiconductor industry. In total, 13 different fields of applications could be registered statistically from three different aspects. - Highlights: • According to the survey world maps show the distribution of TXRF equipment. • Nearly 700 individual units are running actually in 57 countries of 6 continents. • Users work at 200 universities, 60 synchrotron-beamlines, and 150 semiconductor fabs. • 13 fields of applications (e.g. environmental, chemical) are evaluated statistically. • Manufacturers, conference members and authors lead to 3 different pie-charts.

  12. Standard test method for measurement of light reflectance value and small color differences between pieces of ceramic tile

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of Light Reflectance Value (LRV) and visually small color difference between pieces of glazed or unglazed ceramic tile, using any spectrophotometer that meets the requirements specified in the test method. LRV and the magnitude and direction of the color difference are expressed numerically, with sufficient accuracy for use in product specification. 1.2 LRV may be measured for either solid-colored tile or tile having a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface. For tile that are not solid-colored, an average reading should be obtained from multiple measurements taken in a pattern representative of the overall sample as described in 9.2 of this test method. Small color difference between tiles should only be measured for solid-color tiles. Small color difference between tile that have a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface, are not valid. 1.3 For solid colored tile, a comparison of the test specimen and reference specimen should be made under incandescent, f...

  13. Reflection of block neotectonics in geological structure of paleogene strata of Chornobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, V.V.; Oleksandrova, N.V.; Khodorovs'kij, A.Ya.

    2014-01-01

    Neotectonic block differentiation of Chernobyl Exclusion zone area was fixed by the results of the geological and structure analysis of paleogene strata in complex with the space survey data interpretation. Structural plan of the latest tectonic movements had a block character; it was shown by the fracture systems, which represent the components of known regional tectonic zones of various trends and are found in the features of phanerozoic rock mass structure. The territory under study is divided into two parts - the northern one, where in the neotectonic movements are generally more intensive with manifestation practically all over the fracture zones, and the southern part, where in the newest breaks belong mainly to submeridional also to south-western regional fracture zones. The southern part of the Exclusion zone, as a whole, holds the greatest promise by comparison with the northern one in the view of neotectonic criteria regarding the geological repository siting for radioactive waste disposal

  14. Charged particle reflection by a planar artificially structured boundary with electrostatic plugging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Hedlof

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation is used to investigate an artificially structured boundary for confinement and control of charged particles. The artificially structured boundary considered here incorporates a planar sequence of conducting wires, where adjacent wires carry current in opposite directions. Such a configuration creates a sequence of magnetic cusps and was studied previously [C. A. Ordonez, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 024905 (2009]. The effect of introducing a sequence of electrodes for electrostatic plugging of the cusps is investigated. The results of the simulations are used to identify regions of parameter space in which particle losses through the cusps may be negligible in the single particle limit. A trap based on a cylindrical generalization of the artificially structured boundary presented here may lead to a method for confining non-neutral and partially neutralized plasmas along the edge, such that the bulk of a confined plasma is effectively free of externally applied electromagnetic fields.

  15. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  16. Do differences in visuospatial ability between senile dementias of the Alzheimer and Lewy body types reflect differences solely in mnemonic function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahgal, A; McKeith, I G; Galloway, P H; Tasker, N; Steckler, T

    1995-02-01

    Visuospatial memory was investigated in two groups of patients suffering from senile dementias of the Alzheimer (SDAT) or Lewy body (SDLT) types; a, third, age-matched, healthy control group was also included. The two patient groups were mildly demented and could not be distinguished from each other by traditional tests of cognitive function. A different pattern of performance emerged in the two groups on a computerised test of spatial working memory, which is a self-ordered pointing task requiring the subject to search for hidden tokens. An analysis of the pattern of errors revealed that the SDLT group made more of both possible types of error ("Within Search" and "Between Search") than the SDAT group. Neither patient groups' performance differed from each other when assessed on a computerised Corsi spatial span task. A measure of planning ability was obtained by examining search strategies. Although an index previously developed to measure the subject's use of a particular strategy in the spatial working memory task failed to detect any differences between the three groups, a novel index was calculated which focuses on performance within a search, and this revealed deficits in both demented groups. Since the two patient groups differed from each other in the spatial working memory, but not the Corsi spatial span, task, it is suggested that the differences between the two demented groups are not due to a specific mnemonic impairment, but reflect dysfunctions in non-mnemonic processes mediated by fronto-subcortical circuits, which are more severely damaged in SDLT.

  17. Structural and optical studies of nano-structure silica gel doped with different rare earth elements, prepared by two different sol -gel techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battisha, I.K.; El Beyally, A.; Seliman, S.I.; El Nahrawi, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Structural and optical characteristics of pure silica gel (silica-xerogel, SiO 2 ) and doped with different concentrations ranging from 1 up to 6% of some rare earth (REEs) ions such as, praseodymium Pr +3 ,and Europium Eu +3 , Erbium Er +3 and Holmium Ho +3 , ions, in the form of thin film and monolith materials were prepared by sol - gel technique, Using tetra-ethoxysilane as precursor materials, which are of particular interest for sol-gel integrated optics applications. Some structural and optical features of sol-gel derived monolith and thin films are analyzed and compared, namely the structure of nano-particle monolith and thin film silica-gel samples, based on X-ray diffraction (XRD). The types of structural information obtainable are compared in detail. It is show that the XRD spectra of a-cristobalite are obtained for the two type materials and even by doping with the four REEs ions. Optical measurements of monolith and thin films were also studied and compared, the normal transmission and specular reflection were measured. The refractive index were calculated and discussed

  18. Structure and agency: reflections from an exploratory study of Vancouver indoor sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Halpin, Michael; Atchison, Chris; Johnston, Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    Sex work research continues to be characterised by debates around decriminalization. Central to these debates are claims about the agency of those involved in the sex trade. Some researchers argue that individuals involved in the sex trade are victims of structural and interpersonal constraint, whilst others depict them as workers exercising choice. Drawing on structure-agency theory, a review of legal and media accounts of the sex trade and qualitative interviews with 21 indoor sex workers in Vancouver, Canada, we argue that both of these perspectives are insufficient. Rather than reducing the sex trade to part of a binary, we suggest that it is necessary to analyse sex work through the complex interplay of both structure and agency. Specifically, structural analyses undercover the numerous ways that sex workers are controlled, observed and influenced whilst agency perspectives elicit the means that sex workers continue to exercise control in spite of disadvantage. While we do not finalise decriminalisation debates, we do critique current Canadian laws for the lack of responsiveness to the lives of sex workers and their exploitative and contradictory stance on sex work.

  19. Decomposition of Diffuse Reflectance Images - Features for Monitoring Structure in Turbid Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Andersen, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering in turbid media can be related to the microstructure of media. Thus, light scattering can potentially be used for process control of products where the structure is a key component. However process control requires robust and sensitive input data to function properly. In this study...

  20. Adapting Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Assess Social Work Students' Performance and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Marion; Regehr, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen; Katz, Ellen; Mylopoulos, Maria; Regehr, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The development of standardized, valid, and reliable methods for assessment of students' practice competence continues to be a challenge for social work educators. In this study, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), originally used in medicine to assess performance through simulated interviews, was adapted for social work to…

  1. Soil-borne microbial functional structure across different land uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramae, Eiko E; Zhou, Jizhong Z; Kowalchuk, George A; van Veen, Johannes A

    2014-01-01

    Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate regression tree analysis of soil physicochemical properties and genes detected by functional microarrays, the main factor that explained the different microbial community functional structures was C : N ratio. C : N ratio showed a significant positive correlation with clay and soil pH. Fields with low C : N ratio had an overrepresentation of genes for carbon degradation, carbon fixation, metal reductase, and organic remediation categories, while fields with high C : N ratio had an overrepresentation of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfate reductase, methane oxidation, nitrification, and nitrogen fixation. The most abundant genes related to carbon degradation comprised bacterial and fungal cellulases; bacterial and fungal chitinases; fungal laccases; and bacterial, fungal, and oomycete polygalacturonases. The high number of genes related to organic remediation was probably driven by high phosphate content, while the high number of genes for nitrification was probably explained by high total nitrogen content. The functional gene diversity found in different soils did not group the sites accordingly to land management. Rather, the soil factors, C : N ratio, phosphate, and total N, were the main factors driving the differences in functional genes across the fields examined.

  2. Soil-Borne Microbial Functional Structure across Different Land Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko E. Kuramae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate regression tree analysis of soil physicochemical properties and genes detected by functional microarrays, the main factor that explained the different microbial community functional structures was C : N ratio. C : N ratio showed a significant positive correlation with clay and soil pH. Fields with low C : N ratio had an overrepresentation of genes for carbon degradation, carbon fixation, metal reductase, and organic remediation categories, while fields with high C : N ratio had an overrepresentation of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfate reductase, methane oxidation, nitrification, and nitrogen fixation. The most abundant genes related to carbon degradation comprised bacterial and fungal cellulases; bacterial and fungal chitinases; fungal laccases; and bacterial, fungal, and oomycete polygalacturonases. The high number of genes related to organic remediation was probably driven by high phosphate content, while the high number of genes for nitrification was probably explained by high total nitrogen content. The functional gene diversity found in different soils did not group the sites accordingly to land management. Rather, the soil factors, C : N ratio, phosphate, and total N, were the main factors driving the differences in functional genes across the fields examined.

  3. Recent Trends in Local-Scale Marine Biodiversity Reflect Community Structure and Human Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Robin; O'Connor, Mary I; Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Dunic, Jillian; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Hensel, Marc J S; Kearns, Patrick J

    2015-07-20

    The modern biodiversity crisis reflects global extinctions and local introductions. Human activities have dramatically altered rates and scales of processes that regulate biodiversity at local scales. Reconciling the threat of global biodiversity loss with recent evidence of stability at fine spatial scales is a major challenge and requires a nuanced approach to biodiversity change that integrates ecological understanding. With a new dataset of 471 diversity time series spanning from 1962 to 2015 from marine coastal ecosystems, we tested (1) whether biodiversity changed at local scales in recent decades, and (2) whether we can ignore ecological context (e.g., proximate human impacts, trophic level, spatial scale) and still make informative inferences regarding local change. We detected a predominant signal of increasing species richness in coastal systems since 1962 in our dataset, though net species loss was associated with localized effects of anthropogenic impacts. Our geographically extensive dataset is unlikely to be a random sample of marine coastal habitats; impacted sites (3% of our time series) were underrepresented relative to their global presence. These local-scale patterns do not contradict the prospect of accelerating global extinctions but are consistent with local species loss in areas with direct human impacts and increases in diversity due to invasions and range expansions in lower impact areas. Attempts to detect and understand local biodiversity trends are incomplete without information on local human activities and ecological context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electronic structure of graphene on Ni surfaces with different orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudikov, D.A.; Zhizhin, E.V.; Rybkin, A.G.; Rybkina, A.A.; Zhukov, Y.M.; Vilkov, O. Yu.; Shikin, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of the graphene, synthesized by propylene cracking on Ni surfaces with different orientation: (100) and (111), using angle-resolved photoemission, has been performed. It has been shown that graphene on Ni(111) had a perfect lateral structure due to consistency of their lattices, whereas graphene/Ni(100) consisted of a lot of domains. For both systems electronic structure was quite similar and demonstrated a strong bonding of graphene to the underlying Ni surface. After Au intercalation the electronic structure of graphene in both systems was shifted to the Fermi level and became linear in the vicinity of the K point of the Brillouin zone. - Highlights: • Graphene on Ni(111) is well-ordered, whereas on Ni(100) – multi-domain. • Graphene on Ni(111) and Ni(100) is strongly bonded with substrate. • Intercalation of Au atoms restores the linearity in dispersion and makes graphene quasi-free on both Ni(100) and Ni(111).

  5. Reflections on hard X-ray photon-in/photon-out spectroscopy for electronic structure studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzel, Pieter, E-mail: glatzel@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Weng, Tsu-Chien; Kvashnina, Kristina; Swarbrick, Janine; Sikora, Marcin [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Gallo, Erik [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Department of Inorganic, Physical and Materials Chemistry, INSTM Reference Center and NIS Centre of Excellence, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Smolentsev, Nikolay [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Research Center for Nanoscale Structure of Matter, Southern Federal University, str. Zorge 5, 344090 Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Mori, Roberto Alonso [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Overview of some recent developments in hard X-ray RXES/RIXS. ► Evaluation of spectral line broadening in RXES/RIXS. ► Modelling of RXES/RIXS by ground state DFT calculations. ► Discussion on when HERFD provides a good approximation to XAS. -- Abstract: An increasing community of researchers in various fields of natural sciences is combining X-ray absorption with X-ray emission spectroscopy (XAS–XES) to study electronic structure. With the applications becoming more diverse, the objectives and the requirements in photon-in/photon-out spectroscopy are becoming broader. It is desirable to find simple experimental protocols, robust data reduction and theoretical tools that help the experimentalist to understand their data and learn about the electronic structure. This article presents a collection of considerations on non-resonant and resonant XES with the aim to guide the experimentalist to make good use of this technique.

  6. New structural studies of liquid crystal by reflectivity and resonant X-ray diffraction; Nouvelles etudes structurales de cristaux liquides par reflectivite et diffraction resonante des rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, P

    2007-04-15

    This memory presents three structural studies of smectic Liquid Crystals by reflectivity and resonant diffraction of X-rays. It is divided in five chapters. In the first a short introduction to Liquid Crystals is given. In particular, the smectic phases that are the object of this study are presented. The second chapter is consecrated to the X-ray experimental techniques that were used in this work. The three last chapters present the works on which this thesis can be divided. Chapter three demonstrates on free-standing films of MHPOBC (historic liquid crystal that possesses the antiferroelectric sub-phases) the possibility to extend the technique of resonant X-ray diffraction to liquid crystals without resonant element. In the fourth chapter the structure of the B{sub 2} liquid crystal phase of bent-core molecules (or banana molecules) is elucidated by using resonant X-ray diffraction combined with polarization analysis of the diffracted beam. A model of the polarization of the resonant beam diffracted by four different structures proposed for the B{sub 2} phase is developed in this chapter. In the fifth chapter a smectic binary mixture presenting a very original critical point of phase separation is studied by X-ray reflectivity and optical microscopy. A concentration gradient in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the film seems to be induced by the free-standing film geometry. The results of a simplified model of the system are compatible with this interpretation.

  7. Real-time detection of dielectric anisotropy or isotropy in unconventional oil-gas reservoir rocks supported by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Wang, Jin; Zhao, Kun; Lű, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; He, Liping; Yang, Guozhen; Xiao, Lizhi

    2016-12-15

    Current geological extraction theory and techniques are very limited to adequately characterize the unconventional oil-gas reservoirs because of the considerable complexity of the geological structures. Optical measurement has the advantages of non-interference with the earth magnetic fields, and is often useful in detecting various physical properties. One key parameter that can be detected using optical methods is the dielectric permittivity, which reflects the mineral and organic properties. Here we reported an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique that is sensitive to the dielectric and surface properties and can be applied to characterization of reservoir rocks, such as shale and sandstone core samples extracted from subsurface. The layered distribution of the dielectric properties in shales and the uniform distribution in sandstones are clearly identified using the OIRD signals. In shales, the micro-cracks and particle orientation result in directional changes of the dielectric and surface properties, and thus, the isotropy and anisotropy of the rock can be characterized by OIRD. As the dielectric and surface properties are closely related to the hydrocarbon-bearing features in oil-gas reservoirs, we believe that the precise measurement carried with OIRD can help in improving the recovery efficiency in well-drilling process.

  8. Rainfall-induced landslide vulnerability Assessment in urban area reflecting Urban structure and building characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Cho, M.; Lee, D.

    2017-12-01

    Landslide vulnerability assessment methodology of urban area is proposed with urban structure and building charateristics which can consider total damage cost of climate impacts. We used probabilistic analysis method for modeling rainfall-induced shallow landslide susceptibility by slope stability analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. And We combined debris flows with considering spatial movements under topographical condition and built environmental condition. Urban vulnerability of landslide is assessed by two categories: physical demages and urban structure aspect. Physical vulnerability is related to buildings, road, other ubran infra. Urban structure vulnerability is considered a function of the socio-economic factors, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. The analysis was performed in a geographic information system (GIS) environment because GIS can deal efficiently with a large volume of spatial data. The results of the landslide susceptibility assessment were compared with the landslide inventory, and the proposed approach demonstrated good predictive performance. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  9. AFM observation of silk fibroin on mica substrates: morphologies reflecting the secondary structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Kazushi; Tsuboi, Yasuyuki; Itaya, Akira

    2003-09-01

    Bombyx mori silk fibroin was fixed on mica substrates by cast of aqueous fibroin solutions, and the microscopic morphologies of the samples were revealed by means of atomic force microscopy. By adjusting the method used to prepare the solution, we succeeded in forming quasi-2-dimensional thin films in which a network of fibroin molecules developed over the substrate. The film network consisted of fibroin in a random coil structure. The morphology of the network changed after thermal or methanol treatments, which are known to convert the secondary structure of fibroin from the random coil to the {beta}-sheet type. In both of these cases, the network morphology disappeared and characteristic island-like morphologies appeared. On the other hand, temporally evolving gelation occurred in a fibroin solution due to the formation of {beta}-sheet crystals. Such islands were also observable in a specimen prepared by the cast of the gel-containing solution. Based on these results, it was concluded that the islands consist of {beta}-sheet crystals. Of particular interest is the observation that all of the islands had a common thickness value of 1.3 nm. These morphologies are discussed in terms of the secondary structure of fibroin.

  10. Structural elements in achieving legislative tobacco control in NSW, 1955-95: political reflections and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Claire; Chapman, Simon

    2006-02-01

    To analyse structural factors revealed by politicians that shaped legislation on tobacco control in New South Wales, 1955-95. Parliamentary debates and other records were collected. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 17 Members of Parliament (MPs) who were significantly involved, and then analysed for structural elements. Tobacco industry lobbying had a significant but limited influence on policy making, being exerted largely through social interactions with executives and based on concerns about the economic impact on third parties. MPs saw health advocates' chief functions as (1) generating community concern about the issue and support for control measures, and (2) bringing any new information to political attention, providing pro-control arguments and data through the media. Factors that delayed tobacco control policies included: the conservative stance of Premiers and major parties, commitments to unanimous federal action, and rivalry between parties. Factors that facilitated control policies included: reforms that gave the Legislative Council increased power, the use of parliamentary committees, and backbencher and grass roots support. Tobacco control policy and legislation has been the product of political structures that gave power to those MPs in the least powerful positions--minor parties, Members of the Legislative Council (MLCs), backbenchers, women and party rank and file--rather than to major parties and their executives. Advocates should make the most of their access points to the political process, providing information, arguments and support and demonstrating public opinion in favour of further control.

  11. Stress measurements by multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) using different radiation wavelengths and different incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciszko, Marianna; Baczmański, Andrzej; Braham, Chedly; Wróbel, Mirosław; Wroński, Sebastian; Cios, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The presented study introduces the development of the multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) for residual stress determination. The proposed new methodology is aimed at obtaining more reliable experimental data and increasing the depth of non-destructive stress determination below the sample surface. To verify proposed method measurements were performed on a classical X-ray diffractometer (Cu Kα radiation) and using synchrotron radiation (three different wavelengths: λ = 1.2527 Å, λ = 1.5419 Å and λ = 1.7512 Å). The Al2017 alloy subjected to three different surface treatments was investigated in this study. The obtained results showed that the proposed development of MGIXD method, in which not only different incident angles but also different wavelengths of X-ray are used, can be successfully applied for residual stress determination, especially when stress gradients are present in the sample.

  12. Can market structure explain cross-country differences in health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Rybczynski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a well documented health disparity between several European countries and the United States. This health gap remains even after controlling for socioeconomic status and risk factors. At the same time, we note that the U.S. market structure is characterized by significantly more large corporations and "super-sized" retail outlets than Europe. Because big business is hierarchical in nature and has been reported to engender urban sprawl, inferior work environments, and loss of social capital, all identified as correlates of poor health, we suggest that differences in market structure may help account for some of the unexplained differences in health across Europe and North America. Using national level data, this study explores the relationship between market structure and health. We investigate whether individuals who live in countries with proportionately more small business are healthier than those who do not. We use two measures of national health: life expectancy at birth, and age-standardized estimates of diabetes rates. Results from ordinary least squares regressions suggest that, there is a large and statistically significant association between market structure (the ratio of small to total businesses and health, even after controlling income, public percent of health expenditure, and obesity rates. This association is robust to additional controls such as insufficient physical activity, smoking, alcohol disease, and air pollution.

  13. Interpretation of shallow crustal structure of the Imperial Valley, California, from seismic reflection profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severson, L.K.

    1987-05-01

    Eight seismic reflection profiles (285 km total length) from the Imperial Valley, California, were provided to CALCRUST for reprocessing and interpretation. Two profiles were located along the western margin of the valley, five profiles were situated along the eastern margin and one traversed the deepest portion of the basin. These data reveal that the central basin contains a wedge of highly faulted sediments that thins to the east. Most of the faulting is strike-slip but there is evidence for block rotations on the scale of 5 to 10 kilometers within the Brawley Seismic Zone. These lines provide insight into the nature of the east and west edges of the Imperial Valley. The basement at the northwestern margin of the valley, to the north of the Superstition Hills, has been normal-faulted and blocks of basement material have ''calved'' into the trough. A blanket of sediments has been deposited on this margin. To the south of the Superstition Hills and Superstition Mountain, the top of the basement is a detachment surface that dips gently into the basin. This margin is also covered by a thick sequence sediments. The basement of the eastern margin consists of metamorphic rocks of the upper plate of the Chocolate Mountain Thrust system underlain by the Orocopia Schist. These rocks dip to the southeast and extend westward to the Sand Hills Fault but do not appear to cross it. Thus, the Sand Hills Fault is interpreted to be the southern extension of the San Andreas Fault. North of the Sand Hills Fault the East Highline Canal seismicity lineament is associated with a strike-slip fault and is probably linked to the Sand Hills Fault. Six geothermal areas crossed by these lines, in agreement with previous studies of geothermal reservoirs, are associated with ''faded'' zones, Bouguer gravity and heat flow maxima, and with higher seismic velocities than surrounding terranes.

  14. Classification and Discrimination of Different Fungal Diseases of Three Infection Levels on Peaches Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Peaches are susceptible to infection from several postharvest diseases. In order to control disease and avoid potential health risks, it is important to identify suitable treatments for each disease type. In this study, the spectral and imaging information from hyperspectral reflectance (400~1000 nm was used to evaluate and classify three kinds of common peach disease. To reduce the large dimensionality of the hyperspectral imaging, principal component analysis (PCA was applied to analyse each wavelength image as a whole, and the first principal component was selected to extract the imaging features. A total of 54 parameters were extracted as imaging features for one sample. Three decayed stages (slight, moderate and severe decayed peaches were considered for classification by deep belief network (DBN and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA in this study. The results showed that the DBN model has better classification results than the classification accuracy of the PLSDA model. The DBN model based on integrated information (494 features showed the highest classification results for the three diseases, with accuracies of 82.5%, 92.5%, and 100% for slightly-decayed, moderately-decayed and severely-decayed samples, respectively. The successive projections algorithm (SPA was used to select the optimal features from the integrated information; then, six optimal features were selected from a total of 494 features to establish the simple model. The SPA-PLSDA model showed better results which were more feasible for industrial application. The results showed that the hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique is feasible for detecting different kinds of diseased peaches, especially at the moderately- and severely-decayed levels.

  15. Protein flexibility: coordinate uncertainties and interpretation of structural differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashin, Alexander A., E-mail: alexander-rashin@hotmail.com [BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States); LH Baker Center for Bioinformatics and Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 112 Office and Lab Building, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Rashin, Abraham H. L. [BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 22371 BPO WAY, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8123 (United States); Jernigan, Robert L. [LH Baker Center for Bioinformatics and Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 112 Office and Lab Building, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Criteria for the interpretability of coordinate differences and a new method for identifying rigid-body motions and nonrigid deformations in protein conformational changes are developed and applied to functionally induced and crystallization-induced conformational changes. Valid interpretations of conformational movements in protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography require that the movement magnitudes exceed their uncertainty threshold. Here, it is shown that such thresholds can be obtained from the distance difference matrices (DDMs) of 1014 pairs of independently determined structures of bovine ribonuclease A and sperm whale myoglobin, with no explanations provided for reportedly minor coordinate differences. The smallest magnitudes of reportedly functional motions are just above these thresholds. Uncertainty thresholds can provide objective criteria that distinguish between true conformational changes and apparent ‘noise’, showing that some previous interpretations of protein coordinate changes attributed to external conditions or mutations may be doubtful or erroneous. The use of uncertainty thresholds, DDMs, the newly introduced CDDMs (contact distance difference matrices) and a novel simple rotation algorithm allows a more meaningful classification and description of protein motions, distinguishing between various rigid-fragment motions and nonrigid conformational deformations. It is also shown that half of 75 pairs of identical molecules, each from the same asymmetric crystallographic cell, exhibit coordinate differences that range from just outside the coordinate uncertainty threshold to the full magnitude of large functional movements. Thus, crystallization might often induce protein conformational changes that are comparable to those related to or induced by the protein function.

  16. Generating structured light with phase helix and intensity helix using reflection-enhanced plasmonic metasurface at 2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifan; Du, Jing; Zhang, Jinrun; Shen, Li; Wang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Mid-infrared (2-20 μm) light has been attracting great attention in many areas of science and technology. Beyond the extended wavelength range from visible and near-infrared to mid-infrared, shaping spatial structures may add opportunities to grooming applications of mid-infrared photonics. Here, we design and fabricate a reflection-enhanced plasmonic metasurface and demonstrate efficient generation of structured light with the phase helix and intensity helix at 2 μm. This work includes two distinct aspects. First, structured light (phase helix, intensity helix) generation at 2 μm, which is far beyond the ability of conventional spatial light modulators, is enabled by the metasurface with sub-wavelength engineered structures. Second, the self-referenced intensity helix against environmental noise is generated without using a spatially separated light. The demonstrations may open up advanced perspectives to structured light applications at 2 μm, such as phase helix for communications and non-communications (imaging, sensing) and intensity helix for enhanced microscopy and advanced metrology.

  17. Preliminary Studies on the Reflectance Characteristics of graphene/SiO2 under Different Applied Voltages for Optical Modulation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, K. P.; Yam, F. K.; Abdalrheem, Raed; Ng, Y. Z.; Suhaimi, F. H. A.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.

    2018-04-01

    A preliminary study on the interband transition of graphene was done via reflectance spectra of graphene/SiO2 sample at various applied potential. Prior to that, Raman spectroscopy and four-point probe measurement was done on graphene/SiO2 sample. It was found that the sample consisted of monolayer graphene with sheet resistance around 402.32 Ω/□. Post-processing of the reflectance data lead to the plot of ratio of change in reflectance towards reflectance at 0 V (ΔR/R) against applied potential. From there, the ratio increases along with applied potential, indicative of higher absorption due to interband transition.

  18. Piezomodulated reflectivity on CdMnTe/CdTe quantum well structures as a new standard characterization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, E.; Schmitt, K.; Hommel, D.; Waag, A.; Bicknell-Tassius, R.N.; Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany))

    1993-01-30

    Piezomodulated reflectivity (PZR) measurements are reported for the first time as a standard characterization method for CdMnTe/CdTe single (SQW) and multiple (MQW) quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy on CdTe substrates 1 mm thick. Previously, modulation spectroscopy studies of II-VI structures required thin substrates which needed special preparation. In this paper we present studies of optical properties of CdMnTe/CdTe SQWs and MWQs using the PZR technique. The samples, mounted on a sinusoidally driven piezoelectric transducer are subjected to an alternating strain. Exploiting ''lock-in'' techniques, the first derivative of the reflectivity is measured directly. Specific electronic transitions, e.g. excitons, are well resolved in the modulated spectrum and can be easily identified. This makes PZR a very sensitive and powerful tool for the characterization of quantum well structures, and a useful complement to other standard techniques such as photoluminescence and excitation spectroscopy. (orig.).

  19. Portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system for polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshihide, E-mail: e0827@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Suzuki, Ryo; Beniya, Atsushi; Isomura, Noritake [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., Yokomichi 41-1, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Uehara, Hiromitsu; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Takakusagi, Satoru [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Kita 21-10, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan); Nimura, Tomoyuki [AVC Co., Ltd., Inada 1450-6, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-0061 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    A portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system was designed and built to investigate the detailed geometric structures of mass-selected metal clusters on oxide substrates by polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (PTRF-XAFS). This ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) sample storage system provides the handover of samples between two different sample manipulating systems. The sample storage system is adaptable for public transportation, facilitating experiments using air-sensitive samples in synchrotron radiation or other quantum beam facilities. The samples were transferred by the developed portable UHV transfer system via a public transportation at a distance over 400 km. The performance of the transfer system was demonstrated by a successful PTRF-XAFS study of Pt{sub 4} clusters deposited on a TiO{sub 2}(110) surface.

  20. Study of the Ouarzazate basin structure by seismic reflection: hydrogeological implications; Etude de la structure du bassin d'Ouarzazate par sismique reflexion: Implications hydrogeologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boummane, Kh.; Jaffal, M.; Kchikach, A.

