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Sample records for reflect executive control

  1. Supramodal Executive Control of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO eSPAGNA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms.

  2. Executive control of attention in narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bayard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by early loss of hypocretin neurons that project to areas involved in the attention network. We characterized the executive control of attention in drug-free patients with NC to determine whether the executive deficits observed in patients with NC are specific to the disease itself or whether they reflect performance changes due to the severity of excessive daytime sleepiness. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two patients with NC compared to 22 patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwC matched for age, gender, intellectual level, objective daytime sleepiness and number of sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs were studied. Thirty-two matched healthy controls were included. All participants underwent a standardized interview, completed questionnaires, and neuropsychological tests. All patients underwent a polysomnography followed by multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT, with neuropsychological evaluation performed the same day between MSLT sessions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Irrespective of diagnosis, patients reported higher self-reported attentional complaints associated with the intensity of depressive symptoms. Patients with NC performed slower and more variably on simple reaction time tasks than patients with NwC, who did not differ from controls. Patients with NC and NwC generally performed slower, reacted more variably, and made more errors than controls on executive functioning tests. Individual profile analyses showed a clear heterogeneity of the severity of executive deficit. This severity was related to objective sleepiness, higher number of SOREMPs on the MSLT, and lower intelligence quotient. The nature and severity of the executive deficits were unrelated to NC and NwC diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that drug-free patients with NC and NwC complained of attention deficit, with altered executive control of attention being explained by the severity of objective

  3. The reflection on the practice of workspace design: from conception to execution of control center; A reflexao sobre a pratica de projetos de espacos de trabalho: da concepcao a execucao de um centro de controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Carolina S.; Duarte, Francisco J.C.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia de Producao; Maia, Nora C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lannes Junior, Ayr [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and distinguish the contribution of ergonomics in control rooms design. The methodology that was utilized in the project analysis of a recently built control center, reflection on practice, allows to evidence the characteristics of the ergonomics approach and of the project management that have strongly affect the final result. On the basis of this reflection, the lessons learned during the various stages of the project, from the preliminary studies to the work execution, are presented, with special emphasis on: build up of requirements and layout characteristics; management of different logics, integrating the various actors - users and designers - involved and leveling information among them throughout the whole process; organization of users participation and simulation of working conditions; specification of furniture, linings and equipment, with implementation of new technologies; attendance to the work execution site, due to the existing recreations in that stage as well as the impact of the changes on the control room future activity; and timing consideration for analyzing reference situations at the beginning of the project, and for social construction with the actors during project development. (author)

  4. The contribution of executive control to semantic cognition: Convergent evidence from semantic aphasia and executive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah E; Almaghyuli, Azizah; Noonan, Krist A; Barak, Ohr; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-01-03

    Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., , Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal 'hub' in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions such as frontal and parietal cortex, are thought to allow the generation of non-dominant aspects of knowledge when these are appropriate for the task or context. Semantic aphasia (SA) patients have executive-semantic deficits, and these are correlated with general executive impairment. If the CSC proposal is correct, patients with executive impairment should not only exhibit impaired semantic cognition, but should also show characteristics that align with those observed in SA. This possibility remains largely untested, as patients selected on the basis that they show executive impairment (i.e., with 'dysexecutive syndrome') have not been extensively tested on tasks tapping semantic control and have not been previously compared with SA cases. We explored conceptual processing in 12 patients showing symptoms consistent with dysexecutive syndrome (DYS) and 24 SA patients, using a range of multimodal semantic assessments which manipulated control demands. Patients with executive impairments, despite not being selected to show semantic impairments, nevertheless showed parallel patterns to SA cases. They showed strong effects of distractor strength, cues and miscues, and probe-target distance, plus minimal effects of word frequency on comprehension (unlike semantic dementia patients with degradation of conceptual knowledge). This supports a component process account of semantic cognition in which retrieval is shaped by control processes, and confirms that deficits in SA patients reflect

  5. A prospective investigation of rumination and executive control in predicting overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tracy M; Hunter, Simon C; Rhodes, Sinéad M

    2018-04-01

    The CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007), or capture and rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA), and impaired executive control (X), is a model of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). Two mechanisms of the model, rumination and executive control, were examined in isolation and in interaction in order to investigate OGM over time. Across two time points, six months apart, a total of 149 adolescents (13-16 years) completed the minimal-instruction autobiographical memory test, a measure of executive control with both emotional and nonemotional stimuli, and measures of brooding rumination and reflective pondering. The results showed that executive control for emotional information was negatively associated with OGM, but only when reflective pondering levels were high. Therefore, in the context of higher levels of reflective pondering, greater switch costs (i.e., lower executive control) when processing emotional information predicted a decrease in OGM over time.

  6. Mindfulness Plus Reflection Training: Effects on Executive Function in Early Childhood

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    Philip David Zelazo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF skills are essential for academic achievement, and poverty-related stress interferes with their development. This pre-test, post-test, follow-up randomized-control trial assessed the impact of an intervention targeting reflection and stress reduction on children's EF skills. Preschool children (N = 218 from schools serving low-income families in two U.S. cities were randomly assigned to one of three options delivered in 30 small-group sessions over 6 weeks: Mindfulness + Reflection training; Literacy training; or Business as Usual (BAU. Sessions were conducted by local teachers trained in a literacy curriculum or Mindfulness + Reflection intervention, which involved calming activities and games that provided opportunities to practice reflection in the context of goal-directed problem solving. EF improved in all groups, but planned contrasts indicated that the Mindfulness + Reflection group significantly outperformed the BAU group at Follow-up (4 weeks post-test. No differences in EF were observed between the BAU and Literacy training groups. Results suggest that a brief, small-group, school-based intervention teaching mindfulness and reflection did not improve EF skills more than literacy training but is promising compared to BAU for improving EF in low-income preschool children several weeks following the intervention.

  7. The Executive Control of Face Memory

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    Steven Z. Rapcsak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with frontal lobe damage and cognitively normal elderly individuals demonstrate increased susceptibility to false facial recognition. In this paper we review neuropsychological evidence consistent with the notion that the common functional impairment underlying face memory distortions in both subject populations is a context recollection/source monitoring deficit, coupled with excessive reliance on relatively preserved facial familiarity signals in recognition decisions. In particular, we suggest that due to the breakdown of strategic memory retrieval, monitoring, and decision operations, individuals with frontal lobe impairment caused by focal damage or age-related functional decline do not have a reliable mechanism for attributing the experience of familiarity to the correct context or source. Memory illusions are mostly apparent under conditions of uncertainty when the face cue does not directly elicit relevant identity-specific contextual information, leaving the source of familiarity unspecified or ambiguous. Based on these findings, we propose that remembering faces is a constructive process that requires dynamic interactions between temporal lobe memory systems that operate in an automatic or bottom-up fashion and frontal executive systems that provide strategic top-down control of recollection. Executive memory control functions implemented by prefrontal cortex play a critical role in suppressing false facial recognition and related source memory misattributions.

  8. Remembering the Future of Centralized Control-Decentralized Execution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheets, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    ... concepts which should drive system development. To realize the significance of the USAF C2 tenet of "centralized control-decentralized execution," one must understand how C2 is executed, in contingency theaters of operation...

  9. Does Mind Wandering Reflect Executive Function or Executive Failure? Comment on Smallwood and Schooler (2006) and Watkins (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    In this comment, we contrast different conceptions of mind wandering that were presented in 2 recent theoretical reviews: Smallwood and Schooler (2006) and Watkins (2008). We also introduce a new perspective on the role of executive control in mind wandering by integrating empirical evidence presented in Smallwood and Schooler with 2 theoretical…

  10. Metacognitive Monitoring of Executive Control Engagement during Childhood

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    Chevalier, Nicolas; Blaye, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Emerging executive control supports greater autonomy and increasingly adaptive behavior during childhood. The present study addressed whether children's greater monitoring of how they engage control drives executive control development. Gaze position was recorded while twenty-five 6-year-olds and twenty-eight 10-year-olds performed a self-paced…

  11. The contribution of executive control to semantic cognition: Convergent evidence from semantic aphasia and executive dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Hannah E; Almaghyuli, Azizah; Noonan, Krist A.; Barak, Ohr; Lambon Ralph, Matthew; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Semantic cognition, as described by the Controlled Semantic Cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers, Patterson, Jefferies, & Lambon Ralph, 2015), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal ‘hub’ in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task- appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive...

  12. Monitoring, metacognition, and executive function: elucidating the role of self-reflection in the development of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kristen E; Zelazo, Philip David

    2011-01-01

    While an abundance of research has investigated the development of the automatic and controlled processes through which individuals control their thoughts, emotions, and actions, less research has emphasized the role of the self in self-regulation. This chapter synthesizes four literatures that have examined the mechanisms through which the individual acts in a managerial role, evaluating the current status of the system and initiating regulatory actions as necessary. Taken together, these literatures (on executive function, error monitoring, metacognition, and uncertainty monitoring) suggest that self-reflection plays a critical role in self-regulation, and that developmental improvements in self-reflection (via increasing levels of conscious awareness and enhanced calibration of monitoring systems) may serve as driving forces underlying developmental improvement (and temperamental individual differences) in children's ability to control their thoughts and actions.

  13. An Access Control Framework for Reflective Middleware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Huang; Lian-Shan Sun

    2008-01-01

    Reflective middleware opens up the implementation details of middleware platform and applications at runtime for improving the adaptability of middleware-based systems. However, such openness brings new challenges to access control of the middleware-based systems.Some users can access the system via reflective entities, which sometimes cannot be protected by access control mechanisms of traditional middleware. To deliver high adaptability securely, reflective middleware should be equipped with proper access control mechanisms for potential access control holes induced by reflection. One reason of integrating these mechanisms in reflective middleware is that one goal of reflective middleware is to equip applications with reflection capabilities as transparent as possible. This paper studies how to design a reflective J2EE middlewarePKUAS with access control in mind. At first, a computation model of reflective system is built to identify all possible access control points induced by reflection. Then a set of access control mechanisms, including the wrapper of MBeans and a hierarchy of Java class loaders, are equipped for controlling the identified access control points. These mechanisms together with J2EE access control mechanism form the access control framework for PKUAS. The paper evaluates the security and the performance overheads of the framework in quality and quantity.

  14. Centralized Control/Decentralized Execution: A Valid Tenet of Airpower

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santicola, Henry J

    2005-01-01

    ...) and Effects-Based Operations (EBO). This paper examines the history of the concept of centralized control/decentralized execution from the advent of modern warfare through Operation Enduring Freedom...

  15. EXECUTIVE DYSFUNCTION IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

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    Neethi Valsan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country. Being a neurotoxin, it tends to affect elective mental capacities. Frontal lobe is found to be most affected by chronic alcohol use. AIM To study the executive functions in alcohol dependent individuals and to determine any relationship with alcohol intake variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 recently detoxified alcohol dependent individuals attending the De-addiction Clinic of Medical College, Kottayam, was compared to 30 controls on four tests of executive functions, namely, Controlled Word Association Test, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Statistical analysis of the data has been done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Windows version 10. RESULTS Executive function was significantly impaired in the alcohol dependent individuals when compared to normal controls in all the four tests. On analysing the effect of drinking variables on executive functioning, the performance of patients is seen to improve with abstinence in Stroop. Those with a positive family history of ADS in the first degree relatives produced fewer words in verbal fluency. CONCLUSION As the executive impairment remains more or less stable irrespective to the chronicity or amount of alcohol use, it could be assumed that the executive dysfunction observed is a trait marker rather than a state dependent variable.

  16. The organization of executive power in Spain (1808 -1810. Reflections on an unedited text by Jovellanos

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    Ignacio Fernández Sarasola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of an unpublished document written by Jovellanos about the organization of the Presidency of the Junta Central allows for a reassessment of his relevance in the configuration of the executive power during the early years after the War of Independence. After explaining where the document was found, as well as confirming its authorship and when it was written, I will analyze the document’s context. The conclusion of this analysis is that many of the measures relevant to the structure of the Junta Central came from Jovellanos, who wanted said organization to be able to exercise genuine political power, yet to be organized in the most convenient way in order to be able to reflect upon the political and administrative reforms once the Cortes met. Throughout the study, I will show how Jovellanos tried to reflect his political theories on sovereignty and the separation of powers in the structure of the Junta Central, but also how he altered his initial beliefs due to the convulsive political situation in Spain during the War of Independence. Additionally, it will be shown that the blueprint of internal executive power obligated Jovellanos to also define the competencies of the future Regency, of the Juntas Provinciales and even of the monarch himself. This work employs a methodology typical to constitutional history, integrating an analysis of political thought, the contents of law and institutional development. In order to create this document, direct sources have been primarily used, many of which are relatively unknown.

  17. Automated procedure execution for space vehicle autonomous control

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    Broten, Thomas A.; Brown, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased operational autonomy and reduced operating costs have become critical design objectives in next-generation NASA and DoD space programs. The objective is to develop a semi-automated system for intelligent spacecraft operations support. The Spacecraft Operations and Anomaly Resolution System (SOARS) is presented as a standardized, model-based architecture for performing High-Level Tasking, Status Monitoring and automated Procedure Execution Control for a variety of spacecraft. The particular focus is on the Procedure Execution Control module. A hierarchical procedure network is proposed as the fundamental means for specifying and representing arbitrary operational procedures. A separate procedure interpreter controls automatic execution of the procedure, taking into account the current status of the spacecraft as maintained in an object-oriented spacecraft model.

  18. Telerobotic Control Architecture Including Force-Reflection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the implementation of a telerobotic control architecture to manipulate a standard six-degree-of-freedom robot via a unique seven-degree-of-freedom force-reflecting exoskeleton...

  19. The contribution of executive control to semantic cognition: Convergent evidence from semantic aphasia and executive dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Hannah; Almaghyuli, Azizah; Noonan, Krist A.; barak, Ohr; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., 2015, Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal ‘hub’ in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive–semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions ...

  20. Executive and Language Control in the Multilingual Brain

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    Anthony Pak-Hin Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1, English (L2, and Mandarin (L3 speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T’s executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers.

  1. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  2. Executive and language control in the multilingual brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Abutalebi, Jubin; Lam, Karen Sze-Yan; Weekes, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1), English (L2), and Mandarin (L3) speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T's executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers.

  3. How do emotion and motivation direct executive control?

    OpenAIRE

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2009-01-01

    Emotion and motivation have crucial roles in determining human behavior. Yet, how they interact with cognitive control functions is less understood. Here, the basic elements of a conceptual framework for understanding how they interact are introduced. More broadly, the `dual competition' framework proposes that emotion and motivation affect both perceptual and executive competition. In particular, the anterior cingulate cortex is hypothesized to be engaged in attentional/effortful control mec...

  4. Flow control for oblique shock wave reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Giepman, R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are prevalent in many aerospace applications that involve transonic or supersonic flows. Such interactions may lead to boundary layer separation, flow unsteadiness and substantial losses in the total pressure. Flow control techniques can help to mitigate these adverse effects and stabilize the interaction. This thesis focuses on passive flow control techniques for oblique shock wave reflections on flat plates and presents experimental results for both la...

  5. The development and malleability of executive control abilities

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    Nina S Hsu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Executive control (EC generally refers to the regulation of mental activity. It plays a crucial role in complex cognition, and EC skills predict high-level abilities including language processing, memory, and problem solving, as well as practically relevant outcomes like scholastic achievement. Executive control develops relatively late in ontogeny, and many sub-groups of developmental populations demonstrate an exaggeratedly poor ability to control cognition even alongside the normal protracted growth of EC skills. Given the value of EC to human performance, researchers have sought means to improve it through targeted training; indeed, accumulating evidence suggests that regulatory processes are malleable through experience and practice. Nonetheless, there is a need to understand both whether specific populations might particularly benefit from training, and what cortical mechanisms engage during performance of the tasks used in the training protocols. This contribution has two parts: in Part I, we review EC development and intervention work in select populations. Although promising, the mixed results in this early field make it difficult to draw strong conclusions. To guide future studies, in Part II, we discuss training studies that have included a neuroimaging component—a relatively new enterprise that also has not yet yielded a consistent pattern of results post-training, preventing broad conclusions. We therefore suggest that recent developments in neuroimaging (e.g., multivariate and connectivity approaches may be useful to advance our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the malleability of executive control and brain plasticity. In conjunction with behavioral data, these methods may further inform our understanding of the brain-behavior relationship and the extent to which EC is dynamic and malleable, guiding the development of future, targeted interventions to promote executive functioning in both healthy and atypical

  6. Baduanjin Mind-Body Intervention Improves the Executive Control Function

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tingting; Yue, Guang H.; Tian, Yingxue; Jiang, Changhao

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at comparing the effects of the Baduanjin mind-body (BMB) intervention with a conventional relaxation training program on enhancing the executive function. The study also attempts to explore the neural substrates underlying the cognitive effect of BMB intervention using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique. Forty-two healthy college students were randomly allocated into either the Baduanjin intervention group or relaxation training (control) group. Training lasted for 8...

  7. What to Wear to a Severance Party: A Former Corporate Executive Reflects on Her Own Downsizing Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    A corporate executive provides an amusing and reflective account on her experience of being downsized. This "day in the life" perspective documents the feelings of an individual who found herself served with "divorce papers" from a job that had, in many ways, defined her identity. Her personal story shines the spotlight on…

  8. Baduanjin Mind-Body Intervention Improves the Executive Control Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Yue, Guang H; Tian, Yingxue; Jiang, Changhao

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at comparing the effects of the Baduanjin mind-body (BMB) intervention with a conventional relaxation training program on enhancing the executive function. The study also attempts to explore the neural substrates underlying the cognitive effect of BMB intervention using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique. Forty-two healthy college students were randomly allocated into either the Baduanjin intervention group or relaxation training (control) group. Training lasted for 8 weeks (90 min/day, 5 days/week). Each participant was administered the shortened Profile of Mood States to evaluate their mood status and the flanker task to evaluate executive function before and after training. While performing the flanker task, the NIRS data were collected from each participant. After training, individuals who have participated in BMB exercise showed a significant reduction in depressive mood compared with the same measure before the intervention. However, participants in the control group showed no such reduction. The before vs. after measurement difference in the flanker task incongruent trails was significant only for the Baduanjin intervention group. Interestingly, an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin in the left prefrontal cortex was observed during the Incongruent Trails test only after the BMB exercise intervention. These findings implicate that Baduanjin is an effective and easy-to-administering mind-body exercise for improving executive function and perhaps brain self-regulation in a young and healthy population.

