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Sample records for reflect long-lasting limbic

  1. Long lasting decontamination foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  2. Intermediate Leg SBLOCA - Long Lasting Pressure Transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konjarek, D.; Bajs, T.; Vukovic, J.

    2010-01-01

    The basic phenomenology of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) for PWR plant is described with focus on analysis of scenario in which reactor coolant pressure decreases below secondary system pressure. Best estimate light water reactor transient analysis code RELAP5/mod3.3 was used in calculation. Rather detailed model of the plant was used. The break occurs in intermediate leg on lowest elevation near pump suction. The size of the break is chosen to be small enough to cause cycling of safety valves (SVs) on steam generators (SGs) for some time, but, afterwards, it is large enough to remove decay heat through the break, causing cooling the secondary side. In this case of SBLOCA, when primary pressure decreases below secondary pressure, long lasting pressure transients with significant amplitude occur. Reasons for such behavior are explained.(author).

  3. Individual variation in intentionality in the mind-wandering state is reflected in the integration of the default-mode, fronto-parietal, and limbic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchert, Johannes; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Seli, Paul; Huntenburg, Julia M; Liem, Franziskus; Lauckner, Mark E; Oligschläger, Sabine; Bernhardt, Boris C; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S

    2017-02-01

    Mind-wandering has a controversial relationship with cognitive control. Existing psychological evidence supports the hypothesis that episodes of mind-wandering reflect a failure to constrain thinking to task-relevant material, as well the apparently alternative view that control can facilitate the expression of self-generated mental content. We assessed whether this apparent contradiction arises because of a failure to consider differences in the types of thoughts that occur during mind-wandering, and in particular, the associated level of intentionality. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we examined the cortical organisation that underlies inter-individual differences in descriptions of the spontaneous or deliberate nature of mind-wandering. Cortical thickness, as well as functional connectivity analyses, implicated regions relevant to cognitive control and regions of the default-mode network for individuals who reported high rates of deliberate mind-wandering. In contrast, higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering were associated with cortical thinning in parietal and posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (which are important in the control of cognition and attention) as well as heightened connectivity between the intraparietal sulcus and a region that spanned limbic and default-mode regions in the ventral inferior frontal gyrus. Finally, we observed a dissociation in the thickness of the retrosplenial cortex/lingual gyrus, with higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering being associated with thickening in the left hemisphere, and higher repots of deliberate mind-wandering with thinning in the right hemisphere. These results suggest that the intentionality of the mind-wandering state depends on integration between the control and default-mode networks, with more deliberation being associated with greater integration between these systems. We conclude that one reason why mind-wandering has a controversial relationship

  4. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Volkow

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (phasic release is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function was measured with PET and (18FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg. The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68% and with methylphenidate (64%. In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005 in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005, amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05. This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes, which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  5. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Pradhan, K.; Jayne, M.; Logan, J.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and 18 FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  6. Effective utilization period of long-lasting insecticide treated nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs) (PermaNet®2.0) over time and the species composition of Anopheles mosquitoes around Bahir Dar. The space spray collection method was used to determine the species composition of indoor resting Anopheles ...

  7. FIELD TOPOLOGY ANALYSIS OF A LONG-LASTING CORONAL SIGMOID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savcheva, A. S.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first field topology analysis based on nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models of a long-lasting coronal sigmoid observed in 2007 February with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode. The NLFFF models are built with the flux rope insertion method and give the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field as constrained by observed coronal loop structures and photospheric magnetograms. Based on these models, we have computed horizontal maps of the current and the squashing factor Q for 25 different heights in the corona for all six days of the evolution of the region. We use the squashing factor to quantify the degree of change of the field line linkage and to identify prominent quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). We discuss the major properties of these QSL maps and devise a way to pick out important QSLs since our calculation cannot reach high values of Q. The complexity in the QSL maps reflects the high degree of fragmentation of the photospheric field. We find main QSLs and current concentrations that outline the flux rope cavity and that become characteristically S-shaped during the evolution of the sigmoid. We note that, although intermittent bald patches exist along the length of the sigmoid during its whole evolution, the flux rope remains stable for several days. However, shortly after the topology of the field exhibits hyperbolic flux tubes (HFT) on February 7 and February 12 the sigmoid loses equilibrium and produces two B-class flares and associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The location of the most elevated part of the HFT in our model coincides with the inferred locations of the two flares. Therefore, we suggest that the presence of an HFT in a coronal magnetic configuration may be an indication that the system is ready to erupt. We offer a scenario in which magnetic reconnection at the HFT drives the system toward the marginally stable state. Once this state is reached, loss of equilibrium occurs via the torus instability, producing a CME.

  8. Distributional learning has immediate and long-lasting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Williams, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Evidence of distributional learning, a statistical learning mechanism centered on relative frequency of exposure to different tokens, has mainly come from short-term learning and therefore does not ostensibly address the development of important learning processes. The present longitudinal study examines both short- and long-term effects of distributional learning of phonetic categories on non-native sound discrimination over a 12-month period. Two groups of listeners were exposed to a two-minute distribution of auditory stimuli in which the most frequently presented tokens either approximated or exaggerated the natural production of the speech sounds, whereas a control group listened to a piece of classical music for the same length of time. Discrimination by listeners in the two distribution groups improved immediately after the short exposure, replicating previous results. Crucially, this improvement was maintained after six and 12 months, demonstrating that distributional learning has long-lasting effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Long lasting effects of chronic heavy cannabis abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestoros, Joannis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios; Skondras, Markos D; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use. A complete psychiatric examination and a psychometric evaluation were performed in 48 solely cannabis users. Additionally, head hair samples were analyzed and the detected cannabinoids levels were correlated with the psychometric findings. A total of 33.3% (n = 16) of the total examined cannabis users were currently imprisoned. The years of abuse ranged from 1 to 35 years and the median daily dose was 5.84.4 gr and 4.84.0 gr for prisoners (n = 16) and non prisoners (n = 32), respectively. A total of 39.6% of the users experienced hallucinations (mostly auditory), 54.2% experienced delusions (mostly ideas of reference and persecution), 85.4% had organic brain dysfunction in a test addressing visual-motor functioning and visual perception skills, and all users (100%) were found to have organic brain dysfunction in a test of visual memory immediate recall. The cannabinoid metabolite levels in the hair samples were consistent with the reported history of substance abuse and total grams of consumption for the participants below 35 years old (p cannabis users seems to be associated with cannabinoid levels in hair. The continuation of persistent symptoms 3 months after the discontinuation of cannabis abuse, was a remarkable finding. We provide evidence that chronic and heavy cannabis abuse results in long-lasting brain dysfunction in all users and in long-lasting schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms in more than half of all users. These findings suggest a reevaluation of the current classification of cannabis as a "soft narcotic" which erroneously, therefore, is typically considered harmless. (Am J Addict 2017;26:335-342). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  10. Ipilimumab in advanced melanoma: reports of long-lasting responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farolfi, Alberto; Ridolfi, Laura; Guidoboni, Massimo; Nicoletti, Stefania Vittoria Luisa; Piciucchi, Sara; Valmorri, Linda; Costantini, Matteo; Scarpi, Emanuela; Amadori, Dino; Ridolfi, Ruggero

    2012-06-01

    Patients with metastatic melanoma have a poor prognosis; the results of chemotherapy remain unsatisfactory. Ipilimumab, an anticytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 antibody, has shown promising results in several clinical trials. In this report, advanced melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab were scored according to novel immune-related response criteria (irRC) in an attempt to capture additional response patterns and to avoid premature treatment cessation. Thirty-six heavily pretreated metastatic melanoma patients recieved ipilimumab within five international clinical trials at our Institution from May 2006 to August 2008. Disease progression was defined as an increase in tumor burden by at least 25% compared with the nadir, irrespective of any initial increase in baseline lesions or the appearance of new lesions. We report unusually long-lasting responses in patients treated with ipilimumab 10 mg/kg. An overall response was observed in six out of 30 patients (20%), a complete response in three (10%), and disease control in 11 (37%), which seemed to be of a long duration (median of 16 months; complete response 36+, 34+, and 41+ months). All irRC patterns seemed to be strongly associated with an improvement in overall survival. Interestingly, we found a correlation between the presence of a grade 3/4 immune-related adverse event and responses, time to progression, and overall survival. Ipilimumab therapy resulted in clinically meaningful responses in advanced melanoma patients, supporting the need for further irRC validation.

  11. Long-lasting antifog plasma modification of transparent plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mundo, Rosa; d'Agostino, Riccardo; Palumbo, Fabio

    2014-10-08

    Antifog surfaces are necessary for any application requiring optical efficiency of transparent materials. Surface modification methods aimed toward increasing solid surface energy, even when supposed to be permanent, in fact result in a nondurable effect due to the instability in air of highly hydrophilic surfaces. We propose the strategy of combining a hydrophilic chemistry with a nanotextured topography, to tailor a long-lasting antifog modification on commercial transparent plastics. In particular, we investigated a two-step process consisting of self-masked plasma etching followed by plasma deposition of a silicon-based film. We show that the deposition of the silicon-based coatings on the flat (pristine) substrates allows a continuous variation of wettability from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic, due to a continuous reduction of carbon-containing groups, as assessed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. By depositing these different coatings on previously nanotextured substrates, the surface wettability behavior is changed consistently, as well as the condensation phenomenon in terms of microdroplets/liquid film appearance. This variation is correlated with advancing and receding water contact angle features of the surfaces. More importantly, in the case of the superhydrophilic coating, though its surface energy decreases with time, when a nanotextured surface underlies it, the wetting behavior is maintained durably superhydrophilic, thus durably antifog.

  12. Culminating anti-malaria efforts at long lasting insecticidal net?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Dhiman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are a primary method in malaria control efforts. However, a decline in the biological efficacy and physical integrity over a period of comparatively lesser time than claimed, waning of naturally acquired immunity among regular users and misuse of LLINs are serious concerns. Search and selection of literature: The literature for the current review was searched in PubMed, SCOPUS Database and Google using combined search strings of related key-words. Literature with sufficient data and information on the current subject was selected to reach a valid conclusion. Findings: The World Health Organization (WHO has emphasized that LLINs should be considered a public good for people inhabiting malaria endemic settings. LLINs exhibited a cumulative effect on the vector density and may force anthropophilic mosquito vectors to find alternative animal hosts for blood meal. However, the physical integrity and biological activity of LLINs declines faster than the anticipated time due to different operational conditions and the spread of insecticide resistance. LLINs have been successful in reducing malaria incidences by either reducing or not allowing human exposure to the vector mosquitoes, but at the same time, LLINs debilitate the natural protective immunity against malaria parasite. Misuse of LLINs for deviant purposes is common and is a serious environmental concern, as people believe that traditional methods of prevention against malaria that have enabled them to survive through a long time are effective and sufficient. Moreover, people are often ill-informed regarding the toxic effects of LLINs. Conclusions: Specific criteria for determining the serviceable life and guidelines on the safe washing and disposal of LLINs need to be developed, kept well-informed and closely monitored. Malaria case management, environment management and community awareness to reduce the misuse of LLINs are crucial

  13. Neonatal oxytocin manipulations have long-lasting, sexually dimorphic effects on vasopressin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, K L; Plotsky, P M; Young, L J; Lim, M M; Grotte, N; Ferrer, E; Carter, C S

    2007-01-05

    Developmental exposure to oxytocin (OT) or oxytocin antagonists (OTAs) has been shown to cause long-lasting and often sexually dimorphic effects on social behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Because regulation of social behavior in monogamous mammals involves central receptors for OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and dopamine, we examined the hypothesis that the long-lasting, developmental effects of exposure to neonatal OT or OTA might reflect changes in the expression of receptors for these peptides. On postnatal day 1, prairie voles were injected intraperitoneally with either OT (1 mg/kg), an OTA (0.1 mg/kg), saline vehicle, or were handled only. At approximately 60 days of age, vasopressin V1a receptors, OT receptors (OTR) and dopamine D2 receptor binding were quantified using receptor autoradiography in brain tissue taken from males and females. Significant treatment effects on V1a binding were found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), cingulate cortex (CgCtx), mediodorsal thalamus (MdThal), medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (MPOA), and lateral septum (LS). The CgCtx, MPOA, ventral pallidum, and LS also showed significant sex by treatment interactions on V1a binding. No significant treatment or sex differences were observed for D2 receptor binding. No significant treatment difference was observed for OTR receptor binding, and only a marginal sex difference. Changes in the neuropeptide receptor expression, especially the V1a receptor, may help to explain sexually dimorphic changes in behavior that follow comparable neonatal manipulations.

  14. The evaluation of neopterin and antioxidants in long lasting asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mota Pinto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a condition characterised by a chronic immunoinflammatory response to different triggers. Neopterin (NPT is synthesised by human macrophages upon stimulation with interferon-γ and is also capable of enhancing the oxidative potential of reactive oxygen species. NPT is useful for the monitoring of cell-mediated (Th1-type immune activation.This study analysed the behaviour of NPT in long lasting asthma, considering its role as a marker of Th1 environment. Allergic parameters (skin prick tests, Immunoglobin E (IgE, and eosinophil count and NPT were evaluated in an asthmatic group and in a control group. We also analysed the C Reactive Protein (CRP concentration, Total Antioxidant Status (TAS and Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme (SOD in both groups. A group of individuals aged over 65 years old was selected. It included 64 asthmatic patients (72±5 years and 41 healthy individuals (79±7 years.Blood cell counts showed statistically different median values of eosinophils (5.42±4.7 vs 2.8±2.8;p<.04, IgE (493.2±549.8 vs 85.3±194.4UI/ml; p=.000 and NPT was non-statistically decreased (2.4±2.8 vs 4.0±4.7ng/ml in allergic asthmatic patients when compared with non-allergic asthmatic patients. Both allergic and non-allergic asthmatic patients presented a statistically significant decreased expression of TAS (0.84±0.14/0.86±0.11 vs 0.91±0.10 mM and SOD (584.8±108.7/595.6±235.9 vs 822.9±179.5 when compared with normal control subjects.Our results suggest macrophage involvement in asthma pathogenesis. The deficit in antioxidant defence impacts negatively on this disease. The increase of NPT values in non-allergic asthma consolidates these affirmations and mapping this parameter should be part of the work of an analytical study panel as it may lead to allergic asthma being distinguished from nonallergic asthma. Resumo: A asma é uma doença caracterizada por uma resposta imuno-inflamatória a diferentes est

  15. Basal Ganglia Activity Mirrors a Benefit of Action and Reward on Long-Lasting Event Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Raphael; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-12-01

    The expectation of reward is known to enhance a consolidation of long-term memory for events. We tested whether this effect is driven by positive valence or action requirements tied to expected reward. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm in young adults, novel images predicted gain or loss outcomes, which in turn were either obtained or avoided by action or inaction. After 24 h, memory for these images reflected a benefit of action as well as a congruence of action requirements and valence, namely, action for reward and inaction for avoidance. fMRI responses in the hippocampus, a region known to be critical for long-term memory function, reflected the anticipation of inaction. In contrast, activity in the putamen mirrored the congruence of action requirement and valence, whereas other basal ganglia regions mirrored overall action benefits on long-lasting memory. The findings indicate a novel type of functional division between the hippocampus and the basal ganglia in the motivational regulation of long-term memory consolidation, which favors remembering events that are worth acting for. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Efficacy of topical mosquito repellent (picaridin) plus long-lasting insecticidal nets versus long-lasting insecticidal nets alone for control of malaria : A cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluydts, V.; Durnez, L.; Heng, S.; Gryseels, C.; Canier, L.; Kim, S.; Van Roey, K.; Kerkhof, K.; Khim, N.; Mao, S.; Menard, D.; Coosemans, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although effective topical repellents provide personal protection against malaria, whether mass use of topical repellents in addition to long-lasting insecticidal nets can contribute to a further decline of malaria is not known, particularly in areas where outdoor transmission occurs. We

  17. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tass, P. A.; Barnikol, U. B.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  18. Risk of long-lasting negative cognitive consequences after electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Marie; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes a patient who had a unipolar depression and experienced long-lasting cognitive problems after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuropsychological testing revealed lower scores on measures of learning, memory and sustained attention. These results stress the importance...

  19. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø

    2013-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  20. Dearomatized white spirit inhalation exposure causes long-lasting neurophysiological changes in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.; Hass, Ulla

    1996-01-01

    Dearomatized white spirit inhalation exposure causes long-lasting neurophysioloical changes in rats. NEUROTOXICOL TERATOL 18(1), 67-76, 1996. -Exposure for 6 h per day, 5 days per week, during a period of 6 months to the organic solvent dearomatized white spirit (0, 400, and 800 ppm) was studied ...

  1. Monitoring long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) durability to validate net serviceable life assumptions, in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakizimana, E.; Cyubahiro, B.; Rukundo, A.; Kabayiza, A.; Mutabazi, A.; Beach, R.; Patel, R.; Tongren, J.E.; Karema, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background To validate assumptions about the length of the distribution–replacement cycle for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in Rwanda, the Malaria and other Parasitic Diseases Division, Rwanda Ministry of Health, used World Health Organization methods to independently confirm the three-year

  2. Neonatal oxytocin manipulations have long-lasting, sexually dimorphic effects on vasopressin receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Bales, KL; Plotsky, PM; Young, LJ; Lim, MM; Grotte, N; Ferrer, E; Carter, CS

    2007-01-01

    Developmental exposure to oxytocin (OT) or oxytocin antagonists (OTAs) has been shown to cause long-lasting and often sexually dimorphic effects on social behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Because regulation of social behavior in monogamous mammals involves central receptors for OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and dopamine, we examined the hypothesis that the lon...

  3. Long lasting protein synthesis- and activity-dependent spine shrinkage and elimination after synaptic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmín Ramiro-Cortés

    Full Text Available Neuronal circuits modify their response to synaptic inputs in an experience-dependent fashion. Increases in synaptic weights are accompanied by structural modifications, and activity dependent, long lasting growth of dendritic spines requires new protein synthesis. When multiple spines are potentiated within a dendritic domain, they show dynamic structural plasticity changes, indicating that spines can undergo bidirectional physical modifications. However, it is unclear whether protein synthesis dependent synaptic depression leads to long lasting structural changes. Here, we investigate the structural correlates of protein synthesis dependent long-term depression (LTD mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs through two-photon imaging of dendritic spines on hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We find that induction of mGluR-LTD leads to robust and long lasting spine shrinkage and elimination that lasts for up to 24 hours. These effects depend on signaling through group I mGluRs, require protein synthesis, and activity. These data reveal a mechanism for long lasting remodeling of synaptic inputs, and offer potential insights into mental retardation.

  4. Properties of 13HMF steel welded joints after long-lasting service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, M.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented of research conducted on the 13HMF steel in the as-received condition after long-lasting service over 100000 hours. Simulation tests have been performed by means of modern research methods. The influence of thermal cycles on the microstructure (continuous cooling TTT diagrams), plastic properties (notch toughness and hardness) of simulated heat affected zones and reheat cracking resistance has been evaluated by using the thermal and strain cycle simulator. Susceptibility to thermal fatigue has been determined, the creep strength estimated and welding heat input was given, as well as the post weld heat treatment conditions of the 13HMF steel after service. properties of the welded joints made of 13HMF steel after long-lasting service are given. (author)

  5. Preventing long-lasting fear recovery using bilateral alternating sensory stimulation: A translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, H; El-Khoury-Malhame, M; Wilhelm, F H; Michael, T; Beetz, E M; Roques, J; Reynaud, E; Courtin, J; Khalfa, S; Herry, C

    2016-05-03

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating and prevalent psychological disorder. It is characterized by highly distressing intrusive trauma memories that are partly explained by fear conditioning. Despite efficient therapeutic approaches, a subset of PTSD patients displays spontaneous recurrence of traumatic memories after successful treatment. The development of animal behavioral models mimicking the individual variability in treatment outcome for PTSD patients represent therefore an important challenge as it allows for the identification of predicting factors of resilience or susceptibility to relapse. However, to date, only few animal behavioral models of long-lasting fear recovery have been developed and their predictive validity has not been tested directly. The objectives of this study were twofold. First we aimed to develop a simple animal behavioral model of long-lasting fear recovery based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, which recapitulates the heterogeneity of fear responses observed in PTSD patients after successful treatment. Second we aimed at testing the predictive validity of our behavioral model and used to this purpose a translational approach based (i) on the demonstration of the efficiency of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to reduce conditioned fear responses in PTSD patients and (ii) on the implementation in our behavioral model of an electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid which mimics the core feature of EMDR. Our data indicate that electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid during extinction learning alleviates long-lasting fear recovery of conditioned fear responses and dramatically reduces inter-individual variability. These results demonstrate the face and predictive validity of our animal behavioral model and provide an interesting tool to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of long-lasting fear recovery. Copyright

  6. Long-Lasting Sound-Evoked Afterdischarge in the Auditory Midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Munenori; Bishop, Deborah C; Oliver, Douglas L

    2016-02-12

    Different forms of plasticity are known to play a critical role in the processing of information about sound. Here, we report a novel neural plastic response in the inferior colliculus, an auditory center in the midbrain of the auditory pathway. A vigorous, long-lasting sound-evoked afterdischarge (LSA) is seen in a subpopulation of both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of normal hearing mice. These neurons were identified with single unit recordings and optogenetics in vivo. The LSA can continue for up to several minutes after the offset of the sound. LSA is induced by long-lasting, or repetitive short-duration, innocuous sounds. Neurons with LSA showed less adaptation than the neurons without LSA. The mechanisms that cause this neural behavior are unknown but may be a function of intrinsic mechanisms or the microcircuitry of the inferior colliculus. Since LSA produces long-lasting firing in the absence of sound, it may be relevant to temporary or chronic tinnitus or to some other aftereffect of long-duration sound.

  7. Cat odor causes long-lasting contextual fear conditioning and increased pituitary-adrenal activation, without modifying anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Abellán, Cristina; Daviu, Nuria; Rabasa, Cristina; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    A single exposure to a cat or cat odors has been reported by some groups to induce contextual and auditory fear conditioning and long-lasting changes in anxiety-like behaviour, but there is no evidence for parallel changes in biological stress markers. In the present study we demonstrated in male rats that exposure to a novel environment containing a cloth impregnated with cat fur odor resulted in avoidance of the odor, lower levels of activity and higher pituitary-adrenal (PA) response as compared to those exposed to the novel environment containing a clean cloth, suggesting increased levels of stress in the former animals. When re-exposed 9 days later to the same environment with a clean cloth, previously cat fur exposed rats again showed avoidance of the cloth area and lower levels of activity, suggesting development of contextual fear conditioning, which again was associated with a higher PA activation. In contrast, unaltered both anxiety-like behaviour and PA responsiveness to an elevated plus-maze were found 7 days after cat odor exposure. It is concluded that: (i) PA activation is able to reflect both the stressful properties of cat fur odor and odor-induced contextual fear conditioning; (ii) development of cat odor-induced contextual fear conditioning is independent of the induction of long-lasting changes in anxiety-like behaviour; and (iii) greater PA activation during exposure to the odor context is not explained by non-specific sensitization of the PA axis caused by previous exposure to cat fur odor.

  8. Characteristics of long-lasting haze episodes observed in Seoul, South Korea, for 2009-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Cha, Joo Wan; Song, Seungjoo; Ryoo, Sang-Boom; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2018-03-01

    The meteorological, physical, chemical, and optical characteristics of long-lasting haze in Seoul were studied. Four episodes were observed between 2009 and 2014, all in winter. PM10 mass concentration (PM10), chemical species, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were analyzed along with the synoptic meteorological conditions. During the episodes, the temporal variations of the PM10 generally proceeded from the west along the Yellow Sea. The ground-based AOD was also high in Seoul and other sites. High AOD (MODIS) distributions were observed to move from China to Korea. The high sulfate concentration, along with the high sulfur oxidation ratio value of the third and fourth episodes (Eps. 3 and 4), respectively, corroborated the possible long-range transport of air pollutants. Stagnant meteorological conditions were a reason for the occurrence of long-lasting hazes. An anticyclone system had a dominant influence on the Korean peninsula during all episodes. The air mass over China was able to rise, and that over Korea was more stagnant in terms of climatology except Ep. 2. In addition to transport from outside, locally emitted air pollutants contributed to the PM10 partly due to the stagnant conditions, during which diurnal variations in NO2 and nitrates showed similar peak times during Eps. 3 and 4. Analysis of the episodes consistently showed that the long-lasting haze episodes were influenced by both the long-range transport of air pollutants from outside Seoul, mostly from China, and the accumulation of air pollutants that were locally emitted and transformed.

  9. Risk of long-lasting negative cognitive consequences after electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Marie; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes a patient who had a unipolar depression and experienced long-lasting cognitive problems after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuropsychological testing revealed lower scores on measures of learning, memory and sustained attention. These results stress the importance...... of informing patients who have ECT of the potential cognitive consequences of this treatment as it may influence the patients' functional capabilities. Prospective studies are needed since we do not have sufficient knowledge regarding the 3-5% of these patients who experience sustained cognitive problems....

  10. TACTILE STIMULATION EVOKES LONG-LASTING POTENTIATION OF PURKINJE CELL DISCHARGE IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan eKanchipuram

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the cerebellar network, a precise relationship between plasticity and neuronal discharge has been predicted. However, the potential generation of persistent changes in PC spike discharge as a consequence of plasticity following natural stimulation patterns has not been clearly determined. Here we show that facial tactile stimuli organized in theta-patterns can induce stereotyped NMDA and GABA-A receptor-dependent changes in Purkinje cell (PCs and molecular layer interneuron (MLIs firing: invariably, all PCs showed a long-lasting increase (spike-related potentiation or SR-P and MLIs a long-lasting decrease (spike-related suppression or SR-S in baseline activity and spike response probability. These observations suggests that natural sensory stimulation engages multiple long-term plastic changes that are distributed along the mossy fiber – parallel fiber pathway and operate synergistically to potentiate spike generation in PCs. In contrast, theta-pattern electrical stimulation of PFs indistinctly induced SR-P and SR-S both in PCs and MLIs, suggesting that natural sensory stimulation preordinates plasticity upstream of the PF-PC synapse. All these effects occurred in the absence of complex spike changes, supporting the theoretical prediction that Purkinje cell activity is potentiated when the mossy fiber - parallel fiber system is activated in the absence of conjunctive climbing fiber activity.

  11. Norepinephrine induces pathway-specific long-lasting potentiation and depression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, D; Sarvey, J M

    1989-01-01

    The study presented here indicates that norepinephrine (NE) selectively induces long-lasting modifications of synaptically mediated responses in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampal slice. A low concentration of NE (1.0 microM; in the presence of 50 microM phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist) or a 1.0 microM concentration of the specific beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol induced long-lasting pathway-specific alterations of granule cell electrophysiological responses. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spikes evoked by stimulation of the medial perforant pathway (PP) were potentiated for more than 45 min. In contrast, responses to lateral PP stimulation were depressed for the same period. Both potentiation and depression were blocked by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol (1.0 microM). These results indicate that NE can act differentially on projections to the dentate gyrus arising in the entorhinal cortex. Such selective persistent modifications of cortical circuits may be involved in processes in the mammalian brain underlying attention, learning, and memory. PMID:2734319

  12. Bacterial Urease and its Role in Long-Lasting Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczna, Iwona; Żarnowiec, Paulina; Kwinkowski, Marek; Kolesińska, Beata; Frączyk, Justyna; Kamiński, Zbigniew; Kaca, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    Urease is a virulence factor found in various pathogenic bacteria. It is essential in colonization of a host organism and in maintenance of bacterial cells in tissues. Due to its enzymatic activity, urease has a toxic effect on human cells. The presence of ureolytic activity is an important marker of a number of bacterial infections. Urease is also an immunogenic protein and is recognized by antibodies present in human sera. The presence of such antibodies is connected with progress of several long-lasting diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis or urinary tract infections. In bacterial ureases, motives with a sequence and/or structure similar to human proteins may occur. This phenomenon, known as molecular mimicry, leads to the appearance of autoantibodies, which take part in host molecules destruction. Detection of antibodies-binding motives (epitopes) in bacterial proteins is a complex process. However, organic chemistry tools, such as synthetic peptide libraries, are helpful in both, epitope mapping as well as in serologic investigations. In this review, we present a synthetic report on a molecular organization of bacterial ureases - genetic as well as structural. We characterize methods used in detecting urease and ureolytic activity, including techniques applied in disease diagnostic processes and in chemical synthesis of urease epitopes. The review also provides a summary of knowledge about a toxic effect of bacterial ureases on human body and about occurrence of anti-urease antibodies in long-lasting diseases. PMID:23305365

  13. [Limbic encephalitis with antibodies against intracellular antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Kamei, Satoshi

    2010-04-01

    Limbic encephalitis is a paraneoplastic syndrome that is often associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), breast cancer, testicular tumors, teratoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and thymoma. The common clinical manifestations of limbic encephalitis are subacute onset, cognitive dysfunction, seizures and psychiatric symptoms. Paraneoplastic neurological disorders are considered to occur because of cytotoxic T cell responses and antibodies against target neuronal proteins that are usually expressed by an underlying tumor. The main intracellular antigens related to limbic encephalitis are Hu, Ma2, and less frequently CV2/CRMP5 and amphiphysin. The anti-Hu antibody, which is involved in cerebellar degeneration and extensive or multifocal encephalomyelitis such as limbic encephalitis is closely associated with a history of smoking and SCLC. The anti-Ma2 antibody is associated with encephalitis of the limbic system, hypothalamus and brain-stem. For this reason, some patients with limbic encephalitis have sleep disorders (including REM sleep abnormalities), severe hypokinesis and gaze palsy in addition to limbic dysfunction. In men aged less than 50 years, anti-Ma2 antibody encephalitis is almost always associated with testicular germ-cell tumors that are occasionally difficult to detect. In older men and women, the most common tumors are non-SCLC and breast cancer. Limbic encephalitis associated with cell-surface antigens (e.g., voltage-gated potassium channels, NMDA receptors) is mediated by antibodies and often improves after a reduction in the antibody titer and after tumor resection. Patients with antibodies against intracellular antigens, except for those with anti-Ma2 antibodies and testicular tumors, are less responsive. Early diagnosis and treatment with immunotherapy, tumor resection or both are important for improving or stabilizing the condition of limbic encephalitis.

  14. An enigmatic long-lasting gamma-ray burst not accompanied by a bright supernova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Valle, M; Chincarini, G; Panagia, N; Tagliaferri, G; Malesani, D; Testa, V; Fugazza, D; Campana, S; Covino, S; Mangano, V; Antonelli, L A; D'Avanzo, P; Hurley, K; Mirabel, I F; Pellizza, L J; Piranomonte, S; Stella, L

    2006-12-21

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short, intense flashes of soft gamma-rays coming from the distant Universe. Long-duration GRBs (those lasting more than approximately 2 s) are believed to originate from the deaths of massive stars, mainly on the basis of a handful of solid associations between GRBs and supernovae. GRB 060614, one of the closest GRBs discovered, consisted of a 5-s hard spike followed by softer, brighter emission that lasted for approximately 100 s (refs 8, 9). Here we report deep optical observations of GRB 060614 showing no emerging supernova with absolute visual magnitude brighter than M(V) = -13.7. Any supernova associated with GRB 060614 was therefore at least 100 times fainter, at optical wavelengths, than the other supernovae associated with GRBs. This demonstrates that some long-lasting GRBs can either be associated with a very faint supernova or produced by different phenomena.

  15. Design and Optimization of Die Preforming Process for Long Last-stage Blade of Nuclear Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiaomao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The long last-stage blade is a key component of the steam turbine of nuclear conventional island. The die preforming process for a new technology that provides billets for near-net-shape roll-forging process was designed, the effects of the forging temperature, friction coefficient, flash land’s height and die’s outer fillet radius on the die forging force and forging energy were studied by using the orthogonal experiment method, the primary and secondary order of the four factors were analysed by using range analysis method, and the optimal combination of the factors was obtained. By means of numerical simulation and physical experiment, the die preforming process that can provide qualified billets for the subsequent roll-forging process was verified, and the PZS1120f electric screw press can meet the requirements of the die preforming process.

  16. Energetic ion excited long-lasting ``sword'' modes in tokamak plasmas with low magnetic shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Ruibin; Deng, Wei; Liu, Yi

    2013-10-01

    An m/ n = 1 mode driven by trapped fast ions with a sword-shape envelope of long-lasting (for hundreds of milliseconds) magnetic perturbation signals, other than conventional fishbones, is studied in this paper. The mode is usually observed in low shear plasmas. Frequency and growth rate of the mode and its harmonics are calculated and in good agreements with observations. The radial mode structure is also obtained and compared with that of fishbones. It is found that due to fast ion driven the mode differs from magnetohydrodynamic long lived modes (LLMs) observed in MAST and NSTX. On the other hand, due to the feature of weak magnetic shear, the mode is also significantly different from fishbones. The nonlinear evolution of the mode and its comparison with fishbones are further investigated to analyze the effect of the mode on energetic particle transport and confinement.

  17. Human dignity as a component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    For some decades, the concept of human dignity has been widely discussed in bioethical literature. Some authors think that this concept is central to questions of respect for human beings, whereas others are very critical of it. It should be noted that, in these debates, dignity is one component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct used to support a stance on the ethical question of the moral status of an action or being. This construct has been used from Modernity onward to condemn slavery and torture as violations of human dignity. In spelling it out, we can come to a better understanding of what "dignity" means and become aware that there exists a quite useful place for this notion in our ethical thought, albeit a modest one.

  18. Legal requirements for long-lasting radioactive waste disposal; Rechtliche Anforderungen der Beseitigung hochradioaktiver langlebiger Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesselmann, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    The topic of nuclear disposal has been treated in juridical regard up to now only rudimentary. To this day the federation has not met the legal obligation existing for roughly 40 years to set up a plant for the safekeeping and for the permanent storage of highly-radioactive waste. Repeatedly changed disposal-conceptual approaches have contributed perpetually to a temporal shift of the ''dumping question'' into an uncertain future. Against this background it seems necessary on to examine whether such a ''politics of ephemeral solution attempts'' is legally to be accepted (any longer). Hence, including the recently remitted site selection law the author works out extensively the removal regime applying in Germany for highly radioactive long-lasting rubbish and verifies his compatibility with the European law, the German constitutional law and the thematically relevant International treaty law.

  19. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etang, Josiane; Nwane, Philippe; Piameu, Michael; Manga, Blaise; Souop, Daniel; Awono-Ambene, Parfait

    2013-01-01

    From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), conventional treatment of nets (CTNs) or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor) and CTNs (Fendona) were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates), although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (peducation toward universal coverage of malaria vector control in Cameroon.

  20. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors)

  1. Long-lasting injection of solar energetic electrons into the heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Klassen, A.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A.

    2018-05-01

    Context. The main sources of solar energetic particle (SEP) events are solar flares and shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). While it is generally accepted that energetic protons can be accelerated by shocks, whether or not these shocks can also efficiently accelerate solar energetic electrons is still debated. In this study we present observations of the extremely widespread SEP event of 26 Dec 2013 To the knowledge of the authors, this is the widest longitudinal SEP distribution ever observed together with unusually long-lasting energetic electron anisotropies at all observer positions. Further striking features of the event are long-lasting SEP intensity increases, two distinct SEP components with the second component mainly consisting of high-energy particles, a complex associated coronal activity including a pronounced signature of a shock in radio type-II observations, and the interaction of two CMEs early in the event. Aims: The observations require a prolonged injection scenario not only for protons but also for electrons. We therefore analyze the data comprehensively to characterize the possible role of the shock for the electron event. Methods: Remote-sensing observations of the complex solar activity are combined with in situ measurements of the particle event. We also apply a graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model to the coronagraph observations of the two associated CMEs to analyze their interaction. Results: We find that the shock alone is likely not responsible for this extremely wide SEP event. Therefore we propose a scenario of trapped energetic particles inside the CME-CME interaction region which undergo further acceleration due to the shock propagating through this region, stochastic acceleration, or ongoing reconnection processes inside the interaction region. The origin of the second component of the SEP event is likely caused by a sudden opening of the particle trap.

  2. NOVAE WITH LONG-LASTING SUPERSOFT EMISSION THAT DRIVE A HIGH ACCRETION RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Collazzi, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    We identify a new class of novae characterized by the post-eruption quiescent light curve being more than roughly a factor of 10 brighter than the pre-eruption light curve. Eight novae (V723 Cas, V1500 Cyg, V1974 Cyg, GQ Mus, CP Pup, T Pyx, V4633 Sgr, and RW UMi) are separated out as being significantly distinct from other novae. This group shares a suite of uncommon properties, characterized by the post-eruption magnitude being much brighter than before eruption, short orbital periods, long-lasting supersoft emission following the eruption, a highly magnetized white dwarf (WD), and secular declines during the post-eruption quiescence. We present a basic physical picture which shows why all five uncommon properties are causally connected. In general, novae show supersoft emission due to hydrogen burning on the WD in the final portion of the eruption, and this hydrogen burning will be long-lasting if new hydrogen is poured onto the surface at a sufficient rate. Most novae do not have adequate accretion for continuous hydrogen burning, but some can achieve this if the companion star is nearby (with short orbital period) and a magnetic field channels the matter onto a small area on the WD so as to produce a locally high accretion rate. The resultant supersoft flux irradiates the companion star and drives a higher accretion rate (with a brighter post-eruption phase), which serves to keep the hydrogen burning and the supersoft flux going. The feedback loop cannot be perfectly self-sustaining, so the supersoft flux will decline over time, forcing a decline in the accretion rate and the system brightness. We name this new group after the prototype, V1500 Cyg. V1500 Cyg stars are definitely not progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. The V1500 Cyg stars have similar physical mechanisms and appearances as predicted for nova by the hibernation model, but with this group accounting for only 14% of novae.

  3. Long-lasting increase in axonal excitability after epidurally applied DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Elzbieta; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Bolzoni, Francesco; Hammar, Ingela

    2017-08-01

    Effects of direct current (DC) on nerve fibers have primarily been investigated during or just after DC application. However, locally applied cathodal DC was recently demonstrated to increase the excitability of intraspinal preterminal axonal branches for >1 h. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether DC evokes a similarly long-lasting increase in the excitability of myelinated axons within the dorsal columns. The excitability of dorsal column fibers stimulated epidurally was monitored by recording compound action potentials in peripheral nerves in acute experiments in deeply anesthetized rats. The results show that 1 ) cathodal polarization (0.8-1.0 µA) results in a severalfold increase in the number of epidurally activated fibers and 2 ) the increase in the excitability appears within seconds, 3 ) lasts for >1 h, and 4 ) is activity independent, as it does not require fiber stimulation during the polarization. These features demonstrate an unexplored form of plasticity of myelinated fibers and indicate the conditions under which it develops. They also suggest that therapeutic effects of epidural stimulation may be significantly enhanced if it is combined with DC polarization. In particular, by using DC to increase the number of fibers activated by low-intensity epidural stimuli, the low clinical tolerance to higher stimulus intensities might be overcome. The activity independence of long-lasting DC effects would also allow the use of only brief periods of DC polarization preceding epidural stimulation to increase the effect. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The study indicates a new form of plasticity of myelinated fibers. The differences in time course of DC-evoked increases in the excitability of myelinated nerve fibers in the dorsal columns and in preterminal axonal branches suggest that distinct mechanisms are involved in them. The results show that combining epidural stimulation and transspinal DC polarization may dramatically improve their outcome and

  4. Long-Lasting Cortical Reorganization as the Result of Motor Imagery of Throwing a Ball in a Virtual Tennis Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla, Ana M.; Petieau, Mathieu; Cevallos, Carlos; Leroy, Axelle; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize the neural signature of a motor imagery (MI) task, the present study investigates for the first time the oscillation characteristics including both of the time-frequency measurements, event related spectral perturbation and intertrial coherence (ITC) underlying the variations in the temporal measurements (event related potentials, ERP) directly related to a MI task. We hypothesize that significant variations in both of the time-frequency measurements underlie the specific changes in the ERP directly related to MI. For the MI task, we chose a simple everyday task (throwing a tennis ball), that does not require any particular motor expertise, set within the controlled virtual reality scenario of a tennis court. When compared to the rest condition a consistent, long-lasting negative fronto-central ERP wave was accompanied by significant changes in both time frequency measurements suggesting long-lasting cortical activity reorganization. The ERP wave was characterized by two peaks at about 300 ms (N300) and 1000 ms (N1000). The N300 component was centrally localized on the scalp and was accompanied by significant phase consistency in the delta brain rhythms in the contralateral central scalp areas. The N1000 component spread wider centrally and was accompanied by a significant power decrease (or event related desynchronization) in low beta brain rhythms localized in fronto-precentral and parieto-occipital scalp areas and also by a significant power increase (or event related synchronization) in theta brain rhythms spreading fronto-centrally. During the transition from N300 to N1000, a contralateral alpha (mu) as well as post-central and parieto-theta rhythms occurred. The visual representation of movement formed in the minds of participants might underlie a top-down process from the fronto-central areas which is reflected by the amplitude changes observed in the fronto-central ERPs and by the significant phase synchrony in contralateral fronto

  5. Transmitter-controlled properties of α-motoneurones causing long-lasting motor discharge to brief excitatory inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J.; Hultborn, H.; Kiehn, O.

    1986-01-01

    Brief sensory inputs to intact conscious subjects commonly trigger complex long-lasting motor responses, in which higher cerebral mechanisms, or even voluntary action, may be integrative parts. However, long-lasting motor discharge following brief afferent stimulation is also observed in reduced ...... flipflops, which are set at one of two levels by short excitatory or inhibitory inputs. However, when the whole motoneuronal pool is considered, many different levels can be maintained by recruitment of new units.......Brief sensory inputs to intact conscious subjects commonly trigger complex long-lasting motor responses, in which higher cerebral mechanisms, or even voluntary action, may be integrative parts. However, long-lasting motor discharge following brief afferent stimulation is also observed in reduced...

  6. Limbic grey matter changes in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Xing, Yue; Schwarz, Stefan T; Auer, Dorothee P

    2017-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate local and network-related changes of limbic grey matter in early Parkinson's disease (PD) and their inter-relation with non-motor symptom severity. We applied voxel-based morphometric methods in 538 T1 MRI images retrieved from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative website. Grey matter densities and cross-sectional estimates of age-related grey matter change were compared between subjects with early PD (n = 366) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 172) within a regression model, and associations of grey matter density with symptoms were investigated. Structural brain networks were obtained using covariance analysis seeded in regions showing grey matter abnormalities in PD subject group. Patients displayed focally reduced grey matter density in the right amygdala, which was present from the earliest stages of the disease without further advance in mild-moderate disease stages. Right amygdala grey matter density showed negative correlation with autonomic dysfunction and positive with cognitive performance in patients, but no significant interrelations were found with anxiety scores. Patients with PD also demonstrated right amygdala structural disconnection with less structural connectivity of the right amygdala with the cerebellum and thalamus but increased covariance with bilateral temporal cortices compared with controls. Age-related grey matter change was also increased in PD preferentially in the limbic system. In conclusion, detailed brain morphometry in a large group of early PD highlights predominant limbic grey matter deficits with stronger age associations compared with controls and associated altered structural connectivity pattern. This provides in vivo evidence for early limbic grey matter pathology and structural network changes that may reflect extranigral disease spread in PD. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The

  7. Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Long-Lasting Alterations in Dopamine Transporter Responses to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Fordahl, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by uncontrolled cocaine intake, which is thought to be driven, at least in part, by cocaine-induced deficits in dopamine system function. A decreased ability of cocaine to elevate dopamine levels has been repeatedly observed as a consequence of cocaine use in humans, and preclinical work has highlighted tolerance to cocaine's effects as a primary determinant in the development of aberrant cocaine taking behaviors. Here we determined that cocaine self-administration in rats produced tolerance to the dopamine transporter-inhibiting effects of cocaine in the nucleus accumbens core, which was normalized following a 14 or 60 d abstinence period; however, although these rats appeared to be similar to controls, a single self-administered infusion of cocaine at the end of abstinence, even after 60 d, fully reinstated tolerance to cocaine's effects. A single cocaine infusion in a naive rat had no effect on cocaine potency, demonstrating that cocaine self-administration leaves the dopamine transporter in a “primed” state, which allows for cocaine-induced plasticity to be reinstated by a subthreshold cocaine exposure. Further, reinstatement of cocaine tolerance was accompanied by decreased cocaine-induced locomotion and escalated cocaine intake despite extended abstinence from cocaine. These data demonstrate that cocaine leaves a long-lasting imprint on the dopamine system that is activated by re-exposure to cocaine. Further, these results provide a potential mechanism for severe cocaine binge episodes, which occur even after sustained abstinence from cocaine, and suggest that treatments aimed at transporter sites may be efficacious in promoting binge termination following relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tolerance is a DSM-V criterion for substance abuse disorders. Abusers consistently show reduced subjective effects of cocaine concomitant with reduced effects of cocaine at its main site of action

  8. Risk Factors of Developing Long-Lasting Breast Pain After Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstedt, Dan, E-mail: dan.lundstedt@vgregion.se [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gustafsson, Magnus [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Steineck, Gunnar [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Malmstroem, Per [Skane Department of Oncology, Skane University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Alsadius, David [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sundberg, Agnetha [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wilderaeng, Ulrica [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Holmberg, Erik [Oncologic Centre, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Karlsson, Per [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy decreases breast cancer mortality. However, studies have revealed a long-lasting breast pain among some women after radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors that contribute to breast pain after breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We identified 1,027 recurrence-free women in two cohorts of Swedish women treated for breast cancer. The women had breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, the breast was treated to 48 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions or to 50 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions. Young women received a boost of up to 16 Gy. Women with more than three lymph node metastases had locoregional radiotherapy. Systemic treatments were given according to health-care guidelines. Three to 17 years after radiotherapy, we collected data using a study-specific questionnaire. We investigated the relation between breast pain and potential risk modifiers: age at treatment, time since treatment, chemotherapy, photon energy, fractionation size, boost, loco-regional radiotherapy, axillary surgery, overweight, and smoking. Results: Eight hundred seventy-seven women (85%) returned the questionnaires. Among women up to 39 years of age at treatment, 23.1% had breast pain, compared with 8.7% among women older than 60 years (RR 2.66; 95% CI 1.33-5.36). Higher age at treatment (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.98, annual decrease) and longer time since treatment (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, annual decrease) were related to a lower occurrence of breast pain. Chemotherapy increased the occurrence of breast pain (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.19-2.47). In the multivariable model only age and time since treatment were statistically significantly related to the occurrence of breast pain. We found no statistically significant relation between breast pain and the other potential risk modifiers. Conclusions: Younger women having undergone breast-conserving surgery with postoperative radiotherapy report a higher occurrence of long-lasting

  9. Use and acceptance of long lasting insecticidal net screens for dengue prevention in Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catrin H; Benítez-Valladares, David; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Selem-Salas, Celia; Chablé-Santos, Juan; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Kroeger, Axel; O'Dempsey, Timothy; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2014-08-14

    Dengue, recognized by the WHO as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, is a growing problem. Currently, the only effective way of preventing dengue is vector control. Standard methods have shown limited effect, and there have been calls to develop new integrated vector management approaches. One novel tool, protecting houses with long lasting insecticidal screens on doors and windows, is being trialled in a cluster randomised controlled trial by a joint UADY/WHO TDR/IDRC study in various districts of Acapulco, Mexico, with exceptionally high levels of crime and insecurity.This study investigated the community's perspectives of long lasting insecticidal screens on doors and windows in homes and in schools, in order to ascertain their acceptability, to identify challenges to further implementation and opportunities for future improvements. This was a sequential mixed-methods study. The quantitative arm contained a satisfaction survey administered to 288 houses that had received the intervention examining their perspectives of both the intervention and dengue prevention in general. The qualitative arm consisted of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with those who had accepted the intervention and key informant interviews with: schoolteachers to discuss the use of the screens in schools, program staff, and community members who had refused the intervention. Overall satisfaction and acceptance of the screens was very high, with only some operational and technical complaints relating to screen fragility and the installation process. However, the wider social context of urban violence and insecurity was a major barrier to screen acceptance. Lack of information dissemination and community collaboration were identified as project weaknesses. The screens are widely accepted by the population, but the project implementation could be improved by reassuring the community of its legitimacy in the context of insecurity. More community engagement and better

  10. Long lasting clinical response to chemotherapy for advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma: a case report.

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    Ridolfi, Claudio; Pasini, Giuseppe; Drudi, Fabrizio; Barzotti, Eleonora; Santelmo, Carlotta; Polselli, Antonio; Ravaioli, Alberto

    2013-01-24

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma is one of the most frequent uterine sarcomas. In the metastatic setting it is sensitive to doxorubicin, ifosfamide, gemcitabine, docetaxel and a few other drugs, but time to progression is generally short. For this reason prognosis is often poor and there are few reports in the literature of long responders. We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma who began treatment six years before the presentation of this case report and for the following six years underwent ten lines of chemotherapy, achieving excellent results and a good quality of life. Among the treatments administered we observed a long response to temolozomide, an unconventional drug for this kind of disease. Although there are few chemotherapeutic options for the management of metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma, a small number of patients have an unexpected long lasting response to treatment. For this reason further research is needed to identify new therapeutic agents and the predictive factors for the achievement of response.

  11. Long lasting clinical response to chemotherapy for advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma: a case report

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    Ridolfi Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Uterine leiomyosarcoma is one of the most frequent uterine sarcomas. In the metastatic setting it is sensitive to doxorubicin, ifosfamide, gemcitabine, docetaxel and a few other drugs, but time to progression is generally short. For this reason prognosis is often poor and there are few reports in the literature of long responders. Case presentation We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma who began treatment six years before the presentation of this case report and for the following six years underwent ten lines of chemotherapy, achieving excellent results and a good quality of life. Among the treatments administered we observed a long response to temolozomide, an unconventional drug for this kind of disease. Conclusion Although there are few chemotherapeutic options for the management of metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma, a small number of patients have an unexpected long lasting response to treatment. For this reason further research is needed to identify new therapeutic agents and the predictive factors for the achievement of response.

  12. Subchronic steroid administration induces long lasting changes in neurochemical and behavioral response to cocaine in rats.

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    Kailanto, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Aino; Seppälä, Timo

    2011-11-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), such as nandrolone, is not only a problem in the world of sports but is associated with the polydrug use of non-athletes. Among other adverse effects, AAS abuse has been associated with long term or even persistent psychiatric problems. We have previously found that nandrolone decanoate treatment could produce prolonged changes in rats' brain reward circuits associated to drug dependence. The aim in this study was to evaluate whether AAS-induced neurochemical and behavioral changes are reversible. The increases in extracellular dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) concentration, as well as stereotyped behavior and locomotor activity (LMA) evoked by cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with nandrolone. The recovery period, which was needed for the DA system to return back to the basic level, was fairly long compared to the dosing period of the steroid. In the 5-HT system, the time that system needed to return back to the basal level, was even longer than in the DA system. The attenuation was still seen though there were no detectable traces of nandrolone in the blood samples. Given that accumbal outflow of DA and 5-HT, as well as LMA and stereotyped behavior are all related to reward of stimulant drugs, this study suggests that nandrolone decanoate has significant, long-lasting but reversible effects on the rewarding properties of cocaine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-lasting solar energetic electron injection during the 26 Dec 2013 widespread SEP event

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    Dresing, N.; Klassen, A.; Temmer, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Veronig, A.

    2017-12-01

    The solar energetic particle (SEP) event on 26 Dec 2013 was detected all around the Sun by the two STEREO spacecraft and close-to-Earth observers. While the two STEREOs were separated by 59 degrees and situated at the front side of the associated large coronal event, it was a backside-event for Earth. Nevertheless, significant and long-lasting solar energetic electron anisotropies together with long rise times were observed at all three viewpoints, pointing to an extended electron injection. Although the CME-driven shock appears to account for the SEP event at a first glance a more detailed view reveals a more complex scenario: A CME-CME interaction takes place during the very early phase of the SEP event. Furthermore, four hours after the onset of the event, a second component is measured at all three viewpoints on top of the first SEP increase, mainly consisting of high energy particles. We find that the CME-driven shock alone can hardly account for the observed SEP event in total but a trapping scenario together with ongoing particle acceleration is more likely.

  14. Can Long-lasting Insecticide-treated Bednets with Holes Protect Children from Malaria?

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    Nonaka, Daisuke; Maazou, Abani; Yamagata, Shigeo; Oumarou, Issofou; Uchida, Takako; Jg Yacouba, Honoré; Toma, Nami; Takeuchi, Rie; Kobayashi, Jun; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2014-09-01

    Although long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (LLINs) have been widely used for malaria control, little is known about how the condition of LLINs affects the risk of malaria infection. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between the use of LLINs with holes and caregiver-reported malaria diagnosed in children under five years of age (U5). Data were collected in Boboye health district, Niger, in 2010. Surveyors conducted interviews and bednet inspections in 1,034 households. If a household had a U5 child, the surveyor asked the caregiver whether the child had experienced a fever episode in the past two weeks that entailed standard treatment for uncomplicated malaria at a healthcare facility. The authors analyzed the association between the use of LLINs with holes and caregiver-reported malaria episodes in U5 children using logistic regression, adjusted for possible confounders. Of the 1,165 children included in the analysis, approximately half (53.3%) used an intact LLIN while far fewer (10.6%) used a LLIN with holes. Compared to children using an intact LLIN, children using a LLIN with holes were significantly more likely to have a caregiver-reported malaria episode (8.7% vs. 17.1%; odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.24-4.01). In this study site, LLINs with holes were less protective than intact LLINs.

  15. Long-lasting effects of perinatal asphyxia on exploration, memory and incentive downshift.

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    Galeano, Pablo; Blanco Calvo, Eduardo; Madureira de Oliveira, Diêgo; Cuenya, Lucas; Kamenetzky, Giselle Vanesa; Mustaca, Alba Elisabeth; Barreto, George Emilio; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Milei, José; Capani, Francisco

    2011-10-01

    Perinatal asphyxia remains as one of the most important causes of death and disability in children, without an effective treatment. Moreover, little is known about the long-lasting behavioral consequences of asphyxia at birth. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate the motor, emotional and cognitive functions of adult asphyctic rats. Experimental subjects consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL), by cesarean section (C+), or by cesarean section following 19 min of asphyxia (PA). At three months of age, animals were examined in a behavioral test battery including elevated plus maze, open field, Morris water maze, and an incentive downshift procedure. Results indicated that groups did not differ in anxiety-related behaviors, although a large variability was observed in the asphyctic group and therefore, the results are not completely conclusive. In addition, PA and C+ rats showed a deficit in exploration of new environments, but to a much lesser extent in the latter group. Spatial reference and working memory impairments were also found in PA rats. Finally, when animals were downshifted from a 32% to a 4% sucrose solution, an attenuated suppression of consummatory behavior was observed in PA rats. These results confirmed and extended those reported previously about the behavioral alterations associated with acute asphyxia around birth. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Doping and musculoskeletal system: short-term and long-lasting effects of doping agents.

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    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios D; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Theocharis, Stamatios E

    2011-10-01

    Doping is a problem that has plagued the world of competition and sports for ages. Even before the dawn of Olympic history in ancient Greece, competitors have looked for artificial means to improve athletic performance. Since ancient times, athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A Prohibited List of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, β₂-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. Apart from the unethical aspect of doping, as it abrogates fair-play's principle, it is extremely important to consider the hazards it presents to the health and well-being of athletes. The referred negative effects for the athlete's health have to do, on the one hand, by the high doses of the performance-enhancing agents and on the other hand, by the relentless, superhuman strict training that the elite or amateur athletes put their muscles, bones, and joints. The purpose of this article is to highlight the early and the long-lasting consequences of the doping abuse on bone and muscle metabolism. © 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. Long-lasting amelioration of walking trajectory in neglect after prismatic adaptation

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    Marco eRabuffetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation we explored the effect of prismatic adaptation (PA applied to the upper right limb on the walking trajectory of a neglect patient with more severe neglect in far than in near space. The patient was asked to bisect a line fixed to the floor by walking across it before and after four sessions of PA distributed over a time frame of 67 days. Gait path was analysed by means of an optoelectronic motion analysis system.The walking trajectory improved following PA and the result was maintained at follow-up, fifteen months after treatment. The improvement was greater for the predicted bisection error (estimated on the basis of the trajectory extrapolated from the first walking step then for the observed bisection error (measured at line crossing.These results show that PA may act on high level spatial representation of gait trajectory rather than on lower level sensory-motor gait components and suggest that PA may have a long lasting rehabilitative effect on neglect patients showing a deviated walking trajectory.

  18. Maternal-pup interaction disturbances induce long-lasting changes in the newborn rat pulmonary vasculature.

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    Shifrin, Yulia; Sadeghi, Sina; Pan, Jingyi; Jain, Amish; Fajardo, Andres F; McNamara, Patrick J; Belik, Jaques

    2015-11-15

    The factors accounting for the pathological maintenance of a high pulmonary vascular (PV) resistance postnatally remain elusive, but neonatal stressors may play a role in this process. Cross-fostering in the immediate neonatal period is associated with adult-onset vascular and behavioral changes, likely triggered by early-in-life stressors. In hypothesizing that fostering newborn rats induces long-lasting PV changes, we evaluated them at 14 days of age during adulthood and compared the findings with animals raised by their biological mothers. Fostering resulted in reduced maternal-pup contact time when compared with control newborns. At 2 wk of age, fostered rats exhibited reduced pulmonary arterial endothelium-dependent relaxation secondary to downregulation of tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency-induced uncoupling. These changes were associated with neonatal onset-increased ANG II receptor type 1 expression, PV remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy that persisted into adulthood. The pulmonary arteries of adult-fostered rats exhibited a higher contraction dose response to ANG II and thromboxane A2, the latter of which was abrogated by the oxidant scavenger Tempol. In conclusion, fostering-induced neonatal stress induces long-standing PV changes modulated via the renin-angiotensin system. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. A Beautician’s Dystonia: Long-Lasting Effect of Botulinum Toxin

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    Siria Di Martino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment options for dystonia are not curative but symptomatic; the treatment of choice for focal dystonias is repeated botulinum toxin injections. Here, we present the case of a 46-year-old beautician with focal dystonia in her left hand that affected her ability to work. Pharmacological treatment with clonazepam and gabapentin failed to resolve her symptoms and was discontinued due to side effects (sleepiness, gastrointestinal disorders. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (incobotulinumtoxinA, Xeomin into the extensor digitorum communis (35 U, flexor carpi radialis (35 U, and flexor digitorum superficialis (30 U muscles resulted in complete resolution of symptoms at clinical assessments at 1, 3, 6, and 10 months after the injections, confirmed by the results of surface electromyography 10 months after treatment. The patient was able to work again 1 month after treatment. No reinjection has been necessary at the last evaluation (12 months after treatment. In conclusion, botulinum toxin is an effective treatment for focal dystonia that can have long-lasting effects and can improve patients’ ability to work and quality of life.

  20. Long-Lasting Response to Trabectedin in a Patient with Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: A Case Report

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    Viktoria-Anna Nteli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS is a rare tumor that accounts for 1% of all uterine malignancies. In spite of adequate surgical resection of uLMS, even in the early stage, patients remain at high risk for local and distant recurrence. Therefore, the treatment of advanced uLMS represents a considerable challenge. Methods: We report the case of a 47-year-old woman who presented with uLMS with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Results: The patient underwent a total hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy, which was followed by 1 year progression-free survival without adjuvant therapy. Thereafter, new lung metastases and local progression at the vaginal stump were observed. Chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin was administered. However, after 4 cycles, a CT scan revealed disease progression in the lung metastases. Subsequently, the patient was treated with trabectedin at a dose of 1.5 mg/m2 for 6 cycles resulting in complete remission of the lung metastases as well as partial remission of the mass in the vaginal stump after 9 cycles of trabectedin. The patient is currently on maintenance therapy with trabectedin and has no recurrence. Conclusion: Trabectedin seems to be an efficient option for patients with uLMS as demonstrated by a long-lasting response in a pretreated patient with an acceptable safety profile with no signs of cumulative toxicity.

  1. The benefits of cholinergic enhancement during perceptual learning are long-lasting

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    Ariel eRokem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh regulates many aspects of cognition, including attention and memory. Previous research in animal models has shown that plasticity in sensory systems often depends on the behavioral relevance of a stimulus and/or task. However, experimentally increasing ACh release in the cortex can result in experience-dependent plasticity, even in the absence of behavioral relevance. In humans, the pharmacological enhancement of ACh transmission by administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil during performance of a perceptual task increases the magnitude of perceptual learning (PL and its specificity to physical parameters of the stimuli used for training. Behavioral effects of PL have previously been shown to persist for many months. In the present study, we tested whether enhancement of PL by donepezil is also long-lasting. Healthy human subjects were trained on a motion direction discrimination task during cholinergic enhancement, and follow-up testing was performed 5-15 months after the end of training and without additional drug administration. Increases in performance associated with training under donepezil were evident in follow-up retesting, indicating that cholinergic enhancement has beneficial long-term effects on PL. These findings suggest that cholinergic enhancement of training procedures used to treat clinical disorders should improve long-term outcomes of these procedures.

  2. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

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    Josiane Etang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, conventional treatment of nets (CTNs or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. METHODOLOGY: Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor and CTNs (Fendona were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates, although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (p< 0.05. However, the efficacy of Interceptor nets did not decrease during the 5 months evaluation, even after 25 washes (0.07

  3. Long-lasting Effects of Minocycline on Behavior in Young but not Adult Fragile X Mice

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    Dansie, Lorraine E.; Phommahaxay, Kelly; Okusanya, Ayodeji G.; Uwadia, Jessica; Huang, Mike; Rotschafer, Sarah E.; Razak, Khaleel A.; Ethell, Douglas W.; Ethell, Iryna M.

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common single-gene inherited form of intellectual disability with behaviors characteristic of autism. People with FXS display childhood seizures, hyperactivity, anxiety, developmental delay, attention deficits, and visual-spatial memory impairment, as well as a propensity for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several of these aberrant behaviors and FXS-associated synaptic irregularities also occur in “fragile X mental retardation gene” knock-out (Fmr1 KO) mice. We previously reported that minocycline promotes the maturation of dendritic spines - postsynaptic sites for excitatory synapses - in the developing hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice, which may underlie the beneficial effects of minocycline on anxiolytic behavior in young Fmr1 KO mice. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of minocycline treatment in young and adult Fmr1 KO mice, and determined the dependence of behavioral improvements on short-term versus long-term minocycline administration. We found that 4 and 8 week long treatments significantly reduced locomotor activity in both young and adult Fmr1 KO mice. Some behavioral improvements persisted in young mice post-treatment, but in adults the beneficial effects were lost soon after minocycline treatment was stopped. We also show, for the first time, that minocycline treatment partially attenuates the number and severity of audiogenic seizures in Fmr1 KO mice. This report provides further evidence that minocycline treatment has immediate and long-lasting benefits on FXS-associated behaviors in the Fmr1 KO mouse model. PMID:23660195

  4. Long-lasting hippocampal synaptic protein loss in a mouse model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

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    Leonie Herrmann

    Full Text Available Despite intensive research efforts, the molecular pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and especially of the hippocampal volume loss found in the majority of patients suffering from this anxiety disease still remains elusive. We demonstrated before that trauma-induced hippocampal shrinkage can also be observed in mice exhibiting a PTSD-like syndrome. Aiming to decipher the molecular correlates of these trans-species posttraumatic hippocampal alterations, we compared the expression levels of a set of neurostructural marker proteins between traumatized and control mice at different time points after their subjection to either an electric footshock or mock treatment which was followed by stressful re-exposure in several experimental groups. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic in vivo study analyzing the long-term neuromolecular sequelae of acute traumatic stress combined with re-exposure. We show here that a PTSD-like syndrome in mice is accompanied by a long-lasting reduction of hippocampal synaptic proteins which interestingly correlates with the strength of the generalized and conditioned fear response but not with the intensity of hyperarousal symptoms. Furthermore, we demonstrate that treatment with the serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI fluoxetine is able to counteract both the PTSD-like syndrome and the posttraumatic synaptic protein loss. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time that a loss of hippocampal synaptic proteins is associated with a PTSD-like syndrome in mice. Further studies will have to reveal whether these findings are transferable to PTSD patients.

  5. Long-Lasting Cranial Nerve III Palsy as a Presenting Feature of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

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    Rossella Spataro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP in which an adduction deficit and ptosis in the left eye presented several years before the polyneuropathy. A 52-year-old man presented with a 14-year history of unremitting diplopia, adduction deficit, and ptosis in the left eye. At the age of 45 a mild bilateral foot drop and impaired sensation in the four limbs appeared, with these symptoms showing a progressive course. The diagnostic workup included EMG/ENG which demonstrated reduced conduction velocity with bilateral and symmetrical sensory and motor involvement. Cerebrospinal fluid studies revealed a cytoalbuminologic dissociation. A prolonged treatment with corticosteroids allowed a significant improvement of the limb weakness. Diplopia and ptosis remained unchanged. This unusual form of CIDP presented as a long-lasting isolated cranial nerve palsy. A diagnostic workup for CIDP should therefore be performed in those patients in which an isolated and unremitting cranial nerve palsy cannot be explained by common causes.