    2009-07-01

    A large number of seismic reflection lines have been carried out in the Ouarzazate basin by the oil industry. The present study is concerned with the interpretation of a part of these data in order to characterize the structure of the Eocene aquifer system. The reflector corresponding to the base of this system, made up of sandstone and limestone, was first identified then digitized on each time-migrated seismic section. An isochrone map of this reflector was realized. The analysis of this map shows that the area under study is subdivided into two structurally contrasted domains. The first, the northern one, is intensively deformed; while the second, the southern one, is slightly folded. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the deep geological structure of the Ouarzazate basin. This allows us to better comprehend the functioning of the Eocene aquifer system, and to rationalize the future potential underground water exploration in the Ouarzazate basin. (Author) 16 refs.

  1. The Structure of Vocational Interests in Germany: Different Methodologies, Different Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gabriel; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The cross-cultural generalizability of vocational interest structures has received significant attention in recent years. This article adds to this research in four respects. First, data from a context that has not previously been investigated (Germany) was analyzed. Second, students at different stages of their educational career were examined.…

  2. Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura; Smith, Alex; Parker, Drew; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Elliott, Mark A; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-14

    Sex differences in human behavior show adaptive complementarity: Males have better motor and spatial abilities, whereas females have superior memory and social cognition skills. Studies also show sex differences in human brains but do not explain this complementarity. In this work, we modeled the structural connectome using diffusion tensor imaging in a sample of 949 youths (aged 8-22 y, 428 males and 521 females) and discovered unique sex differences in brain connectivity during the course of development. Connection-wise statistical analysis, as well as analysis of regional and global network measures, presented a comprehensive description of network characteristics. In all supratentorial regions, males had greater within-hemispheric connectivity, as well as enhanced modularity and transitivity, whereas between-hemispheric connectivity and cross-module participation predominated in females. However, this effect was reversed in the cerebellar connections. Analysis of these changes developmentally demonstrated differences in trajectory between males and females mainly in adolescence and in adulthood. Overall, the results suggest that male brains are structured to facilitate connectivity between perception and coordinated action, whereas female brains are designed to facilitate communication between analytical and intuitive processing modes.

  3. On the structural tax reform that is needed in Colombia. Reflections and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Espitia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the characteristics of an equitable and structural tax reform. Taxation does not only determine revenue, but it also affects the productive apparatus and equitability. In Colombia, tax pressure is very low and resources are insufficient to provide essential public goods. The duty system should contribute to the consolidation of a “new economy”, as it is called by the government, which boosts industry, agriculture, and tourism, and which is less dependent on fossil fuels. Taxes should favor equitability, and so direct taxation should increase in a progressive manner, with a rate which rises as income increases. The recently passed tax reform improves revenue, but favor neither the new economy nor equitability, since it gave too much weight to V.A.T. and very little weight to income or wealth tax.

  4. REFLECTIONS OF “-MIŞ BULUNMAK” STRUCTURES “-MIŞ BULUNMAK” YAPISI ÜZERİNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sibel BAYRAKTAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of the Turkish Language, its power of expression emerges more distinctively day by das as the researches incline to more capillary questions.The “-mış bulun-” structure has not been studied in most grammar books except from some limited evidences which mention it as paired with the “-mış ol-” structure that takes place in “priority verbs” subheading under the “complex verbs” category, expressing shortly that “-mış bulun-” implies a more sharp meaning than “-mış ol-”.This structure, as bears an absoluteness impliying voice in the written literature, has never been considered as having a regret meaning -mostly in the spoken language-also.We will question the regret expression meaning “if only wouldn’t be” in the “-mış bulun-” structure in this study. Türkçenin zenginliği, ifade kabiliyetinin yüksekliği, Türkçe ile ilgili yapılan araştırmaların gitgide daha kılcal meselelere eğilmesiyle günden güne daha açık olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. Gramer kitaplarının çoğunda hiç bahsi geçmeyen, sınırlı çalışmada da “karmaşık fiiller” (complex verb grubu içinde yer alan “öncelik fiilleri” alt başlığında ele alınan “-mış ol- yapısı ile eşleştirilmiş olan “-mış bulun-” yapısı: “-mış ol-“ yapısının anlamından daha keskin bir ifade taşır” şeklinde kısaca verilmektedir. Bu yapı, yazı dilinde bahsedildiği gibi “kesinlik” ifadesi taşırken -daha çok konuşma dilinde olmak kaydıyla- bir pişmanlık ifadesi de taşıdığının üzerinde durulmamıştır.Biz bu çalışmamızda “-mış bulun-“ yapısındaki “keşke olmasaydı” anlamına gelen pişmanlık anlam yüklemesi üzerinde duracağız.

  5. Trichomes: different regulatory networks lead to convergent structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Laura; Martin, Cathie

    2006-06-01

    Sometimes, proteins, biological structures or even organisms have similar functions and appearances but have evolved through widely divergent pathways. There is experimental evidence to suggest that different developmental pathways have converged to produce similar outgrowths of the aerial plant epidermis, referred to as trichomes. The emerging picture suggests that trichomes in Arabidopsis thaliana and, perhaps, in cotton develop through a transcriptional regulatory network that differs from those regulating trichome formation in Antirrhinum and Solanaceous species. Several lines of evidence suggest that the duplication of a gene controlling anthocyanin production and subsequent divergence might be the major force driving trichome formation in Arabidopsis, whereas the multicellular trichomes of Antirrhinum and Solanaceous species appear to have a different regulatory origin.

  6. Investigating performance of microchannel evaporators with different manifold structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Junye; Qu, Xiaohua; Qi, Zhaogang; Chen, Jiangping [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800, Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, the performances of microchannel evaporators with different manifold structures are experimentally investigated. Eight evaporator samples with 7 different designs of the I/O manifold and 5 different designs of the return manifold are made for this study. The performances of the evaporator samples are tested on a psychometric calorimeter test bench with the refrigerant 134A at a real automotive AC condition. The results on the variations of the cooling capacity and air temperature distribution of the evaporator due to the deflector designs in the I/O manifold and flow hole arrangements in the return manifold are presented and analyzed. By studying the KPI's for the performance of an evaporator, the design trade-off for an evaporator designer is summarized and discussed. (author)

  7. Soil-borne bacterial structure and diversity does not reflect community activity in Pampa biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupatini, Manoeli; Suleiman, Afnan Khalil Ahmad; Jacques, Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Würdig

    2013-01-01

    The Pampa biome is considered one of the main hotspots of the world's biodiversity and it is estimated that half of its original vegetation was removed and converted to agricultural land and tree plantations. Although an increasing amount of knowledge is being assembled regarding the response of soil bacterial communities to land use change, to the associated plant community and to soil properties, our understanding about how these interactions affect the microbial community from the Brazilian Pampa is still poor and incomplete. In this study, we hypothesized that the same soil type from the same geographic region but under distinct land use present dissimilar soil bacterial communities. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the soil bacterial communities from four land-uses within the same soil type by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and by soil microbial activity analyzes. We found that the same soil type under different land uses harbor similar (but not equal) bacterial communities and the differences were controlled by many microbial taxa. No differences regarding diversity and richness between natural areas and areas under anthropogenic disturbance were detected. However, the measures of microbial activity did not converge with the 16S rRNA data supporting the idea that the coupling between functioning and composition of bacterial communities is not necessarily correlated.

  8. Analysis of ADU structure obtained under different precipitation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramella, Jose L.; Esteban, Adolfo; Mendez De Leo, Lucia P.; Sassone, Ariel; Novara, Oscar E.; Boero, Norma L.; Leyva, Ana G.

    1999-01-01

    ADU is the nominal name for ammonium poly uranate. It is a very complex compound of polymeric structure, which may have, according to precipitation conditions, different chemical composition and crystallographic structure. ADU is used as uranium oxide precursor in the manufacture of fuel elements. In former papers it was proved that if ultrasound is applied during precipitation and digestion the characteristics of the final product (U 3 O 8 UO 2 ) improve. By studying ADU thermal decomposition obtained by ultrasonic application, it was intended to obtain its composition. Therefore, differential thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analyses were performed. Samples were taken from special points and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy and scanning. An experiment was also designed to identify the products released during heating. Results and conclusions obtained are presented in this work. (author)

  9. Structure of the clinical and geriatric depression: Similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Zdenka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies demonstrating the uniqueness of depression in old age are numerous, but conclusions on the fact if the problems of the elderly people cause depression or if they are a part of depression are not unique. The aim of this paper is to compare the structure of depression of old people without the history of mental illness and middle-aged people treated for depression. The sample consists of 82 healthy inmates of different Homes for the Aged and 78 patients diagnosed with some sort of affective disorder. A depression has been assessed with the shorten version of the MMPI D-scale. The structure of the geriatric and clinical depression has been compared with the method of maximum likelihood, over the matrix of co-variances of answers on the items on the depression scale. The results point out to the statistically significant difference in the structure of depression of the old and clinically depressed individuals. However, half of the items of the D-scale have significant loadings on the factor of depression in both groups. The essence of the depression in both samples is made of cognitive subject matters, depressive affect, decline of motivation and a negative estimate of one's basic abilities. Symptoms concerning low self-esteem, experiencing cognitive deficit, energy and impaired physical health have been significant in describing the clinical depression, while a feeling of reduced positive stimulation and the affective liability is typical for the depression of geriatric sample. The conclusion is that, despite the differences, there is a common core of symptoms that makes the essence of depression, apart from the samples.

  10. Wavelength tunable ultrafast fiber laser via reflective mirror with taper structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Huang, Chuyun; Liu, Ting; Gogneau, Noelle; Bourhis, Eric; Gierak, Jacques; Oudar, Jean-Louis

    2016-12-20

    Laser sources with a controllable flexible wavelength have found widespread applications in optical fiber communication, optical sensing, and microscopy. Here, we report a tunable mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene-based saturable absorber and a tapered mirror as an end mirror in the cavity. The phase layer in the mirror is precisely etched by focused ion beam (FIB) milling technology, and the resonant wavelength of the mirror shifts correspond to the different etch depths. By scanning the tapered mirror mechanically, the center wavelength of a mode-locked fiber laser can be continuously tuned from 1562 to 1532 nm, with a pulse width in the sub-ps level and repetition rate of 27 MHz.

  11. Ribosomal DNA sequence heterogeneity reflects intraspecies phylogenies and predicts genome structure in two contrasting yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Claire; James, Stephen A; Davey, Robert P; Dicks, Jo; Roberts, Ian N

    2014-07-01

    The ribosomal RNA encapsulates a wealth of evolutionary information, including genetic variation that can be used to discriminate between organisms at a wide range of taxonomic levels. For example, the prokaryotic 16S rDNA sequence is very widely used both in phylogenetic studies and as a marker in metagenomic surveys and the internal transcribed spacer region, frequently used in plant phylogenetics, is now recognized as a fungal DNA barcode. However, this widespread use does not escape criticism, principally due to issues such as difficulties in classification of paralogous versus orthologous rDNA units and intragenomic variation, both of which may be significant barriers to accurate phylogenetic inference. We recently analyzed data sets from the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project, characterizing rDNA sequence variation within multiple strains of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its nearest wild relative Saccharomyces paradoxus in unprecedented detail. Notably, both species possess single locus rDNA systems. Here, we use these new variation datasets to assess whether a more detailed characterization of the rDNA locus can alleviate the second of these phylogenetic issues, sequence heterogeneity, while controlling for the first. We demonstrate that a strong phylogenetic signal exists within both datasets and illustrate how they can be used, with existing methodology, to estimate intraspecies phylogenies of yeast strains consistent with those derived from whole-genome approaches. We also describe the use of partial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, a type of sequence variation found only in repetitive genomic regions, in identifying key evolutionary features such as genome hybridization events and show their consistency with whole-genome Structure analyses. We conclude that our approach can transform rDNA sequence heterogeneity from a problem to a useful source of evolutionary information, enabling the estimation of highly accurate phylogenies of

  12. Chlorophyll-a Algorithms for Oligotrophic Oceans: A Novel Approach Based on Three-Band Reflectance Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Lee, Zhongping; Franz, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    A new empirical algorithm is proposed to estimate surface chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl) in the global ocean for Chl less than or equal to 0.25 milligrams per cubic meters (approximately 77% of the global ocean area). The algorithm is based on a color index (CI), defined as the difference between remote sensing reflectance (R(sub rs), sr(sup -1) in the green and a reference formed linearly between R(sub rs) in the blue and red. For low Chl waters, in situ data showed a tighter (and therefore better) relationship between CI and Chl than between traditional band-ratios and Chl, which was further validated using global data collected concurrently by ship-borne and SeaWiFS satellite instruments. Model simulations showed that for low Chl waters, compared with the band-ratio algorithm, the CI-based algorithm (CIA) was more tolerant to changes in chlorophyll-specific backscattering coefficient, and performed similarly for different relative contributions of non-phytoplankton absorption. Simulations using existing atmospheric correction approaches further demonstrated that the CIA was much less sensitive than band-ratio algorithms to various errors induced by instrument noise and imperfect atmospheric correction (including sun glint and whitecap corrections). Image and time-series analyses of SeaWiFS and MODIS/Aqua data also showed improved performance in terms of reduced image noise, more coherent spatial and temporal patterns, and consistency between the two sensors. The reduction in noise and other errors is particularly useful to improve the detection of various ocean features such as eddies. Preliminary tests over MERIS and CZCS data indicate that the new approach should be generally applicable to all existing and future ocean color instruments.

  13. Glancing angle deposited Al-doped ZnO nanostructures with different structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, A., E-mail: yildizab@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara (Turkey); Cansizoglu, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Turkoz, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Electrical-Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Karabuk, Karabuk (Turkey); Abdulrahman, R.; Al-Hilo, Alaa; Cansizoglu, M.F.; Demirkan, T.M.; Karabacak, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructure arrays with different shapes (tilted rods, vertical rods, spirals, and zigzags) were fabricated by utilizing glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique in a DC sputter growth unit at room temperature. During GLAD, all the samples were tilted at an oblique angle of about 90° with respect to incoming flux direction. In order to vary the shapes of nanostructures, each sample was rotated at different speeds around the substrate normal axis. Rotation speed did not only affect the shape but also changed the microstructural and optical properties of GLAD AZO nanostructures. The experimental results reveal that GLAD AZO nanostructures of different shapes each have unique morphological, crystal structure, mechanical, and optical properties determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission, and reflectance measurements. Vertical nanorods display the largest grain size, minimum strain, lowest defect density, and highest optical transmittance compared to the other shapes. Growth dynamics of GLAD has been discussed to explain the dependence of structural and optical properties of nanostructures on the substrate rotation speed. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures with different shapes were fabricated. • They have unique morphological, crystal structure, and optical properties. • Vertical AZO nanorods show an enhanced optical transmittance.

  14. Study of structural differences between stoichiometric and congruent lithium niobate

    CERN Document Server

    Kling, A; Correia, J G; Da Silva, M F A; Diéguez, E; Agulló-López, F; Soares, J C

    1996-01-01

    The structural differences between stoichiometric and congruent (lithium deficient) lithium niobate single crystals were studied by RBS- and NRA-channeling as well as perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements. The d-PAC111Cd-PAC investigations point out that a second Li site can be detected in congruent material, while only one is present in stoichiometric. Channeling studies of different axes and the comparison of the results with computer simulations corroborated former indications that this additional lattice site can be attributed to the formation of ilmenite type stacking faults. A comparative study of the energy dependence of the dechanneling showed that a remarkable disorder is also present in the Nb sublattice of the congruent crystals and that these defects have a point-like character.

  15. The temperature dependence of the reflection intensities of the modulated composite structure Hg0.776(BEDT-TTF)SCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressprich, M.R.; Beek, C. van; Coppens, P.

    1994-01-01

    The temperature dependence between 30 and 300 K of the intensities of 24 reflections of the column-composite structure Hg 0.776 (BEDT-TTF)SCN [Wang, Beno, Carlson, Thorup, Murray, Porter, Williams, Maly, Bu, Petricek, Cisarova, Coppens, Jung, Whangbo, Shirber and Overmyer (1991). Chem. Mater. 3, 508-513; BEDT-TTF=3,4,3',4'-bis(ethylenedithio)-2,2',5,5'-tetrathiafulvalene] has been analyzed in terms of a model including phason temperature factors. The temperature dependence of the main and first-order satellite reflections is reasonably well reproduced in a refinement with 236 observations and four variables. The results are interpreted in terms of a temperature independence of the static displacement amplitudes. The room-temperature r.m.s. phason fluctuations of the mercury sublattice are 50(2) . This value implies that the mean mercury displacement amplitude will increase by ∝60% on lowering of the temperature to within the liquid-helium range. The thermal contraction on cooling is the same for the two sublattices. (orig.)

  16. Coupled and extended quintessence: Theoretical differences and structure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettorino, Valeria; Baccigalupi, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The case of a coupling between dark energy and matter [coupled quintessence (CQ)] or gravity [extended quintessence (EQ)] has recently attracted a deep interest and has been widely investigated both in the Einstein and in the Jordan frames (EF, JF), within scalar-tensor theories. Focusing on the simplest models proposed so far, in this paper we study the relation existing between the two scenarios, isolating the Weyl scaling which allows one to express them in the EF and JF. Moreover, we perform a comparative study of the behavior of linear perturbations in both scenarios, which turn out to behave in a markedly different way. In particular, while the clustering is enhanced in the considered CQ models with respect to the corresponding quintessence ones where the coupling is absent and to the ordinary cosmologies with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter (ΛCDM), structures in EQ models may grow slower. This is likely to have direct consequences on the inner properties of nonlinear structures, like cluster concentration, as well as on the weak lensing shear on large scales. Finally, we specialize our study for interfacing linear dynamics and N-body simulations in these cosmologies, giving a recipe for the corrections to be included in N-body codes in order to take into account the modifications to the expansion rate, growth of structures, and strength of gravity

  17. The genetic structure of populations from Haiti and Jamaica reflect divergent demographic histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Tanya M; Rodriguez, Carol E; Rodriguez, Rosa; Herrera, Rene J

    2010-05-01

    The West Indies represent an amalgamation of African, European and in some cases, East Asian sources, but the contributions from each ethnic group remain relatively unexplored from a genetic perspective. In the present study, we report, for the first time, allelic frequency data across the complete set of 15 autosomal STR loci for general collections from Haiti and Jamaica, which were subsequently used to examine the genetic diversity present in each island population. Our results indicate that although both Haiti and Jamaica display genetic affinities with the continental African collections, a stronger African signal is detected in Haiti than in Jamaica. Although only minimal contributions from non-African sources were observed in Haiti, Jamaica displays genetic input from both European and East Asian sources, an admixture profile similar to other New World collections of African descent analyzed in this report. The divergent genetic signatures present in these populations allude to the different migratory events of Africans, Europeans, and East Asians into the New World.

  18. The Different Methods of Displacement Monitoring at Loading Tests of Bridges or Different Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačič Boštjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By measuring the displacements and deformations at different structures we deal in the Faculty of Civil Engineering, transportation Engineering and Architecture in University of Maribor for about 20 years. At that time we measured over 600 structures. Most loading tests of bridges and Viaducts were made. The measurements of movements needed to be as precise and accurate as possible. To do that laboratory test of instruments were made to see which instrument gives us reliable results. Displacements can be determined by geodetic and physical methods, depends of the construction. The use of geodetic methods are still preferable. In the paper the measurements with the total station, the level and rotation level, photogrammetry and solutions on the field by physical methods with inductive transducers are presented. We need to measure displacements as quick as possible but efficiently because we can not repeat the measurements under the same conditions. Also the surveying on the bridge and in the lab with the comparison of methods is presented under the different hard terrain conditions - water beneath the construction, big height of the structure, unapproachability, large span structures.

  19. Structural and Tectonic Map Along the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Northern Gulf of California, Sonora Desert and Valle de Mexicali, Mexico, from Seismic Reflection Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escobar, M.; Suarez-Vidal, F.; Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Martin Barajas, A.; Pacheco-Romero, M.; Arregui-Estrada, S.; Gallardo-Mata, C.; Sanchez-Garcia, C.; Chanes-Martinez, J.

    2012-12-01

    Between 1978 and 1983, Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) carried on an intense exploration program in the northern Gulf of California, the Sonora Desert and the southern part of the Mexicali Valley. This program was supported by a seismic reflection field operation. The collected seismic data was 2D, with travel time of 6 s recording, in 48 channels, and the source energy was: dynamite, vibroseis and air guns. Since 2007 to present time, the existing seismic data has been re-processing and ire-interpreting as part of a collaboration project between the PEMEX's Subdirección de Exploración (PEMEX) and CICESE. The study area is located along a large portion of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the northern Gulf of California and the Southern part of the Salton Trough tectonic province (Mexicali Valley). We present the result of the processes reflection seismic lines. Many of the previous reported known faults were identify along with the first time described located within the study region. We identified regions with different degree of tectonic activity. In structural map it can see the location of many of these known active faults and their associated seismic activity, as well as other structures with no associated seismicity. Where some faults are mist placed they were deleted or relocated based on new information. We included historical seismicity for the region. We present six reflection lines that cross the aftershocks zone of the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 (Mw7.2). The epicenter of this earthquake and most of the aftershocks are located in a region where pervious to this earthquake no major earthquakes are been reported. A major result of this study is to demonstrate that there are many buried faults that increase the seismic hazard.

  20. In Situ Nondestructive Analysis of Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf Surface Structure by Polarization-Modulation Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki; Enami, Shinichi; Shimoaka, Takafumi; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-14

    The outermost surface of the leaves of land plants is covered with a lipid membrane called the cuticle that protects against various stress factors. Probing the molecular-level structure of the intact cuticle is highly desirable for understanding its multifunctional properties. We report the in situ characterization of the surface structure of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves using polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Without sample pretreatment, PM-IRRAS measures the IR spectra of the leaf cuticle of a potted K. pinnata plant. The peak position of the CH 2 -related modes shows that the cuticular waxes on the leaf surface are mainly crystalline, and the alkyl chains are highly packed in an all-trans zigzag conformation. The surface selection rule of PM-IRRAS revealed the average orientation of the cuticular molecules, as indicated by the positive and negative signals of the IR peaks. This unique property of PM-IRRAS revealed that the alkyl chains of the waxes and the main chains of polysaccharides are oriented almost perpendicular to the leaf surface. The nondestructive, background-free, and environmental gas-free nature of PM-IRRAS allows the structure and chemistry of the leaf cuticle to be studied directly in its native environment.

  1. Genetic algorithm using independent component analysis in x-ray reflectivity curve fitting of periodic layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiilikainen, J; Bosund, V; Tilli, J-M; Sormunen, J; Mattila, M; Hakkarainen, T; Lipsanen, H

    2007-01-01

    A novel genetic algorithm (GA) utilizing independent component analysis (ICA) was developed for x-ray reflectivity (XRR) curve fitting. EFICA was used to reduce mutual information, or interparameter dependences, during the combinatorial phase. The performance of the new algorithm was studied by fitting trial XRR curves to target curves which were computed using realistic multilayer models. The median convergence properties of conventional GA, GA using principal component analysis and the novel GA were compared. GA using ICA was found to outperform the other methods with problems having 41 parameters or more to be fitted without additional XRR curve calculations. The computational complexity of the conventional methods was linear but the novel method had a quadratic computational complexity due to the applied ICA method which sets a practical limit for the dimensionality of the problem to be solved. However, the novel algorithm had the best capability to extend the fitting analysis based on Parratt's formalism to multiperiodic layer structures

  2. Fabrication of corner cube array retro-reflective structure with DLP-based 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Mohammadreza

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the fabrication of a corner cube array retro-reflective structure is presented by using DLP-based 3D printing technology. In this additive manufacturing technology a pattern of a cube corner array is designed in a computer and sliced with specific software. The image of each slice is then projected from the bottom side of a reservoir, containing UV cure resin, utilizing a DLP video projector. The projected area is cured and attached to a base plate. This process is repeated until the entire part is made. The best orientation of the printing process and the effect of layer thicknesses on the surface finish of the cube has been investigated. The thermal reflow surface finishing and replication with soft molding has also been presented in this article.

  3. Structural analysis of oligopoly market based on the reflective game model by the example of telecommunication market in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna A. Biryukova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the possible structures of the oligopoly market distribution by the example of telecommunication industry in terms of the agentsrsquo reflexive behavior. nbsp Methods game theory economicmathematical modeling. Results the article states that one of the first objects in the game theory is an oligopoly market. Based on the analysis of game theory studies it was found that there is a need to achieve information equilibrium in reflexive games of three agents in the oligopoly market. To solve this problem we analyzed all possible representations of the agents leading to the set of games in the Russian telecommunications market for three agents OJSC ldquoMTSrdquo OJSC ldquoMegafonrdquo and OJSC ldquoVympelcomrdquo. Three reflection grades were studied 1 representations of the agent about other agents 2 representations of the agentrsquos perception of other agents about it and 3 representations of the agent about what its competitors think about the first agentrsquos opinion about the other two. As a result the general patterns were revealed of the expressions of conjectural variations in each case it was proved that further detailing of the reflection is not needed. As a result of calculations the models of informational equilibriums of the Russian telecommunication market were constructed for that the averaged values of the demand and cost functions parameters functions of cellular communication operators were taken. It was also revealed that in 2015 the actual telecommunication market in the Russian Federation qualitatively i.e. by the ratio of market shares was close to equilibrium on condition of first rank reflexive behavior for the case when the market leader OJSC ldquoMTSrdquo represents its counterparties ndash OJSC ldquoMegafonrdquo and OJSC ldquoVympelcomrdquo ndash as the driven agents. Scientific novelty the analytical expressions for the information equilibrium parameters issues and profits of the agents aggregate

  4. Adsorption of copper to different biogenic oyster shell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jie [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, New Campus, Minhou, Fujian Province 350108 (China); Clark, Malcolm [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, P.O. Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Yu, Yan, E-mail: yuyan_1972@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, New Campus, Minhou, Fujian Province 350108 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adsorption of copper to waste oyster shell occurs rapidly at pH 5.5. • Copper adsorbs to the different structures of oyster shell at different rates. • The prismatic layer dominates copper sorption rather than the nacreous layer. • SEM analysis shows a porous open network structure to the prismatic layer. • Surface ζ-potentials establish electrostatic attraction to drive copper sorption. - Abstract: The removal of copper from solution by oyster shell powder was investigated for potential wastewater treatment uses. In particular, adsorption behavior differences between the prismatic (PP) and nacreous (NP) shell layers, and how this affects copper removal, were investigated. Experimental results indicated that copper adsorption was highly pH-dependent with optimal copper removal at pH 5.5, where the powdered whole raw shell (RP) removed up to 99.9% of the copper within 24 h at a 10 mg/L initial copper concentration. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to analyze the isotherm PP, NP and RP data. These results showed a strong homogeneous Langmuir model for low initial copper concentrations (5–30 mg/L) to both RP and PP layer, while strong agreement with a heterogeneous Freundlich model for high initial copper concentrations (30–200 mg/L); nevertheless, a homogeneous Langmuir model provided the best fit for the more dense NP layer across the initial concentration range (5–200 mg/L). The distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) value of PP layer for each initial concentration investigated was substantially higher than the NP layer and it was also found that the PP layer dominated the adsorption process with an adsorption capacity of 8.9 mg/g, while the adsorption capacity of the NP layer was 2.6 mg/g. These differences are believed to be because of the more porous structure of the PP layer, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and

  5. Excimer Formation Dynamics of Dipyrenyldecane in Structurally Different Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anita; Pandey, Siddharth

    2017-12-07

    Ionic liquids, being composed of ions alone, may offer alternative pathways for molecular aggregation. These pathways could be controlled by the chemical structure of the cation and the anion of the ionic liquids. Intramolecular excimer formation dynamics of a bifluorophoric probe, 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)decane [1Py(10)1Py], where the fluorophoric pyrene moieties are separated by a long decyl chain, is investigated in seven different ionic liquids in 10-90 °C temperature range. The long alkyl separator allows for ample interaction with the solubilizing milieu prior to the formation of the excimer. The ionic liquids are composed of two sets, one having four ionic liquids of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation ([bmim + ]) with different anions and the other having four ionic liquids of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion ([Tf 2 N - ]) with different cations. The excimer-to-monomer emission intensity ratio (I E /I M ) is found to increase with increasing temperature in sigmoidal fashion. Chemical structure of the ionic liquid controls the excimer formation efficiency, as I E /I M values within ionic liquids with the same viscosities are found to be significantly different. The excited-state intensity decay kinetics of 1Py(10)1Py in ionic liquids do not adhere to a simplistic Birk's scheme, where only one excimer conformer forms after excitation. The apparent rate constants of excimer formation (k a ) in highly viscous ionic liquids are an order of magnitude lower than those reported in organic solvents. In general, the higher the viscosity of the ionic liquid, the more sensitive is the k a to the temperature with higher activation energy, E a . The trend in E a is found to be similar to that for activation energy of the viscous flow (E a,η ). Stokes-Einstein relationship is not followed in [bmim + ] ionic liquids; however, with the exception of [choline][Tf 2 N], it is found to be followed in [Tf 2 N - ] ionic liquids suggesting the cyclization dynamics of 1Py(10)1Py