  9. The development of inhibitory control in preschool children: effects of "executive skills" training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, S M; Livesey, D J

    2000-03-01

    As one of several processes involved in the executive functioning of the cognitive system, inhibitory control plays a significant role in determining how various mental processes work together in the successful performance of a task. Studies of response inhibition have shown that although 3-year-old children have the cognitive capacity to learn the rules required for response control, indicated by the correct verbal response, developmental constraints prevent them from withholding the correct response (Bell & Livesey, 1985; Livesey & Morgan, 1991). Some argue that these abulic dissociations are relative to children's ability to reflect on the rules required for response control (Zelazo, Reznick, & Pinon, 1995). The current study showed that repeated exposure to tasks facilitating the acquisition of increasingly complex rule structures could improve inhibitory control (as measured by a go/no-go discrimination learning task), even in children aged 3 years. These tasks included a variant of Diamond and Boyer's (1989) modified version of the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and a simplification of the change paradigm (Logan & Burkell, 1986). It is argued that experience with these tasks increased the acquisition of complex rules by placing demands on executive processes. This includes response control and other executive functions, such as representational flexibility, the ability to maintain information in working memory, the selective control of attention, and proficiency at error correction. The role of experiential variables in the development of inhibitory control is discussed in terms of the interaction between neural development and appropriate executive task experience in the early years. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Formative versus Reflective Measurement in Executive Functions: A Critique of Willoughby et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric; Welsh, Marilyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Research into executive functioning (EF) has indeed grown exponentially across the past few decades, but as the Willoughby et al. critique makes clear, there remain fundamental questions to be resolved. The crux of their argument is built upon an examination of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approach to understanding executive processes.…

  11. How do emotion and motivation direct executive control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2009-04-01

    Emotion and motivation have crucial roles in determining human behavior. Yet, how they interact with cognitive control functions is less understood. Here, the basic elements of a conceptual framework for understanding how they interact are introduced. More broadly, the 'dual competition' framework proposes that emotion and motivation affect both perceptual and executive competition. In particular, the anterior cingulate cortex is hypothesized to be engaged in attentional/effortful control mechanisms and to interact with several other brain structures, including the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, in integrating affectively significant signals with control signals in prefrontal cortex. An implication of the proposal is that emotion and motivation can either enhance or impair behavioral performance depending on how they interact with control functions.

  12. Short-term memory, executive control, and children's route learning

    OpenAIRE

    Purser, H. R.; Farran, E. K.; Courbois, Y.; Lemahieu, A.; Mellier, D.; Sockeel, P.; Blades, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and visuospatial long-term memory; the route-learning task was conducted using a maze in a virtual environment. In contrast to previous research, correlation...

  13. Executive control systems in the engineering design environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, P. W.; Pratt, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    Executive Control Systems (ECSs) are software structures for the unification of various engineering design application programs into comprehensive systems with a central user interface (uniform access) method and a data management facility. Attention is presently given to the most significant determinations of a research program conducted for 24 ECSs, used in government and industry engineering design environments to integrate CAD/CAE applications programs. Characterizations are given for the systems' major architectural components and the alternative design approaches considered in their development. Attention is given to ECS development prospects in the areas of interdisciplinary usage, standardization, knowledge utilization, and computer science technology transfer.

  14. Working Memory in the Service of Executive Control Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Farshad A; Rosa, Marcello G P; Atapour, Nafiseh

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a type of short-term memory which has a crucial cognitive function that supports ongoing and upcoming behaviors, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, color or texture of an object, and its location and motion relative to the body, as well as phonological information. The neural correlate of working memory has been found in different brain areas that are involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to working memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to retain this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of working memory by showing that information of a more abstract nature (including a behavior-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing) can also be maintained in short-term memory, and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex encodes and maintains information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in the organization of goal-directed behavior by supporting many different mnemonic processes, which maintain a wide range of information required for the executive control of ongoing and upcoming behaviors.

  15. The Effect of Script Similarity on Executive Control in Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Coderre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for executive control (EC during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a ‘bilingual advantage’ on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual’s two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE, Polish-English (PE, and Arabic-English (AE, respectively and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic interference in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities.

  16. The control and execution of programmed cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, R.; Pathak, N.; Hasnain, S.E.; Sah, N.K.; Athar, M.

    1999-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a highly conserved genetically controlled response of metazoan cells to commit suicide. Non apoptotic programmed cell death seems to operate in single celled eukaryotes implying that evolution of PCD has preceded the evolution of multicellularity. PCD plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular and tissue homeostasis and any aberrations in apoptosis leads to several diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and AIDS. The mechanisms by which apoptosis is controlled are varied. In some cells, members of bcl-2 family or p53 are crucial for regulating the apoptosis programme, whereas in other cells Fas ligand is more important. bcl-2 family members have a prime role in the regulation of cell death at all stages including development, whereas cell death during development is independent of p53. bcl-2 family members being localized on the outer mitochondrial membrane, control the mitochondrial homeostasis and cytochrome c redistribution and thereby regulate the cell death process. p53 promotes DNA damage mediated cell death after growth arrest and failed DNA repair. Caspases play a key role in the execution of cell death by mediating highly specific cleavages of crucial cellular proteins collectively manifesting the apoptotic phenotype. Protein inhibitors like crm A, p35 and IAPs could prevent/control apoptosis induced by a broad array of cell death stimuli by several mechanisms specially interfering in caspase activation or caspase activity. Among endonucleases, caspase activated DNase (CAD) plays a crucial role in DNA fragmentation, a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. As regulation of cell death seems to be as complex as regulation of cell proliferation, multiple kinase mediated regulatory mechanisms might control the apoptotic process. Thus, in spite of intensive research over the past few years, the field of apoptosis still remains fertile to unravel among others, the molecular mechanisms of cytochrome c

  17. The control and execution of programmed cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, R.; Pathak, N.; Hasnain, S.E.; Sah, N.K. [National Inst. of Immunology, New Delhi (India). Eukaryotic Gene Expression Lab.; Taneja, T.K.; Mohan, M. [National Inst. of Immunology, New Delhi (India). Eukaryotic Gene Expression Lab.]|[Dept. of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, New Delhi (India); Athar, M. [Dept. of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, New Delhi (India)

    1999-07-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a highly conserved genetically controlled response of metazoan cells to commit suicide. Non apoptotic programmed cell death seems to operate in single celled eukaryotes implying that evolution of PCD has preceded the evolution of multicellularity. PCD plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular and tissue homeostasis and any aberrations in apoptosis leads to several diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and AIDS. The mechanisms by which apoptosis is controlled are varied. In some cells, members of bcl-2 family or p53 are crucial for regulating the apoptosis programme, whereas in other cells Fas ligand is more important. bcl-2 family members have a prime role in the regulation of cell death at all stages including development, whereas cell death during development is independent of p53. bcl-2 family members being localized on the outer mitochondrial membrane, control the mitochondrial homeostasis and cytochrome c redistribution and thereby regulate the cell death process. p53 promotes DNA damage mediated cell death after growth arrest and failed DNA repair. Caspases play a key role in the execution of cell death by mediating highly specific cleavages of crucial cellular proteins collectivley manifesting the apoptotic phenotype. Protein inhibitors like crm A, p35 and IAPs could prevent/control apoptosis induced by a broad array of cell death stimuli by several mechanisms specially interfering in caspase activation or caspase activity. Among endonucleases, caspase activated DNase (CAD) plays a crucial role in DNA fragmentation, a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. As regulation of cell death seems to be as complex as regulation of cell proliferation, multiple kinase mediated regulatory mechanisms might control the apoptotic process. Thus, in spite of intensive research over the past few years, the field of apoptosis still remains fertile to unravel among others, the molecular mechanisms of cytochrome c

  18. Prospective associations between bilingualism and executive function in Latino children: sustained effects while controlling for biculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Shin, Hee-Sung; Unger, Jennifer B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2014-10-01

    The study purpose was to test 1-year prospective associations between English-Spanish bilingualism and executive function in 5th to 6th grade students while controlling for biculturalism. Participants included 182 US Latino students (50 % female). Self-report surveys assessed biculturalism, bilingualism, and executive function (i.e., working memory, organizational skills, inhibitory control, and emotional control, as well as a summary executive function score). General linear model regressions demonstrated that bilingualism significantly predicted the summary executive function score as well as working memory such that bilingual proficiency was positively related to executive function. Results are the first to demonstrate (a) prospective associations between bilingualism to executive function while controlling for the potential third variable of biculturalism, and (b) a principal role for working memory in this relationship. Since executive function is associated with a host of health outcomes, one implication of study findings is that bilingualism may have an indirect protective influence on youth development.

  19. Reflecting on 20+ Years of “Executive Program in Defense Decision Making” Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    CCMR News Article CCMR hosted a version of its biannual “Executive Program in Defense Decision Making” offering for 21 international military and civilian participants, from November 6-17, 2017. Often described as CCMR’s “flagship” course, this curriculum has been offered at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, California for over 20 years.

  20. The role of executive control in young children's serious gaming behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sande, E. van de; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined (1) how executive control contributed to in-game behaviors in young children while playing a serious game, (2) whether the levels of control changed when the game was played repeatedly, and (3) how the first experience with the game mediated the role of executive control

  1. Mindfulness Meditation Training and Executive Control Network Resting State Functional Connectivity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Creswell, J David

    Mindfulness meditation training has been previously shown to enhance behavioral measures of executive control (e.g., attention, working memory, cognitive control), but the neural mechanisms underlying these improvements are largely unknown. Here, we test whether mindfulness training interventions foster executive control by strengthening functional connections between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)-a hub of the executive control network-and frontoparietal regions that coordinate executive function. Thirty-five adults with elevated levels of psychological distress participated in a 3-day randomized controlled trial of intensive mindfulness meditation or relaxation training. Participants completed a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan before and after the intervention. We tested whether mindfulness meditation training increased resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) between dlPFC and frontoparietal control network regions. Left dlPFC showed increased connectivity to the right inferior frontal gyrus (T = 3.74), right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) (T = 3.98), right supplementary eye field (T = 4.29), right parietal cortex (T = 4.44), and left middle temporal gyrus (T = 3.97, all p < .05) after mindfulness training relative to the relaxation control. Right dlPFC showed increased connectivity to right MFG (T = 4.97, p < .05). We report that mindfulness training increases rsFC between dlPFC and dorsal network (superior parietal lobule, supplementary eye field, MFG) and ventral network (right IFG, middle temporal/angular gyrus) regions. These findings extend previous work showing increased functional connectivity among brain regions associated with executive function during active meditation by identifying specific neural circuits in which rsFC is enhanced by a mindfulness intervention in individuals with high levels of psychological distress. Clinicaltrials.gov,NCT01628809.

  2. Force Reflection Algorithms for Exoskeleton Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryfogle, Mark

    1991-01-01

    This research effort investigated the kinematics and dynamics of open chain, serial linkage mechanisms with specific emphasis placed upon the application of this linkage as a force reflecting exoskeleton mechanism...

  3. Application of reflective memory network in Tokamak fast controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Chuqiao; Zhang Ming; Liu Rui; Zheng Wei; Zhuang Ge

    2014-01-01

    A specific application of reflective memory network in Tokamak fast controller was introduced in this paper. The PMC-5565 reflective memory card and ACC-5565 network hub were used to build a reflective memory real-time network to test its real- time function. The real-time, rapidity and determinacy of the time delay for fast controller controlling power device under the reflective memory network were tested in the LabVIEW RT real-time operation system. Depending on the reflective memory technology, the data in several fast controllers were synchronized, and multiple control tasks using a single control task were finished. The experiment results show that the reflective memory network can meet the real-time requirements for fast controller to perform the feedback control over devices. (authors)

  4. The effect of childhood bilectalism and multilingualism on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Kyriakos; Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria; Katsos, Napoleon

    2016-04-01

    Several investigations report a positive effect of childhood bilingualism on executive control (EC). An issue that has remained largely unexamined is the role of the typological distance between the languages spoken by bilinguals. In the present study we focus on children who grow up with Cypriot Greek and Standard Modern Greek, two closely related varieties that differ from each other on all levels of language analysis (vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar). We compare the EC performance of such bilectal children to that of English-Greek multilingual children in Cyprus and Standard Modern Greek-speaking monolingual children in Greece. A principal component analysis on six indicators of EC revealed two distinct factors, which we interpreted as representing working memory and inhibition. Multilingual and bilectal children exhibited an advantage over monolinguals that was evident across EC factors and emerged only after statistically controlling for their lower language proficiency. These results demonstrate that similar EC advantages as previously reported for 'true' bilingual speakers can be found in bilectal children, which suggests that minimal typological distance between the varieties spoken by a child suffices to give rise to advantages in EC. They further indicate that the effect of speaking more than one language or dialect on EC performance is located across the EC system without a particular component being selectively affected. This has implications for models of the locus of the bilingual advantage in EC performance. Finally, they show that the emergence of EC advantages in bilinguals is moderated by the level of their language proficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Living with Control, Working with Control: Reflections of Israeli Journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglė Bareikytė

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, liberal democracy is problematized by examining one paradox inherent to its conceptualization and practice: the possibility for those elected in to power to call out the state of exception, thereby implementing mechanisms of control through the system of law. At the same time, our assumption is that people are not only controlled by instruments of the state, but also by their self-imposed control and built-in processes of socialization and adaption. Thus we conceptualize a theoretical framework where the use of big words like “democracy” and “freedom” is changed into the analysis of external and internal control mechanisms in a democracy based on the idea of sovereignty. To combine this theoretical groundwork with empirical practice, we conducted qualitative interviews with Israeli journalists. In doing so, we wanted to analyze their reflections on what could be considered the potential control of a professional group of media practitioners whose role it is to expose the misuse of power, and act as a watchdog in a democratic society. Israel is used as an intensified example, because it is a liberal democracy where the state of emergency has endured for over fifty years. This has affected its media landscape through control mechanisms, such as media censorship or gag orders. The reflections of these Israeli journalists did pave the way for our explorative research to question the extent of “freedom” in any democracy that is based on the idea of sovereignty and focus on the mechanisms which limit and control their actions.

  6. The pervasive nature of unconscious social information processing in executive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjani ePrabhakaran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans not only have impressive executive abilities, but we are also fundamentally social creatures. In the cognitive neuroscience literature, it has long been assumed that executive control mechanisms, which play a critical role in guiding goal-directed behavior, operate on consciously processed information. Although more recent evidence suggests that unconsciously processed information can also influence executive control, most of this literature has focused on visual masked priming paradigms. However, the social psychological literature has demonstrated that unconscious influences are pervasive, and social information can unintentionally influence a wide variety of behaviors, including some that are likely to require executive abilities. For example, social information can unconsciously influence attention processes, such that simply instructing participants to describe a previous situation in which they had power over someone or someone else had power over them has been shown to unconsciously influence their attentional focus abilities, a key aspect of executive control. In the current review, we consider behavioral and neural findings from a variety of paradigms, including priming of goals and social hierarchical roles, as well as interpersonal interactions, in order to highlight the pervasive nature of social influences on executive control. These findings suggest that social information can play a critical role in executive control, and that this influence often occurs in an unconscious fashion. We conclude by suggesting further avenues of research for investigation of the interplay between social factors and executive control.

  7. Towards a better understanding of the relationship between executive control and theory of mind: an intra-cultural comparison of three diverse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaeian, Ameneh; Henry, Julie D; Razmjoee, Maryam; Teymoori, Ali; Wang, Cen

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has consistently indicated that theory of mind (ToM) is associated with executive control in the preschool years. However, interpretation of this literature is limited by the fact that most studies have focused exclusively on urbanized Western cultural samples. Consequently, it is not clear whether the association between ToM and executive control reflects the specific features of this particular cohort or instead reflects a universal pattern. The present study provides the first empirical assessment of these two constructs in three diverse groups of Iranian children. Participants were 142 preschoolers (4-5 years old) from high-socioeconomic status (SES) urban (n = 33), low-SES urban (n = 37) and rural villages (n = 77). The results show that there is a robust association between ToM and executive control in all three groups, and that executive control contributes significant unique variance to ToM understanding, even after controlling for a range of variables that have been proposed as potential confounders of this relationship. However, although the three groups were equated in ToM, significant differences in executive control were evident. Moreover, cluster analysis identified three distinct clusters that were relatively homogeneous with respect to executive control and SES. One of these clusters was characterized by both low SES and low executive functioning, and showed little evidence of ToM understanding. Taken together, these findings provide possibly the clearest evidence to date that the association between ToM and executive control is not dependent on children's previous experiences on the tasks, or their family and cultural background. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Seven domains for leadership mentoring and executive coaching A reflective paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O. Olson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how coaching and mentoring can be integrated and work together as systematic tools for leadership development. The author draws on psychotherapy as a parallel for practitioner research and posits five validation hypotheses for coaching and mentoring. Arguably coaching is not sufficient to develop leaders, but a useful toolbox within mentoring. Internal mentors in particular have cultural and industry knowledge of direct relevance to the adept. Seven domains are identified for an integrated framework: Insight from reflection and meta-learning; Working with the whole person; Competence modelling; Deep listening, beyond words; Emotional intelligence; Coaching for results; and Systemic thinking and team development.

  9. Inter-relationships between objective handwriting features and executive control among children with developmental dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective To describe handwriting and executive control features and their inter-relationships among children with developmental dysgraphia, in comparison to controls. Method Participants included 64 children, aged 10–12 years, 32 with dysgraphia based on the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ) and 32 matched controls. Children copied a paragraph onto paper affixed to a digitizer that supplied handwriting process objective measures (Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET). Their written product was evaluated by the Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation (HHE). Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire about their child's executive control abilities. Results Significant group differences were found for handwriting performance measures (HHE and ComPET) and executive control domains (BRIEF). Based on one discriminate function, including handwriting performance and executive control measures, 98.4% of the participants were correctly classified into groups. Significant correlations were found in each group between working memory and legibility as well as for other executive domains and handwriting measures. Furthermore, twenty percent of the variability of the mean pressure applied towards the writing surface among children with was explained by their 'emotional control' (BRIEF). Conclusion The results strongly suggest consideration of executive control domains to obtain better insight into handwriting impairment characteristics among children with dysgraphia to improve their identification, evaluation and the intervention process. PMID:29689111

  10. Inter-relationships between objective handwriting features and executive control among children with developmental dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara

    2018-01-01

    To describe handwriting and executive control features and their inter-relationships among children with developmental dysgraphia, in comparison to controls. Participants included 64 children, aged 10-12 years, 32 with dysgraphia based on the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ) and 32 matched controls. Children copied a paragraph onto paper affixed to a digitizer that supplied handwriting process objective measures (Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET). Their written product was evaluated by the Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation (HHE). Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire about their child's executive control abilities. Significant group differences were found for handwriting performance measures (HHE and ComPET) and executive control domains (BRIEF). Based on one discriminate function, including handwriting performance and executive control measures, 98.4% of the participants were correctly classified into groups. Significant correlations were found in each group between working memory and legibility as well as for other executive domains and handwriting measures. Furthermore, twenty percent of the variability of the mean pressure applied towards the writing surface among children with was explained by their 'emotional control' (BRIEF). The results strongly suggest consideration of executive control domains to obtain better insight into handwriting impairment characteristics among children with dysgraphia to improve their identification, evaluation and the intervention process.

  11. CURRÍCULOS DE SECRETARIADO EXECUTIVO: ALGUMAS REFLEXÕES CURRICULUM OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT: SOME REFLECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneridis Aparecida Monteiro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Ao longo dos últimos anos o curso de graduação em bacharelado em Secretariado Executivo é alvo de concepções errôneas, bem como de comparações equivocadas a outros cursos de áreas afins e/ou nomenclaturas semelhantes. Emerge nesse sentido a necessidade de estudos que tragam de forma esclarecedora, a discussão de como é elaborada a estrutura curricular desse curso de graduação. Dessa forma, este artigo tem como objetivo principal comparar a estrutura curricular de três instituições de ensino superior do Brasil, tendo como objeto de estudo duas universidades públicas e uma privada em três regimes distintos, federal, estadual e privado. Para tanto, parte-se de um levantamento bibliográfico com autores que têm discutido as concepções de currículo, de um modo geral, servindo como base no estudo, bem como à abordagem da Diretriz Curricular Nacional (DCN do curso no intuito de verificar os aspectos igualitários e diferenciais em relação a estas três instituições de ensino superior, onde serão valorizadas esferas de ordem social, institucional e regimentar. As conclusões apontam para a abrangência e relevância do curso de Secretariado Executivo, bem como que as IES analisadas estão adequadas às exigências do Ministério da Educação no tocante à formação acadêmica desses profissionais.