  6. Short and long-lasting behavioral consequences of agonistic encounters between male Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Trannoy, Séverine; Penn, Jill; Lucey, Kenia; Popovic, David; Kravitz, Edward A

    2016-04-26

    In many animal species, learning and memory have been found to play important roles in regulating intra- and interspecific behavioral interactions in varying environments. In such contexts, aggression is commonly used to obtain desired resources. Previous defeats or victories during aggressive interactions have been shown to influence the outcome of later contests, revealing loser and winner effects. In this study, we asked whether short- and/or long-term behavioral consequences accompany victories and defeats in dyadic pairings between male Drosophila melanogaster and how long those effects remain. The results demonstrated that single fights induced important behavioral changes in both combatants and resulted in the formation of short-term loser and winner effects. These decayed over several hours, with the duration depending on the level of familiarity of the opponents. Repeated defeats induced a long-lasting loser effect that was dependent on de novo protein synthesis, whereas repeated victories had no long-term behavioral consequences. This suggests that separate mechanisms govern the formation of loser and winner effects. These studies aim to lay a foundation for future investigations exploring the molecular mechanisms and circuitry underlying the nervous system changes induced by winning and losing bouts during agonistic encounters.

  7. ANABOLIC STEROIDS HAVE LONG-LASTING EFFECTS ON MALE SOCIAL BEHAVIORS

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    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y.; Montalto, Pamela R.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use by adolescents is steadily increasing. Adolescence involves remodeling of steroid-sensitive neural circuits that mediate social behaviors, and previous studies using animal models document effects of AAS on male social behaviors. The present experiments tested whether AAS have persistent and more pronounced behavioral consequences when drug exposure occurs during adolescence as compared to exposure in adulthood. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or adulthood (63-77 days of age). As adults, subjects were tested two or four weeks after the last injection for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or male-male agonistic behavior in a resident-intruder test. Compared with vehicle-treated males, AAS-treated males, regardless of age of treatment, displayed fewer long intromissions and a significant increase in latency to the first long intromission, indicative of reduced potential to reach sexual satiety. Increased aggression was observed in males exposed to AAS compared with males treated with vehicle, independently of age of AAS treatment. However, unlike hamsters exposed to AAS in adulthood, hamsters exposed to AAS during adolescence did not display any submissive or risk-assessment behaviors up to 4 weeks after discontinuation of AAS treatment. Thus, AAS have long-lasting effects on male sexual and agonistic behaviors, with AAS exposure during adolescence resulting in a more pronounced reduction in submissive behavior compared to AAS exposure in adulthood. PMID:20036695

  8. Long-lasting effects of maternal condition in free-ranging cervids.

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    Eric D Freeman

    Full Text Available Causes of phenotypic variation are fundamental to evolutionary ecology because they influence the traits acted upon by natural selection. One such cause of phenotypic variation is a maternal effect, which is the influence of the environment experienced by a female (and her corresponding phenotype on the phenotype of her offspring (independent of the offspring's genotype. While maternal effects are well documented, the longevity and fitness impact of these effects remains unclear because it is difficult to follow free-living individuals through their reproductive lifetimes. For long-lived species, it has been suggested that maternal effects are masked by environmental variables acting on offspring in years following the period of dependence. Our objective was to use indirect measures of maternal condition to determine if maternal effects have long-lasting influences on male offspring in two species of cervid. Because antlers are sexually selected, we used measures of antler size at time of death, 1.5-21.5 years after gestation to investigate maternal effects. We quantified antler size of 11,000 male elk and mule deer born throughout the intermountain western US (6 states over nearly 30 years. Maternal condition during development was estimated indirectly using a suite of abiotic variables known to influence condition of cervids (i.e., winter severity, spring and summer temperature, and spring and summer precipitation. Antler size of male cervids was significantly associated with our indirect measure of maternal condition during gestation and lactation. Assuming the correctness of our indirect measure, our findings demonstrate that antler size is a sexually selected trait that is influenced-into adulthood-by maternal condition. This link emphasizes the importance of considering inherited environmental effects when interpreting population dynamics or examining reproductive success of long-lived organisms.

  9. Increased corticosterone in peripubertal rats leads to long-lasting alterations in social exploration and aggression

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    Vandana eVeenit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress during childhood and adolescence enhances the risk of psychopathology later in life. We have previously shown that subjecting male rats to stress during the peripubertal period induces long-lasting effects on emotion and social behaviors. As corticosterone is increased by stress and known to exert important programming effects, we reasoned that increasing corticosterone might mimic the effects of peripubertal stress. To this end, we injected corticosterone (5 mg/kg on 7 scattered days during the peripuberty period (P28-P30, P34, P36, P40 and P42, following the same experimental schedule as for stress administration in our peripubertal paradigm. We measured play behavior in the homecage and, at adulthood, the corticosterone response to novelty and behavioral responses in tests for anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, aggression and social exploration. As compared to vehicle, corticosterone-treated animals exhibit more aggressive play behavior during adolescence, increased aggressive behavior in a resident-intruder test while reduced juvenile exploration and corticosterone reactivity at adulthood. Whereas the corticosterone treatment mimicked alterations induced by the peripuberty stress protocol in the social domain, it did not reproduce previously observed effects of peripuberty stress on increasing anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, respectively evaluated in the elevated plus maze and the forced swim tests. Our findings indicate that increasing corticosterone levels during peripuberty might be instrumental to program alterations in the social domain observed following stress, whereas other factors might need to be recruited for the programming of long-term changes in emotionality. Our study opens the possibility that individual differences on the degree of glucocorticoid activation during peripuberty might be central to defining differences in vulnerability to develop psychopathological disorders coursing with alterations in

  10. Long-lasting effect of NMDA receptor antagonist memantine on ethanol-cue association and relapse.

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    Vengeliene, Valentina; Olevska, Anastasia; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that the glutamatergic system plays a crucial role in alcohol addiction and especially in relapse-like behaviour. However, results of clinical studies on compounds that influence the activity of the glutamatergic system have been disappointing so far. The aim of our study was to establish treatment conditions under which the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist memantine may produce more reliable treatment effect with respect to alcohol relapse-like behaviour. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were trained to associate several discrete stimuli with ethanol delivery. Thereafter, half of the animals received a brief memory reactivation session followed by two administrations of 20 mg/kg of memantine, while the other half received the same treatment without memory reactivation. Afterwards, a cue-induced ethanol-seeking behaviour test was performed followed by repeated extinction sessions and a reacquisition test. Our data show that administration of memantine reduced responding on the ethanol-associated lever in a cue-induced ethanol-seeking test. This reduction did not depend on whether or not a memory reactivation session was introduced prior to memantine administration. Following extinction, however, reacquisition of ethanol self-administration was only impaired in the group where memantine was given after a short memory reactivation session, showing that this schedule of drug administration produced a long-lasting disruption of the association between the conditioned stimuli and the delivery of ethanol. In conclusion, we show that memantine disrupted the drug-cue association, which consequently interfered with relapse-like behaviour supporting the possibility that memantine is a treatment option for alcoholism. Our data supports the possibility that memantine is a treatment option for alcoholism. However, the effectiveness of this drug seems to lie in its ability to disrupt conditioned behaviours and should be given in conjunction

  11. Inter-tester reliability of selected clinical tests for long-lasting temporomandibular disorders.

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    Julsvoll, Elisabeth Heggem; Vøllestad, Nina Køpke; Opseth, Gro; Robinson, Hilde Stendal

    2017-09-01

    Clinical tests used to examine patients with temporomandibular disorders vary in methodological quality, and some are not tested for reliability. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate inter-tester reliability of clinical tests and a cluster of tests used to examine patients with long-lasting temporomandibular disorders. Forty patients with pain in the temporomandibular area treated by health-professionals were included. They were between 18-70 years, had 65 symptomatic (33 right/32 left) and 15 asymptomatic joints. Two manual therapists examined all participants with selected tests. Percentage agreement and the kappa coefficient ( k ) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the tests with categorical outcomes. For tests with continuous outcomes, the relative inter-tester reliability was assessed by the intraclass-correlation-coefficient (ICC 3,1 , 95% CI) and the absolute reliability was calculated by the smallest detectable change (SDC). The best reliability among single tests was found for the dental stick test, the joint-sound test ( k  = 0.80-1.0) and range of mouth-opening (ICC 3,1 (95% CI) = 0.97 (0.95-0.98) and SDC = 4 mm). The reliability of cluster of tests was excellent with both four and five positive tests out of seven. The reliability was good to excellent for the clinical tests and the cluster of tests when performed by experienced therapists. The tests are feasible for use in the clinical setting. They require no advanced equipment and are easy to perform.

  12. Limbic control of aggression in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E; Stark-Adamec, C I

    1983-01-01

    Over a decade of work by Flynn and colleagues has delineated a network of limbic circuits which function to modulate the expression of predatory aggression and defence in the cat, and aspects of this work are reviewed. In particular, Flynn's work revealed a circuit involving the basomedial amygdala which functions to suppress attack, and at the same time facilitates defence. A second circuit, involving the ventral hippocampus, is involved in attack facilitation. Studies relating stable differences in excitability in these two circuits to developmentally determined behavioural dispositions toward aggression or defence are summarized. Finally, the impact of experimentally induced limbic seizures on interictally maintained expression of aggression and defence behaviourally, and on limbic excitability are reviewed. Taken together, the data indicate that the behavioural balance of attack and defence is under the tonic control of opponent limbic circuits, which are themselves biased in a measureable manner. Developmental studies indicate that adult defensiveness is determined early in life, so early as to suggest some pre-programmed neuro-developmental process. Experimentally induced seizures alter behaviour lastingly, producing an increase in defensive disposition. At the same time there is an equally lasting potentiation of interictal transmission of neural activity from the amygdala to the hypothalamus. Moreover, seizures may reduce interictal transmission of activity through the ventral hippocampus by potentiating recurrent inhibition. These effects of seizures are of interest since seizures reproduce naturally occurring differences in limbic excitability seen in naturally defensive cats.

  13. System effectiveness of a targeted free mass distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Ali K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITN and long-lasting insecticidal treated nets (LLIN are important means of malaria prevention. Although there is consensus regarding their importance, there is uncertainty as to which delivery strategies are optimal for dispensing these life saving interventions. A targeted mass distribution of free LLINs to children under five and pregnant women was implemented in Zanzibar between August 2005 and January 2006. The outcomes of this distribution among children under five were evaluated, four to nine months after implementation. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in May 2006 in two districts of Zanzibar: Micheweni (MI on Pemba Island and North A (NA on Unguja Island. Household interviews were conducted with 509 caretakers of under-five children, who were surveyed for socio-economic status, the net distribution process, perceptions and use of bed nets. Each step in the distribution process was assessed in all children one to five years of age for unconditional and conditional proportion of success. System effectiveness (the accumulated proportion of success and equity effectiveness were calculated, and predictors for LLIN use were identified. Results The overall proportion of children under five sleeping under any type of treated net was 83.7% (318/380 in MI and 91.8% (357/389 in NA. The LLIN usage was 56.8% (216/380 in MI and 86.9% (338/389 in NA. Overall system effectiveness was 49% in MI and 87% in NA, and equity was found in the distribution scale-up in NA. In both districts, the predicting factor of a child sleeping under an LLIN was caretakers thinking that LLINs are better than conventional nets (OR = 2.8, p = 0.005 in MI and 2.5, p = 0.041 in NA, in addition to receiving an LLIN (OR = 4.9, p Conclusions Targeted free mass distribution of LLINs can result in high and equitable bed net coverage among children under five. However, in order to sustain high effective coverage, there

  14. Short-Term Dosage Regimen for Stimulation-Induced Long-Lasting Desynchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Manos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. This long-lasting desynchronization was theoretically predicted and verified in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. We have shown that CR stimulation with rapidly varying sequences (RVS robustly induces an anti-kindling at low intensities e.g., if the CR stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulus pattern repetition rate is in the range of the frequency of the neuronal oscillation. In contrast, CR stimulation with slowly varying sequences (SVS turned out to induce an anti-kindling more strongly, but less robustly with respect to variations of the CR stimulation frequency. Motivated by clinical constraints and inspired by the spacing principle of learning theory, in this computational study we propose a short-term dosage regimen that enables a robust anti-kindling effect of both RVS and SVS CR stimulation, also for those parameter values where RVS and SVS CR stimulation previously turned out to be ineffective. Intriguingly, for the vast majority of parameter values tested, spaced multishot CR stimulation with demand-controlled variation of stimulation frequency and intensity caused a robust and pronounced anti-kindling. In contrast, spaced CR stimulation with fixed stimulation parameters as well as singleshot CR stimulation of equal integral duration failed to improve the stimulation outcome. In the model network under consideration, our short-term dosage regimen enables to robustly induce

  15. Short-Term Dosage Regimen for Stimulation-Induced Long-Lasting Desynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Thanos; Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. This long-lasting desynchronization was theoretically predicted and verified in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. We have shown that CR stimulation with rapidly varying sequences (RVS) robustly induces an anti-kindling at low intensities e.g., if the CR stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulus pattern repetition rate) is in the range of the frequency of the neuronal oscillation. In contrast, CR stimulation with slowly varying sequences (SVS) turned out to induce an anti-kindling more strongly, but less robustly with respect to variations of the CR stimulation frequency. Motivated by clinical constraints and inspired by the spacing principle of learning theory, in this computational study we propose a short-term dosage regimen that enables a robust anti-kindling effect of both RVS and SVS CR stimulation, also for those parameter values where RVS and SVS CR stimulation previously turned out to be ineffective. Intriguingly, for the vast majority of parameter values tested, spaced multishot CR stimulation with demand-controlled variation of stimulation frequency and intensity caused a robust and pronounced anti-kindling. In contrast, spaced CR stimulation with fixed stimulation parameters as well as singleshot CR stimulation of equal integral duration failed to improve the stimulation outcome. In the model network under consideration, our short-term dosage regimen enables to robustly induce long

  16. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Hassan; Shah, Ronak; Schroeder, Karl; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews.This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z's ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme) certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to readers in the malaria community, especially in developing

  17. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? Discussion A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews. This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z’s ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. Summary With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to

  18. Mobility of adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) after exposure to long-lasting insecticide netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored products represent an enormous economic output, but insects regularly immigrate into stored products from the surrounding landscape throughout the post-harvest supply chain. Long-lasting insecticide netting (LLIN), which usually contains an impregnated pyrethroid, has been used as part of a s...

  19. Severe and long-lasting diarrhea not recognized as adverse effect of metformin : A description of three elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefeber, G.; Jansen, P.; Van Puijenbroek, E.

    Background.- As a result of the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), metformin became the first choice drug for patients with diabetes. In 2009 three patients were admitted to our geriatric department for analysis of disabling long-lasting diarrhea. Metformin as causative agent was

  20. Limbic Irritability, Neuronal Complexity and Smoking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svetlak, M.; Bob, P.; Černík, M.; Konečný, P.; Chládek, Jan; Svrček, M.; Kukleta, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2008), s. 85 ISSN 0001-7604. [International CIANS Conference 2008: Higher Brain Functions. 28.09.2008-02.10.2008, Smolenice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : smoking * limbic irritability * stress * complexity * EDA Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  1. Oxytocin biotransformation in the rat limbic brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J.P.H.; Schotman, P.; Kloet, E.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Two peptide fragments of oxytocin were isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography from digests of oxytocin obtained after exposure to a SPM preparation of the rat limbic brain. The structures of these peptides, being Gln-Asn-Cys(O)x-Pro-Leu-GlyNH2 and Gln-Asn-Cys(-S-S-Cys)-Pro-Leu-GlyNH2, were

  2. [The limbic system and the motivation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karli, P

    1968-01-01

    Understanding the part played by the limbic system in the shaping of overall behaviour is assisted by the previous study of that system's involvement in the mechanisms underlying certain sections of behaviour. a) Limbic structures contribute to the dynamic synthesis of contemporary information, by reason of their share in mechanisms: I. of modulatory central control in the production and transmission of sensory messages, 2. in the genesis of states of vigilance, especially the focussing of attention. On the other hand, they have an inhibitory role in somatic motility by way of progressive elimination of all inadequate motor response. b) Limbic structures participate in the elaboration of emotional states, in the initiation of both positive and negative reinforcement. That is to say they participate in the processes by which: I. "appetitive" or "aversive" significance is progressively conferred upon a given stimulus or situation, 2. behaviour is subjected to a positive or negative reinforcement, assuring its stabilization or its extinction. c) The comparison of the present situation with experience, enabling the organism to foresee the results of its behaviour; and similarly the comparison of results achieved with those anticipated, imply information storage, and the formation of lasting memory traces. It appears that the limbic system by integration of cognitive and affective components of sensory information, contributes to the compilation of experience which can be drawn upon in recognition or evocation. When the lasting results of different limbic lesions upon total behaviour are studied, it is clear that these effects are all the more profound as, among the motivational factors involved, those due to experience and to adaptation to environment, play the more important part. Behavioural deficits appear especially due to the absence of inhibition of certain inadequate responses, which results in a "maladaptation" of behavior as much towards present environmental

  3. Maturation of the limbic system revealed by MR FLAIR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jacques F.; Vergesslich, Klara [University Children' s Hospital UKBB, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    Cortical signal intensity (SI) of the limbic system in adults is known to be higher than in neocortical structures, but time-related changes in SI during childhood have not been described. To detect maturation-related SI changes within the limbic system using a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR sequence. Twenty children (10 boys, 10 girls; age 3.5-18 years, mean 11.2 years) with no neurological abnormality and normal MR imaging examination were retrospectively selected. On two coronal FLAIR slices, ten regions of interest (ROI) with a constant area of 10 mm{sup 2} were manually placed in the archeocortex (hippocampus), periarcheocortex (parahippocampal gyrus, subcallosal area, cingulate gyrus) and in the neocortex at the level of the superior frontal gyrus on both sides. Significant SI gradients were observed with a higher intensity in the archeocortex, intermediate intensity in the periarcheocortex and low intensity in the neocortex. Significant higher SI values in hippocampal and parahippocampal structures were detected in children up to 10 years of age. These differences mainly reflected differences in cortical structure and myelination state. Archeocortical structures especially showed significant age-related intensity progression suggesting ongoing organization and/or myelination until early adolescence. (orig.)

  4. Maturation of the limbic system revealed by MR FLAIR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Jacques F.; Vergesslich, Klara

    2007-01-01

    Cortical signal intensity (SI) of the limbic system in adults is known to be higher than in neocortical structures, but time-related changes in SI during childhood have not been described. To detect maturation-related SI changes within the limbic system using a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR sequence. Twenty children (10 boys, 10 girls; age 3.5-18 years, mean 11.2 years) with no neurological abnormality and normal MR imaging examination were retrospectively selected. On two coronal FLAIR slices, ten regions of interest (ROI) with a constant area of 10 mm 2 were manually placed in the archeocortex (hippocampus), periarcheocortex (parahippocampal gyrus, subcallosal area, cingulate gyrus) and in the neocortex at the level of the superior frontal gyrus on both sides. Significant SI gradients were observed with a higher intensity in the archeocortex, intermediate intensity in the periarcheocortex and low intensity in the neocortex. Significant higher SI values in hippocampal and parahippocampal structures were detected in children up to 10 years of age. These differences mainly reflected differences in cortical structure and myelination state. Archeocortical structures especially showed significant age-related intensity progression suggesting ongoing organization and/or myelination until early adolescence. (orig.)

  5. Prediction of performance in Vasaloppet through long lasting ski- ergometer and rollerski tests in cross-country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Wulff, Kristian; Jensen, Mads Rosenkilde

    2015-01-01

    -ergometer and Rollerski field tests correlate strongly with performance in Vasaloppet and therefore might be useful test tools for recreational skiers who wish to participate in long lasting c-c competitions. Keywords: Cross-country ski training, Upper body, Exercise intensity, Field test, Body composition blood lactate......The main purpose was to investigate if long lasting cross-country (c-c) test procedures could predict performance time in ‘Vasaloppet’ and secondly the effect of a 16 weeks training period on a 90 min double poling performance test. 24 moderate trained c-c skiers participated in the study...... and completed Vasaloppet. All skiers carried out pre and post training tests in a 90 minutes ski-ergometer double poling test and a 120 minutes rollerski field test on a closed paved circuit. 19 skiers provided detailed training logs that could sufficiently establish their training preparation for Vasaloppet...

  6. Mechanisms of translation control underlying long-lasting synaptic plasticity and the consolidation of long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Emanuela; Huynh, Thu N; Klann, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of memory formation and its persistence is a phenomenon that has been studied intensely for centuries. Memory exists in many forms and is stored in various brain regions. Generally speaking, memories are reorganized into broadly distributed cortical networks over time through systems level consolidation. At the cellular level, storage of information is believed to initially occur via altered synaptic strength by processes such as long-term potentiation. New protein synthesis is required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a critical regulator of cap-dependent protein synthesis and is required for numerous forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. As such, the study of mTORC1 and protein factors that control translation initiation and elongation has enhanced our understanding of how the process of protein synthesis is regulated during memory formation. Herein we discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate protein synthesis as well as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that demonstrate the requirement for proper translational control in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long lasting behavior of Gd2O2S:Eu3+ phosphor synthesized by hydrothermal routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang Tao; Liu Qun; Mao Dali; Chang Chengkang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the detailed preparation process and afterglow properties of Eu 3+ activated long lasting Gd 2 O 2 S phosphor by hydrothermal routine. Rod-like Gd(OH) 3 were firstly synthesized by hydrothermal method to serve as the precursor. Long lasting Gd 2 O 2 S:Eu 3+ ,Ti 4+ ,Mg 2+ phosphor was obtained by calcinating the precursor with co-activators and S powder. It was found from the results that the hydrothermally prepared Gd(OH) 3 revealed a rod-like morphology, while the calcinated Gd 2 O 2 S:Eu 3+ ,Ti 4+ ,Mg 2+ phosphor showed a round granular shape. The morphological change can be explained by the etching effect of the melt that was formed by the carbonate and S powder during the high temperature calcination. The obtained Gd 2 O 2 S:Eu 3+ ,Ti 4+ ,Mg 2+ phosphor produced a red emission upon 243 nm UV excitation, which is a typical emission of Eu 3+ from 5 D j to 7 F j states. Long lasting behavior was observed after the UV source was switched off, due to the formation of electron traps with suitable trap depth within the matrix by the codoped Ti 4+ and Mg 2+ ions

  8. [VGKC antibodies associated with limbic encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, B M; Urbach, H; Elger, C E; Bien, C G; Beyenburg, S

    2005-06-01

    Since the initial description of limbic encephalitis (LE) in 1960/1968, several subforms of this clinico-neuropathological syndrome have been identified. The best known is paraneoplastic LE. However, non-paraneoplastic forms have been reported, too. Very recently, autoantibodies against voltage-gated potassium channels have been described in association with LE. The diagnostic workup of such a case and the apparently typical good response to long-term immunotherapy of this LE subform are described.

  9. Early uneven ear input induces long-lasting differences in left-right motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Michelle W; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas; Vijayakumar, Sarath; McKeehan, Nicholas; Arezzo, Joseph C; Zukin, R Suzanne; Borkholder, David A; Jones, Sherri M; Frisina, Robert D; Hébert, Jean M

    2018-03-01

    How asymmetries in motor behavior become established normally or atypically in mammals remains unclear. An established model for motor asymmetry that is conserved across mammals can be obtained by experimentally inducing asymmetric striatal dopamine activity. However, the factors that can cause motor asymmetries in the absence of experimental manipulations to the brain remain unknown. Here, we show that mice with inner ear dysfunction display a robust left or right rotational preference, and this motor preference reflects an atypical asymmetry in cortico-striatal neurotransmission. By unilaterally targeting striatal activity with an antagonist of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a downstream integrator of striatal neurotransmitter signaling, we can reverse or exaggerate rotational preference in these mice. By surgically biasing vestibular failure to one ear, we can dictate the direction of motor preference, illustrating the influence of uneven vestibular failure in establishing the outward asymmetries in motor preference. The inner ear-induced striatal asymmetries identified here intersect with non-ear-induced asymmetries previously linked to lateralized motor behavior across species and suggest that aspects of left-right brain function in mammals can be ontogenetically influenced by inner ear input. Consistent with inner ear input contributing to motor asymmetry, we also show that, in humans with normal ear function, the motor-dominant hemisphere, measured as handedness, is ipsilateral to the ear with weaker vestibular input.

  10. Long-lasting insecticidal nets are synergistic with mass drug administration for interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Eigege

    Full Text Available In central Nigeria Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF. The strategy used for interrupting LF transmission in this area is annual mass drug administration (MDA with albendazole and ivermectin, but after 8 years of MDA, entomological evaluations in sentinel villages showed continued low-grade mosquito infection rates of 0.32%. After long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN distribution by the national malaria program in late 2010, however, we were no longer able to detect infected vectors over a 24-month period. This is evidence that LLINs are synergistic with MDA in interrupting LF transmission.

  11. Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Prefrontal and Limbic Volume and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Casper; Morris, Laurel S.; Kvamme, Timo L.

    2017-01-01

    prefrontal cortex (whole brain, cluster corrected FWE P motivational salience and emotion processing, and impaired functional connectivity between prefrontal control regulatory and limbic regions...

  12. Tennessee and Florida: Continuity and Change in Long-Lasting State Performance Funding Systems for Higher Education. CCRC Brief. Number 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Natow, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes changes over time in long-lasting state performance funding systems for higher education. It addresses two research questions: First, in what ways have long-lasting systems changed over time in funding levels, indicators used to allocate funds, and measures used for those indicators? Second, what political actors, actions, and…

  13. Simultaneous and long-lasting hydrophilization of inner and outer wall surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene tubes by transferring atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Faze; Song, Jinlong; Huang, Shuai; Xu, Wenji; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xin; Xu, Sihao; Xia, Guangqing; Yang, Dezheng

    2016-01-01

    Plasma hydrophilization is a general method to increase the surface free energy of materials. However, only a few works about plasma modification focus on the hydrophilization of tube inner and outer walls. In this paper, we realize simultaneous and long-lasting plasma hydrophilization on the inner and outer walls of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). Specifically, an Ar atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is used to modify the PTFE tube’s outer wall and meanwhile to induce transferred He APP inside the PTFE tube to modify its inner wall surface. The optical emission spectrum (OES) shows that the plasmas contain many chemically active species, which are known as enablers for various applications. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to characterize the plasma hydrophilization. Results demonstrate that the wettability of the tube walls are well improved due to the replacement of the surface fluorine by oxygen and the change of surface roughness. The obtained hydrophilicity decreases slowly during more than 180 d aging, indicating a long-lasting hydrophilization. The results presented here clearly demonstrate the great potential of transferring APPs for surface modification of the tube’s inner and outer walls simultaneously. (paper)

  14. Fabrication of flower-like tin/carbon composite microspheres as long-lasting anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyung-Seok [Department of WCU Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Jin [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Yang-Kook [Department of WCU Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung-Do, E-mail: kdsuh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of the flower-like tin/carbon (Sn/C) composite microspheres using sulfonated semi-interpenetrating polystyrene (SPS) microspheres as a carbon precursor. The sulfonation degree of SPS has great effects on the resulting particle size, morphology, amount of introduced Sn, and the carbonization yield of the microspheres after heat treatment. The obtained Sn/C composite microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused-ion beam SEM, and X-ray diffraction. The flower-like Sn/C composite electrodes exhibited higher charge-discharge capacities than those of graphite as an anode material for a lithium ion battery. In addition, they show a long lasting cyclability, even through 400 cycles. - Highlights: • Tin nanocrystals are introduced in flower-like carbon spheres with many ripples. • Long lasting cyclability is exhibited at 1 C rate up to 400 cycles. • Tin content of composite spheres depends on chemical treatment of polymer microspheres.

  15. Short-Term, Intermittent Fasting Induces Long-Lasting Gut Health and TOR-Independent Lifespan Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterson, James H; Khericha, Mobina; Dyson, Miranda C; Vincent, Alec J; Callard, Rebecca; Haveron, Steven M; Rajasingam, Arjunan; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Partridge, Linda

    2018-06-04

    Intermittent fasting (IF) can improve function and health during aging in laboratory model organisms, but the mechanisms at work await elucidation. We subjected fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to varying degrees of IF and found that just one month of a 2-day fed:5-day fasted IF regime at the beginning of adulthood was sufficient to extend lifespan. This long-lasting, beneficial effect of early IF was not due to reduced fecundity. Starvation resistance and resistance to oxidative and xenobiotic stress were increased after IF. Early-life IF also led to higher lipid content in 60-day-old flies, a potential explanation for increased longevity. Guts of flies 40 days post-IF showed a significant reduction in age-related pathologies and improved gut barrier function. Improved gut health was also associated with reduced relative bacterial abundance. Early IF thus induced profound long-term changes. Pharmacological and genetic epistasis analysis showed that IF acted independently of the TOR pathway because rapamycin and IF acted additively to extend lifespan, and global expression of a constitutively active S6K did not attenuate the IF-induced lifespan extension. We conclude that short-term IF during early life can induce long-lasting beneficial effects, with robust increase in lifespan in a TOR-independent manner, probably at least in part by preserving gut health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. TCR-contacting residues orientation and HLA-DRβ* binding preference determine long-lasting protective immunity against malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, Martha P.; Suarez, Carlos F.; Varela, Yahson; Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Bermudez, Adriana; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2016-01-01

    Fully-protective, long-lasting, immunological (FPLLI) memory against Plasmodium falciparum malaria regarding immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS) vaccinated into monkeys previously challenged and re-challenged 60 days later with a lethal Aotus monkey-adapted P. falciparum strain was found to be associated with preferential high binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1* allelic molecules of the major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II), rather than HLA-DRβ3*, β4*, β5* alleles. Complete PPII L 3D structure, a longer distance (26.5 Å ± 1.5 Å) between residues perfectly fitting into HLA-DRβ1*PBR pockets 1 and 9, a gauche − rotamer orientation in p8 TCR-contacting polar residue and a larger volume of polar p2 residues was also found. This data, in association with previously-described p3 and p7 apolar residues having gauche + orientation to form a perfect MHC-II-peptide-TCR complex, determines the stereo-electronic and topochemical characteristics associated with FPLLI immunological memory. - Highlights: • Stereo-electronic and topochemical rules associated with FPLLI immunological memory. • Presence of very high long-lasting antibody titres against Plasmodium falciparum Spz. • Protective memory induction associated with a binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1*. • gauche − rotamer orientation in p8 polar residue is related to is related to immunological memory.

  17. TCR-contacting residues orientation and HLA-DRβ* binding preference determine long-lasting protective immunity against malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba, Martha P.; Suarez, Carlos F. [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales (UDCA), Bogotá (Colombia); Varela, Yahson [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Bermudez, Adriana [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@gmail.com [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D. C. (Colombia)

    2016-09-02

    Fully-protective, long-lasting, immunological (FPLLI) memory against Plasmodium falciparum malaria regarding immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS) vaccinated into monkeys previously challenged and re-challenged 60 days later with a lethal Aotus monkey-adapted P. falciparum strain was found to be associated with preferential high binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1* allelic molecules of the major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II), rather than HLA-DRβ3*, β4*, β5* alleles. Complete PPII{sub L} 3D structure, a longer distance (26.5 Å ± 1.5 Å) between residues perfectly fitting into HLA-DRβ1*PBR pockets 1 and 9, a gauche{sup −} rotamer orientation in p8 TCR-contacting polar residue and a larger volume of polar p2 residues was also found. This data, in association with previously-described p3 and p7 apolar residues having gauche{sup +} orientation to form a perfect MHC-II-peptide-TCR complex, determines the stereo-electronic and topochemical characteristics associated with FPLLI immunological memory. - Highlights: • Stereo-electronic and topochemical rules associated with FPLLI immunological memory. • Presence of very high long-lasting antibody titres against Plasmodium falciparum Spz. • Protective memory induction associated with a binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1*. • gauche{sup −} rotamer orientation in p8 polar residue is related to is related to immunological memory.

  18. Low-frequency stimulation cancels the high-frequency-induced long-lasting effects in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E; Zampolini, M

    1996-05-15

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the effects of low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of the primary vestibular afferents on the amplitude of the field potentials evoked in the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN). LFS induced long-term effects, the sign of which depended on whether the vestibular neurons were previously conditioned by HFS. In unconditioned slices, LFS evoked modifications of the responses that were similar to those observed after HFS but had a smaller extension. In fact, LFS caused long-lasting potentiation of the N1 wave in the MVN ventral portion (Vp) and long-lasting depression of the N2 wave in the MVN dorsal portion (Dp), whereas it provoked small and variable effects on the N1 wave. By contrast, when the synaptic transmission was already conditioned, LFS influenced the synaptic responses oppositely, reducing or annulling the HFS long-term effects. This phenomenon was specifically induced by LFS, because HFS was not able to cause it. The involvement of NMDA receptors in mediating the LFS long-term effects was supported by the fact that AP-5 prevented their induction. In addition, the annulment of HFS long-term effects by LFS was also demonstrated by the shift in the latency of the evoked unitary potentials after LFS. In conclusion, we suggest that the reduction of the previously induced conditioning could represent a cancellation mechanism, useful to quickly adapt the vestibular system to continuous different needs and to avoid saturation.

  19. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  20. Limbic systems for emotion and for memory, but no single limbic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a (single) limbic system is shown to be outmoded. Instead, anatomical, neurophysiological, functional neuroimaging, and neuropsychological evidence is described that anterior limbic and related structures including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala are involved in emotion, reward valuation, and reward-related decision-making (but not memory), with the value representations transmitted to the anterior cingulate cortex for action-outcome learning. In this 'emotion limbic system' a computational principle is that feedforward pattern association networks learn associations from visual, olfactory and auditory stimuli, to primary reinforcers such as taste, touch, and pain. In primates including humans this learning can be very rapid and rule-based, with the orbitofrontal cortex overshadowing the amygdala in this learning important for social and emotional behaviour. Complementary evidence is described showing that the hippocampus and limbic structures to which it is connected including the posterior cingulate cortex and the fornix-mammillary body-anterior thalamus-posterior cingulate circuit are involved in episodic or event memory, but not emotion. This 'hippocampal system' receives information from neocortical areas about spatial location, and objects, and can rapidly associate this information together by the different computational principle of autoassociation in the CA3 region of the hippocampus involving feedback. The system can later recall the whole of this information in the CA3 region from any component, a feedback process, and can recall the information back to neocortical areas, again a feedback (to neocortex) recall process. Emotion can enter this memory system from the orbitofrontal cortex etc., and be recalled back to the orbitofrontal cortex etc. during memory recall, but the emotional and hippocampal networks or 'limbic systems' operate by different computational principles, and operate independently of each other except insofar as an

  1. Long-Lasting Effects of BCG Vaccination on Both Heterologous Th1/Th17 Responses and Innate Trained Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank

    2013-01-01

    '. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months...... in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained...... changes in the immune system associated with a nonspecific response to infections both at the level of innate trained immunity and at the level of heterologous Th1/Th17 responses. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel....

  2. Neuronal surface antigen antibodies in limbic encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, F; Saiz, A; Lai, M; Bruna, J; López, F; Sabater, L; Blanco, Y; Rey, M J.; Ribalta, T; Dalmau, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To report the frequency and type of antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (NSA-ab) in limbic encephalitis (LE). Methods: Analysis of clinical features, neuropathologic findings, and detection of NSA-ab using immunochemistry on rat tissue and neuronal cultures in a series of 45 patients with paraneoplastic (23) or idiopathic (22) LE. Results: NSA-ab were identified in 29 patients (64%; 12 paraneoplastic, 17 idiopathic). Thirteen patients had voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC)-ab, 11 novel NSA (nNSA)-ab, and 5 NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-ab. nNSA-ab did not identify a common antigen and were more frequent in paraneoplastic than idiopathic LE (39% vs 9%; p = 0.03). When compared with VGKC-ab or NMDAR-ab, the nNSA associated more frequently with intraneuronal antibodies (11% vs 73%; p = 0.001). Of 12 patients (9 nNSA-ab, 2 VGKC-ab, 1 NMDAR-ab) with paraneoplastic LE and NSA-ab, concomitant intraneuronal antibodies occurred in 9 (75%). None of these 12 patients improved with immunotherapy. The autopsy of three of them showed neuronal loss, microgliosis, and cytotoxic T cell infiltrates in the hippocampus and amygdala. These findings were compatible with a T-cell mediated neuronal damage. In contrast, 13 of 17 (76%) patients with idiopathic LE and NSA-ab (8 VGKC-ab, 4 NMDAR-ab, 1 nNSA-ab) and 1 of 5 (20%) without antibodies had clinical improvement (p = 0.04). Conclusions: In paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (LE), novel antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (nNSA-ab) occur frequently, coexist with antibodies against intracellular antigens, and these cases are refractory to immunotherapy. In idiopathic LE, the likelihood of improvement is significantly higher in patients with NSA-ab than in those without antibodies. GLOSSARY GAD = glutamic acid decarboxylase; LE = limbic encephalitis; NMDAR = N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor; NSA = neuronal surface antigens; nNSA = novel NSA; SCLC = small-cell lung cancer; VGKC = voltage-gated potassium channels

  3. Long-lasting pathological consequences of overexpression-induced α-synuclein spreading in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Raffaella; Ulusoy, Ayse; Aboutalebi, Helia; Di Monte, Donato A

    2018-04-01

    Increased expression of α-synuclein can initiate its long-distance brain transfer, representing a potential mechanism for pathology spreading in age-related synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease. In this study, the effects of overexpression-induced α-synuclein transfer were assessed over a 1-year period after injection of viral vectors carrying human α-synuclein DNA into the rat vagus nerve. This treatment causes targeted overexpression within neurons in the dorsal medulla oblongata and subsequent diffusion of the exogenous protein toward more rostral brain regions. Protein advancement and accumulation in pontine, midbrain, and forebrain areas were contingent upon continuous overexpression, because death of transduced medullary neurons resulted in cessation of spreading. Lack of sustained spreading did not prevent the development of long-lasting pathological changes. Particularly remarkable were findings in the locus coeruleus, a pontine nucleus with direct connections to the dorsal medulla oblongata and greatly affected by overexpression-induced transfer in this model. Data revealed progressive degeneration of catecholaminergic neurons that proceeded long beyond the time of spreading cessation. Neuronal pathology in the locus coeruleus was accompanied by pronounced microglial activation and, at later times, astrocytosis. Interestingly, microglial activation was also featured in another region reached by α-synuclein transfer, the central amygdala, even in the absence of frank neurodegeneration. Thus, overexpression-induced spreading, even if temporary, causes long-lasting pathological consequences in brain regions distant from the site of overexpression but anatomically connected to it. Neurodegeneration may be a consequence of severe protein burden, whereas even a milder α-synuclein accumulation in tissues affected by protein transfer could induce sustained microglial activation. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and

  4. Do expectancies of return to work and Job satisfaction predict actual return to work in workers with long lasting LBP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl, Jon; Eriksen, Hege R; Tveito, Torill H

    2016-11-17

    Musculoskeletal disorders including low back pain have major individual and socioeconomic consequences as it often leads to disability and long-term sick leave and exclusion from working life. Predictors of disability and return to work often differ, and the dominant knowledge is on predictors for prolonged sick leave and disability. Therefore it is also important to identify key predictors for return to work. The aim of the study was to assess if overall job satisfaction and expectancies of return to work predicts actual return to work after 12 months, among employees with long lasting low back pain, and to assess if there were gender differences in the predictors. Data from the Cognitive interventions and nutritional supplements trial (CINS Trial) was used. Predictors for return to work were examined in 574 employees that had been on sick leave 2-10 months for low back pain, before entering the trial. Data were analysed with multiple logistic regression models stratified by gender, and adjusted for potential confounders. Regardless of gender high expectancies were a strong and significant predictor of return to work at 12 months, while high levels of job satisfaction were not a significant predictor. There were no differences in the levels of expectancies or overall job satisfaction between men and women. However, men had in general higher odds of returning to work compared with women. Among individuals with long lasting low back pain high expectancies of returning to work were strongly associated with successful return to work. We do not know what factors influence individual expectancies of return to work. Screening expectancies and giving individuals with low expectancies interventions with a goal to change expectancies of return to work, such as CBT or self-management interventions, may contribute to increase actual return to work. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ , with registration number NCT00463970 . The trial was registered at the 18th of April 2007.

  5. The novelty-seeking phenotype modulates the long-lasting effects of intermittent ethanol administration during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Montagud-Romero

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate if a novelty-seeking phenotype mediates the long-lasting consequences of intermittent EtOH intoxication during adolescence. The hole board test was employed to classify adolescent mice as High- or Low-Novelty Seekers. Subsequently, animals were administered ethanol (1.25 or 2.5 g/kg on two consecutive days at 48-h intervals over a 14-day period. Anxiety levels--measured using the elevated plus maze- spontaneous motor activity and social interaction test were studied 3 weeks later. A different set of mice underwent the same procedure, but received only the 2.5 g/kg dose of ethanol. Three weeks later, in order to induce CPP, the same animals were administered 1 or 6 mg/kg of cocaine or 1 or 2.5 mg/kg MDMA. The results revealed a decrease in aggressive behaviors and an anxiolytic profile in HNS mice and longer latency to explore the novel object by LNS mice. Ethanol exposure enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine and MDMA in both groups when CPP was induced with a sub-threshold dose of the drugs. The extinguished cocaine-induced CPP (1 and 6 mg/kg was reinstated after a priming dose in HNS animals only. Our results confirm that intermittent EtOH administration during adolescence induces long-lasting effects that are manifested in adult life, and that there is an association between these effects and the novelty-seeking phenotype.

  6. Long-lasting effects of performance-contingent unconscious and conscious reward incentives during cued task-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Rémi L; Bouquet, Cédric A; Dreher, Jean-Claude; Dufour, André

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is often thought to interact consciously with executive control, although recent studies have indicated that motivation can also be unconscious. To date, however, the effects of unconscious motivation on high-order executive control functions have not been explored. Only a few studies using subliminal stimuli (i.e., those not related to motivation, such as an arrow to prime a response) have reported short-lived effects on high-order executive control functions. Here, building on research on unconscious motivation, in which a behavior of perseverance is induced to attain a goal, we hypothesized that subliminal motivation can have long-lasting effects on executive control processes. We investigated the impact of unconscious/conscious monetary reward incentives on evoked potentials and neural activity dynamics during cued task-switching performance. Participants performed long runs of task-switching. At the beginning of each run, a reward (50 cents or 1 cent) was displayed, either subliminally or supraliminally. Participants earned the reward contingent upon their correct responses to each trial of the run. A higher percentage of runs was achieved with higher (conscious and unconscious) than lower rewards, indicating that unconscious high rewards have long-lasting behavioral effects. Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that unconscious and conscious rewards influenced preparatory effort in task preparation, as suggested by a greater fronto-central contingent negative variation (CNV) starting at cue-onset. However, a greater parietal P3 associated with better reaction times (RTs) was observed only under conditions of conscious high reward, suggesting a larger amount of working memory invested during task performance. Together, these results indicate that unconscious and conscious motivations are similar at early stages of task-switching preparation but differ during task performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The optimal timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on episodic memory in physiological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Rosa; Sandrini, Marco; Brambilla, Michela; Cotelli, Maria

    2016-09-15

    Episodic memory displays the largest degree of age-related decline. A noninvasive brain stimulation technique that can be used to modulate memory in physiological aging is transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). However, an aspect that has not been adequately investigated in previous studies is the optimal timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on episodic memory function. Our previous studies showed episodic memory enhancement in older adults when anodal tDCS was applied over the left lateral prefrontal cortex during encoding or after memory consolidation with or without a contextual reminder. Here we directly compared the two studies to explore which of the tDCS protocols would induce longer-lasting positive effects on episodic memory function in older adults. In addition, we aimed to determine whether subjective memory complaints would be related to the changes in memory performance (forgetting) induced by tDCS, a relevant issue in aging research since individuals with subjective memory complaints seem to be at higher risk of later memory decline. The results showed that anodal tDCS applied after consolidation with a contextual reminder induced longer-lasting positive effects on episodic memory, conceivably through reconsolidation, than anodal tDCS during encoding. Furthermore, we reported, providing new data, a moderate negative correlation between subjective memory complaints and forgetting when anodal tDCS was applied after consolidation with a contextual reminder. This study sheds light on the best-suited timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on memory function and might help the clinicians to select the most effective tDCS protocol to prevent memory decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bimodal Long-lasting Components in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Promising Electromagnetic Counterparts to Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisaka, Shota; Sakamoto, Takanori [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5258 (Japan); Ioka, Kunihito, E-mail: kisaka@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: tsakamoto@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: kunihito.ioka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-09-10

    Long-lasting emission of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is crucial to reveal the physical origin of the central engine as well as to detect electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star binary mergers. We investigate 65 X-ray light curves of short GRBs, which is six times more than previous studies, by combining both Swift /BAT and XRT data. The light curves are found to consist of two distinct components at >5 σ with bimodal distributions of luminosity and duration, i.e., extended (with a timescale of ≲10{sup 3} s) and plateau emission (with a timescale of ≳10{sup 3} s), which are likely the central engine activities, but not afterglows. The extended emission has an isotropic energy comparable to the prompt emission, while the plateau emission has ∼0.01–1 times this energy. Half (50%) of our sample has both components, while the other half is consistent with having both components. This leads us to conjecture that almost all short GRBs have both the extended and plateau emission. The long-lasting emission can be explained by the jets from black holes with fallback ejecta, and could power macronovae (or kilonovae) like GRB 130603B and GRB 160821B. Based on the observed properties, we quantify the detectability of EM counterparts to GWs, including the plateau emission scattered to the off-axis angle, with CALET /HXM, INTEGRAL /SPI-ACS, Fermi /GBM, MAXI /GSC, Swift /BAT, XRT, the future ISS-Lobster /WFI, Einstein Probe /WXT, and eROSITA .

  9. Chronic sleep restriction induces long-lasting changes in adenosine and noradrenaline receptor density in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Elmenhorst, David; Weisshaupt, Angela; Wedekind, Franziska; Kroll, Tina; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E; Bauer, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Although chronic sleep restriction frequently produces long-lasting behavioural and physiological impairments in humans, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. Here we used a rat model of chronic sleep restriction to investigate the role of brain adenosine and noradrenaline systems, known to regulate sleep and wakefulness, respectively. The density of adenosine A1 and A2a receptors and β-adrenergic receptors before, during and following 5 days of sleep restriction was assessed with autoradiography. Rats (n = 48) were sleep-deprived for 18 h day(-1) for 5 consecutive days (SR1-SR5), followed by 3 unrestricted recovery sleep days (R1-R3). Brains were collected at the beginning of the light period, which was immediately after the end of sleep deprivation on sleep restriction days. Chronic sleep restriction increased adenosine A1 receptor density significantly in nine of the 13 brain areas analysed with elevations also observed on R3 (+18 to +32%). In contrast, chronic sleep restriction reduced adenosine A2a receptor density significantly in one of the three brain areas analysed (olfactory tubercle which declined 26-31% from SR1 to R1). A decrease in β-adrenergic receptors density was seen in substantia innominata and ventral pallidum which remained reduced on R3, but no changes were found in the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that chronic sleep restriction can induce long-term changes in the brain adenosine and noradrenaline receptors, which may underlie the long-lasting neurocognitive impairments observed in chronic sleep restriction. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Developmental exposure to the SSRI citalopram causes long-lasting behavioural effects in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, M; Porseryd, T; Porsch-Hällström, I; Borg, B; Roufidou, C; Olsén, K H

    2018-01-01

    Selective Serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression in both adolescents and pregnant or breast-feeding mothers as well as in the general population. Recent research on rodents points to long-lasting behavioural effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to SSRIs which last into adulthood. In fish however, studies on effects of developmental exposure to SSRIs appears to be non-existent. In order to study effects of developmental SSRI exposure in fish, three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 1.5 µg/l of the SSRI citalopram in the ambient water for 30 days, starting two days post-fertilisation. After approximately 100 days of remediation in clean water the fish were put through an extensive battery of behavioural tests. Feeding behaviour was tested as the number of bites against a piece of food and found to be increased in the exposed fish. Aggression levels were measured as the number of bites against a mirror image during 10 min and was also found to be significantly increased in the exposed fish. Novel tank behaviour and locomotor activity was tested in an aquarium that had a horizontal line drawn half-way between the bottom and the surface. Neither the latency to the first transition to the upper half, nor the number of transitions or the total time spent in the upper half was affected by treatment. Locomotor activity was significantly reduced in the exposed fish. The light/dark preference was tested in an aquarium where the bottom and walls were black on one side and white on the other. The number of transitions to the white side was significantly reduced in the exposed fish but there was no effect on the latency to the first transition or the total time spent in the white half. The results in the current study indicate that developmental SSRI exposure causes long-lasting behavioural effects in fish and contribute to the existing knowledge about SSRIs as environmental pollutants.

  11. Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets - a model-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkki-Brännström Anni-Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends that national malaria programmes universally distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs. LLINs provide effective insecticide protection for at least three years while conventional nets must be retreated every 6-12 months. LLINs may also promise longer physical durability (lifespan, but at a higher unit price. No prospective data currently available is sufficient to calculate the comparative cost effectiveness of different net types. We thus constructed a model to explore the cost effectiveness of LLINs, asking how a longer lifespan affects the relative cost effectiveness of nets, and if, when and why LLINs might be preferred to conventional insecticide-treated nets. An innovation of our model is that we also considered the replenishment need i.e. loss of nets over time. Methods We modelled the choice of net over a 10-year period to facilitate the comparison of nets with different lifespan (and/or price and replenishment need over time. Our base case represents a large-scale programme which achieves high coverage and usage throughout the population by distributing either LLINs or conventional nets through existing health services, and retreats a large proportion of conventional nets regularly at low cost. We identified the determinants of bed net programme cost effectiveness and parameter values for usage rate, delivery and retreatment cost from the literature. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explicitly compare the differential effect of changing parameters such as price, lifespan, usage and replenishment need. Results If conventional and long-lasting bed nets have the same physical lifespan (3 years, LLINs are more cost effective unless they are priced at more than USD 1.5 above the price of conventional nets. Because a longer lifespan brings delivery cost savings, each one year increase in lifespan can be accompanied by a USD 1 or more increase in price

  12. Effects of Educational Intervention on Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Use in a Malarious Area, Southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hossein Madani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs have been advocated as an effective tool against malaria transmission. However, success of this community based intervention largely depends on the knowledge and practice regarding malaria and its prevention. According to the national strategy plan on evaluation of LLINs (Olyset nets, this study was conducted to determine the perceptions and practices about malaria and to improve use of LLINs in Bashagard district, one of the important foci of malaria in southeast Iran. The study area comprised 14 villages that were randomized in two clusters and designated as LLINs and untreated nets. Each of households in both clusters received two bed nets by the free distribution and delivery. After one month quantitative data collection method was used to collect information regarding the objectives of the study. On the basis of this information, an educational program was carried out in both areas to increase motivation for use of bed nets. Community knowledge and practice regarding malaria and LLIN use assessed pre- and post-educational program. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.16 software. At baseline, 77.5% of respondents in intervention and 69.4 % in control area mentioned mosquito bite as the cause of malaria, this awareness increased significantly in intervention (90.3% and control areas (87.9%, following the educational program. A significant increase also was seen in the proportion of households who used LLINs the previous night (92.5% compared with untreated nets (87.1%. Educational status was an important predictor of LLINs use. Regular use of LLIN was considerably higher than the targeted coverage (80% which recommended by World Heaths Organization. About 81.1% and 85.3% of respondents from LLIN and control areas reported that mosquito nuisance and subsequent malaria transmission were the main determinants of bed net use. These findings highlight a need for educational intervention in implementation of

  13. Limbic Encephalitis Driven by a Pleural Mesothelioma: A Paraneoplastic Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob O. Day

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes have only been described with pleural mesothelioma in five cases. We have described a 72-year-old man who developed anterograde amnesia 27 months after diagnosis of epithelioid pleural mesothelioma. Investigations revealed a limbic encephalitis with no alternative causes identified. Limbic encephalitis is a classical paraneoplastic syndrome and presentation within five years of a cancer with no other causes identified is sufficient to diagnose a paraneoplastic etiology. This is the first case of isolated paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis driven by a pleural mesothelioma.

  14. On the long-lasting sequences of coral reef terraces from SE Sulawesi (Indonesia): Distribution, formation, and global significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, Kevin; Husson, Laurent; Bezos, Antoine; Pastier, Anne-Morwenn; Imran, Andy Muhammad; Arias-Ruiz, Camilo; Sarr, Anta-Clarisse; Elliot, Mary; Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Nexer, Maëlle; Regard, Vincent; Hafidz, Abdul; Robert, Xavier; Benoit, Laurent; Delcaillau, Bernard; Authemayou, Christine; Dumoulin, Caroline; Choblet, Gaël

    2018-05-01

    Many islands of the eastern Indonesian Archipelago exhibit Late Cenozoic sequences of coral reef terraces. In SE Sulawesi, on the Tukang Besi and Buton archipelagos, we identified 23 islands bearing such sequences. Remote sensing imagery and field mapping combined to U/Th and 14C dating enable to establish a chronologic framework of the reef terrace sequences from Wangi-Wangi, Buton as well as on the neighbouring, smaller islands of Ular, Siumpu and Kadatua. We identified the terraces from the last interglacial maximum (MIS 5e) at elevations lower than 20 m except on W Kadatua where it is raised at 34 ± 5 m. Such elevations yield low to moderate Upper Pleistocene uplift rates (<0.3 mm yr-1). On SE Buton Island, a sequence culminates at 650 m and includes at least 40 undated strandlines. Next to this exceptional sequence, on the Sampolawa Peninsula, 18 strandlines culminate at 430 m. Dated samples at the base of this sequence (<40 m) yield mean Middle Pleistocene uplift rates of 0.14 ± 0.09 mm yr-1. Extrapolation of these uplift rates compared to the geological setting suggests that the sequences of the Sampolawa Peninsula provide a record of sea-level high-stands for the last 3.8 ± 0.6 Ma. The sequences on SE Buton Island therefore constitute the best preserved long-lasting geomorphic record of Plio-Quaternary sea-level stands worldwide.

  15. Performance of honey bee colonies under a long-lasting dietary exposure to sublethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siede, Reinhold; Faust, Lena; Meixner, Marina D; Maus, Christian; Grünewald, Bernd; Büchler, Ralph

    2017-07-01

    Substantial honey bee colony losses have occurred periodically in the last decades. The drivers for these losses are not fully understood. The influence of pests and pathogens are beyond dispute, but in addition, chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of pesticides has been suggested to affect the performance of honey bee colonies. This study aims to elucidate the potential effects of a chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations (one realistic worst-case concentration) of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid to honey bee colonies in a three year replicated colony feeding study. Thiacloprid did not significantly affect the colony strength. No differences between treatment and control were observed for the mortality of bees, the infestation with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the infection levels of viruses. No colony losses occurred during the overwintering seasons. Furthermore, thiacloprid did not influence the constitutive expression of the immunity-related hymenoptaecin gene. However, upregulation of hymenoptaecin expression as a response to bacterial challenge was less pronounced in exposed bees than in control bees. Under field conditions, bee colonies are not adversely affected by a long-lasting exposure to sublethal concentrations of thiacloprid. No indications were found that field-realistic and higher doses exerted a biologically significant effect on colony performance. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effective insect repellent formulation in both surfactantless and classical microemulsions with a long-lasting protection for human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Jeremy; Verdier, Marie; Touraud, Didier; Kröckel, Ulla; Geier, Martin; Rose, Andreas; Kunz, Werner

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a new generation of repellent products with a long-lasting protection based on a natural component, para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD). The active is first rendered soluble in a surfactantless microemulsion (H(2)O/(i)PrOH/PMD) and then in classical microemulsions. The presence of self-associated nanostructures is detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS). A synergetic system of surfactants (Cremophor) RH40 and Texapon N70) is used. Additionally, 2-ethylhexane-1,3-diol and ethyl (-)-(S)-lactate are incorporated. The final product contains, as main components, 46% of H(2)O, 25% of (i)PrOH, 20% of non-H(2)O-soluble PMD, and only 4% of surfactants. Investigations of lasting protection on human volunteers are carried out using a cage test bioassay protocol and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. A complete protection of 315 min is found on the test persons using the surfactantless microemulsion. An extension is observed with the final formulation to reach a mean of complete protection of 385 min. This study demonstrates that alternative formulations using a natural active instead of synthetic chemicals like N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide (DEET) can be efficient for human protection against mosquitoes.

  17. Vascular impairment as a pathological mechanism underlying long-lasting cognitive dysfunction after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

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    Ichkova, Aleksandra; Rodriguez-Grande, Beatriz; Bar, Claire; Villega, Frederic; Konsman, Jan Pieter; Badaut, Jerome

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Indeed, the acute mechanical injury often evolves to a chronic brain disorder with long-term cognitive, emotional and social dysfunction even in the case of mild TBI. Contrary to the commonly held idea that children show better recovery from injuries than adults, pediatric TBI patients actually have worse outcome than adults for the same injury severity. Acute trauma to the young brain likely interferes with the fine-tuned developmental processes and may give rise to long-lasting consequences on brain's function. This review will focus on cerebrovascular dysfunction as an important early event that may lead to long-term phenotypic changes in the brain after pediatric TBI. These, in turn may be associated with accelerated brain aging and cognitive dysfunction. Finally, since no effective treatments are currently available, understanding the unique pathophysiological mechanisms of pediatric TBI is crucial for the development of new therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA Superresolution Structure of Reed-Sternberg Cells Differs Between Long-Lasting Remission Versus Relapsing Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righolt, Christiaan H; Knecht, Hans; Mai, Sabine

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments in microscopy have led to superresolution microscopy images of cells. Structured illumination microscopy was used before to reveal new details in the DNA structure and the structure of the DNA-free space in the DAPI-stained cell nuclei of the Hodgkin's lymphoma HDLM-2 cell line. This study extends this technology to primary pre-treatment classical Hodgkin's lymphoma samples of ten patients. Significant differences in both the DNA structure and the structure of the DNA-free space were detected between lymphocytes and malignant cells. Both types of structures were similar for lymphocytes of different patients. When the patients were un-blinded and grouped based on their clinical outcome, either non-relapsed or relapsed, a significant difference in the DNA structure of their Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells was found. Since, RS cells develop from mono-nucleated Hodgkin (H) cells, these data suggest distinct architectural restructuring of nuclei during RS cell formation in patients going to long-lasting remission versus relapse. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1633-1637, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Long-Lasting WNT-TCF Response Blocking and Epigenetic Modifying Activities of Withanolide F in Human Cancer Cells.

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    Chandan Seth

    Full Text Available The WNT-TCF signaling pathway participates in adult tissue homeostasis and repair, and is hyperactive in a number of human diseases including cancers of the colon. Whereas to date there are no antagonists approved for patient use, a potential problem for their sustained use is the blockade of WNT signaling in healthy tissues, thus provoking potentially serious co-lateral damage. Here we have screened a library of plant and microorganism small molecules for novel WNT signaling antagonists and describe withanolide F as a potent WNT-TCF response blocker. This steroidal lactone inhibits TCF-dependent colon cancer xenograft growth and mimics the effects of genetic blockade of TCF and of ivermectin, a previously reported WNT-TCF blocker. However, withanolide F is unique in that it imposes a long-lasting repression of tumor growth, WNT-TCF targets and cancer stem cell clonogenicity after drug treatment. These findings are paralleled by its modulation of chromatin regulators and its alteration of overall H3K4me1 levels. Our results open up the possibility to permanently repress essential signaling responses in cancer cells through limited treatments with small molecules.

  20. Effect of intermittent glutamine supplementation on skeletal muscle is not long-lasting in very old rats.

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    Meynial-Denis, D; Beaufrère, A-M; Mignon, M; Patureau Mirand, P

    2013-01-01

    Muscle is the major site for glutamine synthesis via glutamine synthetase (GS). This enzyme is increased 1.5-2 fold in 25-27-mo rats and may be a consequence of aging-induced stress. This stimulation is similar to the induction observed following a catabolic state such as glucocorticoid treatment (6 to 24 months). Although oral glutamine supply regulates the plasma glutamine level, nothing is known if this supplementation is interrupted before the experiment. Adult (8-mo) and very old (27-mo) female rats were exposed to intermittent glutamine supplementation for 50 % of their age lifetime. Treated rats received glutamine added to their drinking water and control rats water alone but the effect of glutamine supplementation was only studied 15 days after the last supplementation. Glutamine pretreatment discontinued 15 days before the experiment increased plasma glutamine to ~ 0.6 mM, a normal value in very old rats. However, it failed to decrease the up-regulated GS activity in skeletal muscle from very old rats. Our results suggest that long-term treatment with glutamine started before advanced age but discontinued 15 days before rat sacrifice is effective in increasing plasma glutamine to recover basal adult value and in maintaining plasma glutamine in very old rats, but has no long-lasting effect on the GS activity of skeletal muscle with advanced age.

  1. Restraint training for awake functional brain scanning of rodents can cause long-lasting changes in pain and stress responses.

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    Low, Lucie A; Bauer, Lucy C; Pitcher, Mark H; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-08-01

    With the increased interest in longitudinal brain imaging of awake rodents, it is important to understand both the short-term and long-term effects of restraint on sensory and emotional processing in the brain. To understand the effects of repeated restraint on pain behaviors and stress responses, we modeled a restraint protocol similar to those used to habituate rodents for magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and studied sensory sensitivity and stress hormone responses over 5 days. To uncover lasting effects of training, we also looked at responses to the formalin pain test 2 weeks later. We found that while restraint causes acute increases in the stress hormone corticosterone, it can also cause lasting reductions in nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, coupled with heightened corticosterone levels and increased activation of the "nociceptive" central nucleus of the amygdala, as seen by Fos protein expression. These results suggest that short-term repeated restraint, similar to that used to habituate rats for awake functional brain scanning, could potentially cause long-lasting changes in physiological and brain responses to pain stimuli that are stress-related, and therefore could potentially confound the functional activation patterns seen in awake rodents in response to pain stimuli.

  2. Optimized Model of Cerebral Ischemia In situ for the Long-Lasting Assessment of Hippocampal Cell Death

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    Oksana Rybachuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Among all the brain, the hippocampus is the most susceptible region to ischemic lesion, with the highest vulnerability of CA1 pyramidal neurons to ischemic damage. This damage may cause either prompt neuronal death (within hours or with a delayed appearance (over days, providing a window for applying potential therapies to reduce or prevent ischemic impairments. However, the time course when ischemic damage turns to neuronal death strictly depends on experimental modeling of cerebral ischemia and, up to now, studies were predominantly focused on a short time-window—from hours to up to a few days post-lesion. Using different schemes of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, the conditions taking place upon cerebral ischemia, we optimized a model of mimicking ischemic conditions in organotypical hippocampal slices for the long-lasting assessment of CA1 neuronal death (at least 3 weeks. By combining morphology and electrophysiology, we show that prolonged (30-min duration OGD results in a massive neuronal death and overwhelmed astrogliosis within a week post-OGD whereas OGD of a shorter duration (10-min triggered programmed CA1 neuronal death with a significant delay—within 2 weeks—accompanied with drastically impaired CA1 neuron functions. Our results provide a rationale toward optimized modeling of cerebral ischemia for reliable examination of potential treatments for brain neuroprotection, neuro-regeneration, or testing neuroprotective compounds in situ.

  3. Effects of isomers of apomorphines on dopamine receptors in striatal and limbic tissue of rat brain

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    Kula, N.S.; Baldessarini, R.J.; Bromley, S.; Neumeyer, J.L.

    1985-09-16

    The optical isomers of apomorphine (APO) and N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) were interacted with three biochemical indices of dopamine (Da) receptors in extrapyramidal and limbic preparations of rat brain tissues. There were consistent isomeric preferences for the R(-) configuration of both DA analogs in stimulation adenylate cyclase (D-1 sites) and in competing for high affinity binding of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol (D-2 sites) and of /sup 3/H-ADTN (DA agonist binding sites) in striatal tissue, with lesser isomeric differences in the limbic tissue. The S(+) apomorphines did not inhibit stimulation of adenylate cyclase by DA. The tendency for greater activity of higher apparent affinity of R(-) apomorphines in striatum may reflect the evidently greater abundance of receptor sites in that region. There were only small regional differences in interactions of the apomorphine isomers with all three receptor sites, except for a strong preference of (-)NPA for striatal D-2 sites. These results do not parallel our recent observations indicating potent and selective antidopaminergic actions of S(+) apomorphines in the rat limbic system. They suggest caution in assuming close parallels between current biochemical functional, especially behavioral, methods of evaluating dopamine receptors of mammalian brain.