  6. Adsorption of copper to different biogenic oyster shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jie; Clark, Malcolm; Yu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adsorption of copper to waste oyster shell occurs rapidly at pH 5.5. • Copper adsorbs to the different structures of oyster shell at different rates. • The prismatic layer dominates copper sorption rather than the nacreous layer. • SEM analysis shows a porous open network structure to the prismatic layer. • Surface ζ-potentials establish electrostatic attraction to drive copper sorption. - Abstract: The removal of copper from solution by oyster shell powder was investigated for potential wastewater treatment uses. In particular, adsorption behavior differences between the prismatic (PP) and nacreous (NP) shell layers, and how this affects copper removal, were investigated. Experimental results indicated that copper adsorption was highly pH-dependent with optimal copper removal at pH 5.5, where the powdered whole raw shell (RP) removed up to 99.9% of the copper within 24 h at a 10 mg/L initial copper concentration. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to analyze the isotherm PP, NP and RP data. These results showed a strong homogeneous Langmuir model for low initial copper concentrations (5–30 mg/L) to both RP and PP layer, while strong agreement with a heterogeneous Freundlich model for high initial copper concentrations (30–200 mg/L); nevertheless, a homogeneous Langmuir model provided the best fit for the more dense NP layer across the initial concentration range (5–200 mg/L). The distribution coefficient (K d ) value of PP layer for each initial concentration investigated was substantially higher than the NP layer and it was also found that the PP layer dominated the adsorption process with an adsorption capacity of 8.9 mg/g, while the adsorption capacity of the NP layer was 2.6 mg/g. These differences are believed to be because of the more porous structure of the PP layer, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and

  7. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) - a tool to obtain information about different air masses and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeling, M.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols are solid particles dissolved in the atmosphere and have strong influence in the earth climate. Their solid surfaces are the only atmospheric medium for condensation of water leading to cloud formation and ultimately to precipitation. Besides their role in cloud formation, the elemental composition of aerosols reveals useful information about air masses and their transport patterns as well as air pollution. The elemental composition can be considered like a fingerprint of an air mass telling the story about its origin and fate. The presence of Al, Ti and Fe for instance indicates a source located in a highly exposed soil or often desert region, whereas Ni, V and Pb can be traced back to anthropogenic activities like fuel combustion or industrial processes. Other important source regions are the oceans, which emit the main aerosol constituents Na, Cl, and S. The concentrations of these elements in the atmosphere are extremely low and long sampling times are necessary to gain reliable results with most of the common analysis techniques. In contrast to this total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), as a technique capable to cope with tiny sample amounts, offers the unique possibility to reduce collection times to a minimum of minutes to hours. Such short sampling times in turn render it possible to monitor different air masses either passing through a ground based station or -in the ideal case- flown into by a small research aircraft. Different aerosol samples were taken by aircraft during the second aerosol characterization experiment (ACE-2) with sampling times ranging from 15 minutes up to one hour. These filter samples were analyzed by TXRF for trace elements subsequently. Together with background information about back trajectories and size distribution covering the time of sampling the presence of different air masses could be detected. In another project, short-term samples in the Chicago/Lake Michigan area are collected to study the air mass

  8. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wanding

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. Results In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxomony. Conclusions We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct enzymes in the organism’s metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability. Further, our results

  9. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanding; Nakhleh, Luay

    2012-09-14

    It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxonomy. We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct) enzymes in the organism's metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability). Further, our results call for exploring new measures of modularity and network

  10. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojsin-Carter, Anja; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77 ± 0.09 and 0.33 ± 0.24 ng/ml respectively (p = 0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3 ± 568.5 and 2977.9 ± 214.1 ng/ml respectively (p cattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p = 0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Flow-mediated dilation and peripheral arterial tonometry are disturbed in preeclampsia and reflect different aspects of endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannaerts, Dominique; Faes, Ellen; Goovaerts, Inge; Stoop, Tibor; Cornette, Jerome; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Spaanderman, Marc; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Jacquemyn, Yves

    2017-11-01

    Endothelial function and arterial stiffness are known to be altered in preeclamptic pregnancies. Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding the best technique for assessing vascular function in pregnancy. In this study, we made a comprehensive evaluation of in vivo vascular function [including flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and arterial stiffness] in preeclamptic patients and compared them with normal pregnancies. In addition, we assessed the relation between vascular function and systemic inflammation. Fourteen patients with preeclampsia (PE) and 14 healthy pregnant controls were included. Endothelial function was determined by FMD and PAT and arterial stiffness by carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity and augmentation index. Systemic inflammation was assessed using mean platelet volume (MPV) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The reactive hyperemia index, assessed using PAT, is decreased at the third trimester compared with the first trimester in a normal, uncomplicated pregnancy ( P = 0.001). Arterial stiffness is significantly higher in PE versus normal pregnancy ( P function, obtained by FMD, is deteriorated in PE versus normal pregnancy ( P = 0.015), whereas endothelial function assessment by PAT is improved in PE versus normal pregnancy ( P = 0.001). Systemic inflammation (MPV and NLR) increases during normal pregnancy. FMD and PAT are disturbed in PE. Endothelial function, assessed by FMD and PAT, shows distinct results. This may indicate that measurements with FMD and PAT reflect different aspects of endothelial function and that PAT should not be used as a substitute for FMD as a measure of endothelial function in pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Production and release of acylcarnitines by primary myotubes reflect the differences in fasting fat oxidation of the donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Magnus; Chen, Shili; Zhao, Xinjie; Scheler, Mika; Irmler, Martin; Staiger, Harald; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin D; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer; Weigert, Cora

    2013-06-01

    Acylcarnitines are biomarkers of incomplete β-oxidation and mitochondrial lipid overload but indicate also high rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It is unknown whether the production of acylcarnitines in primary human myotubes obtained from lean, metabolically healthy subjects reflects the fat oxidation in vivo. Our objective was to quantify the acylcarnitine production in myotubes obtained from subjects with low and high fasting respiratory quotient (RQ). Fasting RQ was determined by indirect calorimetry. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken from 6 subjects with low fasting RQ (mean 0.79 ± 0.03) and 6 with high fasting RQ (0.90 ± 0.03), and satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Myotubes were cultivated with 125 μM (13)C-labeled palmitate for 30 minutes and 4 and 24 hours. Quantitative profiling of 42 intracellular and 31 extracellular acylcarnitines was performed by stable isotope dilution-based metabolomics analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Myotubes from donors with high fasting RQ produced and released significant higher amounts of medium-chain acylcarnitines. High (13)C8 and (13)C10 acylcarnitine levels in the extracellular compartment correlated with high fasting RQ. The decreased expression of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) in these myotubes can explain the higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. A lower intracellular [(13)C]acetylcarnitine to carnitine and lower intracellular (13)C16/(13)C18 acylcarnitine to carnitine ratio indicate reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity in these myotubes. Mitochondrial DNA content was not different. Acylcarnitine production and release from primary human myotubes of donors with high fasting RQ indicate a reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity and a higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. Thus, quantitative profiling of acylcarnitine production in human myotubes can be a suitable tool to

  13. Proterozoic structure, cambrian rifting, and younger faulting as revealed by a regional seismic reflection network in the Southern Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.J.; Drahovzal, James A.; Sargent, M.L.; McBride, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Four high-quality seismic reflection profiles through the southern Illinois Basin, totaling 245 km in length, provide an excellent regional subsurface stratigraphic and structural framework for evaluation of seismic risk, hydrocarbon occurrence, and other regional geologic studies. These data provide extensive subsurface information on the geometry of the intersection of the Cambrian Reelfoot and Rough Creek rifts, on extensive Proterozoic reflection sequences, and on structures (including the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex and Hicks Dome) that underlie a transitional area between the well-defined New Madrid seismic zone (to the southwest) and a more diffuse area of seismicity in the southern Illinois Basin. Our principal interpretations from these data are listed here in order of geologic age, from oldest to youngest: 1. Prominent Proterozoic layering, possibly equivalent to Proterozoic (???1 Ga) Middle Run Formation clastic strata and underlying (1.3-1.5 Ga) volcanic rocks of the East Continent rift basin, has been strongly deformed, probably as part of the Grenville foreland fold and thrust belt. 2. A well-defined angular unconformity is seen in many places between Proterozoic and Cambrian strata; a post-Grenville Proterozoic sequence is also apparent locally, directly beneath the base of the Cambrian. 3. We infer a major reversal in Cambrian rift polarity (accommodation zone) in the Rough Creek Graben in western Kentucky. 4. Seismic facies analysis suggests the presence of basin-floor fan complexes at and near the base of the Cambrian interval and within parts of a Proterozoic post-Grenville sequence in several parts of the Rough Creek Graben. 5. There is an abrupt pinchout of the Mount Simon Sandstone against crystalline basement beneath the Dale Dome (near the Texaco no. 1 Cuppy well, Hamilton County) in southeastern Illinois, and a more gradual Mount Simon pinchout to the southeast. 6. Where crossed by the seismic reflection line in southeast Illinois, some

  14. The Impact of Social and Cultural Difference in Relation to Job Loss and Financial Planning: Reflections on the Risk Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abbott

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on data collected as part of a research study which looks at how different social and cultural groups frame, and respond to, the risk of income and/or job loss. Writers like LASH, DOUGLAS and LUPTON have placed an emphasis on the importance of group membership and social categories in structuring response to different types of risk preferring to talk about "risk cultures" rather than "risk society". However, the writers acknowledge that there is little empirical research which explores this. As the first stage of our research, focus groups in two parts of the UK explored the relationship between risk and social difference with an emphasis on the risk of job or income loss. The groups were comprised of lesbian, gay and bisexual people; people from Black and Minority Ethnic backgrounds; Disabled people; and, people who actively practice a religion. Participants did not see strong links between their sexuality, race, or religion and their perceptions of, or responses to, risk. Income, and attitudinal factors were cited as being more important. Disabled people however were much more likely to make connections between being disabled and a range of barriers to responding to risky situations. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601160

  15. Hits to the left, flops to the right: different emotions during listening to music are reflected in cortical lateralisation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Schürmann, Kristian; Lim, Vanessa K; Parlitz, Dietrich

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms accompanying emotional valence judgements during listening to complex auditory stimuli, cortical direct current (dc)-electroencephalography (EEG) activation patterns were recorded from 16 right-handed students. Students listened to 160 short sequences taken from the repertoires of jazz, rock-pop, classical music and environmental sounds (each n=40). Emotional valence of the perceived stimuli were rated on a 5-step scale after each sequence. Brain activation patterns during listening revealed widespread bilateral fronto-temporal activation, but a highly significant lateralisation effect: positive emotional attributions were accompanied by an increase in left temporal activation, negative by a more bilateral pattern with preponderance of the right fronto-temporal cortex. Female participants demonstrated greater valence-related differences than males. No differences related to the four stimulus categories could be detected, suggesting that the actual auditory brain activation patterns were more determined by their affective emotional valence than by differences in acoustical "fine" structure. The results are consistent with a model of hemispheric specialisation concerning perceived positive or negative emotions proposed by Heilman [Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 9 (1997) 439].

  16. Lévy flight and Brownian search patterns of a free-ranging predator reflect different prey field characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David W; Humphries, Nicolas E; Bradford, Russell W; Bruce, Barry D

    2012-03-01

    1. Search processes play an important role in physical, chemical and biological systems. In animal foraging, the search strategy predators should use to search optimally for prey is an enduring question. Some models demonstrate that when prey is sparsely distributed, an optimal search pattern is a specialised random walk known as a Lévy flight, whereas when prey is abundant, simple Brownian motion is sufficiently efficient. These predictions form part of what has been termed the Lévy flight foraging hypothesis (LFF) which states that as Lévy flights optimise random searches, movements approximated by optimal Lévy flights may have naturally evolved in organisms to enhance encounters with targets (e.g. prey) when knowledge of their locations is incomplete. 2. Whether free-ranging predators exhibit the movement patterns predicted in the LFF hypothesis in response to known prey types and distributions, however, has not been determined. We tested this using vertical and horizontal movement data from electronic tagging of an apex predator, the great white shark Carcharodon carcharias, across widely differing habitats reflecting different prey types. 3. Individual white sharks exhibited movement patterns that predicted well the prey types expected under the LFF hypothesis. Shark movements were best approximated by Brownian motion when hunting near abundant, predictable sources of prey (e.g. seal colonies, fish aggregations), whereas movements approximating truncated Lévy flights were present when searching for sparsely distributed or potentially difficult-to-detect prey in oceanic or shelf environments, respectively. 4. That movement patterns approximated by truncated Lévy flights and Brownian behaviour were present in the predicted prey fields indicates search strategies adopted by white sharks appear to be the most efficient ones for encountering prey in the habitats where such patterns are observed. This suggests that C. carcharias appears capable of exhibiting

  17. Zooplankton structure in two interconnected ponds: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špoljar Maria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of zooplankton diversity, abundance and trophic structure was conducted during the summer period in pelagial zone on the longitudinal profile of the Sutla River Backwater. Investigated site consists of two interconnected basins: transparent Upper Basin with submerged macrophytes and turbid Lower Basin without macrophytes in the littoral zone. In the Upper Basin, abundance and diversity of zooplankton in the pelagial was higher in comparison to the Lower Basin, with prevailing species of genus Keratella as microfilter-feeder, and genera of Polyartha and Trihocerca as macrofilter-feeder rotifers. On the contrary, in the Lower Basin, crustaceans dominated in abundance. Microfilter-feeder cladoceran (Bosmina longirostris and larval and adult stages of macrofilter-feeder copepod (Macrocyclops albidus prevailed in the Lower Basin. Fish predation pressure was more pronounced in the pelagial of the Upper Basin, indicated by low cladoceran abundance in the surface layer. Although the studied basins were interconnected, results indicate significant (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05 differences in the zooplankton structure as a potential result of the macrophyte impact on environmental conditions and fish predation pressure.

  18. Brain structures and functional connectivity associated with individual differences in Internet tendency in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Li, Yadan; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Internet addiction (IA) incurs significant social and financial costs in the form of physical side-effects, academic and occupational impairment, and serious relationship problems. The majority of previous studies on Internet addiction disorders (IAD) have focused on structural and functional abnormalities, while few studies have simultaneously investigated the structural and functional brain alterations underlying individual differences in IA tendencies measured by questionnaires in a healthy sample. Here we combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) information to explore the neural mechanisms underlying IAT in a large sample of 260 healthy young adults. The results showed that IAT scores were significantly and positively correlated with rGMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, one key node of the cognitive control network, CCN), which might reflect reduced functioning of inhibitory control. More interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right DLPFC and the medial prefrontal cortex/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/rACC, one key node of the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher IAT scores, which might be associated with reduced efficiency of the CCN and DMN (e.g., diminished cognitive control and self-monitoring). Furthermore, the Stroop interference effect was positively associated with the volume of the DLPFC and with the IA scores, as well as with the connectivity between DLPFC and mPFC, which further indicated that rGMV variations in the DLPFC and decreased anticonnections between the DLPFC and mPFC may reflect addiction-related reduced inhibitory control and cognitive efficiency. These findings suggest the combination of structural and functional information can provide a valuable basis for further understanding of the mechanisms and pathogenesis of IA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fault-related-folding structures and reflection seismic sections. Study by seismic modeling and balanced cross section; Danso ga kaizaisuru shukyoku kozo no keitai to jishin tansa danmen. 2. Seismic modeling oyobi balanced cross section ni yoru study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamagawa, T; Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukui, R [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    It occasionally happens that there exists a part where reflection near the thrust is not clearly observed in a thrust zone seismic survey cross section. For the effective interpretation of such an occurrence, the use of geological structures as well as the reflected pattern is effective. When the velocity structures for a fold structure having a listric fault caused anticline (unidirectionally inclined with a backlimb, without a forelimb) and for a fault propagation fold are involved, a wrong interpretation may be made since they look alike in reflection wave pattern despite their difference in geological structure. In the concept of balanced cross section, a check is performed, when the stratum after deformation is recovered to the time of deposition, as to whether the geologic stratum area is conserved without excess or shortage. An excess or shortage occurs if there is an error in the model, and this shows that the fault surface or fold structure is not correctly reflected. Positive application of geological knowledge is required in the processing and interpreting of data from a seismic survey. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Adenovirus chromatin structure at different stages of infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniell, E.; Groff, D.E.; Fedor, M.J.

    1981-12-01

    The authors investigated the structure of adenovirus deoxyribonecleic acid (DNA)-protein complexes in nuclei of infected cells by using micrococal nuclease. Parental (infecting) DNA was digested into multimers which had a unit fragment size that was indistinguishable from the size of the nucleosomal repeat of cellular chromatin. This pattern was maintained in parental DNA throughout infection. Similar repeating units were detected in hamster cells that were nonpermissive for human adenovirus and in cells pretreated with n-butyrate. Late in infection, the pattern of digestion of viral DNA was determined by two different experimental approaches. Nuclear DNA was electrophoresed, blotted, and hybridized with labeled viral sequences; in this procedure all virus-specific DNA was detected. This technique revealed a diffuse protected band of viral DNA that was smaller than 160 base pairs, but no discrete multimers. All regions of the genome were represented in the protected DNA. To examine the nuclease protection of newly replicated viral DNA, infected cells were labeled with (/sup 3/)thymidine after blocking of cellular DNA synthesis but not viral DNA synthesis. With this procedure they identified a repeating unit which was distinctly different from the cellular nucleosomal repeat. The authors found broad bands with midpoints at 200, 400, and 600 base pairs, as well as the limit digest material revealed by blotting. High-resolution acrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the viral species comprised a series of closely spaced bands ranging in size from less than 30 to 250 base pairs.

  1. The Cultural Argument for Understanding Nature of Science. A Chance to Reflect on Similarities and Differences Between Science and Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, Christiane S.; Bliersbach, Markus; Marniok, Karl

    2017-07-01

    Understanding Nature of Science (NOS) is a central component of scientific literacy, which is agreed upon internationally, and consequently has been a major educational goal for many years all over the globe. In order to justify the promotion of an adequate understanding of NOS, educators have developed several arguments, among them the cultural argument. But what is behind this argument? In order to answer this question, C. P. Snow's vision of two cultures was used as a starting point. In his famous Rede Lecture from 1959, he complained about a wide gap between the arts and humanities on the one hand and sciences on the other hand. While the representatives of the humanities refer to themselves as real intellectuals, the scientists felt rather ignored as a culture, despite the fact that their achievements had been so important for Western society. Thus, Snow argued that as these intellectual cultures were completely different from each other, a mutual understanding was impossible. The first European Regional IHPST Conference took up the cultural view on science again. Thus, the topic of the conference "Science as Culture in the European Context" encouraged us to look at the two cultures and to figure out possibilities to bridge the gap between them in chemistry teacher education. For this reason, we put together three studies—one theoretical and two independent research projects (one dealing with creativity in science, the other with scientific laws and theories) which contribute to our main research field (promoting an understanding of NOS)—in order to address the cultural argument for understanding science from an educational point of view. Among the consented tenets of what understanding NOS implies in an educational context, there are aspects which are associated mainly with the humanities, like the tentativeness of knowledge, creativity, and social tradition, whereas others seem to have a domain-specific meaning, like empirical evidence, theories and laws

  2. On the Meaning of Formative Measurement and How It Differs from Reflective Measurement: Comment on Howell, Breivik, and Wilcox (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagozzi, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    D. Howell, E. Breivik, and J. B. Wilcox (2007) have presented an important and interesting analysis of formative measurement and have recommended that researchers abandon such an approach in favor of reflective measurement. The author agrees with their recommendations but disagrees with some of the bases for their conclusions. He suggests that…

  3. Obesity-related differences between women and men in brain structure and goal-directed behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eHorstmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the regulation of body weight are well documented. Here, we assessed obesity-related influences of gender on brain structure as well as performance in the Iowa Gambling Task. This task requires evaluation of both immediate rewards and long-term outcomes and thus mirrors the trade-off between immediate reward from eating and the long-term effect of overeating on body weight. In women, but not in men, we show that the preference for salient immediate rewards in the face of negative long-term consequences is higher in obese than in lean subjects. In addition, we report structural differences in the left dorsal striatum (i.e. putamen and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for women only. Functionally, both regions are known to play complimentary roles in habitual and goal-directed control of behavior in motivational contexts. For women as well as men, gray matter volume correlates positively with measures of obesity in regions coding the value and saliency of food (i.e. nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the hypothalamus (i.e. the brain's central homeostatic centre. These differences between lean and obese subjects in hedonic and homeostatic control systems may reflect a bias in eating behavior towards energy intake exceeding the actual homeostatic demand. Although we cannot infer from our results the etiology of the observed structural differences, our results resemble neural and behavioral differences well known from other forms of addiction, however, with marked differences between women and men. These findings are important for designing gender-appropriate treatments of obesity and possibly its recognition as a form of addiction.

  4. Detailed structure of the top of the melt body beneath the East Pacific Rise at 9°40'N from waveform inversion of seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. S.; Singh, S. C.

    1997-01-01

    We have applied waveform inversion to multichannel seismic reflection data collected at the East Pacific Rise at 9°40'N in order to determine the precise velocity structure of the magma body causing the axial magma chamber reflection. Our analysis supports the idea of a molten sill as previously suggested from forward modeling of seismic data from this location. Our inverted solution has a 30-m-thick sill with a P wave seismic velocity of 2.6 km s-1. Although not well constrained by the data we believe that the S wave velocity in the sill is not significantly different from 0.0 km s-1. The low P- and S wave velocities in the sill imply that it contains less than 30% crystals. The molten sill is underlain by a velocity gradient in which the P wave velocity increases from 2.6 to 3.5 km s-1 over a vertical distance of 50-m. The shape of our velocity-depth profile implies that accretion of material to the roof of the sill is minor compared to accretion to the floor. The underlying velocity gradient zone may represent crystal settling under gravity. We suggest that only material from the 30-m-thick layer can erupt.

  5. Magnitude differences in agronomic, chemical, nutritional, and structural features among different varieties of forage corn grown on dry land and irrigated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Abeysekara, Samen; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-03-11

    In this study, eight varieties of corn forage grown in semiarid western Canada (including Pioneer P2501, Pioneer P39m26, Pioneer P7443, Hyland HL3085, Hyland HLBaxxos, Hyland HLR219, Hyland HLSR22, and Pickseed Silex BT) were selected to explore the effect of irrigation implementation in comparison with nonirrigation on (1) agronomic characteristics, (2) basic chemical profiles explored by using a near-infrared reflectance (NIR) system, and (3) protein and carbohydrate internal structural parameters revealed by using an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) system. Also, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on spectroscopic data for clarification of differences in molecular structural makeup among the varieties. The results showed that irrigation treatment significantly increased (P forages. Significant interactions of irrigation treatment and corn variety were observed on most agronomic characteristics (DM yield, T/ha, days to tasseling, days to silking) and crude fiber (CF) and ether extract (EE) contents as well as some spectral data such as cellulosic compounds (CELC) peak intensity, peak ratios of CHO third peak to CELC, α-helix to β-sheet, and CHO third peak to amide I. Additionally, the spectral ratios of chemical functional groups that related to structural and nonstructural carbohydrates and protein polymers in forages did not remain constant over corn varieties cultivated with and without water treatment. Moreover, different cultivars had different growth, structure, and nutrition performances in this study. Although significant differences could be found in peak intensities, PCA results indicated some structural similarities existed between two treated corn forages with the exception of HL3085 and HLBaxxos. In conclusion, irrigation and corn variety had interaction effects on agronomic, chemical, nutritional, and structural features. Further study on the optimum level of irrigation for corn forage

  6. The active engagement model of applied ethics as a structure for ethical reflection in the context of course-based service learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Kathryn C; Jensen, Gail M; Delany, Clare

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to explore the active engagement model as a tool to illuminate the ethical reflections of student physical therapists in the context of service learning in a developing country. The study participants were a convenience sample of six students. The study design is a case report using a phenomenological perspective. Data were collected from students' narrative writing and semi-structured interviews. The steps of the active engagement model provided the structural framework for student responses. The analysis process included open coding, selective coding, and member checking. Results showed the emergence of two main themes: 1) gathering rich detail and 2) developing independent moral identity. Students' descriptions of their relationships were detailed and included explanations about the complexities of the sociocultural context. Independent and deliberate agency was evident by the students' preparedness to be collaborative, to raise ethical questions, to identify ethically important aspects of their practice and to describe their professional roles. The students noted that the use of the model increased their engagement in the ethical decision-making process and their recognition of ethical questions. This case report illustrates attributes of the active engagement model which have implications for teaching ethical reflection: scaffolding for ethical reflection, use of narrative for reflection, reflection in action, and illumination of relevant themes. Each of these attributes leads to the development of meaningful ethical reflection. The attributes of this model shown by this case report have potential applications to teaching ethical reflection.

  7. Atomic structure of surface defects in alumina studied by dynamic force microscopy: strain-relief-, translation- and reflection-related boundaries, including their junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, G H; König, T; Heinke, L; Lichtenstein, L; Heyde, M; Freund, H-J

    2011-01-01

    We present an extensive atomic resolution frequency modulation dynamic force microscopy study of ultrathin aluminium oxide on a single crystalline NiAl(110) surface. One-dimensional surface defects produced by domain boundaries have been resolved. Images are presented for reflection domain boundaries (RDBs), four different types of antiphase domain boundaries, a nucleation-related translation domain boundary and also domain boundary junctions. New structures and aspects of the boundaries and their network are revealed and merged into a comprehensive picture of the defect arrangements. The alumina film also covers the substrate completely at the boundaries and their junctions and follows the structural building principles found in its unit cell. This encompasses square and rectangular groups of surface oxygen sites. The observed structural elements can be related to the electronic signature of the boundaries and therefore to the electronic defects associated with the boundaries. A coincidence site lattice predicted for the RDBs is in good agreement with experimental data. With Σ = 19 it can be considered to be of low-sigma type, which frequently coincides with special boundary properties. Images of asymmetric RDBs show points of good contact alternating with regions of nearly amorphous disorder in the oxygen sublattice. (paper)

  8. Do chondroitin sulfates with different structures have different activities on chondrocytes and macrophages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, André L; Aguiar, Jair A K; Correa da Silva, Flavio S; Michelacci, Yara M

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the activities of natural chondroitin sulfates (CS) with different structures on cultured chondrocytes and macrophages. CS were isolated from cartilages of bovine trachea (BT), porcine trachea (PT), chicken sternum (Ch) and skate (Sk). The preparations were 90-98% pure, with ∼1% proteins, nucleic acids and keratan sulfate contaminants. Structural analysis of these CS and of commercial chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate (C4S, C6S) have shown that most of their disaccharides are monosulfated, with varying proportions of 4- and 6-sulfation, and 2-7% non-sulfated disaccharides. Sk-CS and C6S contained detectable amounts of disulfated disaccharides. All the CS were polydisperse, with modal molecular weights of 26-135kDa. These CS had anti-inflammatory activities on both chondrocytes and macrophages, but with different efficiencies. On horse and human chondrocytes, they reduced the IL-1β-induced liberation of NO and PGE 2 , and on RAW 264.7 immortalized macrophage-like cell line, C4S, C6S, Ch and Sk-CS decreased the LPS-induced liberation of TNF-α, but did not affect IL-6. In contrast, on bone marrow derived macrophages, C4S, C6S, BT and PT-CS reduced the LPS-induced liberation of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and NO, indicating that the RAW response to CS was different from that of primary macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The size control of silver nanocrystals with different polyols and its application to low-reflection coating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keum Hwan; Park, O Ok [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Sang Hyuk, E-mail: imromy@krict.re.kr, E-mail: ookpark@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 19 Singsungno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-28

    The size of silver nanocrystals in polyol synthesis can be simply controlled by tuning the viscosity of the reaction medium such as ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol and 1,5-pentanediol. We found that a higher viscose medium (1,5-pentanediol) led to monodispersed smaller particles thanks to the slow addition of silver atoms into the nuclei. Size-controlled silver nanocrystals of 30 nm were obtained in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol to synthesize a low refractive index filler by coating with silica and subsequent etching of the silver core. The coated low-reflection layer from the hollow silica nanoparticles on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film can greatly reduce the reflection of the PET film from 10% to 2% over the entire visible region.

  10. A New Defected Ground Structure for Different Microstrip Circuit Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microstrip transmission line combined with a new U-headed dumb-bell defected ground structure (DGS is investigated. The proposed DGS of two U-shape slots connected by a thin transverse slot is placed in the ground plane of a microstrip line. A finite cutoff frequency and attenuation pole is observed and thus, the equivalent circuit of the DGS unit can be represented by a parallel LC resonant circuit in series with the transmission line. A two-cell DGS microstrip line yields a better lowpass filtering characteristics. The simulation is carried out by the MoM based IE3D software and in the experimental measurements a vector network analyzer is used. The effects of the transverse slot width and the distance between arms of the U-slot on the filter response curve are studied. This DGS is utilized for different microstrip circuit applications. The DGS is placed in the ground of a capacitive loaded microstrip line and a very low cutoff frequency is obtained. The DGS is adopted under the coupled lines of a parallel line coupler and an improvement in coupling coefficient is noticed. The proposed DGS is also incorporated in the ground plane under the feed lines and the coupled lines of a bandpass filter to improve separately the stopband and passband performances.