    Along the last years, it is noticed that the degree course in baccalaureate in Executive Secretariat is white of erroneous conceptions, as well as of mistaken comparisons the other courses of similar areas and/or similar nomenclatures. It emerges in that sense the need of studies that you/they swallow in an explanatory way, the discussion of as the curriculum structure of that degree course is elaborated. In that way, this article has as main objective to compare the curriculum structure of three institutions of higher education of Brazil, tends as object of study two public universities

  12. Balancing Automatic-Controlled Behaviors and Emotional-Salience States: A Dynamic Executive Functioning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Viola, Thiago W; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding how executive functions are conceptualized in psychopathology. Since several models have been proposed, the major issue lies within the definition of executive functioning itself. Theoretical discussions have emerged, narrowing the boundaries between "hot" and "cold" executive functions or between self-regulation and cognitive control. Nevertheless, the definition of executive functions is far from a consensual proposition and it has been suggested that these models might be outdated. Current efforts indicate that human behavior and cognition are by-products of many brain systems operating and interacting at different levels, and therefore, it is very simplistic to assume a dualistic perspective of information processing. Based upon an adaptive perspective, we discuss how executive functions could emerge from the ability to solve immediate problems and to generalize successful strategies, as well as from the ability to synthesize and to classify environmental information in order to predict context and future. We present an executive functioning perspective that emerges from the dynamic balance between automatic-controlled behaviors and an emotional-salience state. According to our perspective, the adaptive role of executive functioning is to automatize efficient solutions simultaneously with cognitive demand, enabling individuals to engage such processes with increasingly complex problems. Understanding executive functioning as a mediator of stress and cognitive engagement not only fosters discussions concerning individual differences, but also offers an important paradigm to understand executive functioning as a continuum process rather than a categorical and multicomponent structure.

  13. Training Theory of Mind and Executive Control: A Tool for Improving School Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2008-01-01

    In the preschool years, there are marked improvements in theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions. And, children's competence in these two core cognitive domains is associated with their academic achievement. Therefore, training ToM and executive control could be a valuable tool for improving children's success in school. This article reviews…

  14. Executive control and faithfulness: only long-term romantic relationships require prefrontal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Ryuhei; Yanagisawa, Kuniaki; Ashida, Hiroshi; Abe, Nobuhito

    2018-03-01

    Individuals in the early stages of a romantic relationship generally express intense passionate love toward their partners. This observation allows us to hypothesize that the regulation of interest in extra-pair relationships by executive control, which is supported by the function of the prefrontal cortex, is less required in individuals in the early stages of a relationship than it is in those who are in a long-term relationship. To test this hypothesis, we asked male participants in romantic relationships to perform a go/no-go task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is a well-validated task that can measure right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activity implicated in executive control. Subsequently, the participants engaged in a date-rating task in which they rated how much they wanted to date unfamiliar females. We found that individuals with higher right VLPFC activity better regulated their interest in dates with unfamiliar females. Importantly, this relationship was found only in individuals with long-term partners, but not in those with short-term partners, indicating that the active regulation of interest in extra-pair relationships is required only in individuals in a long-term relationship. Our findings extend previous findings on executive control in the maintenance of monogamous relationships by highlighting the role of the VLPFC, which varies according to the stage of the romantic relationship.

  15. Episodic memory and executive functioning in currently depressed patients compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2015-01-01

    At present, little is still known about the link between depression, memory and executive functioning. This study examined whether there are memory-related impairments in depressed patients and whether the size of such deficits depends on the age group and on specific types of cognitive measures. Memory performances of 215 clinically depressed patients were compared to the data of a matched control sample. Regression analyses were performed to determine the extent to which executive dysfunctions contributed to episodic memory impairments. When compared with healthy controls, significantly lower episodic memory and executive functioning performances were found for depressed patients of all age groups. Effect sizes appeared to vary across different memory and executive functioning measures. The extent to which executive dysfunctions could explain episodic memory impairments varied depending on the type of measure examined. These findings emphasise the need to consider memory-related functioning of depressed patients in the context of therapeutic treatments.

  16. Can executive control be influenced by performance feedback? Two experimental studies with younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eDrueke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive control describes a wide range of cognitive processes which are critical for the goal-directed regulation of stimulus processing and action regulation. Previous studies have shown that executive control performance declines with age but yet, it is still not clear whether different internal and external factors - as performance feedback and age - influence these cognitive processes and how they might interact with each other. Therefore, we investigated feedback effects in the flanker task in young as well as in older adults in two experiments. Performance feedback significantly improved executive performance in younger adults at the expense of errors. In older adults, feedback also led to higher error rates, but had no significant effect on executive performance which might be due to stronger interference. Results indicate that executive functions can be positively influenced by performance feedback in younger adults, but not necessarily in older adults.

  17. Seeing conflict and engaging control: Experience with contrastive language benefits executive function in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebel, Sabine; Zelazo, Philip David

    2016-12-01

    Engaging executive function often requires overriding a prepotent response in favor of a conflicting but adaptive one. Language may play a key role in this ability by supporting integrated representations of conflicting rules. We tested whether experience with contrastive language that could support such representations benefits executive function in 3-year-old children. Children who received brief experience with language highlighting contrast between objects, attributes, and actions showed greater executive function on two of three 'conflict' executive function tasks than children who received experience with contrasting stimuli only and children who read storybooks with the experimenter, controlling for baseline executive function. Experience with contrasting stimuli did not benefit executive function relative to reading books with the experimenter, indicating experience with contrastive language, rather than experience with contrast generally, was key. Experience with contrastive language also boosted spontaneous attention to contrast, consistent with improvements in representing contrast. These findings indicate a role for language in executive function that is consistent with the Cognitive Complexity and Control theory's key claim that coordinating conflicting rules is critical to overcoming perseveration, and suggest new ideas for testing theories of executive function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Flow control for oblique shock wave reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepman, R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are prevalent in many aerospace applications that involve transonic or supersonic flows. Such interactions may lead to boundary layer separation, flow unsteadiness and substantial losses in the total pressure. Flow control techniques can help to mitigate these

  19. Lexical quality and executive control predict children's first and second language reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudszus, H.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual

  20. Notification: Implementation of Executive Order 13771, “Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA&E-FY18-0177, April 10, 2018. The OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the Office of the Administrator's Office of Policy implementation of Executive Order 13771, Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs.

  1. Software design of a general purpose data acquisition and control executive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labiak, W.G.; Minor, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The software design of an executive which performs general purpose data acquisition, monitoring, and control is presented. The executive runs on a memory-based mini or micro-computer and communicates with a disk-based computer where data analysis and display are done. The executive design stresses reliability and versatility, and has yielded software which can provide control and monitoring for widely different hardware systems. Applications of this software on two major fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will be described

  2. Individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing: an eye movement study of sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Georgie; Sheikh, Naveed A; Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Häuser, Katja; Baum, Shari R; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension. We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1. When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors). Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal), and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF THE HOME-STREET AND MANAGING EXECUTIVE EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doshenko G.G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A home-street temperature control device and executive equipment management have been developed, which is characterized by high reliability and comparatively low cost. Due to the improvement of the analog circuit it is ensured to increase the speed of the developed device and its reliability. Practical recommendations for the manufacture of a home-street temperature control device and executive equipment management are presented

  4. Individual Differences in Executive Control Relate to Metaphor Processing: An Eye Movement Study of Sentence Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgie eColumbus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension.We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1.When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors. Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal, and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  5. Age-related changes in strategic variations during arithmetic problem solving: The role of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinault, T; Lemaire, P

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of how age-related changes in executive control influence aging effects in arithmetic processing. More specifically, we consider the role of executive control in strategic variations with age during arithmetic problem solving. Previous studies found that age-related differences in arithmetic performance are associated with strategic variations. That is, when they accomplish arithmetic problem-solving tasks, older adults use fewer strategies than young adults, use strategies in different proportions, and select and execute strategies less efficiently. Here, we review recent evidence, suggesting that age-related changes in inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory processes underlie age-related changes in strategic variations during arithmetic problem solving. We discuss both behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying age-related changes in these executive control processes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Method and System for Controlling a Dexterous Robot Execution Sequence Using State Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Quillin, Nathaniel (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Pfeiffer, Joseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a dexterous robot and a controller. The robot includes a plurality of robotic joints, actuators for moving the joints, and sensors for measuring a characteristic of the joints, and for transmitting the characteristics as sensor signals. The controller receives the sensor signals, and is configured for executing instructions from memory, classifying the sensor signals into distinct classes via the state classification module, monitoring a system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the system state. A method for controlling the robot in the above system includes receiving the signals via the controller, classifying the signals using the state classification module, monitoring the present system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the present system state.

  7. Executive control of stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanmei; Allen, Richard J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J

    2016-10-01

    We examined the role of executive control in stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention in visual working memory using probed recall of a series of objects, a task that allows study of the dynamics of storage through analysis of serial position data. Experiment 1 examined whether executive control underlies goal-directed prioritization of certain items within the sequence. Instructing participants to prioritize either the first or final item resulted in improved recall for these items, and an increase in concurrent task difficulty reduced or abolished these gains, consistent with their dependence on executive control. Experiment 2 examined whether executive control is also involved in the disruption caused by a post-series visual distractor (suffix). A demanding concurrent task disrupted memory for all items except the most recent, whereas a suffix disrupted only the most recent items. There was no interaction when concurrent load and suffix were combined, suggesting that deploying selective attention to ignore the distractor did not draw upon executive resources. A final experiment replicated the independent interfering effects of suffix and concurrent load while ruling out possible artifacts. We discuss the results in terms of a domain-general episodic buffer in which information is retained in a transient, limited capacity privileged state, influenced by both stimulus-driven and goal-directed processes. The privileged state contains the most recent environmental input together with goal-relevant representations being actively maintained using executive resources.

  8. Reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use: the moderating role of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Nienke C; Ostafin, Brian D; Glashouwer, Klaske A; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use are moderated by executive control. This is the first study that explores the potential moderating role of executive control in the relation between reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Participants were 76 university students, selected on earlier given information about their alcohol use. Half of the participants indicated to drink little alcohol and half indicated to drink substantial amounts of alcohol. As expected, correlational analyses showed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use and a negative relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Regression analysis confirmed that reward sensitivity was a significant independent predictor of alcohol use. Executive control moderated the relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use, but not the relation between reward sensitivity and alcohol use. Only in individuals with weak executive control punishment sensitivity and alcohol use were negatively related. The results suggest that for individuals with weak executive control, punishment sensitivity might be a protective factor working against substantial alcohol use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Controllable reflection of X-rays on crystals of saccharose

    CERN Document Server

    Navasardyan, M A; Hayrapetyan, K T; Gabrielyan, R T

    2003-01-01

    Multiple (ten times and more) increase in intensities of separate reflections and of lauegram reflections from organic single crystals of saccharose (C sub 1 2H sub 2 2O sub 1 1) was observed under influence of certain temperature gradient. On the base of the present experiment and the data of our previous woks we show that the controllable reflection process has a common nature and the intensity of the diffracted beam under external influences does not depend on the total number of electrons per unit volume of the unit cell of the single crystal.

  10. Beyond dichotomous explanations: explaining constitutional control of the executive with fuzzy-sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, P.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    What are the main variations in the constitutional control of the executive in 45 parliamentary democracies and how can these differences be accounted for? Four competing hypotheses, based on dichotomies, explain the degree of this control by means of contrasting institutional settings: consensus

  11. The Use of Executive Control Processes in Engineering Design by Engineering Students and Professional Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Raymond A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    A cognitive construct that is important when solving engineering design problems is executive control process, or metacognition. It is a central feature of human consciousness that enables one "to be aware of, monitor, and control mental processes." The framework for this study was conceptualized by integrating the model for creative design, which…

  12. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  13. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  14. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  15. Working memory and executive function: the influence of content and load on the control of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Garavan, Hugh

    2005-03-01

    In a series of three experiments, increasing working memory (WM) load was demonstrated to reduce the executive control of attention, measured via task-switching and inhibitory control paradigms. Uniquely, our paradigms allowed comparison of the ability to exert executive control when the stimulus was either part of the currently rehearsed memory set or an unrelated distractor item. The results demonstrated a content-specific effect-insofar as switching attention away from, or exerting inhibitory control over, items currently held in WM was especially difficult-compounded by increasing WM load. This finding supports the attentional control theory that active maintenance of competing task goals is critical to executive function and WM capacity; however, it also suggests that the increased salience provided to the contents of WM through active rehearsal exerts a content-specific influence on attentional control. These findings are discussed in relation to cue-induced ruminations, where active rehearsal of evocative information (e.g., negative thoughts in depression or drug-related thoughts in addiction) in WM typically results from environmental cuing. The present study has demonstrated that when information currently maintained in WM is reencountered, it is harder to exert executive control over it. The difficulty with suppressing the processing of these stimuli presumably reinforces the maintenance of these items in WM, due to the greater level of attention they are afforded, and may help to explain how the cue-induced craving/rumination cycle is perpetuated.

  16. Cooperative feeding and breeding, and the evolution of executive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaesen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Dubreuil (Biol Phil 25:53–73, 2010b, this journal) argues that modern-like cognitive abilities for inhibitory control and goal maintenance most likely evolved in Homo heidelbergensis, much before the evolution of oft-cited modern traits, such as symbolism and art. Dubreuil’s argument proceeds in two

  17. Individual Differences In The Executive Control Of Attention, Memory, And Thought, And Their Associations With Schizotypy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael J.; Meier, Matt E.; Smeekens, Bridget A.; Gross, Georgina M.; Chun, Charlotte A.; Silvia, Paul J.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    A large correlational study took a latent-variable approach to the generality of executive control by testing the individual-differences structure of executive-attention capabilities and assessing their prediction of schizotypy, a multidimensional construct (with negative, positive, disorganized, and paranoid factors) conveying risk for schizophrenia. Although schizophrenia is convincingly linked to executive deficits, the schizotypy literature is equivocal. Subjects completed tasks of working memory capacity (WMC), attention restraint (inhibiting prepotent responses), and attention constraint (focusing visual attention amid distractors), the latter two in an effort to fractionate the “inhibition” construct. We also assessed mind-wandering propensity (via in-task thought probes) and coefficient of variation in response times (RT CoV) from several tasks as more novel indices of executive attention. WMC, attention restraint, attention constraint, mind wandering, and RT CoV were correlated but separable constructs, indicating some distinctions among “attention control” abilities; WMC correlated more strongly with attentional restraint than constraint, and mind wandering correlated more strongly with attentional restraint, attentional constraint, and RT CoV than with WMC. Across structural models, no executive construct predicted negative schizotypy and only mind wandering and RT CoV consistently (but modestly) predicted positive, disorganized, and paranoid schizotypy; stalwart executive constructs in the schizophrenia literature — WMC and attention restraint — showed little to no predictive power, beyond restraint’s prediction of paranoia. Either executive deficits are consequences rather than risk factors for schizophrenia, or executive failures barely precede or precipitate diagnosable schizophrenia symptoms. PMID:27454042

  18. Arousal, Executive Control and Decision Making in Compulsive Buying Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Zöega; Zuraigat, Farah Qureshi; Jacobsen, Catrine

    2013-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actua......, products of interest (e.g. fashion items) produce bottom-up emotional responses that skews the decision-making process, leading CBD sufferers to make bad purchase decisions.......Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actual...

  19. The role of executive functioning in children's attentional pain control: an experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Katrien; Dick, Bruce; Eccleston, Christopher; Goubert, Liesbet; Crombez, Geert

    2014-02-01

    Directing attention away from pain is often used in children's pain treatment programs to control pain. However, empirical evidence concerning its effectiveness is inconclusive. We therefore sought to understand other influencing factors, including executive function and its role in the pain experience. This study investigates the role of executive functioning in the effectiveness of distraction. School children (n=164) completed executive functioning tasks (inhibition, switching, and working memory) and performed a cold-pressor task. One half of the children simultaneously performed a distracting tone-detection task; the other half did not. Results showed that participants in the distraction group were engaged in the distraction task and were reported to pay significantly less attention to pain than controls. Executive functioning influenced distraction task engagement. More specifically, participants with good inhibition and working memory abilities performed the distraction task better; participants with good switching abilities reported having paid more attention to the distraction task. Furthermore, distraction was found to be ineffective in reducing pain intensity and affect. Executive functioning did not influence the effectiveness of distraction. However, a relationship was found between executive functioning and pain affect, indicating that participants with good inhibition and working memory abilities experienced the cold-pressor task as less stressful and unpleasant. Our findings suggest that distraction as a process for managing pain is complex. While it appears that executive function may play a role in adult distraction, in this study it did not direct attention away from pain. It may instead be involved in the overall pain experience. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Working memory and executive control: inhibitory processes in updating and random generation tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Soriano, Maria Felipa

    2006-02-01

    Working Memory (WM) span predicts subjects' performance in control executive tasks and, in addition, it has been related to the capacity to inhibit irrelevant information. In this paper we investigate the role of WM span in two executive tasks focusing our attention on inhibitory components of both tasks. High and low span participants recalled targets words rejecting irrelevant items at the same time (Experiment 1) and they generated random numbers (Experiment 2). Results showed a clear relation between WM span and performance in both tasks. In addition, analyses of intrusion errors (Experiment 1) and stereotyped responses (Experiment 2) indicated that high span individuals were able to efficiently use the inhibitory component implied in both tasks. The pattern of data provides support to the relation between WM span and control executive tasks through an inhibitory mechanism.

  1. Advertising execution styles as a reflection of culture : Cross-cultural analysis of messaging app advertising preferences in South Korea and China

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Increased globalization and the thought of converging values has lead marketing practitioners and academics to consider more standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies. Even though cultures seem to evolve closer to each other, cultural diversity still exists. Advertising reflects and influences our cultural values and therefore it cannot be ignored when building effective advertising. Results show that culture impacts execution more than creative strategy (Wei & Jiang...

  2. Lexical Quality and Executive Control Predict Children's First and Second Language Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudszus, Henriette; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual and 102 bilingual children (mean age 10 years,…

  3. Lying and executive control: an experimental investigation using ego depletion and goal neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debey, E.; Verschuere, B.; Crombez, G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether lying requires executive control using a reaction-time based lie test. We hypothesized that (1) goal neglect induced by a long response-stimulus interval (RSI; 5-8 s) would make lying harder relative to a short RSI (.2 s) that promoted attentional focus, and (2)

  4. Color-Object Interference: Further Tests of an Executive Control Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Heij, Wido; Boelens, Harrie

    2011-01-01

    Young children are slower in naming the color of a meaningful picture than in naming the color of an abstract form (Stroop-like color-object interference). The current experiments tested an executive control account of this phenomenon. First, color-object interference was observed in 6- and 8-year-olds but not in 12- and 16-year-olds (Experiment…

  5. Degree of Bilingualism Modifies Executive Control in Hispanic Children in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Sunesson, Danielle; Hakuta, Kenji; Bialystok, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Past studies examining the cognitive function of bilingual school-aged children have pointed to enhancements in areas of executive control relative to age-matched monolingual children. The majority of these studies has tested children from a middle-class background and compared performance of bilinguals as a discrete group against monolinguals.…

  6. Mood effects on memory and executive control in a real-life situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagner, Prune; Kliegel, Matthias; Phillips, Louise H; Ihle, Andreas; Hering, Alexandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M

    2015-01-01

    In the laboratory, studies have shown an inconsistent pattern of whether, and how, mood may affect cognitive functions indicating both mood-related enhancement as well as decline. Surprisingly, little is known about whether there are similar effects in everyday life. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate possible mood effects on memory and executive control in a real-life situation. Mood effects were examined in the context of winning in a sports competition. Sixty-one male handball players were tested with an extensive cognitive test battery (comprising memory and executive control) both after winning a match and after training as neutral baseline. Mood differed significantly between the two testing situations, while physiological arousal and motivation were comparable. Results showed lowered performance after the win compared with training in selected cognitive measures. Specifically, short-term and episodic memory performance was poorer following a win, whereas executive control performance was unaffected by condition. Differences in memory disappeared when emotional states after the match were entered as covariates into the initial analyses. Thus, findings suggest mood-related impairments in memory, but not in executive control processes after a positive real-life event.