  4. A revised limbic system model for memory, emotion and behaviour.

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    Catani, Marco; Dell'acqua, Flavio; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel

    2013-09-01

    Emotion, memories and behaviour emerge from the coordinated activities of regions connected by the limbic system. Here, we propose an update of the limbic model based on the seminal work of Papez, Yakovlev and MacLean. In the revised model we identify three distinct but partially overlapping networks: (i) the Hippocampal-diencephalic and parahippocampal-retrosplenial network dedicated to memory and spatial orientation; (ii) The temporo-amygdala-orbitofrontal network for the integration of visceral sensation and emotion with semantic memory and behaviour; (iii) the default-mode network involved in autobiographical memories and introspective self-directed thinking. The three networks share cortical nodes that are emerging as principal hubs in connectomic analysis. This revised network model of the limbic system reconciles recent functional imaging findings with anatomical accounts of clinical disorders commonly associated with limbic pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). Interventional case series. In this clinical practice case series, the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on SLK were observed. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was performed using a Brymill E tip spray (0.013-inch aperture) with a double freeze-thaw technique. All subjects were outpatients who had local anesthesia with a single drop of topical proparacaine. The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four female patients (average age, 64 +/- 13 years) and seven eyes with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Resolution of signs and symptoms occurred within two weeks. Disease recurred in two patients and three of seven eyes, although repeat cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. The repeat cryotherapy was performed at three months postoperatively. There were no adverse ocular events. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy appears to be an effective alternative treatment for SLK as all subjects studied achieved long-term cures. Repeat cryotherapy may be necessary in some instances and may be performed three months after the first treatment.

  6. Environmental enrichment protects spatial learning and hippocampal neurons from the long-lasting effects of protein malnutrition early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Roberto O; Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Almeida, Sebastião S; Lachat, João-José

    2017-09-29

    As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups. Protein malnutrition and environmental enrichment during brain development had significant effects on the spatial memory and hippocampal anatomy of adult rats. Malnourished but non-enriched rats (MN) required more time to find the hidden platform than well-nourished but non-enriched rats (WN). Malnourished but enriched rats (ME) performed better than the MN and similarly to the WN rats. There was no difference between well-nourished but non-enriched and enriched rats (WE). Anatomically, fewer CA1 neurons were found in the hippocampus of MN rats than in those of WN rats. However, it was also observed that ME and WN rats retained a similar number of neurons. These results suggest that environmental enrichment during brain development alters cognitive task performance and hippocampal neuroanatomy in a manner that is neuroprotective against malnutrition-induced brain injury. These results could have significant implications for malnourished infants expected to be at risk of disturbed brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determining and addressing obstacles to the effective use of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets in rural Tanzania

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    Benziger Peter W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this project was to achieve high, sustainable levels of net coverage in a village in rural Tanzania by combining free distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets (LLINs with community-tailored education. In Tanzania, malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although malaria bed nets have a well-established role in reducing disease burden, few rural households have access to nets, and effective use depends on personal practices and attitudes. Methods Five practices and attitudes inconsistent with effective LLIN use were identified from household interviews (n = 10. A randomized survey of villagers (n = 132 verified local prevalence of these practices and attitudes. Community leaders held an educational session for two members of every household addressing these practice and attitudes, demonstrating proper LLIN use, and emphasizing behaviour modification. Attendees received one or two LLINs per household. Surveys distributed three weeks (n = 104 and 15 months (n = 104 post-intervention assessed corrected practices and attitudes. Project efficacy was defined by correction of baseline practices and attitudes as well as high rates of reported daily net use, with statistical significance determined by chi-square test. Results Baseline interviews and surveys revealed incorrect practices and attitudes regarding 1 use of nets in dry season, 2 need to retreat LLINs, 3 children napping under nets, 4 need to repair nets, and 5 net procurement as a priority, with 53- 88.6% incorrect responses (11.4-47% correct responses. A three-week follow-up demonstrated 83-95% correct responses. Fifteen-month follow-up showed statistically significant (p Conclusions Results suggest that addressing community-specific practices and attitudes prior to LLIN distribution promotes consistent and correct use, and helps change attitudes towards bed nets as a preventative health measure. Future LLIN distributions

  8. Primary attributions in women suffering fibromyalgia emphasize the perception of a disruptive onset for a long-lasting pain problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedraschi, Christine; Girard, Elodie; Luthy, Christophe; Kossovsky, Michel; Desmeules, Jules; Allaz, Anne-Françoise

    2013-03-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder characterized by widespread pain. This study focuses on patients' attributions of illness and of symptom onset. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 56 women to elicit patients' views on what triggered their FM. The transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using a classical indexing technique to identify key themes. Content analysis was performed by two independent coders. Primary causal attributions fell into five categories: psychological problems (28 respondents); somatic concerns (N=12); violence/abuse during childhood (N=7), gynaecological/obstetrical problems (N=6), and fatigue (N=3). Patients' attributions were internal and external in the same proportions, more frequently unstable than stable, and more often described uncontrollable than controllable. Participants expressed decrements in self-esteem and feelings such as self-blame or despair; global perceptions of persistent pain and long-lasting problems, evoking chronicity and hopelessness; and low perceived control over their lives as well as beliefs that nothing can be done, thus increasing a feeling of guilt and vulnerability. Patients' narratives emphasized disruptive circumstances surrounding symptom onset. Attributions often referred to the psychological dimension of the events surrounding FM onset, even though some of them also had a clear somatic dimension. Many narratives mentioned successive disruptive events and suggested an increasing loss of control. Addressing these illness representations may contribute to tailor the treatment and to help patients gain self-coherency by providing means to understand pain onset but also to guide future behaviours, particularly in terms of adjustment and help-seeking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex differences in the long-lasting effects of a single exposure to immobilization stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Humberto; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    In male rats, a single exposure to a severe stressor such as immobilization (IMO) results in marked activation of the HPA axis and reduction of body weight gain. In addition, the HPA response to the same (homotypic) stressor is reduced, whereas the response to a different (heterotypic) stressor is enhanced for days. Although sex differences in the responsiveness of the HPA axis have been described, there are few studies about the influence of sex on long-lasting effects of stress. Thus, we have compared the consequences of a single exposure to IMO in male and female rats. Females showed a similar ACTH response to the first IMO associated with higher corticosterone, but they were more resistant than males to stress-induced loss of body weight. Unstressed females showed higher resting levels of ACTH and corticosterone, but they did not show the increase in the resting levels of HPA hormones observed in males on the day after IMO. During exposure to a different stressor (open-field) two days after IMO, enhanced corticosterone response and hypoactivity was observed in males, but not in females. Finally, a second exposure to IMO 8 days after the first one resulted in a reduction of the HPA response and of the negative impact on body weight as compared to the first exposure, and this protective effect was greater in females. In sum, IMO-exposed females showed a greater reduction of the response to a second IMO and appear to be more resistant than males to some of the negative impacts of IMO. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. A single exposure to immobilization causes long-lasting pituitary-adrenal and behavioral sensitization to mild stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Fuentes, Silvia; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    We have previously reported that a single exposure to immobilization (IMO) in rats causes a long-term desensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to the same (homotypic) stressor. Since there are reports showing that a single exposure to other stressors causes sensitization of the HPA response to heterotypic stressors and increases anxiety-like behavior, we studied in the present work the long-term effects of IMO on behavioral and HPA response to mild superimposed stressors. In Experiments 1 and 2, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 2 h of IMO and then exposed for 5 min to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) at 1, 3 or 7 days after IMO. Blood samples were taken at 15 min after initial exposure to the EPM. Increases in anxiety-like behavior and HPA responsiveness to the EPM were found at all times post-IMO. Changes in the resting levels of HPA hormones did not explain the enhanced HPA responsiveness to the EPM (Experiment 3). In Experiments 4 and 5, we studied the effects of a single exposure to a shorter session of IMO (1 h) on behavioral and HPA responses to a brief and mild session of foot-shocks done 10 days after IMO. Neither previous IMO nor exposure to shocks in control rats modified behavior in the EPM. However, a brief session of shocks in previously IMO-exposed rats dramatically increased anxiety in the EPM. HPA and freezing responses to shocks were similar in control and previous IMO groups. Therefore, a single exposure to IMO appears to induce long-lasting HPA and behavioral sensitization to mild superimposed stressors, although the two responses are likely to be at least partially independent. Long-term effects of IMO on the susceptibility to stress-induced endocrine and emotional disturbances may be relevant to the characterization of animal models of post-traumatic stress.

  11. Combined laryngeal inflammation and trauma mediate long-lasting immunoreactivity response in the brainstem sensory nuclei in the rat

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    Kristina eSimonyan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensory feedback from the larynx plays a critical role in regulation of normal upper airway functions, such as breathing, deglutition and voice production, while altered laryngeal sensory feedback is known to elicit a variety of pathological reflex responses, including persistent coughing, dysphonia and laryngospasm. Despite its clinical impact, the central mechanisms underlying the development of pathological laryngeal responses remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of persistent vocal fold (VF inflammation and trauma, as frequent causes of long-lasting modulation of laryngeal sensory feedback, on brainstem immunoreactivity in the rat. Combined VF inflammation and trauma were induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS solution and compared to VF trauma alone from injection of vehicle solution and to controls without any VF manipulations. Using a c-fos marker, we found significantly increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI in the bilateral intermediate/parvicellular reticular formation (IRF/PCRF with a trend in the left solitary tract nucleus (NTS only in animals with LPS-induced VF inflammation and trauma. Further, FLI in the right NTS was significantly correlated with the severity of LPS-induced VF changes. However, increased brainstem FLI response was not associated with FLI changes in the first-order neurons of the laryngeal afferents located in the nodose and jugular ganglia in either group. Our data indicate that complex VF alterations (i.e., inflammation/trauma vs. trauma alone may cause prolonged excitability of the brainstem nuclei receiving a direct sensory input from the larynx, which, in turn, may lead to (malplastic changes within the laryngeal central sensory control.

  12. Examining equity in access to long-lasting insecticide nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy in Anambra state, Nigeria

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    Mbachu Chinyere O

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. Results It was found that 80.5 % of the households had an LLIN and 64.4 % of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3 % of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5 % of children ≪5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1–5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. Conclusions The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups.

  13. Examining equity in access to long-lasting insecticide nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere O; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S C; Uchegbu, Eloka; Oranuba, Joseph; Ilika, Amobi L

    2012-05-22

    In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs) to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES) population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. It was found that 80.5% of the households had an LLIN and 64.4% of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3% of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5% of children<5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1-5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups.

  14. Low long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs use among household members for protection against mosquito bite in kersa, Eastern Ethiopia

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    Gobena Tesfaye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, despite the increasing availability of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs, the LLINs use among LLINs owning households has not been satisfactory. Identifying the circumstances and the associated factors is necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goal targets. We aimed to assess barriers related with LLIN use at the household level. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center (KDS-HRC from October to November 2010. A total of 2867 households were selected from a surveillance database using a simple random sampling technique. The data were collected by interviewing women, direct observation of LLINs conditions and use, and in-depth interviewing of key informants. Multivariate analysis was used to determine independent predictors of LLIN non-use. Results Of the total surveyed households, 65.5% (1879 had at least one LLIN, but 33.5% (630 LLINs owned households had used at least one LLIN the night before the survey. Low educational level of women, low awareness on malaria prevention, unavailability of separate sleeping room, LLIN colour preference, and unavailability of enough LLINs to the household members were the main barriers to LLIN use. A supplementary qualitative interview with key informants also identified that poor condition of LLINs; undermining the extent of malaria; and using the LLIN for other purposes as the main reasons for non-use. Conclusions This study indicates that only about one third of LLIN owned households are actually using at least one LLIN for protection against mosquito bite. Thus, majority of the residents are at higher risk of mosquito bite and acquiring of malaria infection. Households living in fringe zone are not benefiting from the LLIN protection. Further progress in malaria prevention can be achieved by specifically targeting populations in fringe zones and conducting focused public education to

  15. From intervention to impact: modelling the potential mortality impact achievable by different long-lasting, insecticide-treated net delivery strategies

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    Okell Lucy C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current target of universal access to long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets (LLIN is 80% coverage to reduce malaria deaths by 75% by 2015. So far, campaigns have been the main channel for large-scale delivery of LLINs, however the World Health Organization has recommended that equal priority should be given to delivery via routine antenatal care (ANC and immunization systems (EPI to target pregnant women and children from birth. These various channels of LLIN delivery are targeted to children of different ages. Since risk of mortality varies with child age and LLIN effectiveness declines with net age, it was hypothesized that the age at which a child receives a new LLIN, and therefore the delivery channel, is important in optimizing the health impact of a net. Methods A simple dynamic mathematical model was developed of delivery and impact of LLINs among children under five years of age and their household members, incorporating data on age-specific malaria death rates, net use by household structure, and net efficacy over time. Results The presented analysis finds that supplementing a universal mass campaign with extra ANC delivery would achieve a 1.4 times higher mortality reduction than campaign delivery alone, reflecting that children born in the years between campaigns would otherwise have access to old nets or no nets at an age of high risk. The relative advantage of supplementary ANC delivery is still present though smaller if malaria transmission levels are lower or if there is a strong mass effect achieved by mass campaigns. Conclusion These results indicate that LLIN delivery policies must take into account the age of greatest malaria risk. Emphasis should be placed on supporting routine delivery of LLINs to young children as well as campaigns.

  16. Long-Lasting Insecticide Net Ownership, Access and Use in Southwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Dinberu; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Brandt, Patrick; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel

    2017-10-27

    Introduction : A large proportion of the Ethiopian population (approximately 68%) lives in malaria risk areas. Millions of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) have been distributed as part of the malaria prevention and control strategy in the country. This study assessed the ownership, access and use of LLNs in the malaria endemic southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in southwest Ethiopia during October-November 2015, including 836 households from sixteen villages around Gilgel-Gibe dam area. Indicators of ownership, access and use of LLINs were derived following the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) guidelines. Factors associated with failure for both LLIN access and use were analysed at household level using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: The proportion of households with at least one LLIN was 82.7% (95% CI: 80.0, 85.1). However, only 68.9% (95% CI: 65.6, 71.9) had enough LLINs to cover all family members (with ≥one LLIN for every two persons). While 75.3% (95% CI: 68.4, 83.0) of the population was estimated to have accessed to LLINs, only 63.8% (95% CI: 62.3, 65.2) reported to have used a LLIN the previous night. The intra-household gap (i.e., households owning at least one LLIN, but unable to cover all family members) and the behavioral gap (i.e., household members who did not sleep under a LLIN despite having access to one) were 16.8% and 10.5%, respectively. Age, marital status and education of household heads, as well as household size and cooking using firewood were associated with the access to enough LLINs within households. Decreased access to LLINs at households was the main determinant for not achieving ≥80% household members sleeping under a LLIN the previous night. Other associated factors were household size and education level of household head. Conclusions: LLIN coverage levels in study villages remain below national targets of 100% for ownership and 80% for use. The access to

  17. IGF-II promotes neuroprotection and neuroplasticity recovery in a long-lasting model of oxidative damage induced by glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Montañez, E; Millon, C; Boraldi, F; Garcia-Guirado, F; Pedraza, C; Lara, E; Santin, L J; Pavia, J; Garcia-Fernandez, M

    2017-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a naturally occurring hormone that exerts neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases and ageing. Accumulating evidence suggests that the effects of IGF-II in the brain may be explained by its binding to the specific transmembrane receptor, IGFII/M6P receptor (IGF-IIR). However, relatively little is known regarding the role of IGF-II through IGF-IIR in neuroprotection. Here, using adult cortical neuronal cultures, we investigated whether IGF-II exhibits long-term antioxidant effects and neuroprotection at the synaptic level after oxidative damage induced by high and transient levels of corticosterone (CORT). Furthermore, the involvement of the IGF-IIR was also studied to elucidate its role in the neuroprotective actions of IGF-II. We found that neurons treated with IGF-II after CORT incubation showed reduced oxidative stress damage and recovered antioxidant status (normalized total antioxidant status, lipid hydroperoxides and NAD(P) H:quinone oxidoreductase activity). Similar results were obtained when mitochondria function was analysed (cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and subcellular mitochondrial distribution). Furthermore, neuronal impairment and degeneration were also assessed (synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression, presynaptic function and FluoroJade B® stain). IGF-II was also able to recover the long-lasting neuronal cell damage. Finally, the effects of IGF-II were not blocked by an IGF-IR antagonist, suggesting the involvement of IGF-IIR. Altogether these results suggest that, in or model, IGF-II through IGF-IIR is able to revert the oxidative damage induced by CORT. In accordance with the neuroprotective role of the IGF-II/IGF-IIR reported in our study, pharmacotherapy approaches targeting this pathway may be useful for the treatment of diseases associated with cognitive deficits (i.e., neurodegenerative disorders, depression, etc

  18. Costs and effects of two public sector delivery channels for long-lasting insecticidal nets in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachan Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uganda, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN have been predominantly delivered through two public sector channels: targeted campaigns or routine antenatal care (ANC services. Their combination in a mixed-model strategy is being advocated to quickly increase LLIN coverage and maintain it over time, but there is little evidence on the efficiency of each system. This study evaluated the two delivery channels regarding LLIN retention and use, and estimated the associated costs, to contribute towards the evidence-base on LLIN delivery channels in Uganda. Methods Household surveys were conducted 5-7 months after LLIN distribution, combining questionnaires with visual verification of LLIN presence. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to further investigate determinants of LLIN retention and use. Campaign distribution was evaluated in Jinja and Adjumani while ANC distribution was evaluated only in the latter district. Costs were calculated from the provider perspective through retrospective analysis of expenditure data, and effects were estimated as cost per LLIN delivered and cost per treated-net-year (TNY. These effects were calculated for the total number of LLINs delivered and for those retained and used. Results After 5-7 months, over 90% of LLINs were still owned by recipients, and between 74% (Jinja and 99% (ANC Adjumani were being used. Costing results showed that delivery was cheapest for the campaign in Jinja and highest for the ANC channel, with economic delivery cost per net retained and used of USD 1.10 and USD 2.31, respectively. Financial delivery costs for the two channels were similar in the same location, USD 1.04 for campaign or USD 1.07 for ANC delivery in Adjumani, but differed between locations (USD 0.67 for campaign delivery in Jinja. Economic cost for ANC distribution were considerably higher (USD 2.27 compared to campaign costs (USD 1.23 in Adjumani. Conclusions Targeted campaigns and routine ANC

  19. Costs and effects of two public sector delivery channels for long-lasting insecticidal nets in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaczinski, Jan H; Kolaczinski, Kate; Kyabayinze, Daniel; Strachan, Daniel; Temperley, Matilda; Wijayanandana, Nayantara; Kilian, Albert

    2010-04-20

    In Uganda, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) have been predominantly delivered through two public sector channels: targeted campaigns or routine antenatal care (ANC) services. Their combination in a mixed-model strategy is being advocated to quickly increase LLIN coverage and maintain it over time, but there is little evidence on the efficiency of each system. This study evaluated the two delivery channels regarding LLIN retention and use, and estimated the associated costs, to contribute towards the evidence-base on LLIN delivery channels in Uganda. Household surveys were conducted 5-7 months after LLIN distribution, combining questionnaires with visual verification of LLIN presence. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to further investigate determinants of LLIN retention and use. Campaign distribution was evaluated in Jinja and Adjumani while ANC distribution was evaluated only in the latter district. Costs were calculated from the provider perspective through retrospective analysis of expenditure data, and effects were estimated as cost per LLIN delivered and cost per treated-net-year (TNY). These effects were calculated for the total number of LLINs delivered and for those retained and used. After 5-7 months, over 90% of LLINs were still owned by recipients, and between 74% (Jinja) and 99% (ANC Adjumani) were being used. Costing results showed that delivery was cheapest for the campaign in Jinja and highest for the ANC channel, with economic delivery cost per net retained and used of USD 1.10 and USD 2.31, respectively. Financial delivery costs for the two channels were similar in the same location, USD 1.04 for campaign or USD 1.07 for ANC delivery in Adjumani, but differed between locations (USD 0.67 for campaign delivery in Jinja). Economic cost for ANC distribution were considerably higher (USD 2.27) compared to campaign costs (USD 1.23) in Adjumani. Targeted campaigns and routine ANC services can both achieve high LLIN retention and use among

  20. Volumetric MRI of the limbic system: anatomic determinants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilir, E.; Craven, W.; Hugg, J.; Gilliam, F.; Martin, R.; Faught, E.; Kuzniecky, R. [UAB Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The limbic system comprises the hippocampal formation, fornix, mamillary bodies, thalamus, and other integrated structures. It is involved in complex functions including memory and emotion and in diseases such as temporal lobe epilepsy. Volume measurements of the amygdala and hippocampus have been used reliably to study patients with temporal lobe epilepsy but have not extended to other limbic structures. We performed volume measurements of hippocampus, amygdala, fornix and mamillary bodies in healthy individuals. Measurements of the amygdala, hippocampus, fornix and mamillary bodies revealed significant differences in volume between right and left sides (P < 0.001). The intraclass coefficient of variation for measurements was high for all structures except the mamillary bodies. Qualitative image assessment of the same structures revealed no asymmetries between the hemispheres. This technique can be applied to the study of disorders affecting the limbic system. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 23 refs.

  1. Volumetric MRI of the limbic system: anatomic determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilir, E.; Craven, W.; Hugg, J.; Gilliam, F.; Martin, R.; Faught, E.; Kuzniecky, R.

    1998-01-01

    The limbic system comprises the hippocampal formation, fornix, mamillary bodies, thalamus, and other integrated structures. It is involved in complex functions including memory and emotion and in diseases such as temporal lobe epilepsy. Volume measurements of the amygdala and hippocampus have been used reliably to study patients with temporal lobe epilepsy but have not extended to other limbic structures. We performed volume measurements of hippocampus, amygdala, fornix and mamillary bodies in healthy individuals. Measurements of the amygdala, hippocampus, fornix and mamillary bodies revealed significant differences in volume between right and left sides (P < 0.001). The intraclass coefficient of variation for measurements was high for all structures except the mamillary bodies. Qualitative image assessment of the same structures revealed no asymmetries between the hemispheres. This technique can be applied to the study of disorders affecting the limbic system. (orig.)

  2. Role of the limbic system in dependence on drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Navarro, M

    1998-08-01

    The limbic system is a group of structurally and functionally related areas of the brain that provides the anatomical substrate for emotions and motivated behaviour, including the circuitry for the stress response and reward-related events. This system is strongly implicated in drug abuse from the pleasure and/or positive side associated with acute exposure to the dysphoria and craving associated with withdrawal. The contribution of the main cortical and subcortical elements of the limbic system to drug dependence is briefly reviewed in the present work with a focus on the role of the extended amygdala and its connections as well as on the peripheral feedback signals mediated by adrenal glucocorticoids. The elucidation of the neuroadaptive responses of the limbic system to chronic drug exposure will undoubtedly help to design rational strategies for the treatment of addiction.

  3. Hypothermia in VGKC antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S; Irani, S R; Rajabally, Y A; Grubneac, A; Walters, R J; Yazaki, M; Clover, L; Vincent, A

    2008-02-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody (VGKC-Ab)-associated limbic encephalitis (LE) is a recently described syndrome that broadens the spectrum of immunotherapy-responsive central nervous system disorders. Limbic encephalitis is typically characterised by a sub-acute onset of disorientation, amnesia and seizures, but the clinical spectrum is not yet fully defined and the syndrome could be under-diagnosed. We here describe the clinical profile of four patients with VGKC-Ab-associated LE who had intermittent, episodic hypothermia. One of the patients also described a prodrome of severe neuropathic pain preceding the development of limbic symptoms. Both of these novel symptoms responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, with concurrent amelioration of amnesia/seizures.

  4. Blue photoluminescence and long lasting phosphorescence properties of a novel chloride phosphate phosphor: Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chuanqiang; Zhang, Jiachi; Feng, Pengfei; Duan, Yiming; Zhang, Zhiya; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    A novel blue emitting long lasting phosphorescence phosphor Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ is synthesized by solid state method at 1223 K in reducing atmosphere. The afterglow emission spectrum shows one broad band centered at 441 nm due to the 5d–4f transition of Eu 2+ at six coordinated Sr(II) sites and the color coordinates are calculated to be (0.149, 0.095) which is close to the light blue region. The excitation band is in 240–430 nm and partly overlaps the solar irradiation on Earth's surface. The long lasting phosphorescence of the optimal sample doping by 0.1 mol%Eu 2+ can be recorded for about 1040 s (0.32 mcd/m 2 ). Thermoluminescence shows that there are at least three types of traps corresponding to peaks at 340 K, 382 K, 500 K, respectively. The filling and fading experiments reveal that the traps in Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ are independent. The shallow traps (340 K) essentially contribute to the visible long lasting phosphorescence, while the deep traps (382 K and 500 K) are proved to be very stable. Thus, the Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ material shows potential applications as not only a long lasting phosphorescence phosphor, but also an optical storage material. -- Highlights: • The blue long lasting phosphorescence of Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ is first reported. • Filling and fading experiments are carried out for revealing natures of traps. • The afterglow mechanism for independent traps of Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ is proposed

  5. Glioblastoma in the limbic system presenting as sustained central hypopnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Mashiko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital after experiencing an epigastric sensation followed by unconsciousness. On arrival, the patient showed impaired consciousness without convulsive movement, cyanosis and shallow breathing, arterial O2 desaturation, and increased PCO2. Artificial respiration improved CO2 accumulation and consciousness, but interruption of artificial respiration returned the patient to her former state. Computed tomography of the head showed a mass around the left corpus callosum. The patient's hypopnea followed by unconsciousness suggested sustained nonconvulsive epilepsy manifesting in central hypopnea and subsequent unconsciousness due to CO2 narcosis. Intravenous (IV anticonvulsants promptly improved the respiratory condition, and the patient started to regain consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion involving the bilateral limbic systems. To our knowledge, limbic seizure manifesting with hypopnea causing unconsciousness due to CO2 narcosis has not previously been reported, despite evidence of a strong relationship between the limbic and respiratory systems. The current case suggests that sustained limbic seizure can manifest as hypopnea. Since emergency EEG can be difficult to perform, IV anticonvulsant treatment is an appropriate diagnostic therapy.

  6. Cortical and limbic excitability in rats with absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolmacheva, E.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Chepurnov, S.A.; Kaminskij, Y.; Mares, P.

    2004-01-01

    The classical cortico-reticular theory on absence epilepsy suggests that a hyperexcitable cortex is a precondition for the occurrence of absence seizures. In the present experiment seizure thresholds and characteristics of cortical and limbic epileptic afterdischarges (AD) were determined in a

  7. Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    D K Mukhopadhyay; S S Basu; D Roy; N Das; F Akbar; GN Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is considered to be a highly effective intervention against malaria under National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme in India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the coverage and utilization of LLIN and the factors related thereto. Methods: A survey of 1300 households was carried out in Ranibandh block of Bankura district in West Bengal, India, using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method. Coverage/util...

  8. miR-191 and miR-135 are required for long-lasting spine remodelling associated with synaptic long-term depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhonghua; Yu, Danni; Gu, Qin-Hua; Yang, Yanqin; Tu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Li, Zheng

    2014-02-01

    Activity-dependent modification of dendritic spines, subcellular compartments accommodating postsynaptic specializations in the brain, is an important cellular mechanism for brain development, cognition and synaptic pathology of brain disorders. NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression (NMDAR-LTD), a prototypic form of synaptic plasticity, is accompanied by prolonged remodelling of spines. The mechanisms underlying long-lasting spine remodelling in NMDAR-LTD, however, are largely unclear. Here we show that LTD induction causes global changes in miRNA transcriptomes affecting many cellular activities. Specifically, we show that expression changes of miR-191 and miR-135 are required for maintenance but not induction of spine restructuring. Moreover, we find that actin depolymerization and AMPA receptor exocytosis are regulated for extended periods of time by miRNAs to support long-lasting spine plasticity. These findings reveal a miRNA-mediated mechanism and a role for AMPA receptor exocytosis in long-lasting spine plasticity, and identify a number of candidate miRNAs involved in LTD.

  9. Involvement of TrkB- and p75NTR-signaling pathways in two contrasting forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Shigeo; Tominaga-Yoshino, Keiko; Ogura, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    The repetition of experience is often necessary to establish long-lasting memory. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying this repetition-dependent consolidation of memory remain unclear. We previously observed in organotypic slice cultures of the rodent hippocampus that repeated inductions of long-term potentiation (LTP) led to a slowly developing long-lasting synaptic enhancement coupled with synaptogenesis. We also reported that repeated inductions of long-term depression (LTD) produced a long-lasting synaptic suppression coupled with synapse elimination. We proposed these phenomena as useful in vitro models for analyzing repetition-dependent consolidation. Here, we hypothesized that the enhancement and suppression are mediated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling pathway and the proBDNF-p75NTR pathway, respectively. When we masked the respective pathways, reversals of the enhancement and suppression resulted. These results suggest the alternative activation of the p75NTR pathway by BDNF under TrkB-masking conditions and of the TrkB pathway by proBDNF under p75NTR-masking conditions, thus supporting the aforementioned hypothesis.

  10. Repetitive low-frequency stimulation reduces epileptiform synchronization in limbic neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcangelo, G; Panuccio, G; Tancredi, V; Avoli, M

    2005-01-01

    Deep-brain electrical or transcranial magnetic stimulation may represent a therapeutic tool for controlling seizures in patients presenting with epileptic disorders resistant to antiepileptic drugs. In keeping with this clinical evidence, we have reported that repetitive electrical stimuli delivered at approximately 1 Hz in mouse hippocampus-entorhinal cortex (EC) slices depress the EC ability to generate ictal activity induced by the application of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) or Mg(2+)-free medium (Barbarosie, M., Avoli, M., 1997. CA3-driven hippocampal-entorhinal loop controls rather than sustains in vitro limbic seizures. J. Neurosci. 17, 9308-9314.). Here, we confirmed a similar control mechanism in rat brain slices analyzed with field potential recordings during 4AP (50 microM) treatment. In addition, we used intrinsic optical signal (IOS) recordings to quantify the intensity and spatial characteristics of this inhibitory influence. IOSs reflect the changes in light transmittance throughout the entire extent of the slice, and are thus reliable markers of limbic network epileptiform synchronization. First, we found that in the presence of 4AP, the IOS increases, induced by a train of electrical stimuli (10 Hz for 1 s) or by recurrent, single-shock stimulation delivered at 0.05 Hz in the deep EC layers, are reduced in intensity and area size by low-frequency (1 Hz), repetitive stimulation of the subiculum; these effects were observed in all limbic areas contained in the slice. Second, by testing the effects induced by repetitive subicular stimulation at 0.2-10 Hz, we identified maximal efficacy when repetitive stimuli are delivered at 1 Hz. Finally, we discovered that similar, but slightly less pronounced, inhibitory effects occur when repetitive stimuli at 1 Hz are delivered in the EC, suggesting that the reduction of IOSs seen during repetitive stimulation is pathway dependent as well as activity dependent. Thus, the activation of limbic networks at low frequency

  11. Selective Limbic Blood–Brain Barrier Breakdown in a Feline Model of Limbic Encephalitis with LGI1 Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröscher, Anna R.; Klang, Andrea; French, Maria; Quemada-Garrido, Lucía; Kneissl, Sibylle Maria; Bien, Christian G.; Pákozdy, Ákos; Bauer, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Human leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 encephalitis (LGI1) is an autoimmune limbic encephalitis in which serum and cerebrospinal fluid contain antibodies targeting LGI1, a protein of the voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. Recently, we showed that a feline model of limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies, called feline complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (FEPSO), is highly comparable to human LGI1 encephalitis. In human LGI1 encephalitis, neuropathological investigations are difficult because very little material is available. Taking advantage of this natural animal model to study pathological mechanisms will, therefore, contribute to a better understanding of its human counterpart. Here, we present a brain-wide histopathological analysis of FEPSO. We discovered that blood–brain barrier (BBB) leakage was present not only in all regions of the hippocampus but also in other limbic structures such as the subiculum, amygdale, and piriform lobe. However, in other regions, such as the cerebellum, no leakage was observed. In addition, this brain-region-specific immunoglobulin leakage was associated with the breakdown of endothelial tight junctions. Brain areas affected by BBB dysfunction also revealed immunoglobulin and complement deposition as well as neuronal cell death. These neuropathological findings were supported by magnetic resonance imaging showing signal and volume increase in the amygdala and the piriform lobe. Importantly, we could show that BBB disturbance in LGI1 encephalitis does not depend on T cell infiltrates, which were present brain-wide. This finding points toward another, so far unknown, mechanism of opening the BBB. The limbic predilection sites of immunoglobulin antibody leakage into the brain may explain why most patients with LGI1 antibodies have a limbic phenotype even though LGI1, the target protein, is ubiquitously distributed across the central nervous system. PMID:29093718

  12. Selective Limbic Blood–Brain Barrier Breakdown in a Feline Model of Limbic Encephalitis with LGI1 Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Tröscher

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 encephalitis (LGI1 is an autoimmune limbic encephalitis in which serum and cerebrospinal fluid contain antibodies targeting LGI1, a protein of the voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC complex. Recently, we showed that a feline model of limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies, called feline complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (FEPSO, is highly comparable to human LGI1 encephalitis. In human LGI1 encephalitis, neuropathological investigations are difficult because very little material is available. Taking advantage of this natural animal model to study pathological mechanisms will, therefore, contribute to a better understanding of its human counterpart. Here, we present a brain-wide histopathological analysis of FEPSO. We discovered that blood–brain barrier (BBB leakage was present not only in all regions of the hippocampus but also in other limbic structures such as the subiculum, amygdale, and piriform lobe. However, in other regions, such as the cerebellum, no leakage was observed. In addition, this brain-region-specific immunoglobulin leakage was associated with the breakdown of endothelial tight junctions. Brain areas affected by BBB dysfunction also revealed immunoglobulin and complement deposition as well as neuronal cell death. These neuropathological findings were supported by magnetic resonance imaging showing signal and volume increase in the amygdala and the piriform lobe. Importantly, we could show that BBB disturbance in LGI1 encephalitis does not depend on T cell infiltrates, which were present brain-wide. This finding points toward another, so far unknown, mechanism of opening the BBB. The limbic predilection sites of immunoglobulin antibody leakage into the brain may explain why most patients with LGI1 antibodies have a limbic phenotype even though LGI1, the target protein, is ubiquitously distributed across the central nervous system.

  13. Selective Limbic Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown in a Feline Model of Limbic Encephalitis with LGI1 Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröscher, Anna R; Klang, Andrea; French, Maria; Quemada-Garrido, Lucía; Kneissl, Sibylle Maria; Bien, Christian G; Pákozdy, Ákos; Bauer, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Human leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 encephalitis (LGI1) is an autoimmune limbic encephalitis in which serum and cerebrospinal fluid contain antibodies targeting LGI1, a protein of the voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. Recently, we showed that a feline model of limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies, called feline complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (FEPSO), is highly comparable to human LGI1 encephalitis. In human LGI1 encephalitis, neuropathological investigations are difficult because very little material is available. Taking advantage of this natural animal model to study pathological mechanisms will, therefore, contribute to a better understanding of its human counterpart. Here, we present a brain-wide histopathological analysis of FEPSO. We discovered that blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage was present not only in all regions of the hippocampus but also in other limbic structures such as the subiculum, amygdale, and piriform lobe. However, in other regions, such as the cerebellum, no leakage was observed. In addition, this brain-region-specific immunoglobulin leakage was associated with the breakdown of endothelial tight junctions. Brain areas affected by BBB dysfunction also revealed immunoglobulin and complement deposition as well as neuronal cell death. These neuropathological findings were supported by magnetic resonance imaging showing signal and volume increase in the amygdala and the piriform lobe. Importantly, we could show that BBB disturbance in LGI1 encephalitis does not depend on T cell infiltrates, which were present brain-wide. This finding points toward another, so far unknown, mechanism of opening the BBB. The limbic predilection sites of immunoglobulin antibody leakage into the brain may explain why most patients with LGI1 antibodies have a limbic phenotype even though LGI1, the target protein, is ubiquitously distributed across the central nervous system.

  14. Long-lasting, distinct changes in central opioid receptor and urinary bladder functions in models of schizophrenia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekesi, Orsolya; Tuboly, Gabor; Szucs, Maria; Birkas, Erika; Morvay, Zita; Benedek, Gyorgy; Horvath, Gyongyi

    2011-07-01

    Ketamine treatments and social isolation of rats reflect certain features of schizophrenia, among them altered pain sensitivity. To study the underlying mechanisms of these phenomena, rats were either housed individually or grouped for 33 days after weaning, and treated with either ketamine or saline for 14 days. After one month re-socialization, the urinary bladder capacity by ultrasound examination in the anesthetized animals, and changes of μ-opioid receptors by saturation binding experiments using a specific μ-opioid agonist [(3)H]DAMGO were determined. G-protein signaling was investigated in DAMGO-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS functional assays. Ketamine treatment significantly decreased the bladder volume and isolation decreased the receptor density in cortical membranes. Among all groups, the only change in binding affinity was an increase induced by social isolation in the cortex. G-protein signaling was significantly decreased by either ketamine or social isolation in this tissue. Ketamine treatment, but not housing, significantly increased μ-opioid receptor densities in hippocampal membranes. Both ketamine and isolation increased the efficacy, while the potency of signaling was decreased by any treatment. Ketamine increased the receptor density and G-protein activation; while isolation decreased the efficacy of G-protein signaling in hippocampal membranes. The changes in the co-treated group were similar to those of the isolated animals in most tests. The distinct changes of opioid receptor functioning in different areas of the CNS may, at least partially, explain the augmented nociceptive threshold and morphine potency observed in these animals. Changes in the relative urinary bladder suggest a detrusor hyperreflexia, another sign of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-lasting novelty-induced neuronal reverberation during slow-wave sleep in multiple forebrain areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidarta Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of experience-dependent brain reactivation during both slow-wave (SW and rapid eye-movement (REM sleep led to the notion that the consolidation of recently acquired memory traces requires neural replay during sleep. To date, however, several observations continue to undermine this hypothesis. To address some of these objections, we investigated the effects of a transient novel experience on the long-term evolution of ongoing neuronal activity in the rat forebrain. We observed that spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal ensemble activity originally produced by the tactile exploration of novel objects recurred for up to 48 h in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, putamen, and thalamus. This novelty-induced recurrence was characterized by low but significant correlations values. Nearly identical results were found for neuronal activity sampled when animals were moving between objects without touching them. In contrast, negligible recurrence was observed for neuronal patterns obtained when animals explored a familiar environment. While the reverberation of past patterns of neuronal activity was strongest during SW sleep, waking was correlated with a decrease of neuronal reverberation. REM sleep showed more variable results across animals. In contrast with data from hippocampal place cells, we found no evidence of time compression or expansion of neuronal reverberation in any of the sampled forebrain areas. Our results indicate that persistent experience-dependent neuronal reverberation is a general property of multiple forebrain structures. It does not consist of an exact replay of previous activity, but instead it defines a mild and consistent bias towards salient neural ensemble firing patterns. These results are compatible with a slow and progressive process of memory consolidation, reflecting novelty-related neuronal ensemble relationships that seem to be context- rather than stimulus-specific. Based on our current and previous results

  16. Early fasting is long lasting: differences in early nutritional conditions reappear under stressful conditions in adult female zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Tobias Krause

    Full Text Available Conditions experienced during early life can have profound effects on individual development and condition in adulthood. Differences in nutritional provisioning in birds during the first month of life can lead to differences in growth, reproductive success and survival. Yet, under natural conditions shorter periods of nutritional stress will be more prevalent. Individuals may respond differently, depending on the period of development during which nutritional stress was experienced. Such differences may surface specifically when poor environmental conditions challenge individuals again as adults. Here, we investigated long term consequences of differences in nutritional conditions experienced during different periods of early development by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata on measures of management and acquisition of body reserves. As nestlings or fledglings, subjects were raised under different nutritional conditions, a low or high quality diet. After subjects reached sexual maturity, we measured their sensitivity to periods of food restriction, their exploration and foraging behaviour as well as adult resting metabolic rate (RMR. During a short period of food restriction, subjects from the poor nutritional conditions had a higher body mass loss than those raised under qualitatively superior nutritional conditions. Moreover, subjects that were raised under poor nutritional conditions were faster to engage in exploratory and foraging behaviour. But RMR did not differ among treatments. These results reveal that early nutritional conditions affect adult exploratory behaviour, a representative personality trait, foraging and adult's physiological condition. As early nutritional conditions are reflected in adult phenotypic plasticity specifically when stressful situations reappear, the results suggest that costs for poor developmental conditions are paid when environmental conditions deteriorate.

  17. Pesticide interactions with soil affected by olive mill wastewater (OMW): how strong and long-lasting is the OMW effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Borisover, Mikhail; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Diehl, Dörte; Tamimi, Nisreen; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda

    2017-04-01

    Sorption interactions with soils are well known to control the environmental fate of multiple organic compounds including pesticides. Pesticide-soil interactions may be affected by organic amendments or organic matter (OM)-containing wastewater brought to the field. Specifically, land spreading of olive mill wastewater (OMW), occurring intentionally or not, may also influence pesticide-soil interactions. The effects of the OMW disposed in the field on soil properties, including their ability to interact with pesticides, become of great interest due to the increasing demand for olive oil and a constant growth of world oil production. This paper summarizes some recent findings related to the effect of prior OMW land application on the ability of soils to interact with the organic compounds including pesticides, diuron and simazine. The major findings are as following: (1) bringing OMW to the field increases the potential of soils to sorb non-ionized pesticides; (2) this sorption increase may not be related solely to the increase in soil organic carbon content but it can reflect also the changes in the soil sorption mechanisms; (3) increased pesticide interactions with OMW-affected soils may become irreversible, due, assumedly, to the swelling of some components of the OMW-treated soil; (4) enhanced pesticide-soil interactions mitigate with the time passed after the OMW application, however, in the case of diuron, the remaining effect could be envisioned at least 600 days after the normal OMW application; (5) the enhancement effect of OMW application on soil sorption may increase with soil depth, in the 0-10 cm interval; (6) at higher pesticide (diuron) concentrations, larger extents of sorption enhancement, following the prior OMW-soil interactions, may be expected; (7) disposal of OMW in the field may be seasonal-dependent, and, in the case studied, it led to more distinct impacts on sorption when carried out in spring and winter, as compared with summer. It appears

  18. An 8-month history of meningitis in an extremely low birth weight infant? - Long-lasting Infection with Ureaplasma parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, K; Wohlleben, M; Speer, C P

    2015-02-01

    Ureaplasma spp. have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both preterm labor and neonatal morbidity including pneumonia and sepsis and the development of chronic lung disease of prematurity. Data on Ureaplasma meningitis are limited and partly controversially discussed. We report the unique case of a 9-month-old infant with progressive internal hydrocephalus of unknown origin and developmental delay due to a history of>200 days of inflammation of the central nervous system. The female extremely low birth weight infant had been referred to our hospital for ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation. She had been born at 26+3 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 940 g. With the exception of a moderate respiratory distress syndrome, postnatal period had been reported uneventful. However, internal hydrocephalus had become manifest at 4 weeks of postnatal age. Intraventricular hemorrhage had not been documented by cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis had repetitively revealed pronounced inflammation reflected by pleocytosis (50-86 leukocytes/μL, 60% lymphocytes), CSF protein levels of 578-1,026 mg/dL and undetectable CSF glucose. Although suggesting bacterial meningitis, microbial diagnostics had not been indicative, and empirical antibiotics had not affected the CSF findings. On admission to our hospital, CSF analysis still documented significant inflammation (125 leukocytes/μL, CSF protein 565 mg/dL, CSF glucoseUreaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis. U. parvum was detected in CSF by culture and PCR, no other pathogens were isolated. On intravenous treatment with chloramphenicol, CSF profile continuously normalized, and cultures and PCR became negative. Treatment was continued for 3 weeks, and the infant was discharged after uncomplicated ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. During a 12-month observation period she has shown encouraging recovery. In preterm infants, in particular, internal hydrocephalus of

  19. Limbic encephalitis presenting as a post-partum psychiatric condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkine, Marc; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Vincent, Angela; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2011-09-15

    We describe a woman who presented with a psychiatric disorder post-partum and subsequently developed seizures and cognitive dysfunction prompting further investigation. A diagnosis of limbic encephalitis (LE) was made and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) detected. These antibodies are found in many non-paraneoplastic patients with LE. Although antibody-mediated conditions tend to present or relapse post-partum, VGKC-LE in the post-partum period has not been described. Case report. Clinical and imaging data were consistent with limbic encephalitis. High titres of anti-VGKC-complex antibodies confirmed the diagnosis of VGKC-LE. The similarities between the psychiatric symptomatology of VGKC-LE and post-partum psychiatric disorders raise the possibility that some instances of post-partum psychiatric conditions are manifestations of immune-mediated, non-paraneoplastic LE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Prefrontal and Limbic Volume and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Casper; Morris, Laurel S.; Kvamme, Timo L.

    2017-01-01

    with matched healthy volunteers (HV). Methods: Structural MRI (MPRAGE) data were collected in 92 subjects (23 CSB males and 69 age-matched male HV) and analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Resting state functional MRI data using multi-echo planar sequence and independent components analysis (ME-ICA) were...... prefrontal cortex (whole brain, cluster corrected FWE P motivational salience and emotion processing, and impaired functional connectivity between prefrontal control regulatory and limbic regions...

  1. Limbic encephalitis presenting as a post-partum psychiatric condition.

    OpenAIRE

    Gotkine, Marc; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Vincent, Angela; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe a woman who presented with a psychiatric disorder post-partum and subsequently developed seizures and cognitive dysfunction prompting further investigation. A diagnosis of limbic encephalitis (LE) was made and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) detected. These antibodies are found in many non-paraneoplastic patients with LE. Although antibody-mediated conditions tend to present or relapse post-partum, VGKC-LE in the post-partum period has not b...

  2. Sol–gel synthesis of long-lasting phosphors CdSiO3: Mn2+, RE3+ (RE = Tb, Eu, Nd) and luminescence mechanism research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Xiaofei; Cao, Lixin; Liu, Wei; Su, Ge; Wang, Pingping; Schultz, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New long-lasting CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ , RE 3+ (RE = Tb, Eu, Nd) phosphors were synthesized by a sol–gel method. ► The afterglow performance of the CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ , Eu 3+ phosphor was the best. ► The role of RE 3+ co-doped into the CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ matrix was discussed in this paper. -- Abstract: Mn 2+ and RE 3+ (RE = Tb, Eu, Nd) co-doped CdSiO 3 orange phosphors were prepared at 1050 °C by a sol–gel method. The phase and crystallinity of the synthesized materials were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The luminescence characteristics were analyzed using photoluminescence (PL) spectra, afterglow decay curves, long-lasting phosphorescence spectra, and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra. Due to the difference in co-doped rare earth ionic radii, it varied greatly in trap density and trap depth caused by the different defects deriving from RE 3+ ions co-doping into the CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ host. The afterglow intensity and time for these samples increased as follows: CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ 0.2%, Nd 3+ 0.8% 3 : Mn 2+ 0.4%, Tb 3+ 0.8% 3 : Mn 2+ 0.4%, Eu 3+ 0.3%. CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ 0.4%, Eu 3+ 0.3% had the best afterglow properties, which could be due to the proper traps formed by Eu 3+ ions co-doping into the host. The role of RE 3+ co-doped into the CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ matrix and the possible long-lasting phosphorescence process was also discussed in this paper.

  3. A single footshock causes long-lasting hypoactivity in unknown environments that is dependent on the development of contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviu, Núria; Fuentes, Silvia; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to a single session of footshocks induces long-lasting inhibition of activity in unknown environments that markedly differ from the shock context. Interestingly, these effects are not necessarily associated to an enhanced anxiety and interpretation of this hypoactivity remains unclear. In the present experiment we further studied this phenomenon in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In a first experiment, a session of three shocks resulted in hypoactivity during exposure, 6-12days later, to three different unknown environments. This altered behaviour was not accompanied by a greater hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation, although greater HPA activation paralleling higher levels of freezing was observed in the shock context. In a second experiment we used a single shock and two procedures, one with pre-exposure to the context before the shock and another with immediate shock that did not induce contextual fear conditioning. Hypoactivity and a certain level of generalization of fear (freezing) to the unknown environments only appeared in the group that developed fear conditioning, but no evidence for enhanced anxiety in the elevated plus-maze was found in any group. The results suggest that if animals are able to associate an aversive experience with a distinct unknown environment, they would display more cautious behaviour in any unknown environment and such strategy persists despite repeated experience with different environments. This long-lasting cautious behaviour was not associated to greater HPA response to the unknown environment that was however observed in the shock context. The present findings raised some concerns about interpretation of long-lasting behavioural changes caused by brief stressors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to severe stressors causes long-lasting dysregulation of resting and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Rotllant, David; Fuentes, Silvia; Delgado, Raúl; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Exposure to some predominantly emotional (electric shock) and systemic (interleukin-1beta) stressors has been found to induce long-term sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responsiveness to further superimposed stressors. Since exposure to immobilization on wooden boards (IMO) is a severe stressor and may have interest regarding putative animal models of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), we have characterized long-lasting effects of a single exposure to IMO and other stressors on the HPA response to the same (homotypic) and to novel (heterotypic) stressors and the putative mechanisms involved. A single exposure to IMO caused a long-lasting reduction of peripheral and central responses of the HPA axis, likely to be mediated by some brain areas, such as the lateral septum and the medial amygdala. This desensitization is not explained by changes in negative glucocorticoid feedback, and, surprisingly, it is positively related to the intensity of the stressors. In contrast, the HPA response to heterotypic stressors (novel environments) was enhanced, with maximal sensitization on the day after IMO. Sensitization progressively vanished over the course of 1-2 weeks and was not modulated by IMO-induced corticosterone release. Moreover, it could not be explained by changes in the sensitivity of the HPA axis to fast or intermediate/delayed negative feedback, as evaluated 1 week after exposure to IMO, using shock as the heterotypic stressor. Long-lasting stress-induced behavioral changes reminiscent of enhanced anxiety and HPA sensitization are likely to be parallel but partially independent phenomena, the former being apparently not related to the intensity of stressors.

  5. Repeated Transient Jets from a Warped Disk in the Symbiotic Prototype Z And: A Link to the Long-lasting Active Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopal, Augustin; Tarasova, Taya. N.; Wolf, Marek; Dubovský, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor

    2018-05-01

    Active phases of some symbiotic binaries survive for a long time, from years to decades. The accretion process onto a white dwarf (WD) sustaining long-lasting activity, and sometimes leading to collimated ejection, is not well understood. We present the repeated emergence of highly collimated outflows (jets) from the symbiotic prototype Z And during its 2008 and 2009–10 outbursts and suggest their link to the current long-lasting (from 2000) active phase. We monitored Z And with high-resolution spectroscopy, multicolor UBVR C—and high time resolution—photometry. The well-pronounced bipolar jets were ejected again during the 2009–10 outburst together with the simultaneous emergence of the rapid photometric variability (Δm ≈ 0.06 mag) on the timescale of hours, showing similar properties as those during the 2006 outburst. These phenomena and the measured disk–jets connection could be caused by the radiation-induced warping of the inner disk due to a significant increase of the burning WD luminosity. Ejection of transient jets by Z And around outburst maxima signals a transient accretion at rates above the upper limit of the stable hydrogen burning on the WD surface, and thus proves the nature of Z And-type outbursts. The enhanced accretion through the disk warping, supplemented by the accretion from the giant’s wind, can keep a high luminosity of the WD for a long time, until depletion of the disk. In this way, the jets provide a link to long-lasting active phases of Z And.

  6. Long-lasting cerebral functional changes following moderate dose x-radiation treatment to the scalp in childhood: an electroencephalographic power spectral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaar, I.; Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Rinott, Y.; Yaar, M.; Modan, M.

    1982-01-01

    EEG tracings were compared in 44 young adults who received scalp x-radiation treatment for tinea capitis during childhood and 59 non-irradiated control subjects. The irradiated subjects were exposed, over 20 years previously, to a mean dose of 130 rads to the brain. Visual analysis of the EEG revealed an insignificant excess of abnormalities among the irradiated subjects compared to the controls. Power spectral density function analysis showed increased power values among the irradiated subjects, particularly in the beta wave frequencies. This finding provides further evidence for suspecting that x-irradiation during brain maturation may cause long-lasting damage to the brain tissue. (author)

  7. Clinical study on antibody-associated limbic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jia-wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (LE has attracted attentions of more and more clinicians. The associated antibodies mainly act on neuronal cell surface antigens, including the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor, the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA receptor, the γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB receptor, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1 and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2 and so on. The clinical manifestation is primarily defined by the subacute onset of short-term memory loss, seizures, confusion and psychiatric symptoms suggesting the involvement of the limbic system. These severe and protracted disorders can affect children and young adults, occurring with or without tumor association. Routine detection of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and imaging tests show no specificity, but associated antibodies can be detected in serum and (or CSF. The patients respond well to tumor resection and immunotherapies, including corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg, plasma exchange or combination of them, but may relapse. This article aims to study the clinical features and treatment of antibody-associated limbic encephalitis and to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases.

  8. Limbic system, the main focus of dementia syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1990-01-01

    Alzheimer disease and multi-infarct dementia are two entirely different diseases producing almost the same abnormalities as dementia syndrome. The statistical studies with MRI to locate the focus of dementia syndrome in the neocortex was an absolute failure. With MRI there is drastic atrophy and destruction of the amygdala and hippocampus suggesting the limbic system as the focus of dementia syndrome. Destruction of the limbic system in particular amygdala and hippocampus produced the functional obstruction brought about by the marked reduction in the glucose utilization with PET in the bilateral temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices. Although this type constitutes only about 1/5 of all dementia patients. It is considered the fundamental type of dementia syndrome. Aside from this, there is a type wherein simultaneous and symmetrical reductions in glucose utilization of the frontal association cortex and the motor association cortex in the anterior part of the neocortex. This is referred to as type II. It constitutes about 4/5 of all dementia patients which is far more than type I. Based on these results, it is thought that limbic system is the main focus of dementia syndrome. (author)

  9. Genome-wide RNA profiling of long-lasting stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by Yellow Fever vaccination in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia A. Fuertes Marraco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The live-attenuated Yellow Fever (YF vaccine YF-17D induces a broad and polyfunctional CD8 T cell response in humans. Recently, we identified a population of stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by YF-17D that persists at stable frequency for at least 25 years after vaccination. The YF-17D is thus a model system of human CD8 T cell biology that furthermore allows to track and study long-lasting and antigen-specific human memory CD8 T cells. Here, we describe in detail the sample characteristics and preparation of a microarray dataset acquired for genome-wide gene expression profiling of long-lasting YF-specific stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells, compared to the reference CD8 T cell differentiation subsets from total CD8 T cells. We also describe the quality controls, annotations and exploratory analyses of the dataset. The microarray data is available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO public repository with accession number GSE65804.

  10. Environmental enrichment of young adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) in different sensory modalities has long-lasting effects on their ability to learn via specific sensory channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolivo, Vassilissa; Taborsky, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Sensory modalities individuals use to obtain information from the environment differ among conspecifics. The relative contributions of genetic divergence and environmental plasticity to this variance remain yet unclear. Numerous studies have shown that specific sensory enrichments or impoverishments at the postnatal stage can shape neural development, with potential lifelong effects. For species capable of adjusting to novel environments, specific sensory stimulation at a later life stage could also induce specific long-lasting behavioral effects. To test this possibility, we enriched young adult Norway rats with either visual, auditory, or olfactory cues. Four to 8 months after the enrichment period we tested each rat for their learning ability in 3 two-choice discrimination tasks, involving either visual, auditory, or olfactory stimulus discrimination, in a full factorial design. No sensory modality was more relevant than others for the proposed task per se, but rats performed better when tested in the modality for which they had been enriched. This shows that specific environmental conditions encountered during early adulthood have specific long-lasting effects on the learning abilities of rats. Furthermore, we disentangled the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causes of the response. The reaction norms of learning abilities in relation to the stimulus modality did not differ between families, so interindividual divergence was mainly driven by environmental rather than genetic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Insecticidal, acaricidal and repellent effects of DEET- and IR3535-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Albiez, Gunther; Nehring, Oliver

    2010-03-01

    A novel long-lasting repellent-treated net (LLRTN) has been designed by binding the skin repellents N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or IR3535, onto the fibres of bed net fabric using a new polymer-coating technique. The repellent toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of a factory-based repellent-impregnated fabric has been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. By using this repellent-embedding impregnation technique, concentrations exceeding 10 g/m(2) could be achieved with one single polymer layer. Both DEET- and IR3535-impregnated fabrics revealed a dose-dependent insecticidal as well as acaricidal activity. One hundred percent knockdown times of DEET-treated bed nets ranged from 187.5 +/- 31.8 to 27.5 +/- 3.5 min against A. aegypti, and between 214 +/- 47 and 22.6 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, linked to a DEET concentration of 1.08 and 10.58 g/m(2), respectively. With IR3535, A. aegypti produced dose-dependent 100% knockdown times varying from 87.5 +/- 10.6 to 57.5 +/- 3.5 min and between 131.4 +/- 6.5 and 33.8 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, respectively, linked to concentrations between 1.59 and 10.02 g/m(2). One hundred percent repellency measured by complete landing and biting protection of impregnated fabric by using the arm-in-cage test could be achieved at DEET concentrations exceeding 3.7 to 3.9 g/m(2), and for IR3535 concentrations over 10 g/m(2). One hundred percent landing and biting protection could be preserved with DEET-treated fabrics for 29 weeks at an initial concentration of 4.66 g/m(2), 54 weeks at 8.8 g/m(2), 58 weeks at 9.96 g/m(2) and 61 weeks at 10.48 g/m(2) for DEET, and 23 weeks for IR3535-treated fabric at a concentration of 10.02 g/m(2). Unlike repellent-treated fabric, a brand of a commercially available long-lasting insecticide-treated net tested containing 500 mg permethrin/m(2) did not protect from mosquito bites. First results on

  12. Pathophysiological Role of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 in a Mouse Long-Lasting Cystitis Model Induced by an Intravesical Injection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Oyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory bladder disorders, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, are associated with poor quality of life. The exact pathological processes remain unclear, but accumulating evidence suggests that reactive oxidative species (ROS are involved in urinary bladder disorders. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, the most sensitive TRP channel to ROS, was shown to be responsible for urinary bladder abnormalities and hyperalgesia in an acute cystitis model. However, the roles of TRPA1 in chronic inflammatory bladder are not fully understood. We previously established a novel mouse cystitis model induced by intravesical injection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, resulting in long-lasting frequent urination, bladder inflammation, pain-related behavior, and histopathological changes. In the present study, we investigated the pathophysiological role of TRPA1 in the H2O2-induced long-lasting cystitis mouse model. Under anesthesia, 1.5% H2O2 solution was introduced transurethrally into the bladder of female wild-type (WT and TRPA1-knockout mice and maintained for 30 min. This increased the number of voids in WT mice at 1 and 7 days after injection, but reduced the number in TRPA1-knockout mice at 1 day but not 7 days after injection. Spontaneous locomotor activities (increase in freezing time and decrease in distance moved were reduced at 3 h after injection in WT mice, whereas the spontaneous visceral pain-related behaviors were attenuated in TRPA1-knockout mice. Furthermore, upregulation of c-fos mRNA in the spinal cord at 1 day after injection was observed in WT but not TRPA1-knockout mice. However, there was no difference in histopathological changes in the urinary bladder, such as edematous thickening in the submucosa, between WT and TRPA1-knockout mice at 1 or 7 days after injection. Finally, Trpa1 mRNA levels in the L5-S1 dorsal root ganglion were not altered, but levels in the urinary bladder were drastically increased

  13. Conductive Hearing Loss Has Long-Lasting Structural and Molecular Effects on Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Structures of Auditory Nerve Synapses in the Cochlear Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Cheryl; Antunes, Flora M; Rubio, Maria E

    2016-09-28

    Sound deprivation by conductive hearing loss increases hearing thresholds, but little is known about the response of the auditory brainstem during and after conductive hearing loss. Here, we show in young adult rats that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss (i.e., earplugging) leads to hearing deficits that persist after sound levels are restored. Hearing thresholds in response to clicks and frequencies higher than 8 kHz remain increased after a 10 d recovery period. Neural output from the cochlear nucleus measured at 10 dB above threshold is reduced and followed by an overcompensation at the level of the lateral lemniscus. We assessed whether structural and molecular substrates at auditory nerve (endbulb of Held) synapses in the cochlear nucleus could explain these long-lasting changes in hearing processing. During earplugging, vGluT1 expression in the presynaptic terminal decreased and synaptic vesicles were smaller. Together, there was an increase in postsynaptic density (PSD) thickness and an upregulation of GluA3 AMPA receptor subunits on bushy cells. After earplug removal and a 10 d recovery period, the density of synaptic vesicles increased, vesicles were also larger, and the PSD of endbulb synapses was larger and thicker. The upregulation of the GluA3 AMPAR subunit observed during earplugging was maintained after the recovery period. This suggests that GluA3 plays a role in plasticity in the cochlear nucleus. Our study demonstrates that sound deprivation has long-lasting alterations on structural and molecular presynaptic and postsynaptic components at the level of the first auditory nerve synapse in the auditory brainstem. Despite being the second most prevalent form of hearing loss, conductive hearing loss and its effects on central synapses have received relatively little attention. Here, we show that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss leads to an increase in hearing thresholds, to an increased central gain upstream of the cochlear nucleus at

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in kainic acid-induced limbic seizure status in cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shigeya; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Yonemasu, Yukichi [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan); Kondo, Shinji; Hori, Tomokatsu; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Shindo, Kazuyuki

    1993-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging before, during, and after kainic acid (KA)-induced limbic seizure status in cats demonstrated the bilateral hippocampi as slightly high-intensity areas on the T[sub 2]-weighted images during the limbic seizure status, and isointensity areas 1-2 weeks after KA injection when the limbic seizure status subsided. However, the hippocampi again became high-intense 1-3 months after KA injection. Histological study suggested that the high-intensity area during the limbic seizure status resulted from regional edema, and in the chronic period from marked gliosis and/or atrophic change as a consequence of tissue damage in the hippocampus. (author).

  15. Brainstem and limbic encephalitis with paraneoplastic neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussawi, Khaled; Lin, David J; Matiello, Marcelo; Chew, Sheena; Morganstern, Daniel; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of disorders associated with anti-neuromyelitis optica (NMO) antibody is being extended to include infrequent instances associated with cancer. We describe a patient with brainstem and limbic encephalitis from NMO-immunoglobulin G in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in the context of newly diagnosed breast cancer. The neurological features markedly improved with excision of her breast cancer and immune suppressive therapy. This case further broadens the NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) by an association between NMOSD and cancer and raises the question of coincidental occurrence and the appropriate circumstances to search for a tumor in certain instances of NMO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: Relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Boberg, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Tac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8.1.6 or 2.4 mg/kg/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 17, and the physiological and behavioural development of rat offspring was assessed. Both dams and Pups in the higher close groups had markedly decreased thyroxine (T-4) levels during the closing period......Markedly lowered thyroid hormone levels during development may influence a child's behaviour, intellect, and auditory function. Recent Studies, indicating that even small changes in the mother's thyroid hormone Status early in pregnancy may Cause adverse effects on her child, have lead to increased...... concern for thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals in the environment. The overall aim of the Study was therefore to provide a detailed knowledge or) the relationship between thyroid hormone levels during development and long-lasting effects on behaviour and hearing. Groups of 16-17 pregnant rats (Han...