  11. Reduction reactions applied for synthesizing different nano-structured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque Brocchi, Eduardo de; Correia de Siqueira, Rogério Navarro [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Motta, Marcelo Senna [Basck Ltd. (United Kingdom); Moura, Francisco José, E-mail: moura@puc-rio.br [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Solórzano-Naranjo, Ivan Guillermo [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Different materials have been synthesized by alternative routes: nitrates thermal decomposition to prepare oxide or co-formed oxides and reduction by hydrogen or graphite to obtain mixed oxides, composites or alloys. These chemical-based synthesis routes are described and thermodynamics studies and kinetics data are presented to support its feasibility. In addition, selective reduction reactions have been applied to successfully produce metal/ceramic composites, and alloys. Structural characterization has been carried out by X-ray Diffraction and, more extensively, Transmission Electron Microscopy operating in conventional diffraction contrast (CTEM) and high-resolution mode (HRTEM), indicated the possibility of obtaining oxide and alloy crystals of sizes ranging between 20 and 40 nm. - Highlights: • The viability in obtaining Ni–Co, Cu–Al, Mn–Al co-formed nano oxides was evaluated. • Partial and complete H{sub 2} reduction were used to produce alloy, composite and Spinel. • XRD, TEM and HREM techniques were used to characterize the obtained nanostructures.

  12. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: extending the predictions to different years and different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggente, Matteo; Dillner, Ann M.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are major components of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), which has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, climate change, and reduced visibility. Typically OC and EC concentrations are measured using thermal-optical methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) from samples collected on quartz filters. In this work, we estimate TOR OC and EC using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE Teflon) filters using partial least square regression (PLSR) calibrated to TOR OC and EC measurements for a wide range of samples. The proposed method can be integrated with analysis of routinely collected PTFE filter samples that, in addition to OC and EC concentrations, can concurrently provide information regarding the functional group composition of the organic aerosol. We have used the FT-IR absorbance spectra and TOR OC and EC concentrations collected in the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network (USA). We used 526 samples collected in 2011 at seven sites to calibrate the models, and more than 2000 samples collected in 2013 at 17 sites to test the models. Samples from six sites are present both in the calibration and test sets. The calibrations produce accurate predictions both for samples collected at the same six sites present in the calibration set (R2 = 0.97 and R2 = 0.95 for OC and EC respectively), and for samples from 9 of the 11 sites not included in the calibration set (R2 = 0.96 and R2 = 0.91 for OC and EC respectively). Samples collected at the other two sites require a different calibration model to achieve accurate predictions. We also propose a method to anticipate the prediction error; we calculate the squared Mahalanobis distance in the feature space (scores determined by PLSR) between new spectra and spectra in the calibration set. The squared Mahalanobis distance provides a crude method for assessing the

  13. Reflection seismic characterization of the Grängesberg iron deposit and its mining-induced structures, central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Joachim; Malehmir, Alireza; Högdahl, Karin; Juhlin, Christopher; Persson Nilsson, Katarina

    2014-05-01

    Reflection seismic investigation has been conducted on the Grängesberg apatite iron deposit where over 150 Mt of iron ore were produced until the mine closed in 1989. The mine infrastructure with shafts and tunnels extend down to ca. 650 m below the surface. Both natural and mine induced fracture and fault systems are today water-filled (some of them extending to the surface). The disputed ore genesis of the apatite-iron ores and its exploration potential due to large remaining quantities once again attracts both scientific and commercial interests. A good understanding of the geometry of mineral deposits and their hostrock structures at depth is essential for optimizing their exploration and exploitation. In addition, deep understanding of the fracture system is vital if mining activity is resumed as these may impact the terrain stability and seismicity, which may put at risk new populated and industrial areas. To address some of these challenging issues related to the past mining and also to obtain information about the depth continuation of the existing deposit, two E-W oriented reflection lines with a total length of 3.5 km were acquired in May 2013 by Uppsala University. A weight drop mounted on an hydraulic bobcat truck (traditionally used for concrete breaking in demolition sector) was used to generate seismic signal. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, several impacts were generated at each shot point and stacked together. The seismic lines intersect at high angle the Grängesberg ore body and open pit, as well as several mining-induced faults. A combination of cabled and wireless receivers placed at every 10 m was used for the data recording. Use of wireless receivers was necessary as deploying cabled sensors was not possible due to city infrastructures, roads and houses. A careful analysis of the data suggested that several field-related issues such as (1) the crooked geometry of the lines (due to the available path and road network), (2

  14. Age Differences in Brain Activity during Emotion Processing: Reflections of Age-Related Decline or Increased Emotion Regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that physical health and cognitive abilities decline with aging, the ability to regulate emotion remains stable and in some aspects improves across the adult life span. Older adults also show a positivity effect in their attention and memory, with diminished processing of negative stimuli relative to positive stimuli compared with younger adults. The current paper reviews functional magnetic resonance imaging studies investigating age-related differences in emotional processing and discusses how this evidence relates to two opposing theoretical accounts of older adults’ positivity effect. The aging-brain model [Cacioppo et al. in: Social Neuroscience: Toward Understanding the Underpinnings of the Social Mind. New York, Oxford University Press, 2011] proposes that older adults’ positivity effect is a consequence of age-related decline in the amygdala, whereas the cognitive control hypothesis [Kryla-Lighthall and Mather in: Handbook of Theories of Aging, ed 2. New York, Springer, 2009; Mather and Carstensen: Trends Cogn Sci 2005;9:496–502; Mather and Knight: Psychol Aging 2005;20:554–570] argues that the positivity effect is a result of older adults’ greater focus on regulating emotion. Based on evidence for structural and functional preservation of the amygdala in older adults and findings that older adults show greater prefrontal cortex activity than younger adults while engaging in emotion-processing tasks, we argue that the cognitive control hypothesis is a more likely explanation for older adults’ positivity effect than the aging-brain model. PMID:21691052

  15. Proposal of the Tubular Daylight System Using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS Metalized with Aluminum for Reflective Tube Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Diogo Spacek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to reduce the consumption of electric energy, the possibility of using natural light for lighting through TDD (tubular daylight devices or TDGS (tubular daylight guidance systems appears. These natural luminaires are used in rooms where you want to save electricity and enjoy the benefits of natural light. The present work proposes the construction of a tubular system for the conduction of natural light that replaces aluminum with silver (currently marketed by several companies by polymer metallized with aluminum, offering a low cost. The polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, coated with aluminum by physical vapor deposition (ionization, was evaluated for some tests to verify characteristics of the structure and the metallized surface. After the tests, the construction of the reflective tube was performed and validated in a real scale of application. The results proved the technical viability of the proposed tube construction for the realization of direct sunlight for illumination using polymeric material. Although it has produced 35% less than the reference tube, it can be marketed at an estimated cost of 50% less.

  16. Organization Strategy and Structural Differences for Radical Versus Incremental Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    John E. Ettlie; William P. Bridges; Robert D. O'Keefe

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model of the organizational innovation process that suggests that the strategy-structure causal sequence is differentiated by radical versus incremental innovation. That is, unique strategy and structure will be required for radical innovation, especially process adoption, while more traditional strategy and structure arrangements tend to support new product introduction and incremental process adoption. This differentiated theory is strongly supported ...

  17. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  18. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  19. Effect of heparin calcium different concentrations on some physical properties and structure in polyacrylamide matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrazek, E.M.; Ibrahim, Hosam S.

    2010-01-01

    Films of polyacrylamide (PAAm) doped with different concentrations of heparin calcium, from 0.0 to 8 wt%, have been prepared by casting method. Studies were carried out utilizing X-ray, FT-IR, UV/VIS, DSC and DC electrical conduction to characterize the structural, optical and thermal properties of the films. Results revealed that the structural and chemical characterizations of PAAm films are affected by the addition of heparin calcium content. XRD spectra revealed that the amorphous phases increase with increase in filling levels of heparin (FLs). FT-IR analysis revealed that incorporation of heparin calcium leads to a small modification in the spectra of films. The optical absorption spectra in the UV/VIS region revealed structural variation increases with increase in concentration, which is reflected in the form of decrease in the energy band gap E g . Significant changes of DSC curves of the films suggest that strong interaction established between heparin calcium and PAAm molecules. The DC electric conduction data were interpreted on the basis of an intrachain one-dimensional interpolaron hopping model of Kuivalainen.

  20. Effectiveness evaluation of flood defence structures in different geomorphological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Stefano; Pazzi, Veronica; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    The flood risk in different geomorphological contexts of two less developed countries are investigated in order to evaluate the efficacy of the existing flood defence structures. In particular, a recent floodplain crossed by a wide meandering river and a narrow mountain valley flowed by creek with a torrential regime have been chosen for such analysis in North Albania and central Mexico, respectively. Both areas have been affected by disastrous floods in past years with considerable damages to properties and people. Some safety countermeasures have been performed over time, even if in a non-systematic way. For this reason, the current inclination to flood risk was assessed by means of a freeware software designed to perform one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling for a full network of natural and anthropic channels (HEC-RAS software by Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System). This new analyses take into account: i) the natural morphological variability along the river path, ii) the anthropic interventions on the fluvial dynamics, iii) the landscape appearance after the soil exploitation in the past years, and iv) all the changes induced by an exceeded informal urbanization. The reconstruction of the river and bordering areas geometric data was carried out according to the physical characteristics of the local environment: a bathymetric survey and near-river DGPS acquisitions for the open spaces of the Albanian floodplain, and traditional topographic methods for the highly vegetated Mexican valley. In both cases, the results show that the existing works are, on their own, poorly efficient in containing the predictable floods. Albanians levees seem underdimensioned, while the channelling works are too narrow to contain large amounts of water and solid transport as typical of the Mexican study area. Evidently, a new territorial planning is required in these areas, and some projects are now in place. However, it would be desirable that local authorities

  1. Bacterial community structure at the microscale in two different soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michelland, R.; Thioulouse, J.; Kyselková, Martina; Grundmann, G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2016), s. 717-724 ISSN 0095-3628 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : abundancy-occupancy relationship * bacteria community structure * frequency-occupancy relationship * microscale in soil * soil microbial diversity * soil structure Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  2. Carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon reflect utilization of different carbon sources by microbial communities in two limestone aquifer assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Nowak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC are used to indicate both transit times and biogeochemical evolution of groundwaters. These signals can be complicated in carbonate aquifers, as both abiotic (i.e., carbonate equilibria and biotic factors influence the δ13C and 14C of DIC. We applied a novel graphical method for tracking changes in the δ13C and 14C of DIC in two distinct aquifer complexes identified in the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE, a platform to study how water transport links surface and shallow groundwaters in limestone and marlstone rocks in central Germany. For more quantitative estimates of contributions of different biotic and abiotic carbon sources to the DIC pool, we used the NETPATH geochemical modeling program, which accounts for changes in dissolved ions in addition to C isotopes. Although water residence times in the Hainich CZE aquifers based on hydrogeology are relatively short (years or less, DIC isotopes in the shallow, mostly anoxic, aquifer assemblage (HTU were depleted in 14C compared to a deeper, oxic, aquifer complex (HTL. Carbon isotopes and chemical changes in the deeper HTL wells could be explained by interaction of recharge waters equilibrated with post-bomb 14C sources with carbonates. However, oxygen depletion and δ13C and 14C values of DIC below those expected from the processes of carbonate equilibrium alone indicate considerably different biogeochemical evolution of waters in the upper aquifer assemblage (HTU wells. Changes in 14C and 13C in the upper aquifer complexes result from a number of biotic and abiotic processes, including oxidation of 14C-depleted OM derived from recycled microbial carbon and sedimentary organic matter as well as water–rock interactions. The microbial pathways inferred from DIC isotope shifts and changes in water chemistry in the HTU wells were supported by comparison with in situ microbial community structure based on 16S rRNA analyses. Our findings

  3. Sparkling feather reflections of a bird-of-paradise explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2014-01-01

    Birds-of-paradise are nature's prime examples of the evolution of color by sexual selection. Their brilliant, structurally colored feathers play a principal role in mating displays. The structural coloration of both the occipital and breast feathers of the bird-of-paradise Lawes' parotia is produced

  4. OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the S Angolan & SE Brazilian margins from integrated quantitative analysis of deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Leanne; Kusznir, Nick; Horn, Brian

    2014-05-01

    normal oceanic basement seismic velocities and densities. Beneath the Sao Paulo Plateau and Florianopolis Ridge, joint inversion predicts crustal basement thicknesses between 10-15km with high values of basement density and seismic velocities under the Sao Paulo Plateau which are interpreted as indicating a significant magmatic component within the crustal basement. The Sao Paulo Plateau and Florianopolis Ridge are separated by a thin region of crustal basement beneath the salt interpreted as a regional transtensional structure. Sediment corrected RDAs and gravity derived "synthetic" RDAs are of a similar magnitude on oceanic crust, implying negligible mantle dynamic topography. Gravity inversion, RDA and subsidence analysis along the S Angolan ION-GXT CS1-2400 profile suggests that exhumed mantle, corresponding to a magma poor margin, is absent..The thickness of earliest oceanic crust, derived from gravity and deep seismic reflection data, is approximately 7km consistent with the global average oceanic crustal thicknesses. The joint inversion predicts a small difference between oceanic and continental crustal basement density and seismic velocity, with the change in basement density and velocity corresponding to the COB independently determined from RDA and subsidence analysis. The difference between the sediment corrected RDA and that predicted from gravity inversion crustal thickness variation implies that this margin is experiencing approximately 500m of anomalous uplift attributed to mantle dynamic uplift.

  5. The functional and structural neural basis of individual differences in loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Motterlini, Matteo; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Chierchia, Gabriele; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Tettamanti, Marco; Cappa, Stefano F

    2013-09-04

    Decision making under risk entails the anticipation of prospective outcomes, typically leading to the greater sensitivity to losses than gains known as loss aversion. Previous studies on the neural bases of choice-outcome anticipation and loss aversion provided inconsistent results, showing either bidirectional mesolimbic responses of activation for gains and deactivation for losses, or a specific amygdala involvement in processing losses. Here we focused on loss aversion with the aim to address interindividual differences in the neural bases of choice-outcome anticipation. Fifty-six healthy human participants accepted or rejected 104 mixed gambles offering equal (50%) chances of gaining or losing different amounts of money while their brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We report both bidirectional and gain/loss-specific responses while evaluating risky gambles, with amygdala and posterior insula specifically tracking the magnitude of potential losses. At the individual level, loss aversion was reflected both in limbic fMRI responses and in gray matter volume in a structural amygdala-thalamus-striatum network, in which the volume of the "output" centromedial amygdala nuclei mediating avoidance behavior was negatively correlated with monetary performance. We conclude that outcome anticipation and ensuing loss aversion involve multiple neural systems, showing functional and structural individual variability directly related to the actual financial outcomes of choices. By supporting the simultaneous involvement of both appetitive and aversive processing in economic decision making, these results contribute to the interpretation of existing inconsistencies on the neural bases of anticipating choice outcomes.

  6. Sex on the brain: Are gender-dependent structural and functional differences associated with behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Anna

    2017-01-02

    A substantial number of studies provide evidence documenting a variety of sex differences in the brain. It remains unclear whether sexual differentiation at the neural level is related to that observed in daily behavior, cognitive function, and the risk of developing certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. Some investigators have questioned whether the brain is truly sexually differentiated and support this view with several arguments including the following: (1) brain structural or functional differences are not necessarily reflected in appropriate differences at the behavioral level, which might suggest that these two phenomena are not linked to each other; and (2) sex-related differences in the brain are rather small and concern features that significantly overlap between males and females. This review polemicizes with those opinions and presents examples of sex-related local neural differences underpinning a variety of sex differences in behaviors, skills, and cognitive/emotional abilities. Although male/female brain differentiation may vary in pattern and scale, nonetheless, in some respects (e.g., relative local gray matter volumes) it can be substantial, taking the form of sexual dimorphism and involving large areas of the brain (the cortex in particular). A significant part of this review is devoted to arguing that some sex differences in the brain may serve to prevent (in the case where they are maladaptive), rather than to produce, differences at the behavioral/skill level. Specifically, some differences might result from compensatory mechanisms aimed at maintaining similar intellectual capacities across the sexes, despite the smaller average volume of the brain in females compared with males. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the SE Brazilian & S Angolan margins from integrated quantitative analysis of deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Horn, B.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of ocean-continent transition (OCT) structure, continent-ocean boundary (COB) location and magmatic type are of critical importance for understanding rifted continental margin formation processes and in evaluating petroleum systems in deep-water frontier oil and gas exploration. The OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the SE Brazilian and S Angolan rifted continental margins are much debated; exhumed and serpentinised mantle have been reported at these margins. Integrated quantitative analysis using deep seismic reflection data and gravity inversion have been used to determine OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type for the SE Brazilian and S Angolan margins. Gravity inversion has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning. Residual Depth Anomaly (RDA) analysis has been used to investigate OCT bathymetric anomalies with respect to expected oceanic bathymetries and subsidence analysis has been used to determine the distribution of continental lithosphere thinning. These techniques have been validated on the Iberian margin for profiles IAM9 and ISE-01. In addition a joint inversion technique using deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data has been applied to the ION-GXT BS1-575 SE Brazil and ION-GXT CS1-2400 S Angola. The joint inversion method solves for coincident seismic and gravity Moho in the time domain and calculates the lateral variations in crustal basement densities and velocities along profile. Gravity inversion, RDA and subsidence analysis along the S Angolan ION-GXT CS1-2400 profile has been used to determine OCT structure and COB location. Analysis suggests that exhumed mantle, corresponding to a magma poor margin, is absent beneath the allochthonous salt. The thickness of earliest oceanic crust, derived from gravity and deep seismic reflection data is approximately 7km. The joint inversion predicts crustal basement densities and seismic velocities which are

  8. [Reflection on the Differences and Similarities of Mental Health Care in Virginia and Taiwan: Geography, History, Culture, and Nurse Practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chueh-Fen; Tung, Ching-Chuan; Ely, Linda

    2016-12-01

    Sponsored by the pilot overseas internships project of the Ministry of Education, Taiwan, the authors and ten undergraduate students from Taiwan visited several mental health facilities in Virginia for one month. These facilities included the Catawba State Hospital, Salem Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Carilion Saint Albans Behavioral Health (New River Valley Medical Center), Warm Hearth Village, Adult & Child Family Counseling private outpatient clinic, the Free Clinic of the New River Valley, New Life Clubhouse, and Self-Government Program for Assertive Community Treatment. In-depth dialogue and participation in nursing care under the supervision of registered nurses facilitated the authors' reflection on mental health care and the roles and functions of Taiwanese nurse practitioners. The present article adopts a macro view in order to compare the related issues between Taiwan and Virginia, including: geographic features, history, culture of health-seeking behavior, healthcare insurance, and the relationships among various professionals. How these issues relate to social-cultural background and how the overall healthcare environment impacts upon the roles of nurse practitioners in Taiwan are rarely discussed in literature. We expect that this cross-cultural contrast and reflection will elicit a better understanding of how these factors have shaped and affected the roles of Taiwanese nurse practitioners. Further, suggestions about how to improve the nursing profession in Taiwan are presented.

  9. FT-IR reflection spectra of single crystals: resolving phonons of different symmetry without using polarised radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    METODIJA NAJDOSKI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR reflection spectra, asquired at nearnormal incidence, were recorded from single crystals belonging to six crystal systems: CsCr(SO42.12H2O (alum, cubic, K2CuCl2·2H2O (Mitscherlichite, tetragonal, CaCO3 (calcite, hexagonal, KHSO4 (mercallite, orthorhombic, CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum, monoclinic and CuSO4·5H2O (chalcantite, triclinic. The acquired IR reflection spectra were further transformed into absorption spectra, employing the Kramers-Kronig transformation. Except for the cubic alums, the spectra strongly depend on the crystal face from which they were recorded; this is a consequence of anisotropy. Phonons of a given symmetry (E-species, in tetragonal/hexagonal and B-species, in monoclinic crystals may be resolved without using a polariser. The spectrum may be simplified in the case of an orthorhombic crystal, as well. The longitudinal-optical (LO and transversal-optical (TO mode frequencies were calculated in the case of optically isotropic and the simplified spectra of optically uniaxial crystals.

  10. Lanthanoid titanate film structure deposited at different temperatures in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushkov, V.D.; Zaslavskij, A.M.; Mel'nikov, A.V.; Zverlin, A.V.; Slivinskaya, A.Eh.

    1991-01-01

    Influence of deposition temperature on the structure of lanthanoid titanate films, prepared by the method of high-rate vacuum condensation. It is shown that formation of crystal structure, close to equilibrium samples, proceeds at 1100-1300 deg C deposition temperatures. Increase of temperature in this range promotes formation of films with higher degree of structural perfection. Amorphous films of lanthanoid titanates form at 200-1000 deg C. Deposition temperature shouldn't exceed 1400 deg C to prevent the formation of perovskite like phases in films

  11. Two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures of different ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - stant and/or magnetic permeability (or in particular impedance) are periodic and the propagation of electromagnetic waves is forbidden at certain frequencies when allowed to pass through these structures. This is similar to the electronic band.

  12. But do you think I'm cool? Developmental differences in striatal recruitment during direct and reflected social self-evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Kathryn F; Moore, William E; Merchant, Junaid S; Kahn, Lauren E; Pfeifer, Jennifer H

    2014-04-01

    The current fMRI study investigates the neural foundations of evaluating oneself and others during early adolescence and young adulthood. Eighteen early adolescents (ages 11-14, M=12.6) and 19 young adults (ages 22-31, M=25.6) evaluated whether academic, physical, and social traits described themselves directly (direct self-evaluations), described their best friend directly (direct other-evaluations), described themselves from their best friend's perspective (reflected self-evaluations), or in general could change over time (control malleability-evaluations). Compared to control evaluations, both adolescents and adults recruited cortical midline structures during direct and reflected self-evaluations, as well as during direct other-evaluations, converging with previous research. However, unique to this study was a significant three-way interaction between age group, evaluative perspective, and domain within bilateral ventral striatum. Region of interest analyses demonstrated a significant evaluative perspective by domain interaction within the adolescent sample only. Adolescents recruited greatest bilateral ventral striatum during reflected social self-evaluations, which was positively correlated with age and pubertal development. These findings suggest that reflected social self-evaluations, made from the inferred perspective of a close peer, may be especially self-relevant, salient, or rewarding to adolescent self-processing--particularly during the progression through adolescence - and this feature persists into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. 3D reconstruction of pentacene structural organization in top-contact OTFTs via resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Raffaella; Nardi, Marco Vittorio; Toccoli, Tullio; Verucchi, Roberto; Dinelli, Franco; Gelsomini, Carolina; Koshmak, Konstantin; Giglia, Angelo; Nannarone, Stefano; Pasquali, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Herein, we describe the use of soft X-ray reflectivity at the carbon K-edge to study the molecular organization (orientation, structure, and morphology) of pentacene active films in a top-contact transistor geometry. This technique is not affected by sample charging, and it can be applied in the case of insulating substrates. In addition, the sampling depth is not limited to the near-surface region, giving access to buried device interfaces (metal/organic and dielectric/organic). Spectral lineshape simulations, based on ab-initio calculations using a realistic 3D layer-by-layer model, allow us to unravel the details of the molecular organization in all the specific and crucial areas of the active film, overcoming the limitations of conventional approaches. The tilt angle of the long molecular axis in the whole film is found to progressively decrease with respect to the substrate normal from 25° to 0° with the increasing film thickness. A full vertical alignment, optimal for in-plane charge hopping, is reached only after the complete formation of the first five monolayers. Remarkably, starting from the first one in contact with the dielectric substrate, all the monolayers in the stack show a change in orientation with the increasing thickness. On the other hand, at the buried interface with a gold top-contact, the molecules assume a flat orientation that only propagates for two or three monolayers into the organic film. Top-contact devices with the highest performances can thus be obtained using films of at least ten monolayers. This explains the observed thickness dependence of charge mobility in pentacene transistors.

  14. Tensor Analysis Reveals Distinct Population Structure that Parallels the Different Computational Roles of Areas M1 and V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Jeffrey S; Kaufman, Matthew T; Ryu, Stephen I; Shenoy, Krishna V; Cunningham, John P; Churchland, Mark M

    2016-11-01

    Cortical firing rates frequently display elaborate and heterogeneous temporal structure. One often wishes to compute quantitative summaries of such structure-a basic example is the frequency spectrum-and compare with model-based predictions. The advent of large-scale population recordings affords the opportunity to do so in new ways, with the hope of distinguishing between potential explanations for why responses vary with time. We introduce a method that assesses a basic but previously unexplored form of population-level structure: when data contain responses across multiple neurons, conditions, and times, they are naturally expressed as a third-order tensor. We examined tensor structure for multiple datasets from primary visual cortex (V1) and primary motor cortex (M1). All V1 datasets were 'simplest' (there were relatively few degrees of freedom) along the neuron mode, while all M1 datasets were simplest along the condition mode. These differences could not be inferred from surface-level response features. Formal considerations suggest why tensor structure might differ across modes. For idealized linear models, structure is simplest across the neuron mode when responses reflect external variables, and simplest across the condition mode when responses reflect population dynamics. This same pattern was present for existing models that seek to explain motor cortex responses. Critically, only dynamical models displayed tensor structure that agreed with the empirical M1 data. These results illustrate that tensor structure is a basic feature of the data. For M1 the tensor structure was compatible with only a subset of existing models.

  15. Tensor Analysis Reveals Distinct Population Structure that Parallels the Different Computational Roles of Areas M1 and V1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Seely

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cortical firing rates frequently display elaborate and heterogeneous temporal structure. One often wishes to compute quantitative summaries of such structure-a basic example is the frequency spectrum-and compare with model-based predictions. The advent of large-scale population recordings affords the opportunity to do so in new ways, with the hope of distinguishing between potential explanations for why responses vary with time. We introduce a method that assesses a basic but previously unexplored form of population-level structure: when data contain responses across multiple neurons, conditions, and times, they are naturally expressed as a third-order tensor. We examined tensor structure for multiple datasets from primary visual cortex (V1 and primary motor cortex (M1. All V1 datasets were 'simplest' (there were relatively few degrees of freedom along the neuron mode, while all M1 datasets were simplest along the condition mode. These differences could not be inferred from surface-level response features. Formal considerations suggest why tensor structure might differ across modes. For idealized linear models, structure is simplest across the neuron mode when responses reflect external variables, and simplest across the condition mode when responses reflect population dynamics. This same pattern was present for existing models that seek to explain motor cortex responses. Critically, only dynamical models displayed tensor structure that agreed with the empirical M1 data. These results illustrate that tensor structure is a basic feature of the data. For M1 the tensor structure was compatible with only a subset of existing models.

  16. Estimates of leaf area index from spectral reflectance of wheat under different cultural practices and solar angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Yoshida, M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of management practices and solar illumination angle on the leaf area index (LAI) was estimated from measurements of wheat canopy reflectance evaluated by two methods, a regression formula and an indirect technique. The date of planting and the time of irrigation in relation to the stage of plant growth were found to have significant effects on the development of leaves in spring wheat. A reduction in soil moisture adversely affected both the duration and magnitude of the maximum LAI for late planting dates. In general, water stress during vegetative stages resulted in a reduction in maximum LAI, while water stress during the reproductive period shortened the duration of green LAI in spring wheat. Canopy geometry and solar angle also affected the spectral properties of the canopies, and hence the estimated LAI. Increase in solar zenith angles resulted in a general increase in estimated LAI obtained from both methods.

  17. Bio-inspired, sub-wavelength surface structures for ultra-broadband, omni-directional anti-reflection in the mid and far IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Federico Lora; Gordon, Michael J

    2014-06-02

    Quasi-ordered moth-eye arrays were fabricated in Si using a colloidal lithography method to achieve highly efficient, omni-directional transmission of mid and far infrared (IR) radiation. The effect of structure height and aspect ratio on transmittance and scattering was explored experimentally and modeled quantitatively using effective medium theory. The highest aspect ratio structures (AR = 9.4) achieved peak transmittance of 98%, with >85% transmission for λ = 7-30 μm. A detailed photon balance was constructed by measuring transmission, forward scattering, specular reflection and diffuse reflection to quantify optical losses due to near-field effects. In addition, angle-dependent transmission measurements showed that moth-eye structures provide superior anti-reflective properties compared to unstructured interfaces over a wide angular range (0-60° incidence). The colloidal lithography method presented here is scalable and substrate-independent, providing a general approach to realize moth-eye structures and anti-reflection in many IR-compatible material systems.