  7. Acute Caffeine Consumption Enhances the Executive Control of Visual Attention in Habitual Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Giles, Grace E.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work suggests that a dose of 200-400mg caffeine can enhance both vigilance and the executive control of visual attention in individuals with low caffeine consumption profiles. The present study seeks to determine whether individuals with relatively high caffeine consumption profiles would show similar advantages. To this end, we examined…

  8. Components of Executive Control with Advantages for Bilingual Children in Two Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Viswanathan, Mythili

    2009-01-01

    The present study used a behavioral version of an anti-saccade task, called the "faces task", developed by [Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., & Ryan, J. (2006). Executive control in a modified anti-saccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32,…

  9. Teachers as Air Traffic Controllers: Helping Adolescents Navigate the Unfriendly Skies of Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Todd; Parks, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to familiarize teachers with the concept of executive functioning and to provide them with a collection of strategies that they can use to help support middle and high school students with planning, organization, task-initiation, and impulse control.

  10. Failing to Forget: Prospective Memory Commission Errors Can Result from Spontaneous Retrieval and Impaired Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Michael K.; Bugg, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) research typically examines the ability to remember to execute delayed intentions but often ignores the ability to forget finished intentions. We had participants perform (or not perform; control group) a PM task and then instructed them that the PM task was finished. We later (re)presented the PM cue. Approximately 25% of…

  11. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  12. Why are they late? Timing abilities and executive control among students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinblat, Nufar; Rosenblum, Sara

    2016-12-01

    While a deficient ability to perform daily tasks on time has been reported among students with learning disabilities (LD), the underlying mechanism behind their 'being late' is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the organization in time, time estimation abilities, actual performance time pertaining to specific daily activities, as well as the executive functions of students with LD in comparison to those of controls, and to assess the relationships between these domains among each group. The participants were 27 students with LD, aged 20-30, and 32 gender and age-matched controls who completed the Time Organization and Participation Scale (TOPS) and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). In addition, their ability to estimate the time needed to complete the task of preparing a cup of coffee as well as their actual performance time were evaluated. The results indicated that in comparison to controls, students with LD showed significantly inferior organization in time (TOPS) and executive function abilities (BRIEF-A). Furthermore, their time estimation abilities were significantly inferior and they required significantly more time to prepare a cup of coffee. Regression analysis identified the variables that predicted organization in time and task performance time among each group. The significance of the results for both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. What this paper adds? This study examines the underlying mechanism of the phenomena of being late among students with LD. Following a recent call for using ecologically valid assessments, the functional daily ability of students with LD to prepare a cup of coffee and to organize time were investigated. Furthermore, their time estimation and executive control abilities were examined as a possible underlying mechanism for their lateness. Although previous studies have indicated executive control deficits among students with LD, to our knowledge, this

  13. Plasmonic metasurfaces for efficient phase control in reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anders Lambertus; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2013-01-01

    nanobrick and nanocross elements allows one to fully control the phase of reflected light for two orthogonal polarizations simultaneously. The approach is exemplified by the design of a gradient birefringent metasurface that reflects two orthogonal polarization states into +2 and −3 diffraction order......We numerically study the optical properties of metal-insulator-metal resonators and metasurfaces, emphasizing the presence of gap-surface plasmon (GSP) resonances and their connection to the optical response. In relation to birefringent metal-backed metasurfaces, we show how a combination of metal......, respectively, with a reflectivity up to ∼ 80% and in a broad wavelength range around the design wavelength of 800 nm. Finally, we introduce the concept of metascatterers, which are wavelength-sized polarization-sensitive scatterers....

  14. The effects of video game playing on attention, memory, and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2008-11-01

    Expert video game players often outperform non-players on measures of basic attention and performance. Such differences might result from exposure to video games or they might reflect other group differences between those people who do or do not play video games. Recent research has suggested a causal relationship between playing action video games and improvements in a variety of visual and attentional skills (e.g., [Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2003). Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature, 423, 534-537]). The current research sought to replicate and extend these results by examining both expert/non-gamer differences and the effects of video game playing on tasks tapping a wider range of cognitive abilities, including attention, memory, and executive control. Non-gamers played 20+ h of an action video game, a puzzle game, or a real-time strategy game. Expert gamers and non-gamers differed on a number of basic cognitive skills: experts could track objects moving at greater speeds, better detected changes to objects stored in visual short-term memory, switched more quickly from one task to another, and mentally rotated objects more efficiently. Strikingly, extensive video game practice did not substantially enhance performance for non-gamers on most cognitive tasks, although they did improve somewhat in mental rotation performance. Our results suggest that at least some differences between video game experts and non-gamers in basic cognitive performance result either from far more extensive video game experience or from pre-existing group differences in abilities that result in a self-selection effect.

  15. Jet Grouting. Control of execution and result parameters. Test fields - Experience in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayarza, P. M.; Vukotic, G.

    2014-01-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of Test Fields in project that includes the Jet Grouting technique. In particular, the Chilean experience is analyzed, where the Jet Grouting was first introduced by Pilots Terratest S. A. in the year 2010, only, only in 2011 the first project using jet columns was constructed. The versatilely of this technique allows its use in a wide variety of projects, for example, soil capacity improvement, settlement control, reduction of soil permeability and other environmental applications. Currently, the most common applications are underpinning existing foundations, ground improvement, lateral support of excavations, hydraulic barriers, slope stabilization, liquefaction control, among others. The Jet Grouting is one of the most demanding soil improvement technique and requires excellence in designing and execution engineers and other involved specialist. It is therefore essential to ensure exhaustive control to the execution and final parameters, in order to check that the product- Jet Grouting element-have the design properties, and implement modifications if necessary. Many authors strongly advises that if there is no comparable experience and even if there is, a Test Field of Jet Grouting elements has to be executed in site. This field consists in a nearby area with similar geotechnical conditions of the project, where Jet Grouting test columns will be constructed. This Test Field will allow selecting the most effective execution parameters and verifying that the final product has he correct design properties. (Author)

  16. Qualitative differences between bilingual language control and executive control: evidence from task switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eCalabria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that highly-proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2, the so called ‘symmetrical switch cost’ effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly-proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC. We tested highly-proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1 or L3 (Experiment 2 depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag. In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (colour and shape. Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system.

  17. The Role of Control Functions in Mentalizing: Dual-Task Studies of Theory of Mind and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rebecca; Phillips, Louise H.; Conway, Claire A.

    2008-01-01

    Conflicting evidence has arisen from correlational studies regarding the role of executive control functions in Theory of Mind. The current study used dual-task manipulations of executive functions (inhibition, updating and switching) to investigate the role of these control functions in mental state and non-mental state tasks. The "Eyes"…

  18. Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential…

  19. Benefits of Exercise on the Executive Functions in People with Parkinson Disease: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Renata Terra; Felippe, Lilian Assunção; Bucken Gobbi, Lilian Teresa; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Christofoletti, Gustavo

    2017-05-01

    We have made a 3-arm trial (group vs. individual exercise vs. no treatment) to test the effects of a 6-month exercise program upon the executive functions in participants with Parkinson disease. Twenty-four subjects were randomly allocated in 3 groups and undertook individualized exercises (G1, n = 8), group exercises (G2, n = 8), or monitoring (G3, n = 8). Executive functions were evaluated by means of the Wisconsin card sorting test and the Raven colored matrices, both assessed at the beginning of the program and after 6 months. The statistical analyses consisted of the application of repeated measurement tests, with a significant level of 5%. The findings showed similar behavior of groups in terms of the Wisconsin card sorting test (P = 0.792), reporting no benefit of the program on such instrument. Differently, Raven colored matrices evidenced a significant benefit provided by the intervention (P = 0.032). Compared with the control group, individuals from G1 had a substantial improvement on executive functions (P = 0.031) and from G2 had a trend of significance (P = 0.072). Findings of this study show that 6 months of exercise improved some aspects of executive functions when compared with control peers. Individual therapy seems to have a more prominent improvement than group therapy.

  20. Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: evidence from ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6 months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n = 25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n = 30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Patterns of Control in the Romanian Executive Agencies: An Exploratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin HINŢEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the patterns of Romanian ministerial control over executive agencies, based on the data collected in 2010 using the COBRA survey. Seven research questions were constructed starting from the major theories existing in the field aimed at describing and understanding the control patterns. The paper’s main conclusion is that ministries still prefer ex ante types of control in exchange to those after-the-fact, although some rather incremental shifts toward ex post control can be noticed.  

  2. Force Reflection Control for Master/Slave Tele-manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Min Sig; Kim, Doo Ho; Choi, Sun Il; Kim, Nam Hyung; Lee, Jong Bee

    2009-04-01

    This report concerns on a master/slave tele-manipulator which is used in highly hazardous hot cell. To design a force reflection and fine tracking control for the master-slave telemanipulator, the following has been carried out. (1) Variation of the moment of inertia of each link in the operating angle range, (2) Variation of the gratitational torque of each link in the operating angle range, (3) Dynamic characteristic analysis of the master-slave manipulator controlled by an output PD-control through a modal analysis, (4) Optimal static output feedback PD-control design by using modal analysis, (5) Controller design for each joint, (6) Adams-MatLab Simulink simulation model development. The results this project are as follows: (1) Program for analysis of the moment of inertia of each link in the operating angle range and simulation results, (2) Program for analysis of the gratitational torque of each link in the operating angle range and simulation results, (3) Dynamic characteristic of the master-slave manipulator controlled by an output PD-control through a modal analysis, (4) Program for designing optimal output PD-control by using modal analysis, (5) Controller designed for each joint, (6) Adams-MatLab Simulink simulation model, (7) Simulation results form output PD-control, etc

  3. Cognitive symptoms facilitatory for diagnoses in neuropsychiatric disorders: executive functions and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Beninger, Richard J; Palomo, Tomas

    2008-10-01

    Cognitive symptoms, considered in conjunction both with their regional brain and biomarkers as well as affective, attributional and neurodevelopmental components, demonstrate ever-increasing complexity to facilitate conceptualization yet, unavoidably, bedevil diagnosis in neuropsychiatry even before considerations of the enigmatic processes in memory, such as executive function and working memory, are drawn into the myriads of equations that await remedial interpretations. Prefrontal and limbic regions of the brain are involved in a diversity of expressions of cognition, normal or dysfunctional, at synaptic, intracellular and molecular levels that mobilize a concatenation of signaling entities. Serotoninergic neurotransission at prefrontal regions directs cognitive-affective entities that mediate decision-making and goal-directed behaviour. Clinical, non-clinical and basic studies challenge attempts to consolidate the multitude of evidence in order to obtain therapeutic notions to alleviate the disordered status of the diagnosed and yet-to-be diagnosed individuals. Locus of control, a concept of some utility in health-seeking procedures, is examined in three self-report studies from the perspective of a cognitive-emotional situation through observations of ordinary, 'healthy' young and middle-aged individuals, to assess the predictors of internal and external locus of control. A notion based on high level executive functioning in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals characterised by internal locus of control is contrasted with a hypofunctional executive DLPFC, characterising individuals that express an external locus of control, is discussed.

  4. The Relations Between Temperament, Character, and Executive Functions in Children With ADHD and Clinical Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drechsler, Renate; Zulauf Logoz, Marina; Walitza, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the overlap between executive functions and temperament as measured by two questionnaires and to examine characteristic profiles in children with ADHD and clinical controls. METHOD: Parents of 111 clinically referred children, half of whom...... were diagnosed with ADHD and half with other or no diagnoses, completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Cloninger Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). RESULTS: Factor analysis of both instruments resulted in three common factors representing aspects...... disorder (CD/ODD) but not ADHD accounted for problems in BRIEF Emotional Control and Self-Monitor and JTCI low Cooperativeness. CONCLUSION: The two instruments only partially overlap and may complement each other....

  5. Rule-guided executive control of response inhibition: functional topography of the inferior frontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Cai

    Full Text Available The human inferior frontal cortex (IFC is a large heterogeneous structure with distinct cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and fiber connections. It has been found involved in a wide range of executive control processes from target detection, rule retrieval to response control. Since these processes are often being studied separately, the functional organization of executive control processes within the IFC remains unclear.We conducted an fMRI study to examine the activities of the subdivisions of IFC during the presentation of a task cue (rule retrieval and during the performance of a stop-signal task (requiring response generation and inhibition in comparison to a not-stop task (requiring response generation but not inhibition. We utilized a mixed event-related and block design to separate brain activity in correspondence to transient control processes from rule-related and sustained control processes. We found differentiation in control processes within the IFC. Our findings reveal that the bilateral ventral-posterior IFC/anterior insula are more active on both successful and unsuccessful stop trials relative to not-stop trials, suggesting their potential role in the early stage of stopping such as triggering the stop process. Direct countermanding seems to be outside of the IFC. In contrast, the dorsal-posterior IFC/inferior frontal junction (IFJ showed transient activity in correspondence to the infrequent presentation of the stop signal in both tasks and the left anterior IFC showed differential activity in response to the task cues. The IFC subdivisions also exhibited similar but distinct patterns of functional connectivity during response control.Our findings suggest that executive control processes are distributed across the IFC and that the different subdivisions of IFC may support different control operations through parallel cortico-cortical and cortico-striatal circuits.

  6. Control system of executive mechanisms of a spectrometer on the IBR-2 reactor as a modern local network of controllers CAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, V.V.; Kirillov, A.S.; Petukhova, T.B.; Sirotin, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Controllers SMC-32 and SMC-32-CAN as elements of control systems of executive mechanisms of the IBR-2 spectrometers are submitted. The controllers provide management of executive mechanisms of spectrometers on the consecutive communication line RS232, RS422 (SMC-32, SMC-32-CAN), and on the local network CAN (SMC-32-CAN). The control systems of the executive mechanisms are easily modernized due to connection of additional elements of the local network CAN. Dynamic characteristics of the spectrometers' executive mechanisms are essentially improved. For example, it has been possible to increase the rotation frequency of the step motor DSHI-200 up to 10000 pps. (author)

  7. Effects of Short Term Music and Second Language Training on Executive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009) and those with music training (Moreno et al., 2011), but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the present study pseudo-randomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (ma...

  8. Visual working memory capacity increases between ages 3 and 8 years, controlling for gains in attention, perception, and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailian, Hrag; Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2016-08-01

    Research in adults has aimed to characterize constraints on the capacity of Visual Working Memory (VWM), in part because of the system's broader impacts throughout cognition. However, less is known about how VWM develops in childhood. Existing work has reached conflicting conclusions as to whether VWM storage capacity increases after infancy, and if so, when and by how much. One challenge is that previous studies did not control for developmental changes in attention and executive processing, which also may undergo improvement. We investigated the development of VWM storage capacity in children from 3 to 8 years of age, and in adults, while controlling for developmental change in exogenous and endogenous attention and executive control. Our results reveal that, when controlling for improvements in these abilities, VWM storage capacity increases across development and approaches adult-like levels between ages 6 and 8 years. More generally, this work highlights the value of estimating working memory, attention, perception, and decision-making components together.

  9. Lexical quality and executive control predict children's first and second language reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudszus, Henriette; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual and 102 bilingual children (mean age 10 years, SD  = 5 months) learning to read Dutch in the Netherlands. Bilingual children showed lower Dutch vocabulary, syntactic integration and reading comprehension skills, but better decoding skills than their monolingual peers. There were no differences in working memory or inhibition. Multigroup path analysis showed relatively invariant connections between predictors and reading comprehension for monolingual and bilingual readers. For both groups, there was a direct effect of lexical quality on reading comprehension. In addition, lexical quality and executive control indirectly influenced reading comprehension via syntactic integration. The groups differed in that inhibition more strongly predicted syntactic integration for bilingual than for monolingual children. For a subgroup of bilingual children, for whom home language vocabulary data were available ( n  = 56), there was an additional positive effect of home language vocabulary on second language reading comprehension. Together, the results suggest that similar processes underlie reading comprehension in first and second language readers, but that syntactic integration requires more executive control in second language reading. Moreover, bilingual readers additionally benefit from first language vocabulary to arrive at second language reading comprehension.

  10. Video game practice optimizes executive control skills in dual-task and task switching situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Frensch, Peter A; Schubert, Torsten

    2012-05-01

    We examined the relation of action video game practice and the optimization of executive control skills that are needed to coordinate two different tasks. As action video games are similar to real life situations and complex in nature, and include numerous concurrent actions, they may generate an ideal environment for practicing these skills (Green & Bavelier, 2008). For two types of experimental paradigms, dual-task and task switching respectively; we obtained performance advantages for experienced video gamers compared to non-gamers in situations in which two different tasks were processed simultaneously or sequentially. This advantage was absent in single-task situations. These findings indicate optimized executive control skills in video gamers. Similar findings in non-gamers after 15 h of action video game practice when compared to non-gamers with practice on a puzzle game clarified the causal relation between video game practice and the optimization of executive control skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluid Intelligence as a Mediator of the Relationship between Executive Control and Balanced Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajenkowski, Marcin; Stolarski, Maciej; Witowska, Joanna; Maciantowicz, Oliwia; Łowicki, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive foundations of the balanced time perspective (BTP) proposed by Zimbardo and Boyd (1999). Although BTP is defined as the mental ability to switch effectively between different temporal perspectives, its connection with cognitive functioning has not yet been established. We addressed this by exploring the relationships between time perspectives and both fluid intelligence (measured with Raven's and Cattell's tests) and executive control (Go/No-go and anti-saccade tasks). An investigation conducted among Polish adults ( N = 233) revealed that more balanced TP profile was associated with higher fluid intelligence, and higher executive control. Moreover, we found that the relationship between executive control and BTP was completely mediated by fluid intelligence with the effect size (the ratio of the indirect effect to the total effect) of 0.75, which suggests that cognitive abilities play an important role in adoption of temporal balance. The findings have relevance to time perspective theory as they provide valuable insight into the mechanisms involved in assigning human experience to certain time frames.

  12. Executive functioning and general cognitive ability in pregnant women and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyper, Serge V; Searleman, Alan; Thacher, Pamela V; Maine, Emily E; Johnson, Alicia G

    2010-11-01

    The current study compared the performances of pregnant women with education- and age-matched controls on a variety of measures that assessed perceptual speed, short-term and working memory capacity, subjective memory complaints, sleep quality, level of fatigue, executive functioning, episodic and prospective memory, and crystallized and fluid intelligence. A primary purpose was to test the hypothesis of Henry and Rendell (2007) that pregnancy-related declines in cognitive functioning would be especially evident in tasks that place a high demand on executive processes. We also investigated a parallel hypothesis: that the pregnant women would experience a broad-based reduction in cognitive capability. Very limited support was found for the executive functioning hypothesis. Pregnant women scored lower only on the measure of verbal fluency (Controlled Oral Word Association Test, COWAT) but not on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task or on any working memory measures. Furthermore, group differences in COWAT performance disappeared after controlling for verbal IQ (Shipley vocabulary). In addition, there was no support for the general decline hypothesis. We conclude that pregnancy-associated differences in performance observed in the current study were relatively mild and rarely reached either clinical or practical significance.