  17. Implications of insecticide resistance for malaria vector control with long-lasting insecticidal nets: a WHO-coordinated, prospective, international, observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Immo; Bradley, John; Knox, Tessa Bellamy; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kafy, Hmooda Toto; Mbogo, Charles; Ismail, Bashir Adam; Bigoga, Jude D; Adechoubou, Alioun; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Cook, Jackie; Malik, Elfatih M; Nkuni, Zinga José; Macdonald, Michael; Bayoh, Nabie; Ochomo, Eric; Fondjo, Etienne; Awono-Ambene, Herman Parfait; Etang, Josiane; Akogbeto, Martin; Bhatt, Rajendra M; Chourasia, Mehul Kumar; Swain, Dipak K; Kinyari, Teresa; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Massougbodji, Achille; Okê-Sopoh, Mariam; Ogouyemi-Hounto, Aurore; Kouambeng, Celestin; Abdin, Mujahid Sheikhedin; West, Philippa; Elmardi, Khalid; Cornelie, Sylvie; Corbel, Vincent; Valecha, Neena; Mathenge, Evan; Kamau, Luna; Lines, Jonathan; Donnelly, Martin James

    2018-04-09

    Scale-up of insecticide-based interventions has averted more than 500 million malaria cases since 2000. Increasing insecticide resistance could herald a rebound in disease and mortality. We aimed to investigate whether insecticide resistance was associated with loss of effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets and increased malaria disease burden. This WHO-coordinated, prospective, observational cohort study was done at 279 clusters (villages or groups of villages in which phenotypic resistance was measurable) in Benin, Cameroon, India, Kenya, and Sudan. Pyrethroid long-lasting insecticidal nets were the principal form of malaria vector control in all study areas; in Sudan this approach was supplemented by indoor residual spraying. Cohorts of children from randomly selected households in each cluster were recruited and followed up by community health workers to measure incidence of clinical malaria and prevalence of infection. Mosquitoes were assessed for susceptibility to pyrethroids using the standard WHO bioassay test. Country-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. Between June 2, 2012, and Nov 4, 2016, 40 000 children were enrolled and assessed for clinical incidence during 1·4 million follow-up visits. 80 000 mosquitoes were assessed for insecticide resistance. Long-lasting insecticidal net users had lower infection prevalence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·63, 95% CI 0·51-0·78) and disease incidence (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 0·62, 0·41-0·94) than did non-users across a range of resistance levels. We found no evidence of an association between insecticide resistance and infection prevalence (adjusted OR 0·86, 0·70-1·06) or incidence (adjusted RR 0·89, 0·72-1·10). Users of nets, although significantly better protected than non-users, were nevertheless subject to high malaria infection risk (ranging from an average incidence in net users of 0·023, [95% CI 0·016-0·033] per person-year in India, to 0·80 [0·65-0·97] per person

  18. Quantifying the relationship between PM2.5 concentration, visibility and planetary boundary layer height for long-lasting haze and fog-haze mixed events in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Tian; Guo, Xueliang; Guo, Lijun; Zhang, Tianhang

    2018-01-01

    Air quality and visibility are strongly influenced by aerosol loading, which is driven by meteorological conditions. The quantification of their relationships is critical to understanding the physical and chemical processes and forecasting of the polluted events. We investigated and quantified the relationship between PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter is 2.5 µm and less) mass concentration, visibility and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height in this study based on the data obtained from four long-lasting haze events and seven fog-haze mixed events from January 2014 to March 2015 in Beijing. The statistical results show that there was a negative exponential function between the visibility and the PM2.5 mass concentration for both haze and fog-haze mixed events (with the same R2 of 0.80). However, the fog-haze events caused a more obvious decrease of visibility than that for haze events due to the formation of fog droplets that could induce higher light extinction. The PM2.5 concentration had an inversely linear correlation with PBL height for haze events and a negative exponential correlation for fog-haze mixed events, indicating that the PM2.5 concentration is more sensitive to PBL height in fog-haze mixed events. The visibility had positively linear correlation with the PBL height with an R2 of 0.35 in haze events and positive exponential correlation with an R2 of 0.56 in fog-haze mixed events. We also investigated the physical mechanism responsible for these relationships between visibility, PM2.5 concentration and PBL height through typical haze and fog-haze mixed event and found that a double inversion layer formed in both typical events and played critical roles in maintaining and enhancing the long-lasting polluted events. The variations of the double inversion layers were closely associated with the processes of long-wave radiation cooling in the nighttime and short-wave solar radiation reduction in the daytime. The upper-level stable

  19. Long lasting yellow phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Sr3SiO5 : Eu2+ and Sr3SiO5 : Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoyuan; Zhang Jiahua; Zhang Xia; Luo Yongshi; Wang Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    We report the observation of long lasting yellow phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) in Sr 3 SiO 5 : Eu 2+ and Sr 3 SiO 5 : Eu 2+ , Dy 3+ phosphors. The decay patterns of phosphorescence and thermoluminescence curves demonstrate that introduction of Dy 3+ into Sr 3 SiO 5 : Eu 2+ can generate a large number of shallow traps and deep traps. The generated deep traps prolong the phosphorescence up to 6 h after UV irradiation. The PSL is studied under 808 nm excitation. Slow rising and falling edges of the emission in Sr 3 SiO 5 : Eu 2+ , Dy 3+ are observed, showing a retrapping process by the generated shallow traps due to co-doping Dy 3+ .

  20. Ionic composition of submicron particles (PM1.0) during the long-lasting haze period in January 2013 in Wuhan, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hairong; Gong, Wei; Wang, Zuwu; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Xinming; Lv, Xiaopu; Liu, Jia; Fu, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Gan

    2014-04-01

    In January 2013, a long-lasting severe haze episode occurred in Northern and Central China; at its maximum, it covered a land area of approximately 1.4 million km(2). In Wuhan, the largest city in Central China, this event was the most severe haze episode in the 21st century. Aerosol samples of submicron particles (PM1.0) were collected during the long-lasting haze episode at an urban site and a suburban site in Wuhan to investigate the ion characteristics of PM1.0 in this area. The mass concentrations of PM1.0 and its water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were almost at the same levels at two sites, which indicates that PM1.0 pollution occurs on a regional scale in Wuhan. WSIIs (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-)) were the dominant chemical species and constituted up to 48.4% and 47.4% of PM1.0 at WD and TH, respectively. The concentrations of PM1.0 and WSIIs on haze days were approximately two times higher than on normal days. The ion balance calculations indicate that the particles were more acidic on haze days than on normal days. The results of the back trajectory analysis imply that the high concentrations of PM1.0 and its water-soluble inorganic ions may be caused by stagnant weather conditions in Wuhan. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Method development for the determination of arsenic by sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry using long-lasting gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punrat, Eakkasit; Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Kaneta, Takashi; Motomizu, Shoji; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-11-15

    An automated method has been developed for determining the concentration of inorganic arsenic. The technique uses sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry with a long-lasting gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrode. The long-lasting gold electrode was electrochemically deposited onto a screen-printed carbon electrode at a potential of -0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a supporting electrolyte solution of 1M hydrochloric acid. Under optimal conditions and the applied potentials, the electrode demonstrated that it can be used for a long time without a renewal process. The linear range for the determination of arsenic(III) was 1-100 μg L(-1), and the limit of detection (LOD) in standard solutions was as low as 0.03 μg L(-1) for a deposition time of 120 s and sample volume of 1 mL. This method was used to determine the concentration of arsenic(III) in water samples with satisfactory results. The LOD in real samples was found to be 0.5 μg L(-1). In addition, speciation between arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) has been achieved with the proposed method using deposition potentials of -0.5 V and -1.5 V for the determination of the arsenic(III) concentration and the total arsenic concentration, respectively; the results were acceptable. The proposed method is an automated system that offers a less expensive alternative for determining trace amounts of inorganic arsenic. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Repeated in vivo exposure of cocaine induces long-lasting synaptic plasticity in hypocretin/orexin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yan; Mineur, Yann S; Gan, Geliang; Wang, Alex Hanxiang; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Wu, Xinyuan; Suyama, Shigetomo; de Lecea, Luis; Horvath, Tamas L; Picciotto, Marina R; Gao, Xiao-Bing

    2013-04-01

    Hypocretin (orexin), a neuropeptide synthesized exclusively in the perifornical/lateral hypothalamus, is critical for drug seeking and relapse, but it is not clear how the circuitry centred on hypocretin-producing neurons (hypocretin neurons) is modified by drugs of abuse and how changes in this circuit might alter behaviours related to drug addiction. In this study, we show that repeated, but not single, in vivo cocaine administration leads to a long-lasting, experience-dependent potentiation of glutamatergic synapses on hypocretin neurons in mice following a cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) protocol. The synaptic potentiation occurs postsynaptically and probably involves up-regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors on hypocretin neurons. Phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is also significantly increased in hypocretin neurons in cocaine-treated animals, suggesting that CREB-mediated pathways may contribute to synaptic potentiation in these cells. Furthermore, the potentiation of synaptic efficacy in hypocretin neurons persists during cocaine withdrawal, but reverses to baseline levels after prolonged abstinence. Finally, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) triggered by a high-frequency stimulation is facilitated in hypocretin neurons in cocaine-treated mice, suggesting that long-lasting changes in synapses onto hypocretin neurons would probably be further potentiated by other stimuli (such as concurrent environmental cues) paired with the drug. In summary, we show here that hypocretin neurons undergo experience-dependent synaptic potentiation that is distinct from that reported in other reward systems, such as the ventral tegmental area, following exposure to cocaine. These findings support the idea that the hypocretin system is important for behavioural changes associated with cocaine administration in animals and humans.

  3. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: Relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelstad, Marta; Hansen, Pernille Reimar; Boberg, Julie; Bonnichsen, Mia; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Markedly lowered thyroid hormone levels during development may influence a child's behaviour, intellect, and auditory function. Recent studies, indicating that even small changes in the mother's thyroid hormone status early in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on her child, have lead to increased concern for thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals in the environment. The overall aim of the study was therefore to provide a detailed knowledge on the relationship between thyroid hormone levels during development and long-lasting effects on behaviour and hearing. Groups of 16-17 pregnant rats (HanTac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 mg/kg/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 17, and the physiological and behavioural development of rat offspring was assessed. Both dams and pups in the higher dose groups had markedly decreased thyroxine (T 4 ) levels during the dosing period, and the weight and histology of the thyroid glands were severely affected. PTU exposure caused motor activity levels to decrease on PND 14, and to increase on PND 23 and in adulthood. In the adult offspring, learning and memory was impaired in the two highest dose groups when tested in the radial arm maze, and auditory function was impaired in the highest dose group. Generally, the results showed that PTU-induced hypothyroxinemia influenced the developing rat brain, and that all effects on behaviour and loss of hearing in the adult offspring were significantly correlated to reductions in T 4 during development. This supports the hypothesis that decreased T 4 may be a relevant predictor for long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity

  4. Diminished fronto-limbic functional connectivity in child sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Jonas; Borchardt, Viola; Kärgel, Christian; Sinke, Christopher; Massau, Claudia; Tenbergen, Gilian; Ponseti, Jorge; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus M; Schiffer, Boris; Schiltz, Kolja; Walter, Martin; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2018-02-22

    Child sexual abuse and neglect have been related to an increased risk for the development of a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and sexual problems and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Contrary to the large amount of research focusing on the negative mental health consequences of child sexual abuse, very little is known about the characteristics of child sexual offenders and the neuronal underpinnings contributing to child sexual offending. This study investigates differences in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between non-pedophilic child sexual offenders (N = 20; CSO-P) and matched healthy controls (N = 20; HC) using a seed-based approach. The focus of this investigation of rs-FC in CSO-P was put on prefrontal and limbic regions highly relevant for emotional and behavioral processing. Results revealed a significant reduction of rs-FC between the right centromedial amygdala and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in child sexual offenders compared to controls. Given that, in the healthy brain, there is a strong top-down inhibitory control of prefrontal over limbic structures, these results suggest that diminished rs-FC between the amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and may foster sexual deviance and sexual offending. A profound understanding of these concepts should contribute to a better understanding of the occurrence of child sexual offending, as well as further development of more differentiated and effective interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Subthalamic Nucleus, Limbic Function, and Impulse Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P Justin; Gunduz, Aysegul; Okun, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    It has been well documented that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to address some of the disabling motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) can evoke unintended effects, especially on non-motor behavior. This observation has catalyzed more than a decade of research concentrated on establishing trends and identifying potential mechanisms for these non-motor effects. While many issues remain unresolved, the collective result of many research studies and clinical observations has been a general recognition of the role of the STN in mediating limbic function. In particular, the STN has been implicated in impulse control and the related construct of valence processing. A better understanding of STN involvement in these phenomena could have important implications for treating impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs affect up to 40% of PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy and approximately 15% of PD patients overall. ICDs have been reported to be associated with STN DBS. In this paper we will focus on impulse control and review pre-clinical, clinical, behavioral, imaging, and electrophysiological studies pertaining to the limbic function of the STN.

  6. [Spatial Cognition and Episodic Memory Formation in the Limbic Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2017-04-01

    The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex. Areas 35 and 36 roughly cover the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices. Areas 24, 25, 32, and 33 belong to the anterior cingulate gyrus, while areas 23, 26, 29, 30, and 31 to the posterior cingulate gyrus. Areas 25, 32, and the anteroinferior portion of area 24 are deeply involved in emotional responses, particularly in their autonomic functions, through reciprocal connections with the amygdaloid complex, anterior thalamus and projections to the brainstem and spinal visceral centers. Areas 29 and 30 have dense reciprocal connections with areas 23 and 31, the dorsolateral prefrontal areas, and the regions related to the hippocampus. They play pivotal roles in mediating spatial cognition, working memory processing, and episodic memory formation.

  7. Impaired autonomic responses to emotional stimuli in autoimmune limbic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eSchröder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Limbic encephalitis (LE is an autoimmune-mediated disorder that affects structures of the limbic system, in particular the amygdala. The amygdala constitutes a brain area substantial for processing of emotional, especially fear-related signals. The amygdala is also involved in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including skin conductance responses (SCRs to emotionally arousing stimuli. This study investigates behavioral and autonomic responses to discrete emotion-evoking and neutral film clips in a patient suffering from LE associated with contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2-antibodies as compared to a healthy control group. Results show a lack of SCRs in the patient while watching the film clips, with significant differences compared to healthy controls in the case of fear-inducing videos. There was no comparable impairment in behavioral data (emotion report, valence and arousal ratings. The results point to a defective modulation of sympathetic responses during emotional stimulation in patients with LE, probably due to impaired functioning of the amygdala.

  8. Are Onconeural Antibodies a Clinical Phenomenology in Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs occur in patients with cancer and can cause clinical symptoms and signs of dysfunction of the nervous system that are not due to a local effect of the tumor or its metastases. Most of these clinical syndromes in adults are associated with lung cancer, especially small cell lung cancer (SCLC, lymphoma, and gynecological tumors. The finding of highly specific antibodies directed against onconeural antigens has revolutionized the diagnosis and promoted the understanding of these syndromes and led to the current hypothesis of an autoimmune pathophysiology. Accumulating data strongly suggested direct pathogenicity of these antibodies. The field of PNS has expanded rapidly in the past few years with the discovery of limbic encephalitis associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD 65, the voltage (VGKC-gated potassium channel complex, the methyl (N-NMDA-D-aspartate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA, and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA (B receptors, and so forth. Despite this, the clinical spectrum of these diseases has not yet been fully investigated. The clinical importance of these conditions lies in their frequent response to immunotherapies and, less commonly, their association with distinctive tumors. This review provides an overview on the pathogenesis and diagnosis of PNS, with emphasis on the role of antibodies in limbic encephalitis.

  9. Chronic stress disrupts neural coherence between cortico-limbic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Filipe Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress impairs cognitive function, namely on tasks that rely on the integrity of cortico-limbic networks. To unravel the functional impact of progressive stress in cortico-limbic networks we measured neural activity and spectral coherences between the ventral hippocampus (vHIP and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in rats subjected to short term (STS and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS. CUS exposure consistently disrupted the spectral coherence between both areas for a wide range of frequencies, whereas STS exposure failed to trigger such effect. The chronic stress-induced coherence decrease correlated inversely with the vHIP power spectrum, but not with the mPFC power spectrum, which supports the view that hippocampal dysfunction is the primary event after stress exposure. Importantly, we additionally show that the variations in vHIP-to-mPFC coherence and power spectrum in the vHIP correlated with stress-induced behavioral deficits in a spatial reference memory task. Altogether, these findings result in an innovative readout to measure, and follow, the functional events that underlie the stress-induced reference memory impairments.

  10. Electroconvulsive therapy in a pediatric patient with malignant catatonia and paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Glick, David B; Dinwiddie, Stephen H

    2006-12-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare disorder that can cause memory loss, confusion, personality change, cognitive dysfunction, and psychosis. We present a case of an 11-year-old girl who was successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy for a catatonic state associated with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis caused by an ovarian teratoma.

  11. The effect of short-term treatment with lithium carbonate on the outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with long-lasting Graves' hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulić, Vladan; Rajić, Milena; Vlajković, Marina; Ilić, Slobodan; Stević, Miloš; Kojić, Marko

    2017-12-01

    The outcome of radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) mainly depends on radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake and the effective half-life of 131 I in the gland. Studies have shown that lithium carbonate (LiCO 3 ) enhances the 131 I half-life and increases the applied thyroid radiation dose without affecting the thyroid 131 I uptake. We investigated the effect of short-term treatment with LiCO 3 on the outcome of RIT in patients with long-lasting GH, its influence on the thyroid hormones levels 7 days after RIT, and possible side effects. Study prospectively included 30 patients treated with LiCO 3 and 131 I (RI-Li group) and 30 patients only with 131 I (RI group). Treatment with LiCO 3 (900 mg/day) started 1 day before RIT and continued 6 days after. Anti-thyroid drugs withdrawal was 7 days before RIT. Patients were followed up for 12 months. We defined a success of RIT as euthyroidism or hypothyroidism, and a failure as persistent hyperthyroidism. In RI-Li group, a serum level of Li was 0.571 ± 0.156 mmol/l before RIT. Serum levels of TT 4 and FT 4 increased while TSH decreased only in RI group 7 days after RIT. No toxic effects were noticed during LiCO 3 treatment. After 12 months, a success of RIT was 73.3% in RI and 90.0% in RI-Li group (P treatment with LiCO 3 as an adjunct to 131 I improves efficacy of RIT in patients with long-lasting GH. A success of RIT achieves faster in lithium-treated than in RI group. Treatment with LiCO 3 for 7 days prevents transient worsening of hyperthyroidism after RIT. Short-term use of LiCO 3 shows no toxic side effects.

  12. Synthetic sex pheromone in a long-lasting lure attracts the visceral leishmaniasis vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, for up to 12 weeks in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Bray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current control methodologies have not prevented the spread of visceral leishmaniasis (VL across Brazil. Here, we describe the development of a new tool for controlling the sand fly vector of the disease: a long-lasting lure, which releases a synthetic male sex pheromone, attractive to both sexes of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This device could be used to improve the effectiveness of residual insecticide spraying as a means of sand fly control, attracting L. longipalpis to insecticide-treated animal houses, where they could be killed in potentially large numbers over a number of weeks. Different lure designs releasing the synthetic pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B (CAS 183158-38-5 were field-tested in Araçatuba, São Paulo (SP. Experiments compared numbers of sand flies caught overnight in experimental chicken sheds with pheromone lures, to numbers caught in control sheds without pheromone. Prototype lures, designed to last one night, were first used to confirm the attractiveness of the pheromone in SP, and shown to attract significantly more flies to test sheds than controls. Longer-lasting lures were tested when new, and at fortnightly intervals. Lures loaded with 1 mg of pheromone did not attract sand flies for more than two weeks. However, lures loaded with 10 mg of pheromone, with a releasing surface of 15 cm2 or 7.5 cm2, attracted female L. longipalpis for up to ten weeks, and males for up to twelve weeks. Approximately five times more sand flies were caught with 7.5 cm2 10 mg lures when first used than occurred naturally in non-experimental chicken resting sites. These results demonstrate that these lures are suitably long-lasting and attractive for use in sand fly control programmes in SP. To our knowledge, this is the first sex pheromone-based technology targeting an insect vector of a neglected human disease. Further studies should explore the general applicability of this approach for combating other insect-borne diseases.

  13. Malaria in Dielmo, a Senegal village: Is its elimination possible after seven years of implementation of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélé Nyedzie Wotodjo

    Full Text Available The malaria burden has decreased significantly in recent years in Africa through the widespread use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs. However, the occurrence of malaria resurgences, the loss of immunity of exposed populations constitute among other factors, serious concerns about the future of malaria elimination efforts. This study investigated the evolution of malaria morbidity in Dielmo (Senegal before and after the implementation of LLINs.A longitudinal study was carried out in Dielmo over eight years, from July 2007 to July 2015. In July 2008, LLINs were offered to all villagers, and in July 2011 and August 2014 the LLINs were renewed. A survey on LLINs use was done each quarter of the year. Thick smears stained with Giemsa, a rapid diagnostic test (RDT and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods were performed for all cases of fever to assess malaria clinical attacks. Malaria cases were treated with ACT since June 2006.Malaria morbidity has decreased significantly since the implementation of LLINs in Dielmo, together with ACT. However, malaria resurgences have occurred twice during the seven years of LLINs use. These resurgences occurred the first time during the third year after the introduction of LLINs (aIRR (adjusted incidence-rate ratio [95%CI] = 5.90 [3.53; 9.88] p< 0.001 and a second time during the third year after the renewal of LLINs (aIRR [95%CI] = 5.60 [3.34; 9.39] p< 0.001. Sixty-nine percent (69% of the nets tested for their long-lasting insecticidal activity remained effective after 3 years of use.Good management of malaria cases by the use of ACT as first-line treatment against malaria in addition to the use of LLINs has significantly reduced malaria in Dielmo and allowed to reach the phase of pre-elimination of the disease. However, the occurrence of malaria resurgences raised serious concerns about malaria elimination, which would require additional

  14. A clinical case of pseudotumorous chronic parainfectious limbic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shnaider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parainfectous limbic encephalitis (PILE associated with viruses of the Herpesviridae family is one of the forms of chronic herpes encephalitis characterized by limbic system dysfunction and a prolonged course with frequent exacerbations. There are two types of the course of the disease: latent autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE progressing to mesial temporal sclerosis and pseudotumorous granulomatous LE. The latter (inflammatory pseudotumor or granuloma is characterized by the formation of a polymorphic inflammatory infiltrate with the elements of fibrosis, necrosis, and a granulomatous reaction and by myofibroblast cells. This is a slowly growing benign pseudotumor that contains much more plasma cells than inflammatory ones. The diagnosis of pseudotumorous LE is difficult and requires the participation of a neurologist, an immunologist, an oncologist, and a neurosurgeon. Perfusion computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy give proof to the adequacy of the term inflammatory pseudotumor because it is histologically difficult to characterize the lesion as a tumor or inflammation. When a chronic lesion in the central nervous system is lately diagnosed, the prognosis of the disease may be poor and complicated by the development of resistant symptomatic focal epilepsy and emotional, volitional, and cognitive impairments. It was differentially diagnosed from brain tumors (astrocytic, oligodendroglial, and mixed gliomas, ependymal, neuronal, neuroglial, and embryonal tumors, meningiomas, cholesteatomas, dermoid cysts, teratomas, and cysts, other reactive and inflammatory processes (leukemic infiltrations, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, encephalomyelitis, hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, vitamin A intoxication, and the long-term use of glucocorticoids and contraceptives. The authors describe a clinical case of the pseudotumorous course of chronic PILE in a 28-year-old woman

  15. Rapid Increase in Ownership and Use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets and Decrease in Prevalence of Malaria in Three Regional States of Ethiopia (2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estifanos Biru Shargie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia, this study aimed to compare ownership and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN, and the change in malaria prevalence using two population-based household surveys in three regions of the country. Each survey used multistage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster. Household net ownership tripled from 19.6% in 2006 to 68.4% in 2007, with mean LLIN per household increasing from 0.3 to 1.2. Net use overall more than doubled from 15.3% to 34.5%, but in households owning LLIN, use declined from 71.7% to 48.3%. Parasitemia declined from 4.1% to 0.4%. Large scale-up of net ownership over a short period of time was possible. However, a large increase in net ownership was not necessarily mirrored directly by increased net use. Better targeting of nets to malaria-risk areas and sustained behavioural change communication are needed to increase and maintain net use.

  16. Movement of the sacroiliac joint during the Active Straight Leg Raise test in patients with long-lasting severe sacroiliac joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Röhrl, Stephan M; Røise, Olav; Sturesson, Bengt; Stuge, Britt

    2017-08-01

    The Active Straight Leg Raise is a functional test used in the assessment of pelvic girdle pain, and has shown to have good validity, reliability and responsiveness. The Active Straight Leg Raise is considered to examine the patients' ability to transfer load through the pelvis. It has been hypothesized that patients with pelvic girdle pain lack the ability to stabilize the pelvic girdle, probably due to instability or increased movement of the sacroiliac joint. This study examines the movement of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise in patients with pelvic girdle pain. Tantalum markers were inserted in the dorsal sacrum and ilium of 12 patients with long-lasting pelvic girdle pain scheduled for sacroiliac joint fusion surgery. Two to three weeks later movement of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise was measured with radiostereometric analysis. Small movements were detected. There was larger movement of the sacroiliac joint of the rested leg's sacroiliac joint compared to the lifted leg's side. A mean backward rotation of 0.8° and inward tilt of 0.3° were seen in the rested leg's sacroiliac joint. The movements of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise are small. There was a small backward rotation of the innominate bone relative to sacrum on the rested leg's side. Our findings contradict an earlier understanding that a forward rotation of the lifted leg's innominate occur while performing the Active Straight Leg Raise. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Radiosteriometric analysis of movement in the sacroiliac joint during a single-leg stance in patients with long-lasting pelvic girdle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Røise, Olav; Sturesson, Bengt; Röhrl, Stephan M; Stuge, Britt

    2014-04-01

    Chamberlain's projections (anterior-posterior X-ray of the pubic symphysis) have been used to diagnose sacroiliac joint mobility during the single-leg stance test. This study examined the movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance test with precise radiostereometric analysis. Under general anesthesia, tantalum markers were inserted into the dorsal sacrum and the ilium of 11 patients with long-lasting and severe pelvic girdle pain. After two to three weeks, a radiostereometric analysis was conducted while the subjects performed a single-leg stance. Small movements were detected in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance. In both the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac join, a total of 0.5 degree rotation was observed; however, no translations were detected. There were no differences in total movement between the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac joint. The movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance is small and almost undetectable by the precise radiostereometric analysis. A complex movement pattern was seen during the test, with a combination of movements in the two joints. The interpretation of the results of this study is that, the Chamberlain examination likely is inadequate in the examination of sacroiliac joint movement in patients with pelvic girdle pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of a long-lasting colloidal substrate with pH and hydrogen sulfide control capabilities to remediate TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Y T; Chen, S C; Chien, C C; Chen, C C; Kao, C M

    2015-03-02

    A long-lasting emulsified colloidal substrate (LECS) was developed for continuous carbon and nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) release to remediate trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater under reductive dechlorinating conditions. The developed LECS contained nZVI, vegetable oil, surfactants (Simple Green™ and lecithin), molasses, lactate, and minerals. An emulsification study was performed to evaluate the globule droplet size and stability of LECS. The results show that a stable oil-in-water emulsion with uniformly small droplets (0.7 μm) was produced, which could continuously release the primary substrates. The emulsified solution could serve as the dispensing agent, and nZVI particles (with diameter 100-200 nm) were distributed in the emulsion evenly without aggregation. Microcosm results showed that the LECS caused a rapid increase in the total organic carbon concentration (up to 488 mg/L), and reductive dechlorination of TCE was significantly enhanced. Up to 99% of TCE (with initial concentration of 7.4 mg/L) was removed after 130 days of operation. Acidification was prevented by the production of hydroxide ion by the oxidation of nZVI. The formation of iron sulfide reduced the odor from produced hydrogen sulfide. Microbial analyses reveal that dechlorinating bacteria existed in soils, which might contribute to TCE dechlorination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neonatal Stress Has a Long-Lasting Sex-Dependent Effect on Anxiety-Like Behavior and Neuronal Morphology in the Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Silvana Regina; de David Antoniazzi, Caren Tatiane; Hossain, Shakhawat; Kolb, Bryan

    2018-01-01

    The long-lasting effects of early stress on brain development have been well studied. Recent evidence indicates that males and females respond differently to the same stressor. We examined the chronic effects of daily maternal separation (MS) on behavior and cerebral morphology in both male and female rats. Cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated, and neuroplastic changes in 2 subregions of the prefrontal cortex (dorsal agranular insular cortex [AID] and cingulate cortex [Cg3]) and hippocampus (CA1 and dentate gyrus) were measured in adult male and female rats. The animals were subjected to MS on postnatal day (P) 3-14 for 3 h per day. Cognitive and emotional behaviors were assessed in the object/context mismatch task, elevated plus maze, and locomotor activity test in early adulthood (P87-P95). Anatomical assessments were performed in the prefrontal cortex (i.e., cortical thickness and spine density) and hippocampus (i.e., spine density). Sex-dependent effects were observed. MS increased anxiety-related behavior only in males, whereas locomotor activity was higher in females, with no effects on cognition. MS decreased spine density in the AID and increased spine density in the CA1 area in males. Females exhibited an increase in spine density in the Cg3. Our findings confirm previous work that found that MS causes long-term behavioral and anatomical effects, and these effects were dependent on sex and the duration of MS stress. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. How long-lasting is the post-conflict slowing after incongruent trials? Evidence from the Stroop, Simon, and flanker tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine how long-lasting the post-conflict slowing following incongruent stimuli is. In previous research, incongruent stimuli have been used to induce a conflict because they have relevant features for two different response alternatives. So far, the post-conflict slowing following incongruent stimuli has mainly been assessed up to one trial. In the first two experiments, we assessed the persistence of the post-conflict slowing across several trials. To this end, we presented a few incongruent stimuli among non-conflict stimuli. The results showed a consistent slowing for the first few trials immediately following the incongruent trials. In addition, a sporadic slowing was still found on later trials. In two subsequent experiments, we investigated to what extent the infrequency of incongruent trials - rather than their conflict - induced this slowing. To determine this, we used the same design as in the first two experiments, but we presented non-conflict stimuli as infrequent stimuli. The results showed a slowing on one subsequent trial, ruling out the possibility that the post-conflict slowing following incongruent trials was only caused by infrequency. Together, the findings of the present study indicate that the conflict induced by incongruent trials can have a longer lasting impact on subsequent trials than previously thought.

  1. Efficacy of a long-lasting bifenthrin-treated net against horticultural pests and its compatibility with the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii and the parasitic wasp Eretmocerus mundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Maria Del Mar; Colomer, Ignacio; Medina, Pilar; Fereres, Alberto; Del Estal, Pedro; Viñuela, Elisa

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been investigated recently for their use in agriculture. Depending on the insecticide, the hole size and the way they are produced, these nets can target different pests and therefore they could be interesting options for use in integrated pest management (IPM). As the information on their compatibility with beneficial fauna is practically negligible, in this work we have tested the compatibility of an experimental bifenthrin long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLITN) with Amblyseius swirskii and Eretmocerus mundus, important natural enemies of whiteflies and thrips, under laboratory, semi-field and commercial greenhouse conditions. In the laboratory, the treated net was very deleterious to adults of both natural enemies, after 72 h exposure. However, in choice tests with Y-tubes, both natural enemies were neither attracted nor repelled by the treated net and no short-term mortality was detected in individuals that had crossed it. No deleterious effects on the E. mundus beneficial capacity were detected in semi-field trials. In field trials, the LLITN proved to be compatible with A. swirskii while decreasing pest densities. Bifenthrin LLITN studied could be a valuable method for reducing pest population infestations in IPM programmes while being compatible with biocontrol agents. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Training Lymnaea in the presence of a predator scent results in a long-lasting ability to form enhanced long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Jeremy; Sunada, Hiroshi; Dodd, Shawn; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-06-01

    Lymnaea exposed to crayfish effluent (CE) gain an enhanced ability to form long-term memory (LTM). We test the hypothesis that a single CE exposure and operant conditioning training leads to long lasting changes in the capability of snails to form LTM when tested in pond water four weeks later. We trained both juvenile and adult snails with a single 0.5 h training session in CE and show that LTM was present 24 h later. Snails trained in a similar manner in just pond water show no LTM. We then asked if such training in CE conferred enhanced memory forming capabilities on these snails four weeks later. That is, would LTM be formed in these snails four weeks later following a single 0.5 h training session in pond water? We found that both adult and juvenile snails previously trained in CE one month previously had enhanced LTM formation abilities. The injection of a DNA methylation blocker, 5-AZA, prior to training in adult snails blocked enhanced LTM formation four weeks later. Finally, this enhanced LTM forming ability was not passed on to the next generation of snails.

  3. Long-lasting insecticide-treated house screens and targeted treatment of productive breeding-sites for dengue vector control in Acapulco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Mendoza, Azael; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojórquez, Josué; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Ranson, Hilary; Lenhart, Audrey; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J; Kroeger, Axel; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-02-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal net screens (LLIS) fitted to domestic windows and doors in combination with targeted treatment (TT) of the most productive Aedes aegypti breeding sites were evaluated for their impact on dengue vector indices in a cluster-randomised trial in Mexico between 2011 and 2013. Sequentially over 2 years, LLIS and TT were deployed in 10 treatment clusters (100 houses/cluster) and followed up over 24 months. Cross-sectional surveys quantified infestations of adult mosquitoes, immature stages at baseline (pre-intervention) and in four post-intervention samples at 6-monthly intervals. Identical surveys were carried out in 10 control clusters that received no treatment. LLIS clusters had significantly lower infestations compared to control clusters at 5 and 12 months after installation, as measured by adult (male and female) and pupal-based vector indices. After addition of TT to the intervention houses in intervention clusters, indices remained significantly lower in the treated clusters until 18 (immature and adult stage indices) and 24 months (adult indices only) post-intervention. These safe, simple affordable vector control tools were well-accepted by study participants and are potentially suitable in many regions at risk from dengue worldwide. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  4. Effectiveness and feasibility of long-lasting insecticide-treated curtains and water container covers for dengue vector control in Colombia: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Juliana; García-Betancourt, Tatiana; Cortés, Sebastian; García, Diana; Alcalá, Lucas; González-Uribe, Catalina; Brochero, Helena; Carrasquilla, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    Long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) window and door curtains alone or in combination with LLIN water container covers were analysed regarding effectiveness in reducing dengue vector density, and feasibility of the intervention. A cluster randomised trial was conducted in an urban area of Colombia comparing 10 randomly selected control and 10 intervention clusters. In control clusters, routine vector control activities were performed. The intervention delivered first, LLIN curtains (from July to August 2013) and secondly, water container covers (from October to March 2014). Cross-sectional entomological surveys were carried out at baseline (February 2013 to June 2013), 9 weeks after the first intervention (August to October 2013), and 4-6 weeks after the second intervention (March to April 2014). Curtains were installed in 922 households and water container covers in 303 households. The Breteau index (BI) fell from 14 to 6 in the intervention group and from 8 to 5 in the control group. The additional intervention with LLIN covers for water containers showed a significant reduction in pupae per person index (PPI) (p=0.01). In the intervention group, the PPI index showed a clear decline of 71% compared with 25% in the control group. Costs were high but options for cost savings were identified. Short term impact evaluation indicates that the intervention package can reduce dengue vector density but sustained effect will depend on multiple factors. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  5. Effect of village-wide use of long-lasting insecticidal nets on visceral Leishmaniasis vectors in India and Nepal: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, Albert; Das, Murari L; Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Dinesh, Diwakar S; Roy, Lalita; Rijal, Suman; Das, Pradeep; Rowland, Mark; Sundar, Shyam; Coosemans, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive R

    2010-01-26

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control in the Indian subcontinent is currently based on case detection and treatment, and on vector control using indoor residual spraying (IRS). The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN) has been postulated as an alternative or complement to IRS. Here we tested the impact of comprehensive distribution of LN on the density of Phlebotomus argentipes in VL-endemic villages. A cluster-randomized controlled trial with household P. argentipes density as outcome was designed. Twelve clusters from an ongoing LN clinical trial--three intervention and three control clusters in both India and Nepal--were selected on the basis of accessibility and VL incidence. Ten houses per cluster selected on the basis of high pre-intervention P. argentipes density were monitored monthly for 12 months after distribution of LN using CDC light traps (LT) and mouth aspiration methods. Ten cattle sheds per cluster were also monitored by aspiration. A random effect linear regression model showed that the cluster-wide distribution of LNs significantly reduced the P. argentipes density/house by 24.9% (95% CI 1.80%-42.5%) as measured by means of LTs. The ongoing clinical trial, designed to measure the impact of LNs on VL incidence, will confirm whether LNs should be adopted as a control strategy in the regional VL elimination programs. The entomological evidence described here provides some evidence that LNs could be usefully deployed as part of the VL control program. ClinicalTrials.gov CT-2005-015374.

  6. Early malnutrition results in long-lasting impairments in pattern-separation for overlapping novel object and novel location memories and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Georgina; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2016-02-17

    Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that malnutrition during in utero development and/or childhood induces long-lasting learning disabilities and enhanced susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders. However, animal studies aimed to address this question have yielded inconsistent results due to the use of learning tasks involving negative or positive reinforces that interfere with the enduring changes in emotional reactivity and motivation produced by in utero and neonatal malnutrition. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying the learning deficits associated with malnutrition in early life remain unknown. Here we implemented a behavioural paradigm based on the combination of the novel object recognition and the novel object location tasks to define the impact of early protein-restriction on the behavioural, cellular and molecular basis of memory processing. Adult rats born to dams fed a low-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation, exhibited impaired encoding and consolidation of memory resulting from impaired pattern separation. This learning deficit was associated with reduced production of newly born hippocampal neurons and down regulation of BDNF gene expression. These data sustain the existence of a causal relationship between early malnutrition and impaired learning in adulthood and show that decreased adult neurogenesis is associated to the cognitive deficits induced by childhood exposure to poor nutrition.

  7. Binge-pattern cocaine administration causes long-lasting behavioral hyperarousal but does not enhance vulnerability to single prolonged stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisieski, Michael J; Perrine, Shane A

    2017-11-01

    Cocaine use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur. This could be due to vulnerability to post-traumatic symptoms conferred by previous exposure to cocaine. Therefore, we combined chronic binge-pattern cocaine with a model of psychological trauma (single prolonged stress) to determine whether the behavioral effects of psychological trauma are enhanced in cocaine-sensitized individuals. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received 14 days of cocaine (15mg/kg/injection) or saline in a binge pattern (3 injections per day, 1h apart). Seven days after the last injection animals were exposed to traumatic stress or a control procedure. Seven days after stress, activity and anxiety-like behaviors were measured. Binge-pattern cocaine increased locomotor activity in the open field and elevated plus maze, and both cocaine and SPS exposure increased the rapidity with which rats moved through grooming sequences. Neither binge-pattern cocaine nor SPS increased anxiety-like behaviors, and no interactions were found between binge-pattern cocaine exposure and SPS exposure. A behavioral phenotype categorization approach demonstrated that cocaine-exposed groups expressed a high incidence of hyperactivity-like symptoms. These results suggest that binge-pattern cocaine exposure causes a long-lasting hyper-exploratory phenotype but does not make individuals more vulnerable to a later traumatic stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  9. Gestational Exposure to a Viral Mimetic Poly(I:C Results in Long-Lasting Changes in Mitochondrial Function by Leucocytes in the Adult Offspring

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    Cecilia Giulivi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune activation (MIA is a potential risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD and schizophrenia (SZ. In rodents, MIA results in changes in cytokine profiles and abnormal behaviors in the offspring that model these neuropsychiatric conditions. Given the central role that mitochondria have in immunity and other metabolic pathways, we hypothesized that MIA will result in a fetal imprinting that leads to postnatal deficits in the bioenergetics of immune cells. To this end, splenocytes from adult offspring exposed gestationally to the viral mimic poly(I:C were evaluated for mitochondrial outcomes. A significant decrease in mitochondrial ATP production was observed in poly(I:C-treated mice (45% of controls mainly attributed to a lower complex I activity. No differences were observed between the two groups in the coupling of electron transport to ATP synthesis, or the oxygen uptake under uncoupling conditions. Concanavalin A- (ConA- stimulated splenocytes from poly(I:C animals showed no statistically significant changes in cytokine levels compared to controls. The present study reports for the first time that MIA activation by poly(I:C at early gestation, which can lead to behavioral impairments in the offspring similar to SZ and ASD, leads to long-lasting effects in the bioenergetics of splenocytes of adult offspring.

  10. Cdk7 Is Required for Activity-Dependent Neuronal Gene Expression, Long-Lasting Synaptic Plasticity and Long-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqin He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, de novo gene expression driven by learning-associated neuronal activities is critical for the formation of long-term memories. However, the signaling machinery mediating neuronal activity-induced gene expression, especially the rapid transcription of immediate-early genes (IEGs remains unclear. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks are a family of serine/threonine kinases that have been firmly established as key regulators of transcription processes underling coordinated cell cycle entry and sequential progression in nearly all types of proliferative cells. Cdk7 is a subunit of transcriptional initiation factor II-H (TFIIH and the only known Cdk-activating kinase (CAK in metazoans. Recent studies using a novel Cdk7 specific covalent inhibitor, THZ1, revealed important roles of Cdk7 in transcription regulation in cancer cells. However, whether Cdk7 plays a role in the regulation of transcription in neurons remains unknown. In this study, we present evidence demonstrating that, in post-mitotic neurons, Cdk7 activity is positively correlated with neuronal activities in cultured primary neurons, acute hippocampal slices and in the brain. Cdk7 inhibition by THZ1 significantly suppressed mRNA levels of IEGs, selectively impaired long-lasting synaptic plasticity induced by 4 trains of high frequency stimulation (HFS and prevented the formation of long-term memories.

  11. Efficacy of Olyset® Plus, a new long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating permethrin and piperonyl-butoxide against multi-resistant malaria vectors [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Pennetier

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid extension of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors worldwide, manufacturers are developing new vector control tools including insecticide mixtures containing at least two active ingredients with different mode of action as part of insecticide resistance management. Olyset® Plus is a new long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN incorporating permethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO, into its fibres in order to counteract metabolic-based pyrethroid resistance of mosquitoes. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Olyset® Plus both in laboratory and field against susceptible and multi-resistant malaria vectors and compared with Olyset Net, which is a permethrin incorporated into polyethylene net. In laboratory, Olyset® Plus performed better than Olyset® Net against susceptible Anopheles gambiae strain with a 2-day regeneration time owing to an improved permethrin bleeding rate with the new incorporation technology. It also performed better than Olyset® Net against multiple resistant populations of An. gambiae in experimental hut trials in West Africa. Moreover, the present study showed evidence for a benefit of incorporating a synergist, PBO, with a pyrethroid insecticide into mosquito netting. These results need to be further validated in a large-scale field trial to assess the durability and acceptability of this new tool for malaria vector control.

  12. Double negative (CD3+ 4- 8- TCR alphabeta splenic cells from young NOD mice provide long-lasting protection against type 1 diabetes.

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    Beverly Duncan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Double negative CD3(+4(-8(- TCR alphabeta splenic cells (DNCD3 can suppress the immune responses to allo and xenografts, infectious agents, tumors, and some autoimmune disorders. However, little is known about their role in autoimmune diabetes, a disease characterized by the reduction of insulin production subsequent to destruction of pancreatic beta-cells by a polyclonal population of self-reactive T-cells. Herein, we analyzed the function and phenotype of DNCD3 splenic cells in young NOD mice predisposed to several autoimmune disorders among which, the human-like autoimmune diabetes.DNCD3 splenic cells from young NOD mice (1 provided long-lasting protection against diabetes transfer in NOD/Scid immunodeficient mice, (2 proliferated and differentiated in the spleen and pancreas of NOD/Scid mice and pre-diabetic NOD mice into IL-10-secreting T(R-1 like cells in a Th2-like environment, and (3 their anti-diabetogenic phenotype is CD3(+(CD4(-CD8(-CD28(+CD69(+CD25(low Foxp3(- iCTLA-4(-TCR alphabeta(+ with a predominant Vbeta13 gene usage.These findings delineate a new T regulatory component in autoimmune diabetes apart from that of NKT and CD4(+CD25(high Foxp3(+T-regulatory cells. DNCD3 splenic cells could be potentially manipulated towards the development of autologous cell therapies in autoimmune diabetes.

  13. Poly-functional and long-lasting anticancer immune response elicited by a safe attenuated Pseudomonas aeruginosa vector for antigens delivery

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    Xavier Chauchet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Live-attenuated bacterial vectors for antigens delivery have aroused growing interest in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Their potency to stimulate innate immunity and to promote intracellular antigen delivery into antigen-presenting cells could be exploited to elicit a strong and specific cellular immune response against tumor cells. We previously described genetically-modified and attenuated Pseudomonas aeruginosa vectors able to deliver in vivo protein antigens into antigen-presenting cells, through Type 3 secretion system of the bacteria. Using this approach, we managed to protect immunized mice against aggressive B16 melanoma development in both a prophylactic and therapeutic setting. In this study, we further investigated the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response, in terms of phenotypic and functional aspects, obtained after immunizations with a killed but metabolically active P. aeruginosa attenuated vector. We demonstrated that P. aeruginosa vaccine induces a highly functional pool of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell able to infiltrate the tumor. Furthermore, multiple immunizations allowed the development of a long-lasting immune response, represented by a pool of predominantly effector memory cells which protected mice against late tumor challenge. Overall, killed but metabolically active P. aeruginosa vector is a safe and promising approach for active and specific antitumor immunotherapy.

  14. Long-lasting changes in brain activation induced by a single REAC technology pulse in Wi-Fi bands. Randomized double-blind fMRI qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Salvatore; Mura, Marco; Castagna, Alessandro; Fontani, Vania

    2014-07-11

    The aim of this randomized double-blind study was to evaluate in healthy adult subjects, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), long lasting changes in brain activation patterns following administration of a single, 250 milliseconds pulse emitted with radio-electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) technology in the Wi-Fi bands. The REAC impulse was not administered during the scan, but after this, according to a protocol that has previously been demonstrated to be effective in improving motor control and postural balance, in healthy subjects and patients. The study was conducted on 33 healthy volunteers, performed with a 1.5 T unit while operating a motor block task involving cyclical and alternating flexion and extension of one leg. Subsequently subjects were randomly divided into a treatment and a sham treatment control group. Repeated fMRI examinations were performed following the administration of the REAC pulse or sham treatment. The Treated group showed cerebellar and ponto-mesencephalic activation components that disappeared in the second scan, while these activation components persisted in the Sham group. This study shows that a very weak signal, such as 250 milliseconds Wi-Fi pulse, administered with REAC technology, could lead to lasting effects on brain activity modification.

  15. Possible anti-VGKC autoimmune limbic encephalitis associated with SIADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nicholas; Hamada, Hazim

    2018-03-07

    An 80-year-old woman presented with a 5-week history of increasing confusion. Examination was remarkable only for deficits in short-term memory and paranoid thoughts. Blood tests revealed hyponatraemia, and further biochemical testing was consistent with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). After an exhaustive diagnostic workup for causes of SIADH, the only abnormal finding was a mildly raised antivoltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) titre of 185 pmol/L (0-69) consistent with possible anti-VGKC autoimmune limbic encephalitis. However, other diagnostic features were absent. She is currently undergoing outpatient investigation for other causes of memory loss. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. A rare case of autoimmune limbic encephalitis: an uncharted territory!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hatim; Al Jasser, Abdulelah N; Khan, Sonia A; Tlili, Kalthoum G

    2017-10-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis is rare. Several auto- antibodies are described in autoimmune encephalitis. We describe a case of autoimmune limbic encephalitis associated with positive voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies and positive leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 antibodies (LGI1). A 33-year-old Saudi housewife, she presented with 2 months history of cognitive deterioration and recurrent left facio-brachial dystonic seizures followed by generalized tonic clonic seizures. At times the seizures are preceded by rising epigastric aura and shortness of breath. The neurological examination was normal apart from upgoing left plantar reflex. She had borderline IQ of 76 with impaired verbal fluency and impaired visual and verbal memory. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed right mesial temporal non-enhancing lesion. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was positive for LGI1 and VGKC. Optimal seizure control was achieved with immunotherapy.

  17. [Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis and paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Tsuji, Shoji

    2010-08-01

    Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis (or anti-Ma2 encephalitis) is a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) characterized by isolated or combined limbic, diencephalic, or brainstem dysfunction. Anti-Ma2 antibodies detected in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid of patients are highly specific for this disease entity and belong to a group of well-characterized onconeuronal antibodies (or classical antibodies). The corresponding antigen, Ma2 is selectively expressed intracellularly in neurons and tumors as is the case with other onconeuronal antigens targeted by classical antibodies. However, in most cases the clinical pictures are different from those of classical PNS and this creates a potential risk of underdiagnosis. Although limbic dysfunction is the most common manifestation in patients with anti-Ma2 encephalitis which is one of the major causes of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (LE), it has been reported that less than 30% of the patients with anti-Ma2 LE exhibit clinical presentations typical of the classical description of LE. Of the remaining, many exhibit excessive daytime sleepiness, vertical ophthalmoparesis, or both associated with LE, because of frequent involvement of the diencephalon and/or upper brainstem. Anti-Ma2 LE can also be manifested as a pure psychiatric disturbance such as obsessive-compulsive disorder in a few cases. Some patients develop mesodiencephalic encephalitis with minor involvement of the limbic system, and some may manifest severe hypokinesis. About 40% of the patients with anti-Ma2 antibodies also have antibodies against different epitopes on Ma1, a homologue of Ma2. These patients may have predominant cerebellar and/or brainstem dysfunctions due to more extensive involvement of subtentorial structures. Anti-Ma2 encephalitis is outstanding among other PNS associated with classical antibodies in that the response rate to treatment is relatively high. While it can cause severe neurological deficits or death in a substantial

  18. Alcoholism and dampened temporal limbic activation to emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Urban, Trinity; O'Reilly, Cara E; Howard, Julie A; Sawyer, Kayle; Harris, Gordon J

    2009-11-01

    Excessive chronic drinking is accompanied by a broad spectrum of emotional changes ranging from apathy and emotional flatness to deficits in comprehending emotional information, but their neural bases are poorly understood. Emotional abnormalities associated with alcoholism were examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging in abstinent long-term alcoholic men in comparison to healthy demographically matched controls. Participants were presented with emotionally valenced words and photographs of faces during deep (semantic) and shallow (perceptual) encoding tasks followed by recognition. Overall, faces evoked stronger activation than words, with the expected material-specific laterality (left hemisphere for words, and right for faces) and depth of processing effects. However, whereas control participants showed stronger activation in the amygdala and hippocampus when viewing faces with emotional (relative to neutral) expressions, the alcoholics responded in an undifferentiated manner to all facial expressions. In the alcoholic participants, amygdala activity was inversely correlated with an increase in lateral prefrontal activity as a function of their behavioral deficits. Prefrontal modulation of emotional function as a compensation for the blunted amygdala activity during a socially relevant face appraisal task is in agreement with a distributed network engagement during emotional face processing. Deficient activation of amygdala and hippocampus may underlie impaired processing of emotional faces associated with long-term alcoholism and may be a part of the wide array of behavioral problems including disinhibition, concurring with previously documented interpersonal difficulties in this population. Furthermore, the results suggest that alcoholics may rely on prefrontal rather than temporal limbic areas in order to compensate for reduced limbic responsivity and to maintain behavioral adequacy when faced with emotionally or socially challenging situations.

  19. Long-lasting memory deficits in mice withdrawn from cocaine are concomitant with neuroadaptations in hippocampal basal activity, GABAergic interneurons and adult neurogenesis

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    David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine addiction disorder is notably aggravated by concomitant cognitive and emotional pathology that impedes recovery. We studied whether a persistent cognitive/emotional dysregulation in mice withdrawn from cocaine holds a neurobiological correlate within the hippocampus, a limbic region with a key role in anxiety and memory but that has been scarcely investigated in cocaine addiction research. Mice were submitted to a chronic cocaine (20 mg/kg/day for 12 days or vehicle treatment followed by 44 drug-free days. Some mice were then assessed on a battery of emotional (elevated plus-maze, light/dark box, open field, forced swimming and cognitive (object and place recognition memory, cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, continuous spontaneous alternation behavioral tests, while other mice remained in their home cage. Relevant hippocampal features [basal c-Fos activity, GABA+, parvalbumin (PV+ and neuropeptide Y (NPY+ interneurons and adult neurogenesis (cell proliferation and immature neurons] were immunohistochemically assessed 73 days after the chronic cocaine or vehicle protocol. The cocaine-withdrawn mice showed no remarkable exploratory or emotional alterations but were consistently impaired in all the cognitive tasks. All the cocaine-withdrawn groups, independent of whether they were submitted to behavioral assessment or not, showed enhanced basal c-Fos expression and an increased number of GABA+ cells in the dentate gyrus. Moreover, the cocaine-withdrawn mice previously submitted to behavioral training displayed a blunted experience-dependent regulation of PV+ and NPY+ neurons in the dentate gyrus, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Results highlight the importance of hippocampal neuroplasticity for the ingrained cognitive deficits present during chronic cocaine withdrawal.

  20. Galantamine Prevents Long-Lasting Suppression of Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons of Soman-Challenged Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, E. A.; Alkondon, M.; Aracava, Y.; Pereira, E. F. R.; Albuquerque, E. X.

    2014-01-01

    Galantamine, a drug currently approved for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has recently emerged as an effective pretreatment against the acute toxicity and delayed cognitive deficits induced by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, including soman. Since cognitive deficits can result from impaired glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that hippocampal glutamatergic transmission declines following an acute exposure to soman and that this effect can be prevented by galantamine. To test this hypothesis, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices obtained at 1 h, 24 h, or 6-9 days after guinea pigs were injected with: (i) 1xLD50 soman (26.3 μg/kg, s.c.); (ii) galantamine (8 mg/kg, i.m.) followed 30 min later by 1xLD50 soman, (iii) galantamine (8 mg/kg, i.m.), or (iv) saline (0.5 ml/kg, i.m.). In soman-injected guinea pigs that were not pretreated with galantamine, the frequency of EPSCs was significantly lower than that recorded from saline-injected animals. There was no correlation between the severity of soman-induced acute toxicity and the magnitude of soman-induced reduction of EPSC frequency. Pretreatment with galantamine prevented the reduction of EPSC frequency observed at 6-9 days after the soman challenge. Prevention of soman-induced long-lasting reduction of hippocampal glutamatergic synaptic transmission may be an important determinant of the ability of galantamine to counter cognitive deficits that develop long after an acute exposure to the nerve agent. PMID:25064080

  1. Synergistic Effects of Psychosocial Stress and Mild Peripheral Infection on Inducing Microglial Activation in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus and Long-Lasting Deficits in Hippocampus-Related Memory.

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    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Su, Chien-Chou; Sun, Li-Han; Cherng, Chianfang G.; Yu, Lung

    2018-04-30

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and stress may cause immune activation in the brain, an event which has been thought to play a role in mediating stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the enduring impact of psychosocial stress on brain immune activation or cognitive deficits has not been well investigated. Likewise, it remains unexplored whether there exist synergistic effects of psychosocial stress and a weak systemic LPS treatment on brain immune activation and/or cognitive function. In this work, a 10-day social defeat regimen was used to model psychosocial stress and the number and density of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-stained microglia was used to reveal brain immune activation in male Balb/C mice. The social defeat regimen did not cause observable microglial activation in dentate gyrus (DG) 24 h after the conclusion of the regimen. Microglial activation peaked in DG 24 h following a single 1 mg/kg intra-peritoneal LPS injection. At this time point, DG microglial activation was not evident providing 0.125 mg/kg or lower of LPS was used, this dose of LPS was, thus, regarded as the “sub-threshold” in this study. Twenty-four h after the conclusion of the defeat regimen, mice received a social interaction test to determine their defeat stress susceptibility and a “sub-threshold” LPS injection. DG microglial activation was observed in the defeat-stress susceptible, but not in the resilient, mice. Furthermore, the stress-susceptible mice showed impairment in object location and Y maze tasks 24 and 72 h after the “sub-threshold” LPS injection. These results suggest that psychosocial stress, when combined with a negligible peripheral infection, may induce long-lasting hippocampus-related memory deficits exclusively in subjects susceptible to psychosocial stresses.

  2. Multipoint spacecraft observations of long-lasting poloidal Pc4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere on 1–2 May 2014

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    G. Korotova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We use magnetic field and plasma observations from the Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES spacecraft to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of long-lasting poloidal Pc4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere. The pulsations were observed after the main phase of a moderate storm during low geomagnetic activity. The pulsations occurred during various interplanetary conditions and the solar wind parameters do not seem to control the occurrence of the pulsations. The most striking feature of the Pc4 magnetic field pulsations was their occurrence at similar locations during three of four successive orbits. We used this information to study the latitudinal nodal structure of the pulsations and demonstrated that the latitudinal extent of the magnetic field pulsations did not exceed 2 Earth radii (RE. A phase shift between the azimuthal and radial components of the electric and magnetic fields was observed from ZSM  =  0.30 RE to ZSM  =  −0.16 RE. We used magnetic and electric field data from Van Allen Probes to determine the structure of ULF waves. We showed that the Pc4 magnetic field pulsations were radially polarized and are the second-mode harmonic waves. We suggest that the spacecraft were near a magnetic field null during the second orbit when they failed to observe the magnetic field pulsations at the local times where pulsations were observed on previous and successive orbits. We investigated the spectral structure of the Pc4 pulsations. Each spacecraft observed a decrease of the dominant period as it moved to a smaller L shell (stronger magnetic field strength. We demonstrated that higher frequencies occurred at times and locations where Alfvén velocities were greater, i.e., on Orbit 1. There is some evidence that the periods of the pulsations increased during the plasmasphere refilling

  3. Long-lasting insecticidal net source, ownership and use in the context of universal coverage: a household survey in eastern Rwanda.

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    Kateera, Fredrick; Ingabire, Chantal M; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Karinda, Parfait; Grobusch, Martin P; Mutesa, Leon; van Vugt, Michèle; Mens, Petra F

    2015-10-06

    Universal long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage (ULC) has reduced malaria morbidity and mortality across Africa. Although information is available on bed net use in specific groups, such as pregnant women and children under 5 years, there is paucity of data on their use among the general population. Bed net source, ownership and determinants of use among individuals from households in an eastern Rwanda community 8 months after a ULC were characterized. Using household-based, interviewer-administered questionnaires and interviewer-direct observations, data on bed net source, ownership and key determinants of net use, including demographics, socio-economic status indicators, house structure characteristics, as well as of bed net quantity, type and integrity, were collected from 1400 randomly selected households. Univariate and mixed effects logistic regression modelling was done to assess for determinants of bed net use. A total of 1410 households and 6598 individuals were included in the study. Overall, the proportion of households with at least one net was 92 % while bed net usage was reported among 72 % of household members. Of the households surveyed, a total ownership of 2768 nets was reported, of which about 96 % were reportedly LLINs received from the ULC. By interviewer-physical observation, 88 % of the nets owned were of the LLIN type with the remaining 12 % did not carry any mark to enable type recognition. The odds of bed net use were significantly lower among males and individuals: from households of low socio-economic status, from households with economic status, number of bed nets and type and number of sleeping spaces were key determinants of bed net use. To maximize impact of ULC, strategies that target males as well as those that ensure ITN coverage for all, address barriers to feasible and convenient bed net use including covering over all sleeping space types, and provide net hanging supports, are needed.

  4. Impact of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets on childhood malaria morbidity: The Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign

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    Sodahlon Yao K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An evaluation of the short-term impact on childhood malaria morbidity of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs to households with children aged 9-59 months as part of the Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign. Methods The prevalence of anaemia and malaria in children aged zero to 59 months was measured during two cross-sectional household cluster-sample surveys conducted during the peak malaria transmission, three months before (Sept 2004, n = 2521 and nine months after the campaign (Sept 2005, n = 2813 in three districts representative of Togo's three epidemiological malaria transmission regions: southern tropical coastal plains (Yoto, central fertile highlands (Ogou and northern semi-arid savannah (Tone. Results In households with children 65% in all 3 districts. Reported ITN use by children during the previous night was 35.9%, 43.8% and 80.6% in Yoto, Ogou and Tone, respectively. Rainfall patterns were comparable in both years. The overall prevalence of moderate to severe anaemia (Hb The effect was predominantly seen in children aged 18-59 months and in the two southern districts: PR (95% CI for moderate to severe anaemia and clinical malaria: Yoto 0.62 (0.44-0.88 and 0.49 (0.35-0.75; Ogou 0.54 (0.37-0.79 and 0.85 (0.57-1.27, respectively. Similar reductions occurred in children Conclusions A marked reduction in childhood malaria associated morbidity was observed in the year following mass distribution of free LLINs in two of the three districts in Togo. Sub-national level impact evaluations will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of expanding national malaria control efforts.

  5. A single intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin in rats induces long-lasting modifications in behavior and brain protein levels of TNF-α and IL-18

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    Bossù Paola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic inflammation might cause neuronal damage and sustain neurodegenerative diseases and behavior impairment, with the participation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-18. However, the potential contribution of these cytokines to behavioral impairment in the long-term period has not been fully investigated. Methods Wistar rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg or vehicle. After 7 days and 10 months, the animal behavior was evaluated by testing specific cognitive functions, as mnesic, discriminative, and attentional functions, as well as anxiety levels. Contextually, TNF-α and IL-18 protein levels were measured by ELISA in defined brain regions (that is, frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and hypothalamus. Results Behavioral testing demonstrated a specific and persistent cognitive impairment characterized by marked deficits in reacting to environment modifications, possibly linked to reduced motivational or attentional deficits. Concomitantly, LPS induced a TNF-α increase in the hippocampus and frontal cortex (from 7 days onward and cerebellum (only at 10 months. Interestingly, LPS treatment enhanced IL-18 expression in these same areas only at 10 months after injection. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the chronic neuroinflammatory network elicited by systemic inflammation involves a persistent participation of TNF-α accompanied by a differently regulated contribution of IL-18. This leads to speculation that, though with still unclear mechanisms, both cytokines might take part in long-lasting modifications of brain functions, including behavioral alteration.

  6. Long-lasting effects of maternal separation on an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: effects on memory and hippocampal oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Luisa A; Alvares, Lucas O; Noschang, Cristie; Engelke, Douglas; Andreazza, Ana C; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto S; Quillfeldt, Jorge A; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-04-01

    Adverse early life events, such as periodic maternal separation, may alter the normal pattern of brain development and subsequently the vulnerability to a variety of mental disorders in adulthood. Patients with a history of early adversities show higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study was undertaken to verify if repeated long-term separation of pups from dams would affect memory and oxidative stress parameters after exposure to an animal model of PTSD. Nests of Wistar rats were divided into intact and subjected to maternal separation (incubator at 32°C, 3 h/day) during post-natal days 1-10. When adults, the animals were subdivided into exposed or not to a PTSD model consisting of exposure to inescapable footshock, followed by situational reminders. One month after exposure to the shock, the animals were exposed to a memory task (Morris water maze) and another month later animals were sacrificed and DNA breaks and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured in the hippocampus. Rats exposed to shock or maternal separation plus shock showed long-lasting effects on spatial memory, spending more time in the opposite quadrant of the water maze. This effect was higher in animals subjected to both maternal separation and shock. Both shock and maternal separation induced a higher score of DNA breaks in the hippocampus. No differences were observed on antioxidant enzymes activities. In conclusion, periodic maternal separation may increase the susceptibility to the effects of a stressor applied in adulthood on performance in the water maze. Increased DNA breaks in hippocampus was induced by both, maternal separation and exposure to shock.

  7. [A Case of Dengue Fever and Subsequent Long-lasting Depression Accompanied by Alopecia in a Japanese Traveler Returning from Bali, Indonesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitani, Akihiro; Yamaya, Waka; To, Masako; Kano, Ichino; Honda-Hosono, Natsue; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Haruki, Kosuke

    2015-03-01

    Recovery from dengue fever is generally rapid and uneventful. However, recuperation is often prolonged and may be accompanied by noticeable depression. We present herein on a traveler to Indonesia who developed long-lasting depression after the classic symptoms of dengue fever such as fever, arthralgia, and macropapular rash had resolved. A previously healthy 42-year old japanese woman presented to the Travel Clinic of Seirei Yokohama Hospital with complaints of 4 days of fever, joint aches, bone pain, and a macropapular rash on her torso. She had returned from Bali 5 days previously. During her 1-week stay, one day was spent in rural, mountainous areas where she was exposed to several mosquito bites. The 1st serum sample collected 4 days after the disease onset gave positive result in the rapid dengue IgM antibody test and the rapid dengue NS1 antigen immunechromatographic test. The DENV-1 genome was detected with RT-PCR. Her 13-year old son, who had accompanied her, was also diagnosed as having dengue fever and he recovered without event. The Above-mentioned symptoms resolved within one week. However, the patient suffered from prolonged depression. She also noticed loss of hair 3 months after the disease onset Administration of a Serotonin-Noradrenalin Reuptake Inhibitor and a minor tranquillizer required to allow her requied to lead a normal life. Although she gradually felt better, it took approximately 2 years until she had recovered completely without taking any antidepressant and minor tranquillizer. It is a well-known fact in endemic countries that dengue fever could have an significant impact on the patients' mental well-being. However, it appears that physicians in non-endemic countries are not fully aware of the prolonged depression, which can occur subsequent to the acute illness. Follow-up consultations of returing travelers who have recoverd from dengu fever should be arranged to monitor their mental and emotional states closely.

  8. Social determinants of long lasting insecticidal hammock use among the Ra-glai ethnic minority in Vietnam: implications for forest malaria control.