  18. Investigation into the role of canopy structure traits and plant functional types in modulating the correlation between canopy nitrogen and reflectance in a temperate forest in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Quanzhou; Wang, Shaoqiang; Zhou, Lei

    2017-10-01

    A precise estimate of canopy leaf nitrogen concentration (CNC, based on dry mass) is important for researching the carbon assimilation capability of forest ecosystems. Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has been applied to estimate regional CNC, which can adjust forest photosynthetic capacity and carbon uptake. However, the relationship between forest CNC and canopy spectral reflectance as well as its mechanism is still poorly understood. Using measured CNC, canopy structure and species composition data, four vegetation indices (VIs), and near-infrared reflectance (NIR) derived from EO-1 Hyperion imagery, we investigated the role of canopy structure traits and plant functional types (PFTs) in modulating the correlation between CNC and canopy reflectance in a temperate forest in northeast China. A plot-scale forest structure indicator, named broad foliar dominance index (BFDI), was introduced to provide forest canopy structure and coniferous and broadleaf species composition. Then, we revealed the response of forest canopy reflectance spectrum to BFDI and CNC. Our results showed that leaf area index had no significant effect on NIR (P>0.05) but indicated that there was a significant correlation (R2=0.76, P0.05). On the contrary, removing the CNC effect, the partial correlation between BFDI and NIR was positively significant (R=0.69, Pforest types. Nevertheless, the relationship cannot be considered as a feasible approach of CNC estimation for a single PFT.

  19. Using mid-Infrared External Reflectance Spectroscopy to Distinguish Between Different Commercially Produced Poly[Methyl MethAcrylate] (PMMA) Samples - A Null Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Mario; Neel, Christopher; Lacina, David

    2017-06-01

    We report (null) results of experiments testing the hypothesis that mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy can be used to distinguish samples of poly[methyl methacrylate] (PMMA) obtained from different commercial suppliers. This work was motivated by the desire for a simple non-destructive and non-invasive test for pre-sorting PMMA samples prior to use in shock and high-strain-rate experiments, where PMMA is commonly used as a standard material. We discuss: our choice of mid-IR external reflectance spectroscopy, our approach to recording reflectance spectra at near-normal (θ = 0 + / - 5 degree) incidence and for extracting the wavelength-weighted absorption spectrum from the raw reflectance data via a Kramers-Krönig analysis. We employ extensive signal, which necessitates adopting a special experimental protocol to mitigate the effects of instrumental drift. Finally, we report spectra of three PMMA samples with different commercial pedigrees, and show that they are virtually identical (+ / - 1 % error, 95% confidence); obviating the use of mid-IR reflectance spectroscopy to tell the samples apart.

  20. Intra-annual dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in the cambium of mature conifer trees reflects radial growth demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Sonia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Treydte, Kerstin; Traversi, Maria Laura; King, Gregory M; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    The presence of soluble carbohydrates in the cambial zone, either from sugars recently produced during photosynthesis or from starch remobilized from storage organs, is necessary for radial tree growth. However, considerable uncertainties on carbohydrate dynamics and the consequences on tree productivity exist. This study aims to better understand the variation in different carbon pools at intra-annual resolution by quantifying how cambial zone sugar and starch concentrations fluctuate over the season and in relation to cambial phenology. A comparison between two physiologically different species growing at the same site, i.e., the evergreen Picea abies Karst. and the deciduous Larix decidua Mill., and between L. decidua from two contrasting elevations, is presented to identify mechanisms of growth limitation. Results indicate that the annual cycle of sugar concentration within the cambial zone is coupled to the process of wood formation. The highest sugar concentration is observed when the number of cells in secondary wall formation and lignification stages is at a maximum, subsequent to most radial growth. Starch disappears in winter, while other freeze-resistant non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) increase. Slight differences in NSC concentration between species are consistent with the differing climate sensitivity of the evergreen and deciduous species investigated. The general absence of differences between elevations suggests that the cambial activity of trees growing at the treeline was not limited by the availability of carbohydrates at the cambial zone but instead by environmental controls on the growing season duration.

  1. Structural and functional sex differences in the human hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D. F.; Chung, W. C.; Kruijver, F. P.; Hofman, M. A.; Ishunina, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain may be the basis not only for sex differences in reproduction, gender identity (the feeling of being male or female), and sexual orientation (heterosexuality vs homosexuality), but also for the sex difference in prevalence of psychiatric and neurological diseases ( Swaab

  2. NaTaO3 photocatalysts of different crystalline structures for water splitting into H2 and O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.-H.; Cheng, C.; Hu, C.-C.; Teng, H.

    2006-01-01

    Perovskite-type NaTaO 3 derived from a sol-gel synthesis exhibited a larger surface area and a remarkably higher photocatalytic activity in water splitting than the solid-state synthesized NaTaO 3 . The sol-gel and solid-state NaTaO 3 had different crystalline structures of monoclinic P2/m and orthorhombic Pcmn, respectively. Diffuse reflectance spectra showed that the sol-gel specimen had a slightly larger band gap. The band structure analysis revealed an indirect band gap for the sol-gel NaTaO 3 , contrary to the direct band gap of the solid-state one. The difference in the electronic structure and surface area explained the higher photocatalytic activity of the sol-gel NaTaO 3

  3. Effect of Different Structure Type Traffic On Railway Line Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleba Radosław

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article points to methods of analyzing railway traffic conditions based on two parameters: capacity and delay of trains. The impact of the differentiated railway type structure on the capacity of the railway line was presented. Particular attention has been paid to the assessment of commonly used simplifications in analyzes.

  4. Characteristics of aluminum alloy microplastic deformation in different structural states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seregin, G.V.; Efimenko, L.L.; Leonov, M.V. [Novosibirsk Pedagogical Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    The solution to the problem of improving the mechanical properties (including cyclic strength) of structural materials is largely dependent on our knowledge of the laws governing the development of microplastic deformations in them. The effect of heat and mechanical treatment on the elastoplastic properties and fatigue resistance of the commercial aluminum alloys AK4-1 and D16 is analyzed.

  5. Reflection on key competencies for lifelong learning: A structural analysis of teachers' study programmes in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Karamatić Brčić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Educating teachers on the initial level of the teachers' studies programmes' compulsory and elective courses allows these educators to acquire the competencies they need to transmit and teach the same information to children. In the realm of contemporary educational practices, acquiring competency in teaching work is part of a process of lifelong learning. This paper will analyse the structure of Croatian teachers' studies programmes, focusing on the name of the course and the teaching workload of the same, with an emphasis on the concept of key competencies for lifelong learning according to the European Framework of Reference. In this paper, compulsory and elective courses were classified according to the following competencies for lifelong learning: communication in the mother tongue, communication in foreign languages, mathematical competencies, basic competencies in science and technology, and digital competency. The results reveal that there are no statistically significant differences among Croatian teachers' studies programmes in terms of teaching workload, taking into account how competent the teacher is considered to be; there are statistically significant differences among the Croatian teachers' studies programmes in the possible teaching workload for elective courses because of teacher's perceived competency level. Despite the fact that all of the teachers' studies programmes bestow the same title upon graduates, the analysis of access to teacher studies in the  Republic of Croatia shows that the screening criteria are different in study programmes at different universities.

  6. Silicon supported lipid-DNA thin film structures at varying temperature studied by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and neutron reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, F; Castellano, C; Dell'Unto, F; Albinati, A; Congiu, A

    2011-11-01

    Non-viral gene transfection by means of lipid-based nanosystems, such as solid supported lipid assemblies, is often limited due to their lack of stability and the consequent loss of efficiency. Therefore not only a detailed thermo-lyotropic study of these DNA-lipid complexes is necessary to understand their interaction mechanisms, but it can also be considered as a first step in conceiving and developing new transfection biosystems. The aim of our study is a structural characterization of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC)-dimethyl-dioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB)-DNA complex at varying temperature using the energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXD) and neutron reflectivity (NR) techniques. We have shown the formation of a novel thermo-lyotropic structure of DOPC/DDAB thin film self-organized in multi-lamellar planes on (100)-oriented silicon support by spin coating, thus enlightening its ability to include DNA strands. Our NR measurements indicate that the DOPC/DDAB/DNA complex forms temperature-dependent structures. At 65°C and relative humidity of 100% DNA fragments are buried between single lamellar leaflets constituting the hydrocarbon core of the lipid bilayers. This finding supports the consistency of the hydrophobic interaction model, which implies that the coupling between lipid tails and hypo-hydrated DNA single strands could be the driving force of DNA-lipid complexation. Upon cooling to 25°C, EDXD analysis points out that full-hydrated DOPC-DDAB-DNA can switch in a different metastable complex supposed to be driven by lipid heads-DNA electrostatic interaction. Thermotropic response analysis also clarifies that DOPC has a pivotal role in promoting the formation of our observed thermophylic silicon supported lipids-DNA assembly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Value of Distributed Generation under Different Tariff Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Firestone, Ryan; Magnus Maribu, Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Distributed generation (DG) may play a key role in a modern energy system because it can improve energy efficiency. Reductions in the energy bill, and therefore DG attractiveness, depend on the electricity tariff structure; a system created before widespread adoption of distributed generation. Tariffs have been designed to recover costs equitably amongst customers with similar consumption patterns. Recently, electric utilities began to question the equity of this electricity pricing stru...

  8. Mapping leachates and subsurface structures using different geophysical methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Barkels, David; Åberg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The enrichment of ore produces large amounts of sulfur and metal-rich residual waste called tailings, which need to be deposited and stored for a long time. When the tailing is oxidized, large amounts of protons and metals are dissolved and diffuse to the groundwater. This poses a major environmental threat to biological life forms in the downstream ecosystem (Karltorp, 2008). In this study, leachate plumes and geological structures surrounding the tailings impoundment at the Kringelgruvan mi...

  9. Crustal structure beneath discovery bank in the South Scotia Sea from group velocity tomography and seismic reflection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuan, A.; Lodolo, E.; Panza, G.F.

    2003-09-01

    Bruce, Discovery, Herdman and Jane Banks, all located along the central-eastern part of the South Scotia Ridge (i.e., the Antarctica-Scotia plate boundary), represent isolated topographic reliefs surrounded by relatively young oceanic crust, whose petrological and structural nature is still the subject of speculations due to the lack of resolving data. In the Scotia Sea and surrounding regions negative anomalies of about 34% are reported in large-scale group velocity tomography maps. The spatial resolution (∼500 km) of these maps does not warrant any reliable interpretation of such anomalies. A recent surface wave tomography in the same area, performed using broad band seismic stations and 300 regional events, shows that in the period range from 15 s to 50 s the central-eastern part of the South Scotia Ridge is characterized by negative anomalies of the group velocities as large as 6. The resolution of our data set (∼300 km) makes it possible to distinguish an area (centered at 61 deg S and 36 deg W) with a crust thicker than 25 km, and a shear wave velocity vs. depth profile similar to that found beneath the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and southern South America. Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves are inverted in the period range from 15 s to 80 s to obtain shear wave velocity profiles that suggest a continental nature of Discovery Bank. The continental-type crust of this topographic relief is in agreement with the interpretation of a multi-channel seismic reflection profile acquired across this rise. Peculiar acoustic facies are observed in this profile and are interpreted as thinned and faulted continental plateau. The boundaries of the negative group velocity anomalies are marked by a high seismicity rate. Historical normal faulting earthquakes with magnitude around 7 are localised between the low velocity anomaly region in the eastern South Scotia Ridge and the high velocity anomaly region associated with the surrounding oceanic crust

  10. Preparation of composite micro/nano structure on the silicon surface by reactive ion etching: Enhanced anti-reflective and hydrophobic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu; Fan, Xiaoli; Chen, Jiajia; He, Siyu; Yi, Zao; Ye, Xin; Yi, Yougen

    2018-05-01

    A silicon substrate with micro-pyramid structure (black silicon) is prepared by wet chemical etching and then subjected to reactive ion etching (RIE) in the mixed gas condition of SF6, CHF3 and He. We systematically study the impacts of flow rates of SF6, CHF3 and He, the etching pressure and the etching time on the surface morphology and reflectivity through various characterizations. Meanwhile, we explore and obtain the optimal combination of parameters for the preparation of composite structure that match the RIE process based on the basis of micro-pyramid silicon substrate. The composite sample prepared under the optimum parameters exhibits excellent anti-reflective performance, hydrophobic, self-cleaning and anti-corrosive properties. Based on the above characteristics, the composite micro/nano structure can be applied to solar cells, photodetectors, LEDs, outdoor devices and other important fields.

  11. Residual Strength Characterization of Unitized Structures Fabricated Using Different Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, B. R.; Smith, S. W.; Johnston, W. M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes residual strength analysis of integral structures fabricated using different manufacturing procedures. The topics include: 1) Built-up and Integral Structures; 2) Development of Prediction Methodology for Integral Structures Fabricated using different Manufacturing Procedures; 3) Testing Facility; 4) Fracture Parameters Definition; 5) Crack Branching in Integral Structures; 6) Results and Discussion; and 7) Concluding Remarks.

  12. The influence of different measurement structures on NRTA test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedgen, R.

    1986-01-01

    The development of sequential statistical test procedures in the area of near real time material accountancy (NRTA) mostly assumed a fixed measurement model of a given model facility. In this paper different measurement models (dispersion matrices) for a sequence of balance periods are studied. They are used to compare the detection probabilities of three different sequential test procedures for losses of material. It is shown how different plant models have an influence on the sensitivity of specified tests. Great importance for that analysis have the optimal loss patterns in each measurement situation

  13. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  14. Variation in prescribing for anxiety and depression: a reflection of health inequalities, cultural differences or variations in access to care?

    OpenAIRE

    Peters Jean; Grimsley Michael; Dibben Chris; Goyder Elizabeth; Blank Lindsay; Ellis Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background There are large variations in mental health prescribing in UK populations. However the underlying reasons for these differences, which may be related to differences in prevalence, cultural expectations or practical difficulties in access to treatment, remain uncertain. Methods Linear modelling was used to investigate whether population characteristics or access to primary care account for variations in mental health prescribing across 39 deprived neighbourhoods. Results Th...

  15. Trade, Industry Structure and Different Sources of Firm-heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    Recently the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has been augmented with heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. In principle there exist various sources of heterogeneity, yet the literature appears -- for convenience or other reasons -- to settle on marginal cost heterogeneity...... as the preferred modelling device. The present paper develops a unified model framework allowing a systematic comparison of marginal and fixed cost heterogeneity. We find that both types of heterogeneity are in fact able to capture the central stylized facts of international trade. For example can either source...

  16. Structural studies of different types of ferroelectric liquid crystalline substances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obadović, D.Ž.; Stojanović, M.; Bubnov, Alexej; Éber, N.; Cvetinov, M.; Vajda, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2011), s. 3-13 ISSN 1450-7404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100911; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0047; GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0723 Grant - others:RFASI(RU) 02.740.11.5166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric liquid crystals * phase transition * structure of liquid crystalline phases * molecular parameters Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  17. Characterization of copper-zinc mixed oxide system in relation to different precursor structure and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta, P; De Rossi, S; Ferraris, G [Centro del CNR su ' Struttura e Attivia Catalitica di Sistemi di Ossidi' (SACSO), Rome (Italy); Pompa, F [ENEA, TIB Scienza dei Materiali, Rome (Italy)

    1991-03-01

    Hydroxycarbonate and hydroxynitrate precursors of CuO-ZnO catalysts (Cu/Zn atomic ratio=67/33) have been prepared by two different methods; the precursor obtained by precipitation at 333 K and constant pH=8 from mixed nitrate solution with excess of sodium bicarbonate consisted of zincian malachite and aurichalcite, while that obtained by addition of sodium carbonate solution to Cu-Zn nitrate solution is essentially copper hydroxynitrate plus some amount of aurichalcite. By thermal decomposition at 623 K both types of precursor gave a mixture of CuO and ZnO. The mixed oxides were then treated at 873, 1073 and 1273 K in air. X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and surface area determination were used to characterize the mixed oxide systems. The precursor containing zincian malachite plus aurichalcite, after calcination at 623 K gave rise to well dispersed and much smaller particles of CuO and ZnO than the precursor containing copper hydroxynitrate plus aurichalcite. No Cu{sup 2+} in solid solution in the ZnO zincite structure Zn{sup 2+} in the CuO tenorite lattice were detected by reflectance spectroscopy up to 873 K; the presence of tetrahedral copper (Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O solid solution formation at least at the surface) was evident only in samples calcined at temperatures higher than 1073 K. X-ray diffraction analysis for lattice parameter determination showed that only for samples treated at 1273 K both Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O and Zn{sub y}Cu{sub 1-y}O solid solution formations are detectable. An unexpected volume decrease of Zn{sub y}Cu{sub 1-y}O with respect to pure CuO was revealed; the introduction of zinc in the tenorite structure probably changes the local metal symmetry from nearly square planar towards octahedral, producing an overall less distorted and more compact structure. (orig.).

  18. Cultural inter-population differences do not reflect biological distances: an example of interdisciplinary analysis of populations from Eastern Adriatic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić, Željana; Fox, Ayano R; Anterić, Ivana; Jerković, Ivan; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun; Holland, Mitchell M; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-06-01

    To compare the population group from the Šopot graveyard with population groups from traditional Croatian medieval graveyards by using anthropological, craniometrics, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) analysis and to examine if the cultural differences between population groups reflect biological differences. We determined sex, age at death, pathological, and traumatic changes of skeletal remains from the Šopot graveyard and compared them with a cumulative medieval sample from the same region. We also performed principal component analysis to compare skeletal remains from Šopot with those from Ostrovica and other Central European samples according to 8 cranial measurements. Finally, we compared 46 skeletons from Šopot with medieval (Ostrovica) and contemporary populations using mDNA haplogroup profiling. The remains from Šopot were similar to the cumulative sample in lifestyle and quality of life markers. Principal component analysis showed that they were closely related to Eastern Adriatic coast sites (including Ostrovica and Šopot) in terms of cranial morphology, indicating similar biological makeup. According to mDNA testing, Šopot population showed no significant differences in the haplogroup prevalence from either medieval or contemporary populations. This study shows that the Šopot population does not significantly differ from other medieval populations from this area. Besides similar quality of life markers, these populations also had similar biological markers. Substantial archeological differences can therefore be attributed to apparent cultural influences, which in this case do not reflect biological differences.

  19. Education, Post-Structuralism and the Politics of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the "politics of difference," a phrase now almost synonymous with postmodernism and the critique of the Enlightenment. The article provides a post-structuralist take on this critique arguing that a critique of Enlightenment values can lead to a deepening of democracy and using Foucault's notion of governmentality to elucidate…

  20. Different structures on subspaces of OsckM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čomić Irena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of OsckM spaces was introduced by R. Miron and Gh. Atanasiu in [6] and [7]. The theory of these spaces was developed by R. Miron and his cooperators from Romania, Japan and other countries in several books and many papers. Only some of them are mentioned in references. Here we recall the construction of adapted bases in T(OsckM and T*(OsckM, which are comprehensive with the J structure. The theory of two complementary family of subspaces is presented as it was done in [2] and [4]. The operators J,J, θ,θ, p, p* are introduced in the ambient space and subspaces. Some new relations between them are established. The action of these operators on Liouville vector fields are examined.

  1. AlGaAs/GaAs two-dimensional electron gas structures studied by photo reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen Cervantes, A; Rivera Alvarez, Z; Hernandez, F; Huerta, J. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mendez Garcia, V. H.; Lastras Martinez, A.; Zamora, L.; Saucedo, N. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Melendez Lira, M; Lopez, M [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-12-01

    Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As/GaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) heterostructures were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy in three different laboratories. The samples were characterized by room temperature Photo reflectance (PR) spectroscopy and measurements at 77 K. Internal electric fields were detected by the presence of Franz-Keldysh (FK) oscillations in the PR spectra. >From a FK analysis we obtained the GaAs band-gap energy and the built-in electric field strength in each sample. On the other hand, in the energy region corresponding to Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As a broad PR signal was registered typical of a highly doped material. Using the third derivative theory we obtained the Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As band-gap energy, and from this value the Al concentration in the samples. Results showed that the sample with highest electron mobility exhibited the lowest internal electric field strength. [Spanish] Se fabricaron heteroestructuras del tipo Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As/GaAs con un gas de electrones en dos dimensiones por medio de epitaxia de haces moleculares en tres laboratorios diferentes. Las muestras se caracterizaron por fotorreflectancia (FR) a temperatura ambiente y por mediciones del efecto mayor a 77 K. Campos electricos internos se detectaron por la presencia de oscilaciones Franz-Leldysh (FK) en los espectros de FR. Del analisis de las oscilaciones FK obtuvimos la energia de la brecha prohibida del GaAs y la intensidad del campo electrico interno en cada muestra. Por otra parte, en la region de energia correspondiente al Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As observamos una senal de FR ancha, tipica de un material altamente impurificado. Usando la teoria de la tercera derivada, obtuvimos el valor de la brecha de energia del Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1}-xAs, y de este valor la concentracion de Al en las muestras. Los resultados mostraron que la estructura con el valor de movilidad electronica mas alto tiene la intensidad de campo electrico interno mas baja.

  2. Speciation of copper and zinc in size-fractionated atmospheric particulate matter using total reflection mode X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osan, Janos; Meirer, Florian; Groma, Veronika; Toeroek, Szabina; Ingerle, Dieter; Streli, Christina; Pepponi, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The health effects of aerosol depend on the size distribution and the chemical composition of the particles. Heavy metals of anthropogenic origin are bound to the fine aerosol fraction (PM 2.5 ). The composition and speciation of aerosol particles can be variable in time, due to the time-dependence of anthropogenic sources as well as meteorological conditions. Synchrotron-radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) provides very high sensitivity for characterization of atmospheric particulate matter. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectrometry in conjunction with TXRF detection can deliver speciation information on heavy metals in aerosol particles collected directly on the reflector surface. The suitability of TXRF-XANES for copper and zinc speciation in size-fractionated atmospheric particulate matter from a short sampling period is presented. For high size resolution analysis, atmospheric aerosol particles were collected at different urban and rural locations using a 7-stage May cascade impactor having adapted for sampling on Si wafers. The thin stripe geometry formed by the particulate matter deposited on the May-impactor plates is ideally suited to SR-TXRF. Capabilities of the combination of the May-impactor sampling and TXRF-XANES measurements at HASYLAB Beamline L to Cu and Zn speciation in size-fractionated atmospheric particulate matter are demonstrated. Information on Cu and Zn speciation could be performed for elemental concentrations as low as 140 pg/m 3 . The Cu and Zn speciation in the different size fraction was found to be very distinctive for samples of different origin. Zn and Cu chemical state typical for soils was detected only in the largest particles studied (2-4 μm fraction). The fine particles, however, contained the metals of interest in the sulfate and nitrate forms.

  3. New analyses of the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program: do different treatments reflect different processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Gregory L; Callahan, Jennifer; Ruggero, Camilo J; Murrell, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether or not different therapies have distinct patterns of change, it is useful to investigate not only the end result of psychotherapy (outcome) but also the processes by which outcomes are attained. The present study subjected data from the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program to survival analyses to examine whether the process of psychotherapy, as conceptualized by the phase model, differed between psychotherapy treatment approaches. Few differences in terms of progression through phases of psychotherapy were identified between cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal therapy. Additionally, results indicate that phases of psychotherapy may not represent discrete, sequentially invariant processes.

  4. Ethnic differences in the structural properties of facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Yoriko; Sugata, Keiichi; Hachiya, Akira; Osanai, Osamu; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlated with the appearance of those pores. A survey was carried out to elucidate ethnic-dependent differences in facial pore size and in epidermal architecture. The subjects included 80 healthy women (aged 30-39: Caucasians, Asians, Hispanics and African Americans) living in Dallas in the USA. First, surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin. Second, horizontal cross-sectioned images from cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. Finally, to compare racial differences in the architecture of the interfollicular epidermis of facial cheek skin, horizontal cross-sectioned images were obtained and the numbers of dermal papillae were counted. Asians had the smallest pore areas compared with other racial groups. Regarding the epidermal architecture around facial pores, all ethnic groups observed in this study had similar morphological features and African Americans showed substantially more severe impairment of architecture around facial pores than any other racial group. In addition, significant differences were observed in the architecture of the interfollicular epidermis between ethnic groups. These results suggest that facial pore size, the epidermal architecture around facial pores and the architecture of the interfollicular epidermis differ between ethnic groups. This might affect the appearance of facial pores.

  5. Structural differences between alcoholic and diabetic parotid sialosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda, Carmen; Carranza, Miriam; Arriaga, Adriana; Díaz, Anselmo; Peydró, Amando; Gomez de Ferraris, Maria Elsa

    2005-01-01

    Between the sialosis' etiologic agents, we can find the chronic alcoholism and diabetes. Both nosologic entities are described using a similar histopathologic pattern. The purpose of this work has been analyzing and comparing the histopathological differences between the diabetic and alcoholic sialosis. We studied 7 parotid glands samples of diabetic patients and 4 samples of normal glands obtained from surgical material were used as a control. For the comparative study, we used 12 parotid glands from chronic alcoholic patients with clinical diagnosis of cirrhosis and 6 autopsies on individuals who had died from alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis. This material was fixed in formaline, processed for embedding in paraffin, standard coloration techniques and immunotechnique for cytokeratin EA/1 y EA/3. In the cases of diabetics, the parotid gland was characterised by the presence of small acini, a bigger number of lipid intracytoplasmic droplets in the acinar and ductal cells, as well as an abundant adipose infiltration in the stroma when compared to the alcoholics. We observed that the cytokeratins' expression was heterogeneous at the acinar level, and very positive in the hyperplasic ducts, compared to the alcoholic and control groups. These qualitative valorations indicate the differences between the histopathologic pattern of sialosis with different origins.

  6. Age Differences in Brain Activity during Emotion Processing: Reflections of Age-Related Decline or Increased Emotion Regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that physical health and cognitive abilities decline with aging, the ability to regulate emotion remains stable and in some aspects improves across the adult life span. Older adults also show a positivity effect in their attention and memory, with diminished processing of negative stimuli relative to positive stimuli compared with younger adults. The current paper reviews functional magnetic resonance imaging studies investigating age-related differences in emotional processi...

  7. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Rowe, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health “first-person” (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer) movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The “take home message” of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the ‘adoptee’s’ practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken. PMID:28680412

  8. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Rowe, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health "first-person" (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer) movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The "take home message" of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the 'adoptee's' practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken.

  9. Gender differences in functional hemispheric asymmetry during processing of vowels as reflected by the human brain magnetic response

    OpenAIRE

    Obleser, Jonas; Eulitz, Carsten; Lahiri, Aditi; Elbert, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A number of findings indicate gender differences in language-related functional hemispheric brain asymmetry. To test if such gender-specific laterality is already present at the level of vowel-processing, the auditory evoked magnetic field was recorded in healthy right-handed male and female participants in response to the German synthetic vowels [a], [e] and [i]. Female participants exhibited stronger N100m responses than male participants over the left hemisphere. This observation was highl...

  10. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Eiroa-Orosa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health “first-person” (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The “take home message” of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the ‘adoptee’s’ practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken.

  11. Do Individual Differences and Aging Effects in the Estimation of Geographical Slant Reflect Cognitive or Perceptual Effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail M. Dean

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several individual differences including age have been suggested to affect the perception of slant. A cross-sectional study of outdoor hill estimation (N = 106 was analyzed using individual difference measures of age, experiential knowledge, fitness, personality traits, and sex. Of particular note, it was found that for participants who reported any experiential knowledge about slant, estimates decreased (i.e., became more accurate as conscientiousness increased, suggesting that more conscientious individuals were more deliberate about taking their experiential knowledge (rather than perception into account. Effects of fitness were limited to those without experiential knowledge, suggesting that they, too, may be cognitive rather than perceptual. The observed effects of age, which tended to produce lower, more accurate estimates of hill slant, provide more evidence that older adults do not see hills as steeper. The main effect of age was to lower slant estimates; such effects may be due to implicit experiential knowledge acquired over a lifetime. The results indicate the impact of cognitive, rather than perceptual factors on individual differences in slant estimation.

  12. "Aspirations of people who come from state education are different": how language reflects social exclusion in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer; Fahey Palma, Tania

    2018-01-24

    Despite repeated calls for change, the problem of widening access (WA) to medicine persists globally. One factor which may be operating to maintain social exclusion is the language used in representing WA applicants and students by the gatekeepers and representatives of medical schools, Admissions Deans. We therefore examined the institutional discourse of UK Medical Admissions Deans in order to determine how values regarding WA are communicated and presented in this context. We conducted a linguistic analysis of qualitative interviews with Admissions Deans and/or Staff from 24 of 32 UK medical schools. Corpus Linguistics data analysis determined broad patterns of frequency and word lists. This informed a critical discourse analysis of the data using an "othering" lens to explore and understand the judgements made of WA students by Admissions Deans, and the practices to which these judgments give rise. Representations of WA students highlighted existing divides and preconceptions in relation to WA programmes and students. Through using discourse that can be considered othering and divisive, issues of social divide and lack of integration in medicine were highlighted. Language served to reinforce pre-existing stereotypes and a significant 'us' and 'them' rhetoric exists in medical education. Even with drivers to achieve diversity and equality in medical education, existing social structures and preconceptions still influence the representations of applicants and students from outside the 'traditional' medical education model in the UK. Acknowledging this is a crucial step for medical schools wishing to address barriers to the perceived challenges to diversity.