  13. Control channels in the brain and their influence on brain executive functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinglei; Choa, Fow-Sen; Hong, Elliot; Wang, Zhiguang; Islam, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    In a computer network there are distinct data channels and control channels where massive amount of visual information are transported through data channels but the information streams are routed and controlled by intelligent algorithm through "control channels". Recent studies on cognition and consciousness have shown that the brain control channels are closely related to the brainwave beta (14-40 Hz) and alpha (7-13 Hz) oscillations. The high-beta wave is used by brain to synchronize local neural activities and the alpha oscillation is for desynchronization. When two sensory inputs are simultaneously presented to a person, the high-beta is used to select one of the inputs and the alpha is used to deselect the other so that only one input will get the attention. In this work we demonstrated that we can scan a person's brain using binaural beats technique and identify the individual's preferred control channels. The identified control channels can then be used to influence the subject's brain executive functions. In the experiment, an EEG measurement system was used to record and identify a subject's control channels. After these channels were identified, the subject was asked to do Stroop tests. Binaural beats was again used to produce these control-channel frequencies on the subject's brain when we recorded the completion time of each test. We found that the high-beta signal indeed speeded up the subject's executive function performance and reduced the time to complete incongruent tests, while the alpha signal didn't seem to be able to slow down the executive function performance.

  14. Executive functioning and risk-taking behavior in Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Fanny; Roze, Emmanuel; Lacomblez, Lucette; Bonnet, Anne-Marie; Vidailhet, Marie; Czernecki, Virginie; Corvol, Jean-Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are associated with dopaminergic medication. The purpose of this study was to investigate executive function and risk-taking behavior in PD patients with ICD. 17 PD patients with ICD (ICD-PD) were compared to 20 PD patients without ICD (CTRL-PD) using neuropsychological and experimental tasks. Executive functions were assessed using standard executive testing (Conner's Performance Test, Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test and phonological verbal fluency). Subjects were also submitted to an experimental gambling task consisted of three decks of money cards: neutral deck (equal opportunity for gains as losses), winning deck (small amount of money with a positive balance) and loser deck (high amount of money with a negative balance), evaluating risk-taking behavior (number of cards picked in each deck) and valuation of the reward (subjective appreciation of the value of each deck). There was no significant difference in executive functioning between groups. Both groups selected more cards in the losing deck (high amount of money) as compared to the neutral deck (Mann-Whitney test, ICD-PD, p = 0.02; CTRL-PD, p = 0.003) and to the winning deck (Mann-Whitney test, ICD-PD p = 0.0001; CTRL-PD p = 0.003), suggesting an increased risk-taking behavior. Interestingly, we found that ICD-PD patients estimated the value of decks differently from CTRL-PD patients, taking into account mainly the positive reinforced value of the decks (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.04). This study showed that executive pattern and risk-taking behavior are similar between ICD-PD and CTRL-PD patients. However, ICD-PD patients showed a specific deficit of the subjective estimation of the reward. Links between this deficit and metacognitive skills are discussed.

  15. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  16. Deficits in executive and memory processes in delusional disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez-Casas, Inmaculada; De Portugal, Enrique; Gonzalez, Nieves; McKenney, Kathryn A; Haro, Josep M; Usall, Judith; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Delusional disorder has been traditionally considered a psychotic syndrome that does not evolve to cognitive deterioration. However, to date, very little empirical research has been done to explore cognitive executive components and memory processes in Delusional Disorder patients. This study will investigate whether patients with delusional disorder are intact in both executive function components (such as flexibility, impulsivity and updating components) and memory processes (such as immediate, short term and long term recall, learning and recognition). A large sample of patients with delusional disorder (n = 86) and a group of healthy controls (n = 343) were compared with regard to their performance in a broad battery of neuropsychological tests including Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Colour-Word Stroop Test, and Complutense Verbal Learning Test (TAVEC). When compared to controls, cases of delusional disorder showed a significantly poorer performance in most cognitive tests. Thus, we demonstrate deficits in flexibility, impulsivity and updating components of executive functions as well as in memory processes. These findings held significant after taking into account sex, age, educational level and premorbid IQ. Our results do not support the traditional notion of patients with delusional disorder being cognitively intact.

  17. Deficits in executive and memory processes in delusional disorder: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ibanez-Casas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Delusional disorder has been traditionally considered a psychotic syndrome that does not evolve to cognitive deterioration. However, to date, very little empirical research has been done to explore cognitive executive components and memory processes in Delusional Disorder patients. This study will investigate whether patients with delusional disorder are intact in both executive function components (such as flexibility, impulsivity and updating components and memory processes (such as immediate, short term and long term recall, learning and recognition. METHODS: A large sample of patients with delusional disorder (n = 86 and a group of healthy controls (n = 343 were compared with regard to their performance in a broad battery of neuropsychological tests including Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Colour-Word Stroop Test, and Complutense Verbal Learning Test (TAVEC. RESULTS: When compared to controls, cases of delusional disorder showed a significantly poorer performance in most cognitive tests. Thus, we demonstrate deficits in flexibility, impulsivity and updating components of executive functions as well as in memory processes. These findings held significant after taking into account sex, age, educational level and premorbid IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support the traditional notion of patients with delusional disorder being cognitively intact.

  18. Development of a high-performance control system by decentralization with reflective memory on QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Mitarai, Osamu; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The plasma control system of QUEST is decentralized by a reflective memory. • The latency due to RFM transaction is 250 μs with the data sharing of 1 kB. • The time synchronization of systems is done by referring to its time difference. • Core occupancy due to RFM is usually 60%, and 90% intermittently. - Abstract: The plasma control system (PCS) of QUEST was a centralized system, which lost its scalability because of the overload imposed on its central processing unit (CPU) of the PCS, making it impossible to add new functions. Thus, the PCS is distributed into a main workstation (WS) and subsystem (SS) with a reflective memory (RFM) in order to share data between these systems so as to mitigate the load on each system. As a result, 128 double-precision floating-point numbers (DBLs) can be transferred from the SS to the WS with a maximum latency of 250 μs. The WS and the SS each have quad-core CPUs, and tasks are executed in parallel. Although one of the four cores is intermittently occupied by up to 90% by this transaction, the occupation is normally 60%. A time correction procedure is used to map the recorded data sets on the WS and the SS to a common time base by referring to the time difference between two systems.

  19. Development of a high-performance control system by decentralization with reflective memory on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Makoto, E-mail: hasegawa@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuo; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Mitarai, Osamu [Tokai University, Toroku, Kumamoto (Japan); Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The plasma control system of QUEST is decentralized by a reflective memory. • The latency due to RFM transaction is 250 μs with the data sharing of 1 kB. • The time synchronization of systems is done by referring to its time difference. • Core occupancy due to RFM is usually 60%, and 90% intermittently. - Abstract: The plasma control system (PCS) of QUEST was a centralized system, which lost its scalability because of the overload imposed on its central processing unit (CPU) of the PCS, making it impossible to add new functions. Thus, the PCS is distributed into a main workstation (WS) and subsystem (SS) with a reflective memory (RFM) in order to share data between these systems so as to mitigate the load on each system. As a result, 128 double-precision floating-point numbers (DBLs) can be transferred from the SS to the WS with a maximum latency of 250 μs. The WS and the SS each have quad-core CPUs, and tasks are executed in parallel. Although one of the four cores is intermittently occupied by up to 90% by this transaction, the occupation is normally 60%. A time correction procedure is used to map the recorded data sets on the WS and the SS to a common time base by referring to the time difference between two systems.

  20. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    making computer programs 'human like' by building in learning and ... discussed the problems of control and communication in the living organism and the machine. ... To be effective in warding off disastrous consequences, our understanding.

  1. Executive functions and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: Comparisons between probands, parents and controls in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairment is said to be a core feature of schizophrenia. Executive function is an important cognitive domain. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess cognitive impairment among Indian patients with schizophrenia (Sz or schizoaffective disorder (SzA, compared with their parents and unaffected individuals (controls. Settings and Design: Executive functions as measured by Trail-making Test (TMT, of patients and their parents were compared with controls. The patients were recruited from the Outpatients′ Department (OPD of a government hospital. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed as Sz or SzA (n=172 and their parents (n=196: families n=132, 119 fathers and 77 mothers participated. We also included 120 persons with no history of psychiatric illness. Cognitive function was assessed with the TMT. The Information Score of the Post Graduate Institute Battery of Brain Dysfunction test, developed in India for Indian subjects was used as a proxy for general fixed knowledge. Statistical Analysis: Logistic and linear regression was used to compare cognitive deficits of cases, parents and controls. Results: Cases and their parents took significantly more time than controls on Part B of the TMT. There were no statistically significant differences between cases and parents on any of the TMT parameters. Using regression analysis, the most significant correlates of all TMT parameters among cases were with occurrence of auditory hallucinations and current age. Conclusion: Cases, as well as their parents showed more cognitive impairment than controls on the TMT.

  2. Modulations of the executive control network by stimulus onset asynchrony in a Stroop task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Manipulating task difficulty is a useful way of elucidating the functional recruitment of the brain’s executive control network. In a Stroop task, pre-exposing the irrelevant word using varying stimulus onset asynchronies (‘negative’ SOAs) modulates the amount of behavioural interference and facilitation, suggesting disparate mechanisms of cognitive processing in each SOA. The current study employed a Stroop task with three SOAs (−400, -200, 0 ms), using functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate for the first time the neural effects of SOA manipulation. Of specific interest were 1) how SOA affects the neural representation of interference and facilitation; 2) response priming effects in negative SOAs; and 3) attentional effects of blocked SOA presentation. Results The results revealed three regions of the executive control network that were sensitive to SOA during Stroop interference; the 0 ms SOA elicited the greatest activation of these areas but experienced relatively smaller behavioural interference, suggesting that the enhanced recruitment led to more efficient conflict processing. Response priming effects were localized to the right inferior frontal gyrus, which is consistent with the idea that this region performed response inhibition in incongruent conditions to overcome the incorrectly-primed response, as well as more general action updating and response preparation. Finally, the right superior parietal lobe was sensitive to blocked SOA presentation and was most active for the 0 ms SOA, suggesting that this region is involved in attentional control. Conclusions SOA exerted both trial-specific and block-wide effects on executive processing, providing a unique paradigm for functional investigations of the cognitive control network. PMID:23902451

  3. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence E. [Alstom Grid, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This is the executive summary for a report that provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  4. Anticipatory synergy adjustments reflect individual performance of feedforward force control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Shunta; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2016-10-06

    We grasp and dexterously manipulate an object through multi-digit synergy. In the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis, multi-digit synergy is defined as the coordinated control mechanism of fingers to stabilize variable important for task success, e.g., total force. Previous studies reported anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) that correspond to a drop of the synergy index before a quick change of the total force. The present study compared ASA's properties with individual performances of feedforward force control to investigate a relationship of those. Subjects performed a total finger force production task that consisted of a phase in which subjects tracked target line with visual information and a phase in which subjects produced total force pulse without visual information. We quantified their multi-digit synergy through UCM analysis and observed significant ASAs before producing total force pulse. The time of the ASA initiation and the magnitude of the drop of the synergy index were significantly correlated with the error of force pulse, but not with the tracking error. Almost all subjects showed a significant increase of the variance that affected the total force. Our study directly showed that ASA reflects the individual performance of feedforward force control independently of target-tracking performance and suggests that the multi-digit synergy was weakened to adjust the multi-digit movements based on a prediction error so as to reduce the future error. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining the mechanisms of overgeneral autobiographical memory: capture and rumination, and impaired executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan

    2011-02-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is an important cognitive phenomenon in depression, but questions remain regarding the underlying mechanisms. The CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007) proposes three mechanisms that may contribute to OGM, but little work has examined the possible additive and/or interactive effects among them. We examined two mechanisms of CaR-FA-X: capture and rumination, and impaired executive control. We analysed data from undergraduates (N=109) scoring high or low on rumination who were presented with cues of high and low self-relevance on the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). Executive control was operationalised as performance on both the Stroop Colour-Word Task and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT). Hierarchical generalised linear modelling was used to predict whether participants would generate a specific memory on a trial of the AMT. Higher COWAT scores, lower rumination, and greater cue self-relevance predicted a higher probability of a specific memory. There was also a rumination×cue self-relevance interaction: Higher (vs lower) rumination was associated with a lower probability of a specific memory primarily for low self-relevant cues. We found no evidence of interactions between these mechanisms. Findings are interpreted with respect to current autobiographical memory models. Future directions for OGM mechanism research are discussed. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  6. Dopaminergic influences on executive function and impulsive behaviour in impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, Iracema; Barraclough, Michelle; McKie, Shane; Hinvest, Neal; Evans, Jonathan; Elliott, Rebecca; McDonald, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    The development of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) may arise from an interaction among cognitive impairment, impulsive responding and dopaminergic state. Dopaminergic state may be influenced by pharmacologic or genotypic (catechol-O-methyltransferase; COMT) factors. We sought to investigate this interaction further by comparing those with (n = 35) and without (n = 55) ICDs on delay-discounting in different pharmacologic conditions (ON or OFF dopaminergic medication) and on response inhibition as well as aspects of executive functioning in the ON state. We then undertook an exploratory sub-group analysis of these same tasks when the overall PD group was divided into different allelic variants of COMT (val/val vs. met/met). A healthy control group (HC; n = 20) was also included. We found that in those with PD and ICDs, 'cognitive flexibility' (set shifting, verbal fluency, and attention) in the ON medication state was not impaired compared with those without ICDs. In contrast, our working memory, or 'cognitive focus', task was impaired in both PD groups compared with the HC group when ON. During the delay-discounting task, the PD with ICDs group expressed greater impulsive choice compared with the PD group without ICDs, when in the ON, but not the OFF, medication state. However, no group difference on the response inhibition task was seen when ON. Finally, the met homozygous group performed differently on tests of executive function compared with the val homozygous group. We concluded that the disparity in levels of impairment among different domains of executive function and impulsive decision-making distinguishes those with ICD in PD from those without ICD, and may in part be affected by dopaminergic status. Both pharmacologic and genotypic influences on dopaminergic state may be important in ICD. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Fathers Matter: The Role of Father Autonomy Support and Control in Preschoolers' Executive Function Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwissen, Alyssa S.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that mothers' parenting influences the development of child executive function (important self-control skills developed in the preschool years) the role of fathers' parenting has not been thoroughly investigated. We observed fathers' autonomy support and control in dyadic play with their 3-year-old children (N pairs = 110), and measured father and child EF independently with laboratory tasks. We found that fathers' controlling parenting was significantly inversely related to the child EF composite, above and beyond family income and child verbal ability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fathers are important for the development of EF in their children, and suggest fathers should be included in both research and parenting interventions. PMID:26209884

  8. Language control in bilinguals: Intention to speak vs. execution of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverberi, Carlo; Kuhlen, Anna; Abutalebi, Jubin; Greulich, R Stefan; Costa, Albert; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2015-05-01

    Bilinguals require a high degree of cognitive control to select the language intended for speaking and inhibit the unintended. Previous neuroimaging studies have not teased apart brain regions for generating the intention to use a given language, and those for speaking in that language. Separating these two phases can clarify at what stage competition between languages occurs. In this fMRI study German-English bilinguals were first cued to use German or English. After a delay, they named a picture in the cued language. During the intention phase, the precuneus, right superior lateral parietal lobule, and middle temporal gyrus were more activated when participants had to update the currently active language. During language execution activation was higher for English compared to German in brain areas associated with cognitive control, most notably the anterior cingulate and the caudate. Our results suggest two different systems enabling cognitive control during bilingual language production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel, M.; Palomo, M. J.; Urrea, M.; Arnaldos, A.

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes nuclear power plant (Spain) of control rods Pcc/24 friction test procedure. In order to perform this, a control rod friction test system has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The Pcc/24 procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a control rod drive movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time. (Author)

  10. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, M.; Urrea, M.; Arnaldos, A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (Spain) of Control Rods PCC/24 Friction Test Procedure. In order to perform this, a Control Rod Friction Test System has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The PCC/24 Procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a CRD (Control Rod Drive) movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time.(author)

  11. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M., E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) (Spain); Urrea, M., E-mail: matias.urrea@iberdrola.es [Iberdrola Generacion S.A. Valencia (Spain). C.N. Cofrentes; Curiel, M., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Teconologicos, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (Spain) of Control Rods PCC/24 Friction Test Procedure. In order to perform this, a Control Rod Friction Test System has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The PCC/24 Procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a CRD (Control Rod Drive) movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time.(author)

  12. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes nuclear power plant (Spain) of control rods Pcc/24 friction test procedure. In order to perform this, a control rod friction test system has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The Pcc/24 procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a control rod drive movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time. (Author)

  13. Reconfiguration of brain network architecture to support executive control in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Courtney L; Turner, Gary R; Adnan, Areeba; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by declines in executive control abilities and changes in underlying brain network architecture. Here, we examined brain networks in young and older adults during a task-free resting state and an N-back task and investigated age-related changes in the modular network organization of the brain. Compared with young adults, older adults showed larger changes in network organization between resting state and task. Although young adults exhibited increased connectivity between lateral frontal regions and other network modules during the most difficult task condition, older adults also exhibited this pattern of increased connectivity during less-demanding task conditions. Moreover, the increase in between-module connectivity in older adults was related to faster task performance and greater fractional anisotropy of the superior longitudinal fasciculus. These results demonstrate that older adults who exhibit more pronounced network changes between a resting state and task have better executive control performance and greater structural connectivity of a core frontal-posterior white matter pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-related changes in executive control and their relationships with activity performance in handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Fogel, Yael

    2013-04-01

    Deterioration in the frontal and prefrontal cortex associated with executive functions (EF) occurs with age and may be associated with changes in daily performance. The aim of the present study was to describe changes occurring with age in Executive Functions (EF) and handwriting activity, as well as to analyze relationships between age, EF and handwriting performance. The study population included 80 healthy participants (aged 31 to 76+) living in the community. After answering five questions about their writing habits, the participants completed the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS). In addition, they performed a handwriting task on a digitizer included in the Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET), which provides kinematic measures of the handwriting process. Significant differences were found between the four age groups for both EF and temporal and spatial handwriting measures. A series of regressions indicated that age predicted 35% of the variance of the BADS profile score (EF control) and 32% of the variance of in-air time while writing. The results of this study indicated age effect on both EF control and handwriting performance. Possible implications for further research and clinical evaluation and intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The disruptive effects of pain on complex cognitive performance and executive control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Keogh

    Full Text Available Pain interferes and disrupts attention. What is less clear is how pain affects performance on complex tasks, and the strategies used to ensure optimal outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of pain on higher-order executive control processes involved in managing complex tasks. Sixty-two adult volunteers (40 female completed two computer-based tasks: a breakfast making task and a word generation puzzle. Both were complex, involving executive control functions, including goal-directed planning and switching. Half of those recruited performed the tasks under conditions of thermal heat pain, and half with no accompanying pain. Whilst pain did not affect central performance on either task, it did have indirect effects. For the breakfast task, pain resulted in a decreased ability to multitask, with performance decrements found on the secondary task. However, no effects of pain were found on the processes thought to underpin this task. For the word generation puzzle, pain did not affect task performance, but did alter subjective accounts of the processes used to complete the task; pain affected the perceived allocation of time to the task, as well as switching perceptions. Sex differences were also found. When studying higher-order cognitive processes, pain-related interference effects are varied, and may result in subtle or indirect changes in cognition.