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    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (LLIHs are being evaluated as an additional malaria prevention tool in settings where standard control strategies have a limited impact. This is the case among the Ra-glai ethnic minority communities of Ninh Thuan, one of the forested and mountainous provinces of Central Vietnam where malaria morbidity persist due to the sylvatic nature of the main malaria vector An. dirus and the dependence of the population on the forest for subsistence--as is the case for many impoverished ethnic minorities in Southeast Asia. METHODS: A social science study was carried out ancillary to a community-based cluster randomized trial on the effectiveness of LLIHs to control forest malaria. The social science research strategy consisted of a mixed methods study triangulating qualitative data from focused ethnography and quantitative data collected during a malariometric cross-sectional survey on a random sample of 2,045 study participants. RESULTS: To meet work requirements during the labor intensive malaria transmission and rainy season, Ra-glai slash and burn farmers combine living in government supported villages along the road with a second home at their fields located in the forest. LLIH use was evaluated in both locations. During daytime, LLIH use at village level was reported by 69.3% of all respondents, and in forest fields this was 73.2%. In the evening, 54.1% used the LLIHs in the villages, while at the fields this was 20.7%. At night, LLIH use was minimal, regardless of the location (village 4.4%; forest 6.4%. DISCUSSION: Despite the free distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and LLIHs, around half the local population remains largely unprotected when sleeping in their forest plot huts. In order to tackle forest malaria more effectively, control policies should explicitly target forest fields where ethnic minority farmers are more vulnerable to malaria.

  9. Dendritic cells pulsed with a tumor-specific peptide induce long-lasting immunity and are effective against murine intracerebral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimberger, Amy B; Archer, Gary E; Crotty, Laura E; McLendon, Roger E; Friedman, Allan H; Friedman, Henry S; Bigner, Darell D; Sampson, John H

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized cells of the immune system that are capable of generating potent immune responses that are active even within the "immunologically privileged" central nervous system. However, immune responses generated by DCs have also been demonstrated to produce clinically significant autoimmunity. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII), which is a mutation specific to tumor tissue, could eliminate this risk. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that DC-based immunizations directed solely against this tumor-specific antigen, which is commonly found on tumors that originate within or metastasize to the brain, could be efficacious. C3H mice were vaccinated with DCs mixed with a keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate of the tumor-specific peptide, PEP-3, which spans the EGFRvIII mutation, or the random-sequence peptide, PEP-1, and were intracerebrally challenged with a syngeneic melanoma expressing a murine homologue of EGFRvIII. Systemic immunization with DCs mixed with PEP-3-keyhole limpet hemocyanin generated antigen-specific immunity. Among mice challenged with intracerebral tumors, this resulted in an approximately 600% increase in the median survival time (>300 d, P < 0.0016), relative to control values. Sixty-three percent of mice treated with DCs mixed with the tumor-specific peptide survived in the long term and 100% survived rechallenge with tumor, indicating that antitumor immunological memory was also induced. In a murine melanoma model, immunization with DCs mixed with tumor-specific peptide results in an antigen-specific immunological response that recognizes the EGFRvIII mutation, has potent antitumor efficacy against intracerebral tumors that express EGFRvIII, and results in long-lasting antitumor immunity.

  10. Effectiveness of a new long-lasting insecticidal nets delivery model in two rural districts of Mozambique: a before-after study.

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    Arroz, Jorge A H; Candrinho, Baltazar; Mendis, Chandana; Varela, Pablo; Pinto, João; Martins, Maria do Rosário O

    2018-02-05

    In 2015, Mozambique piloted a new model of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) delivery in a campaign. The new delivery model was used in two rural districts were, and two others were considered as control, maintaining the old delivery model. The aim of this study is to compare the coverage of ownership and use of LLINs in intervention and control districts in Mozambique. A before-after design with control group was carried out 6 months after LLINs distribution. Using systematic probabilistic sampling, 1547 households were surveyed by means of a questionnaire. To find associations between the district categories (intervention and control) and the main outcomes of the study (LLIN ownership, use, and universal coverage achievement), odds ratio (OR) and respective confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 760 households surveyed in the intervention districts, 98.8% had at least one LLIN; of the 787 households surveyed in the control districts, 89.6% had at least one LLIN [OR: 9.7, 95% (CI 4.84-19.46)]. Around 95 and 87% of households owning at least one LLIN reported having slept under the LLIN the previous night in the intervention and control districts, respectively [OR: 3.2; 95% (CI 2.12-4.69)]. Seventy-one percent of the households surveyed achieved universal coverage in the intervention districts against 59.6% in the control districts [OR: 1.6; 95% (CI 1.33-2.03)]. The universal coverage campaign piloted with the new delivery model has increased LLINs ownership, use, and progression for reaching universal coverage targets in the community.

  11. Implementation strategies to increase access and demand of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a before-and-after study and scale-up process in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroz, Jorge A H; Mendis, Chandana; Pinto, Liliana; Candrinho, Baltazar; Pinto, João; Martins, Maria do Rosário O

    2017-10-25

    The universal coverage bed nets campaign is a proven health intervention promoting increased access, ownership, and use of bed nets to reduce malaria burden. This article describes the intervention and implementation strategies that Mozambique carried out recently in order to improve access and increase demand for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). A before-and-after study with a control group was used during Stage I of the implementation process. The following strategies were tested in Stage I: (1) use of coupons during household registration; (2) use of stickers to identify the registered households; (3) new LLIN ascription formula (one LLIN for every two people). In Stage II, the following additional strategies were implemented: (4) mapping and micro-planning; (5) training; and (6) supervision. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to compare and establish differences between intervened and control districts in Stage I. Main outcomes were: percentage of LLINs distributed, percentage of target households benefited. In Stage I, 87.8% (302,648) of planned LLINs were distributed in the intervention districts compared to 77.1% (219,613) in the control districts [OR: 2.14 (95% CI 2.11-2.16)]. Stage I results also showed that 80.6% (110,453) of households received at least one LLIN in the intervention districts compared to 72.8% (87,636) in the control districts [OR: 1.56 (95% CI 1.53-1.59)]. In Stage II, 98.4% (3,536,839) of the allocated LLINs were delivered, covering 98.6% (1,353,827) of the registered households. Stage I results achieved better LLINs and household coverage in districts with the newly implemented strategies. The results of stage II were also encouraging. Additional strategies adaptation is required for a wide-country LLIN campaign.

  12. Long-lasting alterations in membrane properties, K+ currents and glutamatergic synaptic currents of nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons in a rat model of alcohol dependence

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    Igor eSpigelman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure causes marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state that are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Although the NAcc plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroadaptive changes in NAcc function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE treatment, a rat model of alcohol withdrawal and dependence, on intrinsic electrical membrane properties and glutamatergic synaptic transmission of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the NAcc core during protracted withdrawal. We show that CIE treatment followed by prolonged withdrawal increased the inward rectification of MSNs observed at hyperpolarized potentials. In addition, MSNs from CIE-treated animals displayed a lower input resistance, faster action potentials (APs and larger fast afterhyperpolarizations (fAHPs than MSNs from vehicle-treated animals, all suggestive of increases in K+-channel conductances. Significant increases in the Cs+-sensitive inwardly-rectifying K+-current accounted for the increased input resistance, while increases in the A-type K+-current accounted for the faster APs and increased fAHPs in MSNs from CIE rats. We also show that the amplitude and the conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR-mediated mEPSCs were enhanced in CIE-treated animals due to an increase in a small fraction of functional postsynaptic GluA2-lacking AMPARs. These long-lasting modifications of excitability and excitatory synaptic receptor function of MSNs in the NAcc core could play a critical role in the neuroadaptive changes underlying alcohol withdrawal and dependence.

  13. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis; Imagerie de l`encephalite limbique paraneoplastique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-09-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors). 10 refs.

  14. Limbic encephalitis and antibodies to Ma2: a paraneoplastic presentation of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, I; Winer, J; Rowlands, D; Dalmau, J

    2000-08-01

    A patient with atypical medullary breast cancer is described who presented with symptoms of limbic encephalitis. The patient's serum and CSF contained antibodies that reacted with the nervous system and the tumour. These antibodies recognised Ma2, a neuronal protein related to paraneoplastic limbic and brainstem encephalitis in men with testicular tumours. This report highlights the importance of testing for paraneoplastic antineuronal antibodies in cases of unexplained limbic encephalitis and suggests screening for breast cancer in women with antibodies predominantly directed to Ma2.

  15. Treatment of VGKC complex antibody-associated limbic encephalitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radja, Guirindhra Koumar; Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune neuropsychiatric condition characterized by subacute cognitive symptoms, seizures, and affective changes. Although limbic encephalitis is usually caused by an immune reaction secondary to neoplasms, different types of potentially treatable non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (nPLE) have recently been described. In particular, published studies have reported variable responses to immunosuppressive therapy in Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel (VGKC) complex antibody-associated nPLE. This systematic literature review found that the most significant improvements were reported by patients presenting with affective symptoms and consistent neuroradiological changes. In these patients, improved clinical outcomes correlated with the largest decreases in antibody titers.

  16. The effect of holes in long-lasting insecticidal nets on malaria in Malawi: results from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minta, Anna A; Landman, Keren Z; Mwandama, Dyson A; Shah, Monica P; Eng, Jodi L Vanden; Sutcliffe, James F; Chisaka, Joseph; Lindblade, Kim A; Mathanga, Don P; Steinhardt, Laura C

    2017-10-02

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are a cornerstone of malaria prevention. Holes develop in LLINs over time and compromise their physical integrity, but how holes affect malaria transmission risk is not well known. After a nationwide mass LLIN distribution in July 2012, a study was conducted to assess the relationship between LLIN damage and malaria. From March to September 2013, febrile children ages 6-59 months who consistently slept under LLINs (every night for 2 weeks before illness onset) were enrolled in a case-control study at Machinga District Hospital outpatient department. Cases were positive for Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasites by microscopy while controls were negative. Digital photographs of participants' LLINs were analysed using an image-processing programme to measure holes. Total hole area was classified by quartiles and according to the World Health Organization's proportionate hole index (pHI) cut-offs [ 790 cm 2 (too torn)]. Number of holes by location and size, and total hole area, were compared between case and control LLINs using non-parametric analyses and logistic regression. Of 248 LLINs analysed, 97 (39%) were from cases. Overall, 86% of LLINs had at least one hole. The median number of holes of any size was 9 [interquartile range (IQR) 3, 22], and most holes were located in the lower halves of the nets [median 7 (IQR 2, 16)]. There were no differences in number or location of holes between LLINs used by cases and controls. The median total hole area was 10 cm 2 (IQR 2, 125) for control LLINs and 8 cm 2 (IQR 2, 47) for case LLINs (p = 0.10). Based on pHI, 109 (72%) control LLINs and 83 (86%) case LLINs were in "good" condition. Multivariable modeling showed no association between total hole area and malaria, controlling for child age, caregiver education, and iron versus thatched roof houses. LLIN holes were not associated with increased odds of malaria in this study. However, most of the LLINs were in relatively good

  17. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil's Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Marques, Marcia J; Reyes-Garcia, Selvin Z; Marques-Carneiro, José E; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B; Andersen, Monica L; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A; Scorza, Carla A

    2018-01-01

    that LTP decays rapidly over time reaching basal levels at 90 min after theta-burst stimulation in Proechimys , contrasting to the stable LTP found in the Wistar rats which was observed throughout 3-h recording period. These findings suggest a link between the LTP decay and the lack of 24-h long-lasting memory process in Proechimys . Nevertheless, why early-phase LTP in Proechimys decays very rapidly remains to be elucidated.

  18. Individual and household factors associated with ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets and malaria infection in south-central Ethiopia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deressa, Wakgari

    2017-10-06

    A recent considerable decline in malaria morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is likely to be followed by changes in the practice of effective preventive measures and malaria risk factors. This study aimed to identify determinants of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) ownership and risk of malaria infection. A matched case-control study of 191 case and 377 control households was conducted between October 2014 and November 2015 in Adami Tullu district in south-central Ethiopia. Cases were microscopy or rapid diagnostic test confirmed malaria patients identified at three health centers and nine health posts, and matched on age with two neighbourhood controls. Information was collected on socio-demographic factors, house structure, knowledge on malaria and ownership of LLINs. The logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of LLINs ownership and malaria infection. All cases were infections due to either Plasmodium falciparum (71.2%) or Plasmodium vivax (28.8%). About 31% of the study households had at least one LLINs. Significant determinants of LLINs ownership were household's head malaria knowledge [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-4.22], educational status [read and write (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI 2.30-20.55), primary education or higher (AOR = 5.40, 95% CI 1.57-18.55)], farmer respondent (AOR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.76), having ≥ 3 sleeping areas (AOR = 6.71, 95% CI 2.40-18.77) and corrugated roof type (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.36-4.58). This study was unable to identify important risk factors of malaria infection with regard to sex, household wealth index, house structure, ownership of LLINs, keeping livestock inside house, staying overnight outdoor or having malaria during the last 6 months. Household socio-economic status, educational status and knowledge on malaria were important predictors of LLINs ownership. Households with farmer respondents were less likely to own LLINs. Addressing these factors

  19. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for controlling forest malaria: a community-based trial in a rural area of central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Duc Thang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, malaria remains a problem in some remote areas located along its international borders and in the central highlands, partly due to the bionomics of the local vector, mainly found in forested areas and less vulnerable to standard control measures. Long Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks (LLIH, a tailored and user-friendly tool for forest workers, may further contribute in reducing the malaria burden. Their effectiveness was tested in a large community-based intervention trial carried out in Ninh Thuan province in Central Vietnam.Thirty villages (population 18,646 were assembled in 20 clusters (1,000 individuals per cluster that were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group (no LLIH after stratification according to the pre-intervention P. falciparum antibody prevalence ( or =30%. LLIH were distributed to the intervention group in December 2004. For the following 2 years, the incidence of clinical malaria and the prevalence of infection were determined by passive case detection at community level and by bi-annual malariometric surveys. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the intervention as compared to the control group was observed. Similarly, malaria prevalence decreased more substantially in the intervention (1.6-fold greater reduction than in the control group. Both for incidence and prevalence, a stronger and earlier effect of the intervention was observed in the high endemicity stratum. The number of malaria cases and infections averted by the intervention overall was estimated at 10.5 per 1,000 persons and 5.6/100 individuals, respectively, for the last half of 2006. In the high endemicity stratum, the impact was much higher, i.e. 29/1000 malaria cases and 15.7 infections/100 individuals averted.LLIH reduced malaria incidence and prevalence in this remote and forested area of Central Vietnam. As the targets of the newly-launched Global Malaria Action Plan include the 75% reduction of the global

  20. Changes in malaria burden and transmission in sentinel sites after the roll-out of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Reimer, Lisa J; Gideon, Gibson; Koimbu, Gussy; Barnadas, Céline; Makita, Leo; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo

    2016-06-14

    Papua New Guinea exhibits a complex malaria epidemiology due to diversity in malaria parasites, mosquito vectors, human hosts, and their natural environment. Heterogeneities in transmission and burden of malaria at various scales are likely to affect the success of malaria control interventions, and vice-versa. This manuscript assesses changes in malaria prevalence, incidence and transmission in sentinel sites following the first national distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Before and after the distribution of LLINs, data collection in six purposively selected sentinel sites included clinical surveillance in the local health facility, household surveys and entomological surveys. Not all activities were carried out in all sites. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches. Diagnosis of malaria infection in humans was done by rapid diagnostic test, light microscopy and PCR for species confirmation. Following the roll-out of LLINs, the average monthly malaria incidence rate dropped from 13/1,000 population to 2/1,000 (incidence rate ratio = 0.12; 95 % CI: 0.09-0.17; P < 0.001). The average population prevalence of malaria decreased from 15.7 % pre-LLIN to 4.8 % post-LLIN (adjusted odds ratio = 0.26; 95 % CI: 0.20-0.33; P < 0.001). In general, reductions in incidence and prevalence were more pronounced in infections with P. falciparum than with P. vivax. Additional morbidity indicators (anaemia, splenomegaly, self-reported fever) showed a decreasing trend in most sites. Mean Anopheles man biting rates decreased from 83 bites/person/night pre-LLIN to 31 post-LLIN (P = 0.008). Anopheles species composition differed between sites but everywhere diversity was lower post-LLIN. In two sites, post-LLIN P. vivax infections in anophelines had decreased but P. falciparum infections had increased despite the opposite observation in humans. LLIN distribution had distinct effects on P. falciparum and P. vivax. Higher resilience of

  1. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil’s Amazon Rainforest

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    Marcia J. Guimarães Marques

    2018-01-01

    recordings revealed that LTP decays rapidly over time reaching basal levels at 90 min after theta-burst stimulation in Proechimys, contrasting to the stable LTP found in the Wistar rats which was observed throughout 3-h recording period. These findings suggest a link between the LTP decay and the lack of 24-h long-lasting memory process in Proechimys. Nevertheless, why early-phase LTP in Proechimys decays very rapidly remains to be elucidated.

  2. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil’s Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Marques, Marcia J.; Reyes-Garcia, Selvin Z.; Marques-Carneiro, José E.; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B.; Andersen, Monica L.; Cavalheiro, Esper A.; Scorza, Fulvio A.; Scorza, Carla A.

    2018-01-01

    that LTP decays rapidly over time reaching basal levels at 90 min after theta-burst stimulation in Proechimys, contrasting to the stable LTP found in the Wistar rats which was observed throughout 3-h recording period. These findings suggest a link between the LTP decay and the lack of 24-h long-lasting memory process in Proechimys. Nevertheless, why early-phase LTP in Proechimys decays very rapidly remains to be elucidated. PMID:29410617

  3. Gz mediates the long-lasting desensitization of brain CB1 receptors and is essential for cross-tolerance with morphine

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    Rodríguez-Muñoz María

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the systemic administration of cannabinoids produces antinociception, their chronic use leads to analgesic tolerance as well as cross-tolerance to morphine. These effects are mediated by cannabinoids binding to peripheral, spinal and supraspinal CB1 and CB2 receptors, making it difficult to determine the relevance of each receptor type to these phenomena. However, in the brain, the CB1 receptors (CB1Rs are expressed at high levels in neurons, whereas the expression of CB2Rs is marginal. Thus, CB1Rs mediate the effects of smoked cannabis and are also implicated in emotional behaviors. We have analyzed the production of supraspinal analgesia and the development of tolerance at CB1Rs by the direct injection of a series of cannabinoids into the brain. The influence of the activation of CB1Rs on supraspinal analgesia evoked by morphine was also evaluated. Results Intracerebroventricular (icv administration of cannabinoid receptor agonists, WIN55,212-2, ACEA or methanandamide, generated a dose-dependent analgesia. Notably, a single administration of these compounds brought about profound analgesic tolerance that lasted for more than 14 days. This decrease in the effect of cannabinoid receptor agonists was not mediated by depletion of CB1Rs or the loss of regulated G proteins, but, nevertheless, it was accompanied by reduced morphine analgesia. On the other hand, acute morphine administration produced tolerance that lasted only 3 days and did not affect the CB1R. We found that both neural mu-opioid receptors (MORs and CB1Rs interact with the HINT1-RGSZ module, thereby regulating pertussis toxin-insensitive Gz proteins. In mice with reduced levels of these Gz proteins, the CB1R agonists produced no such desensitization or morphine cross-tolerance. On the other hand, experimental enhancement of Gz signaling enabled an acute icv administration of morphine to produce a long-lasting tolerance at MORs that persisted for more than

  4. Synergistic insecticidal and repellent effects of combined pyrethroid and repellent-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating multi-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Nehring, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    New and improved strategies for malaria control and prevention are urgently needed. As a contribution to an optimized personal protection strategy, a novel long-lasting insecticide and repellent-treated net (LLIRN) has been designed by binding combinations of permethrin plus N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or insect repellent 3535 (IR3535), and etofenprox plus DEET, onto fibres of bed net fabric employing a new multi-layer polymer-coating technique. Protective repellent efficacy, toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of 12 LLIRN types have been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti. The novel multi-layer LLIRN design allowed simultaneous embedding at concentrations up to 5,930 mg/m(2) for DEET, 3,408 mg/m(2) for IR3535, 2,296 mg/m(2) for permethrin and 2,349 mg/m(2) for etofenprox, respectively. IR3535 layers prevented co-binding of additional pyrethroid-containing polymer layers, thus making pyrethroids plus DEET LLIRNs an ideal combination. All LLIRNs revealed synergistic insecticidal effects which, when measured against concentration controls of the isolated compounds, were significant in all LLIRN types designed. DEET in DEET plus permethrin LLIRNs significantly (p time from 55 to 75 %, the corresponding 100 % kill time (p time of etofenprox from 42 to 50 % (p = 0.004), the 100 % kill time from 25 to 38 % (p biting protection, even at low concentrations. One hundred percent biting and probing protection of stored LLIRNs was preserved for 83 weeks with the 5,930 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,139 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 72 weeks with the 5,002 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,349 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 63 weeks with the 3,590 mg/m(2) DEET and 1,208 mg/m(2) permethrin LLRN, and for 61 weeks with the 4,711 mg/m(2) DEET and 702 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN. Because 100 % bite protection with up to 75 % quicker contact toxicity of pyrethroids were documented, synergistic toxicological and repellent effects of multi-layer polymer

  5. Traditional nets interfere with the uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the Peruvian Amazon: the relevance of net preference for achieving high coverage and use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru.The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses.A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2% than in those with walls (73.8% (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001.Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent, appropriate quantitative and qualitative

  6. Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, D K; Basu, S S; Roy, D; Das, N; Akbar, F; Sarkar, G N

    2016-03-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is considered to be a highly effective intervention against malaria under National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme in India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the coverage and utilization of LLIN and the factors related thereto. A survey of 1300 households was carried out in Ranibandh block of Bankura district in West Bengal, India, using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method. Coverage/utilization of 80% was considered as minimum acceptable norm. The weighted sample size was calculated from each village of the block. The sociodemographic, economic information of the household along with the availability and use of LLIN was collected through interview and observation. In total, 7320 individuals including 840 children ≤ 5 yr were visited. Overall coverage of adequate LLIN was 65.4% (± 1.5%) and for children ≤ 5 yr, it was 60.5% (± 1.3%). Overall, 66.1% (± 1.4%) people of all ages and 63.7% (± 1.4%) children ≤ 5 yr slept under LLINs in the night before the survey. Out of 26 sub-centres, distribution of LLINs in 10 sub-centres was below the accepted norm, whereas utilization was sub-optimal in 19 sub-centres. In only 18.2% (± 0.5%) households, LLINs remained hanging during daytime. Poverty, caste, education, perception regarding malarial morbidity and preventive action of LLIN were associated significantly with the distribution of LLIN. Similarly, poverty (AOR = 2.14), threat perception regarding malarial morbidity (AOR = 1.51) and mortality (AOR = 2.52) were positively associated with the use of LLIN. Full utilization of bednets by under-fives of the households was higher in villages with sub-centres. Around two-third population of the study area was effectively covered with LLIN. Higher proportion of socially marginalized people received LLIN. Threat perception regarding malaria was directly associated with both receipt and use of LLIN. Behaviour change communication on utilization along

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccinating children in Malawi with RTS,S vaccines in comparison with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mikyung Kelly; Baker, Peter; Ngo, Karen Ngoc-Lan

    2014-02-24

    New RTS,S malaria vaccines may soon be licensed, yet its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Before the widespread introduction of RTS,S vaccines, cost-effectiveness studies are needed to help inform governments in resource-poor settings about how best to prioritize between the new vaccine and existing malaria interventions. A Markov model simulated malaria progression in a hypothetical Malawian birth cohort. Parameters were based on published data. Three strategies were compared: no intervention, vaccination at one year, and long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) at birth. Both health service and societal perspectives were explored. Health outcomes were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and costed in 2012 US$. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and extensive sensitivity analyses were conducted. Three times GDP per capita ($1,095) per DALY averted was used for a cost-effectiveness threshold, whilst one times GDP ($365) was considered 'very cost-effective'. From a societal perspective the vaccine strategy was dominant. It averted 0.11 more DALYs than LLINs and 0.372 more DALYs than the no intervention strategy per person, while costing $10.04 less than LLINs and $59.74 less than no intervention. From a health service perspective the vaccine's ICER was $145.03 per DALY averted, and thus can be considered very cost-effective. The results were robust to changes in all variables except the vaccine and LLINs' duration of efficacy. Vaccines remained cost-effective even at the lowest assumed efficacy levels of 49.6% (mild malaria) and 14.2% (severe malaria), and the highest price of $15. However, from a societal perspective, if the vaccine duration efficacy was set below 2.69 years or the LLIN duration of efficacy was greater than 4.24 years then LLINs became the more cost-effective strategy. The results showed that vaccinating Malawian children with RTS,S vaccines was very cost-effective from both a societal and a

  8. "We are supposed to take care of it": a qualitative examination of care and repair behaviour of long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gabrielle C; Scandurra, Leah; Acosta, Angela; Koenker, Hannah; Obi, Emmanuel; Weber, Rachel

    2014-08-14

    The longevity of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) under field conditions has important implications for malaria vector control. The behaviour of bed net users, including net care and repair, may protect or damage bed nets and impact the physical integrity of nets. However, this behaviour, and the motivating and inhibiting factors, is not well understood. Qualitative research methods were used to examine behaviour, attitudes and norms around damage, care and repair of LLINs. Eighteen in-depth interviews (IDI) and six focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with LLIN users in two local government areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A brief background questionnaire with the 73 participants prior to IDIs or FGDs collected additional data on demographics, net use, and care and repair behaviour. Respondents cited that the major causes of damage to bed nets are primarily children, followed by rodents, everyday handling that is not gentle, and characteristics of sleeping spaces. Caring for nets was perceived as both preventing damage by careful handling and keeping the net clean, which may lead to over-washing of LLINs. Repairing a damaged net was considered something that net users should do and the responsibility of adults in the household. Despite this, reported frequency of net repair was low (18%). Motivations for taking care of and repairing nets centred around caring for one's family, avoiding mosquito bites, saving money, and maintaining the positive opinion of others by keeping a clean and intact net. Barriers to net care and repair related to time availability and low perceived value of bed nets or of one's health. This study provides novel and valuable insights on the perceptions and attitudes of LLIN users in Nasarawa, Nigeria on the durability of bed nets, how to care for and repair nets, and for what reasons. Communication around net care should stress proper daily storage of nets, regular net inspections, prompt repairs, and clarify misconceptions

  9. Limbic Encephalitis in Taiwanese Children and Adolescence: A Single Center Study

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    I-Jun Chou

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: This study provides evidence for a potential association between antibodies and limbic encephalitis. The presence of antibodies, especially antibodies to GAD, may serve as an indicator for immunotherapy.

  10. Autoimmune neurological syndromes associated limbic encephalitis and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayas, Zeynep Özözen; Kotan, Dilcan; Aras, Yeşim Güzey

    2016-10-06

    Autoimmune neurological syndrome is a group of disorders caused by cancer affecting nervous system by different immunological mechanisms. In this study, we aim to study the clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, autoantibody tests, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs and treatment outcome of patients with autoimmune syndromes. In this study, 7 patients (4 male, 3 female) diagnosed with autoimmune neurological syndrome were retrospectively examined. Five of patients were diagnosed with limbic encephalitis, two of them were paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. Confusion and seizure were the most seen symptoms. Two patients had psychiatric disturbances (28,5%) followed by seizure. Headache was seen in 2 patients (% 28,5), disartria in 1 patient (% 14,2), and gait disorder in 2 patients (28,5%). The duration of symptoms was 46 (3-150) days on average. CSF abnormalities were detected in 2 patients. CT and MRI of the brain was available in all patients. Five patients had involvement of mesiotemporal region, two patients had diffuse cerebellar atrophy. One of patients had anti-GABAR B1 positivity. Tumors were detected in 2 patients while investigation for paraneoplasia screening. Remission is only possible with the detection and treatment of the malignancy. Early diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pitfalls in diagnosing limbic encephalitis - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerling, F; Blümcke, I; Stefan, H

    2008-11-01

    The syndrome of limbic encephalitis (LE) is characterized by subacute onset of temporal lobe epilepsy, loss of short-term memory, cognitive confusion and psychiatric symptoms. We report a patient with pharmacoresistant epilepsy who underwent presurgical video-electroencephalogram (EEG)-monitoring with normal psychiatric and neuropsychological findings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a hyperintense lesion within the right amygdala but no contrast enhancement. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis and positive oligoclonal bands, but all tests for neurotropic viruses or borrelia antibodies were negative. Presurgical evaluation identified a right mesiotemporal focus. As a tumour was the most likely differential diagnosis, we performed selective amygdalohippocampectomy of the right hemisphere. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed the surprising diagnosis of LE. As a consequence, tumour screening was initiated and a testicular carcinoma with high anti-Ma2-antibody titres was detected. Following surgical and chemotherapeutical treatment, the patient was seizure-free and Ma2-antibodies decreased below detection limits. Conclusion - This case report highlights that LE has to be considered even in patients with atypical clinical presentation, i.e. without neuropsychological deficits, if CSF analysis reveals an inflammatory response. When LE is diagnosed, extensive tumour search is mandatory to detect and treat the paraneoplastic origin of LE. Therapeutic strategies of LE include surgical treatment as well as early immunosuppression.

  12. Failure to Recover from Proactive Semantic Interference and Abnormal Limbic Connectivity in Asymptomatic, Middle-Aged Offspring of Patients with Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Stella M; Abulafia, Carolina; Duarte-Abritta, Barbara; de Guevara, M Soledad Ladrón; Castro, Mariana N; Drucaroff, Lucas; Sevlever, Gustavo; Nemeroff, Charles B; Vigo, Daniel E; Loewenstein, David A; Villarreal, Mirta F; Guinjoan, Salvador M

    2017-01-01

    We have obtained previous evidence of limbic dysfunction in middle-aged, asymptomatic offspring of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) patients, and failure to recover from proactive semantic interference has been shown to be a sensitive cognitive test in other groups at risk for LOAD. To assess the effects of specific proactive semantic interference deficits as they relate to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neocortical and limbic functional connectivity in middle aged offspring of individuals with LOAD (O-LOAD) and age-equivalent controls. We examined 21 O-LOAD and 20 controls without family history of neurodegenerative disorders (CS) on traditional measures of cognitive functioning and the LASSI-L, a novel semantic interference test uniquely sensitive to the failure to recover from proactive interference (frPSI). Cognitive tests then were correlated to fMRI connectivity of seeds located in entorhinal cortex and anterodorsal thalamic nuclei among O-LOAD and CS participants. Relative to CS, O-LOAD participants evidenced lower connectivity between entorhinal cortex and orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, and anterior temporal cortex. In the offspring of LOAD patients, LASSI-L measures of frPSI were inversely associated with connectivity between anterodorsal thalamus and contralateral posterior cingulate. Intrusions on the task related to frPSI were inversely correlated with a widespread connectivity network involving hippocampal, insular, posterior cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, along with precunei and anterior thalamus in this group. Different patterns of connectivity associated with frPSI were observed among controls. The present results suggest that both semantic interference deficits and connectivity abnormalities might reflect limbic circuit dysfunction as a very early clinical signature of LOAD pathology, as previously demonstrated for other limbic phenotypes, such as sleep and circadian alterations.

  13. Neuroticism is linked to microstructural left-right asymmetry of fronto-limbic fibre tracts in adolescents with opposite effects in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Jernigan, Terry L; Vestergaard, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Baaré, William F C

    2018-06-01

    Neuroticism is a fundamental personality trait that reflects a tendency to experience heightened negative affect and susceptibility to stress. Negative emotionality has been associated with fronto-limbic brain structures and connecting fibre tracts. The major fibre tracts connecting the frontal and limbic brain regions are the cingulum bundle and uncinate fasciculus. We previously found that healthy adults with higher neuroticism scores had decreased left relative to right fractional anisotropy (FA) of the cingulum. Both cingulum and uncinate fasciculus FA increases throughout childhood and into early adulthood. Since adolescence is associated with an increased incidence of anxiety and mood disorders, for which neuroticism is a known risk factor, the question arises whether the association between neuroticism and fronto-limbic white matter microstructure asymmetry is already present in children and adolescents or whether such relationship emerges during this age period. To address this question, we assessed 72 typically-developing 10-to-15 year-olds with diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner. Neuroticism was assessed with the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. FA and parallel and perpendicular diffusivity measures were extracted for cingulum, uncinate fasciculus as well as the white matter underlying the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Higher neuroticism scores were associated with decreased left relative to right cingulum FA in boys, while in girls, higher neuroticism scores were associated with increased left relative to right cingulum and ventromedial prefrontal white matter FA, indicating that there are sex differences in the neural correlates of neuroticism. Our findings suggest that the link between neuroticism and frontal-limbic white matter microstructure asymmetry likely predates early adolescence. Future studies need to elucidate the significance of the observed sex differences in the neural correlates of neuroticism

  14. Focal CA3 hippocampal subfield atrophy following LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody limbic encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, T; Chong, T; Aimola Davies, A; Ng, T; Johnson, M; Irani, S; Vincent, A; Husain, M; Jacob, S; Maddison, P; Kennard, C; Gowland, P; Rosenthal, C

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has linked chronic voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis with generalized hippocampal atrophy. However, autoantibodies bind to specific rodent hippocampal subfields. Here, human hippocampal subfield (subiculum, cornu ammonis 1-3, and dentate gyrus) targets of immunomodulation-treated LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis were investigated using in vivo ultra-high resolution (0.39 × 0....

  15. Limbic encephalitis and antibodies to Ma2: a paraneoplastic presentation of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, I.; Winer, J.; Rowlands, D.; Dalmau, J.

    2000-01-01

    A patient with atypical medullary breast cancer is described who presented with symptoms of limbic encephalitis. The patient's serum and CSF contained antibodies that reacted with the nervous system and the tumour. These antibodies recognised Ma2, a neuronal protein related to paraneoplastic limbic and brainstem encephalitis in men with testicular tumours. This report highlights the importance of testing for paraneoplastic antineuronal antibodies in cases of unexplained l...

  16. Implications of bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides when indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide nets are combined for malaria prevention

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    Okumu Fredros O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bio-efficacy and residual activity of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs were assessed against laboratory-reared and wild populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis in south eastern Tanzania. Implications of the findings are examined in the context of potential synergies and redundancies where IRS and LLINs are combined. Methods Bioassays were conducted monthly for six months on three LLIN types (Olyset® PermaNet 2.0®,and Icon Life® and three IRS treatments (2 g/m2 pirimiphos-methyl, 2 g/m2 DDT and 0.03 g/m2 lambda-cyhalothrin, sprayed on mud walls and palm ceilings of experimental huts. Tests used susceptible laboratory-reared An. arabiensis exposed in cones (nets and IRS or wire balls (nets only. Susceptibility of wild populations was assessed using WHO diagnostic concentrations and PCR for knock-down resistance (kdr genes. Results IRS treatments killed ≥ 85% of mosquitoes exposed on palm ceilings and ≥ 90% of those exposed on mud walls, but up to 50% of this toxicity decayed within 1–3 months, except for DDT. By 6th month, only 7.5%, 42.5% and 30.0% of mosquitoes died when exposed to ceilings sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl, DDT or lambda-cyhalothrin respectively, while 12.5%, 36.0% and 27.5% died after exposure to mud walls sprayed with the same insecticides. In wire-ball assays, mortality decreased from 98.1% in 1st month to 92.6% in 6th month in tests on PermaNet 2.0®, from 100% to 61.1% on Icon Life® and from 93.2% to 33.3% on Olyset® nets. In cone bioassays, mortality reduced from 92.8% in 1st month to 83.3% in 6th month on PermaNet 2.0®, from 96.9% to 43.80% on Icon Life® and from 85.6% to 14.6% on Olyset®. Wild An. arabiensis were 100% susceptible to DDT, 95.8% to deltamethrin, 90.2% to lambda cyhalothrin and 95.2% susceptible to permethrin. No kdr gene mutations were detected. Conclusions In bioassays where sufficient contact with

  17. Implications of bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides when indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide nets are combined for malaria prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Fredros O; Chipwaza, Beatrice; Madumla, Edith P; Mbeyela, Edgar; Lingamba, Geoffrey; Moore, Jason; Ntamatungro, Alex J; Kavishe, Deo R; Moore, Sarah J

    2012-11-19

    Bio-efficacy and residual activity of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) were assessed against laboratory-reared and wild populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis in south eastern Tanzania. Implications of the findings are examined in the context of potential synergies and redundancies where IRS and LLINs are combined. Bioassays were conducted monthly for six months on three LLIN types (Olyset® PermaNet 2.0®,and Icon Life®) and three IRS treatments (2 g/m2 pirimiphos-methyl, 2 g/m2 DDT and 0.03 g/m2 lambda-cyhalothrin, sprayed on mud walls and palm ceilings of experimental huts). Tests used susceptible laboratory-reared An. arabiensis exposed in cones (nets and IRS) or wire balls (nets only). Susceptibility of wild populations was assessed using WHO diagnostic concentrations and PCR for knock-down resistance (kdr) genes. IRS treatments killed ≥ 85% of mosquitoes exposed on palm ceilings and ≥ 90% of those exposed on mud walls, but up to 50% of this toxicity decayed within 1-3 months, except for DDT. By 6th month, only 7.5%, 42.5% and 30.0% of mosquitoes died when exposed to ceilings sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl, DDT or lambda-cyhalothrin respectively, while 12.5%, 36.0% and 27.5% died after exposure to mud walls sprayed with the same insecticides. In wire-ball assays, mortality decreased from 98.1% in 1st month to 92.6% in 6th month in tests on PermaNet 2.0®, from 100% to 61.1% on Icon Life® and from 93.2% to 33.3% on Olyset® nets. In cone bioassays, mortality reduced from 92.8% in 1st month to 83.3% in 6th month on PermaNet 2.0®, from 96.9% to 43.80% on Icon Life® and from 85.6% to 14.6% on Olyset®. Wild An. arabiensis were 100% susceptible to DDT, 95.8% to deltamethrin, 90.2% to lambda cyhalothrin and 95.2% susceptible to permethrin. No kdr gene mutations were detected. In bioassays where sufficient contact with treated surfaces is assured, LLINs and IRS kill high

  18. [Rasmussen encephalitis and non-herpetic acute limbic encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Kubota, Yuko; Yamasaki, Etsuko; Matsuda, Kazumi

    2008-03-01

    Rasmussen syndrome (RS) and non-herpetic acute limbic encephalitis (NHALE) have pathophysiological background related with autoimmunity to glutamate receptors (GluRs) after infections. RS and NHALE were reviewed, depending mainly on our recent studies. RS is the prototype of autoimmune-mediated epilepsy. In patients with RS, several kinds of autoantibodies against neuronal molecules, for example, GluR3, GluRepsilon2 (NMDA-R2B), etc., are reported. These autoantibodies are not specific for RS. About autoantibodies against GluR3, significance and stimulating effects to GluR3 are controversial. Autoantibodies against GluRepsilon2 were detected in all patients within six months from epilepsy onset, and in some patients at chronic stage. These data suggest that autoantibodies against GluRepsilon2 may be involved in the pathological mechanisms in the early stage, but we could not confirm the effect of the autoantibodies from RS patients on excitatory postsynaptic NMDA current using patch clump methods. However, anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in patients with SLE are reported to cross-react with n-terminal of GluRepsilon2, and cause neuronal apoptosis in rat hippocampus, ensuing memory impairment, and emotional behavior impairment in mice. Therefore, autoantibodies against GluRepsilon2 may contribute to the cognitive and behavioral changes in RS. Concerning about cellular immunity in RS, lymphocytes stimulating tests revealed peripheral lymphocytes sensitized by antigens containing GluRepsilon2. Cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) excreting Granzyme B were reported in resected brain tissue, and we confirmed the elevated levels of Granzyme B, not in sera, but in CSF. These data suggest that CTLs activated by infection invade into CNS, and recognize neural antigens, and excrete Granzyme B. The incidence of NHALE is 4.1/1 million/year in Japanese adults. Our study in 91 adult patients with NHALE revealed the following characteristics. Mean onset age was 35.2 +/- 16.9 years old

  19. Measures of Malaria Burden after Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution and Indoor Residual Spraying at Three Sites in Uganda: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katureebe, Agaba; Zinszer, Kate; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Charland, Katia; Kigozi, Ruth; Kilama, Maxwell; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Yeka, Adoke; Mawejje, Henry; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Donnelly, Martin J.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Lindsay, Steve W.; Staedke, Sarah G.; Smith, David L.; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are the primary vector control interventions used to prevent malaria in Africa. Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria control program. In Uganda, we measured changes in key malaria indicators following universal LLIN distribution in three sites, with the addition of IRS at one of these sites. Methods and Findings Comprehensive malaria surveillance was conducted from October 1, 2011, to March 31, 2016, in three sub-counties with relatively low (Walukuba), moderate (Kihihi), and high transmission (Nagongera). Between 2013 and 2014, universal LLIN distribution campaigns were conducted in all sites, and in December 2014, IRS with the carbamate bendiocarb was initiated in Nagongera. High-quality surveillance evaluated malaria metrics and mosquito exposure before and after interventions through (a) enhanced health-facility-based surveillance to estimate malaria test positivity rate (TPR), expressed as the number testing positive for malaria/number tested for malaria (number of children tested for malaria: Walukuba = 42,833, Kihihi = 28,790, and Nagongera = 38,690); (b) cohort studies to estimate the incidence of malaria, expressed as the number of episodes per person-year [PPY] at risk (number of children observed: Walukuba = 340, Kihihi = 380, and Nagongera = 361); and (c) entomology surveys to estimate household-level human biting rate (HBR), expressed as the number of female Anopheles mosquitoes collected per house-night of collection (number of households observed: Walukuba = 117, Kihihi = 107, and Nagongera = 107). The LLIN distribution campaign substantially increased LLIN coverage levels at the three sites to between 65.0% and 95.5% of households with at least one LLIN. In Walukuba, over the 28-mo post-intervention period

  20. Androgen Receptor (AR Gene (CAGn and (GGNn Length Polymorphisms and Symptoms in Young Males With Long-Lasting Adverse Effects After Finasteride Use Against Androgenic Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Cauci, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that short and/or long (CAGn and (GGNn repeats had different frequencies according to symptoms reported by patients with PFS, likely reflecting the vast array of genes modulated by the AR. This study showed a U-curvilinear profile of (CAGn repeats for skin dryness symptoms, where the two extremes exhibited a worse condition than medium repeats. Further studies are necessary to investigate the PFS pathophysiology using a precision medicine approach.

  1. The Strengthening Exercises in Shoulder Impingement trial (The SExSI-trial) investigating the effectiveness of a simple add-on shoulder strengthening exercise programme in patients with long-lasting subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Bandholm, Thomas; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal

    2018-01-01

    with pronounced and long-lasting SIS. However, the current rehabilitation of such strength impairments may be inadequate, with novel rehabilitation programmes including exercise therapy only improving external rotation strength by 4-13%. As these previous studies are the basis of current practice, this suggests...... that the strengthening component could be inadequate in the rehabilitation of these patients, and it seems likely that more emphasis should be placed on intensifying this part of the rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a programme consisting of progressive home...... with pronounced and long-lasting SIS, diagnosed using predefined criteria. Participants will be randomised to receive either an add-on intervention of progressive home-based resistance training using an elastic band in addition to usual care or usual care alone in a 1:1 allocation ratio. The randomisation...

  2. The effect of massage therapy and/or exercise therapy on subacute or long-lasting neck pain--the Stockholm neck trial (STONE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillgate, Eva; Bill, Anne-Sylvie; Côté, Pierre; Viklund, Peter; Peterson, Anna; Holm, Lena W

    2015-09-16

    Neck pain is a major health problem in populations worldwide and an economic burden in modern societies due to its high prevalence and costs in terms of health care expenditures and lost productivity. Massage and exercise therapy are widely used management options for neck pain. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding their effectiveness for subacute and long-lasting neck pain. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial aiming to determine the effect of massage and/or exercise therapy on subacute and long-lasting neck pain over the course of 1 year. A randomized controlled trial in which at least 600 study participants with subacute or long-lasting nonspecific neck pain will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of four treatment arms: massage therapy (A), exercise therapy (B), exercise therapy plus massage therapy (C) and advice to stay active (D). The study has an E-health approach, and study participants are being recruited through advertising with a mix of traditional and online marketing channels. Web-based self-report questionnaires measure the main outcomes at 7, 12, 26 and 52 weeks after inclusion. The primary outcomes are a clinically important improvement in pain intensity and pain-related disability at follow-up, measured with a modified version of the Chronic Pain Questionnaire (CPQ). The secondary outcomes are global improvement, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), sick leave, drug consumption and healthcare utilization. Adverse events are measured by questionnaires at return visits to the clinic, and automated text messages (SMSes) survey neck pain intensity and pain-related disability every week over one year. The results of this study will provide clinicians and stakeholders much needed knowledge to plan medical care for subacute and long-lasting neck pain disorders. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN01453590. Date of registration: 3 July 2014.

  3. Limbic system perfusion in Alzheimer's disease measured by MRI-coregistered HMPAO SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, David J.A.; Black, Sandra E.; Caldwell, Curtis B.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to perform a systematic, semi-quantitative analysis of limbic perfusion in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) using coregistered single-photon emission tomography (SPET) images aligned to magnetic resonance (MR) images. Limbic perfusion in 40 patients with mild to moderate AD was compared with that of 17 age-, sex-, and education-matched normal controls (NC). HMPAO SPET scans and 3D T1-weighted MR images were acquired for each subject. Structures of the limbic system (i.e. hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamus, hypothalamus, mamillary bodies, basal forebrain, septal area and cingulate, orbitofrontal and parahippocampal cortices) were traced on the MR images and transferred to the coregistered SPET scans. Perfusion ratios for all limbic regions were calculated relative to cerebellar perfusion. General linear model multivariate analysis revealed that, overall, limbic structures showed significant hypoperfusion (F=7.802, P 2 =0.695) in AD patients compared with NC. Greatest differences (d≥0.8) were found in the hippocampus, as well as all areas of the cingulate cortex. Significant relative hypoperfusion was also apparent in the parahippocampal cortex, amygdala/entorhinal cortex, septal area and anterior thalamus, all of which showed medium to large effect sizes (d=0.6-0.8). No significant relative perfusion differences were detected in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, mamillary bodies or orbitofrontal cortex. Logistic regression indicated that posterior cingulate cortex perfusion was able to discriminate AD patients from NC with 93% accuracy (95% sensitivity, 88% specificity). The current results suggest that most, but not all, limbic structures show significant relative hypoperfusion in AD. These findings validate previous post-mortem studies and could be useful in improving diagnostic accuracy, monitoring disease progression and evaluating potential treatment strategies in AD. (orig.)

  4. Limbic system perfusion in Alzheimer's disease measured by MRI-coregistered HMPAO SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callen, David J.A. [Institute of Medical Science, Research Program in Aging, Imaging, Sunnybrook and Women' s University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Black, Sandra E. [Cognitive Neurology Unit and Research Program in Aging, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, Research Program in Aging, Imaging, Sunnybrook and Women' s University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Caldwell, Curtis B. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre and University of Toronto, CN (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The goal of this study was to perform a systematic, semi-quantitative analysis of limbic perfusion in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) using coregistered single-photon emission tomography (SPET) images aligned to magnetic resonance (MR) images. Limbic perfusion in 40 patients with mild to moderate AD was compared with that of 17 age-, sex-, and education-matched normal controls (NC). HMPAO SPET scans and 3D T1-weighted MR images were acquired for each subject. Structures of the limbic system (i.e. hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamus, hypothalamus, mamillary bodies, basal forebrain, septal area and cingulate, orbitofrontal and parahippocampal cortices) were traced on the MR images and transferred to the coregistered SPET scans. Perfusion ratios for all limbic regions were calculated relative to cerebellar perfusion. General linear model multivariate analysis revealed that, overall, limbic structures showed significant hypoperfusion (F=7.802, P<0.00001, {eta}{sup 2}=0.695) in AD patients compared with NC. Greatest differences (d{>=}0.8) were found in the hippocampus, as well as all areas of the cingulate cortex. Significant relative hypoperfusion was also apparent in the parahippocampal cortex, amygdala/entorhinal cortex, septal area and anterior thalamus, all of which showed medium to large effect sizes (d=0.6-0.8). No significant relative perfusion differences were detected in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, mamillary bodies or orbitofrontal cortex. Logistic regression indicated that posterior cingulate cortex perfusion was able to discriminate AD patients from NC with 93% accuracy (95% sensitivity, 88% specificity). The current results suggest that most, but not all, limbic structures show significant relative hypoperfusion in AD. These findings validate previous post-mortem studies and could be useful in improving diagnostic accuracy, monitoring disease progression and evaluating potential treatment strategies in AD. (orig.)

  5. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis and possible narcolepsy in a patient with testicular cancer: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Joseph C.; Nadkarni, Mangala

    2003-01-01

    We describe a patient who presented with a clinical syndrome of limbic encephalitis, narcolepsy, and cataplexy. The anti-Ma2 antibody was positive. Although there was no mass on imaging, orchiectomy was performed in this patient, and testicular carcinoma was found. This is the first known case of limbic encephalitis and anti-Ma2 antibody to be associated with cataplexy and possible narcolepsy. Neurological symptoms precede the diagnosis of cancer in 50% of patients with paraneoplastic syndromes, and clinicians are therefore strongly advised to evaluate patients with neurological symptoms for this condition. PMID:12816728

  6. Baseline frontostriatal-limbic connectivity predicts reward-based memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Janne M; Dayan, Eran; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2014-12-01

    Reward mediates the acquisition and long-term retention of procedural skills in humans. Yet, learning under rewarded conditions is highly variable across individuals and the mechanisms that determine interindividual variability in rewarded learning are not known. We postulated that baseline functional connectivity in a large-scale frontostriatal-limbic network could predict subsequent interindividual variability in rewarded learning. Resting-state functional MRI was acquired in two groups of subjects (n = 30) who then trained on a visuomotor procedural learning task with or without reward feedback. We then tested whether baseline functional connectivity within the frontostriatal-limbic network predicted memory strength measured immediately, 24 h and 1 month after training in both groups. We found that connectivity in the frontostriatal-limbic network predicted interindividual variability in the rewarded but not in the unrewarded learning group. Prediction was strongest for long-term memory. Similar links between connectivity and reward-based memory were absent in two control networks, a fronto-parieto-temporal language network and the dorsal attention network. The results indicate that baseline functional connectivity within the frontostriatal-limbic network successfully predicts long-term retention of rewarded learning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects limbic and associative circuits: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jeune, Florence; Peron, Julie; Grandjean, Didier; Drapier, Sophie; Verin, Marc; Haegelen, Claire; Garin, Etienne; Millet, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Although high-frequency deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) improves motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), clinical studies have reported cognitive, motivational and emotional changes. These results suggest that the STN forms part of a broadly distributed neural network encompassing the associative and limbic circuits. We sought to pinpoint the cortical and subcortical brain areas modulated by STN DBS, in order to assess the STN's functional role and explain neuropsychological modifications following STN DBS in PD. We studied resting state glucose metabolism in 20 PD patients before and after STN DBS and 13 age-matched healthy controls using 18 F-FDG PET. We used statistical analysis (SPM2) first to compare pre-stimulation metabolism in PD patients with metabolism in healthy controls, then to study metabolic modifications in PD patients following STN DBS. The first analysis revealed no pre-stimulation metabolic abnormalities in associative or limbic circuitry. After STN DBS, metabolic modifications were found in several regions known for their involvement in the limbic and associative circuits. These metabolic results confirm the STN's central role in associative and limbic basal ganglia circuits. They will provide information for working hypotheses for future studies investigating neuropsychological changes and metabolic modifications related to STN DBS, with a view to improving our knowledge of this structure's functional role. (orig.)

  8. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects limbic and associative circuits: a PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Jeune, Florence [Centre Eugene Marquis, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rennes (France); Universite Rennes 1, Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Unite de Recherche Universitaire ' ' Comportement et Noyaux Gris Centraux' ' , Rennes (France); Centre Eugene Marquis, Service Medecine Nucleaire, Rennes (France); Peron, Julie [Universite Rennes 1, Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Unite de Recherche Universitaire ' ' Comportement et Noyaux Gris Centraux' ' , Rennes (France); Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Clinique Neurologique, Rennes (France); University of Geneva, Neuroscience of Emotion and Affective Dynamics, Department of Psychology and Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Grandjean, Didier [University of Geneva, Neuroscience of Emotion and Affective Dynamics, Department of Psychology and Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Drapier, Sophie; Verin, Marc [Universite Rennes 1, Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Unite de Recherche Universitaire ' ' Comportement et Noyaux Gris Centraux' ' , Rennes (France); Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Clinique Neurologique, Rennes (France); Haegelen, Claire [Universite Rennes 1, Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Unite de Recherche Universitaire ' ' Comportement et Noyaux Gris Centraux' ' , Rennes (France); Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Service de Neurochirurgie, Rennes (France); Garin, Etienne [Centre Eugene Marquis, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rennes (France); Millet, Bruno [Universite Rennes 1, Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Unite de Recherche Universitaire ' ' Comportement et Noyaux Gris Centraux' ' , Rennes (France); S.H.U. Psychiatrie Adulte, CH Guillaume Regnier, Rennes (France)

    2010-08-15

    Although high-frequency deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) improves motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), clinical studies have reported cognitive, motivational and emotional changes. These results suggest that the STN forms part of a broadly distributed neural network encompassing the associative and limbic circuits. We sought to pinpoint the cortical and subcortical brain areas modulated by STN DBS, in order to assess the STN's functional role and explain neuropsychological modifications following STN DBS in PD. We studied resting state glucose metabolism in 20 PD patients before and after STN DBS and 13 age-matched healthy controls using {sup 18}F-FDG PET. We used statistical analysis (SPM2) first to compare pre-stimulation metabolism in PD patients with metabolism in healthy controls, then to study metabolic modifications in PD patients following STN DBS. The first analysis revealed no pre-stimulation metabolic abnormalities in associative or limbic circuitry. After STN DBS, metabolic modifications were found in several regions known for their involvement in the limbic and associative circuits. These metabolic results confirm the STN's central role in associative and limbic basal ganglia circuits. They will provide information for working hypotheses for future studies investigating neuropsychological changes and metabolic modifications related to STN DBS, with a view to improving our knowledge of this structure's functional role. (orig.)

  9. Early life stress as an influence on limbic epilepsy: an hypothesis whose time has come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia S Koe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc., stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative – or complementary – perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research.

  10. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis presenting as a neurological emergency: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Brijesh P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis remains a challenging clinical diagnosis with poor outcome if it is not recognized and treated early in the course of the disease. Case Presentation A 65-year-old Caucasian woman presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and increasing confusion shortly after a lung biopsy that led to the diagnosis of small-cell lung cancer. She had a complicated hospital course, and had recurrent respiratory distress due to aspiration pneumonia, and fluctuating mental status and seizures that were refractory to anti-epileptic drug treatment. Routine laboratory testing, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, electroencephalogram, lumbar puncture, serum and cerebrospinal fluid tests for paraneoplastic antibodies, and chest computed tomography were performed on our patient. The diagnosis was paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis in the setting of small-cell lung cancer with positive N-type voltage-gated calcium channel antibody titer. Anti-epileptic drugs for seizures, chemotherapy for small-cell lung cancer, and intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids for paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis led to a resolution of her seizures and improved her mental status. Conclusion Early recognition of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis and prompt intervention with immune therapies at the onset of presentation will probably translate into more favorable neurological outcomes.

  11. Wired for behavior: from development to function of innate limbic system circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie eSokolowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The limbic system of the brain regulates a number of behaviors that are essential for the survival of all vertebrate species including humans. The limbic system predominantly controls appropriate responses to stimuli with social, emotional or motivational salience, which includes innate behaviors such as mating, aggression and defense. Activation of circuits regulating these innate behaviors begins in the periphery with sensory stimulation (primarily via the olfactory system in rodents, and is then processed in the brain by a set of delineated structures that primarily includes the amygdala and hypothalamus. While the basic neuroanatomy of these connections is well established, much remains unknown about how information is processed within innate circuits and how genetic hierarchies regulate development and function of these circuits. Utilizing innovative technologies including channel rhodopsin-based circuit manipulation and genetic manipulation in rodents, recent studies have begun to answer these central questions. In this article we review the current understanding of how limbic circuits regulate sexually dimorphism and how these circuits are established and shaped during pre- and post-natal development. We also discuss how understanding developmental processes of innate circuit formation may inform behavioral alterations observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, which are characterized by limbic system dysfunction.

  12. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  13. Enhancement of CdSiO3: Tb3+ green long-lasting phosphors by co-doping with Re3+ (Re3+=Gd3+, Y3+, La3+) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Wei; Wang, Yuhua; Han, Shaochun; Chen, Wenbo; Li, Gen

    2014-01-01

    CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+ , Re 3+ long-lasting phosphors were synthesized by the conventional high temperature solid-state method. A green-light phosphorescence phenomenon, which was associated with the 5 D 4 → 7 F J (J=6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of the Tb 3+ ion, was observed. Introduction of Re 3+ (Re 3+ =Gd 3+ , Y 3+ , La 3+ ) ions, which deepens the depth (E t ) or/and increases the density (n 0 ) of traps, greatly improved the afterglow properties of CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+ . Possible mechanism of CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+ , Re 3+ was discussed in this work. - Highlights: • CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+ , Re 3+ samples enrich the color of long-lasting afterglow phosphors in CdSiO 3 host. • Both the afterglow intensity and the lasting time are greatly enhanced for the co-doped samples, especially for Cd 0.96 SiO 3 : Tb 0.03 3+ , La 0.01 3+ . • Introduction of Re 3+ (Re 3+ =Gd 3+ , Y 3+ , La 3+ ) ions, which deepens the depth (E t ) or increase density(n 0 ) of traps, greatly improved the afterglow properties of CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+

  14. Escitalopram ameliorates hypercortisolemia and insulin resistance in low birth weight men with limbic brain alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Christian Selmer; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Videbech, Poul

    2018-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW, insulin resistance and limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA)-axis hyperactivity. OBJECTIVE: First aim was to study insulin action, LHPA-axis function and limbic brain structures in young, healthy LBW-men vs. normal birth...... levels and improved Rdsubmax by ∼24% (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: LBW vs. NBW displayed alterations in key brain structures modulating LHPA-axis, elevated free cortisol levels and insulin resistance. Escitalopram administration ameliorated these defects, suggesting a potential for LHPA-axis modulation...... weight controls (NBW) (Part 1). Second aim was to investigate the effects of Escitalopram vs. placebo treatment in LBW with regards to LHPA-axis and insulin sensitivity (Part 2). DESIGN SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION: Maximal (Rdmax) and sub-maximal (Rdsubmax) rates of insulin-stimulated glucose...

  15. The Limbic-Prefrontal Network Modulated by Electroacupuncture at CV4 and CV12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies showed that acupuncture could induce hemodynamic changes in brain networks. Many of these studies focused on whether specific acupoints could activate specific brain regions and were often limited to manual acupuncture at acupoints on the limbs. In this fMRI study, we investigated acupuncture's modulation effects on brain functional networks by electroacupuncture (EA at acupoints on the midline of abdomen. Acupoints Guanyuan (CV4 and Zhongwan (CV12 were stimulated in 21 healthy volunteers. The needling sensations, brain activation, and functional connectivity were studied. We found that the limbic-prefrontal functional network was deactivated by EA at CV4 and CV12. More importantly, the local functional connectivity was significantly changed during EA stimulation, and the change persisted during the period after the stimulation. Although minor differences existed, both acupoints similarly modulated the limbic-prefrontal functional network, which is overlapped with the functional circuits associated with emotional and cognitive regulation.

  16. Capgras syndrome associated with limbic encephalitis in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Soares Neto, Herval Ribeiro; Cavalcante, Wagner Cid Palmeira; Martins Filho, Sebastião Nunes; Smid, Jerusa; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with insidious onset and slowly progressive cognitive impairment, behavioral symptoms, temporal lobe seizures and delusional thoughts typical of delusional misidentification syndromes. Clinical presentation along with extensive diagnostic work-up revealed limbic encephalitis secondary to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient underwent immunotherapy with high-dose corticosteroid but no significant improvement was observed. No specific treatment for lymphoma...

  17. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis with associated hypothalamitis mimicking a hyperdense hypothalamic tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataduwaarachchi, Vipula R.; Tissera, Nirmali

    2016-01-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is an uncommon association of common malignancies such as small cell lung carcinoma, testicular teratoma, and breast carcinoma. The nonspecific nature of the clinical presentation, lack of freely available diagnostic markers, and requirement for advanced imaging techniques pose a great challenge in the diagnosis of this disease in resource-poor settings. A 64-year-old previously healthy Sri Lankan man was admitted to the general medical unit with subacute memory impairment regarding recent events that had occurred during the previous 3 weeks. Initial noncontrast computed tomography of the brain revealed a hyperdensity in the hypothalamic region surrounded by hypodensities extending toward the bilateral temporal lobes; these findings were consistent with a possible hypothalamic tumor with perilesional edema. The patient later developed cranial diabetes insipidus, which was further suggestive of hypothalamic disease. Interestingly, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed no such lesions; instead, it showed prominent T2-weighted signals in the inner mesial region, characteristic of encephalitis. The possibility of tuberculosis and viral encephalitis was excluded based on cerebrospinal fluid analysis results. Limbic encephalitis with predominant hypothalamitis was suspected based on the radiological pattern. Subsequent screening for underlying malignancy revealed a mass lesion in the right hilum on chest radiographs. Histological examination of the lesion showed small cell lung cancer of the “oat cell” variety. We suggest that the initial appearance of a hyperdensity in the hypothalamus region on noncontrast computed tomography is probably due to hyperemia caused by hypothalamitis. If hypothalamitis is predominant in a patient with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, magnetic resonance imaging will help to differentiate it from a hypothalamic secondary deposit. Limbic encephalitis should be considered in

  18. Limbic encephalitis with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase presenting with brainstem symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Incecik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limbic encephalitis (LE is a neurological syndrome that may present in association with cancer, infection, or as an isolate clinical condition often accompanying autoimmune disorders. LE associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD is rare in children. Here, we characterized the clinical and laboratory features of a patient presenting with brainstem involvement with non-paraneoplastic LE associated with anti-GAD antibodies. In our patient, after plasma exchange, we determined a dramatic improvement of the neurological deficits.

  19. Synchronous inhibitory potentials precede seizure-like events in acute models of focal limbic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uva, Laura; Breschi, Gian Luca; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Taverna, Stefano; de Curtis, Marco

    2015-02-18

    Interictal spikes in models of focal seizures and epilepsies are sustained by the synchronous activation of glutamatergic and GABAergic networks. The nature of population spikes associated with seizure initiation (pre-ictal spikes; PSs) is still undetermined. We analyzed the networks involved in the generation of both interictal and PSs in acute models of limbic cortex ictogenesis induced by pharmacological manipulations. Simultaneous extracellular and intracellular recordings from both principal cells and interneurons were performed in the medial entorhinal cortex of the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain during focal interictal and ictal discharges induced in the limbic network by intracortical and brief arterial infusions of either bicuculline methiodide (BMI) or 4-aminopyridine (4AP). Local application of BMI in the entorhinal cortex did not induce seizure-like events (SLEs), but did generate periodic interictal spikes sensitive to the glutamatergic non-NMDA receptor antagonist DNQX. Unlike local applications, arterial perfusion of either BMI or 4AP induced focal limbic SLEs. PSs just ahead of SLE were associated with hyperpolarizing potentials coupled with a complete blockade of firing in principal cells and burst discharges in putative interneurons. Interictal population spikes recorded from principal neurons between two SLEs correlated with a depolarizing potential. We demonstrate in two models of acute limbic SLE that PS events are different from interictal spikes and are sustained by synchronous activation of inhibitory networks. Our findings support a prominent role of synchronous network inhibition in the initiation of a focal seizure. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353048-08$15.00/0.

  20. Microstructure, length, and connection of limbic tracts in normal human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaowen eYu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cingulum and fornix play an important role in memory, attention, spatial orientation and feeling functions. Both microstructure and length of these limbic tracts can be affected by mental disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, autism, anxiety, and schizophrenia. To date, there has been little systematic characterization of their microstructure, length and functional connectivity in normally developing brains. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI data from 65 normally developing right-handed subjects from birth to young adulthood was acquired. After cingulate gyrus part of the cingulum (cgc, hippocampal part of the cingulum (cgh and fornix (fx were traced with DTI tractography, absolute and normalized tract lengths and DTI-derived metrics including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity were measured for traced limbic tracts. Free water elimination (FWE algorithm was adopted to improve accuracy of the measurements of DTI-derived metrics. The role of these limbic tracts in the functional network at birth and adulthood was explored. We found a logarithmic age-dependent trajectory for FWE-corrected DTI metric changes with fast increase of microstructural integrity from birth to 2-year-old followed by a slow increase to 25-year-old. Normalized tract length of cgc increases with age, while no significant relationship with age was found for normalized tract lengths of cgh and fx. Stronger microstructural integrity on the left side compared to that of right side was found. With integrated DTI and rs-fMRI, the key connectional role of cgc and cgh in the default mode network (DMN was confirmed as early as birth. Systematic characterization of length and DTI metrics after FWE correction of limbic tracts offers insight into their morphological and microstructural developmental trajectories. These trajectories may serve as a normal reference for pediatric patients with

  1. [Anti-VGKC antibody-associated limbic encephalitis/Morvan syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Tamako; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2010-04-01

    Anti-voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (anti-VGKC-Ab) cause hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve and central nervous system. Peripheral nerve hyperexcitability is the chief manifestation of Issacs syndrome and cramp-fasciculation syndrome. Morvan syndrome is characterized by neuromyotonia with autonomic and CNS involvement. Manifestations involving the CNS without peripheral involvement are characteristic of limbic encephalitis and epilepsy. The clinical features of anti-VGKC-Ab-associated limbic encephalitis are subacute onset of episodic memory impairment, disorientation and agitation. Hyponatremia is also noted in most patients. Cortico-steroid therapy, plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin are effective in treating to not only the clinical symptoms but also hyponatremia. Unlike other anti-VGKC-Ab-associated neurological disorders, paraneoplastic cases are rare. Thus, anti-VGKC-Ab-associated limbic encephalopathy is considered to be an autoimmune, non-paraneoplastic, potentially treatable encephalitis. Morvan syndrome is characterized by widespread neurological symptoms involving the peripheral nervous system (neuromyotonia), autonomic system (hyperhidrosis, severe constipation, urinary incontinence, and cardiac arrhythmia) and the CNS (severe insomnia, hallucinations, impairment of short-term memory and epilepsy). Many patients have an underlying tumor, for example thymoma, lung cancer, testicular cancer and lymphoma; this indicates the paraneoplastic nature of the disease. Needle electro-myography reveals myokimic discharge. In nerve conduction study, stimulus-induced repetitive descharges are frequently demonstrated in involved muscles. Plasma exchange is an effective treatment approach, and tumor resection also improves symptoms. Both VGKC-Ab-associated limbic encephalitis and Morvan syndrome can be successfully treated. Therefore, when these diseases are suspected, it's important to measure the anti-VGKC-Ab level.