  13. Nonlinear fitness-space-structure adaptation and principal component analysis in genetic algorithms: an application to x-ray reflectivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiilikainen, J; Tilli, J-M; Bosund, V; Mattila, M; Hakkarainen, T; Airaksinen, V-M; Lipsanen, H

    2007-01-01

    Two novel genetic algorithms implementing principal component analysis and an adaptive nonlinear fitness-space-structure technique are presented and compared with conventional algorithms in x-ray reflectivity analysis. Principal component analysis based on Hessian or interparameter covariance matrices is used to rotate a coordinate frame. The nonlinear adaptation applies nonlinear estimates to reshape the probability distribution of the trial parameters. The simulated x-ray reflectivity of a realistic model of a periodic nanolaminate structure was used as a test case for the fitting algorithms. The novel methods had significantly faster convergence and less stagnation than conventional non-adaptive genetic algorithms. The covariance approach needs no additional curve calculations compared with conventional methods, and it had better convergence properties than the computationally expensive Hessian approach. These new algorithms can also be applied to other fitting problems where tight interparameter dependence is present

  14. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  15. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopic Discrimination of Wines Reflects Genetic Homology of Several Different Grape (V. vinifera L.) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Wen, Wen; Zhang, Fengmin; Hardie, Jim W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled multivariate analysis (1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA) is an important tool for the discrimination of wine products. Although 1H NMR has been shown to discriminate wines of different cultivars, a grape genetic component of the discrimination has been inferred only from discrimination of cultivars of undefined genetic homology and in the presence of many confounding environmental factors. We aimed to confirm the influence of grape genotypes in the absence of those factors. Methods and Results We applied 1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to wines from five, variously genetically-related grapevine (V. vinifera) cultivars; all grown similarly on the same site and vinified similarly. We also compared the semi-quantitative profiles of the discriminant metabolites of each cultivar with previously reported chemical analyses. The cultivars were clearly distinguishable and there was a general correlation between their grouping and their genetic homology as revealed by recent genomic studies. Between cultivars, the relative amounts of several of the cultivar-related discriminant metabolites conformed closely with reported chemical analyses. Conclusions Differences in grape-derived metabolites associated with genetic differences alone are a major source of 1H NMR-based discrimination of wines and 1H NMR has the capacity to discriminate between very closely related cultivars. Significance of the Study The study confirms that genetic variation among grape cultivars alone can account for the discrimination of wine by 1H NMR-PCA/PLS and indicates that 1H NMR spectra of wine of single grape cultivars may in future be used in tandem with hierarchical cluster analysis to elucidate genetic lineages and metabolomic relations of grapevine cultivars. In the absence of genetic information, for example, where predecessor varieties are no longer extant, this may be a particularly useful approach. PMID

  16. Cultural differences are reflected in variables associated with carer burden in FTD: a comparison study between India and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekala, Shailaja; Alladi, Suvarna; Chandrasekar, Kammammettu; Fathima, Safiya; M.O.'Connor, Claire; McKinnon, Colleen; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R.; Mioshi, Eneida

    2013-01-01

    There is great need to understand variables behind carer burden, especially in FTD. Carer burden is a complex construct, and its factors are likely to vary depending on the type of dementia, carer characteristics and cultural background. OBJECTIVE The present study aimed to compare profiles and severity of carer burden, depression, anxiety and stress in carers of FTD patients in India in comparison to Australia; to investigate which carer variables are associated with carer burden in each country. METHODS Data of 138 participants (69 dyads of carers-patients) from India and Australia (India, n=31; Australia, n=38). Carer burden was assessed with the short Zarit Burden Inventory; carer depression, anxiety and stress were measured with the Depression, Anxiety and Stress-21. Dementia severity was determined with the Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS), and a range of demographic variables regarding the carer and patient were also obtained. RESULTS Overall, levels of carer burden were not significantly different across India and Australia, despite more hours delivering care and higher dementia severity in India. Variables associated with burden, however, differed between countries, with carer depression, anxiety and stress strongly associated with burden in India. By contrast, depression, stress, and dementia severity were associated with burden in Australia. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that variables associated with carer burden in FTD differ between cultures. Consequently, cultural considerations should be taken into account when planning for interventions to reduce burden. This study suggests that addressing carers' skills and coping mechanisms are likely to result in more efficacious outcomes than targeting patient symptoms alone. PMID:29213826

  17. Differences between hospitals in attainment of parathyroid hormone treatment targets in chronic kidney disease do not reflect differences in quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Mieke J; van Zuilen, Arjan D; van den Brand, Jan A J G; Blankestijn, Peter J; ten Dam, Marc A G J; Wetzels, Jack F M

    2012-08-06

    Transparency in quality of care (QoC) is stimulated and hospitals are compared and judged on the basis of indicators of performance on specific treatment targets. In patients with chronic kidney disease, QoC differed significantly between hospitals. In this analysis we explored additional parameters to explain differences between centers in attainment of parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment targets. Using MASTERPLAN baseline data, we selected one of the worst (center A) and one of the best (center B) performing hospitals. Differences between the two centers were analyzed from the year prior to start of the MASTERPLAN study until the baseline evaluation. Determinants of PTH were assessed. 101 patients from center A (median PTH 9.9 pmol/l, in 67 patients exceeding recommended levels) and 100 patients from center B (median PTH 6.5 pmol/l, in 34 patients exceeding recommended levels), were included. Analysis of clinical practice did not reveal differences in PTH management between the centers. Notably, hyperparathyroidism resulted in a change in therapy in less than 25% of patients. In multivariate analysis kidney transplant status, MDRD-4, and treatment center were independent predictors of PTH. However, when MDRD-6 (which accounts for serum urea and albumin) was used instead of MDRD-4, the center effect was reduced. Moreover, after calibration of the serum creatinine assays treatment center no longer influenced PTH. We show that differences in PTH control between centers are not explained by differences in treatment, but depend on incomparable patient populations and laboratory techniques. Therefore, results of hospital performance comparisons should be interpreted with great caution.

  18. Dynamics of cell proliferation and apoptosis reflect different life strategies in hydrothermal vent and cold seep vestimentiferan tubeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugfelder, Bettina; Cary, S Craig; Bright, Monika

    2009-07-01

    Deep-sea vestimentiferan tubeworms, which live in symbiosis with bacteria, exhibit different life strategies according to their habitat. At unstable and relatively short-lived hydrothermal vents, they grow extremely fast, whereas their close relatives at stable and long-persisting cold seeps grow slowly and live up to 300 years. Growth and age differences are thought to occur because of ecological and physiological adaptations. However, the underlying mechanisms of cell proliferation and death, which are closely linked to homeostasis, growth, and longevity, are unknown. Here, we show by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural cell cycle analyses that cell proliferation activities of the two species studied are higher than in any other characterized invertebrate, being only comparable with tumor and wound-healing processes. The slow growth in Lamellibrachia luymesi from cold seeps results from balanced activities of proliferation and apoptosis in the epidermis. In contrast, Riftia pachyptila from hydrothermal vents grows fast because apoptosis is down-regulated in this tissue. The symbiont-housing organ, the trophosome, exhibits a complex cell cycle and terminal differentiation pattern in both species, and growth is regulated by proliferation. These mechanisms have similarities to the up- and down-regulation of proliferation or apoptosis in various types of tumor, although they occur in healthy animals in this study, thus providing significant insights into the underlying mechanisms of growth and longevity.

  19. Structural characterization of pharmaceutical heparins prepared from different animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Li, Guoyun; Yang, Bo; Onishi, Akihiro; Li, Lingyun; Sun, Peilong; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Although most pharmaceutical heparin used today is obtained from porcine intestine, heparin has historically been prepared from bovine lung and ovine intestine. There is some regulatory concern about establishing the species origin of heparin. This concern began with the outbreak of mad cow disease in the 1990s and was exacerbated during the heparin shortage in the 2000s and the heparin contamination crisis of 2007-2008. Three heparins from porcine, ovine, and bovine were characterized through state-of-the-art carbohydrate analysis methods with a view profiling their physicochemical properties. Differences in molecular weight, monosaccharide and disaccharide composition, oligosaccharide sequence, and antithrombin III-binding affinity were observed. These data provide some insight into the variability of heparins obtained from these three species and suggest some analytical approaches that may be useful in confirming the species origin of a heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Structural adaptations of proteins to different biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogozheva, Irina D.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Mosberg, Henry I.; Lomize, Andrei L.

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight into adaptations of proteins to their membranes, intrinsic hydrophobic thicknesses, distributions of different chemical groups and profiles of hydrogen-bonding capacities (α and β) and the dipolarity/polarizability parameter (π*) were calculated for lipid-facing surfaces of 460 integral α-helical, β-barrel and peripheral proteins from eight types of biomembranes. For comparison, polarity profiles were also calculated for ten artificial lipid bilayers that have been previously studied by neutron and X-ray scattering. Estimated hydrophobic thicknesses are 30-31 Å for proteins from endoplasmic reticulum, thylakoid, and various bacterial plasma membranes, but differ for proteins from outer bacterial, inner mitochondrial and eukaryotic plasma membranes (23.9, 28.6 and 33.5 Å, respectively). Protein and lipid polarity parameters abruptly change in the lipid carbonyl zone that matches the calculated hydrophobic boundaries. Maxima of positively charged protein groups correspond to the location of lipid phosphates at 20-22 Å distances from the membrane center. Locations of Tyr atoms coincide with hydrophobic boundaries, while distributions maxima of Trp rings are shifted by 3-4 Å toward the membrane center. Distributions of Trp atoms indicate the presence of two 5-8 Å-wide midpolar regions with intermediate π* values within the hydrocarbon core, whose size and symmetry depend on the lipid composition of membrane leaflets. Midpolar regions are especially asymmetric in outer bacterial membranes and cell membranes of mesophilic but not hyperthermophilic archaebacteria, indicating the larger width of the central nonpolar region in the later case. In artificial lipid bilayers, midpolar regions are observed up to the level of acyl chain double bonds. PMID:23811361

  1. Identification of a novel set of genes reflecting different in vivo invasive patterns of human GBM cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monticone Massimiliano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients affected by Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, grade IV glioma experience a recurrence of the disease because of the spreading of tumor cells beyond surgical boundaries. Unveiling mechanisms causing this process is a logic goal to impair the killing capacity of GBM cells by molecular targeting. We noticed that our long-term GBM cultures, established from different patients, may display two categories/types of growth behavior in an orthotopic xenograft model: expansion of the tumor mass and formation of tumor branches/nodules (nodular like, NL-type or highly diffuse single tumor cell infiltration (HD-type. Methods We determined by DNA microarrays the gene expression profiles of three NL-type and three HD-type long-term GBM cultures. Subsequently, individual genes with different expression levels between the two groups were identified using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM. Real time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses, were performed for a selected subgroup of regulated gene products to confirm the results obtained by the expression analysis. Results Here, we report the identification of a set of 34 differentially expressed genes in the two types of GBM cultures. Twenty-three of these genes encode for proteins localized to the plasma membrane and 9 of these for proteins are involved in the process of cell adhesion. Conclusions This study suggests the participation in the diffuse infiltrative/invasive process of GBM cells within the CNS of a novel set of genes coding for membrane-associated proteins, which should be thus susceptible to an inhibition strategy by specific targeting. Massimiliano Monticone and Antonio Daga contributed equally to this work

  2. Identification of a novel set of genes reflecting different in vivo invasive patterns of human GBM cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Massimiliano; Daga, Antonio; Candiani, Simona; Romeo, Francesco; Mirisola, Valentina; Viaggi, Silvia; Melloni, Ilaria; Pedemonte, Simona; Zona, Gianluigi; Giaretti, Walter; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Castagnola, Patrizio

    2012-08-17

    Most patients affected by Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, grade IV glioma) experience a recurrence of the disease because of the spreading of tumor cells beyond surgical boundaries. Unveiling mechanisms causing this process is a logic goal to impair the killing capacity of GBM cells by molecular targeting.We noticed that our long-term GBM cultures, established from different patients, may display two categories/types of growth behavior in an orthotopic xenograft model: expansion of the tumor mass and formation of tumor branches/nodules (nodular like, NL-type) or highly diffuse single tumor cell infiltration (HD-type). We determined by DNA microarrays the gene expression profiles of three NL-type and three HD-type long-term GBM cultures. Subsequently, individual genes with different expression levels between the two groups were identified using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). Real time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses, were performed for a selected subgroup of regulated gene products to confirm the results obtained by the expression analysis. Here, we report the identification of a set of 34 differentially expressed genes in the two types of GBM cultures. Twenty-three of these genes encode for proteins localized to the plasma membrane and 9 of these for proteins are involved in the process of cell adhesion. This study suggests the participation in the diffuse infiltrative/invasive process of GBM cells within the CNS of a novel set of genes coding for membrane-associated proteins, which should be thus susceptible to an inhibition strategy by specific targeting.Massimiliano Monticone and Antonio Daga contributed equally to this work.

  3. Identification of a novel set of genes reflecting different in vivo invasive patterns of human GBM cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticone, Massimiliano; Giaretti, Walter; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Daga, Antonio; Candiani, Simona; Romeo, Francesco; Mirisola, Valentina; Viaggi, Silvia; Melloni, Ilaria; Pedemonte, Simona; Zona, Gianluigi

    2012-01-01

    Most patients affected by Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, grade IV glioma) experience a recurrence of the disease because of the spreading of tumor cells beyond surgical boundaries. Unveiling mechanisms causing this process is a logic goal to impair the killing capacity of GBM cells by molecular targeting. We noticed that our long-term GBM cultures, established from different patients, may display two categories/types of growth behavior in an orthotopic xenograft model: expansion of the tumor mass and formation of tumor branches/nodules (nodular like, NL-type) or highly diffuse single tumor cell infiltration (HD-type). We determined by DNA microarrays the gene expression profiles of three NL-type and three HD-type long-term GBM cultures. Subsequently, individual genes with different expression levels between the two groups were identified using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). Real time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses, were performed for a selected subgroup of regulated gene products to confirm the results obtained by the expression analysis. Here, we report the identification of a set of 34 differentially expressed genes in the two types of GBM cultures. Twenty-three of these genes encode for proteins localized to the plasma membrane and 9 of these for proteins are involved in the process of cell adhesion. This study suggests the participation in the diffuse infiltrative/invasive process of GBM cells within the CNS of a novel set of genes coding for membrane-associated proteins, which should be thus susceptible to an inhibition strategy by specific targeting. Massimiliano Monticone and Antonio Daga contributed equally to this work

  4. Exact solutions of magnetohydrodynamics for describing different structural disturbances in solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grib, S. A.; Leora, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    We use analytical methods of magnetohydrodynamics to describe the behavior of cosmic plasma. This approach makes it possible to describe different structural fields of disturbances in solar wind: shock waves, direction discontinuities, magnetic clouds and magnetic holes, and their interaction with each other and with the Earth's magnetosphere. We note that the wave problems of solar-terrestrial physics can be efficiently solved by the methods designed for solving classical problems of mathematical physics. We find that the generalized Riemann solution particularly simplifies the consideration of secondary waves in the magnetosheath and makes it possible to describe in detail the classical solutions of boundary value problems. We consider the appearance of a fast compression wave in the Earth's magnetosheath, which is reflected from the magnetosphere and can nonlinearly overturn to generate a back shock wave. We propose a new mechanism for the formation of a plateau with protons of increased density and a magnetic field trough in the magnetosheath due to slow secondary shock waves. Most of our findings are confirmed by direct observations conducted on spacecrafts (WIND, ACE, Geotail, Voyager-2, SDO and others).

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of the construction of different flexible pavement structures considering the axle load and type of binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Dotto Bueno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of Brazilian highways reflects a deficient pavement performance when they are subjected to loadings imposed by heavy traffic. Current legislation, as enacted by Contran (National Traffic Council, has increased the axle weight limit for cargo vehicles by up to 10%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine a cost-benefit ratio by using different types of structures, asphalt binders and load intensities. Typical pavements were determined and then analyzed by the software AEMC (SisPav to obtain the horizontal tensile strain (εt values at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer and, later, the NFATIGUE value. It was found that the increase in weight, within values covered by legislation, might result in a reduction of approximately 50% in the NFATIGUE value for the pavement structures analyzed. As for economic impact, the same weight increase caused a mean increase of 120% in the cost of repeated loading on pavement structures (R$ NFATIGUE-1. It was also observed that structures with more robust asphalt concrete layers can provide the best R$ NFATIGUE-1 ratios. The best results for granular materials were found with thinner layers, associated with a thicker coating. The benefits of modified binders were shown by the analyses of the best structural options: both the polymer-modified binder and the rubber asphalt binder offer significant structural and economic improvements to the structure.

  6. Differences in proleptic and epicormic shoot structures in relation to water deficit and growth rate in almond trees (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel G; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M

    2014-02-01

    Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on 'Nonpareil' almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate a more rapid progression through ontogenetic states.

  7. Competition between modes with different axial structures in gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khutoryan, Eduard M.; Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sinitsyn, Oleksandr V.

    2014-01-01

    This study was motivated by some experiments in which it was found that during the voltage rise, instead of expected excitation of a high-frequency parasitic mode, the excitation of a lower-frequency parasitic mode takes place in a certain range of voltages. For explaining this fact, the dependence of start currents of possible competing modes on the beam voltage was carried out in the cold-cavity approximation and by using the self-consistent approach. It was found that in the case of cavities, which consist of the combination of a section of constant radius waveguide and a slightly uptapered waveguide, these two approaches yield completely different results. Thus, experimentally observed excitation of the low-frequency parasitic mode can be explained by the self-consistent modification of the axial profile of the excited field, which has strong influence on the diffractive quality factor of competing modes. This modification is especially pronounced in the case of excitation of modes with many axial variations which can be excited in the region of beam interaction with the backward-wave component of such modes

  8. The effects of Web site structure: the role of personal difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwiman; Ahn, Euijin

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effects of Web site structures in terms of advertising effectiveness- memory, attitude, and behavioral intentions. The primary research question for this study is, What type of Web site (Web ad) structure is most effective? In the pilot study, we tested the difference between two Web site structures, linear and interactive, in terms of traditional advertising effectiveness. Results from the pilot study did not support our research expectations. However, differences in terms of memory were noted between the two structures. After re-creating the Web site based on subjects' comments, in the final experiment, we examined the differences between the two structures and the moderating role of personality difference on the effects of Web site structure. The results confirm that participants' attitude, memory, and behavioral intentions were affected differently by the different Web site structures. However, some research hypotheses were not supported by the current data.

  9. Variations of vessel diameter and δ13C in false rings of Arbutus unedo L. reflect different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; De Micco, Veronica; Brand, Willi A; Linke, Petra; Aronne, Giovanna; Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    Woody species in Mediterranean ecosystems form intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in tree rings in response to changes in environmental conditions, especially water availability. Dendrochronology, quantitative wood anatomy and high-resolution isotopic analysis (using a laser ablation technique) were used to characterize IADFs in Arbutus unedo shrubs grown on two sites with different water availability on the island of Elba (Italy). Our findings show that IADF characterization can provide information about the relationship between environmental factors and tree growth at the seasonal level. At the more xeric site, IADFs mainly located in the early and middle parts of the annual ring, showed a decrease in vessel size and an increase in δ(13) C as a result of drought deficit. Opposite trends were found at the more mesic site, with IADFs located at the end of the ring and associated with a lower δ(13) C. Moreover, at the first site, IADFs are induced by drought deficit, while at the second site IADFs are linked with the regrowth in the last part of the growing season triggered by favourable wet conditions. This combined approach is a promising way for dating problematic wood samples and interpreting the phenomena that trigger the formation of IADFs in the Mediterranean environment. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  10. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees--those that have not attained the canopy--are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests.

  11. Stochastic velocity inversion of seismic reflection/refraction traveltime data for rift structure of the southwest Barents Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Stephen A.; Faleide, Jan Inge; Hauser, Juerg

    2013-01-01

    reflection profiles. We utilize layer-based raytracing in a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion to determine a probabilistic velocity model constraining the sedimentary rocks, crystalline crust, and uppermost mantle in a complex tectonic regime. The profile images a wide range of crustal types and ages...... with the amount of overlap derived from published plate reconstructions. Local β factors approach 3, where Bjørnøya Basin reaches a depth of more than 13 km. Volcanics, carbonates, salt, diagenesis and metamorphism make deep sedimentary basin fill difficult to distinguish from original, pre-rift crystalline crust...

  12. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  13. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  14. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  15. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  16. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  17. When beauty is only skin deep; optimizing the sensitivity of specular neutron reflectivity for probing structure beneath the surface of thin filmsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkrzak, Charles F.; Carpenter, Elisabeth; Heinrich, Frank; Berk, Norman F.

    2011-11-01

    Specular neutron reflectometry has become an established probe of the nanometer scale structure of materials in thin film and multilayered form. It has contributed especially to our understanding of soft condensed matter of interest in polymer science, organic chemistry, and biology and of magnetic hard condensed matter systems. In this paper we examine a number of key factors which have emerged that can limit the sensitivity of neutron reflection as such a probe. Among these is loss of phase information, and we discuss how knowledge about material surrounding a film of interest can be applied to help resolve the problem. In this context we also consider what role the quantum phenomenon of interaction-free measurement might play in enhancing the statistical efficiency for obtaining reflectivity or transmission data.

  18. Near zero reflection by nanostructured anti-reflection coating design for Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fandi, Mohamed; Makableh, Yahia F.; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Rabady, Rabi

    2018-05-01

    The nanostructure design of near zero reflection coating for Si substrates by using ZnO Nanoneedles (ZnONN) is performed and optimized for the visible spectral range. The design investigates the ZnONN tip to body ratio effect on the anti-reflection coating properties. Different tip to body ratios are used on Si substrates. Around zero reflection is achieved by the Nanoneedles structure design presented in this work, leading to minimal reflection losses from the Si surface. The current design evolves a solution to optical losses and surface contamination effects associated with Si solar cells.

  19. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  20. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Reflection and Re-structurization on Career Decision Making of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagimin Wagimin

    2015-03-01

    Key Words: career decision making, CIP model, reflection, cognitive restructuring Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji keefektifan  refleksi dan penstrukturan ulang kognitif guna meningkatkan pengambilan keputusan karier siswa SMA berdasarkan model PIK. Penelitian eksperimen ini menggunakan rancangan RCTs, dan subjek 40 orang siswa sebagai kelompok eksperi-men dan 40 sebagai kelompok kontrol. Sub-kemampuan pengambilan keputusan karier model PIK yang dikembangkan meliputi: memahami diri, memahami pilihan pekerjaan, komunikasi, analisis, sinte-sis, penilaian, pelaksanaan, dan proses pelaksanaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada perbeda-an kemampuan pengambilan keputusan karier antara siswa kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kon-trol di mana kelompok eksperimen memiliki nilai rata-rata yang lebih tinggi. Informasi controlled trials menguatkan juga bahwa refleksi dan penstrukturan ulang kognitif  efektif untuk  meningkatkan kemampuan pengambilan keputusan karier siswa SMA. Kata kunci: pengambilan keputusan karier, model PIK, refleksi, penstrukturan ulang kognitif

  1. Chemometric analysis of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectra of Proteus mirabilis strains with defined structures of LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowiec, Paulina; Mizera, Andrzej; Chrapek, Magdalena; Urbaniak, Mariusz; Kaca, Wieslaw

    2016-07-01

    Proteus spp. strains are some of the most important pathogens associated with complicated urinary tract infections and bacteremia affecting patients with immunodeficiency and long-term urinary catheterization. For epidemiological purposes, various molecular typing methods have been developed for this pathogen. However, these methods are labor intensive and time consuming. We evaluated a new method of differentiation between strains. A collection of Proteus spp. strains was analyzed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy used in conjunction with a diamond ATR accessory directly produced the biochemical profile of the surface chemistry of bacteria. We conclude that a combination of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy and mathematical modeling provides a fast and reliable alternative for discrimination between Proteus isolates, contributing to epidemiological research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Stretched membrane heliostats: design and structural analysis of reflectance module and support of a heliostats of 9 m. diaform and 60 m''3 of reflectance surface; Diseno y analisis estructural del modulo reflectante y estructura soporte de un heliostato de 9 m. de diametro y 60 m2 de superficie reflectante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figarola Torres, J M

    1993-07-01

    After having designed and built at CIEMAT a first prototype of a Btretched membrane heliostats of 3 m. diameter, the design and the structural analysis of the different components included in the reflectance module and support of another heliostats, this one of 9 m. diameter and 60 m2. of reflectance surface, are shown In this report. This last heliostats will be mounted on a pedestal and its driving device at the Solar Platform of Almeria. In order to optimize design and performance, the structural analysis of its basic components has been analyzed with the finite elements program ANSYS. The following elements have been subject to analysis: the membrane and their ring supports, stretching system and the structural support. A similar scheme to the one applied to the previous prototype has been used on the focus control system. That includes a linear transducer, a variable frequency and a fan. Finally it has to be pointed out that substantial improvements have been achieved with respect to the first prototype concerning design and cost. (Author) 5 refs.

  3. Stretched membrane heliostats: design and structural analysis of reflectance module and support of a heliostats of 9 m. diaform and 60 m''3 of reflectance surface; Diseno y analisis estructural del modulo reflectante y estructura soporte de un heliostato de 9 m. de diametro y 60 m2 de superficie reflectante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figarola Torres, J. M.

    1993-07-01

    After having designed and built at CIEMAT a first prototype of a Btretched membrane heliostats of 3 m. diameter, the design and the structural analysis of the different components included in the reflectance module and support of another heliostats, this one of 9 m. diameter and 60 m2. of reflectance surface, are shown In this report. This last heliostats will be mounted on a pedestal and its driving device at the Solar Platform of Almeria. In order to optimize design and performance, the structural analysis of its basic components has been analyzed with the finite elements program ANSYS. The following elements have been subject to analysis: the membrane and their ring supports, stretching system and the structural support. A similar scheme to the one applied to the previous prototype has been used on the focus control system. That includes a linear transducer, a variable frequency and a fan. Finally it has to be pointed out that substantial improvements have been achieved with respect to the first prototype concerning design and cost. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Understanding nucleon structure using lattice simulations. Recent progress on three different structural observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroers, W.

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on the discussion of three key results of nucleon structure calculations on the lattice. These three results are the quark contribution to the nucleon spin, J q , the nucleon-Δ transition form factors, and the nucleon axial coupling, g A . The importance for phenomenology and experiment is discussed and the requirements for future simulations are pointed out. (orig.)

  5. Three-dimensional structures in the design of therapeutics targeting parasitic protozoa: reflections on the past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, Wim G J

    2015-05-01

    Parasitic protozoa cause a range of diseases which threaten billions of human beings. They are responsible for tremendous mortality and morbidity in the least-developed areas of the world. Presented here is an overview of the evolution over the last three to four decades of structure-guided design of inhibitors, leads and drug candidates aiming at targets from parasitic protozoa. Target selection is a crucial and multi-faceted aspect of structure-guided drug design. The major impact of advances in molecular biology, genome sequencing and high-throughput screening is touched upon. The most advanced crystallographic techniques, including XFEL, have already been applied to structure determinations of drug targets from parasitic protozoa. Even cryo-electron microscopy is contributing to our understanding of the mode of binding of inhibitors to parasite ribosomes. A number of projects have been selected to illustrate how structural information has assisted in arriving at promising compounds that are currently being evaluated by pharmacological, pharmacodynamic and safety tests to assess their suitability as pharmaceutical agents. Structure-guided approaches are also applied to incorporate properties into compounds such that they are less likely to become the victim of resistance mechanisms. A great increase in the number of novel antiparasitic compounds will be needed in the future. These should then be combined into various multi-compound therapeutics to circumvent the diverse resistance mechanisms that render single-compound, or even multi-compound, drugs ineffective. The future should also see (i) an increase in the number of projects with a tight integration of structural biology, medicinal chemistry, parasitology and pharmaceutical sciences; (ii) the education of more `medicinal structural biologists' who are familiar with the properties that compounds need to have for a high probability of success in the later steps of the drug-development process; and (iii) the

  6. Influence of different rotor magnetic circuit structure on the performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Hongbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the performance difference of the permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM with different rotor structure, two kinds of rotor magnetic circuit structure with surface-mounted radial excitation and tangential excitation are designed respectively. By comparing and analyzing the results, the difference of the motor performance was determined. Firstly, based on the finite element method (FEM, the motor electromagnetic field performance was studied, and the magnetic field distribution of the different magnetic circuit structure was obtained. The influence mechanism of the different magnetic circuit structure on the air gap flux density was obtained by using the Fourier theory. Secondly, the cogging torque, output torque and overload capacity of the PMSM with different rotor structure were studied. The effect mechanism of the different rotor structure on the motor output property difference was obtained. The motor prototype with two kinds of rotor structure was manufactured, and the experimental study was carried out. By comparing the experimental data and simulation data, the correctness of the research is verified. This paper lays a foundation for the research on the performance of the PMSM with different magnetic circuit structure.

  7. Application of Solid-State NMR to Reveal Structural Differences in Cefazolin Sodium Pentahydrate from Different Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Wei D.; Zou, Wen-Bo; Qian, Jian-Qin; Hu, Chang-Qin

    2018-04-01

    The solid form of an active pharmaceutical ingredient is important when developing a new chemical entity. A solid understanding of the crystal structure and morphology that affect the mechanical and physical characteristics of pharmaceutical powders determines the manufacturing process. Solid-state NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were combined with theoretical calculation to investigate different crystal packings of α-cefazolin sodium from three different vendors and conformational polymorphism was identified to exist in the α-cefazolin sodium. Marginal differences observed among CEZ-Na pentahydrate 1, 2, and 3 were speculated as the proportion of conformation 2. Understanding the differences in the polymorphic structure of α-cefazolin sodium may help with making modifications to incorporate new knowledge with a product’s development.