  16. The disruptive effects of pain on complex cognitive performance and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Edmund; Moore, David J; Duggan, Geoffrey B; Payne, Stephen J; Eccleston, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Pain interferes and disrupts attention. What is less clear is how pain affects performance on complex tasks, and the strategies used to ensure optimal outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of pain on higher-order executive control processes involved in managing complex tasks. Sixty-two adult volunteers (40 female) completed two computer-based tasks: a breakfast making task and a word generation puzzle. Both were complex, involving executive control functions, including goal-directed planning and switching. Half of those recruited performed the tasks under conditions of thermal heat pain, and half with no accompanying pain. Whilst pain did not affect central performance on either task, it did have indirect effects. For the breakfast task, pain resulted in a decreased ability to multitask, with performance decrements found on the secondary task. However, no effects of pain were found on the processes thought to underpin this task. For the word generation puzzle, pain did not affect task performance, but did alter subjective accounts of the processes used to complete the task; pain affected the perceived allocation of time to the task, as well as switching perceptions. Sex differences were also found. When studying higher-order cognitive processes, pain-related interference effects are varied, and may result in subtle or indirect changes in cognition.

  17. Executive control systems in the engineering design environment. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    An executive control system (ECS) is a software structure for unifying various applications codes into a comprehensive system. It provides a library of applications, a uniform access method through a cental user interface, and a data management facility. A survey of twenty-four executive control systems designed to unify various CAD/CAE applications for use in diverse engineering design environments within government and industry was conducted. The goals of this research were to establish system requirements to survey state-of-the-art architectural design approaches, and to provide an overview of the historical evolution of these systems. Foundations for design are presented and include environmental settings, system requirements, major architectural components, and a system classification scheme based on knowledge of the supported engineering domain(s). An overview of the design approaches used in developing the major architectural components of an ECS is presented with examples taken from the surveyed systems. Attention is drawn to four major areas of ECS development: interdisciplinary usage; standardization; knowledge utilization; and computer science technology transfer.

  18. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in different prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to short-term memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to hold this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of short-term memory by showing that information of abstract entities such as a behaviour-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing; can also be maintained in short-term memory and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices encodes information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in organizing goal-directed behaviour by supporting various mnemonic processes that maintain a wide range of information in the service of executive control of on-going or upcoming behaviour.

  19. Competition for the focus of attention in visual working memory: perceptual recency versus executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitch, Graham J; Hu, Yanmei; Allen, Richard J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2018-03-10

    Previous research on memory for a short sequence of visual stimuli indicates that access to the focus of attention (FoA) can be achieved in either of two ways. The first is automatic and is indexed by the recency effect, the enhanced retention of the final item. The second is strategic and based on instructions to prioritize items differentially, a process that draws on executive capacity and boosts retention of information deemed important. In both cases, the increased level of retention can be selectively reduced by presenting a poststimulus distractor (or suffix). We manipulated these variables across three experiments. Experiment 1 generalized previous evidence that prioritizing a single item enhances its retention and increases its vulnerability to interference from a poststimulus suffix. A second experiment showed that the enhancement from prioritizing one or two items comes at a cost to the recency effect. A third experiment showed that prioritizing two items renders memory for both vulnerable to interference from an irrelevant suffix. The results suggest that some but not all items in working memory compete to occupy a narrow FoA and that this competition is determined by a combination of perceptually driven recency and internal executive control. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Happiness increases verbal and spatial working memory capacity where sadness does not: Emotion, working memory and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Maswood, Raeya

    2016-08-01

    The effects of emotion on working memory and executive control are often studied in isolation. Positive mood enhances verbal and impairs spatial working memory, whereas negative mood enhances spatial and impairs verbal working memory. Moreover, positive mood enhances executive control, whereas negative mood has little influence. We examined how emotion influences verbal and spatial working memory capacity, which requires executive control to coordinate between holding information in working memory and completing a secondary task. We predicted that positive mood would improve both verbal and spatial working memory capacity because of its influence on executive control. Positive, negative and neutral moods were induced followed by completing a verbal (Experiment 1) or spatial (Experiment 2) working memory operation span task to assess working memory capacity. Positive mood enhanced working memory capacity irrespective of the working memory domain, whereas negative mood had no influence on performance. Thus, positive mood was more successful holding information in working memory while processing task-irrelevant information, suggesting that the influence mood has on executive control supersedes the independent effects mood has on domain-specific working memory.

  1. Integrating and differentiating aspects of self-regulation: effortful control, executive functioning, and links to negative affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Oddi, Kate B; Laake, Lauren M; Murdock, Kyle W; Bachmann, Melissa N

    2013-02-01

    Subdisciplines within psychology frequently examine self-regulation from different frameworks despite conceptually similar definitions of constructs. In the current study, similarities and differences between effortful control, based on the psychobiological model of temperament (Rothbart, Derryberry, & Posner, 1994), and executive functioning are examined and empirically tested in three studies (n = 509). Structural equation modeling indicated that effortful control and executive functioning are strongly associated and overlapping constructs (Study 1). Additionally, results indicated that effortful control is related to the executive function of updating/monitoring information in working memory, but not inhibition (Studies 2 and 3). Study 3 also demonstrates that better updating/monitoring information in working memory and better effortful control were uniquely linked to lower dispositional negative affect, whereas the executive function of low/poor inhibition was uniquely associated with an increased tendency to express negative affect. Furthermore, dispositional negative affect mediated the links between effortful control and, separately, the executive function of updating/monitoring information in working memory and the tendency to express negative affect. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed, and a potential framework for guiding future work directed at integrating and differentiating aspects of self-regulation is suggested. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Executive function in weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a conceptual review and novel neuropsychological model of weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.

  3. Convergence and divergence of neuroanatomic correlates and executive task performance in healthy controls and psychiatric participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Tak Chung, Dennis; Jerram, Matthew W; Lee, Jonathan K; Katz, Harvey; Gansler, David A

    2013-12-30

    The associations between brain matter volume in the cerebral cortex and set shifting and attentional control as operationalized by the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) and Condition Three of the Delis-Kaplan version of the Color Word Interference Test (CWIT) were investigated in 15 healthy controls and 16 heterogeneously diagnosed psychiatric patients with self-control problems using voxel based morphometry. Both groups underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment. WCST and CWIT variables, and a composite, were regressed across the whole brain. Although CWIT performance levels were the same in both groups, neuroanatomic correlates for the psychiatric participants invoked the left hemisphere language system, but the bilateral dorsal attention system in the healthy controls. On its own, no neuroanatomic correlates were observed for the WCST. But when part of a composite with CWIT, neuroanatomic correlates in the dorsal attention system emerged for the psychiatric participants. Psychometric combinations of manifest executive task variables may best represent higher level latent neuro-cognitive control systems. Factor analytic studies of neuropsychological test performances suggest the constructs being measured are the same across psychiatric and non-diagnosed participants, however, imaging modalities indicate the relevant neural architecture can vary by group. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Altered attentional control strategies but spared executive functioning in chronic cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Amy T; Whitney, Paul; Cuttler, Carrie; Spradlin, Alexander; Hinson, John M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use has increased rapidly in recent decades. The increase in cannabis use makes it important to understand the potential influence of chronic use on attentional control and other executive functions (EFs). Because cannabis is often used to reduce stress, and because stress can constrain attentional control and EFs, the primary goal of this study was to determine the joint effect of acute stress and chronic cannabis use on specific EFs. Thirty-nine cannabis users and 40 non-users were assigned to either a stress or no stress version of the Maastricht Acute Stress Test. Participants then completed two cognitive tasks that involve EFs: (1) task switching, and (2) a novel Flexible Attentional Control Task. These two tasks provided assessments of vigilant attention, inhibitory control, top-down attentional control, and cognitive flexibility. Salivary cortisol was assessed throughout the study. Reaction time indices showed an interaction between stress and cannabis use on top-down attentional control (p=0.036, n p 2 =0.059). Follow-up tests showed that cannabis users relied less on top-down attentional control than did non-users in the no stress version. Despite not relying on top-down control, the cannabis users showed no overall performance deficits on the tasks. Chronic cannabis users performed cognitive tasks involving EFs as well as non-users while not employing cognitive control processes that are typical for such tasks. These results indicate alterations in cognitive processing in cannabis users, but such alterations do not necessarily lead to global performance deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Is inattentional blindness related to individual differences in visual working memory capacity or executive control functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Emily M; Richards, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Inattentional blindness (IB) research deals with situations where, under focused attention tasks, salient stimuli that are irrelevant to that task do not reach conscious awareness. Although such research has captured popular imagination, to date very little research has been conducted on whether some are more likely to experience this phenomenon than others. Here we provide evidence that working memory capacity (WMC) contributed to this experience, with lower WMC being predictive of IB. We also investigated whether IB could be more readily explained in terms of domain-specific visual WMC. No group differences in visual WMC were found, nor any differences in the ability to perform the primary IB task. These findings suggest that differences in higher-order executive control of attention contributes to the experience of IB.

  6. Functional neuroimaging indicators of successful executive control in the oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, C; Aizenstein, H; Cochran, J; Saxton, J; De Kosky, S; Newman, A B; Kuller, L H; Lopez, O L; Carter, C S

    2005-12-01

    Attentional control, motor planning abilities, and executive cognitive functions (ECF) rapidly decline with age. In particular, older adults experience difficulty in manipulating selected motor responses in the presence of conflicting or distracting information. To examine age-related changes in the neural substrates of the attentional and motor planning components of ECF, we assessed the patterns of brain activation in 8 cognitively normal older adults (mean age 81.5) and 20 young individuals (mean age 23.0) while they responded to low and high loads of attentional demands of the Preparing to Overcome Prepotency (POP) task. In the POP task, the selection of one out of two possible motor responses in the presence of increasing attentional task loads determines the accuracy of the performance. Older individuals were slower than young adults (P Brodmann areas 7 and 40), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC: Brodmann areas 9, 45, and 46) bilaterally. Compared to young individuals, older adults had lower activation in dLPFC (Brodmann areas 9, 45, and 46: P = 0.007, P = 0.043, and P = 0.040) and Brodmann area 7, P = 0.002. Activation in Brodmann areas 40 and ACC was similar in the two groups (P > 0.05). Among older adults, the most successful performers were those who responded to increasing task loads with greater activation in PPC (Brodmann area 40), despite lower dLPFC activation. Older adults who are able to perform executive control tasks as well as young adults, also seem to implement speed-accuracy trade-off strategies which may rely on increased parietal activation.

  7. Building the Brain's "Air Traffic Control" System: How Early Experiences Shape the Development of Executive Function. Working Paper 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Being able to focus, hold, and work with information in mind, filter distractions, and switch gears is like having an air traffic control system at a busy airport to manage the arrivals and departures of dozens of planes on multiple runways. In the brain, this air traffic control mechanism is called executive functioning, a group of skills that…

  8. The neurotic wandering mind: An individual differences investigation of neuroticism, mind-wandering, and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Matthew K; Gath, Katherine I; Unsworth, Nash

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience have recently developed a keen interest in the phenomenon of mind-wandering. People mind-wander frequently, and mind-wandering is associated with decreased cognitive performance. But why do people mind-wander so much? Previous investigations have focused on cognitive abilities like working memory capacity and attention control. But an individual's tendency to worry, feel anxious, and entertain personal concerns also influences mind-wandering. The Control Failure × Concerns model of mind-wandering. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 188-197] argues that individual differences in the propensity to mind-wander are jointly determined by cognitive abilities and by the presence of personally salient concerns that intrude on task focus. In order to test this model, we investigated individual differences in mind-wandering, executive attention, and personality with a focus on neuroticism. The results showed that neurotic individuals tended to report more mind-wandering during cognitive tasks, lower working memory capacity, and poorer attention control. Thus the trait of neuroticism adds an additional source of variance in the tendency to mind-wander, which offers support for the Control Failure × Concerns model. The results help bridge the fields of clinical psychology, cognitive psychology, affective neuroscience, and cognitive neuroscience as a means of developing a more complete understanding of the complex relationship between cognition, personality, and emotion.

  9. Executive control resources and snack food consumption in the presence of restraining versus facilitating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Lowe, Cassandra; Vincent, Corita

    2014-08-01

    Prior studies have documented a negative relationship between strength of executive control resources (ECRs) and frequency of snack food consumption. However, little is known about what effect environmental cues (restraining versus facilitating) have on the engagement of such control resources. We presented 88 healthy adults with standardized tests of ECRs followed by a bogus taste test for three appetitive snack foods. Participants were randomly assigned to receive instructions to eat the bare minimum to make their ratings ("restraint condition"), eat as much as they like ("facilitation condition") or no special instructions. We surreptitiously measured the weight of food consumed during the taste test. Findings revealed a main effect of treatment condition, such that those in the restraint condition ate significantly less than those in either of the other conditions; however, this main effect was qualified by an ECR by treatment condition interaction. Specifically, those in the facilitation condition showed a strong negative association between ECR strength and amount of food consumed, whereas those in the restraint and control conditions did not. Findings suggest that the effect of ECR strength on consumption of snack food varies substantially by the characteristics of contextual cues.

  10. Correlations in background activity control persistent state stability and allow execution of working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eDipoppa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is tightly capacity limited, it requires selective information gating, active information maintenance, and rapid active updating. Hence performing a WM task needs rapid and controlled transitions between neural persistent activity and the resting state. We propose that changes in spike-time correlations in neural activity provides a mechanism for the required working memory operations. As a proof of principle, we implement sustained activity and working memory in a recurrently-coupled spiking network with neurons receiving excitatory random background activity where background correlations are induced by a common noise source. We first characterize how the level of background correlations controls the stability of the persistent state. With sufficiently high correlations, the sustained state becomes practically unstable, so it cannot be initiated by a transient stimulus. We exploit this in a working memory model implementing the delay match to sample task by modulating flexibly in time the correlation level at different phases of the task. The modulation sets the network in different working regimes: more prompt to gate in a signal or clear the memory. The findings presented in this manuscript can form the basis for a new paradigm about how correlations are flexibly controlled by the cortical circuits to execute WM operations.

  11. Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Solar sails offer an opportunity for a CubeSatscale, propellant-free spacecraft technology that enables long-term and long-distance missions not possible with traditional methods. Solar sails operate using the transfer of linear momentum from photons of sunlight reflected from the surface of the sail. To propel the spacecraft, no mechanically moving parts, thrusters, or propellant are needed. However, attitude control, or orientation, is still performed using traditional methods involving reaction wheels and propellant ejection, which severely limit mission lifetime. For example, the current state of the art solutions employed by upcoming missions couple solar sails with a state of the art propellant ejection gas system. Here, the use of the gas thruster has limited the lifetime of the mission. To solve the limited mission lifetime problem, the Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices project team is working on propellantless attitude control using thin layers of material, an optical film, electrically switchable from transparent to reflective. The technology is based on a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), which allows this switch upon application of a voltage. This technology removes the need for propellant, which reduces weight and cost while improving performance and lifetime.

  12. Brain Oscillatory Correlates of Altered Executive Functioning in Positive and Negative Symptomatic Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Barbara; Minarik, Tamas; Griesmayr, Birgit; Stelzig-Schoeler, Renate; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Sauseng, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Working Memory and executive functioning deficits are core characteristics of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Electrophysiological research indicates that altered patterns of neural oscillatory mechanisms underpinning executive functioning are associated with the psychiatric disorder. Such brain oscillatory changes have been found in local amplitude differences at gamma and theta frequencies in task-specific cortical areas. Moreover, interregional interactions are also disrupted as signified by decreased phase coherence of fronto-posterior theta activity in schizophrenia patients. However, schizophrenia is not a one-dimensional psychiatric disorder but has various forms and expressions. A common distinction is between positive and negative symptomatology but most patients have both negative and positive symptoms to some extent. Here, we examined three groups-healthy controls, predominantly negative, and predominantly positive symptomatic schizophrenia patients-when performing a working memory task with increasing cognitive demand and increasing need for executive control. We analyzed brain oscillatory activity in the three groups separately and investigated how predominant symptomatology might explain differences in brain oscillatory patterns. Our results indicate that differences in task specific fronto-posterior network activity (i.e., executive control network) expressed by interregional phase synchronization are able to account for working memory dysfunctions between groups. Local changes in the theta and gamma frequency range also show differences between patients and healthy controls, and more importantly, between the two patient groups. We conclude that differences in oscillatory brain activation patterns related to executive processing can be an indicator for positive and negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, changes in cognitive and especially executive functioning in patients are expressed by alterations in a task-specific fronto

  13. Washing away your sins will set your mind free: physical cleansing modulates the effect of threatened morality on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Aslan, Chen; Dar, Reuven

    2017-01-01

    The effect of threatened morality on negative emotions and on altruistic behaviour has been shown to diminish following physical cleansing (hand-washing). We hypothesised that threatened morality will broadly impair the executive control system, and that physical cleansing will moderate this detrimental effect. Thirty-seven participants were asked to write about an immoral deed they had committed, whereupon half of them were allowed to wipe their hands. Three executive control tasks-Stroop, stop-signal, and object interference-were then administered to all participants. Participants who had not wiped their hands, but not those who did, demonstrated impaired performance, compared to hand-washing controls, in all three tasks. We conclude that threatened morality has a detrimental effect on executive control, specifically on conflict monitoring and response inhibition, and that physical cleansing "frees" this system, counteracting the detrimental effects of morality threats. We discuss possible implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is characterised by deficient executive control and in which both threatened morality and physical cleansing are central concerns.

  14. The Health and Safety Executive's regulatory framework for control of nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.; Simister, D.N.

    1991-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the Health and Safety at Work Act, 1974 is the main legal instrument under which risks to people from work activities are controlled. Certain sections of the Nuclear Installations Act, 1965 which deal with the licensing of nuclear sites and the regulatory control of risks arising from them, including the risk from accidental criticality, are relevant statutory provisions of the Health and Safety at Work Act. The responsibility for safety rests with the operator who has to make and implement arrangements to prevent accidental criticality. The adequacy of these arrangements must be demonstrated in a safety case to the regulatory authorities. Operators are encouraged to treat each plant on its own merits and develop the safety case accordingly. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), for its part, assesses the adequacy of the operator's safety case against the industry's own standards and criteria, but more particularly against the NII's safety assessment principles and guides, and international standards. Risks should be made as low as reasonably practicable. Generally, the NII seeks improvements in safety using an enforcement policy which operates at a number of levels, ranging from persuasion through discussion to the ultimate deterrent of withdrawal of a site licence. This paper describes the role of the NII, which includes a specialist criticality expertise, within the Health and Safety Executive, in regulating the nuclear sites from the criticality safety viewpoint. (Author)

  15. A Chan Dietary Intervention Enhances Executive Functions and Anterior Cingulate Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive dysfunctions have been found to be related to repetitive/disinhibited behaviors and social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of a Shaolin-medicine-based dietary modification on improving executive functions and behavioral symptoms of ASD and exploring the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Twenty-four children with ASD were randomly assigned into the experimental (receiving dietary modification for one month and the control (no modification groups. Each child was assessed on his/her executive functions, behavioral problems based on parental ratings, and event-related electroencephalography (EEG activity during a response-monitoring task before and after the one month. The experimental group demonstrated significantly improved mental flexibility and inhibitory control after the diet modification, which continued to have a large effect size within the low-functioning subgroup. Such improvements coincided with positive evaluations by their parents on social communication abilities and flexible inhibitory control of daily behaviors and significantly enhanced event-related EEG activity at the rostral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the control group did not show any significant improvements. These positive outcomes of a one-month dietary modification on children with ASD have implicated its potential clinical applicability for patients with executive function deficits.