  2. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Inhibit Social Play Behavior through Prefrontal and Subcortical Limbic Mechanisms in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E.J. Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W.M.; Damsteegt, Ruth; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interactions during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life, in the form of social play behavior, are important for social and cognitive development. However, the neural mechanisms of social play behavior remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine, drugs widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suppress social play in rats through a noradrenergic mechanism of action. Here, we aimed to identify the neural substrates of the play-suppressant effects of these drugs. Methylphenidate is thought to exert its effects on cognition and emotion through limbic corticostriatal systems. Therefore, methylphenidate was infused into prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortical regions as well as into several subcortical limbic areas implicated in social play. Infusion of methylphenidate into the anterior cingulate cortex, infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, and habenula inhibited social play, but not social exploratory behavior or locomotor activity. Consistent with a noradrenergic mechanism of action of methylphenidate, infusion of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine into these same regions also reduced social play. Methylphenidate administration into the prelimbic, medial/ventral orbitofrontal, and ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, or nucleus accumbens shell was ineffective. Our data show that the inhibitory effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on social play are mediated through a distributed network of prefrontal and limbic subcortical regions implicated in cognitive control and emotional processes. These findings increase our understanding of the neural underpinnings of this developmentally important social behavior, as well as the mechanism of action of two widely used treatments for ADHD. PMID:25568111

  3. Limbic system, the main focus of dementia syndrome; A study with MRI and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju [Morinosato Hospital, Atsugi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1990-12-01

    Alzheimer disease and multi-infarct dementia are two entirely different diseases producing almost the same abnormalities as dementia syndrome. The statistical studies with MRI to locate the focus of dementia syndrome in the neocortex was an absolute failure. With MRI there is drastic atrophy and destruction of the amygdala and hippocampus suggesting the limbic system as the focus of dementia syndrome. Destruction of the limbic system in particular amygdala and hippocampus produced the functional obstruction brought about by the marked reduction in the glucose utilization with PET in the bilateral temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices. Although this type constitutes only about 1/5 of all dementia patients. It is considered the fundamental type of dementia syndrome. Aside from this, there is a type wherein simultaneous and symmetrical reductions in glucose utilization of the frontal association cortex and the motor association cortex in the anterior part of the neocortex. This is referred to as type II. It constitutes about 4/5 of all dementia patients which is far more than type I. Based on these results, it is thought that limbic system is the main focus of dementia syndrome. (author).

  4. Increased cortical-limbic anatomical network connectivity in major depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Peng Fang

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported significant functional and structural differences between depressed patients and controls. Little attention has been given, however, to the abnormalities in anatomical connectivity in depressed patients. In the present study, we aim to investigate the alterations in connectivity of whole-brain anatomical networks in those suffering from major depression by using machine learning approaches. Brain anatomical networks were extracted from diffusion magnetic resonance images obtained from both 22 first-episode, treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder and 26 matched healthy controls. Using machine learning approaches, we differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls based on their whole-brain anatomical connectivity patterns and identified the most discriminating features that represent between-group differences. Classification results showed that 91.7% (patients=86.4%, controls=96.2%; permutation test, p<0.0001 of subjects were correctly classified via leave-one-out cross-validation. Moreover, the strengths of all the most discriminating connections were increased in depressed patients relative to the controls, and these connections were primarily located within the cortical-limbic network, especially the frontal-limbic network. These results not only provide initial steps toward the development of neurobiological diagnostic markers for major depressive disorder, but also suggest that abnormal cortical-limbic anatomical networks may contribute to the anatomical basis of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments associated with this disease.

  5. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis in a teenage girl with an immature ovarian teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Brunberg, James A.; Greco, Claudia M.

    2005-01-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is an unusual disorder that is characterized by the association of clinical limbic system abnormalities with neoplasia, usually malignancy. It has rarely been reported in children and then manifests during the teenage years. Diagnosis is often delayed, especially when the tumor has not been recognized. In adults, the diagnosis can be revealed by the presence of antineuronal antibodies. We describe an unusual case of behavioral disturbance leading rapidly to coma in a 14-year-old girl with CSF pleocytosis who was found 10 weeks later to have an immature ovarian teratoma. Although her symptoms eventually improved slightly after tumor excision, she died while in rehabilitation. PLE is an important diagnosis to consider in the teenage girl with symptoms of a progressive limbic disorder and CSF pleocytosis, and whose brain MR imaging demonstrates no abnormality or mild T2-weighted temporal lobe signal abnormality. When this constellation of findings presents in a teenage girl, the possibility of an underlying ovarian teratoma should be considered. (orig.)

  6. Distinct iEEG activity patterns in temporal-limbic and prefrontal sites induced by emotional intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Neomi; Podlipsky, Ilana; Esposito, Fabrizio; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Andelman, Fani; Kipervasser, Svetlana; Neufeld, Miri Y; Goebel, Rainer; Fried, Itzhak; Hendler, Talma

    2014-11-01

    Our emotions tend to be directed towards someone or something. Such emotional intentionality calls for the integration between two streams of information; abstract hedonic value and its associated concrete content. In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we found that the combination of these two streams, as modeled by short emotional music excerpts and neutral film clips, was associated with synergistic activation in both temporal-limbic (TL) and ventral-lateral PFC (vLPFC) regions. This additive effect implies the integration of domain-specific 'affective' and 'cognitive' processes. Yet, the low temporal resolution of the fMRI limits the characterization of such cross-domain integration. To this end, we complemented the fMRI data with intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings from twelve patients with intractable epilepsy. As expected, the additive fMRI activation in the amygdala and vLPFC was associated with distinct spatio-temporal iEEG patterns among electrodes situated within the vicinity of the fMRI activation foci. On the one hand, TL channels exhibited a transient (0-500 msec) increase in gamma power (61-69 Hz), possibly reflecting initial relevance detection or hedonic value tagging. On the other hand, vLPFC channels showed sustained (1-12 sec) suppression of low frequency power (2.3-24 Hz), possibly mediating changes in gating, enabling an on-going readiness for content-based processing of emotionally tagged signals. Moreover, an additive effect in delta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) was found among the TL channels, possibly reflecting the integration between distinct domain specific processes. Together, this study provides a multi-faceted neurophysiological signature for computations that possibly underlie emotional intentionality in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prelude to passion: limbic activation by "unseen" drug and sexual cues.

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    Anna Rose Childress

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain responds to recognizable signals for sex and for rewarding drugs of abuse by activation of limbic reward circuitry. Does the brain respond in similar way to such reward signals even when they are "unseen", i.e., presented in a way that prevents their conscious recognition? Can the brain response to "unseen" reward cues predict the future affective response to recognizable versions of such cues, revealing a link between affective/motivational processes inside and outside awareness?We exploited the fast temporal resolution of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test the brain response to "unseen" (backward-masked cocaine, sexual, aversive and neutral cues of 33 milliseconds duration in male cocaine patients (n = 22. Two days after scanning, the affective valence for visible versions of each cue type was determined using an affective bias (priming task. We demonstrate, for the first time, limbic brain activation by "unseen" drug and sexual cues of only 33 msec duration. Importantly, increased activity in an large interconnected ventral pallidum/amygdala cluster to the "unseen" cocaine cues strongly predicted future positive affect to visible versions of the same cues in subsequent off-magnet testing, pointing both to the functional significance of the rapid brain response, and to shared brain substrates for appetitive motivation within and outside awareness.These findings represent the first evidence that brain reward circuitry responds to drug and sexual cues presented outside awareness. The results underscore the sensitivity of the brain to "unseen" reward signals and may represent the brain's primordial signature for desire. The limbic brain response to reward cues outside awareness may represent a potential vulnerability in disorders (e.g., the addictions for whom poorly-controlled appetitive motivation is a central feature.

  8. Focal CA3 hippocampal subfield atrophy following LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas D; Chong, Trevor T-J; Aimola Davies, Anne M; Ng, Tammy W C; Johnson, Michael R; Irani, Sarosh R; Vincent, Angela; Husain, Masud; Jacob, Saiju; Maddison, Paul; Kennard, Christopher; Gowland, Penny A; Rosenthal, Clive R

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has linked chronic voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis with generalized hippocampal atrophy. However, autoantibodies bind to specific rodent hippocampal subfields. Here, human hippocampal subfield (subiculum, cornu ammonis 1-3, and dentate gyrus) targets of immunomodulation-treated LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis were investigated using in vivo ultra-high resolution (0.39 × 0.39 × 1.0 mm3) 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging [n = 18 patients, 17 patients (94%) positive for LGI1 antibody and one patient negative for LGI1/CASPR2 but positive for VGKC-complex antibodies, mean age: 64.0 ± 2.55 years, median 4 years post-limbic encephalitis onset; n = 18 controls]. First, hippocampal subfield quantitative morphometry indicated significant volume loss confined to bilateral CA3 [F(1,34) = 16.87, P 3 months from symptom onset) were associated with CA3 atrophy. Third, whole-brain voxel-by-voxel morphometry revealed no significant grey matter loss. Fourth, CA3 subfield atrophy was associated with severe episodic but not semantic amnesia for postmorbid autobiographical events that was predicted by variability in CA3 volume. The results raise important questions about the links with histopathology, the impact of the observed focal atrophy on other CA3-mediated reconstructive and episodic mechanisms, and the role of potential antibody-mediated pathogenicity as part of the pathophysiology cascade in humans. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  9. Imaging of odor perception delineates functional disintegration of the limbic circuits in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciumas, Carolina; Lindström, Per; Aoun, Bernard; Savic, Ivanka

    2008-01-15

    Metabolic and neuro-receptor abnormalities within the extrafocal limbic circuits are established in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, very little is known about how these circuits process external stimuli. We tested whether odor activation can help delineate limbic functional disintegration in MTLE, and measured cerebral blood flow with PET during birhinal smelling of familiar and unfamiliar odors, using smelling of odorless air as the baseline condition. Patients with MTLE (13 left-sided, 10 right-sided) and 21 controls were investigated. In addition to odor activation, the analysis included functional connectivity, using right and left piriform cortex as seed regions. Healthy controls activated the amygdala, piriform, anterior insular, and cingulate cortices on both sides. Smelling of familiar odors engaged, in addition, the right parahippocampus, and the left Brodmann Area (BA) 44, 45, 47. Patients failed to activate the amygdala, piriform and the anterior insular cortex in the epileptogenic hemisphere. Furthermore, those with left MTLE did not activate the left BA 44, 45 and 47 with familiar odors, which they perceived as less familiar than controls. Congruent with the activation data each seed region was in patients functionally disconnected with the contralateral amygdala+piriform+insular cortex. The functional disintegration in patients exceeded the reduced activation, and included the contralateral temporal neocortex, and in subjects with right MTLE also the right orbitofrontal cortex. Imaging of odor perception may be used to delineate functional disintegration of the limbic networks in MTLE. It shows an altered response in several regions, which may underlie some interictal behavioral problems associated with this condition.

  10. Satisfação conjugal em casamentos de longa duração: uma construção possível Marital satisfaction in long lasting marriages: a feasible construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Betânia Paes Norgren

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O relacionamento conjugal está associado à saúde e qualidade de vida, principalmente nos anos de maturidade e velhice, embora o fato de um casamento durar não necessariamente signifique que o mesmo é satisfatório para os cônjuges. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar os processos e variáveis associadas à satisfação conjugal em casamentos de longa duração, ou seja, mais de 20 anos. Trinta e oito casais paulistas responderam a um conjunto de questionários já utilizados em estudo multicultural prévio (Estados Unidos, Suécia, Alemanha, Holanda, Canadá, África do Sul, Israel e Chile. Em cerca de metade dos casais estudados, ao menos um dos cônjuges estava satisfeito. Comparando-se casais satisfeitos e insatisfeitos foi possível identificar que a satisfação aumenta quando há proximidade, estratégias adequadas de resolução de problemas, coesão, boa habilidade de comunicação, se os cônjuges estiverem satisfeitos com seu status econômico e forem praticantes de sua crença religiosa.Marital relationship is related with couple's health and quality of life, especially during the adulthood and the aging years. However, the fact that a marriage is long lasting, does not mean it is necessarily satisfactory to the partners. This paper aims to identify the processes and variables associated to satisfaction in long lasting marriages (those longer than 20 years. Thirty eight couples from São Paulo, Brazil, answered a set of questionnaires used previously in multicultural studies carried out in Sweden, USA, Germany, Canada, Netherlands, South Africa, Israel and Chile. In about half of these couples, at least one consort was found satisfied. Comparing satisfied and unsatisfied couples, it became clear that higher levels of satisfaction are found among couples who have adequate strategies for problem solving, proximity, cohesion, good communication skills; who are religiously active and satisfied with their economical status.

  11. Control of pyrethroid and DDT-resistant Anopheles gambiae by application of indoor residual spraying or mosquito nets treated with a long-lasting organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos-methyl

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    Chabi Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS with support from the Global Fund and President's Malaria Initiative is providing increased opportunities for malaria control in Africa. The most cost-effective and longest-lasting residual insecticide DDT is also the most environmentally persistent. Alternative residual insecticides exist, but are too short-lived or too expensive to sustain. Dow Agrosciences have developed a microencapsulated formulation (CS of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos methyl as a cost-effective, long-lasting alternative to DDT. Methods Chlorpyrifos methyl CS was tested as an IRS or ITN treatment in experimental huts in an area of Benin where Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasiactus are resistant to pyrethroids, but susceptible to organophosphates. Efficacy and residual activity was compared to that of DDT and the pyrethroid lambdacyalothrin. Results IRS with chlorpyrifos methyl killed 95% of An. gambiae that entered the hut as compared to 31% with lambdacyhalothrin and 50% with DDT. Control of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed a similar trend; although the level of mortality with chlorpyrifos methyl was lower (66% it was still much higher than for DDT (14% or pyrethroid (15% treatments. Nets impregnated with lambdacyhalothrin were compromized by resistance, killing only 30% of An. gambiae and 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Nets impregnated with chlorpyrifos methyl killed more (45% of An gambiae and 15% of Cx. quinquefasciatus, but its activity on netting was of short duration. Contact bioassays on the sprayed cement-sand walls over the nine months of monitoring showed no loss of activity of chlorpyrifos methyl, whereas lambdacyhalothrin and DDT lost activity within a few months of spraying. Conclusion As an IRS treatment against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes chlorpyrifos methyl CS outperformed DDT and lambdacyhalothrin. In IRS campaigns, chlorpyrifos methyl CS should

  12. Cortisol awakening response and negative emotionality linked to asymmetry in major limbic fibre bundle architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Jernigan, Terry L; Iversen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    associated with higher CAR, were also correlated with higher right relative to left cingulum FA. Elevated CAR was associated with the degree of FA asymmetry within both the cingulum and the uncinate fasciculus, but in opposing directions. These results suggest that the balance between left- and right......The limbic system plays an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as well as aspects of emotion, and both neuroendocrine disturbance and increased negative emotionality are associated with risk for developing affective disorders. However, the extent to which...

  13. Optical study of SrAl1.7B0.3O4:Eu, R (R=Nd, Dy) pigments with long-lasting phosphorescence for industrial uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Benitez, J.; Andres, A. de; Marchal, M.; Cordoncillo, E.; Regi, M.V.; Escribano, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied and compared the optical properties of SrAl 1.7 B 0.3 O 4 :Eu, R (R=Nd, Dy) pigments that present long-lasting phosphorescence obtained by different synthesis techniques. Samples obtained by ceramic methods, in our laboratories and by an industrial process, present better phosphorescent properties than those obtained by sol-gel technique. Raman spectra show that grinding produces severe damage of the lattice. We have obtained and analyzed the Eu 3+ crystal field luminescence indicating that Eu 3+ is found in quite different sites comparing ceramic and sol-gel samples. Codoping, with Nd or Dy is necessary in order to reduce the Eu 3+ content, in all cases. The green luminescence band, obtained under UV illumination, can be fitted to two and three components in ceramic and sol-gel samples, respectively, due to different Eu 2+ sites. Eu-Dy samples present the longest and the most efficient phosphorescence. The time evolution of the afterglow is well described by a t -1 law, up to about 2 h, indicating that the recombination process is achieved by electron-hole tunneling

  14. Long-Lasting Production of New T and B Cells and T-Cell Repertoire Diversity in Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Who Had Undergone Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single-Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Valotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs, T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs, and T-cell repertoire diversity were evaluated in 1038 samples of 124 children with primary immunodeficiency, of whom 102 (54 with severe combined immunodeficiency and 48 with other types of immunodeficiency underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Twenty-two not transplanted patients with primary immunodeficiency were used as controls. Only data of patients from whom at least five samples were sent to the clinical laboratory for routine monitoring of lymphocyte reconstitutions were included in the analysis. The mean time of the follow-up was 8 years. The long-lasting posttransplantation kinetics of KREC and TREC production occurred similarly in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and with other types of immunodeficiency and, in both groups, the T-cell reconstitution was more efficient than in nontransplanted children. Although thymic output decreased in older transplanted patients, the degree of T-cell repertoire diversity, after an initial increase, remained stable during the observation period. However, the presence of graft-versus-host disease and ablative conditioning seemed to play a role in the time-related shaping of T-cell repertoire. Overall, our data suggest that long-term B- and T-cell reconstitution was equally achieved in children with severe combined immunodeficiency and with other types of primary immunodeficiency.

  15. To assess whether indoor residual spraying can provide additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets in The Gambia: study protocol for a two-armed cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there has been mounting interest in scaling-up vector control against malaria in Africa. It needs to be determined if indoor residual spraying (IRS with DDT will provide significant marginal protection against malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and prompt treatment in a controlled trial, given that DDT is currently the most persistent insecticide for IRS. Methods A 2 armed cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted to assess whether DDT IRS and LLINs combined provide better protection against clinical malaria in children than LLINs alone in rural Gambia. Each cluster will be a village, or a group of small adjacent villages; all clusters will receive LLINs and half will receive IRS in addition. Study children, aged 6 months to 13 years, will be enrolled from all clusters and followed for clinical malaria using passive case detection to estimate malaria incidence for 2 malaria transmission seasons in 2010 and 2011. This will be the primary endpoint. Exposure to malaria parasites will be assessed using light and exit traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species and sporozoite infection. Study children will be surveyed at the end of each transmission season to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and the prevalence of anaemia. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN01738840 - Spraying And Nets Towards malaria Elimination (SANTE

  16. Long-lasting complete response status of advanced stage IV gall bladder cancer and colon cancer after combined treatment including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Yasuda, Hiroko; Ohno, Tadao

    2017-09-11

    The prognosis of advanced (stage IV) cancer of the digestive organs is very poor. We have previously reported a case of advanced breast cancer with bone metastasis that was successfully treated with combined treatments including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). Herein, we report the success of this approach in advanced stage IV (heavily metastasized) cases of gall bladder cancer and colon cancer. Case 1: A 61-year-old woman with stage IV gall bladder cancer (liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis) underwent surgery in May 2011, including partial resection of the liver. She was treated with AFTV as the first-line adjuvant therapy, followed by conventional chemotherapy. This patient is still alive without any recurrence, as confirmed with computed tomography, for more than 5 years. Case 2: A 64-year-old man with stage IV colon cancer (multiple para-aortic lymph node metastases and direct abdominal wall invasion) underwent non-curative surgery in May 2006. Following conventional chemotherapy, two courses of AFTV and radiation therapy were administered sequentially. This patient has had no recurrence for more than 5 years. We report the success of combination therapy including AFTV in cases of liver-metastasized gall bladder cancer and abdominal wall-metastasized colon cancer. Both patients experienced long-lasting, complete remission. Therefore, combination therapies including AFTV should be considered in patients with advanced cancer of the digestive organs.

  17. Neurodevelopmental marker for limbic maldevelopment in antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Lee, Lydia; Yang, Yaling; Colletti, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy have been hypothesised to have a neurodevelopmental basis, but this proposition has not been formally tested. This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), a marker of limbic neural maldevelopment, will show higher levels of psychopathy and antisocial personality. Cavum septum pellucidum was assessed using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging in a community sample. Those with CSP (n = 19) were compared with those lacking CSP (n = 68) on antisocial personality, psychopathy and criminal offending. Those with CSP had significantly higher levels of antisocial personality, psychopathy, arrests and convictions compared with controls. The pervasiveness of this association was indicated by the fact that those lacking a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, but who were charged or convicted for an offence, had a more extensive CSP than non-antisocial controls. Results could not be attributed to prior trauma exposure, head injury, demographic factors or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Our findings appear to be the first to provide evidence for a neurodevelopmental brain abnormality in those with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, and support the hypothesis that early maldevelopment of limbic and septal structures predisposes to the spectrum of antisocial behaviours.

  18. The role of the medial temporal limbic system in processing emotions in voice and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühholz, Sascha; Trost, Wiebke; Grandjean, Didier

    2014-12-01

    Subcortical brain structures of the limbic system, such as the amygdala, are thought to decode the emotional value of sensory information. Recent neuroimaging studies, as well as lesion studies in patients, have shown that the amygdala is sensitive to emotions in voice and music. Similarly, the hippocampus, another part of the temporal limbic system (TLS), is responsive to vocal and musical emotions, but its specific roles in emotional processing from music and especially from voices have been largely neglected. Here we review recent research on vocal and musical emotions, and outline commonalities and differences in the neural processing of emotions in the TLS in terms of emotional valence, emotional intensity and arousal, as well as in terms of acoustic and structural features of voices and music. We summarize the findings in a neural framework including several subcortical and cortical functional pathways between the auditory system and the TLS. This framework proposes that some vocal expressions might already receive a fast emotional evaluation via a subcortical pathway to the amygdala, whereas cortical pathways to the TLS are thought to be equally used for vocal and musical emotions. While the amygdala might be specifically involved in a coarse decoding of the emotional value of voices and music, the hippocampus might process more complex vocal and musical emotions, and might have an important role especially for the decoding of musical emotions by providing memory-based and contextual associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurodevelopmental marker for limbic maldevelopment in antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Lee, Lydia; Yang, Yaling; Colletti, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy have been hypothesised to have a neurodevelopmental basis, but this proposition has not been formally tested. Aims This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), a marker of limbic neural maldevelopment, will show higher levels of psychopathy and antisocial personality. Method Cavum septum pellucidum was assessed using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging in a community sample. Those with CSP (n = 19) were compared with those lacking CSP (n = 68) on antisocial personality, psychopathy and criminal offending. Results Those with CSP had significantly higher levels of antisocial personality, psychopathy, arrests and convictions compared with controls. The pervasiveness of this association was indicated by the fact that those lacking a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, but who were charged or convicted for an offence, had a more extensive CSP than non-antisocial controls. Results could not be attributed to prior trauma exposure, head injury, demographic factors or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Conclusions Our findings appear to be the first to provide evidence for a neurodevelopmental brain abnormality in those with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, and support the hypothesis that early maldevelopment of limbic and septal structures predisposes to the spectrum of antisocial behaviours. PMID:20807962

  20. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Antibody Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis Associated with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Alcantara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS associated with malignant hemopathies, there are few reports of PNS of the central nervous system and most of them are associated with lymphomas. Limbic encephalitis is a rare neurological syndrome classically diagnosed in the context of PNS. We report the case of a 81-year-old man who presented with a relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML with minimal maturation. He was admitted for confusion with unfavorable evolution as he presented a rapidly progressive dementia resulting in death. A brain magnetic resonance imaging, performed 2 months after the onset, was considered normal. An electroencephalogram showed non-specific bilateral slow waves. We received the results of the blood screening of neuronal autoantibodies after the patient's death and detected the presence of anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC antibodies at 102 pmol/l (normal at <30 pmol/l. Other etiologic studies, including the screening for another cause of rapidly progressive dementia, were negative. To our knowledge, this is the first case of anti-VGKC paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to AML.

  1. A Primary Role for Nucleus Accumbens and Related Limbic Network in Vocal Tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCairn, Kevin W; Nagai, Yuji; Hori, Yukiko; Ninomiya, Taihei; Kikuchi, Erika; Lee, Ju-Young; Suhara, Tetsuya; Iriki, Atsushi; Minamimoto, Takafumi; Takada, Masahiko; Isoda, Masaki; Matsumoto, Masayuki

    2016-01-20

    Inappropriate vocal expressions, e.g., vocal tics in Tourette syndrome, severely impact quality of life. Neural mechanisms underlying vocal tics remain unexplored because no established animal model representing the condition exists. We report that unilateral disinhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) generates vocal tics in monkeys. Whole-brain PET imaging identified prominent, bilateral limbic cortico-subcortical activation. Local field potentials (LFPs) developed abnormal spikes in the NAc and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Vocalization could occur without obvious LFP spikes, however, when phase-phase coupling of alpha oscillations were accentuated between the NAc, ACC, and the primary motor cortex. These findings contrasted with myoclonic motor tics induced by disinhibition of the dorsolateral putamen, where PET activity was confined to the ipsilateral sensorimotor system and LFP spikes always preceded motor tics. We propose that vocal tics emerge as a consequence of dysrhythmic alpha coupling between critical nodes in the limbic and motor networks. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis in a patient with extragonadal choriocarcinoma--significance of onconeural antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkandera, Joanna; Ploner, Ferdin; Bauernhofer, Thomas; Kasparek, Anne-Katrin; Payer, Franz; Balic, Marija; Knechtel, Gudrun; Gerger, Armin; Gallè, Günter; Samonigg, Hellmut; Hofmann, Günter

    2010-01-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic or brainstem encephalitis is considered to be an autoimmune-mediated disorder of the nervous system associated with different types of cancer including germ cell tumors. We report on a 31-year-old patient presenting with eye motility dysfunction, dysarthrophonia, lethargy, depression, slow mentation, disorientation, dysgraphia, and retarded motion sequence. Neurologic tests, brain imaging, and blood chemistry tests failed to determine the cause of the symptoms. Further examinations including ultrasound of the abdomen led to the detection of a retroperitoneal mass. The biopsy of this mass showed fractions of a choriocarcinoma. The patient underwent curative chemotherapy, but although the cancer therapy was successful, the neurologic disorders did not improve. Concurrent examination for anti-Ma2 antibodies in the serum was positive and confirmed the paraneoplastic origin of these symptoms. Patients with symptoms of limbic or brainstem encephalitis, especially young men, should be tested for anti-Ma2 antibodies in the serum to elucidate their origin. The detection of these antibodies supports the diagnosis of a paraneoplastic syndrome, and may lead to the earlier identification of an otherwise hidden extragonadal germ cell tumor. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Sparing of the hippocampus and limbic circuit during whole brain radiation therapy: a dosimetric study using helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.C.; Gielda, B.T.; Herskovic, A.M.; Turian, J.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The study aims to assess the feasibility of dosimetrically sparing the limbic circuit during whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). Methods and Materials: We contoured the brain/brainstem on fused MRI and CT as the target volume (PTV) in 11 patients, excluding the hippocampus and the rest of the limbic circuit, which were considered organs at risk (OARs). PCI and WBRT helical tomotherapy plans were prepared for each patient with a 1.0-cm field width, pitch 0.285, initial modulation factor = 2.5. We attempted to spare the hippocampus and the rest of the limbic circuit while treating the rest of the brain to 30 Gy in 15 fractions (PCI) or 35 Gy in 14 fractions (WBRT) with VlOO ∼ 95%. The quality of the plans was assessed by calculating mean dose and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for OARs and the % volume of the PTV receiving the prescribed dose, V 100. Results: In the PCI plans, mean doses/EUD were: hippocampus 12.5 Gy/ 14.23 Gy, rest of limbic circuit 17.0 Gy/19.02 Gy. In the WBRT plans, mean doses/EUD were: hippocampus 14.3 Gy/16.07 Gy, rest of limbic circuit 17.9 Gy/20.74 Gy. The mean VlOO for the rest of the brain (PTV) were 94.7% (PCl) and 95.1 % (WBRT). Mean PCI and WBRT treatment times were essentially identical (mean 15.23 min, range 14.27-17.5). Conclusions: It is dosimetrically feasible to spare the hippocampus and the rest of the limbic circuit using helical tomotherapy while treating the rest of the brain to full dose.

  4. Large-scale implementation of disease control programmes: a cost-effectiveness analysis of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net distribution channels in a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya-a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Elvis; Were, Vincent; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Niessen, Louis; Buff, Ann M; Kariuki, Simon

    2016-11-21

    Historically, Kenya has used various distribution models for long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) with variable results in population coverage. The models presently vary widely in scale, target population and strategy. There is limited information to determine the best combination of distribution models, which will lead to sustained high coverage and are operationally efficient and cost-effective. Standardised cost information is needed in combination with programme effectiveness estimates to judge the efficiency of LLIN distribution models and options for improvement in implementing malaria control programmes. The study aims to address the information gap, estimating distribution cost and the effectiveness of different LLIN distribution models, and comparing them in an economic evaluation. Evaluation of cost and coverage will be determined for 5 different distribution models in Busia County, an area of perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. Cost data will be collected retrospectively from health facilities, the Ministry of Health, donors and distributors. Programme-effectiveness data, defined as the number of people with access to an LLIN per 1000 population, will be collected through triangulation of data from a nationally representative, cross-sectional malaria survey, a cross-sectional survey administered to a subsample of beneficiaries in Busia County and LLIN distributors' records. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis will be used for the evaluation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a health-systems perspective, and cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated using bootstrapping techniques. The study has been evaluated and approved by Kenya Medical Research Institute, Scientific and Ethical Review Unit (SERU number 2997). All participants will provide written informed consent. The findings of this economic evaluation will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  5. A single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin that produces reduced food and water intake induces long-lasting expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and proopiomelanocortin in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Bo-Hyun; Hong, Chang Gwun; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Seung Keon; Kang, Seungwoo; Lee, Kuem-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism by which a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces food and water intake is unclear. We examined whether such a food and water intake-reducing single administration of TCDD induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in rat brain. To observe time-dependent changes in these neuropeptides, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given TCDD (50 μg/kg) and terminated 1, 2, 4, or 7 days later. In addition, to observe dose-dependent changes in feeding and neuropeptides, rats were also given a range of TCDD doses (12.5, 25, or 50 μg/kg) and terminated 14 days later. TCDD suppressed food and water intake over 14 days in a dose-dependent manner. TCDD treatment also increased CRF and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus, respectively, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These increases were related to decreased food intake following TCDD administration. TCDD treatment increased AVP and CRF mRNA levels in the PVN, and these increases were related to decreased water intake. Interestingly, the increases in CRF, AVP and POMC expression were observed 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration. These results suggest that a single administration of TCDD induced long-lasting increases in CRF, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and that these changes are related to reduced food and water intake 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration

  6. Vaccination of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with poly I:C, a host defense peptide and polyphosphazine, elicits strong and long lasting cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Waugh, Courtney; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2014-10-07

    Chlamydial infections are wide spread in koalas across their range and a solution to this debilitating disease has been sought for over a decade. Antibiotics are the currently accepted therapeutic measure, but are not an effective treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of some infections and a low efficacy rate. Thus, a vaccine would be an ideal way to address this infectious disease threat in the wild. Previous vaccine trials have used a three-dose regimen; however this is very difficult to apply in the field as it would require multiple capture events, which are stressful and invasive processes for the koala. In addition, it requires skilled koala handlers and a significant monetary investment. To overcome these challenges, in this study we utilized a polyphosphazine based poly I:C and a host defense peptide adjuvant combined with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) antigen to induce long lasting (54 weeks) cellular and humoral immunity in female koalas with a novel single immunizing dose. Immunized koalas produced a strong IgG response in plasma, as well as at mucosal sites. Moreover, they showed high levels of C. pecorum specific neutralizing antibodies in the plasma as well as vaginal and conjunctival secretions. Lastly, Chlamydia-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses were produced against both whole chlamydial elementary bodies and rMOMP protein, over the 12-month period. The results of this study suggest that a single dose rMOMP vaccine incorporating a poly I:C, host defense peptide and polyphosphazine adjuvant is able to stimulate both arms of the immune system in koalas, thereby providing an alternative to antibiotic treatment and/or a three-dose vaccine regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-lasting spatial learning and memory impairments caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion associate with a dynamic change of HCN1/HCN2 expression in hippocampal CA1 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pan; Lu, Yun; Li, Changjun; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Cheng; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; He, Zhi; Guo, Lianjun

    2015-09-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes learning and memory impairments and increases the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways, yet the mechanisms underlying the disease process remained unclear particularly in a temporal manner. We performed permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO) to induce CCH. To determine whether hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are altered at different stages of cognitive impairment caused by CCH, adult male SD rats were randomly distributed into sham-operated 4, 8 and 12weeks group, 2VO 4, 8 and 12weeks group. Learning and memory performance were evaluated with Morris water maze (MWM) and long-term potentiation (LTP) was used to address the underlying synaptic mechanisms. Expression of NeuN, HCN1 and HCN2 in hippocampal CA1, DG and CA3 areas was quantified by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Our data showed that CCH induced a remarkable spatial learning and memory deficits in rats of 2VO 4, 8, and 12weeks group although neuronal loss only occurred after 4weeks of 2VO surgery in CA1. In addition, a significant reduction of HCN1 surface expression in CA1 was observed in the group that suffered 4weeks ischemia but neither 8 nor 12weeks. However, HCN2 surface expression in CA1 increased throughout the ischemia time-scales (4, 8 and 12w). Our findings indicate spatial learning and memory deficits in the CCH model are associated with disturbed HCN1 and HCN2 surface expression in hippocampal CA1. The altered patterns of both HCN1 and HCN2 surface expression may be implicated in the early stage (4w) of spatial learning and memory impairments; and the stable and long-lasting impairments of spatial learning and memory may partially attribute to the up-regulated HCN2 surface expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Limbic encephalitis associated with anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishitani, Toru; Matsunaga, Akiko; Ikawa, Masamichi; Hayashi, Kouji; Yamamura, Osamu; Hamano, Tadanori; Watanabe, Osamu; Tanaka, Keiko; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yoneda, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Several types of autoantibodies have been reported in autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE), such as antibodies against the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex including leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1). We recently reported a patient with autoimmune LE and serum anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase (NAE) antibodies, a specific diagnostic marker for Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE), who was diagnosed with HE based on the presence of antithyroid antibodies and responsiveness to immunotherapy. This case suggests that LE patients with antibodies to both the thyroid and NAE could be diagnosed with HE and respond to immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicoimmunological features and efficacy of immunotherapy in LE associated with anti-NAE antibodies to determine whether the LE is a clinical subtype of HE. We examined serum anti-NAE antibodies in 78 LE patients with limbic abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging and suspected HE based on positivity for antithyroid antibodies. Nineteen of the 78 patients had anti-NAE antibodies; however, 5 were excluded because they were double positive for antibodies to the VGKC complex including LGI1. No antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2), γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR), or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) were detected in the 19 patients. Among the remaining 14 who were positive only for anti-NAE antibodies, the median age was 62.5 (20–83) years, 9 (64%) were women, and 8 (57%) showed acute onset, with less than 2 weeks between onset and admission. Consciousness disturbance (71%) and memory disturbance (64%) were frequently observed, followed by psychiatric symptoms (50%) and seizures (43%). The frequency of these symptoms significantly differed between the acute- and subacute-onset groups. Abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalogram were commonly observed (92

  9. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  10. A case of limbic encephalitis presenting as a paraneoplastic manifestation of limited stage small cell lung cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butt Mohammad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The differential diagnosis of altered mental status and behavioral change is very extensive. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare cause of cognitive impairment, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Case presentation A 64-year-old British Caucasian woman presented to our hospital with a 12-week history of confusion and short-term memory loss. She was hyponatremic with a serum sodium level of 128mmol/L. Moreover, there was evidence of left hilar prominence on the chest radiograph. A thoracic computed tomography scan showed left hilar opacity with confluent lymphadenopathy. A percutaneous biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of small cell lung cancer. There was no radiological evidence of brain metastasis on the computed tomography scan. In view of continued cognitive impairment, which was felt to be disproportionate to hyponatremia, a magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain was undertaken. It showed hyperintense signals from both hippocampi, highly suggestive of limbic encephalitis presenting as a paraneoplastic manifestation of small cell lung cancer. She had a significant radiological and clinical response following chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of considering paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with neurological symptoms in the context of lung malignancy. If initial investigations fail to reveal the cause of cognitive impairment in a patient with malignancy, magnetic resonance imaging may be invaluable in the diagnosis of limbic encephalitis. The clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques and management of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis are discussed in this case report.

  11. Sex differences of gray matter morphology in cortico-limbic-striatal neural system in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingtao; Chen, Kaiyuan; Womer, Fay; Jiang, Wenyan; Luo, Xingguang; Driesen, Naomi; Liu, Jie; Blumberg, Hilary; Tang, Yanqing; Xu, Ke; Wang, Fei

    2013-06-01

    Sex differences are observed in both epidemiological and clinical aspects of major depressive disorder (MDD). The cortico-limbic-striatal neural system, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum, have shown sexually dimorphic morphological features and have been implicated in the dysfunctional regulation of mood and emotion in MDD. In this study, we utilized a whole-brain, voxel-based approach to examine sex differences in the regional distribution of gray matter (GM) morphological abnormalities in medication-naïve participants with MDD. Participants included 29 medication-naïve individuals with MDD (16 females and 13 males) and 33 healthy controls (HC) (17 females and 16 males). Gray matter morphology of the cortico-limbic-striatal neural system was examined using voxel-based morphometry analyzes of high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. The main effect of diagnosis and interaction effect of diagnosis by sex on GM morphology were statistically significant (p sex-related patterns of abnormalities within the cortico-limbic-strial neural system, such as predominant prefrontal-limbic abnormalities in MDD females vs. predominant prefrontal-striatal abnormalities in MDD males, suggest differences in neural circuitry that may mediate sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and potential targets for sex-differentiated treatment of the disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reversible Dementia: Two Nursing Home Patients With Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Antibody-Associated Limbic Encephalitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reintjes, W.; Romijn, M.D.M.; den Hollander, D.; ter Bruggen, J.P.; van Marum, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (VGKC-LE) is a rare disease that is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for medical practitioners. Two patients with VGKC-LE, both developing dementia are presented. Following treatment, both patients showed remarkable

  13. Working memory overload: fronto-limbic interactions and effects on subsequent working memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Richard J; Krystal, John H; Mathalon, Daniel H

    2010-03-01

    The human working memory system provides an experimentally useful model for examination of neural overload effects on subsequent functioning of the overloaded system. This study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with a parametric working memory task to characterize the behavioral and neural effects of cognitive overload on subsequent cognitive performance, with particular attention to cognitive-limbic interactions. Overloading the working memory system was associated with varying degrees of subsequent decline in performance accuracy and reduced activation of brain regions central to both task performance and suppression of negative affect. The degree of performance decline was independently predicted by three separate factors operating during the overload condition: the degree of task failure, the degree of amygdala activation, and the degree of inverse coupling between the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that vulnerability to overload effects in cognitive functioning may be mediated by reduced amygdala suppression and subsequent amygdala-prefrontal interaction.

  14. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with mixed olfactory neuroblastoma and craniopharyngioma: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagafuji, Hiroshi; Yokoi, Hidenori; Fujiwara, Masachika; Sato, Dai; Saito, Koichiro

    2018-06-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is a rare disorder of the nervous system associated with malignant disease. It has a subacute onset with the following symptoms: cognitive dysfunction, seizures, irritability, hallucinations, and short-term memory loss. Herein, we report the case of a 35-year-old man with PLE, an olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) admixed with craniopharyngioma, and serum anti-Hu antibodies. The patient presented with generalized seizures, short-term memory loss, and a polypoid mass located high in the nasal cavity. He underwent surgical resection of the tumor and postoperative chemoradiotherapy with concurrent intra-arterial cisplatin administration. Pathological examination indicated an ONB admixed with craniopharyngioma. The patient's neurological symptoms gradually diminished after surgery. No evidence of recurrence was observed during a 4-year follow-up. We reported a histologically unusual heterogeneous tumor that comprised ONB and craniopharyngioma. This is the first reported case of PLE with anti-Hu antibodies possibly associated with ONB admixed with craniopharyngioma.

  15. Congenital olfactory impairment is linked to cortical changes in prefrontal and limbic brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Helena Gásdal; Vestergaard, Martin; Baaré, William F C

    2018-01-01

    differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI...... in left middle frontal gyrus and right superior frontal sulcus (SFS). COI subjects with severe olfactory impairment (anosmia) had reduced grey matter volume in the left mOFC and increased volume in right piriform cortex and SFS. Within the COI group olfactory ability, measured with the "Sniffin' Sticks...... piriform cortex, while olfactory identification was negatively associated with right SFS volume. Our findings suggest that lifelong olfactory deprivation trigger changes in the cortical volume of prefrontal and limbic brain regions previously linked to olfactory memory....

  16. Brain limbic system-based intelligent controller application to lane change manoeuvre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changwon; Langari, Reza

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the application of a novel neuromorphic control strategy for lane change manoeuvres in the highway environment. The lateral dynamics of a vehicle with and without wind disturbance are derived and utilised to implement a control strategy based on the brain limbic system. To show the robustness of the proposed controller, several disturbance conditions including wind, uncertainty in the cornering stiffness, and changes in the vehicle mass are investigated. To demonstrate the performance of the suggested strategy, simulation results of the proposed method are compared with the human driver model-based control scheme, which has been discussed in the literature. The simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed controller in energy efficiency, driving comfort, and robustness.

  17. High Grade Glioma Mimicking Voltage Gated Potassium Channel Complex Associated Antibody Limbic Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilan Athauda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though raised titres of voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC complex antibodies have been occasionally associated with extracranial tumours, mainly presenting as Morvan's Syndrome or neuromyotonia, they have not yet been reported to be associated with an intracranial malignancy. This is especially important as misdiagnosis of these conditions and delay of the appropriate treatment can have important prognostic implications. We describe a patient with a high grade glioma presenting with clinical, radiological, and serological features consistent with the diagnosis of VGKC antibody associated limbic encephalitis (LE. This is the first association between a primary brain tumour and high titre of VGKC complex antibodies. Clinicoradiological progression despite effective immunosuppressive treatment should prompt clinicians to look for alternative diagnoses. Further studies to elucidate a possible association between VGKC complex and other surface antigen antibodies with primary brain tumours should be carried out.

  18. Limbic system associated membrane protein as a potential target for neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero eVasar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies performed in laboratory animals and psychiatric patients suggest a possible role of limbic system associated membrane protein (LAMP in the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Stressful manipulations and genetic invalidation have revealed a role of the Lsamp gene in the regulation of anxiety in rodents. Besides that, Lsamp deficient mice display reduced aggressiveness and impaired adaptation in novel and stressful environments. The behavioural effects of amphetamine were blunted in genetically modified mice. Recent pharmacological and biochemical studies point towards altered function of GABA-, 5-hydroxytryptamine- and dopaminergic systems in Lsamp deficient mice. Moreover, we found an association between the gene polymorphisms of LSAMP and major depressive disorder. Patients suffering from major depressive disorder had significantly increased ratio between risk and protective haplotypes of the LSAMP gene compared to healthy volunteers. However, the impact of these haplotypes for the function of LAMP is not clear and remains to be elucidated in future studies.

  19. High grade glioma mimicking voltage gated potassium channel complex associated antibody limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athauda, Dilan; Delamont, R S; Pablo-Fernandez, E De

    2014-01-01

    Though raised titres of voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibodies have been occasionally associated with extracranial tumours, mainly presenting as Morvan's Syndrome or neuromyotonia, they have not yet been reported to be associated with an intracranial malignancy. This is especially important as misdiagnosis of these conditions and delay of the appropriate treatment can have important prognostic implications. We describe a patient with a high grade glioma presenting with clinical, radiological, and serological features consistent with the diagnosis of VGKC antibody associated limbic encephalitis (LE). This is the first association between a primary brain tumour and high titre of VGKC complex antibodies. Clinicoradiological progression despite effective immunosuppressive treatment should prompt clinicians to look for alternative diagnoses. Further studies to elucidate a possible association between VGKC complex and other surface antigen antibodies with primary brain tumours should be carried out.

  20. Unusual amnesia in a patient with VGKC-Ab limbic encephalitis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsounis, Luke D; de Silva, Rajith

    2011-04-01

    We describe the case of a patient with confirmed voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated encephalitis (VGKC-Ab). MRI studies revealed bilateral hyper-intensity in the hippocampi, with their volumes preserved. At presentation, the patient's anterograde and retrograde memory skills were found to be impaired and he showed fluctuation in his ability to recall familiar information. Following treatment with immunotherapy, his condition improved considerably and, in a series of follow up assessments, he performed satisfactorily (i.e., within the average range or above) on formal tests of memory, as well as on a range of other cognitive tests, including tests of executive function. By contrast, in the context of contemporaneous unstructured interviews, he showed a strong tendency to confabulate. We argue that the reported case broadens the phenomenology of VGKC-Ab limbic encephalitis and raises important theoretical questions about the aetiology of this patient's most unusual memory disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  1. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun; Kim, Kyung Yo

    2004-01-01

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal

  2. Morphological brain measures of cortico-limbic inhibition related to resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Love, Aubrey; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Labus, Jennifer S; Bhatt, Ravi; Chang, Lin; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A

    2017-09-01

    Resilience is the ability to adequately adapt and respond to homeostatic perturbations. Although resilience has been associated with positive health outcomes, the neuro-biological basis of resilience is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to identify associations between regional brain morphology and trait resilience with a focus on resilience-related morphological differences in brain regions involved in cortico-limbic inhibition. The relationship between resilience and measures of affect were also investigated. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed structural MRI scans. Self-reported resilience was measured using the Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale. Segmentation and regional parcellation of images was performed to yield a total of 165 regions. Gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, surface area, and mean curvature were calculated for each region. Regression models were used to identify associations between morphology of regions belonging to executive control and emotional arousal brain networks and trait resilience (total and subscales) while controlling for age, sex, and total GMV. Correlations were also conducted between resilience scores and affect scores. Significant associations were found between GM changes in hypothesized brain regions (subparietal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, amygdala, anterior mid cingulate cortex, and subgenual cingulate cortex) and resilience scores. There were significant positive correlations between resilience and positive affect and negative correlations with negative affect. Resilience was associated with brain morphology of regions involved in cognitive and affective processes related to cortico-limbic inhibition. Brain signatures associated with resilience may be a biomarker of vulnerability to disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The time-course of cortico-limbic neural responses to air hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Andrew P; Evans, Karleyton C; Reed, Jeffrey D; Moosavi, Shakeeb H; Banzett, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have mapped brain regions associated with acute dyspnea perception. However, the time-course of brain activity during sustained dyspnea is unknown. Our objective was to determine the time-course of neural activity when dyspnea is sustained. Eight healthy subjects underwent brain blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic imaging (BOLD-fMRI) during mechanical ventilation with constant mild hypercapnia (∼ 45 mm Hg). Subjects rated dyspnea (air hunger) via visual analog scale (VAS). Tidal volume (V(T)) was alternated every 90 s between high VT (0.96 ± 0.23 L) that provided respiratory comfort (12 ± 6% full scale) and low V(T) (0.48 ± 0.08 L) which evoked air hunger (56 ± 11% full scale). BOLD signal was extracted from a priori brain regions and combined with VAS data to determine air hunger related neural time-course. Air hunger onset was associated with BOLD signal increases that followed two distinct temporal profiles within sub-regions of the anterior insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (cortico-limbic circuitry): (1) fast, BOLD signal peak 40s. BOLD signal during air hunger offset followed fast and slow temporal profiles symmetrical, but inverse (signal decreases) to the time-courses of air hunger onset. We conclude that differential cortico-limbic circuit elements have unique contributions to dyspnea sensation over time. We suggest that previously unidentified sub-regions are responsible for either the acute awareness or maintenance of dyspnea. These data enhance interpretation of previous studies and inform hypotheses for future dyspnea research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

  5. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Yo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal.

  6. Neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion alters the dopamine content in the limbic regions in postpubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquicer, Glenda; Silva-Gómez, Adriana B; Peralta, Fernando; Flores, Gonzalo

    2004-04-01

    The neonatal ventral Hippocampus (nVH) lesion in rats has been used as a model to test the hypothesis that early neurodevelopmental abnormalities lead to behavioral changes putatively linked to schizophrenia. The schizophrenic patients tend to social isolation. In addition, considerable evidence from behavioral and neurochemistry studies strongly implicate the dopamine (DA) system and the medial part of the prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the pathophysiology of the social isolation syndrome. In order to assess effects of the postweaning social isolation (pwSI) on the DA system of the nVH lesions, we investigated the DA content and its metabolite, DOPAC in different limbic subregions in rats postpubertally at postnatal day (P) 78 following nVH lesions at P7 with and without pwSI for 8 weeks. The DA and DOPAC were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The nVH lesion induces increase in the DA content in the hippocampus with no effect in the mPFC, nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen, while the pwSI induces major increase in the DA content in limbic subregions such as the mPFC, nucleus accumbens and hipocampus with opposite effect in the caudate-putamen. These results suggest that while pwSI has an effect in the postpubertal content of DA in both sham and nVH lesions in rats, the nVH-lesioned rats appear to be affected to a greater extent than the sham animals underscoring the influence of pwSI differences in the development of behaviors in the nVH-lesioned animals.

  7. Examining the gateway to the limbic system with diffusion tensor imaging: the perforant pathway in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalus, Peter; Slotboom, Johannes; Gallinat, Jürgen; Mahlberg, Richard; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja; Wiest, Roland; Nyffeler, Thomas; Buri, Caroline; Federspiel, Andrea; Kunz, Dieter; Schroth, Gerhard; Kiefer, Claus

    2006-04-15

    Current treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are only able to slow the progression of mental deterioration, making early and reliable diagnosis an essential part of any promising therapeutic strategy. In the initial stages of AD, the first neuropathological alterations occur in the perforant pathway (PP), a large neuronal fiber tract located at the entrance to the limbic system. However, to date, there is no sensitive diagnostic tool for performing in vivo assessments of this structure. In the present bimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, we examined 10 elderly controls, 10 subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 10 AD patients in order to evaluate the sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a new MRI technique, for detecting changes in the PP. Furthermore, the diagnostic explanatory power of DTI data of the PP should be compared to high-resolution MRI volumetry and intervoxel coherences (COH) of the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex, two limbic regions also involved in the pathophysiology of early AD. DTI revealed a marked decrease in COH values in the PP region of MCI (right side: 26%, left side: 29%, as compared to controls) and AD patients (right side: 37%, left side: 43%, as compared to controls). Reductions in COH values of the PP region were significantly correlated with cognitive impairment. DTI data of the PP zone were the only parameter differing significantly between control subjects and MCI patients, while the volumetric measures and the COH values of the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex did not. DTI of medial temporal brain regions is a promising non-invasive tool for the in vivo diagnosis of the early/preclinical stages of AD.

  8. Acupuncture, the limbic system, and the anticorrelated networks of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kathleen K S; Marina, Ovidiu; Liu, Jing; Rosen, Bruce R; Kwong, Kenneth K

    2010-10-28

    The study of the mechanism of acupuncture action was revolutionized by the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Over the past decade, our fMRI studies of healthy subjects have contributed substantially to elucidating the central effect of acupuncture on the human brain. These studies have shown that acupuncture stimulation, when associated with sensations comprising deqi, evokes deactivation of a limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network, which encompasses the limbic system, as well as activation of somatosensory brain regions. These networks closely match the default mode network and the anti-correlated task-positive network described in the literature. We have also shown that the effect of acupuncture on the brain is integrated at multiple levels, down to the brainstem and cerebellum. Our studies support the hypothesis that the effect of acupuncture on the brain goes beyond the effect of attention on the default mode network or the somatosensory stimulation of acupuncture needling. The amygdala and hypothalamus, in particular, show decreased activation during acupuncture stimulation that is not commonly associated with default mode network activity. At the same time, our research shows that acupuncture stimulation needs to be done carefully, limiting stimulation when the resulting sensations are very strong or when sharp pain is elicited. When acupuncture induced sharp pain, our studies show that the deactivation was attenuated or reversed in direction. Our results suggest that acupuncture mobilizes the functionally anti-correlated networks of the brain to mediate its actions, and that the effect is dependent on the psychophysical response. In this work we also discuss multiple avenues of future research, including the role of neurotransmitters, the effect of different acupuncture techniques, and the potential clinical application of our research findings to disease states including chronic pain, major depression, schizophrenia, autism, and Alzheimer

  9. Sex differences in effective fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Ovidiu; Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2015-12-01

    In view of the greater prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in women than in men, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have examined sex-differences in brain activations during emotion processing. Comparatively, sex-differences in brain connectivity received little attention, despite evidence for important fronto-limbic connections during emotion processing across sexes. Here, we investigated sex-differences in fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing. Forty-six healthy individuals (25 women, 21 men) viewed negative, positive and neutral images during an fMRI session. Effective connectivity between significantly activated regions was examined using Granger causality and psychophysical interaction analyses. Sex steroid hormones and feminine-masculine traits were also measured. Subjective ratings of negative emotional images were higher in women than in men. Across sexes, significant activations were observed in the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the right amygdala. Granger connectivity from right amygdala was significantly greater than that from dmPFC during the 'high negative' condition, an effect driven by men. Magnitude of this effect correlated negatively with highly negative image ratings and feminine traits and positively with testosterone levels. These results highlight critical sex differences in brain connectivity during negative emotion processing and point to the fact that both biological (sex steroid hormones) and psychosocial (gender role and identity) variables contribute to them. As the dmPFC is involved in social cognition and action planning, and the amygdala-in threat detection, the connectivity results suggest that compared to women, men have a more evaluative, rather than purely affective, brain response during negative emotion processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuropsychological and FDG-PET profiles in VGKC autoimmune limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodich, Alessandra; Cerami, Chiara; Iannaccone, Sandro; Marcone, Alessandra; Alongi, Pierpaolo; Crespi, Chiara; Canessa, Nicola; Andreetta, Francesca; Falini, Andrea; Cappa, Stefano F; Perani, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) is characterized by an acute or subacute onset with memory impairments, confusional state, behavioral disorders, variably associated with seizures and dystonic movements. It is due to inflammatory processes that selectively affect the medial temporal lobe structures. Voltage-gate potassium channel (VGKC) autoantibodies are frequently observed. In this study, we assessed at the individual level FDG-PET brain metabolic dysfunctions and neuropsychological profiles in three autoimmune LE cases seropositive for neuronal VGKC-complex autoantibodies. LGI1 and CASPR2 potassium channel complex autoantibody subtyping was performed. Cognitive abilities were evaluated with an in-depth neuropsychological battery focused on episodic memory and affective recognition/processing skills. FDG-PET data were analyzed at single-subject level according to a standardized and validated voxel-based Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) method. Patients showed severe episodic memory and fear recognition deficits at the neuropsychological assessment. No disorder of mentalizing processing was present. Variable patterns of increases and decreases of brain glucose metabolism emerged in the limbic structures, highlighting the pathology-driven selective vulnerability of this system. Additional involvement of cortical and subcortical regions, particularly in the sensorimotor system and basal ganglia, was found. Episodic memory and fear recognition deficits characterize the cognitive profile of LE. Commonalities and differences may occur in the brain metabolic patterns. Single-subject voxel-based analysis of FDG-PET imaging could be useful in the early detection of the metabolic correlates of cognitive and non-cognitive deficits characterizing LE condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel H6N1 virus-like particle vaccine induces long-lasting cross-clade antibody immunity against human and avian H6N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Rong; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Kuo, Chuan-Yi; Cheng, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Min-Shiuh; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Yang, Yu-Chih; Wu, Chia-Ying; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan; Hsiao, Pei-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Avian influenza A(H6N1) virus is one of the most common viruses isolated from migrating birds and domestic poultry in many countries. The first and only known case of human infection by H6N1 virus in the world was reported in Taiwan in 2013. This led to concern that H6N1 virus may cause a threat to public health. In this study, we engineered a recombinant H6N1 virus-like particle (VLP) and investigated its vaccine effectiveness compared to the traditional egg-based whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. The H6N1-VLPs exhibited similar morphology and functional characteristics to influenza viruses. Prime-boost intramuscular immunization in mice with unadjuvanted H6N1-VLPs were highly immunogenic and induced long-lasting antibody immunity. The functional activity of the VLP-elicited IgG antibodies was proved by in vitro seroprotective hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization titers against the homologous human H6N1 virus, as well as in vivo viral challenge analyses which showed H6N1-VLP immunization significantly reduced viral load in the lung, and protected against human H6N1 virus infection. Of particular note, the H6N1-VLPs but not the H6N1-WIVs were able to confer cross-reactive humoral immunity; antibodies induced by H6N1-VLP vaccine robustly inhibited the hemagglutination activities and in vitro replication of distantly-related heterologous avian H6N1 viruses. Furthermore, the H6N1-VLPs were found to elicit significantly greater anti-HA2 antibody responses in immunized mice than H6N1-WIVs. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time a novel H6N1-VLP vaccine that effectively provides broadly protective immunity against both human and avian H6N1 viruses. These results, which uncover the underlying mechanisms for induction of wide-range immunity against influenza viruses, may be useful for future influenza vaccine development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of insecticide persistence, biological activity and mosquito resistance to PermaNet® 2 long-lasting insecticidal nets over three to 32 months of use in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshebo, Gedeon Yohannes; Graves, Patricia M; Smith, Stephen C; Wills, Aprielle B; Damte, Mesele; Endeshaw, Tekola; Shargie, Estifanos Biru; Gebre, Teshome; Mosher, Aryc W; Patterson, Amy E; Emerson, Paul M

    2014-03-06

    Information is needed on the expected durability of insecticidal nets under operational conditions. The persistence of insecticidal efficacy is important to estimate the median serviceable life of nets under field conditions and to plan for net replacement. Deltamethrin residue levels were evaluated by the proxy method of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on 189 nets used for three to six months from nine sites, 220 nets used for 14-20 months from 11 sites, and 200 nets used for 26-32 months from ten sites in Ethiopia. A random sample of 16.5-20% of nets from each time period (total 112 of 609 nets) were tested by bioassay with susceptible mosquitoes, and nets used for 14-20 months and 26-32 months were also tested with wild caught mosquitoes. Mean insecticide levels estimated by X-ray fluorescence declined by 25.9% from baseline of 66.2 (SD 14.6) mg/m2 at three to six months to 44.1 (SD 21.2) mg/m2 at 14-20 months and by 30.8% to 41.1 (SD 18.9) mg/m2 at 26-32 months. More than 95% of nets retained greater than 10 mg/m2 of deltamethrin and over 79% had at least 25 mg/m2 at all time periods. By bioassay with susceptible Anopheles, mortality averaged 89.0% on 28 nets tested at three to six months, 93.3% on 44 nets at 14-20 months and 94.1% on 40 nets at 26-32 months. With wild caught mosquitoes, mortality averaged 85.4% (range 79.1 to 91.7%) at 14-20 months but had dropped significantly to 47.2% (39.8 to 54.7%) at 26-32 months. Insecticide residue level, as estimated by X-ray fluorescence, declined by about one third between three and six months and 14-20 months, but remained relatively stable and above minimum requirements thereafter up to 26-32 months. The insecticidal activity of PermaNet® 2.0 long-lasting insecticidal nets in the specified study area may be considered effective to susceptible mosquitoes at least for the duration indicated in this study (32 months). However, results indicated that resistance in the wild population is already rendering nets with

  13. GABAergic Signaling within a Limbic-Hypothalamic Circuit Integrates Social and Anxiety-Like Behavior with Stress Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Brent; Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Wu, Christine; Naser, Sam; Solomon, Matia B; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Herman, James P

    2016-05-01

    The posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PH) stimulates autonomic stress responses. However, the role of the PH in behavioral correlates of psychiatric illness, such as social and anxiety-like behavior, is largely unexplored, as is the neurochemistry of PH connectivity with limbic and neuroendocrine systems. Thus, the current study tested the hypothesis that GABAergic signaling within the PH is a critical link between forebrain behavior-regulatory nuclei and the neuroendocrine hypothalamus, integrating social and anxiety-related behaviors with physiological stress reactivity. To address this hypothesis, GABAA receptor pharmacology was used to locally inhibit or disinhibit the PH immediately before behavioral measures of social and anxiety-like behavior in rats. Limbic connectivity of the PH was then established by simultaneous co-injection of anterograde and retrograde tracers. Further, the role of PH GABAergic signaling in neuroendocrine stress responses was tested via inhibition/disinhibition of the PH. These studies determined a prominent role for the PH in the expression of anxiety-related behaviors and social withdrawal. Histological analyses revealed divergent stress-activated limbic input to the PH, emanating predominantly from the prefrontal cortex, lateral septum, and amygdala. PH projections also targeted both parvicellular and magnocellular peptidergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic hypothalamus. Further, GABAA receptor pharmacology determined an excitatory effect of the PH on neuroendocrine responses to stress. These data indicate that the PH represents an important stress-integrative center, regulating behavioral processes and connecting the limbic forebrain with neuroendocrine systems. Moreover, the PH appears to be uniquely situated to have a role in stress-related pathologies associated with limbic-hypothalamic dysfunction.