  8. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and irritable bowel syndrome have different profiles of extracellular matrix turnover, which also reflects disease activity in Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Høg Mortensen

    Full Text Available Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM in Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may provide optimized disease monitoring and diagnostics. We investigated the tissue remodelling in IBD and IBS patients by using novel blood-based biomarkers reflecting ECM remodelling.Five ECM biomarkers (VICM, BGM, EL-NE, C5M, Pro-C5 were measured by competitive ELISAs in serum from 72 CD patients, 60 UC patients, 22 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and 24 healthy donors. One-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers.The ECM remodelling was significantly different in UC compared to CD. The best biomarker combination to differentiate UC from CD and colonic CD was BGM and VICM (AUC = 0.98, P5mg/mL, correlation of Pro-C5 (r = 0.36 with CDAI was slightly improved compared to CRP (r = 0.27 corrected for the use of immunosuppressant. Furthermore, BGM and EL-NE biomarkers were highly associated with colon inflammation in CD patients.ECM fragments of tissue remodelling in IBD affect UC and CD differently, and may aid in differentiating IBD from IBS (EL-NE, BGM, Pro-C5, and UC from CD patients (BGM, VICM. Formation of type V collagen is related to the level of inflammation in CD and may reflect disease activity in CD.

  9. Magnetic properties of dendrimer structures with different coordination numbers: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of Cayley trees of large molecules with dendrimer structure using Monte Carlo simulations. The thermal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of a dendrimer structure are given with different coordination numbers, Z=3, 4, 5 and different generations g=3 and 2. The variation of magnetizations with the exchange interactions and crystal fields have been given of this system. The magnetic hysteresis cycles have been established. - Highlights: • The dendrimer structure is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. • The transition temperatures are obtained for different coordination numbers and generations. • The magnetic hysteresis cycle has been established. • The dendrimer structure exhibit the superparamagnetic behavior.

  10. Magnetic properties of dendrimer structures with different coordination numbers: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com; Jabar, A.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of Cayley trees of large molecules with dendrimer structure using Monte Carlo simulations. The thermal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of a dendrimer structure are given with different coordination numbers, Z=3, 4, 5 and different generations g=3 and 2. The variation of magnetizations with the exchange interactions and crystal fields have been given of this system. The magnetic hysteresis cycles have been established. - Highlights: • The dendrimer structure is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. • The transition temperatures are obtained for different coordination numbers and generations. • The magnetic hysteresis cycle has been established. • The dendrimer structure exhibit the superparamagnetic behavior.

  11. Temperature dependence of the phonon structure in the high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 studied by infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaras, K.; Herr, S.L.; Porter, C.D.; Tanner, D.B.; Etemad, S.; Tarascon, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated a ceramic sample of the high-temperature superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (T c =85 K) by infrared and visible reflectance spectroscopy at several temperatures both below and above the superconducting transition. We find that the temperature variation in the vibrational region is associated with minima or antiresonance features of the optical conductivity, instead of maxima, indicating strong Fano-type electron-phonon interaction and implying that the phonon structure in the infrared is strongly affected by the ab-plane response

  12. Testing of the OMERACT 8 draft validation criteria for a soluble biomarker reflecting structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature search on 5 candidate biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syversen, Silje W; Landewe, Robert; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the OMERACT 8 draft validation criteria for soluble biomarkers by assessing the strength of literature evidence in support of 5 candidate biomarkers. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted on the 5 soluble biomarkers RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), matrix...... metalloprotease (MMP-3), urine C-telopeptide of types I and II collagen (U-CTX-I and U CTX-II), focusing on the 14 OMERACT 8 criteria. Two electronic voting exercises were conducted to address: (1) strength of evidence for each biomarker as reflecting structural damage according to each individual criterion...

  13. Evaluation of soil-structure interaction for structures subjected to earthquake loading with different types of foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwi Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available However though the structures are supported on soil, most of the designers do not consider the soil structure interaction and its subsequent effect on structure during an earthquake. Different soil properties can affect seismic waves as they pass through a soil layer. When a structure is subjected to an earthquake excitation, it interacts the foundation and soil, and thus changes the motion of the ground. It means that the movement of the whole ground structure system is influenced by type of soil as well as by the type of structure. Tall buildings are supposed to be of engineered construction in sense that they might have been analyzed and designed to meet the provision of relevant codes of practice and building bye-laws. IS 1893: 2002 “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures” gives response spectrum for different types of soil such as hard, medium and soft. An attempt has been made in this paper to study the effect of Soil-structure interaction on multi storeyed buildings with various foundation systems. Also to study the response of buildings subjected to seismic forces with Rigid and Flexible foundations. Multi storeyed buildings with fixed and flexible support subjected to seismic forces were analyzed under different soil conditions like hard, medium and soft. The buildings were analyzed by Response spectrum method using software SAP2000. The response of building frames such as Lateral deflection, Story drift, Base shear, Axial force and Column moment values for all building frames were presented in this paper.

  14. Label-Free and Real-Time Monitor of Binding and Dissociation Processes between Protein A and Swine IgG by Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Li-Ping; Liu Shuang; Dai Jun; Lu Hui-Bin; Jin Kui-Juan; Yang Guo-Zhen; Wu Lin; Liu Guo-Zhen; Wei Han-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Life science has a need for detection methods that are label-free and real-time. In this paper, we have selected staphylococcal protein A (SPA) and swine immunoglobulin G (IgG), and monitor the bindings between SPA and swine IgG with different concentrations, as well as the dissociations of SPA-swine IgG complex in different pH values of phosphate buffer by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) in a label-free and real-time fashion. We obtain the ON and OFF reaction dynamic curves corresponding to the bindings and dissociations of SPA and swine IgG. Through our analysis of the experimental results, we have been able to obtain the damping coefficients and the dissociation time of SPA and swine IgG for different pH values of the phosphate buffer. The results prove that the OIRD technique is a competing method for monitoring the dynamic processes of biomolecule interaction and achieving the quantitative information of reaction kinetics. (general)

  15. Application of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence method to the elemental analysis of brain tumors of different types and grades of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankosz, M.W.; Grzelak, M.; Ostachowicz, B.; Wandzilak, A.; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Wrobel, P.; Radwanska, E.; Adamek, D.

    2014-01-01

    The process of carcinogenesis may influence normal biochemical reactions leading to alterations in the elemental composition of the tissue. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) was applied to the elemental analysis of different brain tumors. The following elements were present in all the neoplastic tissues analyzed: K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. The results of the analysis showed that the elemental composition of a relatively small fragment of tissue represents satisfactorily the biochemical “signature” of a cancer. On the basis of the element concentrations determined, it was possible to differentiate between some types of brain tumors. - Highlights: • Elemental composition represents the biochemical signature of brain cancer. • The element levels differentiate some types of brain tumors. • TXRF spectrometry is a useful tool for elemental trace analysis of brain cancer

  16. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and irritable bowel syndrome have different profiles of extracellular matrix turnover, which also reflects disease activity in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Joachim Høg; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2017-01-01

    Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM) in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may...... provide optimized disease monitoring and diagnostics. We investigated the tissue remodelling in IBD and IBS patients by using novel blood-based biomarkers reflecting ECM remodelling. Five ECM biomarkers (VICM, BGM, EL-NE, C5M, Pro-C5) were measured by competitive ELISAs in serum from 72 CD patients, 60 UC...... patients, 22 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 24 healthy donors. One-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers. The ECM...

  17. Activation in the Right Inferior Parietal Lobule Reflects the Representation of Musical Structure beyond Simple Pitch Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T.; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Robitaille, Nicolas; Schönwiesner, Marc; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Pitch discrimination tasks typically engage the superior temporal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus. It is currently unclear whether these regions are equally involved in the processing of incongruous notes in melodies, which requires the representation of musical structure (tonality) in addition to pitch discrimination. To this aim, 14 participants completed two tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, one in which they had to identify a pitch change in a series of non-melodic repeating tones and a second in which they had to identify an incongruous note in a tonal melody. In both tasks, the deviants activated the right superior temporal gyrus. A contrast between deviants in the melodic task and deviants in the non-melodic task (melodic > non-melodic) revealed additional activity in the right inferior parietal lobule. Activation in the inferior parietal lobule likely represents processes related to the maintenance of tonal pitch structure in working memory during pitch discrimination. PMID:27195523

  18. Effects of two different high-fidelity DNA polymerases on genetic analysis of the cyanobacterial community structure in a subtropical deep freshwater reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhen, Zhuo; Liu, Jingwen; Rensing, Christopher Günther T

    2017-01-01

    and diversity analysis. In this study, two clone libraries were constructed with two different DNA polymerases, Q5 high-fidelity DNA polymerase and exTaq polymerase, to compare the differences in their capability to accurately reflect the cyanobacterial community structure and diversity in a subtropical deep......-fidelity DNA polymerase. It is noteworthy that so far Q5 high-fidelity DNA polymerase was the first time to be employed in the genetic analysis of cyanobacterial community. And it is for the first time that the cyanobacterial community structure in Dongzhen reservoir was analyzed using molecular methods...

  19. InAs/GaSb/AlSb composite quantum well structure preparation with help of reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hospodková, Alice; Hulicius, Eduard; Pangrác, Jiří; Dominec, Filip; Mikhailova, M. P.; Veinger, A.I.; Kochman, I.V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 464, Apr (2017), s. 206-210 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA MŠk LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : low dimensional structures * MOVPE * InAs/GaSb composite quantum wells * AlSb Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  20. Experimental research on the structural characteristics of high organic soft soil in different deposition ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Lin, Guo-he

    2018-03-01

    High organic soft soil, which is distributed at Ji Lin province in China, has been studied by a lot of scholars. In the paper, structural characteristics with different deposition ages have been researched by experimental tests. Firstly, the characteristics of deposition age, degree of decompositon, high-pressure consolidation and microstructure have been measured by a series of tests. Secondly, structural strengths which were deposited in different ages, have been carried out to test the significant differences of stress-strain relations between remoulded and undisturbed high organic soft soil samples. Results showed that high organic soft soil which is deposited at different ages will influence its structural characteristics.

  1. Virtual screening applications: a study of ligand-based methods and different structure representations in four different scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristozov, Dimitar P; Oprea, Tudor I; Gasteiger, Johann

    2007-01-01

    Four different ligand-based virtual screening scenarios are studied: (1) prioritizing compounds for subsequent high-throughput screening (HTS); (2) selecting a predefined (small) number of potentially active compounds from a large chemical database; (3) assessing the probability that a given structure will exhibit a given activity; (4) selecting the most active structure(s) for a biological assay. Each of the four scenarios is exemplified by performing retrospective ligand-based virtual screening for eight different biological targets using two large databases--MDDR and WOMBAT. A comparison between the chemical spaces covered by these two databases is presented. The performance of two techniques for ligand--based virtual screening--similarity search with subsequent data fusion (SSDF) and novelty detection with Self-Organizing Maps (ndSOM) is investigated. Three different structure representations--2,048-dimensional Daylight fingerprints, topological autocorrelation weighted by atomic physicochemical properties (sigma electronegativity, polarizability, partial charge, and identity) and radial distribution functions weighted by the same atomic physicochemical properties--are compared. Both methods were found applicable in scenario one. The similarity search was found to perform slightly better in scenario two while the SOM novelty detection is preferred in scenario three. No method/descriptor combination achieved significant success in scenario four.

  2. Reflection as Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how reflection can be used as self-assessment. Reflection involves not only thinking about a learning experience, but also questioning parts of the experience. Reflection is thinking about what one knows from the learning experience, what one might do differently the next time. Reflection is wondering about…

  3. Characterization of 2.3 μm GaInAsSb-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using photo-modulated reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, G. M. T. [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Hosea, T. J. C., E-mail: j.hosea@surrey.ac.uk [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Fox, N. E.; Hild, K.; Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Sweeney, S. J. [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bachmann, A.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität Munchen, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-01-07

    We report angle dependent and temperature dependent (9 K–300 K) photo-modulated reflectance (PR) studies on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures, designed for 2.3 μm mid-infrared gas sensing applications. Changing the temperature allows us to tune the energies of the quantum well (QW) transitions relative to the VCSEL cavity mode (CM) energy. These studies show that this VCSEL structure has a QW-CM offset of 21 meV at room temperature. Consequently the QW ground-state transition comes into resonance with the CM at 220 ± 2 K. The results from these PR studies are closely compared with those obtained in a separate study of actual operating devices and show how the PR technique may be useful for device optimisation without the necessity of having first to process the wafers into working devices.

  4. Characterization of 2.3 μm GaInAsSb-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using photo-modulated reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, G. M. T.; Hosea, T. J. C.; Fox, N. E.; Hild, K.; Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Sweeney, S. J.; Bachmann, A.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C.

    2014-01-01

    We report angle dependent and temperature dependent (9 K–300 K) photo-modulated reflectance (PR) studies on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures, designed for 2.3 μm mid-infrared gas sensing applications. Changing the temperature allows us to tune the energies of the quantum well (QW) transitions relative to the VCSEL cavity mode (CM) energy. These studies show that this VCSEL structure has a QW-CM offset of 21 meV at room temperature. Consequently the QW ground-state transition comes into resonance with the CM at 220 ± 2 K. The results from these PR studies are closely compared with those obtained in a separate study of actual operating devices and show how the PR technique may be useful for device optimisation without the necessity of having first to process the wafers into working devices

  5. Elusive Learning—Using Learning Analytics to Support Reflective Sensemaking of Ill-Structured Ethical Problems: A Learner-Managed Dashboard Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yianna Vovides

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the turn of the 21st century, we have seen a surge of studies on the state of U.S. education addressing issues such as cost, graduation rates, retention, achievement, engagement, and curricular outcomes. There is an expectation that graduates should be able to enter the workplace equipped to take on complex and “messy” or ill-structured problems as part of their professional and everyday life. In the context of online learning, we have identified two key issues that are elusive (hard to capture and make visible: learning with ill-structured problems and the interaction of social and individual learning. We believe that the intersection between learning and analytics has the potential, in the long-term, to minimize the elusiveness of deep learning. A proposed analytics model is described in this article that is meant to capture and also support further development of a learner’s reflective sensemaking.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA evidences reflect an incipient population structure in Atlantic goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, Epinephelidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnio S. Damasceno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic goliath grouper is a critically endangered species that inhabits estuarine and reef environments and is threatened primarily by fishing activities and habitat destruction. Despite the urgent need for protection, its genetic conservation status remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gene flow among the populations of the species along the coast of Brazil based on the control region of the mitochondrial DNA. The results indicate low haplotype diversity (0.40-0.86 and very low nucleotide diversity (0.1-0.5%. They also show that the genetic diversity of the species varies considerably along the coast and that this finding may be especially important for the identification of priority areas for its conservation. The population analyses indicate a low but significant degree of genetic structuring (ΦST =0.111, probably due to the occurrence of rare haplotypes at some locations, although the genetic differentiation between sites was not correlated with geographic distance (r=0.0501; p=0.7719, and the shared haplotypes indicate that gene flow occurs among all locations along the Brazilian coast. The results of the pairwise FST indicate a high degree of genetic differentiation between locations. The incipient population structuring detected in the present study is not related systematically to the geological or physical features of the Brazilian coast. The complex interaction of fluctuations in sea level, marine currents, and the reproductive characteristics of the species hampers the identification of the specific role of each of these processes in the gene flow dynamics of the population units of the Atlantic goliath grouper. The low overall levels of genetic diversity, the pairwise FST values and the significant population structuring among groups (ΦCT identified in the present study all reinforce the critically endangered status of the species and are inconsistent with the presence of a single, panmictic

  7. Geological affinity of reflecting boundaries in the intermediate structural stage of the Chu Sarysuyskiy depression based on results of vertical seismic profilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, N.G.; Kiselevskiy, Yu.N.

    1983-01-01

    A computer (EVM) and an ASOI-VSP-SK program complex are used to analyze data from seismic exploration and acoustical logging with interval by interval calculation of the velocity every four meters. Vertical seismic profilling (VSP) results are used to identify all the upper layers as reference layers. The basic reference level, the third, which corresponds to the floor of the carbonate middle to upper Visean series, is not sustained due to the thin layered state of the terrigeneous section. Based on data from vertical seismic profilling, the reflected wave method (MOV) and the common depth point method (MOGT), the reference 3-a and 6-a levels are identified. Deep reflections of the seventh, 7-a and Rf, approximately confined to the roof and floor of the lower Paleozoic deposits and the upper part of the upper reef series, are noted in the series of the Caledonian cap of the Prebaykal massifs based on vertical seismic profilling. Collector levels are noted on the basis of the frequency of the wave spectra and from the absorption coefficient in the Testas structure and in other low amplitude structures. The insufficiency of the depth capability of the common depth point method and the poor knowledge level of seismic exploration of the section of the lower Paleozoa and the upper Proterozoa of the Chu Sarysuyskiy depresion are noted.

  8. The Genetic Structure of Wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae Populations in Eastern Bulgaria Reflects Introgressions from Weedy Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Pineda-Martos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes wild Asteraceae species. It is also an important parasitic weed of sunflower crops. The objective of this research was to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and virulence on sunflower of O. cumana populations parasitizing wild plants in eastern Bulgaria. Fresh tissue of eight O. cumana populations and mature seeds of four of them were collected in situ on wild hosts. Genetic diversity and population structure were studied with SSR markers and compared to weedy populations. Two main gene pools were identified in Bulgarian populations, with most of the populations having intermediate characteristics. Cross-inoculation experiments revealed that O. cumana populations collected on wild species possessed similar ability to parasitize sunflower to those collected on sunflower. The results were explained on the basis of an effective genetic exchange between populations parasitizing sunflower crops and those parasitizing wild species. The occurrence of bidirectional gene flow may have an impact on wild populations, as new physiological races continuously emerge in weedy populations. Also, genetic variability of wild populations may favour the ability of weedy populations to overcome sunflower resistance mechanisms.

  9. The Genetic Structure of Wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae) Populations in Eastern Bulgaria Reflects Introgressions from Weedy Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Martos, Rocío; Pujadas-Salvà, Antonio J.; Fernández-Martínez, José M.; Stoyanov, Kiril; Pérez-Vich, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes wild Asteraceae species. It is also an important parasitic weed of sunflower crops. The objective of this research was to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and virulence on sunflower of O. cumana populations parasitizing wild plants in eastern Bulgaria. Fresh tissue of eight O. cumana populations and mature seeds of four of them were collected in situ on wild hosts. Genetic diversity and population structure were studied with SSR markers and compared to weedy populations. Two main gene pools were identified in Bulgarian populations, with most of the populations having intermediate characteristics. Cross-inoculation experiments revealed that O. cumana populations collected on wild species possessed similar ability to parasitize sunflower to those collected on sunflower. The results were explained on the basis of an effective genetic exchange between populations parasitizing sunflower crops and those parasitizing wild species. The occurrence of bidirectional gene flow may have an impact on wild populations, as new physiological races continuously emerge in weedy populations. Also, genetic variability of wild populations may favour the ability of weedy populations to overcome sunflower resistance mechanisms. PMID:25143963

  10. Structural Color Tuning: Mixing Melanin-Like Particles with Different Diameters to Create Neutral Colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Ayaka; Kohri, Michinari; Yoshioka, Shinya; Taniguchi, Tatsuo; Kishikawa, Keiki

    2017-04-18

    We present the ability to tune structural colors by mixing colloidal particles. To produce high-visibility structural colors, melanin-like core-shell particles composed of a polystyrene (PSt) core and a polydopamine (PDA) shell, were used as components. The results indicated that neutral structural colors could be successfully obtained by simply mixing two differently sized melanin-like PSt@PDA core-shell particles. In addition, the arrangements of the particles, which were important factors when forming structural colors, were investigated by mathematical processing using a 2D Fourier transform technique and Voronoi diagrams. These findings provide new insights for the development of structural color-based ink applications.

  11. Comparative study on two different seal surface structure for reactor pressure vessel sealing behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Xiong Guangming; Deng Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    The seal surface structure is very important to reactor pressure vessel (RPV) sealing behavior. In this paper, two 3-D RPV sealing analysis finite models have been established with different seal surface structures, in order to study the influence of two structures. The separation of RPV upper and lower flanges, bolt loads and etc. are obtained, which are used to evaluate the sealing behavior of the RPV. Meanwhile, the comparative analysis of safety margin of two seal surface structural had been done, which provides the theoretical basis for RPV seal structure design optimization. (authors)

  12. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  13. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  14. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  15. Seismic velocity structure and spatial distribution of reflection intensity off the Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, revealed by an ocean bottom seismographic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, where the Sagami Trough is in the south and the Japan Trench is in the east, there is a triple junction where the Pacific plate (PAC), the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the Honshu island arc (HIA) meet each other. In this region, the PAC subducts beneath the PHS and the HIA, and the PHS subducts beneath the HIA. Due to the subduction of 2 oceanic plates, numerous seismic events took place in the past. In order to understand these events, it is important to image structure of these plates. Hence, many researchers attempted to reveal the substructure from natural earthquakes and seismic experiments. Because most of the seismometers are placed inland area and the regular seismicity off Boso is inactive, it is difficult to reveal the precise substructure off Boso area using only natural earthquakes. Although several marine seismic experiments using active sources were conducted, vast area remains unclear off Boso Peninsula. In order to improve the situation, a marine seismic experiment, using airgun as an active source, was conducted from 30th July to 4th of August, 2009. The survey line has 216 km length and 20 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were placed on it. We estimated 2-D P-wave velocity structure from the airgun data using the PMDM (Progressive Model Development Method; Sato and Kenett, 2000) and the FAST (First Arrival Seismic Tomography ; Zelt and Barton, 1998). Furthermore, we identified the probable reflection phases from the data and estimated the location of reflectors using Travel time mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006). We found some reflection phases from the data, and the reflectors are located near the region where P-wave velocity is 5.0 km/s. We interpret that the reflectors indicate the plate boundary between the PHS and the HIA. The variation of the intensity of reflection along the upper surface of PHS seems to be consistent with the result from previous reflection seismic experiment conducted by Kimura et

  16. Structure and petroleum plays of the St. Lawrence Platform and Appalachians in southern Quebec : insights from interpretation of MRNQ seismic reflection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, S.; Lavoie, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Quebec Division; Dietrich, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Laliberte, J.Y. [Ministere des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune du Quebec, Charlesbourg, QC (Canada). Direction generale des hydrocarbures et des biocarburants

    2010-09-15

    This paper presented the results of a study in which 3 regional seismic reflection lines originally acquired in 1978 were reprocessed and reinterpreted using current techniques and methodologies. The profiles cross the Chambly-Fortierville syncline and provide images of the St. Lawrence Platform and the Appalachian foreland thrust belt of southern Quebec, including one that spans the entire width of the southern Quebec Appalachians. Post-stack seismic data processing and time migration were used to improve the quality of the original seismic sections, allowing interpretations that provide new information on subsurface geology, such as the recognition of complex structural patterns in platform and foreland units, the presence of a triangle zone at the structural front, and the geometry of thrust slices of platform units and Appalachian thrust beds, as well as images of the internal Humber Zone, including back-thrust faults and mega thrust wedges. The Saint-Flavien natural gas-field and other potential targets in the St. Lawrence Platform and Appalachian Foreland are imaged in the seismic profiles. The study provided new insights into the structure, geological evolution, and petroleum potential of the St. Lawrence Platform and the Appalachian foreland thrust belt of southern Quebec, including a potential, previously unrecognized Ordovician hydrothermal dolomite play. The new subsurface interpretations give a clearer view of the major structure affecting the Utica Shale, providing new insights into the limits of the unconventional shale gas play in the St. Lawrence Platform. 53 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Effect of vital bleaching with solutions containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and pineapple extract as an additive on human enamel using reflectance spectrophotometer: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejai Vekaash, Chitra Janardhanan; Kumar Reddy, Tripuravaram Vinay; Venkatesh, Kondas Vijay

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the color change in human enamel bleached with three different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, containing pineapple extract as an additive in two different timings, using reflectance spectrophotometer. The study aimed to investigate the bleaching efficacy on natural teeth using natural enzymes. Baseline color values of 10 randomly selected artificially stained incisors were obtained. The specimens were divided into three groups of 20 teeth each: Group 1 - 30% hydrogen peroxide, Group II - 20% hydrogen peroxide, and Group III - 10% hydrogen peroxide. One half of the tooth was bleached with hydrogen peroxide, and other was bleached with hydrogen peroxide and pineapple extract for 20 min (Subgroup A) and 10 min (Subgroup B). The results were statistically analyzed using student's t -test. The mean ΔE values of Group IA (31.62 ± 0.9), Group IIA (29.85 ± 1.2), and Group IIIA (28.65 ± 1.2) showed statistically significant higher values when compared to the mean Δ E values of Group 1A (25.02 ± 1.2), Group IIA (22.86 ± 1.1), and Group IIIA (16.56 ± 1.1). Identical results were obtained in Subgroup B. The addition of pineapple extract to hydrogen peroxide resulted in effective bleaching.

  18. Naturally occurring stable isotopes reflect changes in protein turnover and growth in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles under different dietary protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Perez, Miguel; Fernandez-Borras, Jaume; Ibarz, Antoni; Felip, Olga; Fontanillas, Ramon; Gutierrez, Joaquim; Blasco, Josefina

    2013-09-18

    Ideal nutritional conditions are crucial to sustainable aquaculture due to economic and environmental issues. Here we apply stable isotope analysis as an indicator of fish growth and feeding balance, to define the optimum diet for efficient growing conditions. Juveniles of gilthead sea bream were fed with six isoenergetic diets differing in protein to lipid proportion (from 41/26 to 57/20). As protein intake increased, δ¹⁵N and Δδ¹⁵N of muscle and Δδ¹⁵N and Δδ¹³C of its protein fraction decreased, indicating lower protein turnover and higher protein deposition in muscle. This is reflected in the inverse relationship found between Δδ¹⁵N and growth rate, although no differences were observed in either parameter beyond the protein/lipid proportion 47/23. Principal component analysis (PCA) also signaled 47/23 diet as the pivotal point with the highest growing efficiency, with isotopic parameters having the highest discrimination load. Thus, muscle isotope composition, especially ¹⁵N, can be used to evaluate nutritional status in farmed fish.

  19. Critical Reflections on the Hydrophobic Effect, its Origins and Manifestation: Water Structure, Chemical Reactivity, Micelles and Gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosale Chandrasekhar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The origins of the Hydrophobic Effect (HE, its biological significance and its experimental basis are critically addressed in this brief review. It is argued that the mechanistic work reported on the HE in recent decades needs to be reassessed, as its conclusions are apparently debatable. Essentially, it is highly inaccurate to view the HE as a repulsive interaction, which is rather an attractive one. It appears inevitable that the HE is indeed a manifestation of the perturbation of the structure of water upon the introduction of hydrocarbon molecules into its interior. There appears to be no other satisfactory explanation for the formation of micellar aggregates and the existence of the critical micelle concentration. Also, the practical significance of the HE on the reactivity of organic compounds (e.g. cycloadditions is severely limited by their minuscule solubility levels, itself a manifestation of the HE! Other related phenomena apparently include the formation of gels and the occurrence of certain esterification reactions in water, which are briefly reviewed from a conceptual viewpoint.

  20. Impacts of increasing typhoons on the structure and function of a subtropical forest: reflections of a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Chuan; Hamburg, Steven P; Wang, Lixin; Duh, Chin-Tzer; Huang, Chu-Mei; Chang, Chung-Te; Lin, Teng-Chiu

    2017-07-07

    Due to their destructive and sporadic nature, it is often difficult to evaluate and predict the effects of typhoon on forest ecosystem patterns and processes. We used a 21-yr record of litterfall rates to explore the influence of typhoon frequency and intensity, along with other meteorological variables, on ecosystem dynamics in a subtropical rainforest. Over the past half century there has been an increasing frequency of strong typhoons (category 3; >49.6 m s -1 ; increase of 1.5 typhoons/decade) impacting the Fushan Experimental Forest, Taiwan. At Fushan strong typhoons drive total litterfall mass with an average of 1100 kg ha -1 litterfall typhoon -1 . While mean typhoon season litterfall has been observed to vary by an order of magnitude, mean litterfall rates associated with annual leaf senescence vary by typhoon frequency, total annual litter mass increased gradually over the 21-year record following three major typhoons in 1994. Monthly maximum wind speed was predictive of monthly litterfall, yet the influence of precipitation and temperature was only evident in non-typhoon affected months. The response of this subtropical forest to strong typhoons suggests that increasing typhoon frequency has already shifted ecosystem structure and function (declining carbon sequestration and forest stature).

  1. Community structure, life histories and secondary production of stoneflies in two small mountain streams with different degree of forest cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Beracko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study examines community structure and nymphal biology (life cycles and secondary production of stoneflies in two adjacent mountain streams with different degree of forest cover in the Prosiečanka River Basin (Chočské Vrchy Mts., West Carpathians. One of the streams has non-forested catchment, converted to meadows and pastures, while the other one has catchment with 60% covered by spruce forest. Differences in forest cover and in thermal regime of the streams were reflected by the difference of stonefly communities at their structural and functional level. Species Nemoura cinerea and Leuctra aurita created stonefly assemblage in non-forested stream, whereas Nemoura cinerea also occurred in naturally forested stream together with species Leuctra armata, Leuctra nigra, Leuctra prima, Siphonoperla neglecta and Arcynopteryx dichroa. All examined species had maximally annual life cycle and in eudominant species Nemoura cinerea one month shift was found in nymphal hatching and adult emergence between streams. Total secondary production of stoneflies in undisturbed stream (126.46 mg DW m-2 y-1 was more than two times higher than the production in non-forested stream (47.39 mg DW m-2 y-1. 