  16. Theory of Mind and Executive Control Deficits in Typically Developing Adults and Adolescents with High Levels of Autism Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçen, Elif; Frederickson, Norah; Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by profound difficulties in empathic processing and executive control. Whilst the links between these processes have been frequently investigated in populations with autism, few studies have examined them at the subclinical level. In addition, the contribution of alexithymia, a trait characterised by…

  17. 41 CFR 102-74.330 - What smoking restrictions apply to outside areas under Executive branch control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What smoking restrictions apply to outside areas under Executive branch control? 102-74.330 Section 102-74.330 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.330 What...

  18. "Braingame Brian": Toward an Executive Function Training Program with Game Elements for Children with ADHD and Cognitive Control Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.; ten Brink, E.; Dovis, S.; Ponsioen, A.; Geurts, H.M.; de Vries, M.; van der Oord, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the area of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, there is an urgent need for new, innovative, and child-focused treatments. A computerized executive functioning training with game elements aimed at enhancing self-control was developed. The first results are promising, and the next

  19. The response-time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control and exponential execution times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction takes an exponential execution

  20. Improving executive functioning in children with ADHD: training multiple executive functions within the context of a computer game. a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Dovis

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EFs training interventions aimed at ADHD-symptom reduction have yielded mixed results. Generally, these interventions focus on training a single cognitive domain (e.g., working memory [WM], inhibition, or cognitive-flexibility. However, evidence suggests that most children with ADHD show deficits on multiple EFs, and that these EFs are largely related to different brain regions. Therefore, training multiple EFs might be a potentially more effective strategy to reduce EF-related ADHD symptoms.Eighty-nine children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (aged 8-12 were randomized to either a full-active-condition where visuospatial WM, inhibition and cognitive-flexibility were trained, a partially-active-condition where inhibition and cognitive-flexibility were trained and the WM-training task was presented in placebo-mode, or to a full placebo-condition. Short-term and long-term (3-months effects of this gamified, 25-session, home-based computer-training were evaluated on multiple outcome domains.During training compliance was high (only 3% failed to meet compliance criteria. After training, only children in the full-active condition showed improvement on measures of visuospatial short-term-memory (STM and WM. Inhibitory performance and interference control only improved in the full-active- and the partially-active condition. No Treatment-condition x Time interactions were found for cognitive-flexibility, verbal WM, complex-reasoning, nor for any parent-, teacher-, or child-rated ADHD behaviors, EF-behaviors, motivational behaviors, or general problem behaviors. Nonetheless, almost all measures showed main Time-effects, including the teacher-ratings.Improvements on inhibition and visuospatial STM and WM were specifically related to the type of treatment received. However, transfer to untrained EFs and behaviors was mostly nonspecific (i.e., only interference control improved exclusively in the two EF training conditions. As such

  1. The Moderating Effect of Personality Type on the Relationship between Leisure Activity and Executive Control in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nikki L.; Lin, Feng Vankee; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Kolanowski, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We examined the moderating effect of personality on the association between leisure activities and executive control in healthy community-dwelling older adults. We found two distinct personality typologies: individuals with a Resilient personality were characterized by emotional stability and self-confidence; whereas, those who resembled an Overcontrolled personality tended to be introverted, but also low on neuroticism. Resilient individuals were more likely than Overcontrolled individuals to demonstrate higher executive function and attention as a result of participation in mental activities. These results suggest that personality might be important to include in studies that test the efficacy of activity interventions for improving cognition. PMID:27087715

  2. Correlations in background activity control persistent state stability and allow execution of working memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipoppa, Mario; Gutkin, Boris S

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) requires selective information gating, active information maintenance, and rapid active updating. Hence performing a WM task needs rapid and controlled transitions between neural persistent activity and the resting state. We propose that changes in correlations in neural activity provides a mechanism for the required WM operations. As a proof of principle, we implement sustained activity and WM in recurrently coupled spiking networks with neurons receiving excitatory random background activity where background correlations are induced by a common noise source. We first characterize how the level of background correlations controls the stability of the persistent state. With sufficiently high correlations, the sustained state becomes practically unstable, so it cannot be initiated by a transient stimulus. We exploit this in WM models implementing the delay match to sample task by modulating flexibly in time the correlation level at different phases of the task. The modulation sets the network in different working regimes: more prompt to gate in a signal or clear the memory. We examine how the correlations affect the ability of the network to perform the task when distractors are present. We show that in a winner-take-all version of the model, where two populations cross-inhibit, correlations make the distractor blocking robust. In a version of the mode where no cross inhibition is present, we show that appropriate modulation of correlation levels is sufficient to also block the distractor access while leaving the relevant memory trace in tact. The findings presented in this manuscript can form the basis for a new paradigm about how correlations are flexibly controlled by the cortical circuits to execute WM operations.

  3. Effects of short-term music and second-language training on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on nonverbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals and those with music training, but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the current study pseudorandomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and nonverbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a nonverbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Short Term Music and Second Language Training on Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009) and those with music training (Moreno et al., 2011), but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the present study pseudo-randomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and non-verbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a non-verbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. PMID:26709746

  5. Subjective cognitive complaints and the role of executive cognitive functioning in the working population: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia U D Stenfors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive functioning is important for managing work and life in general. However, subjective cognitive complaints (SCC, involving perceived difficulties with concentration, memory, decision making, and clear thinking are common in the general and working population and can be coupled with both lowered well-being and work ability. However, the relation between SCC and cognitive functioning across the adult age-span, and in the work force, is not clear as few population-based studies have been conducted on non-elderly adults. Thus, the present study aimed to test the relation between SCC and executive cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of employees. METHODS: Participants were 233 employees with either high (cases or low (controls levels of SCC. Group differences in neuropsychological test performance on three common executive cognitive tests were analysed through a set of analyses of covariance tests, including relevant covariates. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: In line with the a priori hypotheses, a high level of SCC was associated with significantly poorer executive cognitive performance on all three executive cognitive tests used, compared to controls with little SCC. Additionally, symptoms of depression, chronic stress and sleeping problems were found to play a role in the relations between SCC and executive cognitive functioning. No significant associations remained after adjusting for all these factors. The current findings contribute to an increased understanding of what characterizes SCC in the work force and may be used at different levels of prevention of- and intervention for SCC and related problems with executive cognitive functioning.

  6. Verbal and Non-verbal Fluency in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia: Phonological Processing or Executive Control Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Zięcik, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties. Phonemic, semantic and design fluency tasks were presented to adults with dyslexia and without dyslexia, using fine-grained performance measures and controlling for IQ. Hierarchical regressions indicated that dyslexia predicted lower phonemic fluency, but not semantic or design fluency. At the fine-grained level, dyslexia predicted a smaller number of switches between subcategories on phonemic fluency, while dyslexia did not predict the size of phonemically related clusters of items. Overall, the results suggested that phonological processing problems were at the root of dyslexia-related fluency deficits; however, executive control difficulties could not be completely ruled out as an alternative explanation. Developments in research methodology, equating executive demands across fluency tasks, may resolve this issue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Improving Postural Control in the Battement Tendu: One Teacher's Reflections and Somatic Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Glenna

    2010-01-01

    The battement tendu is introduced early in dance training, remaining integral to a dancer's vocabulary. Although appearing relatively simple to execute, the tendu aesthetic takes years to master. One reason might be that efficient performance requires complex coordination of postural balance. Known as postural control, this coordination appears in…

  8. Exoskeleton master controller with force-reflecting telepresence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, James B.; Bartholet, Stephen J.; Nelson, David K.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the requirements for successful master-slave robotic systems is becoming increasingly desirable. Such systems can aid in the accomplishment of tasks that are hazardous or inaccessible to humans. Although a history of use has proven master-slave systems to be viable, system requirements and the impact of specifications on the human factors side of system performance are not well known. In support of the next phase of teleoperation research being conducted at the Armstrong Research Laboratory, a force-reflecting, seven degree of freedom exoskeleton for master-slave teleoperation has been concepted, and is presently being developed. The exoskeleton has a unique kinematic structure that complements the structure of the human arm. It provides a natural means for teleoperating a dexterous, possibly redundant manipulator. It allows ease of use without operator fatigue and faithfully follows human arm and wrist motions. Reflected forces and moments are remotely transmitted to the operator hand grip using a cable transmission scheme. This paper presents the exoskeleton concept and development results to date. Conceptual design, hardware, algorithms, computer architecture, and software are covered.

  9. 40 CFR 450.24 - New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS). Any new source... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS). 450.24 Section 450.24 Protection of...

  10. The Role of Inhibitory Control and Executive Functioning in Hyperactivity/ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examined inhibition, executive functioning and their possible relation to childhood problems of hyperactivity and inattention, in its clinical form referred to as Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD). Concurrent as well as longitudinal relations were of interest, and both clinical and non-clinical samples were studied. Study I demonstrated concurrent relations between executive inhibition and both hyperactivity and conduct problems in preschool. However, the relation ...

  11. Original article Impulsive antisociality and executive control problems: evidence from go/no-go and stop-signal tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław M. Michałowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background People with impulsive-antisocial traits may engage in unplanned behaviors that reduce their efficiency and may even result in harm to self and others. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between executive control functions and impulsive antisociality, as assessed with the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI. Using go/no-go and stop-signal paradigms, we examined whether healthy participants with high impulsive-antisocial traits would show delayed response inhibition and error monitoring deficits when compared to those reporting low levels of impulsive antisociality. Participants and procedure A total of 26 participants were recruited from different Warsaw universities based on the Impulsive Antisociality subscale scores of the PPI. Subjects scoring in the first quartile were assigned to the low and those with a score in the fourth quartile were selected for the high impulsivity group. All participants were tested with go/no-go and stop-signal tasks that were executed in a random order. Results Higher levels of impulsive-antisocial traits were associated with poorer executive control. In particular, high impulsive-antisocial individuals demonstrated reduced post-error slowing in response to go stimuli following an error and took longer to respond to the stop signal than the control group. The two groups did not differ in their performance accuracy. Conclusions The study extends previous findings regarding the relationship between impulsivity and executive control showing that non-clinical impulsive antisociality results in decreased conflict detection ability and delayed response inhibition. These problems may result in reduced executive effectiveness in everyday life situations.

  12. Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability Is Associated with Executive Function in Healthy Controls but Not Methamphetamine Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Ballard

    Full Text Available Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the striatum has been linked with executive function in healthy individuals, and is below control levels among drug addicts, possibly contributing to diminished executive function in the latter group. This study tested for an association of striatal D2/D3 receptor availability with a measure of executive function among research participants who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence.Methamphetamine users and non-user controls (n = 18 per group completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride.The methamphetamine users displayed significantly lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability on average than controls after controlling for age and education (p = 0.008, but they did not register greater proportions of either perseverative or non-perseverative errors when controlling for education (both ps ≥ 0.622. The proportion of non-perseverative, but not perseverative, errors was negatively correlated with striatal D2/D3 receptor availability among controls (r = -0.588, p = 0.010, but not methamphetamine users (r = 0.281, p = 0.258, and the group-wise interaction was significant (p = 0.030.These results suggest that cognitive flexibility, as measured by perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, is not determined by signaling through striatal D2/D3 receptors in healthy controls, and that in stimulant abusers, who have lower D2/D3 receptor availability, compensation can effectively maintain other executive functions, which are associated with D2/D3 receptor signaling in controls.

  13. Resisting attraction: Individual differences in executive control are associated with subject-verb agreement errors in production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Alma; Antoniou, Kyriakos; Katsos, Napoleon; Kissine, Mikhail

    2018-04-19

    We propose that attraction errors in agreement production (e.g., the key to the cabinets are missing) are related to two components of executive control: working memory and inhibitory control. We tested 138 children aged 10 to 12, an age when children are expected to produce high rates of errors. To increase the potential of individual variation in executive control skills, participants came from monolingual, bilingual, and bidialectal language backgrounds. Attraction errors were elicited with a picture description task in Dutch and executive control was measured with a digit span task, Corsi blocks task, switching task, and attentional networks task. Overall, higher rates of attraction errors were negatively associated with higher verbal working memory and, independently, with higher inhibitory control. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the role of both working memory and inhibitory control in attraction errors in production. Implications for memory- and grammar-based models are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Bilingualism, executive control, and age at diagnosis among people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Whitaker, Christopher J; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen; Martyr, Anthony; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A; Bastable, Alexandra J M; Pye, Kirstie L; Quinn, Catherine; Thomas, Enlli M; Gathercole, Virginia C Mueller; Hindle, John V

    2016-09-01

    The observation of a bilingual advantage in executive control tasks involving inhibition and management of response conflict suggests that being bilingual might contribute to increased cognitive reserve. In support of this, recent evidence indicates that bilinguals develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) later than monolinguals, and may retain an advantage in performance on executive control tasks. We compared age at the time of receiving an AD diagnosis in bilingual Welsh/English speakers (n = 37) and monolingual English speakers (n = 49), and assessed the performance of bilinguals (n = 24) and monolinguals (n = 49) on a range of executive control tasks. There was a non-significant difference in age at the time of diagnosis, with bilinguals being on average 3 years older than monolinguals, but bilinguals were also significantly more cognitively impaired at the time of diagnosis. There were no significant differences between monolinguals and bilinguals in performance on executive function tests, but bilinguals appeared to show relative strengths in the domain of inhibition and response conflict. Bilingual Welsh/English speakers with AD do not show a clear advantage in executive function over monolingual English speakers, but may retain some benefits in inhibition and management of response conflict. There may be a delay in onset of AD in Welsh/English bilinguals, but if so, it is smaller than that found in some other clinical populations. In this Welsh sample, bilinguals with AD came to the attention of services later than monolinguals, and reasons for this pattern could be explored further. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Three-Axis Attitude Control of Solar Sails Utilising Reflectivity Control Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Theodoros

    Solar sails are spacecraft that utilise the Solar Radiation Pressure, the force generated by impinging photons, to propel themselves. Conventional actuators are not suitable for controlling the attitude of solar sails therefore specific attitude control methods have been devised to tackle this. One of these methods is to change the centre of pressure with respect to the center of mass thus creating a torque. Reflectivity Control Devices (RCDs) have been proposed and successfully used to change the centre of pressure. Current methods that utilise RCDs have control authority over two axis only with no ability to control the torque about the normal of the sail surface. This thesis extends the state of the art and demonstrates 3-axis control by generating arbitrary torque vectors within a convex polyhedron. Two different RCD materials are considered, transmission and diffusion technologies both compatible with the proposed concept. A number of metrics have been developed which facilitate the comparison of different sail configurations. One of these metics is the sun map which is a graphic representation of the sun angles for which control authority is maintained. An iterative design process is presented which makes use of the metrics developed and aids in the design of a sail which meets the mission requirements and constraints. Moreover, the effects of different parameters on the performance of the proposed control concept are discussed. For example it is shown that by alternating the angle between the edge and middle RCDs the control authority increases. The concept's scalability has been investigated and a hybrid control scheme has been devised which makes use of both RCDs and reaction wheels. The RCDs are complemented by the reaction wheels to achieve higher slew rates while in turn the RCDs desaturate the reaction wheels. Finally, a number of simulations are conducted to verify the validity of the proposed concept.

  16. Thalamocortical functional connectivity in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is abnormally enhanced in executive-control and default-mode networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Aaron E L; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D; Archer, John S

    2017-12-01

    To identify abnormal thalamocortical circuits in the severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) that may explain the shared electroclinical phenotype and provide potential treatment targets. Twenty patients with a diagnosis of LGS (mean age = 28.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age = 27.6 years) were compared using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thalamus was parcellated according to functional connectivity with 10 cortical networks derived using group-level independent component analysis. For each cortical network, we assessed between-group differences in thalamic functional connectivity strength using nonparametric permutation-based tests. Anatomical locations were identified by quantifying spatial overlap with a histologically informed thalamic MRI atlas. In both groups, posterior thalamic regions showed functional connectivity with visual, auditory, and sensorimotor networks, whereas anterior, medial, and dorsal thalamic regions were connected with networks of distributed association cortex (including the default-mode, anterior-salience, and executive-control networks). Four cortical networks (left and right executive-control network; ventral and dorsal default-mode network) showed significantly enhanced thalamic functional connectivity strength in patients relative to controls. Abnormal connectivity was maximal in mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamic nuclei. Specific thalamocortical circuits are affected in LGS. Functional connectivity is abnormally enhanced between the mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamus and the default-mode and executive-control networks, thalamocortical circuits that normally support diverse cognitive processes. In contrast, thalamic regions connecting with primary and sensory cortical networks appear to be less affected. Our previous neuroimaging studies show that epileptic activity in LGS is expressed via the default-mode and executive-control networks. Results of the present study suggest that

  17. Making working memory work: A meta-analysis of executive control and working memory training in younger and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Karbach, Julia; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effects of process-based cognitive training (49 studies) in the domains of executive function and working memory in older adults (>60 years). The interventions resulted in significant effects on the trained task (pre-to-posttest net gain: MSD = 0.5 compared to active control, MSD = 0.8 compared to passive control; net posttest effect: MSD = 1.2 compared to active control, MSD = 1.1 compared to passive control), significant near transfer (pre-post: MSD = 0.3, 0....

  18. Reward sensitivity, attentional bias, and executive control in early adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J; Ostafin, Brian D; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether attentional bias for alcohol stimuli was associated with alcohol use in young adolescents, and whether the frequently demonstrated relationship between reward sensitivity and adolescent alcohol use would be partly mediated by attentional bias for alcohol cues. In addition, this study investigated the potential moderating role of executive control (EC), and tested whether the relationship between alcohol-related attentional bias and alcohol use was especially present in young adolescents with weak EC. Participants were 86 adolescents (mean age=14.86), who completed a Visual Probe Task (VPT) as an index of attentional bias, a flanker-task based Attention Network Task (ANT) as an index of EC, the sensitivity of punishment and sensitivity of reward questionnaire (SPSRQ) as an index of reward sensitivity, and an alcohol use questionnaire. High reward sensitivity, high alcohol-related attentional bias, and weak EC were all related to alcohol use. The relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use was not mediated by alcohol-related attentional bias. As hypothesized, attentional bias was only associated with alcohol use in participants with weak EC. Together, the present findings are consistent with the view that high reward sensitivity and low EC may be considered as risk factors for adolescent alcohol use. The independent contribution of reward sensitivity and attentional bias might suggest that adolescents who are highly reward sensitive and display an attentional bias for alcohol cues are at even higher risk for excessive alcohol use and developing alcohol abuse problems. Future research using a longitudinal approach would allow an examination of these risk factors on subsequent alcohol use. Treatment implications are discussed, including the importance of strengthening EC and reducing the rewarding value of alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Executive Functioning Skills in Long-Term Users of Cochlear Implants: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, David B.; Henning, Shirley C.; Colson, Bethany G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in executive functioning between deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. The cognitive effects of auditory deprivation in childhood may extend beyond speech–language skills to more domain-general areas including executive functioning. Methods Executive functioning skills in a sample of 53 prelingually deaf children, adolescents, and young adults who received CIs prior to age 7 years and who had used their CIs for ≥7 years were compared with age- and nonverbal IQ-matched NH peers and with scale norms. Results Despite having above average nonverbal IQ, the CI sample scored lower than the NH sample and test norms on several measures of short-term/working memory, fluency–speed, and inhibition–concentration. Executive functioning was unrelated to most demographic and hearing history characteristics. Conclusions Prelingual deafness and long-term use of CIs was associated with increased risk of weaknesses in executive functioning. PMID:23699747

  20. "Braingame Brian": Toward an Executive Function Training Program with Game Elements for Children with ADHD and Cognitive Control Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Pier J M; Brink, Esther Ten; Dovis, Sebastiaan; Ponsioen, Albert; Geurts, Hilde M; de Vries, Marieke; van der Oord, Saskia

    2013-02-01

    In the area of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, there is an urgent need for new, innovative, and child-focused treatments. A computerized executive functioning training with game elements aimed at enhancing self-control was developed. The first results are promising, and the next steps involve replication with larger samples, evaluating transfer of training effects to daily life, and enhancing motivation through more gaming elements.