  14. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  15. Distinct white matter integrity in glutamic acid decarboxylase and voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jan; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Witt, Juri-Alexander; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Malter, Michael P; Stoecker, Winfried; Probst, Christian; Weber, Bernd; Elger, Christian E

    2016-03-01

    Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex are associated with distinct subtypes of limbic encephalitis regarding clinical presentation, response to therapy, and outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate white matter changes in these two limbic encephalitis subtypes by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Diffusion data were obtained in 14 patients with GAD antibodies and 16 patients with VGKC-complex antibodies and compared with age- and gender-matched control groups. Voxelwise statistical analysis was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics. The results were furthermore compared with those of 15 patients with unilateral histologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis and correlated with verbal and figural memory performance. We found widespread changes of fractional anisotropy and all diffusivity parameters in GAD-associated limbic encephalitis, whereas no changes were found in VGKC-complex-associated limbic encephalitis. The changes observed in the GAD group were even more extensive when compared against those of the hippocampal sclerosis group, although the disease duration was markedly shorter in patients with GAD antibodies. Correlation analysis revealed areas with a trend toward a negative correlation of diffusivity parameters with figural memory performance located mainly in the right temporal lobe in the GAD group as well. The present study provides further evidence that, depending on the associated antibody, limbic encephalitis features clearly distinct imaging characteristics by showing widespread white matter changes in GAD-associated limbic encephalitis and preserved white matter integrity in VGKC-complex-associated limbic encephalitis. Furthermore, our results contribute to a better understanding of the specific pathophysiologic properties in these two subforms of limbic encephalitis by revealing that patients with GAD antibodies show widespread affections of

  16. Access to and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and factors associated with non-use among communities in malaria-endemic areas of Al Hudaydah governorate in the Tihama region, west of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Samira M A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2017-06-09

    Universal coverage of the targeted malaria-endemic areas with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is implemented as one of the key interventions for malaria control and elimination in Yemen. In 2013, through a mass campaign, LLINs were distributed to the targeted communities in Al Hudaydah governorate. This study aimed to assess the ownership of, access to, and use of LLINs. It also aimed to identify factors associated with not using LLINs in malaria-endemic areas of Al Hudaydah in the Tihama region, west of Yemen. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four districts (Ad Durayhimi, Al Marawi'ah, Al Mansuriyah and Bayt Al Faqiah) in Al Hudaydah during February 2016. A total of 701 households were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and availability of LLINs were collected by interview and observation. Four indicators for malaria prevention using LLINs; proportion of households with at least one LLIN, proportion of households with at least one LLIN for every two people, proportion of population with access to LLINs in the surveyed households and proportion of population who slept under LLINs the previous night of the survey were calculated as indicated by Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group. Use to access ratio was assessed. Factors associated with not using LLINs among people with access were also investigated. Of 701 households with 4900 de facto population, ownership of at least one LLIN was 90.6%, while 24.1% owned at least one for every two people during the survey in 2016. The overall proportion of people with access to LLINs was 51.5% (95% CI 50.1-52.9). Only 19.0% (95% CI 17.9-20.1) slept under LLINs the night before the survey and the overall use to access ratio was 0.37. The proportions of children under 5 years of age with access to and use of LLINs were 13.7 and 42.5%, respectively. On the other hand, the proportions of pregnant women with access to and use of LLINs were 16.4 and 20

  17. Sedimentary facies analysis of a high-frequency, small-scale, peritidal carbonate sequence in the Lower Jurassic of the Tripolis carbonate unit (central western Crete, Greece: Long-lasting emergence and fossil laminar dolocretes horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini A. Pomoni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines a Lower Jurassic (late Liassic cyclic lagoonal–peritidal stratigraphic unit outcropping in central western Crete (Tripolis unit, which corresponds to the eastern (internal part of the mainland Gavrovo-Tripolis platform, the most significant external platform of the Hellenides. The studied Tripolis carbonate sequence consists of meter-scale, shallowing-upward successions of restricted inner-carbonate platform facies, including cyclically repeated subtidal, intertidal and supratidal facies, that are separated by erosion surfaces (elementary cycles. Each cycle starts with relatively open-marine facies, which are overlain by shallower, more restricted facies (tidal flat progradation. The lithofacies association includes dolomitic intraclastic–peloidal–bioclastic wackestones–packstones/floatstones and grainstones/rudstones dominated by a restricted shallow-marine fauna (bivalves, gastropods, ostracods and seldom benthic foraminifers, representing a shallow subtidal to intertidal, moderately high-energy environment within an inner-platform setting (peritidal environment to restricted lagoon. This lithofacies association has been intermittently subaerially exposed and has undergone diagenetic processes in an inter- or supratidal environment, exhibiting features of vadose diagenesis and pedogenesis due to long-lasting exposure along certain horizons. The peritidal facies are capped by dolocretes controlled by root-activities (laminar dolocretes, peloidal–pisoid dolocretes and massive dolocretes, marking the end of each depositional cycle, and, thus, distinguishing the successive episodes of a prolonged subaerial exposure period and birth of paleosol horizons. Dolocretes consist a diagenetic facies, characterized by several vadose and pedogenic fabrics, including fenestral cavities with geopetal structures, “flower spar” to blocky sparry cement in primary pores, micritic coatings, crudely pelleted walls, alveolar

  18. Treatment-responsive limbic encephalitis identified by neuropil antibodies: MRI and PET correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, Beau M.; Vitaliani, Roberta; Taylor, Robert A.; Liebeskind, David S.; Voloschin, Alfredo; Houghton, David J.; Galetta, Steven L.; Dichter, Marc; Alavi, Abass; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Dalmau, Josep

    2007-01-01

    We report seven patients, six from a single institution, who developed subacute limbic encephalitis initially considered of uncertain aetiology. Four patients presented with symptoms of hippocampal dysfunction (i.e. severe short-term memory loss) and three with extensive limbic dysfunction (i.e. confusion, seizures and suspected psychosis). Brain MRI and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET complemented each other but did not overlap in 50% of the patients. Combining both tests, all patients had temporal lobe abnormalities, five with additional areas involved. In one patient, FDG hyperactivity in the brainstem that was normal on MRI correlated with central hypoventilation; in another case, hyperactivity in the cerebellum anticipated ataxia. All patients had abnormal CSF: six pleocytosis, six had increased protein concentration, and three of five examined had oligoclonal bands. A tumour was identified and removed in four patients (mediastinal teratoma, thymoma, thymic carcinoma and thyroid cancer) and not treated in one (ovarian teratoma). An immunohistochemical technique that facilitates the detection of antibodies to cell surface or synaptic proteins demonstrated that six patients had antibodies to the neuropil of hippocampus or cerebellum, and one to intraneuronal antigens. Only one of the neuropil antibodies corresponded to voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies; the other five (two with identical specificity) reacted with antigens concentrated in areas of high dendritic density or synaptic-enriched regions of the hippocampus or cerebellum. Preliminary characterization of these antigens indicates that they are diverse and expressed on the neuronal cell membrane and dendrites; they do not co-localize with VGKCs, but partially co-localize with spinophilin. A target autoantigen in one of the patients co-localizes with a cell surface protein involved in hippocampal dendritic development. All patients except the one with antibodies to intracellular antigens

  19. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  20. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  1. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  2. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  3. Extensive superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis in Graves’ disease: case report and mini-review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelala E

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elias Chelala, Hala El Rami, Ali Dirani, Henry Fakhoury, Ali Fadlallah Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon Background: Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK is characterized as an inflammation of the superior bulbar conjunctiva with predominant involvement of the superior limbus and adjacent epithelial keratitis.Methods: A 51-year-old woman, with a history of medically controlled Graves’ disease was seen with an extensive SLK involving 5 mm of the superior cornea.Results: Total remission was observed with topical steroids (DXM. Recurrence was observed 1 week after steroid discontinuation, and steroidal treatment was reintroduced with tapering over 1 month. Total remission was then observed for 1 year. Conclusion: Extensive keratitis and vascular pannus in SLK is rarely reported. This form could be treated with topical steroids. Tapering treatment remains essential for long-term success. Keywords: superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, anti-inflammatory drugs, dexamethasone, triamcinolone, Graves’ disease

  4. EEG-confirmed epileptic activity in a cat with VGKC-complex/LGI1 antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakozdy, Akos; Glantschnigg, Ursula; Leschnik, Michael; Hechinger, Harald; Moloney, Teresa; Lang, Bethan; Halasz, Peter; Vincent, Angela

    2014-03-01

    A 5-year-old, female client-owned cat presented with acute onset of focal epileptic seizures with orofacial twitching and behavioural changes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral temporal lobe hyperintensities and the EEG was consistent with ictal epileptic seizure activity. After antiepileptic and additional corticosteroid treatment, the cat recovered and by 10 months of follow-up was seizure-free without any problem. Retrospectively, antibodies to LGI1, a component of the voltage-gated potassium channel-complex, were identified. Feline focal seizures with orofacial involvement have been increasingly recognised in client-owned cats, and autoimmune limbic encephalitis was recently suggested as a possible aetiology. This is the first report of EEG, MRI and long-term follow-up of this condition in cats which is similar to human limbic encephalitis.

  5. Characterizing the Input-Output Function of the Olfactory-Limbic Pathway in the Guinea Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Breschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the neuroscientific community is taking more and more advantage of the continuous interaction between engineers and computational neuroscientists in order to develop neuroprostheses aimed at replacing damaged brain areas with artificial devices. To this end, a technological effort is required to develop neural network models which can be fed with the recorded electrophysiological patterns to yield the correct brain stimulation to recover the desired functions. In this paper we present a machine learning approach to derive the input-output function of the olfactory-limbic pathway in the in vitro whole brain of guinea pig, less complex and more controllable than an in vivo system. We first experimentally characterized the neuronal pathway by delivering different sets of electrical stimuli from the lateral olfactory tract (LOT and by recording the corresponding responses in the lateral entorhinal cortex (l-ERC. As a second step, we used information theory to evaluate how much information output features carry about the input. Finally we used the acquired data to learn the LOT-l-ERC “I/O function,” by means of the kernel regularized least squares method, able to predict l-ERC responses on the basis of LOT stimulation features. Our modeling approach can be further exploited for brain prostheses applications.

  6. Virtual reality adaptive stimulation of limbic networks in the mental readiness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosić, Kresimir; Popović, Sinisa; Kostović, Ivica; Judas, Milos

    2010-01-01

    A significant proportion of severe psychological problems in recent large-scale peacekeeping operations underscores the importance of effective methods for strengthening the stress resilience. Virtual reality (VR) adaptive stimulation, based on the estimation of the participant's emotional state from physiological signals, may enhance the mental readiness training (MRT). Understanding neurobiological mechanisms by which the MRT based on VR adaptive stimulation can affect the resilience to stress is important for practical application in the stress resilience management. After the delivery of a traumatic audio-visual stimulus in the VR, the cascade of events occurs in the brain, which evokes various physiological manifestations. In addition to the "limbic" emotional and visceral brain circuitry, other large-scale sensory, cognitive, and memory brain networks participate with less known impact in this physiological response. The MRT based on VR adaptive stimulation may strengthen the stress resilience through targeted brain-body interactions. Integrated interdisciplinary efforts, which would integrate the brain imaging and the proposed approach, may contribute to clarifying the neurobiological foundation of the resilience to stress.

  7. Chemosensory danger detection in the human brain: Body odor communicating aggression modulates limbic system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutic, Smiljana; Brünner, Yvonne F; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    Although the sense of smell is involved in numerous survival functions, the processing of body odor emitted by dangerous individuals is far from understood. The aim of the study was to explore how human fight chemosignals communicating aggression can alter brain activation related to an attentional bias and danger detection. While the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was seen involved in processing threat-related emotional information, danger detection and error evaluation, it still remains unknown whether human chemosignals communicating aggression can potentially modulate this activation. In the fMRI experiment, healthy male and female normosmic odor recipients (n=18) completed a higher-order processing task (emotional Stroop task with the word categories anger, anxiety, happiness and neutral) while exposed to aggression and exercise chemosignals (collected from a different group of healthy male donors; n=16). Our results provide first evidence that aggression chemosignals induce a time-sensitive attentional bias in chemosensory danger detection and modulate limbic system activation. During exposure to aggression chemosignals compared to exercise chemosignals, functional imaging data indicates an enhancement of thalamus, hypothalamus and insula activation (pbody odor signals are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic Stress and Limbic-Hypothalamopituitary-Adrenal Axis (LHPA Response in Female Reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis is a critical adaptive system that maximizes survival potential in the face of physical or psychological challenge. The principal end products of the HPA axis, glucocorticoid hormones, act on multiple organ systems, including the brain, to maintain homeostatic balance. The brain is a target of stress, and the hippocampus is the first brain region, besides the hypothalamus, to be recognized as a target of glucocorticoids. These anatomical areas in brain are limbic system, and in particular the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and amigdal that have multiple control points in regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis. The studies show the prefrontal cortex (PFC plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA activity and regulation of gonadal function in men and women is under the control of the HPA. This regulation is complex and sex steroids are important regulators of GnRH and gonadotropin release through classic feedback mechanisms in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Chronic stress can have a deleterious effect on the reproductive axis that, for females, is manifested in reduced pulsatile gonadotropin secretion and increased incidence of ovulatory abnormalities and infertility. The limbic–hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (LHPA axis suggests a functional role for gonadal steroids in the regulation of a female’s response to stress.

  9. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Paus, S. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Wagner, J. [University Medical Center, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany); Malter, M.P. [University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Pruess, H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J. [Ulm University, Department of Neurology, Ulm (Germany); Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F. [University Innsbruck, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ufer, F. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Bien, C.G. [Epilepsy Centre Bethel, Bielefeld-Bethel (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  10. Mutation of Semaphorin-6A disrupts limbic and cortical connectivity and models neurodevelopmental psychopathology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism are characterised by cellular disorganisation and dysconnectivity across the brain and can be caused by mutations in genes that control neurodevelopmental processes. To examine how neurodevelopmental defects can affect brain function and behaviour, we have comprehensively investigated the consequences of mutation of one such gene, Semaphorin-6A, on cellular organisation, axonal projection patterns, behaviour and physiology in mice. These analyses reveal a spectrum of widespread but subtle anatomical defects in Sema6A mutants, notably in limbic and cortical cellular organisation, lamination and connectivity. These mutants display concomitant alterations in the electroencephalogram and hyper-exploratory behaviour, which are characteristic of models of psychosis and reversible by the antipsychotic clozapine. They also show altered social interaction and deficits in object recognition and working memory. Mice with mutations in Sema6A or the interacting genes may thus represent a highly informative model for how neurodevelopmental defects can lead to anatomical dysconnectivity, resulting, either directly or through reactive mechanisms, in dysfunction at the level of neuronal networks with associated behavioural phenotypes of relevance to psychiatric disorders. The biological data presented here also make these genes plausible candidates to explain human linkage findings for schizophrenia and autism.

  11. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I.; Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A.; Paus, S.; Wagner, J.; Malter, M.P.; Pruess, H.; Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J.; Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F.; Ufer, F.; Bien, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  12. Second primary tumor in anti-Ma1/2-positive paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyhe, T; Schüle, R; Schwärzler, F; Gasser, T; Haarmeier, T

    2006-05-01

    Memory loss can be a symptom of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) a neuropsychiatric disorder associated mostly with small-cell lung cancer and anti-Hu antibodies or with testicular tumors and anti-Ma2 antibodies. We present the case of a patient with temporal coincidence of beginning cognitive decline and diagnosis of a carcinoma of the prostate in whom we diagnosed anti-Ma1/Ma2-positive PLE. The tumor had been completely resected but memory impairment further deteriorated. As the effective treatment of the cancer is considered as the most efficient treatment of a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) a second neoplasia was suspected in the patient. By the aid of whole body positron emission tomography with 18-fluorine fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG-PET) an adenocarcinoma of the cecum could be detected. Two months after surgery anti-Ma antibodies were negative. We conclude that a second neoplasia should be considered, if effective cancer treatment does not lead to improvement or stabilisation of a PNS. Tumor search should be exhaustive and include PET when conventional imaging fails to show a malignancy.

  13. Caspr2 antibody limbic encephalitis is associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Hong; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kun-Ju; Chang, Bao-Luen; Hsieh, Hsiang-Yao; Chen, Wei-Hsun; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wu, Tony

    2014-06-15

    Contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2) antibody is a neuronal surface antibody (NSAb) capable of causing disorders involving central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). Thymoma can be found in patients with Caspr2 antibodies and is most frequently associated with PNS symptoms. Myasthenia gravis can be found in these patients, but Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) has not been reported. A 76-year-old woman presented with sub-acute-onset changes in mental status. Further investigations revealed thymoma and HT. The presence of NSAb was tested by immunofluorescence on human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Treatment included corticosteroids, azathioprine, thyroxine, plasmapheresis, and thymectomy. Caspr2 antibody was positive in serum but absent in CSF. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse cortical atrophy, but did not change significantly after treatments. Brain positron emission tomography (PET) revealed diffuse hypometabolism over the cerebral cortex. The patient's mental status only partially improved. In Caspr2 antibody-associated syndromes, thymoma can occur in patients presenting only with LE, and HT can be an accompanying disease. Brain MRI and PET may not show specific lesions in limbic area. Patients with Caspr2 antibodies and thymoma may not have good prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain structural network topological alterations of the left prefrontal and limbic cortex in psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhuai; Chen, Yun; Gao, Qingqiang; Chen, Guotao; Dai, Yutian; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing

    2018-05-01

    Despite increasing understanding of the cerebral functional changes and structural abnormalities in erectile dysfunction, alterations in the topological organization of brain networks underlying psychogenic erectile dysfunction remain unclear. Here, based on the diffusion tensor image data of 25 patients and 26 healthy controls, we investigated the topological organization of brain structural networks and its correlations with the clinical variables using the graph theoretical analysis. Patients displayed a preserved overall small-world organization and exhibited a less connectivity strength in the left inferior frontal gyrus, amygdale and the right inferior temporal gyrus. Moreover, an abnormal hub pattern was observed in patients, which might disturb the information interactions of the remaining brain network. Additionally, the clustering coefficient of the left hippocampus was positively correlated with the duration of patients and the normalized betweenness centrality of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left calcarine fissure were negatively correlated with the sum scores of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. These findings suggested that the damaged white matter and the abnormal hub distribution of the left prefrontal and limbic cortex might contribute to the pathogenesis of psychogenic erectile dysfunction and provided new insights into the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

  15. Work-related social support modulates effects of early life stress on limbic reactivity during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Bruch, Heike; Bönke, Luisa; Stevense, Amie; Fan, Yan; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2017-12-15

    Early life stress (ELS) affects stress- reactivity via limbic brain regions implicated such as hippocampus and amygdala. Social support is a major protective factor against ELS effects, while subjects with ELS experience reportedly perceive less of it in their daily life. The workplace, where most adults spend a substantial amount of time in their daily lives, might serve as a major resource for social support. Since previous data demonstrated that social support attenuates stress reactivity, we here used a psychosocial stress task to test the hypothesis that work-related social support modulates the effects of ELS. Results show decreased amygdala reactivity during stress in ELS subjects who report high levels of work- related social support, thereby indicating a signature for reduced stress reactivity. However, this effect was only observable on the neural, but not on the behavioral level, since social support had no buffering effect regarding the subjective experience of stress in daily life as well as regarding feelings of uncontrollability induced by the stress task. Accordingly, our data suggest that subjects with ELS experiences might benefit from interventions targeted at lowering their subjective stress levels by helping them to better perceive the availability of social support in their daily lives.

  16. Interaction between basal ganglia and limbic circuits in learning and memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabresi, Paolo; Picconi, Barbara; Tozzi, Alessandro; Ghiglieri, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampus and striatum play distinctive roles in memory processes since declarative and non-declarative memory systems may act independently. However, hippocampus and striatum can also be engaged to function in parallel as part of a dynamic system to integrate previous experience and adjust behavioral responses. In these structures the formation, storage, and retrieval of memory require a synaptic mechanism that is able to integrate multiple signals and to translate them into persistent molecular traces at both the corticostriatal and hippocampal/limbic synapses. The best cellular candidate for this complex synthesis is represented by long-term potentiation (LTP). A common feature of LTP expressed in these two memory systems is the critical requirement of convergence and coincidence of glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs to the dendritic spines of the neurons expressing this form of synaptic plasticity. In experimental models of Parkinson's disease abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein affects these two memory systems by altering two major synaptic mechanisms underlying cognitive functions in cholinergic striatal neurons, likely implicated in basal ganglia dependent operative memory, and in the CA1 hippocampal region, playing a central function in episodic/declarative memory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. fMRI neurofeedback of amygdala response to aversive stimuli enhances prefrontal-limbic brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Christian; Ruf, Matthias; Gerchen, Martin Fungisai; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Demirakca, Traute; Jungkunz, Martin; Bertsch, Katja; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

    2016-01-15

    Down-regulation of the amygdala with real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI NF) potentially allows targeting brain circuits of emotion processing and may involve prefrontal-limbic networks underlying effective emotion regulation. Little research has been dedicated to the effect of rtfMRI NF on the functional connectivity of the amygdala and connectivity patterns in amygdala down-regulation with neurofeedback have not been addressed yet. Using psychophysiological interaction analysis of fMRI data, we present evidence that voluntary amygdala down-regulation by rtfMRI NF while viewing aversive pictures was associated with increased connectivity of the right amygdala with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in healthy subjects (N=16). In contrast, a control group (N=16) receiving sham feedback did not alter amygdala connectivity (Group×Condition t-contrast: pneurofeedback to influence functional connectivity in key networks of emotion processing and regulation. This may be beneficial for patients suffering from severe emotion dysregulation by improving neural self-regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Successful treatment of acute autoimmune limbic encephalitis with negative VGKC and NMDAR antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modoni, Anna; Masciullo, Marcella; Spinelli, Pietro; Marra, Camillo; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Andreetta, Francesca; Tonali, Pietro; Silvestri, Gabriella

    2009-03-01

    To describe a case of acute nonherpetic limbic encephalitis (LE) with negative testing for antibodies directed against onconeuronal and cell membrane antigens, including voltage-gated potassium channels and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, that showed a dramatic response to immune therapy. A 30-year-old woman manifested generalized seizures, altered consciousness, and memory impairment shortly after a prodromal viral illness. Few days later the patient developed a drug-resistant epileptic status. Electroencephalograph showed bitemporal slowing and paroxysmal slow wave bursts. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral swelling in the medial temporal lobes. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis ruled out viral etiologies. A diagnostic search for cancer, including serum testing for known onconeuronal antibodies proved negative. Screening for cell membrane antigen antibodies, including voltage-gated potassium channels and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, was also negative. Suspecting an autoimmune etiology, we started an immunomodulatory treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin followed by a short course of oral prednisone, obtaining a full clinical recovery. Our report confirms previous observations of "seronegative" autoimmune LE, suggesting the presence of other, still unknown central nervous system antigens representing a target of a postinfectious, autoimmune response in these patients. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of early recognition and treatment of acute autoimmune LE, to reduce the risk of intensive care unit-related complications and the occurrence of permanent cognitive or behavioral defects.

  19. An effective immunotherapy regimen for VGKC antibody-positive limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S H; Saunders, M D; Larner, A J; Das, K; Hart, I K

    2010-10-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-positive limbic encephalitis (VGKC+LE) frequently improves with immunotherapy, although the optimum regimen is unknown. The effectiveness of a combination immunomodulatory regimen was tested in consecutive VGKC+LE patients. This was an open-label prospective study of nine VGKC+LE patients. All patients had plasma exchange (50 ml/kg), intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and intravenous methylprednisolone (1 g×3), followed by maintenance oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day). Mycophenolate (2 g/day) was used in the first three patients. Assessments included serial clinical, cognitive, brain MRI and VGKC antibody testing. Within 1 week, seizures and hyponatraemia remitted in all affected patients. Cognitive function improved in all patients within 3 months. MRI appearances improved substantially within 9 months, with remission of inflammation in the majority of patients. All achieved immunological remission with normal VGKC antibody titres within 1-4 months. Major adverse events of therapy included one septicaemia and one thrombosis on plasma exchange and one death from sepsis after incidental bowel surgery. One patient remains in remission after 40 months of follow up, 26 months after being off all treatment. Our immunotherapy regimen was effective for the treatment of the clinical, cognitive and immunological features of VGKC+LE. Radiological improvement was seen in the majority. Pending randomised controlled trials, this regimen is proposed for the treatment of VGKC+LE.

  20. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, H; Rauer, S; Mader, I; Paus, S; Wagner, J; Malter, M P; Prüss, H; Lewerenz, J; Kassubek, J; Hegen, H; Auer, M; Deisenhammer, F; Ufer, F; Bien, C G; Baumgartner, A

    2015-12-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE.

  1. A unique combination of autoimmune limbic encephalitis, type 1 diabetes, and Stiff person syndrome associated with GAD-65 antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Mohan Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to GAD-65 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes , limbic encephalitis and Stiff person syndrome, however these diseases rarely occur concurrently. We intend to present a rare case of 35 year old female who was recently diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes presented with 1½ month history of recurrent seizures, subacute onset gait ataxia, dysathria, psychiatric disturbance and cognitive decline. No tumor was found on imaging and the classic paraneoplastic panel was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood was positive for GAD-65 antibodies.Patient showed significant improvement with immunomodulatory therapy. Association of GAD-65 antibodies has been found with various disorders including type 1 diabetes, limbic encephalitis, Stiff person syndrome,cerebellar ataxia and palatal myoclonus.This case presents with unique combination of type 1 diabetes, Stiff person syndrome and limbic encephalitis associated with GAD-65 antibodies that is responsive to immunotherapy. It also highlights the emerging concept of autoimmunity in the causation of various disorders and there associations.

  2. Seizures and Sleep in the Thalamus: Focal Limbic Seizures Show Divergent Activity Patterns in Different Thalamic Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Motelow, Joshua E; Ma, Chanthia; Biche, William; McCafferty, Cian; Smith, Nicholas; Liu, Mengran; Zhan, Qiong; Jia, Ruonan; Xiao, Bo; Duque, Alvaro; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2017-11-22

    The thalamus plays diverse roles in cortical-subcortical brain activity patterns. Recent work suggests that focal temporal lobe seizures depress subcortical arousal systems and convert cortical activity into a pattern resembling slow-wave sleep. The potential simultaneous and paradoxical role of the thalamus in both limbic seizure propagation, and in sleep-like cortical rhythms has not been investigated. We recorded neuronal activity from the central lateral (CL), anterior (ANT), and ventral posteromedial (VPM) nuclei of the thalamus in an established female rat model of focal limbic seizures. We found that population firing of neurons in CL decreased during seizures while the cortex exhibited slow waves. In contrast, ANT showed a trend toward increased neuronal firing compatible with polyspike seizure discharges seen in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, VPM exhibited a remarkable increase in sleep spindles during focal seizures. Single-unit juxtacellular recordings from CL demonstrated reduced overall firing rates, but a switch in firing pattern from single spikes to burst firing during seizures. These findings suggest that different thalamic nuclei play very different roles in focal limbic seizures. While limbic nuclei, such as ANT, appear to participate directly in seizure propagation, arousal nuclei, such as CL, may contribute to depressed cortical function, whereas sleep spindles in relay nuclei, such as VPM, may interrupt thalamocortical information flow. These combined effects could be critical for controlling both seizure severity and impairment of consciousness. Further understanding of differential effects of seizures on different thalamocortical networks may lead to improved treatments directly targeting these modes of impaired function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Temporal lobe epilepsy has a major negative impact on quality of life. Previous work suggests that the thalamus plays a critical role in thalamocortical network modulation and subcortical arousal

  3. Limbic encephalitis: Clinical spectrum and long-term outcome from a developing country perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Abajirao Jagtap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limbic encephalitis (LE is characterized by rapidly progressive short-term memory loss, psychiatric symptoms and seizures. We describe the clinical spectrum, underlying etiology and long-term follow-up of patients with LE from India. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included patients during the period of January 2009 and December 2011 with the clinical features consistent with LE with one or more of the following: (1 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI evidence of temporal lobe involvement; (2 cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory abnormalities, or (3 detection of antineuronal antibodies. Patients with metastasis, infection, metabolic and nutritional deficits, stroke, were excluded. Results: There were 16 patients (9 females, mean age of presentation was 36.6 years (range 15-69 years. The mean duration of symptoms before presentation was 11 months (range 5 days-2 years. The most common symptom at presentation was short-term memory impairment in 7 patients followed by seizures in 5 and behavioral changes in three. Nine patients had seizures, 11 had change in behavior, language involvement in eight, cerebellar features in 3 and autonomic dysfunction in two. Four patients had associated malignancy, 3 of four presented with neurological symptoms and on investigations found to be have malignancy. Antineuronal antibody testing was done in 6 of 12 non paraneoplastic and two paraneoplastic patients, one positive for N-methyl-D-aspartate and one for anti-Hu antibody. MRI brain showed typical fluid attenuated inversion recovery or T2 bilateral temporal lobe hyperintensities in 50% of patients. At a mean follow-up of 21 months (3-36 months, 10 patients improved, 4 patients remained same and two patients expired. Conclusion: Early recognition of LE is important based upon clinical, MRI data in the absence of antineuronal surface antibody screen in developing nations. Early institution of immunotherapy will help in improvement in outcome of

  4. Prefrontal-limbic Functional Connectivity during Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Douglas W; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2018-04-15

    This study is a new analysis to obtain novel metabolic data on the functional connectivity of prefrontal-limbic regions in Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction of tone-footshock conditioning. Mice were analyzed with the fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiographic method to metabolically map regional brain activity. New FDG data were sampled from the nuclei of the habenula and other regions implicated in aversive conditioning, such as infralimbic cortex, amygdala and periaqueductal gray regions. The activity patterns among these regions were inter-correlated during acquisition, extinction or pseudorandom training to develop a functional connectivity model. Two subdivisions of the habenular complex showed increased activity after acquisition relative to extinction, with the pseudorandom group intermediate between the other two groups. Significant acquisition activation effects were also found in centromedial amygdala, dorsomedial and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. FDG uptake increases during extinction were found only in dorsal and ventral infralimbic cortex. The overall pattern of activity correlations between these regions revealed extensive but differential functional connectivity during acquisition and extinction training, with less functional connectivity found after pseudorandom training. Interestingly, habenula nuclei showed a distinct pattern of inter-correlations with amygdala nuclei during extinction. The functional connectivity model revealed changing interactions among infralimbic cortex, amygdala, habenula and periaqueductal gray regions through the stages of Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction. This study provided new data on the contributions of the habenula to fear conditioning, and revealed previously unreported infralimbic-amygdala-habenula-periaqueductal gray interactions implicated in acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Limbic justice--amygdala involvement in immediate rejection in the Ultimatum Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Gospic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Imaging studies have revealed a putative neural account of emotional bias in decision making. However, it has been difficult in previous studies to identify the causal role of the different sub-regions involved in decision making. The Ultimatum Game (UG is a game to study the punishment of norm-violating behavior. In a previous influential paper on UG it was suggested that frontal insular cortex has a pivotal role in the rejection response. This view has not been reconciled with a vast literature that attributes a crucial role in emotional decision making to a subcortical structure (i.e., amygdala. In this study we propose an anatomy-informed model that may join these views. We also present a design that detects the functional anatomical response to unfair proposals in a subcortical network that mediates rapid reactive responses. We used a functional MRI paradigm to study the early components of decision making and challenged our paradigm with the introduction of a pharmacological intervention to perturb the elicited behavioral and neural response. Benzodiazepine treatment decreased the rejection rate (from 37.6% to 19.0% concomitantly with a diminished amygdala response to unfair proposals, and this in spite of an unchanged feeling of unfairness and unchanged insular response. In the control group, rejection was directly linked to an increase in amygdala activity. These results allow a functional anatomical detection of the early neural components of rejection associated with the initial reactive emotional response. Thus, the act of immediate rejection seems to be mediated by the limbic system and is not solely driven by cortical processes, as previously suggested. Our results also prompt an ethical discussion as we demonstrated that a commonly used drug influences core functions in the human brain that underlie individual autonomy and economic decision making.

  6. Trait anxiety modulates fronto-limbic processing of emotional interference in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eHoltmann

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of cognitive alterations in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD have yielded conflicting results. Given that a core feature of BPD is affective instability, which is characterized by emotional hyperreactivity and deficits in emotion regulation, it seems conceivable that short-lasting emotional distress might exert temporary detrimental effects on cognitive performance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate how task-irrelevant emotional stimuli (fearful faces affect performance and fronto-limbic neural activity patterns during attention-demanding cognitive processing in 16 female, unmedicated BPD patients relative to 24 age-matched healthy controls. In a modified flanker task, emotionally negative, socially salient pictures (fearful versus neutral faces were presented as distracters in the background. Patients, but not controls, showed an atypical response pattern of the right amygdala with increased activation during emotional interference in the (difficult incongruent flanker condition, but emotion-related amygdala deactivation in the congruent condition. A direct comparison of the emotional conditions between the two groups revealed that the strongest diagnosis-related differences could be observed in the dorsal and, to a lesser extent, also in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (dACC, rACC where patients exhibited an increased neural response to emotional relative to neutral distracters. Moreover, in the incongruent condition, both the dACC and rACC fMRI responses during emotional interference were negatively correlated with trait anxiety in the patients, but not in the healthy controls. As higher trait anxiety was also associated with longer reaction times in the BPD patients, we suggest that in BPD patients the ACC might mediate compensatory cognitive processes during emotional interference and that such neurocognitive compensation that can be adversely affected by high levels of

  7. GAD antibody-associated limbic encephalitis in a young woman with APECED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kopczak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune polyendocrinopathy–candidiasis–ectodermal dystrophy (APECED syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene. Immune deficiency, hypoparathyroidism and Addison’s disease due to autoimmune dysfunction are the major clinical signs of APECED. We report on a 21-year-old female APECED patient with two inactivating mutations in the AIRE gene. She presented with sudden onset of periodic nausea. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed by means of the ACTH stimulation test. Despite initiation of hormone replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone, nausea persisted and the patient developed cognitive deficits and a loss of interest which led to the diagnosis of depression. She was admitted to the psychiatric department for further diagnostic assessment. An EEG showed a focal epileptic pattern. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD antibodies, which had been negative eight years earlier, were now elevated in serum and in the cerebrospinal fluid. Oligoclonal bands were positive indicating an inflammatory process with intrathecal antibody production in the central nervous system (CNS. The periodic nausea was identified as dialeptic seizures, which clinically presented as gastrointestinal aura followed by episodes of reduced consciousness that occurred about 3–4 times per day. GAD antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (LE was diagnosed. Besides antiepileptic therapy, an immunosuppressive treatment with corticosteroids was initiated followed by azathioprine. The presence of nausea and vomiting in endocrine patients with autoimmune disorders is indicative of adrenal insufficiency. However, our case report shows that episodic nausea may be a symptom of epileptic seizures due to GAD antibodies-associated LE in patients with APECED.

  8. Electroconvulsive therapy and structural neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnia, T; Joshi, S H; Leaver, A M; Vasavada, M; Njau, S; Woods, R P; Espinoza, R; Narr, K L

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and rapidly acting treatment for severe depression. To understand the biological bases of therapeutic response, we examined variations in cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 29 patients scanned at three time points during an ECT treatment index series and in 29 controls at two time points. Changes in thickness across time and with symptom improvement were evaluated at high spatial resolution across the cortex and within discrete cortical regions of interest. Patients showed increased thickness over the course of ECT in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior and superior temporal, parahippocampal, entorhinal and fusiform cortex and in distributed prefrontal areas. No changes across time occurred in controls. In temporal and fusiform regions showing significant ECT effects, thickness differed between patients and controls at baseline and change in thickness related to therapeutic response in patients. In the ACC, these relationships occurred in treatment responders only, and thickness measured soon after treatment initiation predicted the overall ECT response. ECT leads to widespread neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic regions and changes relate to the extent of antidepressant response. Variations in ACC thickness, which discriminate treatment responders and predict response early in the course of ECT, may represent a biomarker of overall clinical outcome. Because post-mortem studies show focal reductions in glial density and neuronal size in patients with severe depression, ECT-related increases in thickness may be attributable to neuroplastic processes affecting the size and/or density of neurons and glia and their connections. PMID:27271858

  9. Limbic-Auditory Interactions of Tinnitus: An Evaluation Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunbey, H P; Gunbey, E; Aslan, K; Bulut, T; Unal, A; Incesu, L

    2017-06-01

    Tinnitus is defined as an imaginary subjective perception in the absence of an external sound. Convergent evidence proposes that tinnitus perception includes auditory, attentional and emotional components. The aim of this study was to investigate the thalamic, auditory and limbic interactions associated with tinnitus-related distress by Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). A total of 36 tinnitus patients, 20 healthy controls underwent an audiological examination, as well as a magnetic resonance imaging protocol including structural and DTI sequences. All participants completed the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) related with tinnitus. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were obtained for the auditory cortex (AC), inferior colliculus (IC), lateral lemniscus (LL), medial geniculate body (MGB), thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), amygdala (AMG), hippocampus (HIP), parahippocampus (PHIP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In tinnitus patients the FA values of IC, MGB, TRN, AMG, HIP decreased and the ADC values of IC, MGB, TRN, AMG, PHIP increased significantly. The contralateral IC-LL and bilateral MGB FA values correlated negatively with hearing loss. A negative relation was found between the AMG-HIP FA values and THI and VAS scores. Bilateral ADC values of PHIP and PFC significantly correlated with the attention deficiency-VAS scores. In conclusion, this is the first DTI study to investigate the grey matter structures related to tinnitus perception and the significant correlation of FA and ADC with clinical parameters suggests that DTI can provide helpful information for tinnitus. Magnifying the microstructures in DTI can help evaluate the three faces of tinnitus nature: hearing, emotion and attention.

  10. Orbitofrontal and limbic signatures of empathic concern and intentional harm in the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Morales, Juan P; Slachevsky, Andrea; Torralva, Teresa; Matus, Cristian; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-02-01

    Perceiving and evaluating intentional harms in an interpersonal context engages both cognitive and emotional domains. This process involves inference of intentions, moral judgment, and, crucially, empathy towards others' suffering. This latter skill is notably impaired in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). However, the relationship between regional brain atrophy in bvFTD and deficits in the above-mentioned abilities is not well understood. The present study investigated how gray matter (GM) atrophy in bvFTD patients correlates with the perception and evaluation of harmful actions (attribution of intentionality, evaluation of harmful behavior, empathic concern, and moral judgment). First, we compared the behavioral performance of 26 bvFTD patients and 23 healthy controls on an experimental task (ET) indexing intentionality, empathy, and moral cognition during evaluation of harmful actions. Second, we compared GM volume in patients and controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Third, we examined brain regions where atrophy might be associated with specific impairments in the patient group. Finally, we explored whether the patients' deficits in intentionality comprehension and empathic concern could be partially explained by regional GM atrophy or impairments in other relevant factors, such as executive functions (EFs). In bvFTD patients, atrophy of limbic structures (amygdala and anterior paracingulate cortex--APC) was related to impairments in intentionality comprehension, while atrophy of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was associated with empathic concern deficits. Intentionality comprehension impairments were predicted by EFs and orbitofrontal atrophy predicted deficits in empathic concern. Thus, although the perception and evaluation of harmful actions are variously compromised in bvFTD, deficits in empathic concern may be central to this syndrome as they are associated with one of the earliest atrophied region. More generally, our results

  11. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Hallett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that CD with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated 2-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Eleven CD patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula, and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system, which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Brezing, C; Gallea, C; Hallett, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Conversion disorder is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that conversion disorder with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amgydala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Methods Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated two-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Results Eleven conversion disorder patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Conclusion We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. PMID:21935985

  13. Human limbic encephalitis serum enhances hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalic, Tatjana; Pettingill, Philippa; Vincent, Angela; Capogna, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) is a central nervous system (CNS) disease characterized by subacute onset of memory loss and epileptic seizures. A well-recognized form of LE is associated with voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies (VGKC-Abs) in the patients' sera. We aimed to test the hypothesis that purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) from a VGKC-Ab LE serum would excite hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells by reducing VGKC function at mossy-fiber (MF)-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses. We compared the effects of LE and healthy control IgG by whole-cell patch-clamp and extracellular recordings from CA3 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampal acute slices. We found that the LE IgG induced epileptiform activity at a population level, since synaptic stimulation elicited multiple population spikes extracellularly recorded in the CA3 area. Moreover, the LE IgG increased the rate of tonic firing and strengthened the MF-evoked synaptic responses. The synaptic failure of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) was significantly lower in the presence of the LE IgG compared to the control IgG. This suggests that the LE IgG increased the release probability on MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses compared to the control IgG. Interestingly, α-dendrotoxin (120 nm), a selective Kv1.1, 1.2, and 1.6 subunit antagonist of VGKC, mimicked the LE IgG-mediated effects. This is the first functional demonstration that LE IgGs reduce VGKC function at CNS synapses and increase cell excitability. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Outcome of limbic encephalitis with VGKC-complex antibodies: relation to antigenic specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malter, M P; Frisch, C; Schoene-Bake, J C; Helmstaedter, C; Wandinger, K P; Stoecker, W; Urbach, H; Surges, R; Elger, C E; Vincent, A V; Bien, C G

    2014-09-01

    In limbic encephalitis (LE) with antibodies (Abs) to the voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC), the Abs are mainly directed to the VGKC-complex proteins, leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) or contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR-2) or neither. Here, we relate the outcomes of VGKC-LE patients to the presence of Abs to LGI1, CASPR-2 or neither antigen (LGI1/CASPR-2-Ab(-)). Clinical, neuropsychology and MRI data were obtained from patient records for all LE patients from the Bonn Epilepsy Centre positive for VGKC-Abs by radioimmunoprecipitation assay between 2002 and 2011. Eighteen VGKC-LE patients were identified: nine patients (50 %) had LGI1-Abs, three (16 %) had CASPR-2-Abs; and six (33 %) were negative for both LGI1- and CASPR-2-Abs. At first assessment, the groups did not differ clinically or radiologically, but faciobrachial dystonic seizures were only observed in two LGI1-Ab(+) patients. All patients received monthly intravenous methylprednisolone (MP) pulses. At the most recent follow up (median 26 months), thirteen (72 %) were seizure-free, and seizure-freedom rates did not differ between the Ab groups. Hippocampal atrophy had developed in 7/9 LGI1-Ab(+) patients, but in none of the CASPR-2-Ab(+) or LGI/CASPR-2-Ab(-) patients (p = 0.003). While all subgroups improved, memory scores only normalized in six patients (33 %) and LGI1-Ab(+) patients were left with significantly poorer memory than the other two subgroups. Most VGKC-LE patients become seizure-free with pulsed monthly MP, but memory outcome is less favourable. Hippocampal atrophy and poor memory recovery is common in patients with LGI1-Abs and suggests permanent functional damage. More intense immunotherapies could improve outcomes in LGI1-Ab(+)-LE.

  15. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  16. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  17. Designing Visceral, Behavioural and Reflective Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Mersha; Rusli, Helen Agustin

    2017-09-01

    Designers and manufacturers often see consumption as the primary objective of a product - with implications such as discarded products, obsolete wastes, and ecological degradation. The paper aims to find the answer to the question, how emotional design can adapt the discarded and undesirable products into something valuable in a long term? This paper presents a framework combining Chapman's theory and Norman's theory on three levels of emotional design to highlight what long lasting connection with products entails. A design approach is presented combing the Wabi Sabi philosophy that promotes the celebration of decay and damage. This is used as one of the design principles for the experiments conducted on discarded products. Through constant user interaction before, during and after the experiments the evaluation of design as an agent of transformation is done. The user conducted the evaluation based on the Kansei elements of looks, sound, smell, and feel of the product. The experiments confirmed that a long-term value is only achieved through redesigning and reconstructing the perception of people towards products on a reflective level, rather than the visceral and behavioural elements of the product. The research found attachment to the visceral and behavioural elements of a product instead of an emotional one was causing users to discard products faster than required. The research indicated that many people, including designers and manufacturers, are unconsciously focusing on usability (behavioural level) and physical look (visceral level) of a product that are easily replaced, than on a meaningful way (reflective level) to create and maintain long-lasting emotions. The research concluded with a proposition towards digitization of products which could perhaps be an all round solution to make products more appropriate to human emotions. Digitization could give products the ability to capture, store and then communicate the stories, journey and memories back, in

  18. Impaired white matter connections of the limbic system networks associated with impaired emotional memory in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshu Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and early Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM.Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM of the limbic system networks. Methods: Twenty-one AD patients, 20 aMCI patients and 25 normal controls participated in emotional picture recognition tests and MRI scanning. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and voxel-based morphometry (VBM methods were used to determine white and gray matter changes of patients. Fourteen regions of interest (ROI of WM and 20 ROIs of GM were then selected for the correlation analyses with behavioral scores. Results: The EEM effect was lost in AD patients. Both white and gray matter of the limbic system networks were impaired in AD patients. Significant correlations or tendencies between the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, corpus callosum (genu and body, left cingulum bundle, left parahippocampal WM and the recognition sensitivity of emotional valence pictures, and significant correlations or tendencies between the splenium of corpus callosum, left cingulum bundle, left crus of fornix and stria terminalis and the recognition sensitivity of EEM were found. The volume of left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial frontal lobe, anterior and middle cingulum gyrus were positively correlated with the recognition sensitivity of emotional photos, and the right precuneus was positively correlated with the negative EEM effect. However, the affected brain areas of aMCI patients were more localized, and aMCI patients benefited only from positive stimuli. Conclusion: There are impairments of the limbic system networks of AD patients. Damaged WM

  19. Kainic acid-induced albumin leak across the blood-brain barrier facilitates epileptiform hyperexcitability in limbic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Francesco M; Bellistri, Elisa; Colciaghi, Francesca; Cipelletti, Barbara; Battaglia, Giorgio; de Curtis, Marco; Librizzi, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Systemic administration of kainic acid (KA) is a widely used procedure utilized to develop a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Despite its ability to induce status epilepticus (SE) in vivo, KA applied to in vitro preparations induces only interictal-like activity and/or isolated ictal discharges. The possibility that extravasation of the serum protein albumin from the vascular compartment enhances KA-induced brain excitability is investigated here. Epileptiform activity was induced by arterial perfusion of 6 μm KA in the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain preparation. Simultaneous field potential recordings were carried out bilaterally from limbic (CA1, dentate gyrus [DG], and entorhinal cortex) and extralimbic regions (piriform cortex and neocortex). Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown associated with KA-induced epileptiform activity was assessed by parenchymal leakage of intravascular fluorescein-isothiocyanate albumin. Seizure-induced brain inflammation was evaluated by western blot analysis of interleukin (IL)-1β expression in brain tissue. KA infusion caused synchronized activity at 15-30 Hz in limbic (but not extralimbic) cortical areas, associated with a brief, single seizure-like event. A second bolus of KA, 60 min after the induction of the first ictal event, did not further enhance excitability. Perfusion of serum albumin between the two administrations of KA enhanced epileptiform discharges and allowed a recurrent ictal event during the second KA infusion. Our data show that arterial KA administration selectively alters the synchronization of limbic networks. However, KA is not sufficient to generate recurrent seizures unless serum albumin is co-perfused during KA administration. These findings suggest a role of serum albumin in facilitating acute seizure generation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Cortical-limbic regions modulate depression and anxiety factors in functional dyspepsia. A PET-CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mailan; Liang Fanrong; Zeng Fang; Tang Yong; Lan Lei; Song Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe some specific brain areas or cerebral functional network participating in the modulation of depression and anxiety factors in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients by detecting cerebral glucose metabolism (CGM) in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans. Eight FD patients with depression and anxiety (DA-FD group) and eight FD patients without depression and anxiety (non-DA-FD group) were recruited and evaluated by the Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI) and Dyspepsia Symptom Scores (DSS). Cerebral 18 F-FDG PET-CT scans were performed on the DA-FD group and non-DA-FD group, respectively. The differences in CGM between the two groups were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping 2.0 (SPM2). Extensive changes in the CGM signals were observed in the cerebral cortex and limbic system of FD patients with depression and anxiety. Compared to non-DA-FD patients, DA-FD patients showed a higher glucose metabolism in the right postcentral gyrus (BA 1 and 5), inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), middle temporal gyrus (BA 22), inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), lingual gyrus (BA 18) and the left middle occipital gyrus (BA 37), as well as the limbic system including the left thalamus, lateral globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35), right insular cortex (BA 13) and parahippocampal gyrus (BA 18); a lower glucose metabolism was presented in the left middle cingulated gyrus (BA 24), the right superior frontal gyrus (BA 6), the medial frontal gyrus (BA 6) and middle temporal gyrus (BA 21). An extensive cortical-limbic brain network might modulate the procession of FD patients with depression and anxiety factors. (author)

  1. Combustion synthesis and characterization of blue long lasting phosphor CaAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ and its novel application in latent fingerprint and lip mark detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishal; Das, Amrita; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Vinay; Verma, Kartikey; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    This work investigates the structural, optical and photometric characterization of a Eu2+/Dy3+ doped calcium aluminates phosphor (CaAl2O4: Eu2+/Dy3+) for finger and lip print detections. Synthesis of CaAl2O4: Eu2+/Dy3+ (CAED) phosphors were carried out via a combustion synthesis method with urea as a fuel. Eu2+/Dy3+ doped CaAl2O4 phosphors have been studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy Selected Area Diffraction (SAED) and High resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM). The XRD pattern shows that the synthesized Eu2+/Dy3+ doped CaAl2O4 phosphor have a single monoclinic structure and show that the addition of the dopant/co-dopants didn't change the crystal structure. The formation of monoclinic phase was confirmed by the selected area diffraction pattern. The TEM micrograph displays the morphology of the synthesized Eu2+/Dy3+ doped CaAl2O4 phosphors as spherical particles with an average particle size of 33 nm. The optical band gap was calculated using the diffuse reflectance for the synthesized nanophosphor powders. The photoluminescence emission spectra was recorded for the synthesized powder, with an excitation wavelength of 326 nm and the major bands was recorded at 447 nm corresponding to the blue color and two minor bands were recorded at 577 nm and 616 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to show the use of CaAl2O4: Eu2+/Dy3+ nanophosphor in developing latent fingerprint and lip print effectively.

  2. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  3. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  4. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  5. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  6. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  7. The effect of amperozide on uptake and release of [3H]-dopamine in vitro from perfused rat striatal and limbic brain areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, E.; Christensson, E.

    1990-01-01

    Amperozide, a putatively antipsychotic drug, was studied for its effects on uptake and release of [ 3 H]-dopamine in rat brain in vitro. Amperozide inhibited uptake of [ 3 H]-dopamine in striatal chopped tissue in vitro with an IC 50 of 18 μM. It also increased basal release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from perfused rat striatal and limbic tissue in vitro at concentrations above 5 μM. Release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from perfused rat striatal and limbic tissue stimulated with 5 μM amphetamine, was inhibited by 1 μM amperozide to 46%. No significant difference was found for the effect of amperozide on in vitro release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from corpus striatum compared to tissue from limbic grain regions; neither on basal release nor on amphetamine-stimulated release of dopamine. (author)

  8. Dopamine agonist suppression of rapid-eye-movement sleep is secondary to sleep suppression mediated via limbic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miletich, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pergolide, a direct dopamine receptor agonist, on sleep and wakefulness, motor behavior and 3 H-spiperone specific binding in limbic structures and striatum in rats was studied. The results show that pergolide induced a biphasic dose effect, with high doses increasing wakefulness and suppressing sleep while low dose decreased wakefulness, but increased sleep. It was shown that pergolide-induced sleep suppression was blocked by α-glupenthixol and pimozide, two dopamine receptor antagonists. It was further shown that pergolide merely delayed the rebound resulting from rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep deprivation, that dopamine receptors stimulation had no direct effect on the period, phase or amplitude of the circadian rhythm of REM sleep propensity and that there was no alteration in the coupling of REM sleep episodes with S 2 episodes. Rapid-eye-movement sleep deprivation resulted in increased sensitivity to the pergolide-induced wakefulness stimulation and sleep suppression and pergolide-induced motor behaviors of locomotion and head bobbing. 3 H-spiperone specific binding to dopamine receptors was shown to be altered by REM sleep deprivation in the subcortical limbic structures. It is concluded that the REM sleep suppressing action of dopamine receptor stimulation is secondary to sleep suppression per se and not secondary to a unique effect on the REM sleep. Further, it is suggested that the wakefulness stimulating action of dopamine receptor agonists is mediated by activation of the dopamine receptors in the terminal areas of the mesolimbocortical dopamine projection system

  9. Dysregulation of Prefrontal Cortex-Mediated Slow-Evolving Limbic Dynamics Drives Stress-Induced Emotional Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Rainbo; Mague, Stephen D; Li, Qiang; Katz, Brittany M; Michel, Nadine; Lin, Lizhen; Wang, Joyce; David, Lisa K; Blount, Cameron; Chandy, Rithi; Carlson, David; Ulrich, Kyle; Carin, Lawrence; Dunson, David; Kumar, Sunil; Deisseroth, Karl; Moore, Scott D; Dzirasa, Kafui

    2016-07-20

    Circuits distributed across cortico-limbic brain regions compose the networks that mediate emotional behavior. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulates ultraslow (stress-related illnesses including major depressive disorder (MDD). To uncover the mechanism whereby stress-induced changes in PFC circuitry alter emotional networks to yield pathology, we used a multi-disciplinary approach including in vivo recordings in mice and chronic social defeat stress. Our network model, inferred using machine learning, linked stress-induced behavioral pathology to the capacity of PFC to synchronize amygdala and VTA activity. Direct stimulation of PFC-amygdala circuitry with DREADDs normalized PFC-dependent limbic synchrony in stress-susceptible animals and restored normal behavior. In addition to providing insights into MDD mechanisms, our findings demonstrate an interdisciplinary approach that can be used to identify the large-scale network changes that underlie complex emotional pathologies and the specific network nodes that can be used to develop targeted interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypothermia due to limbic system involvement and longitudinal myelitis in a case of Japanese encephalitis: a case report from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Santhosh Narayanan,1 NK Thulaseedharan,1 Gomathy Subramaniam,2 Geetha Panarkandy,1 VK Shameer,1 Arathi Narayanan1 1Department of General Medicine, 2Department of Radiodiagnosis, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India Abstract: Japanese encephalitis (JE is an infectious encephalitis prevalent in Asia. It usually presents with fever, headache, convulsions and extrapyramidal symptoms. Limbic system involvement and hypothermia though common in autoimmune encephalitis have never been reported in JE. We report a case of an 18-year-old girl with no previous comorbidities who presented to us with a history of fever and headache for 1 week duration. She developed bilateral lateral rectus palsy and asymmetric flaccid weakness of all four limbs, after 2 days of admission, which was followed by altered sensorium and intermittent hypothermia. Neuroimaging revealed longitudinal myelitis extending from pons till the L1 level along with bilateral thalamic hemorrhage in brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was positive for IgM antibody to JE virus. She was treated with supportive measures, but she developed intractable hypothermia and seizures and succumbed to illness after 2 weeks of admission. Keywords: Japanese encephalitis, hypothermia, limbic system

  11. Primary sleep disorders can cause long-term sleep disturbance in patients with autoimmune mediated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kirstie N; Kelly, Thomas P; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2013-07-01

    Antibody mediated limbic encephalitis causes a sub acute encephalopathy with an amnestic syndrome, seizures and often an affective prodrome. Sleep disturbance including abnormal dream sleep and insomnia are described in a percentage of long-term survivors but there are very few detailed assessments of sleep disturbance in patients beyond the acute phase of illness. The objectives of this study were to understand the causes of sleep disturbance in the long-term survivors of antibody mediated limbic encephalitis. We screened twelve patients under long-term follow up with sleep questionnaires and went on to perform detailed sleep studies (polysomnography) in those who reported sleep disturbance. Two were found to have persistent, severe central and obstructive sleep apnoea and two others to have restless legs and periodic limb movements of sleep. This highlights the need to investigate sleep disturbance in this group of patients. Effective treatments may be available to improve quality of life and daytime function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations of limbic-affective brain activity and severity of ongoing chronic arthritis pain are explained by trait anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Cottam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI have transformed our understanding of central processing of evoked pain but the typically used block and event-related designs are not best suited to the study of ongoing pain. Here we used arterial spin labelling (ASL for cerebral blood flow mapping to characterise the neural correlates of perceived intensity of osteoarthritis (OA pain and its interrelation with negative affect. Twenty-six patients with painful knee OA and twenty-seven healthy controls underwent pain phenotyping and ASL MRI at 3T. Intensity of OA pain correlated positively with blood flow in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC, subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC, bilateral hippocampi, bilateral amygdala, left central operculum, mid-insula, putamen and the brainstem. Additional control for trait anxiety scores reduced the pain-CBF association to the aMCC, whilst pain catastrophizing scores only explained some of the limbic correlations. In conclusion, we found that neural correlates of reported intensity of ongoing chronic pain intensity mapped to limbic-affective circuits, and that the association pattern apart from aMCC was explained by trait anxiety thus highlighting the importance of aversiveness in the experience of clinical pain.

  13. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  14. Neuroticism is linked to microstructural left-right asymmetry of fronto-limbic fibre tracts in adolescents with opposite effects in boys and girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Jernigan, Terry L; Vestergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    and limbic brain regions are the cingulum bundle and uncinate fasciculus. We previously found that healthy adults with higher neuroticism scores had decreased left relative to right fractional anisotropy (FA) of the cingulum. Both cingulum and uncinate fasciculus FA increases throughout childhood...... and into early adulthood. Since adolescence is associated with an increased incidence of anxiety and mood disorders, for which neuroticism is a known risk factor, the question arises whether the association between neuroticism and fronto-limbic white matter microstructure asymmetry is already present in children...

  15. Anticonvulsant effects of gamma surgery in a model of chronic spontaneous limbic epilepsy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z F; Kamiryo, T; Henson, S L; Yamamoto, H; Bertram, E H; Schottler, F; Patel, F; Steiner, L; Prasad, D; Kassell, N F; Shareghis, S; Lee, K S

    2001-02-01

    The management of intractable epilepsy remains a challenge, despite advances in its surgical and nonsurgical treatment. The identification of low-risk, low-cost therapeutic strategies that lead to improved outcome is therefore an important ongoing goal of basic and clinical research. Single-dose focal ionizing beam radiation delivered at necrosis-inducing and subnecrotic levels was investigated for its effects on seizure activity by using an established model of chronic recurrent spontaneous limbic seizures in rats. A single 90-minute period of repetitive electrical stimulation (inducing stimulus) of the hippocampus in rats elicited a single episode of status epilepticus, followed by a 2- to 4-week seizure-free period. Spontaneous recurrent seizures developed subsequently and persisted for the duration of monitoring (2-10 months). Simultaneous computerized electroencephalography and video recording were used to monitor the animals. After the establishment of spontaneous recurrent seizures, bilateral radiation centered in the ventral hippocampal formation was administered with the Leksell gamma knife, aided by a stereotactic device custom made for small animals. A center dose of 10, 20, or 40 Gy was administered using a 4-mm collimator. Control animals were subjected to the same seizure-inducing stimulus but underwent a sham treatment instead of gamma irradiation. In a second experiment, the authors examined the effects of gamma irradiation on the proclivity of hippocampal neurons to display epileptiform discharges. Naive animals were irradiated with a single 40-Gy dose, as already described. Slices of the hippocampus were prepared from animals killed between 1 and 178 days postirradiation. Sensitivity to penicillin-induced epileptiform spiking was examined in vitro in slices prepared from control and irradiated rat brains. In the first experiment, single doses of 20 or 40 Gy (but not 10 Gy) reduced substantially, and in some cases eliminated, behaviorally and

  16. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  17. Limbic encephalitis associated with anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase antibodies: A clinical subtype of Hashimoto encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishitani, Toru; Matsunaga, Akiko; Ikawa, Masamichi; Hayashi, Kouji; Yamamura, Osamu; Hamano, Tadanori; Watanabe, Osamu; Tanaka, Keiko; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yoneda, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    Several types of autoantibodies have been reported in autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE), such as antibodies against the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex including leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1). We recently reported a patient with autoimmune LE and serum anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase (NAE) antibodies, a specific diagnostic marker for Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE), who was diagnosed with HE based on the presence of antithyroid antibodies and responsiveness to immunotherapy. This case suggests that LE patients with antibodies to both the thyroid and NAE could be diagnosed with HE and respond to immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicoimmunological features and efficacy of immunotherapy in LE associated with anti-NAE antibodies to determine whether the LE is a clinical subtype of HE.We examined serum anti-NAE antibodies in 78 LE patients with limbic abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging and suspected HE based on positivity for antithyroid antibodies. Nineteen of the 78 patients had anti-NAE antibodies; however, 5 were excluded because they were double positive for antibodies to the VGKC complex including LGI1. No antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2), γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR), or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) were detected in the 19 patients. Among the remaining 14 who were positive only for anti-NAE antibodies, the median age was 62.5 (20-83) years, 9 (64%) were women, and 8 (57%) showed acute onset, with less than 2 weeks between onset and admission. Consciousness disturbance (71%) and memory disturbance (64%) were frequently observed, followed by psychiatric symptoms (50%) and seizures (43%). The frequency of these symptoms significantly differed between the acute- and subacute-onset groups. Abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalogram were commonly observed (92% for both

  18. Continuous operation of RODOS in case of long lasting releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Rafat, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Under the auspices of its RTD (Research and Technological Development) Framework Programmes, the European Commission has supported the development of the RODOS (Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support) system for off-site emergency management after nuclear accidents since the end of 1989. Significant additional funds have been provided by many national RTD programmes, research institutes and industrial collaborators. In particular, the German Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) financially contributed to the project with emphasis an early emergency response. The ongoing RTD work under the EC's 5 th Framework Programme lead to significant extensions, modifications and new developments of both the system and the application software integrated in the RODOS system. All new functions and software components, which have been successfully tested, build the content of RODOD version PV5.0, which has been released in April 2003. One of the new key features of the RODOS system is its capability to deal with release scenarios longer than 24 hours in all its modes of application: in automatic use, the release duration is unlimited; for interactive calculations, the release has to be limited to 47 days. The environmental contamination and the corresponding doses are calculated on a daily basis and add up to get the total values. When calculating early emergency actions (such as sheltering, administration of stable iodine tablets, and evacuation), the time sequence of potential doses from previous days are used to determine weather a certain intervention level has been or will be exceeded at any time during the release and, in that way, to define areas where potential actions might have been initiated in the past. In case of long term countermeasures, the user has been given the option to consider a number of countermeasures which could be implemented during the release phase. This has increased the flexibility of the module for those users who want to explore the impact of long term countermeasures in more detail. The users has also the option to set the time (in days after the first release) at which they consider the release to be ended or all significant deposition to have occurred. This will be entered interactively via the user interface. This will enable the user to start the consideration of countermeasures after the majority of the release has occurred, as some releases might have a very long, low level tail, and it would be unrealistic to expect decision makers to wait until deposition had completely stopped in such circumstances. This approach also recognizes that deposition will not end everywhere on the same day. The demonstration will exemplify the continuous automatic operation of RODOS using a release scenarios lasting over several days. On-line meteorological data measured at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, assumed to be the release point, will be used as input for the diagnostic calculations performed automatically within a distance range of 160 km x 160 km every 10 minutes. Numerical weather forecast from the German Weather Service, updated every 12 hours, will be used for prognostic calculations repeated in the same calculation area every hour. In parallel, the European wide numerical weather forecasts calculated by the ALADIN model, run by the Austrian Weather service and updated every 12 hours, are used to calculate in interactive RODOS runs the longer distance contamination. All functions of RODOS and its broad spectrum of results will be presented by the demonstration team. In particular, the necessity of emergency actions and countermeasure and their consequences in terms of areas affected, radiation doses and resources needed can be tracked with the ongoing activity release. (author)

  19. A long-lasting wireless stimulator for small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D Hentall

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of electrical stimulation in unrestrained awake rodents are best studied with a wireless neural stimulator that can operate unsupervised for several weeks or more. A robust, inexpensive, easily built, cranially implantable stimulator was developed to explore the restorative effects of brainstem stimulation after neurotrauma. Its connectorless electrodes directly protrude from a cuboid epoxy capsule containing all circuitry and power sources. This physical arrangement prevents fluid leaks or wire breakage and also simplifies and speeds implantation. Constant-current pulses of high compliance (34 volts are delivered from a step-up voltage regulator under microprocessor control. A slowly pulsed magnetic field controls activation state and stimulation parameters. Program status is signaled to a remote reader by interval-modulated infrared pulses. Capsule size is limited by the two batteries. Silver oxide batteries rated at 8 milliamp-hours were used routinely in 8 mm wide, 15 mm long and 4 mm high capsules. Devices of smaller contact area (5 by 12 mm but taller (6 mm were created for mice. Microstimulation of the rat’s raphe nuclei with intermittent 5-minute (50% duty cycle trains of 30 µA, 1 ms pulses at 8 or 24 Hz frequency during 12 daylight hours lasted 21.1 days ±0.8 (mean ± standard error, Kaplan-Meir censored estimate, n=128. Extended lifetimes (>6 weeks, no failures, n=16 were achieved with larger batteries (44 milliamp-hours in longer (18 mm, taller (6 mm capsules. The circuit and electrode design are versatile; simple modifications allowed durable constant-voltage stimulation of the rat’s sciatic nerve through a cylindrical cathode from a subcutaneous pelvic capsule. Devices with these general features can address in small mammals many of the biological and technical questions arising neurosurgically with prolonged peripheral or deep brain stimulation.

  20. Long lasting attentional-context dependent visuomotor memory

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Hee Yeon; Bédard, Patrick; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Using a dual-task paradigm, we recently reported that visuomotor adaptation acquired under distraction of a secondary attention-demanding discrimination task could be remembered only when a similar distraction was present. In contrast, when tested without the distracting task, performance reverted to untrained levels (Song & Bédard, 2015). Here, we demonstrated that this newfound paradoxical benefits of consistent dual-task context lasts over one day, such that visuomotor memory retrieval is ...

  1. INFLUENCE OF LONG LASTING FREEZING TO BAKING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šmitalová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodstuff adapted by freezing is able to use for final setting immediately and its important contribution is sparing of working action and time connected to their next setting in our households or in catering corporations. In frame of this topic some baking experiment were realized with application of the main component – smooth wheat flour T 650 and the raw yeasting. It was monitored the baking quality of loafs made of fresh dough and loafs made of dough which was frozen one, two, three, four, five, six and nine months in -18°C. The biggest decline of the quality of bread made from frozen dough was monitored right after the first month. Decline of its size was 19.0%. Strong decline of size was monitored after five months (18.1% and after six months of storage in freezer (23.8%. Decline of baking quality during storage was mainly caused by declining activity of yeasts and by the loss of their yeasty ability. These conditions cased gradual decline of the solidity of the dough.

  2. Clinical features in patients with long-lasting macrophagic myofasciitis

    OpenAIRE

    Muriel eRIGOLET; Jessie eAOUIZERATE; Jessie eAOUIZERATE; Maryline eCOUETTE; Nilusha eTHANGARAJAH; Nilusha eTHANGARAJAH; Mehdi eAOUN-SEBAITI; Romain Kroum GHERARDI; Romain Kroum GHERARDI; Romain Kroum GHERARDI; Josette eCADUSSEAU; Josette eCADUSSEAU; Francois Jerome eAUTHIER; Francois Jerome eAUTHIER; Francois Jerome eAUTHIER

    2014-01-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing abnormal long-term persistence of aluminium hydroxide within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Affected patients usually are middle-aged adults, mainly presenting with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and marked cognitive deficits, not related to pain, fatigue or depression. Clinical features usually correspond to that observed in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic ...