  2. Structuring of poly ether ether ketone by ArF excimer laser radiation in different atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Gottmann, J.; Kreutz, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    Structuring of poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) by 193 nm ArF excimer laser radiation has been investigated. Experiments were carried out in different atmospheres (air, vacuum, Ar, O 2 ) in order to study its influence on the quality of the structures and the formation of the debris. Repetition rate makes little effect on the ablation rate and roughness of the structure in presence of any kind of atmosphere, indicating for the structuring of PEEK by ArF laser radiation a large window of processing. The roughness at the bottom of the structures and the morphology of the side walls are strongly affected by the properties of the atmosphere. The smallest roughness is achieved at 0.6 J/cm 2 for all kinds of processing gases. Debris around the structures can be diminished by structuring in vacuum. Plasma expansion speed has been measured by using high speed photography

  3. Structural contingency theory and individual differences: examination of external and internal person-team fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, John R; Moon, Henry; Ellis, Aleksander P J; West, Bradley J; Ilgen, Daniel R; Sheppard, Lori; Porter, Christopher O L H; Wagner, John A

    2002-06-01

    This article develops and tests a structurally based, integrated theory of person-team fit. The theory developed is an extension of structural contingency theory and considers issues of external fit simultaneously with its examination of internal fit at the team level. Results from 80 teams working on an interdependent team task indicate that divisional structures demand high levels of cognitive ability on the part of teammembers. However, the advantages of high cognitive ability in divisional structures are neutralized when there is poor external fit between the structure and the environment. Instead, emotional stability becomes a critical factor among teammembers when a divisional structure is out of alignment with its environment. Individual differences seem to play little or no role in functional structures, regardless of the degree of external fit.

  4. Uncertainty in soil-structure interaction analysis arising from differences in analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslenikov, O.R.; Chen, J.C.; Johnson, J.J.

    1982-07-01

    This study addresses uncertainties arising from variations in different modeling approaches to soil-structure interaction of massive structures at a nuclear power plant. To perform a comprehensive systems analysis, it is necessary to quantify, for each phase of the traditional analysis procedure, both the realistic seismic response and the uncertainties associated with them. In this study two linear soil-structure interaction techniques were used to analyze the Zion, Illinois nuclear power plant: a direct method using the FLUSH computer program and a substructure approach using the CLASSI family of computer programs. In-structure response from two earthquakes, one real and one synthetic, was compared. Structure configurations from relatively simple to complicated multi-structure cases were analyzed. The resulting variations help quantify uncertainty in structure response due to analysis procedures

  5. Signature recognition for rift structures of different sediment strata in ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xigang

    2006-10-01

    The rift structure weak information of high Bouguer gravity anomaly data among different Sediment strata are extracted By the horizontal gradient Maximum modulus, the wavelet variation, stripped gravity anomaly of basement and interfaces above/under researched layer, image processing method. So the linear rift structures of different Sediment strata are recognized on data images, such as Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, Permian and Carboniferous, Ordovician System. Development rifts of different Sediment strata occur in stereo structure with quasi-uniform spacing, the rift density of above Sediment stratum is more than lower in different Sediment strata, but the north rift density of the same Sediment stratum is less than south's. It is useful to study rift structure and co-explore for oil, gas, coal and uranium resources in Ordos Basin. (authors)

  6. Linking canopy reflectance to crop structure and photosynthesis to capture and interpret spatiotemporal dimensions of per-field photosynthetic productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei; Jeong, Seungtaek; Ko, Jonghan; Tenhunen, John

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen and water availability alter canopy structure and physiology, and thus crop growth, yielding large impacts on ecosystem-regulating/production provisions. However, to date, explicitly quantifying such impacts remains challenging partially due to lack of adequate methodology to capture spatial dimensions of ecosystem changes associated with nitrogen and water effects. A data fitting, where close-range remote-sensing measurements of vegetation indices derived from a handheld instrument and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system are linked to in situ leaf and canopy photosynthetic traits, was applied to capture and interpret inter- and intra-field variations in gross primary productivity (GPP) in lowland rice grown under flooded conditions (paddy rice, PD) subject to three nitrogen application rates and under rainfed conditions (RF) in an East Asian monsoon region of South Korea. Spatial variations (SVs) in both GPP and light use efficiency (LUEcabs) early in the growing season were enlarged by nitrogen addition. The nutritional effects narrowed over time. A shift in planting culture from flooded to rainfed conditions strengthened SVs in GPP and LUEcabs. Intervention of prolonged drought late in the growing season dramatically intensified SVs that were supposed to seasonally decrease. Nevertheless, nitrogen addition effects on SV of LUEcabs at the early growth stage made PD fields exert greater SVs than RF fields. SVs of GPP across PD and RF rice fields were likely related to leaf area index (LAI) development less than to LUEcabs, while numerical analysis suggested that considering strength in LUEcabs and its spatial variation for the same crop type tends to be vital for better evaluation in landscape/regional patterns of ecosystem photosynthetic productivity at critical phenology stages.

  7. Seagrass radiation after Messinian salinity crisis reflected by strong genetic structuring and out-of-Africa scenario (Ruppiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Triest

    Full Text Available Many aquatic plant and seagrass species are widespread and the origin of their continent-wide ranges might result from high gene flow levels. The response of species when extending northwards since the Last Glacial Maximum can be opposed to the structuring of their populations that survived glaciation cycles in southern regions. The peri-Mediterranean is a complex series of sea basins, coastlines, islands and river deltas with a unique history since the Messinian Crisis that potentially influenced allopatric processes of aquatic life. We tested whether vast ranges across Europe and the peri-Mediterranean of a global seagrass group (Ruppia species complexes can be explained by either overall high levels of gene flow or vicariance through linking population genetics, phylogeography and shallow phylogenetics. A multigene approach identified haplogroup lineages of two species complexes, of ancient and recent hybrids with most of the diversity residing in the South. High levels of connectivity over long distances were only observed at recently colonized northern ranges and in recently-filled seas following the last glaciation. A strong substructure in the southern Mediterranean explained an isolation-by-distance model across Europe. The oldest lineages of the southern Mediterranean Ruppia dated back to the period between the end of the Messinian and Late Pliocene. An imprint of ancient allopatric origin was left at basin level, including basal African lineages. Thus both vicariance in the South and high levels of connectivity in the North explained vast species ranges. Our findings highlight the need for interpreting global distributions of these seagrass and euryhaline species in the context of their origin and evolutionary significant units for setting up appropriate conservation strategies.

  8. Review of Differences of Steel related Properties between Proposals of European Structural Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    Differences of Steel related Properties between fire chapters of the Proposals of European Structural Codes are indicated for the same physical properties, the right properties are found and it is proposed to use these properties in all codes.......Differences of Steel related Properties between fire chapters of the Proposals of European Structural Codes are indicated for the same physical properties, the right properties are found and it is proposed to use these properties in all codes....

  9. Magnetic properties of dendrimer structures with different coordination numbers: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of Cayley trees of large molecules with dendrimer structure using Monte Carlo simulations. The thermal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of a dendrimer structure are given with different coordination numbers, Z=3, 4, 5 and different generations g=3 and 2. The variation of magnetizations with the exchange interactions and crystal fields have been given of this system. The magnetic hysteresis cycles have been established.

  10. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashin, Alexander A.; Domagalski, Marcin J.; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Jernigan, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  11. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashin, Alexander A., E-mail: alexander-rashin@hotmail.com [BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States); Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Domagalski, Marcin J. [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Zimmermann, Michael T. [Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Minor, Wladek [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Chruszcz, Maksymilian [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); University of South Carolina, 631 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Jernigan, Robert L. [Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  12. Three-dimensional particle tracking in concave structures made by ultraviolet nanoimprint via total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and refractive-index-matching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinami, Taku; Kigami, Hiroshi; Unno, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Jun; Satake, Shin-ichi

    2018-03-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is a promising method for measuring fluid flow close to a wall with nanoscale resolution in a process that is termed "multilayer nanoparticle image velocimetry" (MnPIV). TIRFM uses evanescent light that is generated on a substrate (typically a glass slide) by total internal reflection of light. Many researchers have previously studied x-y-z (3D) flows of water close to flat glass slides using MnPIV. On the other hand, a fluid flow close to a structured surface is also important. To measure flows of water near micro-patterns, we previously developed an MnPIV technique that uses a refractive-index-matching method. In previous study, the micropattern is made of a thermoplastic material with a refractive index that closely matches that of water. In this study, ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography was used for fabricating the appropriate micro-patterns because this technique can fabricate a pattern with a high resolution. As a result, we succeeded in performing MnPIV in water with a circular hole array pattern made by ultraviolet nanoimprint using a refractive-index-matching method. We believe that this technique will be helpful in elucidating fluid flows around microstructures.

  13. DNA methylation changes separate allergic patients from healthy controls and may reflect altered CD4+ T-cell population structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm E Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered DNA methylation patterns in CD4(+ T-cells indicate the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in inflammatory diseases. However, the identification of these alterations is complicated by the heterogeneity of most inflammatory diseases. Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR is an optimal disease model for the study of DNA methylation because of its well-defined phenotype and etiology. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation (N(patients = 8, N(controls = 8 and gene expression (N(patients = 9, Ncontrols = 10 profiles of CD4(+ T-cells from SAR patients and healthy controls using Illumina's HumanMethylation450 and HT-12 microarrays, respectively. DNA methylation profiles clearly and robustly distinguished SAR patients from controls, during and outside the pollen season. In agreement with previously published studies, gene expression profiles of the same samples failed to separate patients and controls. Separation by methylation (N(patients = 12, N(controls = 12, but not by gene expression (N(patients = 21, N(controls = 21 was also observed in an in vitro model system in which purified PBMCs from patients and healthy controls were challenged with allergen. We observed changes in the proportions of memory T-cell populations between patients (N(patients = 35 and controls (N(controls = 12, which could explain the observed difference in DNA methylation. Our data highlight the potential of epigenomics in the stratification of immune disease and represents the first successful molecular classification of SAR using CD4(+ T cells.

  14. Scattering analysis of periodic structures using finite-difference time-domain

    CERN Document Server

    ElMahgoub, Khaled; Elsherbeni, Atef Z

    2012-01-01

    Periodic structures are of great importance in electromagnetics due to their wide range of applications such as frequency selective surfaces (FSS), electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures, periodic absorbers, meta-materials, and many others. The aim of this book is to develop efficient computational algorithms to analyze the scattering properties of various electromagnetic periodic structures using the finite-difference time-domain periodic boundary condition (FDTD/PBC) method. A new FDTD/PBC-based algorithm is introduced to analyze general skewed grid periodic structures while another algor

  15. Economic Performance and Emission Reduction of Supply Chains in Different Power Structures: Perspective of Sustainable Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiutian Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues have increasingly received attention in both industry and academia. Many firms have started to make sustainable investments, such as adopting the pollution-abatement technologies, to reduce carbon emissions. To investigate the impacts of the sustainable investment on firms’ profit and emission reduction, we consider supply chains with uncertain demand in different power structures. Specifically, we examine the sustainable investment problem in three supply chain power structures, i.e., manufacturer Stackelberg (MS power structure, vertical Nash (VN power structure and retailer Stackelberg (RS power structure. We first derive the optimal decisions for both the retailer and manufacturer in each power structure. Then, by comparing the results in the three power structures, we find that the manufacturer gets benefits from making the sustainable investment, especially in unequal power structures. When the average market size is large (small enough, both of the supply chain members obtain more profits in the MS (RS power structure. From an environmental perspective, we find that the emission reduction is more significant in sequential games (i.e., MS and RS power structures than that in a simultaneous game (i.e., VN power structure. In addition, we conduct some numerical studies and discuss more managerial insights in the paper.

  16. Structural studies of Pseudomonas and Chromobacterium ω-aminotransferases provide insights into their differing substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayer, Christopher; Isupov, Michail N.; Westlake, Aaron; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray structures of two ω-aminotransferases from P. aeruginosa and C. violaceum in complex with an inhibitor offer the first detailed insight into the structural basis of the substrate specificity of these industrially important enzymes. The crystal structures and inhibitor complexes of two industrially important ω-aminotransferase enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum have been determined in order to understand the differences in their substrate specificity. The two enzymes share 30% sequence identity and use the same amino acceptor, pyruvate; however, the Pseudomonas enzyme shows activity towards the amino donor β-alanine, whilst the Chromobacterium enzyme does not. Both enzymes show activity towards S-α-methylbenzylamine (MBA), with the Chromobacterium enzyme having a broader substrate range. The crystal structure of the P. aeruginosa enzyme has been solved in the holo form and with the inhibitor gabaculine bound. The C. violaceum enzyme has been solved in the apo and holo forms and with gabaculine bound. The structures of the holo forms of both enzymes are quite similar. There is little conformational difference observed between the inhibitor complex and the holoenzyme for the P. aeruginosa aminotransferase. In comparison, the crystal structure of the C. violaceum gabaculine complex shows significant structural rearrangements from the structures of both the apo and holo forms of the enzyme. It appears that the different rigidity of the protein scaffold contributes to the substrate specificity observed for the two ω-aminotransferases

  17. Quantitative assessment of hemodynamic and structural characteristics of in vivo brain tissue using total diffuse reflectance spectrum measured in a non-contact fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinchen; Garcia, Sarahy; Frometa, Yisel; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Soltani, Mohammad; Almadi, Mohamed; Riera, Jorge J; Lin, Wei-Chiang

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a new methodology that investigates the intrinsic structural and hemodynamic characteristics of in vivo brain tissue, in a non-contact fashion, and can be easily incorporated in an intra-operative environment. Within this methodology, relative total diffuse reflectance spectra (R TD (λ)) were acquired from targets using a hybrid spectroscopy imaging system. A spectral interpretation algorithm was subsequently applied to R TD (λ) to retrieve optical properties related to the compositional and structural characteristics of each target. Estimation errors of the proposed methodology were computationally evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation model for photon migration under various conditions. It was discovered that this new methodology could handle moderate noise and achieve very high accuracy, but only if the refractive index of the target is known. The accuracy of the technique was also validated using a series of tissue phantom studies, and consistent and accurate estimates of μ s '(λ)/μ a (λ) were obtained from all the phantoms tested. Finally, a small-scale animal study was conducted to demonstrate the clinical utility of the reported method, wherein a forepaw stimulation model was utilized to induce transient hemodynamic responses in somatosensory cortices. With this approach, significant stimulation-related changes (p < 0.001) in cortical hemodynamic and structural characteristics were successfully measured.

  18. Bacterial diversity shift determined by different diets in the gut of the spotted wing fly Drosophila suzukii is primarily reflected on acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Vacchini, Violetta

    2016-11-25

    The pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. Drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important components. Here, we investigated the bacterial and AAB components of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii microbiota, by studying the same insect population separately grown on fruit-based or non-fruit artificial diet. AAB were highly prevalent in the gut under both diets (90 and 92% infection rates with fruits and artificial diet, respectively). Fluorescent in situ hybridization and recolonization experiments with green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labelled strains showed AAB capability to massively colonize insect gut. High-throughput sequencing on 16S rRNA gene indicated that the bacterial microbiota of guts fed with the two diets clustered separately. By excluding AAB-related OTUs from the analysis, insect bacterial communities did not cluster separately according to the diet, suggesting that diet-based diversification of the community is primarily reflected on the AAB component of the community. Diet influenced also AAB alpha-diversity, with separate OTU distributions based on diets. High prevalence, localization and massive recolonization, together with AAB clustering behaviour in relation to diet, suggest an AAB role in the D. suzukii gut response to diet modification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Real-Time, Label-Free Detection of Biomolecular Interactions in Sandwich Assays by the Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shin Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important goals in proteomics is to detect the real-time kinetics of diverse biomolecular interactions. Fluorescence, which requires extrinsic tags, is a commonly and widely used method because of its high convenience and sensitivity. However, in order to maintain the conformational and functional integrality of biomolecules, label-free detection methods are highly under demand. We have developed the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD technique for label-free, kinetic measurements of protein-biomolecule interactions. Incorporating the total internal refection geometry into the OI-RD technique, we are able to detect as low as 0.1% of a protein monolayer, and this sensitivity is comparable with other label-free techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR. The unique advantage of OI-RD over SPR is no need for dielectric layers. Moreover, using a photodiode array as the detector enables multi-channel detection and also eliminates the over-time signal drift. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of the OI-RD technique by measuring the kinetics of protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions in sandwich assays.

  1. Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Check, I.J.; Kidd, M.R.; Staton, G.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis. We analyzed 32 paired sera and BAL fluids from sarcoidosis patients by high-resolution agarose electrophoresis to look for protein changes characteristic of systemic or local inflammation and compared the results with those from the above tests. Nine patients (group 1) had serum inflammatory protein changes and increased total protein, albumin, beta 1-globulin (transferrin), and gamma-globulin levels in fluid recovered by BAL. Thirteen patients (group 2) had normal protein levels in sera but abnormal protein levels in BAL specimens. Ten patients (group 3) had normal protein levels in sera and in BAL specimens. Patients in groups 1 and 2 had a disproportionate increase in beta 1-globulin (transferrin) and gamma-globulin levels in their BAL specimens. The BAL lymphocyte percentage changes paralleled the BAL protein level changes, suggesting relationships among the immunoregulatory role of these cells, increased local immunoglobulin synthesis, and the pathogenesis of altered alveolar permeability. Gallium-67 uptake was highest in patients with serum inflammatory protein changes. Thus, systemic inflammation may facilitate pulmonary gallium-67 uptake, possibly by changes in BAL fluid or serum transferrin saturation and/or kinetics. SACE levels showed no relationship to changes in the levels of serum or BAL proteins. These data suggest that the various proposed measures of disease activity reflect different aspects of inflammation in sarcoidosis

  2. Population genetic structure of the endemic rosewoods Dalbergia cochinchinensis and D. oliveri at a regional scale reflects the Indochinese landscape and life-history traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Ida; So, Thea; Changtragoon, Suchitra

    2018-01-01

    of the distribution area, particularly in Cambodia. We suggest that this pattern is ancient, reflecting the demographic history of the species and possible location of refugia during earlier time periods with limited forest cover, which was supported by signs of old genetic bottlenecks. The D. oliveri populations had......Indochina is a biodiversity hot spot and harbors a high number of endemic species, most of which are poorly studied. This study explores the genetic structure and reproductive system of the threatened endemic timber species Dalbergia cochinchinensis and Dalbergia oliveri using microsatellite data...... from populations across Indochina and relates it to landscape characteristics and life-history traits. We found that the major water bodies in the region, Mekong and Tonle Sap, represented barriers to gene flow and that higher levels of genetic diversity were found in populations in the center...

  3. Effects of irregular basement structure on the geometry and emplacement of frontal thrusts and duplexes in the Quebec Appalachians: Interpretations from well and seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovskaya, E.; Malo, M.; Badina, F.

    2014-12-01

    Irregular basement geometry may affect thrust propagation in foreland fold-thrust belts creating a perturbation in structural continuity of hydrocarbon fields. Here we investigate how the irregular pattern of normal faults, along with the presence of uplifts and transverse faults in the Grenvillian basement has influenced the geometry and emplacement of frontal thrusts and duplexes in the parautochthonous domain of the southern Quebec Appalachians during the middle-late Ordovician Taconian orogeny. Integration of data from surface geology, wells, and 2D and 3D seismic reflection surveys into a regional-scale structural model is used to reconstruct the 3D geometry and emplacement history of one- and two-horse duplexes in the Joly-Saint-Flavien gas storage area. The normal hinterland to foreland sequence of thrusting in this area is complicated by the differential emplacement of tectonic slices along strike of the orogenic front, starting in the SW and developing subsequently to the NE within each structural level. The shortening related to duplex emplacement decreases laterally over the distance of 20 km from - 49% in the SW (Joly area) to - 31% in the NE (Saint-Flavien area). Duplex emplacement resulted from the differential forward propagation, deflexion and vertical-axis rotation of the roof thrust (Logan's Line), which, in turn, has been induced by the presence of frontal uplift and transverse faults in the basement. The structural-lithological analysis of tectonic slices and restoration of their initial location allows us to consider the lower slice of the Joly duplex as a structural trap comparable to the fractured reservoir in lower Ordovician dolomites of the Saint-Flavien duplex.

  4. DSM-IV "criterion A" schizophrenia symptoms across ethnically different populations: evidence for differing psychotic symptom content or structural organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Duncan; Thara, Rangaswamy; John, Sujit; Barrett, Robert; Loa, Peter; McGrath, John; Mowry, Bryan

    2014-09-01

    There is significant variation in the expression of schizophrenia across ethnically different populations, and the optimal structural and diagnostic representation of schizophrenia are contested. We contrasted both lifetime frequencies of DSM-IV criterion A (the core symptom criterion of the internationally recognized DSM classification system) symptoms and types/content of delusions and hallucinations in transethnic schizophrenia populations from Australia (n = 776), India (n = 504) and Sarawak, Malaysia (n = 259), to elucidate clinical heterogeneity. Differences in both criterion A symptom composition and symptom content were apparent. Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported negative symptoms more frequently than other sites, whereas individuals from Sarawak reported disorganized symptoms more frequently. Delusions of control and thought broadcast, insertion, or withdrawal were less frequent in Sarawak than Australia. Curiously, a subgroup of 20 Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported no lifetime delusions or hallucinations. These findings potentially challenge the long-held view in psychiatry that schizophrenia is fundamentally similar across cultural groups, with differences in only the content of psychotic symptoms, but equivalence in structural form.

  5. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  6. Different Structures of PVA Nano fibrous Membrane for Sound Absorption Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrova, J.; Kalinova, K.

    2012-01-01

    The thin nano fibrous layer has different properties in the field of sound absorption in comparison with porous fibrous material which works on a principle of friction of air particles in contact with walls of pores. In case of the thin nano fibrous layer, which represents a sound absorber here, the energy of sonic waves is absorbed by the principle of membrane resonance. The structure of the membrane can play an important role in the process of converting the sonic energy to a different energy type. The vibration system acts differently depending on the presence of smooth fibers in the structure, amount of partly merged fibers, or structure of polymer foil as extreme. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used as a polymer because of its good water solubility. It is possible to influence the structure of nano fibrous layer during the production process thanks to this property of polyvinyl alcohol.

  7. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  8. Analysis on complex structure stability under different bar angle with BIM technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiongjue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sun Valley, the landmark building of World Expo in Shanghai, which has free surface with single-layer reticulated shell structure, is a typical complex structure. CAD/CAM integrated information system to design is used for the complex structure; however, it is a very rigorous process to be used widely. The relevant technology of the Sun Valley is not open to the public at present, so we try to use BIM technology to model the Sun Valley, including architecture modelling and structure analysis. By analysis of the Sun Valley structure using this method, it is proved that the problems in modelling may be solved by writing some script codes in Rhino software and the stability of the model can also be analyzed. The new approach is viable and effective in combination with different softwares such as Rhino, Revit, and Midas in solution of the complex shaped surfaces’ structure for modelling and calculation.

  9. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  10. Protein secondary structure assignment revisited: a detailed analysis of different assignment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Brevern Alexandre G

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of methods are now available to perform automatic assignment of periodic secondary structures from atomic coordinates, based on different characteristics of the secondary structures. In general these methods exhibit a broad consensus as to the location of most helix and strand core segments in protein structures. However the termini of the segments are often ill-defined and it is difficult to decide unambiguously which residues at the edge of the segments have to be included. In addition, there is a "twilight zone" where secondary structure segments depart significantly from the idealized models of Pauling and Corey. For these segments, one has to decide whether the observed structural variations are merely distorsions or whether they constitute a break in the secondary structure. Methods To address these problems, we have developed a method for secondary structure assignment, called KAKSI. Assignments made by KAKSI are compared with assignments given by DSSP, STRIDE, XTLSSTR, PSEA and SECSTR, as well as secondary structures found in PDB files, on 4 datasets (X-ray structures with different resolution range, NMR structures. Results A detailed comparison of KAKSI assignments with those of STRIDE and PSEA reveals that KAKSI assigns slightly longer helices and strands than STRIDE in case of one-to-one correspondence between the segments. However, KAKSI tends also to favor the assignment of several short helices when STRIDE and PSEA assign longer, kinked, helices. Helices assigned by KAKSI have geometrical characteristics close to those described in the PDB. They are more linear than helices assigned by other methods. The same tendency to split long segments is observed for strands, although less systematically. We present a number of cases of secondary structure assignments that illustrate this behavior. Conclusion Our method provides valuable assignments which favor the regularity of secondary structure segments.

  11. Variability of the Structural Coloration in Two Butterfly Species with Different Prezygotic Mating Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Piszter

    Full Text Available Structural coloration variability was investigated in two Blue butterfly species that are common in Hungary. The males of Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue and Plebejus argus (Silver-studded Blue use their blue wing coloration for conspecific recognition. Despite living in the same type of habitat, these two species display differences in prezygotic mating strategy: the males of P. icarus are patrolling, while P. argus males have sedentary behavior. Therefore, the species-specific photonic nanoarchitecture, which is the source of the structural coloration, may have been subjected to different evolutionary effects. Despite the increasing interest in photonic nanoarchitectures of biological origin, there is a lack of studies focused on the biological variability of structural coloration that examine a statistically relevant number of individuals from the same species. To investigate possible structural color variation within the same species in populations separated by large geographical distances, climatic differences, or applied experimental conditions, one has to be able to compare these variations to the normal biological variability within a single population. The structural coloration of the four wings of 25 male individuals (100 samples for each species was measured and compared using different light-collecting setups: perpendicular and with an integrating sphere. Significant differences were found in the near UV wavelength region that are perceptible by these polyommatine butterflies but are invisible to human observers. The differences are attributed to the differences in the photonic nanoarchitecture in the scales of these butterflies. Differences in the intensity of structural coloration were also observed and were tentatively attributed to the different prezygotic mating strategies of these insects. Despite the optical complexity of the scale covered butterfly wings, for sufficiently large sample batches, the averaged normal incidence

  12. Variability of the Structural Coloration in Two Butterfly Species with Different Prezygotic Mating Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszter, Gábor; Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Biró, László Péter

    2016-01-01

    Structural coloration variability was investigated in two Blue butterfly species that are common in Hungary. The males of Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue) and Plebejus argus (Silver-studded Blue) use their blue wing coloration for conspecific recognition. Despite living in the same type of habitat, these two species display differences in prezygotic mating strategy: the males of P. icarus are patrolling, while P. argus males have sedentary behavior. Therefore, the species-specific photonic nanoarchitecture, which is the source of the structural coloration, may have been subjected to different evolutionary effects. Despite the increasing interest in photonic nanoarchitectures of biological origin, there is a lack of studies focused on the biological variability of structural coloration that examine a statistically relevant number of individuals from the same species. To investigate possible structural color variation within the same species in populations separated by large geographical distances, climatic differences, or applied experimental conditions, one has to be able to compare these variations to the normal biological variability within a single population. The structural coloration of the four wings of 25 male individuals (100 samples for each species) was measured and compared using different light-collecting setups: perpendicular and with an integrating sphere. Significant differences were found in the near UV wavelength region that are perceptible by these polyommatine butterflies but are invisible to human observers. The differences are attributed to the differences in the photonic nanoarchitecture in the scales of these butterflies. Differences in the intensity of structural coloration were also observed and were tentatively attributed to the different prezygotic mating strategies of these insects. Despite the optical complexity of the scale covered butterfly wings, for sufficiently large sample batches, the averaged normal incidence measurements and

  13. Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…

  14. Preconditioned finite-difference frequency-domain for modelling periodic dielectric structures - comparisons with FDTD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chabory, A.; Hon, de B.P.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Tijhuis, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Finite-difference techniques are very popular and versatile numerical tools in computational electromagnetics. In this paper, we propose a preconditioned finite-difference frequency-domain method (FDFD) to model periodic structures in 2D and 3D. The preconditioner follows from a modal decoupling

  15. Preconditioned finite-difference frequency-domain for modelling periodic dielectric structures : comparisons with FDTD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chabory, A.; Hon, de B.P.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Tijhuis, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Finite-difference techniques are very popular and versatile numerical tools in computational electromagnetics. In this paper, we propose a preconditioned finite-difference frequency-domain method (FDFD) to model periodic structures in 2D and 3D. The preconditioner follows from a modal decoupling

  16. Diverse Asian American Families and Communities: Culture, Structure, and Education (Part 1: Why They Differ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…

  17. General mixture item response models with different item response structures: Exposition with an application to Likert scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijmstra, Jesper; Bolsinova, Maria; Jeon, Minjeong

    2018-01-10

    This article proposes a general mixture item response theory (IRT) framework that allows for classes of persons to differ with respect to the type of processes underlying the item responses. Through the use of mixture models, nonnested IRT