  3. Clinical Features in Patients with Long-Lasting Macrophagic Myofasciitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rigolet, Muriel; Aouizerate, Jessie; Couette, Maryline; Ragunathan-Thangarajah, Nilusha; Aoun-Sebaiti, Mehdi; Gherardi, Romain Kroum; Cadusseau, Josette; Authier, François Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Affected patients usually are middle-aged adults, mainly presenting with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and marked cognitive deficits, not related to pain, fatigue, or depression. Clinical features usually correspond to that observed in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic ...

  4. Long-Lasting Fever and Lymphadenitis: Think about F. tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Longo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of glandular tularemia that developed in a man supposedly infected by a tick bite in Western Switzerland. Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis was identified. In Europe tularemia most commonly manifests itself as ulcero-glandular or glandular disease; the diagnosis of tularemia may be delayed in glandular form where skin or mucous lesion is absent, particularly in areas which are assumed to have a low incidence of the disease.

  5. Binding of long-lasting local anesthetics to lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoit, Jean-Xavier; Le Guen, Régine; Beloeil, Hélène; Benhamou, Dan

    2009-02-01

    Rapid infusion of lipid emulsion has been proposed to treat local anesthetic toxicity. The authors wanted to test the buffering properties of two commercially available emulsions made of long- and of long- and medium-chain triglycerides. Using the shake-flask method, the authors measured the solubility and binding of racemic bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine to diluted Intralipid (Fresenius Kabi, Paris, France) and Medialipide (B-Braun, Boulogne, France). The apparent distribution coefficient expressed as the ratio of mole fraction was 823 +/- 198 and 320 +/- 65 for racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively, at 500 mg in the Medialipide/buffer emulsion; and 1,870 +/- 92 and 1,240 +/- 14 for racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively, in the Intralipid/buffer emulsion. Decreasing the pH from 7.40 to 7.00 of the Medialipide/buffer emulsion led to a decrease in ratio of molar concentration from 121 +/- 3.8 to 46 +/- 2.8 for bupivacaine, and to a lesser extent from 51 +/- 4.0 to 31 +/- 1.6 for ropivacaine. The capacity of the 1% emulsions was 871 and 2,200 microM for the 1% Medialipide and Intralipid emulsions, respectively. The dissociation constant was 818 and 2,120 microM for racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively. Increasing the temperature from 20 to 37 degrees C led to a greater increase in affinity for ropivacaine (55%) than for bupivacaine (27%). When the pH of the buffer was decreased from 7.40 to 7.00, the affinity was decreased by a factor of 1.68, similar for both anesthetics. The solubility of long-acting local anesthetics in lipid emulsions and the high capacity of binding of these emulsions most probably explain their clinical efficacy in case of toxicity. The long-chain triglyceride emulsion Intralipid appears to be about 2.5 times more efficacious than the 50/50 medium-chain/long-chain Medialipide emulsion. Also, because of their higher hydrophobicity, racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine seem to clear more rapidly than ropivacaine.

  6. Replacement of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets in Malarious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Microwave Synthesis of a Long-Lasting Phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filhol, Jean-Sebastien; Zitoun, David; Bernaud, Laurent; Manteghetti, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Efficient glow-in-the-dark materials are usually difficult to synthesize and need complex experiments with long reaction times that are not appropriate for conventional lab teaching. Therefore, we describe a new experimental procedure that allows the production of one of the most efficient "glow-in-the-dark" materials (SrAl[subscript 2]O[subscript…

  8. Radio-labelling of long-lasting erythropoietin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guoxia; Zeng Xianyin; Bao Lun; Xu Xiankun; Chen Zhiyu; Liu Xianyi

    2004-01-01

    The study is designed to investigate the labelling of LL-EPO, purification of labelled compound, and therefore, to prepare the labelled LL-EPO with high purity and biological activity. LL-EPO was labelled with 125 I by the common used chloramine-T and the modified two-phase chloramine-T method, respectively. The labelled compound was purified by both gel filtration and ultrafiltration method, respectively. The purity of the labelled LL-EPO was determined by both trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and SDS-PAGE method, and the biological activity was determined by the reticulocyte counting method. The results demonstrated that the iodine incorporation and specific radioactivities were 89% and 5.82 x 10 5 Bq·μg -1 for LL-EPO labelled by the modified two-phase chloramine-T method and were 20.65% and 3.62 x 10 5 Bq·μg -1 for LL-EPO labelled by the common used chloramine-T method, respectively. The purity of labelled LL-EPO purified by both gel filtration and ultrafiltration were over 96% with TCA method purification. The labelled LL-EPO showed two bands with Rf of 0.28 and 0.49, respectively, which is identical to that of standard LL-EPO through SDS-PAGE. There was no loss of biological activity of LL-EPO after labelling as determined by reticulocyte counting method

  9. Nicotine Modulates the Long-Lasting Storage of Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ramon H.; Radiske, Andressa; Kohler, Cristiano A.; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Bevilaqua, Lia R.; Rossato, Janine I.; Medina, Jorge H.; Cammarota, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Late post-training activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-hippocampus dopaminergic loop controls the entry of information into long-term memory (LTM). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) modulate VTA function, but their involvement in LTM storage is unknown. Using pharmacological and behavioral tools, we found that…

  10. Etc. The Long-Lasting Defining Device: Unravelling the Mysteryi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    It is used on a large scale in monolingual dictionaries for native speakers and ..... self-taught: having learned a skill or subject by reading about it, practising it, etc. .... synthesis: the act of combining separate ideas, beliefs, styles, etc.; a mixture or ..... safeguard: a law, rule, plan, etc. that protects someone or sth from harm or ...

  11. Is Case Management Effective for Long-Lasting Suicide Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Wu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Chih-Ken

    2015-01-01

    Case management services have been implemented in suicide prevention programs. To investigate whether case management is an effective strategy for reducing the risks of repeated suicide attempts and completed suicides in a city with high suicide rates in northern Taiwan. The Suicide Prevention Center of Keelung City (KSPC) was established in April 2005. Subjects included a consecutive sample of individuals (N = 2,496) registered in KSPC databases between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, with at least one episode of nonfatal self-harm. Subjects were tracked for the duration of the study. Of all the subjects, 1,013 (40.6%) received case management services; 416 (16.7%) had at least one other deliberate self-harm episode and 52 (2.1%) eventually died by suicide. No significant differences were found in the risks of repeated self-harm and completed suicides between suicide survivors who received case management and those who refused the services. However, a significant reduction in suicide rates was found after KSPC was established. Findings suggest that case management services might not reduce the risks of suicide repetition among suicide survivors during long-term follow-up. Future investigation is warranted to determine factors impacting the downward trend of suicide rates.

  12. Long lasting effect of physical stress on the LVEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewinski, W.; Stefaniak, B.; Poniatowicz-Frasunek, E.; Tarkowska, A.

    2003-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have shown that exercise can deteriorate myocardial contractile function. The aim of this study was to examine whether the decrease of LVEF measured with gated SPECT lasts as long as 3 hours after exercise. 46 patients with CAD and a control group comprising 10 healthy subjects were studied. All patients underwent myocardial perfusion gated SPECT with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin at rest and during stress. SPECT was started 1 hour p.i. at rest and twice - 1 hour and 3 hours after injection at stress. LVEF values were calculated by the method of Germano, using QGS software. LVEF values measured at all time points were significantly lower in CAD patients than in control group. In normals mean LVEF values 1 h after rest injection were similar to those obtained 1 and 3 hours after stress injection (59.0 ± 4.1 v. 60.0 ± 5.9 v. 58.0 ± 4.6, respectively; p > 0.05). One hour post exercise a decrease of LVEF was observed in 2 patients and 3 hours after injection also in 2 patients. CAD subjects showed slightly lower LVEF values determined 1h after stress than 1 hour after rest injection (50.8 ± 13.6 v. 49.3 ± 12.8; p < 0.05). More expressed reduction of LVEF was observed 3 hours after stress injection as compared to both rest and stress study (50.8 ± 13.6 v. 46.0 ± 12.2; p < 0.001 and 49.3 ± 12.8 v. 6.0 ± 12.2; p < 0.001, respectively). One hour post exercise, a decrease of LVEF values was observed in 18 patients and 3 hours after injection in 36 patients out of 46. In the majority of patients with CAD physical stress applied for the purposes of myocardial perfusion SPECT study results in an impairment of the LV function. The impairment of the LVEF caused by physical stress is observed 1 hour after exercise, but it increases markedly in frequency and grows stronger during the next 2 hours. Patients with CAD who underwent cardiac examination connected with physical stress should remain under observation for several hours after termination of exercise. (author)

  13. Microcapsules: Reverse Sonoporation and Long-lasting, Safe Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, Steven; Dicker, Stephen; Small, Eleanor; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Hahn, Stephan A.; Mleczko, Michał; Hensel, Karin; Schmitz, Georg

    We present a novel vehicle designed to serve the dual roles of enhanced ultrasound contrast and ultrasound-triggered drug delivery. The vehicle is comprised of a microcapsule that is filled with water in whose aqueous core a population of freely floating, phospholipid-coated microbubbles is suspended. At ultrasound intensities below the inertial cavitation threshold of the microbubbles, the microbubbles provide enhanced ultrasound contrast. The measured contrast is comparable in strength with SonoVue®. Encapsulation of microbubbles within microcapsules putatively eliminates - or at least significantly slows - dissolution of gas in the bulk aqueous medium, thereby avoiding disappearance of microbubbles that would otherwise occur due to pressure-induced gas diffusion across the surfactant monolayer coating the microbubble-water interface. Results suggest that our vehicle might provide longer lasting contrast in a clinical setting. We demonstrate that encapsulation of the microbubbles within microcapsules causes at least a doubling of the ultrasound intensity necessary to induce inertial cavitation. Moreover, no cell death was observed when cells were insonified in the presence of microbubble-containing microcapsules, whereas appreciable cell death occurs with unencapsulated microbubbles. These results point toward a potential safety benefit during ultrasound contrast imaging by using encapsulated microbubbles. Studies are underway to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound-triggered release of drug from the microcapsules, owing to inertial- or stable-cavitation, or both. Whereas leakage from polymeric microcapsule shells, such as poly(lactic acid), seemingly requires shell rupture and is exceedingly difficult to achieve, leakage across a lipid bilayer microcapsule shells appears feasible. Leakage across a bilayer shell has the additional benefit that the leakage mechanism can be tuned via phase behavior (liquid-ordered versus liquid-disordered) and cavitation mechanism (stable versus inertial).

  14. The impact of the CACNA1C risk allele on limbic structures and facial emotions recognition in bipolar disorder subjects and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio Gerhardt; Otaduy, Maria Concepción Garcia; Dias, Carolina Zadres; Bio, Danielle S; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER) have been reported in bipolar disorder (BD) during all mood states. FER has been the focus of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies evaluating differential activation of limbic regions. Recently, the α1-C subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNA1C) gene has been described as a risk gene for BD and its Met allele found to increase CACNA1C mRNA expression. In healthy controls, the CACNA1C risk (Met) allele has been reported to increase limbic system activation during emotional stimuli and also to impact on cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CACNA1C genotype on FER scores and limbic system morphology in subjects with BD and healthy controls. Thirty-nine euthymic BD I subjects and 40 healthy controls were submitted to a FER recognition test battery and genotyped for CACNA1C. Subjects were also examined with a 3D 3-Tesla structural imaging protocol. The CACNA1C risk allele for BD was associated to FER impairment in BD, while in controls nothing was observed. The CACNA1C genotype did not impact on amygdala or hippocampus volume neither in BD nor controls. Sample size. The present findings suggest that a polymorphism in calcium channels interferes FER phenotype exclusively in BD and doesn't interfere on limbic structures morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased limbic phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase 1 and 2 expression after chronic stress is reduced by cyclic 17 beta-estradiol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, M.; Westenbroek, C.; Koch, T.; Grootkarzijn, A.; Ter Horst, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic stress induced neuronal changes that may have consequences for subsequent stress responses. For example, chronic stress in rats rearranges dendritic branching patterns and disturbs the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK) 1/2 throughout the limbic system.

  16. Persistent anterograde amnesia following limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christopher R; Miller, Thomas D; Kaur, Manveer S; Baker, Ian W; Boothroyd, Georgie D; Illman, Nathan A; Rosenthal, Clive R; Vincent, Angela; Buckley, Camilla J

    2014-04-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) is a potentially reversible cause of cognitive impairment. Despite the prominence of cognitive dysfunction in this syndrome, little is known about patients' neuropsychological profile at presentation or their long-term cognitive outcome. We used a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery to evaluate cognitive function longitudinally in 19 patients with VGKC-LE. Before immunotherapy, the group had significant impairment of memory, processing speed and executive function, whereas language and perceptual organisation were intact. At follow-up, cognitive impairment was restricted to the memory domain, with processing speed and executive function having returned to the normal range. Residual memory function was predicted by the antibody titre at presentation. The results show that, despite broad cognitive dysfunction in the acute phase, patients with VGKC-LE often make a substantial recovery with immunotherapy but may be left with permanent anterograde amnesia.

  17. Reversible dementia: two nursing home patients with voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, Wesley; Romijn, Marloes D M; Hollander, Daan; Ter Bruggen, Jan P; van Marum, Rob J

    2015-09-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (VGKC-LE) is a rare disease that is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for medical practitioners. Two patients with VGKC-LE, both developing dementia are presented. Following treatment, both patients showed remarkable cognitive and functional improvement enabling them to leave the psychogeriatric nursing homes they both were admitted to. Patients with VGKC-LE can have a major cognitive and functional improvement even after a diagnostic delay of more than 1 year. Medical practitioners who treat patients with unexplained cognitive decline, epileptic seizures, or psychiatric symptoms should be aware of LE as an underlying rare cause. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charboneau, Evonne J.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Park, Sohee; Cao, Aize; Watkins, Tristan J; Blackford, Jennifer U; Benningfield, Margaret M.; Martin, Peter R.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Cowan, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Craving is a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether cue-induced craving is associated with regional brain activation in cannabis-dependent individuals. Cannabis craving was assessed in 16 cannabis-dependent adult volunteers while they viewed cannabis cues during a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire was administered immediately before and after each of three cannabis cue-exposure fMRI runs. FMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity was determined in regions activated by cannabis cues to examine the relationship of regional brain activation to cannabis craving. Craving scores increased significantly following exposure to visual cannabis cues. Visual cues activated multiple brain regions, including inferior orbital frontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal pole, and occipital cortex. Craving scores at baseline and at the end of all three runs were significantly correlated with brain activation during the first fMRI run only, in the limbic system (including amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic system (superior temporal pole), and visual regions (occipital cortex). Cannabis cues increased craving in cannabis-dependent individuals and this increase was associated with activation in the limbic, paralimbic, and visual systems during the first fMRI run, but not subsequent fMRI runs. These results suggest that these regions may mediate visually cued aspects of drug craving. This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural basis of cue-induced cannabis craving and suggests possible neural targets for interventions targeted at treating cannabis dependence. PMID:24035535

  19. Early life stress and trauma and enhanced limbic activation to emotionally valenced faces in depressed and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Luby, Joan L; Botteron, Kelly N; Dietrich, Rachel; McAvoy, Mark P; Barch, Deanna M

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have examined the relationships between structural brain characteristics and early life stress in adults. However, there is limited evidence for functional brain variation associated with early life stress in children. We hypothesized that early life stress and trauma would be associated with increased functional brain activation response to negative emotional faces in children with and without a history of depression. Psychiatric diagnosis and life events in children (starting at age 3-5 years) were assessed in a longitudinal study. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study acquired data (N = 115 at ages 7-12, 51% girls) on functional brain response to fearful, sad, and happy faces relative to neutral faces. We used a region-of-interest mask within cortico-limbic areas and conducted regression analyses and repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Greater activation responses to fearful, sad, and happy faces in the amygdala and its neighboring regions were found in children with greater life stress. Moreover, an association between life stress and left hippocampal and globus pallidus activity depended on children's diagnostic status. Finally, all children with greater life trauma showed greater bilateral amygdala and cingulate activity specific to sad faces but not the other emotional faces, although right amygdala activity was moderated by psychiatric status. These findings suggest that limbic hyperactivity may be a biomarker of early life stress and trauma in children and may have implications in the risk trajectory for depression and other stress-related disorders. However, this pattern varied based on emotion type and history of psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dopamine agonist suppression of rapid-eye-movement sleep is secondary to sleep suppression mediated via limbic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miletich, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pergolide, a direct dopamine receptor agonist, on sleep and wakefulness, motor behavior and /sup 3/H-spiperone specific binding in limbic structures and striatum in rats was studied. The results show that pergolide induced a biphasic dose effect, with high doses increasing wakefulness and suppressing sleep while low dose decreased wakefulness, but increased sleep. It was shown that pergolide-induced sleep suppression was blocked by ..cap alpha..-glupenthixol and pimozide, two dopamine receptor antagonists. It was further shown that pergolide merely delayed the rebound resulting from rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep deprivation, that dopamine receptors stimulation had no direct effect on the period, phase or amplitude of the circadian rhythm of REM sleep propensity and that there was no alteration in the coupling of REM sleep episodes with S/sub 2/ episodes. Rapid-eye-movement sleep deprivation resulted in increased sensitivity to the pergolide-induced wakefulness stimulation and sleep suppression and pergolide-induced motor behaviors of locomotion and head bobbing. /sup 3/H-spiperone specific binding to dopamine receptors was shown to be altered by REM sleep deprivation in the subcortical limbic structures. It is concluded that the REM sleep suppressing action of dopamine receptor stimulation is secondary to sleep suppression per se and not secondary to a unique effect on the REM sleep. Further, it is suggested that the wakefulness stimulating action of dopamine receptor agonists is mediated by activation of the dopamine receptors in the terminal areas of the mesolimbocortical dopamine projection system.

  1. Curcuma treatment prevents cognitive deficit and alteration of neuronal morphology in the limbic system of aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Blanca; Vázquez-Roque, Rubén A; Gnecco, Dino; Enríquez, Raúl G; Floran, Benjamin; Díaz, Alfonso; Flores, Gonzalo

    2017-03-01

    Curcuma is a natural compound that has shown neuroprotective properties, and has been reported to prevent aging and improve memory. While the mechanism(s) underlying these effects are unclear, they may be related to increases in neural plasticity. Morphological changes have been reported in neuronal dendrites in the limbic system in animals and elderly humans with cognitive impairment. In this regard, there is a need to use alternative therapies that delay the onset of morphologies and behavioral characteristics of aging. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcuma on cognitive processes and dendritic morphology of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of aged rats. 18-month-old rats were administered curcuma (100 mg/kg) daily for 60 days. After treatment, recognition memory was assessed using the novel object recognition test. Curcuma-treated rats showed a significant increase in the exploration quotient. Dendritic morphology was assessed by Golgi-Cox staining and followed by Sholl analysis. Curcuma-treated rats showed a significant increase in dendritic spine density and dendritic length in pyramidal neurons of the PFC, the CA1 and CA3, and the BLA. The preservation of dendritic morphology was positively correlated with cognitive improvements. Our results suggest that curcuma induces modification of dendritic morphology in the aforementioned regions. These changes may explain how curcuma slows the aging process that has already begun in these animals, preventing deterioration in neuronal morphology of the limbic system and recognition memory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Functional reorganization of motor and limbic circuits after exercise training in a rat model of bilateral parkinsonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    Full Text Available Exercise training is widely used for neurorehabilitation of Parkinson's disease (PD. However, little is known about the functional reorganization of the injured brain after long-term aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of forced running wheel exercise in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation (bilateral, dorsal striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. One week after training, cerebral perfusion was mapped during treadmill walking or at rest using [(14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. Regional cerebral blood flow-related tissue radioactivity (rCBF was analyzed in three-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. In non-exercised rats, lesions resulted in persistent motor deficits. Compared to sham-lesioned rats, lesioned rats showed altered functional brain activation during walking, including: 1. hypoactivation of the striatum and motor cortex; 2. hyperactivation of non-lesioned areas in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit; 3. functional recruitment of the red nucleus, superior colliculus and somatosensory cortex; 4. hyperactivation of the ventrolateral thalamus, cerebellar vermis and deep nuclei, suggesting recruitment of the cerebellar-thalamocortical circuit; 5. hyperactivation of limbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, septum, raphe, insula. These findings show remarkable similarities to imaging findings reported in PD patients. Exercise progressively improved motor deficits in lesioned rats, while increasing activation in dorsal striatum and rostral secondary motor cortex, attenuating a hyperemia of the zona incerta and eliciting a functional reorganization of regions participating in the cerebellar-thalamocortical circuit. Both lesions and exercise increased activation in mesolimbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, laterodorsal tegmental n., ventral pallidum, as well as in related paralimbic regions (septum, raphe, insula. Exercise, but not lesioning, resulted

  3. Right Limbic FDG-PET Hypometabolism Correlates with Emotion Recognition and Attribution in Probable Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cerami

    Full Text Available The behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD is a rare disease mainly affecting the social brain. FDG-PET fronto-temporal hypometabolism is a supportive feature for the diagnosis. It may also provide specific functional metabolic signatures for altered socio-emotional processing. In this study, we evaluated the emotion recognition and attribution deficits and FDG-PET cerebral metabolic patterns at the group and individual levels in a sample of sporadic bvFTD patients, exploring the cognitive-functional correlations. Seventeen probable mild bvFTD patients (10 male and 7 female; age 67.8±9.9 were administered standardized and validated version of social cognition tasks assessing the recognition of basic emotions and the attribution of emotions and intentions (i.e., Ekman 60-Faces test-Ek60F and Story-based Empathy task-SET. FDG-PET was analysed using an optimized voxel-based SPM method at the single-subject and group levels. Severe deficits of emotion recognition and processing characterized the bvFTD condition. At the group level, metabolic dysfunction in the right amygdala, temporal pole, and middle cingulate cortex was highly correlated to the emotional recognition and attribution performances. At the single-subject level, however, heterogeneous impairments of social cognition tasks emerged, and different metabolic patterns, involving limbic structures and prefrontal cortices, were also observed. The derangement of a right limbic network is associated with altered socio-emotional processing in bvFTD patients, but different hypometabolic FDG-PET patterns and heterogeneous performances on social tasks at an individual level exist.

  4. Cathinone, an active principle of Catha edulis, accelerates oxidative stress in the limbic area of swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safhi, Mohammed M; Alam, Mohammad Firoz; Hussain, Sohail; Hakeem Siddiqui, Mohammed Abdul; Khuwaja, Gulrana; Jubran Khardali, Ibrahim Abdu; Al-Sanosi, Rashad Mohammed; Islam, Fakhrul

    2014-10-28

    Cathinone hydrochloride is an active principle of the khat plant (Catha edulis) that produces pleasurable and stimulating effects in khat chewers. To the best of our knowledge no data of cathinone on oxidative stress in limbic areas of mice is available. This is the first study of cathinone on oxidative stress in limbic areas of the brain in Swiss albino male mice. The animals were divided into four groups. Group-I was the control group and received vehicle, while groups-II to IV received (-)-cathinone hydrochloride (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg body wt., i.p.) once daily for 15 days. The level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was elevated dose-dependently and was significant (p<0.05, p<0.01) with doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg body wt. of cathinone as compared to control group. In contrast, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) was decreased significantly (p<0.01, p<0.001) with doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg body wt. of cathinone as compared to control group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, GR, GST, CAT, and SOD) was also decreased dose-dependently: the decreased activity of GPx, GR, catalase and SOD was significant with doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg of cathinone as compared to control group, while the activity of GST was decreased dose-dependently and was significant with 0.5mg of cathinone as compared to control group. The results indicate that the cathinone generated oxidative stress hampered antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Right fronto-limbic atrophy is associated with reduced empathy in refractory unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, Gianina; Adhimoolam, Babu; Rankin, Katherine P; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Kurthen, Martin; Jokeit, Hennric

    2015-11-01

    Refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most frequent focal epilepsy and is often accompanied by deficits in social cognition including emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy. Consistent with the neuronal networks that are crucial for normal social-cognitive processing, these impairments have been associated with functional changes in fronto-temporal regions. However, although atrophy in unilateral MTLE also affects regions of the temporal and frontal lobes that underlie social cognition, little is known about the structural correlates of social-cognitive deficits in refractory MTLE. In the present study, a psychometrically validated empathy questionnaire was combined with whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the relationship between self-reported affective and cognitive empathy and gray matter volume in 55 subjects (13 patients with right MTLE, 9 patients with left MTLE, and 33 healthy controls). Consistent with the brain regions underlying social cognition, our results show that lower affective and cognitive empathy was associated with smaller volume in predominantly right fronto-limbic regions, including the right hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus, fusiform gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and in the bilateral midbrain. The only region that was associated with both affective and cognitive empathy was the right mesial temporal lobe. These findings indicate that patients with right MTLE are at increased risk for reduced empathy towards others' internal states and they shed new light on the structural correlates of impaired social cognition frequently accompanying refractory MTLE. In line with previous evidence from patients with neurodegenerative disease and stroke, the present study suggests that empathy depends upon the integrity of right fronto-limbic and brainstem regions and highlights the importance of the right mesial temporal lobe and midbrain

  6. Suspected limbic encephalitis and seizure in cats associated with voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakozdy, A; Halasz, P; Klang, A; Bauer, J; Leschnik, M; Tichy, A; Thalhammer, J G; Lang, B; Vincent, A

    2013-01-01

    Treatment-resistant complex partial seizures (CPS) with orofacial involvement recently were reported in cats in association with hippocampal pathology. The features had some similarity to those described in humans with limbic encephalitis and voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate cats with CPS and orofacial involvement for the presence of VGKC-complex antibody. Client-owned cats with acute orofacial CPS and control cats were investigated. Prospective study. Serum was collected from 14 cats in the acute stage of the disease and compared with 19 controls. VGKC-complex antibodies were determined by routine immunoprecipitation and by binding to leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), the 2 main targets of VGKC-complex antibodies in humans. Five of the 14 affected cats, but none of the 19 controls, had VGKC-complex antibody concentrations above the cut-off concentration (>100 pmol/L) based on control samples and similar to those found in humans. Antibodies in 4 cats were directed against LGI1, and none were directed against CASPR2. Follow-up sera were available for 5 cats in remission and all antibody concentrations were within the reference range. Our study suggests that an autoimmune limbic encephalitis exists in cats and that VGKC-complex/LGI1 antibodies may play a role in this disorder, as they are thought to in humans. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Functional Reorganization of Motor and Limbic Circuits after Exercise Training in a Rat Model of Bilateral Parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Myers, Kalisa G.; Guo, Yumei; Ocampo, Marco A.; Pang, Raina D.; Jakowec, Michael W.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training is widely used for neurorehabilitation of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, little is known about the functional reorganization of the injured brain after long-term aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of forced running wheel exercise in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation (bilateral, dorsal striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions). One week after training, cerebral perfusion was mapped during treadmill walking or at rest using [14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. Regional cerebral blood flow-related tissue radioactivity (rCBF) was analyzed in three-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. In non-exercised rats, lesions resulted in persistent motor deficits. Compared to sham-lesioned rats, lesioned rats showed altered functional brain activation during walking, including: 1. hypoactivation of the striatum and motor cortex; 2. hyperactivation of non-lesioned areas in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit; 3. functional recruitment of the red nucleus, superior colliculus and somatosensory cortex; 4. hyperactivation of the ventrolateral thalamus, cerebellar vermis and deep nuclei, suggesting recruitment of the cerebellar-thalamocortical circuit; 5. hyperactivation of limbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, septum, raphe, insula). These findings show remarkable similarities to imaging findings reported in PD patients. Exercise progressively improved motor deficits in lesioned rats, while increasing activation in dorsal striatum and rostral secondary motor cortex, attenuating a hyperemia of the zona incerta and eliciting a functional reorganization of regions participating in the cerebellar-thalamocortical circuit. Both lesions and exercise increased activation in mesolimbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, laterodorsal tegmental n., ventral pallidum), as well as in related paralimbic regions (septum, raphe, insula). Exercise, but not lesioning, resulted in decreases

  8. Journaling: An Effective Approach to Professional Development For Reflective Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Peng

    2008-01-01

    As a new curriculum reform program was put forward in China,higher standards for teachers were given that teachers must have a potential of reflective development.Continuing and effective professional development is a common concern of most teachers and professional educators.Effective professional development usually means that not only does it have immediate impact on the work of the professional educator,but it has a long lasting impact.Unfortunately,such effective professional development activities are rare and,in turn,costly to the organization.The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a form of effective professional development which is not only economical but effective.That is the reflective journal.This article analyzes the application of Journal writing from these aspects of the definition,content and the procedures.

  9. The development of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the rat limbic brain. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meaney, M.J.; Sapolsky, R.M.; McEwen, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report the results of an autoradiographic analysis of the postnatal development of the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor system in the rat brain. Quantitative analysis of the autoradiograms revealed a varied pattern of gradual development towards adult receptor concentrations during the second week of life. Receptor concentrations in the dentate gyrus increased dramatically between Days 9 and 15, while the changes during this period in the pyramidal layers of Ammon's horn seemed to reflect both structural changes in these regions as well as increases in receptor concentrations. (orig.)

  10. Limbic and Basal Ganglia Neuroanatomical Correlates of Gait and Executive Function: Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Intact Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen L; Kelly, Valerie E; Weaver, Kurt E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McCurry, Susan M; Pike, Kenneth C; Grabowski, Thomas J; Teri, Linda

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal cognition and to examine limbic and basal ganglia neural correlates of gait and executive function in older adults without dementia. This was a cross-sectional study of 46 community-dwelling older adults, ages 70-95 yrs, with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 23) and normal cognition (n = 23). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to attain volumetric measures of limbic and basal ganglia structures. Quantitative motion analysis was used to measure spatiotemporal parameters of gait. The Trail Making Test was used to assess executive function. During fast-paced walking, older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrated significantly slower gait speed and shorter stride length compared with older adults with normal cognition. Stride length was positively correlated with hippocampal, anterior cingulate, and nucleus accumbens volumes (P function was positively correlated with hippocampal, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate volumes (P older adults with normal cognition, those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrated slower gait speed and shorter stride length, during fast-paced walking, and lower executive function. Hippocampal and anterior cingulate volumes demonstrated moderate positive correlation with both gait and executive function, after adjusting for age. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) discuss gait performance and cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment versus normal cognition, (2) discuss neurocorrelates of gait and executive function in older adults without dementia, and (3) recognize the importance of assessing gait speed and cognitive function in the clinical management of older

  11. Cognitive enhancement therapy improves fronto-limbic regulation of emotion in alcohol and/or cannabis misusing schizophrenia: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ann Wojtalik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia who misuse substances are burdened with impairments in emotion regulation. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET may address these problems by enhancing prefrontal brain function. A small sample of outpatients with schizophrenia and alcohol and/or cannabis substance use problems participating in an 18-month randomized trial of CET (n = 10 or usual care (n = 4 completed post-treatment functional neuroimaging using an emotion regulation task. General linear models explored CET effects on brain activity in emotional neurocircuitry. Individuals treated with CET had significantly greater activation in broad regions of the prefrontal cortex, limbic and striatal systems implicated in emotion regulation compared to usual care. Differential activation favoring CET in prefrontal regions and the insula mediated behavioral improvements in emotional processing. Our data lend preliminary support of CET effects on neuroplasticity in fronto-limbic and striatal circuitries which mediate emotion regulation in people with schizophrenia and comorbid substance misuse problems.

  12. Detection of occult cancer with [18F]-FDG scintigraphy in case of limbic encephalitis, a rare neurologic para neoplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrou, K.; Aide, N.; Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Younsi-Pourtau, N.; Petegnief, Y.; Colombet-Lamau, C.; Beco, V. de; Talbot, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis is a rare neurologic para-neoplastic syndrome due to the production of anti-neuronal antibodies induced by the presence of a malignant tumour, most frequently a small cell lung cancer: The discovery and the resection of the malignant tissue allows a stabilisation of the neurological syndrome, a complete recovery being impossible when irreversible lesions are present. ( 18 F)-FDG PET may play a determinant role when the cancer is still occult after conventional imaging work-up. We report here on a such patient with evolving limbic encephalitis and no detectable cancer with conventional imaging modalities. ( 18 F)-FDG CDET successfully localised neoplastic small cell lung cancer tissue in the lung. The malignant tumour was not even detectable at surgery and was only confirmed at post surgical histology exactly exactly where it has been spotted by CDET. After surgery, the neurologic syndrome is now steady. (authors)

  13. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  14. Enhanced limbic/impaired cortical-loop connection onto the hippocampus of NHE rats: Application of resting-state functional connectivity in a preclinical ADHD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratto, F; Palombelli, G M; Ruocco, L A; Carboni, E; Laviola, G; Sadile, A G; Adriani, W; Canese, R

    2017-08-30

    Due to a hyperfunctioning mesocorticolimbic system, Naples-High-Excitability (NHE) rats have been proposed to model for the meso-cortical variant of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compared to Naples Random-Bred (NRB) controls, NHE rats show hyperactivity, impaired non-selective attention (Aspide et al., 1998), and impaired selective spatial attention (Ruocco et al., 2009a, 2014). Alteration in limbic functions has been proposed; however, resulting unbalance among forebrain areas has not been assessed yet. By resting-state functional Magnetic-Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in vivo, we investigated the connectivity of neuronal networks belonging to limbic vs. cortical loops in NHE and NRB rats (n=10 each). Notably, resting-state fMRI was applied using a multi-slice sagittal, gradient-echo sequence. Voxel-wise connectivity maps at rest, based on temporal correlation among fMRI time-series, were computed by seeding the hippocampus (Hip), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), dorsal striatum (dStr), amygdala (Amy) and dorsal/medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), both hemispheres. To summarize patterns of altered connection, clearly directional connectivity was evident within the cortical loop: bilaterally and specularly, from orbital and dorsal PFCs through dStr and hence towards Hip. Such network communication was reduced in NHE rats (also, with less mesencephalic/pontine innervation). Conversely, enhanced network activity emerged within the limbic loop of NHE rats: from left PFC, both through the NAcc and directly, to the Hip (all of which received greater ventral tegmental innervation, likely dopamine). Together with tuned-down cortical loop, this potentiated limbic loop may serve a major role in controlling ADHD-like behavioral symptoms in NHE rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Estrous cycle influences the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the hypothalamus and limbic system of female mice

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    Viglietti-Panzica Carla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide plays an important role in the regulation of male and female sexual behavior in rodents, and the expression of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS is influenced by testosterone in the male rat, and by estrogens in the female. We have here quantitatively investigated the distribution of nNOS immunoreactive (ir neurons in the limbic hypothalamic region of intact female mice sacrificed during different phases of estrous cycle. Results Changes were observed in the medial preoptic area (MPA (significantly higher number in estrus and in the arcuate nucleus (Arc (significantly higher number in proestrus. In the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial nucleus (VMHvl and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST no significant changes have been observed. In addition, by comparing males and females, we observed a stable sex dimorphism (males have a higher number of nNOS-ir cells in comparison to almost all the different phases of the estrous cycle in the VMHvl and in the BST (when considering only the less intensely stained elements. In the MPA and in the Arc sex differences were detected only comparing some phases of the cycle. Conclusion These data demonstrate that, in mice, the expression of nNOS in some hypothalamic regions involved in the control of reproduction and characterized by a large number of estrogen receptors is under the control of gonadal hormones and may vary according to the rapid variations of hormonal levels that take place during the estrous cycle.

  16. Changes in prefrontal-limbic function in major depression after 15 months of long-term psychotherapy.

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    Anna Buchheim

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. Here, we investigated recurrently depressed (DSM-IV unmedicated outpatients (N = 16 and control participants matched for sex, age, and education (N = 17 before and after 15 months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Participants were scanned at two time points, during which presentations of attachment-related scenes with neutral descriptions alternated with descriptions containing personal core sentences previously extracted from an attachment interview. Outcome measure was the interaction of the signal difference between personal and neutral presentations with group and time, and its association with symptom improvement during therapy. Signal associated with processing personalized attachment material varied in patients from baseline to endpoint, but not in healthy controls. Patients showed a higher activation in the left anterior hippocampus/amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex before treatment and a reduction in these areas after 15 months. This reduction was associated with improvement in depressiveness specifically, and in the medial prefrontal cortex with symptom improvement more generally. This is the first study documenting neurobiological changes in circuits implicated in emotional reactivity and control after long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy.

  17. Divergent projections of catecholaminergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract to limbic forebrain and medullary autonomic brain regions.

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    Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2006-10-30

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a critical structure involved in coordinating autonomic and visceral activities. Previous independent studies have demonstrated efferent projections from the NTS to the nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) in rat brain. To further characterize the neural circuitry originating from the NTS with postsynaptic targets in the amygdala and medullary autonomic targets, distinct green or red fluorescent latex microspheres were injected into the PGi and the CNA, respectively, of the same rat. Thirty-micron thick tissue sections through the lower brainstem and forebrain were collected. Every fourth section through the NTS region was processed for immunocytochemical detection of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of catecholaminergic neurons. Retrogradely labeled neurons from the PGi or CNA were distributed throughout the rostro-caudal segments of the NTS. However, the majority of neurons containing both retrograde tracers were distributed within the caudal third of the NTS. Cell counts revealed that approximately 27% of neurons projecting to the CNA in the NTS sent collateralized projections to the PGi while approximately 16% of neurons projecting to the PGi sent collateralized projections to the CNA. Interestingly, more than half of the PGi and CNA-projecting neurons in the NTS expressed TH immunoreactivity. These data indicate that catecholaminergic neurons in the NTS are poised to simultaneously coordinate activities in limbic and medullary autonomic brain regions.

  18. Changes in Prefrontal-Limbic Function in Major Depression after 15 Months of Long-Term Psychotherapy

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    Buchheim, Anna; Viviani, Roberto; Kessler, Henrik; Kächele, Horst; Cierpka, Manfred; Roth, Gerhard; George, Carol; Kernberg, Otto F.; Bruns, Georg; Taubner, Svenja

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. Here, we investigated recurrently depressed (DSM-IV) unmedicated outpatients (N = 16) and control participants matched for sex, age, and education (N = 17) before and after 15 months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Participants were scanned at two time points, during which presentations of attachment-related scenes with neutral descriptions alternated with descriptions containing personal core sentences previously extracted from an attachment interview. Outcome measure was the interaction of the signal difference between personal and neutral presentations with group and time, and its association with symptom improvement during therapy. Signal associated with processing personalized attachment material varied in patients from baseline to endpoint, but not in healthy controls. Patients showed a higher activation in the left anterior hippocampus/amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex before treatment and a reduction in these areas after 15 months. This reduction was associated with improvement in depressiveness specifically, and in the medial prefrontal cortex with symptom improvement more generally. This is the first study documenting neurobiological changes in circuits implicated in emotional reactivity and control after long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. PMID:22470470

  19. Two Paraneoplastic Autoimmune Syndromes: Limbic Encephalitis and Palmar Fasciitis in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer.

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    Lazarev, Irina; Shelef, Ilan; Refaely, Yael; Ariad, Samuel; Ifergane, Gal

    2015-09-07

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by a relatively high rate of autoimmune phenomena. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is an autoimmune syndrome in which a non-neural tumor containing an antigen normally present in the nervous system precipitates an antibody attack on neural tissues. Patients with PLE usually present with rapidly progressive short-term memory deficits, confusion or even dementia. Palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis syndrome (PFPAS) is another autoimmune syndrome characterized by rheumatologic manifestations, especially involving the palms of the hands. We report a case of a 59-year old woman who presented with worsening neurological symptoms of two-week duration, and later coma. The combined clinical, serological, and imaging studies suggested a diagnosis of PLE. A chest computed tomographic scan showed a 1.2 cm-diameter mass in the upper lobe of the left lung that was surgically removed and showed SCLC. Following surgery, neurological symptoms rapidly improved, allowing the patient to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. While in remission for both SCLC and PLE, the patient developed pain, soft-tissue swelling, and stiffness in both palms, suggesting the diagnosis of PFPAS. Five months following the diagnosis of palmar fasciitis, SCLC relapsed with mediastinal and cervical lymphadenopathy. This case report underlines the continuous interaction of SCLC with the immune system, expressed by coexistence of two rare paraneoplastic diseases, PLE, and PFPAS, in a patient with SCLC. While symptoms related to PLE preceded the initial diagnosis of SCLC, other symptoms related to PFPAS preceded relapse.

  20. Two paraneoplastic autoimmune syndromes: limbic encephalitis and palmar fasciitis in a patient with small cell lung cancer

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    Irina Lazarev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is characterized by a relatively high rate of autoimmune phenomena. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE is an autoimmune syndrome in which a non-neural tumor containing an antigen normally present in the nervous system precipitates an antibody attack on neural tissues. Patients with PLE usually present with rapidly progressive short-term memory deficits, confusion or even dementia. Palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis syndrome (PFPAS is another autoimmune syndrome characterized by rheumatologic manifestations, especially involving the palms of the hands. We report a case of a 59-year old woman who presented with worsening neurological symptoms of two-week duration, and later coma. The combined clinical, serological, and imaging studies suggested a diagnosis of PLE. A chest computed tomographic scan showed a 1.2 cm-diameter mass in the upper lobe of the left lung that was surgically removed and showed SCLC. Following surgery, neurological symptoms rapidly improved, allowing the patient to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. While in remission for both SCLC and PLE, the patient developed pain, soft-tissue swelling, and stiffness in both palms, suggesting the diagnosis of PFPAS. Five months following the diagnosis of palmar fasciitis, SCLC relapsed with mediastinal and cervical lymphadenopathy. This case report underlines the continuous interaction of SCLC with the immune system, expressed by coexistence of two rare paraneoplastic diseases, PLE, and PFPAS, in a patient with SCLC. While symptoms related to PLE preceded the initial diagnosis of SCLC, other symptoms related to PFPAS preceded relapse.

  1. Ectodomain shedding of Limbic System-Associated Membrane Protein (LSAMP) by ADAM Metallopeptidases promotes neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons.

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    Sanz, Ricardo L; Ferraro, Gino B; Girouard, Marie-Pier; Fournier, Alyson E

    2017-08-11

    IgLONs are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion proteins implicated in the process of neuronal outgrowth, cell adhesion and subdomain target recognition. IgLONs form homophilic and heterophilic complexes on the cell surface that repress or promote growth depending on the neuronal population, the developmental stage and surface repertoire of IgLON family members. In the present study, we identified a metalloproteinase-dependent mechanism necessary to promote growth in embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells (DRGs). Treatment of embryonic DRG neurons with pan-metalloproteinase inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, or an inhibitor of ADAM Metallopeptidase Domain 10 (ADAM10) reduces outgrowth from DRG neurons indicating that metalloproteinase activity is important for outgrowth. The IgLON family members Neurotrimin (NTM) and Limbic System-Associated Membrane Protein (LSAMP) were identified as ADAM10 substrates that are shed from the cell surface of DRG neurons. Overexpression of LSAMP and NTM suppresses outgrowth from DRG neurons. Furthermore, LSAMP loss of function decreases the outgrowth sensitivity to an ADAM10 inhibitor. Together our findings support a role for ADAM-dependent shedding of cell surface LSAMP in promoting outgrowth from DRG neurons.

  2. Voltage-gated potassium channel-associated limbic encephalitis in the West of Scotland: case reports and literature review.

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    Reid, J M; Foley, P; Willison, H J

    2009-11-01

    The syndrome of limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with antibodies against voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC-LE) has recently been described. The number of published cases is however small. We therefore aimed to review all cases seen at our centre and compare with published cases. Retrospective cases of VGKC-LE were identified using a questionnaire to Neurologists at the Southern General hospital, Glasgow, and by reviewing patients with a positive VGKC antibody test (2002-2007). Case-note review of identified cases and a literature review of all published cases of VGKC-LE were performed. Seven cases were identified (four female, age range 51-81). Patients presented sub-acutely with seizures and anterograde memory loss. Five patients had medial temporal lobe change on cranial imaging. No paraneoplastic cases were identified. 5/7 patients made some improvement with immunotherapy. In 2006, 3/18 (17%) patients with a coded discharge of encephalitis were diagnosed with VGKC-LE. The literature review revealed 40 patients with VGKC-LE. Age, gender or VGKC level did not predict likelihood for a significant recovery. Patients treated VGKC-LE is being increasingly diagnosed and is best identified early and treated with immunotherapy to offer the greatest chance of recovery. This series and literature review expands the current published evidence in VGKC-LE.

  3. Development of Isaacs' syndrome following complete recovery of voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

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    Takahashi, Hirokatsu; Mori, Masahiro; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Misawa, Sonoko; Sawai, Setsu; Hattori, Takamichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2008-12-15

    Autoantibodies against voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC-Abs) are associated with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome) and related disorders such as Morvan's syndrome and some cases of limbic encephalitis. The mechanisms underlying the various phenotypes induced by VGKC-Abs are not fully understood. Recently, we reported a case of LE with VGKC-Abs accompanied by severe intestinal pseudo-obstruction and thymoma. Thymectomy and immunosuppressive therapy induced dramatic clinical improvement of LE symptoms, and VGKC-Abs titers decreased from 1254 pM to 549 pM (normal>100 pM). Seventeen months later, the patient developed progressive generalized muscle cramping, paresthesias in his lower extremities, excessive sweating, and severe constipation. There was no recurrence of the LE. Electromyography showed fasciculation potentials and myokymic discharges, and the plasma VGKC-Abs titer was again elevated to 879 pM. Here we report a case of Isaacs' syndrome after complete remission of LE with VGKC-Abs that may provide an insight into a possible link among VGKC-Abs associated syndromes.

  4. Blast-Induced Tinnitus and Elevated Central Auditory and Limbic Activity in Rats: A Manganese-Enhanced MRI and Behavioral Study.

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    Ouyang, Jessica; Pace, Edward; Lepczyk, Laura; Kaufman, Michael; Zhang, Jessica; Perrine, Shane A; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2017-07-07

    Blast-induced tinitus is the number one service-connected disability that currently affects military personnel and veterans. To elucidate its underlying mechanisms, we subjected 13 Sprague Dawley adult rats to unilateral 14 psi blast exposure to induce tinnitus and measured auditory and limbic brain activity using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Tinnitus was evaluated with a gap detection acoustic startle reflex paradigm, while hearing status was assessed with prepulse inhibition (PPI) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Both anxiety and cognitive functioning were assessed using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze, respectively. Five weeks after blast exposure, 8 of the 13 blasted rats exhibited chronic tinnitus. While acoustic PPI remained intact and ABR thresholds recovered, the ABR wave P1-N1 amplitude reduction persisted in all blast-exposed rats. No differences in spatial cognition were observed, but blasted rats as a whole exhibited increased anxiety. MEMRI data revealed a bilateral increase in activity along the auditory pathway and in certain limbic regions of rats with tinnitus compared to age-matched controls. Taken together, our data suggest that while blast-induced tinnitus may play a role in auditory and limbic hyperactivity, the non-auditory effects of blast and potential traumatic brain injury may also exert an effect.

  5. [Anti-Ma2, anti-NMDA-receptor and anti-GluRε2 limbic encephalitis with testicular seminoma: short-term memory disturbance].

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    Kubota, Akihiro; Tajima, Takashi; Narukawa, Shinya; Yamazato, Masamizu; Fukaura, Hikoaki; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Shimizu, Jun; Nomura, Kyoichi

    2012-01-01

    A 36-year-old man presented with cognitive impairment and disturbance of short-term memory functions with character change. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed no abnormalities; however, brain MRI revealed high-signal intensity from bilateral hippocampus lesions on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images and T(2) weighted images. The 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET demonstrated high glucose uptake in the bilateral hippocampus lesions. He was diagnosed as limbic encephalitis, and was administered high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone and immune adsorption plasma therapy followed by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. MRI abnormalities improved after treatment but recent memory disturbance remained. Ma2 antibody, NMDA-receptor antibody, and GluRε2 antibody were positive. Eleven months atter the onset of disease, the tumor was identified in left testicle by ultrasound and removed the tumor. The pathological findings were seminoma. We experienced a case of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with seminoma with short-term memory disturbance. The occurrence of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis with antibodies against cell membrane (NMDA-receptor antibody and GluRε2 antibody) and intracellular (Ma2 antibody) is rare even in the literature.

  6. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures.

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    Thyrion, Lisa; Raedt, Robrecht; Portelli, Jeanelle; Van Loo, Pieter; Wadman, Wytse J; Glorieux, Griet; Lambrecht, Bart N; Janssens, Sophie; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in seizure generation. This study aimed to unravel the contribution of uric acid to seizure generation in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures. We measured extracellular levels of uric acid in the brain and modulated them using complementary pharmacological and genetic tools. Local extracellular uric acid levels increased three to four times during acute limbic seizures and peaked between 50 and 100 min after kainic acid infusion. Manipulating uric acid levels through administration of allopurinol or knock-out of urate oxidase significantly altered the number of generalized seizures, decreasing and increasing them by a twofold respectively. Taken together, our results consistently show that uric acid is released during limbic seizures and suggest that uric acid facilitates seizure generalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Limbic encephalitis associated with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies as a cause of adult-onset mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Toyota, Tomoko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2014-06-01

    Recently, some reports have indicated that limbic encephalitis associated with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies (VGKC-Ab) is a cause of adult-onset mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We report a 53-year-old woman who had her first epileptic seizure at the age of 50 years old. Examination by 3-Tesla brain MRI revealed left hippocampal high signal intensity and swelling on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted imaging at 2 months after her first seizure. The patient received intravenous methylprednisolone and carbamazepine 300 mg/day. One month later, MRI revealed improvement of her left hippocampal abnormalities. Thereafter, she had no seizures, however, three years after her first seizure, EEG revealed a seizure pattern in the left temporal region. Brain MRI revealed left hippocampal high signal intensity and brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed hypermetabolism. Her serum VGKC-Ab levels were 118 pM(normal VGKC-Ab levels decreased to 4.4 pM. Remission of the epileptic seizures was also observed. This MTLE in the middle age was considered as limbic encephalitis associated with anti- VGKC-Ab. In cases of unexplained adult-onset MTLE, limbic encephalitis associated with anti-VGKC-Ab, which responds well to immunotherapy, should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  8. Avaliação eletromiográfica do músculo masseter em pessoas com paralisia facial periférica de longa duração Masseter muscle electromyographic assessment in subject with long lasting facial palsy

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    Adriana Rahal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a atividade elétrica do músculo masseter em pessoas com paralisia facial periférica de longa duração. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo seis sujeitos de ambos os sexos, com paralisia facial há pelo menos doze meses, sem queixas mastigatórias e sem disfunção temporomandibular e com pelo menos seis dentes em cada hemiarcada. Todos preencheram um questionário de anamnese e em seguida foram submetidos à eletromiografia de superfície dos masseteres de ambos os lados. As provas eletromiográficas foram: posição habitual com lábios fechados, apertamento dentário, mastigação habitual e unilateral à direita e à esquerda com uva passa. RESULTADOS: em todas as provas eletromiográficas não foram observadas diferenças significantes (p=0,05 entre os lados com e sem paralisia facial. CONCLUSÃO: observou-se com o presente estudo que a força do músculo masseter não sofre influência da paralisia facial de longa duração.PURPOSE: to check the masseter electrical activity in long lasting facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six subjects, with facial paralysis for over a period of twelve months, males and females, took part in this study. Patients should not show any masticatory complaints or have any diagnoses of temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction, having at least six teeth in each half dental ridge. All subjects filled out a questionnaire regarding oral habits and were assessed by surface electromyography of the masseter muscle of both sides. Electromyographic records were taken with lips closed at rest, teeth tightness, besides usual mastication, and unilateral mastication on both sides with raisins. RESULTS: in all electromyographic tests there were no statistically significant differences (p=0.05 between both sides, with and without facial paralysis. CONCLUSION: it was observed that the strength of the masseter muscle is not under the influence of long lasting facial paralysis.

  9. Beyond the temporal pole: limbic memory circuit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.

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    Tan, Rachel H; Wong, Stephanie; Kril, Jillian J; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Halliday, Glenda M

    2014-07-01

    von Economo neurons in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. We also show that by end-stage these neurons selectively degenerate in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia with preservation of neurons in the posterior cingulate cortex. Overall, our findings demonstrate for the first time, severe atrophy, although not necessarily neuronal loss, across all relay nodes of Papez circuit with the exception of the mammillary bodies and hippocampal body and tail in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Despite the longer disease course in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia compared with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, we suggest here that the neural preservation of crucial memory relays (hippocampal→mammillary bodies and posterior cingulate→hippocampus) likely reflects the conservation of specific episodic memory components observed in most patients with semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Further human evidence for striatal dopamine release induced by administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): selectivity to limbic striatum.

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    Bossong, Matthijs G; Mehta, Mitul A; van Berckel, Bart N M; Howes, Oliver D; Kahn, René S; Stokes, Paul R A

    2015-08-01

    Elevated dopamine function is thought to play a key role in both the rewarding effects of addictive drugs and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates that cannabis use is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. However, human neurochemical imaging studies that examined the impact of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component in cannabis, on striatal dopamine release have provided inconsistent results. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of a THC challenge on human striatal dopamine release in a large sample of healthy participants. We combined human neurochemical imaging data from two previous studies that used [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) (n = 7 and n = 13, respectively) to examine the effect of THC on striatal dopamine neurotransmission in humans. PET images were re-analysed to overcome differences in PET data analysis. THC administration induced a significant reduction in [(11)C]raclopride binding in the limbic striatum (-3.65 %, from 2.39 ± 0.26 to 2.30 ± 0.23, p = 0.023). This is consistent with increased dopamine levels in this region. No significant differences between THC and placebo were found in other striatal subdivisions. In the largest data set of healthy participants so far, we provide evidence for a modest increase in human striatal dopamine transmission after administration of THC compared to other drugs of abuse. This finding suggests limited involvement of the endocannabinoid system in regulating human striatal dopamine release and thereby challenges the hypothesis that an increase in striatal dopamine levels after cannabis use is the primary biological mechanism underlying the associated higher risk of schizophrenia.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Gelsemine and Gelsemium sempervirens Activity on Neurosteroid Allopregnanolone Formation in the Spinal Cord and Limbic System

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    Christine Venard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Centesimal dilutions (5, 9 and 15 cH of Gelsemium sempervirens are claimed to be capable of exerting anxiolytic and analgesic effects. However, basic results supporting this assertion are rare, and the mechanism of action of G. sempervirens is completely unknown. To clarify the point, we performed a comparative analysis of the effects of dilutions 5, 9 and 15 cH of G. sempervirens or gelsemine (the major active principle of G. sempervirens on allopregnanolone (3α,5α-THP production in the rat limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala or H-A and spinal cord (SC. Indeed, H-A and SC are two pivotal structures controlling, respectively, anxiety and pain that are also modulated by the neurosteroid 3α,5α-THP. At the dilution 5 cH, both G. sempervirens and gelsemine stimulated [3H]progesterone conversion into [3H]3α,5α-THP by H-A and SC slices, and the stimulatory effect was fully (100% reproducible in all assays. The dilution 9 cH of G. sempervirens or gelsemine also stimulated 3α,5α-THP formation in H-A and SC but the reproducibility rate decreased to 75%. At 15 cH of G. sempervirens or gelsemine, no effect was observed on 3α,5α-THP neosynthesis in H-A and SC slices. The stimulatory action of G. sempervirens and gelsemine (5 cH on 3α,5α-THP production was blocked by strychnine, the selective antagonist of glycine receptors. Altogether, these results, which constitute the first basic demonstration of cellular effects of G. sempervirens, also offer interesting possibilities for the improvement of G. sempervirens-based therapeutic strategies.

  12. Pubertally born neurons and glia are functionally integrated into limbic and hypothalamic circuits of the male Syrian hamster.

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    Mohr, Margaret A; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2013-03-19

    During puberty, the brain goes through extensive remodeling, involving the addition of new neurons and glia to brain regions beyond the canonical neurogenic regions (i.e., dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb), including limbic and hypothalamic cell groups associated with sex-typical behavior. Whether these pubertally born cells become functionally integrated into neural circuits remains unknown. To address this question, we gave male Syrian hamsters daily injections of the cell birthdate marker bromodeoxyuridine throughout puberty (postnatal day 28-49). Half of the animals were housed in enriched environments with access to a running wheel to determine whether enrichment increased the survival of pubertally born cells compared with the control environment. At 4 wk after the last BrdU injection, animals were allowed to interact with a receptive female and were then killed 1 h later. Triple-label immunofluorescence for BrdU, the mature neuron marker neuronal nuclear antigen, and the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein revealed that a proportion of pubertally born cells in the medial preoptic area, arcuate nucleus, and medial amygdala differentiate into either mature neurons or astrocytes. Double-label immunofluorescence for BrdU and the protein Fos revealed that a subset of pubertally born cells in these regions is activated during sociosexual behavior, indicative of their functional incorporation into neural circuits. Enrichment affected the survival and activation of pubertally born cells in a brain region-specific manner. These results demonstrate that pubertally born cells located outside of the traditional neurogenic regions differentiate into neurons and glia and become functionally incorporated into neural circuits that subserve sex-typical behaviors.

  13. The impact of limbic system morphology on facial emotion recognition in bipolar I disorder and healthy controls

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    Bio DS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Soares Bio,1 Márcio Gerhardt Soeiro-de-Souza,1 Maria Concepción Garcia Otaduy,2 Rodrigo Machado-Vieira,3 Ricardo Alberto Moreno11Mood Disorders Unit, 2Institute of Radiology, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch (ETPB, National Institute of Mental Health, NIMH NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAIntroduction: Impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER have been reported in bipolar disorder (BD subjects during all mood states. This study aims to investigate the impact of limbic system morphology on FER scores in BD subjects and healthy controls.Material and methods: Thirty-nine euthymic BD I (type I subjects and 40 healthy controls were subjected to a battery of FER tests and examined with 3D structural imaging of the amygdala and hippocampus.Results: The volume of these structures demonstrated a differential pattern of influence on FER scores in BD subjects and controls. In our control sample, larger left and right amygdala demonstrated to be associated to less recognition of sadness faces. In BD group, there was no impact of amygdala volume on FER but we observed a negative impact of the left hippocampus volume in the recognition of happiness while the right hippocampus volume positively impacted on the scores of happiness.Conclusion: Our results indicate that amygdala and hippocampus volumes have distinct effects on FER in BD subjects compared to controls. Knowledge of the neurobiological basis of the illness may help to provide further insights on the role of treatments and psychosocial interventions for BD. Further studies should explore how these effects of amygdala and hippocampus volumes on FER are associated with social networks and social network functioning.Keywords: bipolar disorder, social cognition, facial emotion recognition

  14. Fronto-limbic novelty processing in acute psychosis: disrupted relationship with memory performance and potential implications for delusions

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    Björn H Schott

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent concepts have highlighted the role of the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe (MTL in positive symptoms like delusions in schizophrenia. In healthy individuals, the MTL is critically involved in the detection and encoding of novel information. Here, we aimed to investigate whether dysfunctional novelty processing by the MTL might constitute a potential neural mechanism contributing to the pathophysiology of delusions, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 16 unmedicated patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 20 age-matched healthy controls. All patients experienced positive symptoms at time of participation. Participants performed a visual target detection task with complex scene stimuli in which novel and familiar rare stimuli were presented randomly intermixed with a standard and a target picture. Presentation of novel relative to familiar images was associated with hippocampal activation in both patients and healthy controls, but only healthy controls showed a positive relationship between novelty-related hippocampal activation and recognition memory performance after 24 hours. Patients, but not controls, showed a robust neural response in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC during presentation of novel stimuli. Functional connectivity analysis in the patients further revealed a novelty-related increase of functional connectivity of both the hippocampus and the OFC with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC and the ventral striatum. Notably, delusions correlated positively with the difference of the functional connectivity of the hippocampus versus the OFC with the rACC. Taken together, our results suggest that alterations of fronto-limbic novelty processing may contribute to the pathophysiology of delusions in patients with acute psychosis.

  15. Accelerated long-term forgetting in focal epilepsies with special consideration given to patients with diagnosed and suspected limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstaedter, Christoph; Winter, Babette; Melzer, Nico; Lohmann, Hubertus; Witt, Juri-Alexander

    2018-01-31

    Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is a phenomenon found in late onset epilepsy and in transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). Here we evaluated ALF in patients with focal epilepsies and limbic encephalitis (LE) in particular. ALF was assessed in 36 patients with focal epilepsy and 154 healthy subjects using an extended version of the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT), with free recall after 30 min and again after one week. From these patients, 89% had temporal lobe epilepsy; 42% left-lateralized; 39% right; 19% bilateral; 17% were diagnosed with hippocampal sclerosis; 64% displayed features indicating LE; 52% with amygdala pathology, and 61% were antibody positive. ALF was defined as either having unimpaired free recall after 30 min and impaired recall after a week (A) or as a loss in recall exceeding the absolute (B) and percentage loss (C) in the interval of the 30 min and one week recall seen in controls by more than one standard deviation. Repeated measures analysis revealed an association between LE and ALF. Depending on its definition (A, B, or C), ALF was evident in 31%, 42%, or 67% of the patients. Poor verbal memory and ALF (C) were prominent in left-lateralized epilepsies. ALF (A) appeared more frequently in auto-antibody negative patients with LE, ALF (B) less frequently with hippocampal sclerosis. Seizures during the interval did not explain ALF. Depending on its definition, ALF is seen in patients with normal or impaired memory at ½ h. ALF seems related to LE but might as well be the first sign of memory impairment in patients with milder epilepsies and not yet definite structural temporal lobe pathology. Longitudinal assessment would be essential for discerning when ALF becomes evident, whether conditions exist in which ALF precedes short-term forgetting, and whether ALF responds to treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tinnitus distress is linked to enhanced resting-state functional connectivity from the limbic system to the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Xia, Wenqing; Chen, Huiyou; Feng, Yuan; Xu, Jin-Jing; Gu, Jian-Ping; Salvi, Richard; Yin, Xindao

    2017-05-01

    The phantom sound of tinnitus is believed to be triggered by aberrant neural activity in the central auditory pathway, but since this debilitating condition is often associated with emotional distress and anxiety, these comorbidities likely arise from maladaptive functional connections to limbic structures such as the amygdala and hippocampus. To test this hypothesis, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify aberrant effective connectivity of the amygdala and hippocampus in tinnitus patients and to determine the relationship with tinnitus characteristics. Chronic tinnitus patients (n = 26) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (n = 23) were included. Both groups were comparable for hearing level. Granger causality analysis utilizing the amygdala and hippocampus as seed regions were used to investigate the directional connectivity and the relationship with tinnitus duration or distress. Relative to healthy controls, tinnitus patients demonstrated abnormal directional connectivity of the amygdala and hippocampus, including primary and association auditory cortex, and other non-auditory areas. Importantly, scores on the Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaires were positively correlated with increased connectivity from the left amygdala to left superior temporal gyrus (r = 0.570, P = 0.005), and from the right amygdala to right superior temporal gyrus (r = 0.487, P = 0.018). Moreover, enhanced effective connectivity from the right hippocampus to left transverse temporal gyrus was correlated with tinnitus duration (r = 0.452, P = 0.030). The results showed that tinnitus distress strongly correlates with enhanced effective connectivity that is directed from the amygdala to the auditory cortex. The longer the phantom sensation, the more likely acute tinnitus becomes permanently encoded by memory traces in the hippocampus. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2384-2397, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis as a cause of new onset of seizures in a patient with non-small cell lung carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voutsas Vasileios

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The etiology of seizure disorders in lung cancer patients is broad and includes some rather rare causes of seizures which can sometimes be overlooked by physicians. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rather rare cause of seizures in lung cancer patients and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of seizure disorders in this population. Case presentation This case report describes the new onset of seizures in a 64-year-old male patient receiving chemotherapy for a diagnosed stage IV non-small cell lung carcinoma. After three cycles of therapy, he was re-evaluated with a chest computed tomography which showed a 50% reduction in the tumor mass and in the size of the hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Twenty days after the fourth cycle of chemotherapy, the patient was admitted to a neurological clinic because of the onset of self-limiting complex partial seizures, with motionless stare and facial twitching, but with no signs of secondary generalization. The patient had also recently developed neurological symptoms of short-term memory loss and temporary confusion, and behavioral changes. Laboratory evaluation included brain magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain, serum examination for 'anti-Hu' antibodies and stereotactic brain biopsy. Based on the clinical picture, the patient's history of lung cancer, the brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and the results of the brain biopsy, we concluded that our patient had a 'definite' diagnosis of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis and he was subsequently treated with a combination of chemotherapy and oral steroids, resulting in stabilization of his neurological status. Despite the neurological stabilization, a chest computed tomography which was performed after the 6th cycle showed relapse of the disease in the chest. Conclusion Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rather rare cause of new onset of seizures in patients with

  18. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-