  1. Holding in Mind Conflicting Information: Pretending, Working Memory, and Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Kathleen; Shore, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Preschoolers' recall of the true and pretend identities of an object in pretense was examined along with a battery of executive functioning and working memory tasks. We expected that children would retain separate identities, as well as a link between them, after observing episodes of pretense, and that memory for pretense would be related to…

  2. GET controller and UNICORN: event-driven process execution and monitoring in logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgrass, A.; Di Ciccio, C.; Dijkman, R.M.; Hewelt, M; Mendling, J.; Meyer, Andreas; Pourmirza, S.; Weske, M.H.; Wong, T.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Especially in logistics, process instances often interact with their real-world environment during execution. This is challenging due to the fact that events from this environment are often heterogeneous, lack process instance information, and their import and visualisation in traditional process

  3. Ongoing activity in temporally coherent networks predicts intra-subject fluctuation of response time to sporadic executive control demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Ihara, Mizuki; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kanno, Akitake; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Can ongoing fMRI BOLD signals predict fluctuations in swiftness of a person's response to sporadic cognitive demands? This is an important issue because it clarifies whether intrinsic brain dynamics, for which spatio-temporal patterns are expressed as temporally coherent networks (TCNs), have effects not only on sensory or motor processes, but also on cognitive processes. Predictivity has been affirmed, although to a limited extent. Expecting a predictive effect on executive performance for a wider range of TCNs constituting the cingulo-opercular, fronto-parietal, and default mode networks, we conducted an fMRI study using a version of the color-word Stroop task that was specifically designed to put a higher load on executive control, with the aim of making its fluctuations more detectable. We explored the relationships between the fluctuations in ongoing pre-trial activity in TCNs and the task response time (RT). The results revealed the existence of TCNs in which fluctuations in activity several seconds before the onset of the trial predicted RT fluctuations for the subsequent trial. These TCNs were distributed in the cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal networks, as well as in perceptual and motor networks. Our results suggest that intrinsic brain dynamics in these networks constitute "cognitive readiness," which plays an active role especially in situations where information for anticipatory attention control is unavailable. Fluctuations in these networks lead to fluctuations in executive control performance.

  4. Personality, Executive Control, and Neurobiological Characteristics Associated with Different Forms of Risky Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Brown

    Full Text Available Road crashes represent a huge burden on global health. Some drivers are prone to repeated episodes of risky driving (RD and are over-represented in crashes and related morbidity. However, their characteristics are heterogeneous, hampering development of targeted intervention strategies. This study hypothesized that distinct personality, cognitive, and neurobiological processes are associated with the type of RD behaviours these drivers predominantly engage in.Four age-matched groups of adult (19-39 years males were recruited: 1 driving while impaired recidivists (DWI, n = 36; 2 non-alcohol reckless drivers (SPEED, n = 28; 3 drivers with a mixed RD profile (MIXED, n = 27; and 4 low-risk control drivers (CTL, n = 47. Their sociodemographic, criminal history, driving behaviour (by questionnaire and simulation performance, personality (Big Five traits, impulsivity, reward sensitivity, cognitive (disinhibition, decision making, behavioural risk taking, and neurobiological (cortisol stress response characteristics were gathered and contrasted.Compared to controls, group SPEED showed greater sensation seeking, disinhibition, disadvantageous decision making, and risk taking. Group MIXED exhibited more substance misuse, and antisocial, sensation seeking and reward sensitive personality features. Group DWI showed greater disinhibition and more severe alcohol misuse, and compared to the other RD groups, the lowest level of risk taking when sober. All RD groups exhibited less cortisol increase in response to stress compared to controls.Each RD group exhibited a distinct personality and cognitive profile, which was consistent with stimulation seeking in group SPEED, fearlessness in group MIXED, and poor behavioural regulation associated with alcohol in group DWI. As these group differences were uniformly accompanied by blunted cortisol stress responses, they may reflect the disparate behavioural consequences of dysregulation of the stress system. In sum, RD

  5. Working memory capacity and the top-down control of visual search: Exploring the boundaries of "executive attention".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael J; Poole, Bradley J; Tuholski, Stephen W; Engle, Randall W

    2006-07-01

    The executive attention theory of working memory capacity (WMC) proposes that measures of WMC broadly predict higher order cognitive abilities because they tap important and general attention capabilities (R. W. Engle & M. J. Kane, 2004). Previous research demonstrated WMC-related differences in attention tasks that required restraint of habitual responses or constraint of conscious focus. To further specify the executive attention construct, the present experiments sought boundary conditions of the WMC-attention relation. Three experiments correlated individual differences in WMC, as measured by complex span tasks, and executive control of visual search. In feature-absence search, conjunction search, and spatial configuration search, WMC was unrelated to search slopes, although they were large and reliably measured. Even in a search task designed to require the volitional movement of attention (J. M. Wolfe, G. A. Alvarez, & T. S. Horowitz, 2000), WMC was irrelevant to performance. Thus, WMC is not associated with all demanding or controlled attention processes, which poses problems for some general theories of WMC. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Can task-switching training enhance executive control functioning in children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta eKray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task switching, and working memory. In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal working memory as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning. The children in both groups showed improvements in task switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal working memory, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.

  7. Can task-switching training enhance executive control functioning in children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Jutta; Karbach, Julia; Haenig, Susann; Freitag, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task-switching, and working memory (WM). In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training) on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal WM as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning). The children in both groups showed improvements in task-switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single-tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal WM, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.

  8. The role of LIFG-based executive control in recovery from garden-paths during sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan C. Vuong

    2014-04-01

    Control: While the man/ coached,/ the woman/ attended/ the party by herself. The three patients, and a group of eight healthy controls, were tested on two self-paced sentence processing tasks, using sentence regions as above, involving meaning interpretation (Experiment 1 and grammaticality judgments (Experiment 2. Results In contrast to healthy controls and the non-LIFG patient, one of the LIFG patients showed a deficit in meaning interpretation that was worse with biased verbs, across garden-path as well as syntactically unambiguous sentences (mean verb bias effect = 32.5%, which was 7 standard deviations above the control mean of -3%, SD = 4.6. She showed spared performance on grammaticality judgments. The other LIFG patient presented with a more severe executive control deficit, and showed spared performance only for grammaticality judgments in the easiest condition, namely the condition involving syntactically unambiguous sentences with neutral verbs (but not in the remaining conditions, including the corresponding condition with biased verbs. Conclusion The results add to prior studies in arguing for a role of executive control across diverse sentence processing situations, including overcoming verb bias preferences.

  9. Task feedback effects on conflict monitoring and executive control: relationship to subclinical measures of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Avram J; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2007-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that depression is associated with executive dysfunction, particularly after committing errors or receiving negative performance feedback. To test this hypothesis, 57 participants performed two executive tasks known to elicit errors (the Simon and Stroop Tasks) during positive or negative performance feedback. Participants with elevated depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory scores >or= 13) were characterized by impaired posterror and postconflict performance adjustments, especially during emotionally negative task-related feedback. Additionally, for both tasks, depressive symptoms were inversely related to postconflict reaction time adjustments following negative, but not positive, feedback. These findings suggest that subclinical depression is associated with impairments in behavioral adjustments after internal (perceived failure) and external feedback about deficient task performance. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Dysfunctional personality traits in adolescence: effects on alerting, orienting and executive control of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Maria; Marotta, Andrea; Canepone, Valeria; Spagna, Alfredo; Rosa, Caterina; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Pasini, Augusto

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined attentional networks performance in 39 adolescents with dysfunctional personality traits, split into two group, Group Personality Disorders. The attentional performance has been tested by means of a modified version of the Attentional Network Test (ANTI-V) which allows testing both phasic and tonic components of the alerting system, the exogenous aspect of the orienting system, the executive network and their interactions. Results showed that the orienting costs of having an invalid spatial cue were reduced in the Group ≥ 10 criteria compared to the Group splitting the sample into two categorical groups were also observed in a complementary correlation analysis keeping intact the continuous nature of such variables. These findings are consistent with the notion that dysfunctional features of personality disorders may represent the psychological manifestations of a neuropsychological abnormality in attention and executive functioning. Finally, we discuss the implications of this attentional anomaly for dysfunctional personality traits and behaviour.

  11. Structural brain correlates of executive engagement in working memory: children's inter-individual differences are reflected in the anterior insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amélie; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Poirel, Nicolas; Cachia, Arnaud; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Although the development of executive functions has been extensively investigated at a neurofunctional level, studies of the structural relationships between executive functions and brain anatomy are still scarce. Based on our previous meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies examining executive functions in children (Houdé, Rossi, Lubin, and Joliot, (2010). Developmental Science, 13, 876-885), we investigated six a priori regions of interest: the left anterior insular cortex (AIC), the left and the right supplementary motor areas, the right middle and superior frontal gyri, and the left precentral gyrus. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 22 to 10-year-old children. Local gray matter volumes, assessed automatically using a standard voxel-based morphometry approach, were correlated with executive and storage working memory capacities evaluated using backward and forward digit span tasks, respectively. We found an association between smaller gray matter volume--i.e., an index of neural maturation--in the left AIC and high backward memory span while gray matter volumes in the a priori selected regions of interest were not linked with forward memory span. These results were corroborated by a whole-brain a priori free analysis that revealed a significant negative correlation in the frontal and prefrontal regions, including the left AIC, with the backward memory span, and in the right inferior parietal lobe, with the forward memory span. Taken together, these results suggest a distinct and specific association between regional gray matter volume and the executive component vs. the storage component of working memory. Moreover, they support a key role for the AIC in the executive network of children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Akitsuki, Yuko; Shigemune, Yayoi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Tsukiura, Takashi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on cognitive functions in the elderly. Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed). Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed) in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825.

  13. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on cognitive functions in the elderly.Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed. Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention.Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet.UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825.

  14. Structural elements in achieving legislative tobacco control in NSW, 1955-95: political reflections and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Claire; Chapman, Simon

    2006-02-01

    To analyse structural factors revealed by politicians that shaped legislation on tobacco control in New South Wales, 1955-95. Parliamentary debates and other records were collected. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 17 Members of Parliament (MPs) who were significantly involved, and then analysed for structural elements. Tobacco industry lobbying had a significant but limited influence on policy making, being exerted largely through social interactions with executives and based on concerns about the economic impact on third parties. MPs saw health advocates' chief functions as (1) generating community concern about the issue and support for control measures, and (2) bringing any new information to political attention, providing pro-control arguments and data through the media. Factors that delayed tobacco control policies included: the conservative stance of Premiers and major parties, commitments to unanimous federal action, and rivalry between parties. Factors that facilitated control policies included: reforms that gave the Legislative Council increased power, the use of parliamentary committees, and backbencher and grass roots support. Tobacco control policy and legislation has been the product of political structures that gave power to those MPs in the least powerful positions--minor parties, Members of the Legislative Council (MLCs), backbenchers, women and party rank and file--rather than to major parties and their executives. Advocates should make the most of their access points to the political process, providing information, arguments and support and demonstrating public opinion in favour of further control.

  15. Making working memory work: a meta-analysis of executive-control and working memory training in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, Julia; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2014-11-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effects of process-based executive-function and working memory training (49 articles, 61 independent samples) in older adults (> 60 years). The interventions resulted in significant effects on performance on the trained task and near-transfer tasks; significant results were obtained for the net pretest-to-posttest gain relative to active and passive control groups and for the net effect at posttest relative to active and passive control groups. Far-transfer effects were smaller than near-transfer effects but were significant for the net pretest-to-posttest gain relative to passive control groups and for the net gain at posttest relative to both active and passive control groups. We detected marginally significant differences in training-induced improvements between working memory and executive-function training, but no differences between the training-induced improvements observed in older adults and younger adults, between the benefits associated with adaptive and nonadaptive training, or between the effects in active and passive control conditions. Gains did not vary with total training time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Execution and executability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert W.; Harrison, Denise

    2015-09-01

    "We have a new strategy to grow our organization." Developing the plan is just the start. Implementing it in the organization is the real challenge. Many organizations don't fail due to lack of strategy; they struggle because it isn't effectively implemented. After working with hundreds of companies on strategy development, Denise and Robert have distilled the critical areas where organizations need to focus in order to enhance profitability through superior execution. If these questions are important to your organization, you'll find useful answers in the following articles: Do you find yourself overwhelmed by too many competing priorities? How do you limit how many strategic initiatives/projects your organization is working on at one time? How do you balance your resource requirements (time and money) with the availability of these resources? How do you balance your strategic initiative requirements with the day-to-day requirements of your organization?

  17. Measuring the construct of executive control in schizophrenia: defining and validating translational animal paradigms for discovery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Gary; Arguello, Alexander; Bari, Andrea; Brown, Verity J; Carter, Cameron; Floresco, Stan B; Jentsch, David J; Tait, David S; Young, Jared W; Robbins, Trevor W

    2013-11-01

    Executive control is an aspect of cognitive function known to be impaired in schizophrenia. Previous meetings of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) group have more precisely defined executive control in terms of two constructs: "rule generation and selection", and "dynamic adjustments of control". Next, human cognitive tasks that may effectively measure performance with regard to these constructs were identified to be developed into practical and reliable measures for use in treatment development. The aim of this round of CNTRICS meetings was to define animal paradigms that have sufficient promise to warrant further investigation for their utility in measuring these constructs. Accordingly, "reversal learning" and the "attentional set-shifting task" were nominated to assess the construct of rule generation and selection, and the "stop signal task" for the construct of dynamic adjustments of control. These tasks are described in more detail here, with a particular focus on their utility for drug discovery efforts. Presently, each assay has strengths and weaknesses with regard to this point and increased emphasis on improving practical aspects of testing, understanding predictive validity, and defining biomarkers of performance represent important objectives in attaining confidence in translational validity here. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Automation of control and analysis of execution of official duties and instructions in the hierarchical organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of monitoring over execution of official duties of employees. This problem is characteristic of the enterprises having a hierarchical management structure. The functions and the modes of monitoring are defined, the types of analysis of the staff activities are provided. The description of the program complex allowing distributing functions and instructions for between the employees is given. The developed computer program allows tracking the performance, creating reports. The computer program has a demarcation of access rights and provides the can be operated in both local, and a large-scale network.

  19. Rehabilitation of executive functions in patients with chronic acquired brain injury with goal management training, external cuing, and emotional regulation: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tornås, Sveinung; Løvstad, Marianne; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Evans, Jonathan; Endestad, Tor; Hol, Per Kristian; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Stubberud, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Willful control of thoughts, emotions and behavior is an intrinsically human capacity and a prerequisite for adaptive functioning. This capacity relies on complex higherorder mental processes often denoted as executive functions (EF). Executive control is called for in non-familiar situations, in performing activities involving many sub-goals, or when the circumstances change in unpredictable ways – demanding a volitional change in thinking, behavior and emotions in order to adapt. Thus, habi...

  20. Imbalanced functional link between executive control network and reward network explain the online-game seeking behaviors in Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Lin, Xiao; Hu, Yanbo; Xie, Chunming; Du, Xiaoxia

    2015-03-17

    Literatures have shown that Internet gaming disorder (IGD) subjects show impaired executive control and enhanced reward sensitivities than healthy controls. However, how these two networks jointly affect the valuation process and drive IGD subjects' online-game-seeking behaviors remains unknown. Thirty-five IGD and 36 healthy controls underwent a resting-states scan in the MRI scanner. Functional connectivity (FC) was examined within control and reward network seeds regions, respectively. Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) was selected as the node to find the interactions between these two networks. IGD subjects show decreased FC in the executive control network and increased FC in the reward network when comparing with the healthy controls. When examining the correlations between the NAcc and the executive control/reward networks, the link between the NAcc - executive control network is negatively related with the link between NAcc - reward network. The changes (decrease/increase) in IGD subjects' brain synchrony in control/reward networks suggest the inefficient/overly processing within neural circuitry underlying these processes. The inverse proportion between control network and reward network in IGD suggest that impairments in executive control lead to inefficient inhibition of enhanced cravings to excessive online game playing. This might shed light on the mechanistic understanding of IGD.

  1. Reflections on the GUN CONTROL Simulation: Pedagogical Implications for EAP Writing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salies, Tania Gastao

    2007-01-01

    This article critically reflects on the GUN CONTROL simulation (Salies, 1994a) by retaking ideas advanced by Salies (2002) and applying them to the context of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) writing classes in Brazil. It examines how controlled practice relates to learners' performance on the first draft in a simulation-based content unit…

  2. How bilingualism shapes the functional architecture of the brain: A study on executive control in early bilinguals and monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Víctor; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César

    2015-12-01

    The existence of a behavioral advantage of bilinguals over monolinguals during executive tasks is controversial. A new approach to this issue is to investigate the effect of bilingualism on neural control when performing these tasks as a window to understand when behavioral differences are produced. Here, we tested if early bilinguals use more language-related networks than monolinguals while performing a go/no-go task that includes infrequent no-go and go trials. The RTs and accuracy in both groups did not differ. An independent component analyses (ICA) revealed, however, that bilinguals used the left fronto-parietal network and the salience network more than monolinguals while processing go infrequent cues and no-go cues, respectively. It was noteworthy that the modulation of these networks had opposite correlates with performance in bilinguals and monolinguals, which suggests that between-group differences were more qualitative than quantitative. Our results suggest that bilinguals may differently develop the involvement of the executive control networks that comprise the left inferior frontal gyrus during cognitive control tasks than monolinguals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Periodic orbits of solar sail equipped with reflectance control device in Earth-Moon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianping; Gao, Chen; Zhang, Junhua

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, families of Lyapunov and halo orbits are presented with a solar sail equipped with a reflectance control device in the Earth-Moon system. System dynamical model is established considering solar sail acceleration, and four solar sail steering laws and two initial Sun-sail configurations are introduced. The initial natural periodic orbits with suitable periods are firstly identified. Subsequently, families of solar sail Lyapunov and halo orbits around the L1 and L2 points are designed with fixed solar sail characteristic acceleration and varying reflectivity rate and pitching angle by the combination of the modified differential correction method and continuation approach. The linear stabilities of solar sail periodic orbits are investigated, and a nonlinear sliding model controller is designed for station keeping. In addition, orbit transfer between the same family of solar sail orbits is investigated preliminarily to showcase reflectance control device solar sail maneuver capability.

  4. Risk assessment by the executive power versus efficiency of control by the courts - effects on administrative procedures and judicial proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.

    1991-01-01

    In conclusion it is stated that any cutbacks in the current system of judicial control have to be earned by appropriate improvements in the administrative procedure. One has to keep in mind the overall situation, which means to examine and assess any reduction of judicial control, the relevance of procedural defects, and the requirements to be met by administrative procedures, in their complete context. Since the acknowledgement of administrative regulations as instruments for putting into practice the legislative intent, and of the executive's scope for examination and assessment, has effects not only in regard to a reduction of judicial control, but also assigns to the administrative procedure an irreplaceable function that cannot be corrected by legal proceedings, there is reason enough to exercise restraint in this matter. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Attention, memory, visuoconstructive, and executive task performance in adolescents with anxiety disorders: a case-control community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarros, Rafaela Behs; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Silva, Cristiano Tschiedel Belem da; Toazza, Rudineia; Becker, Natália; Agranonik, Marilyn; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess children and adolescents with mild and severe anxiety disorders for their performance in attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, executive functions, and cognitive global functioning and conduct comparative analyses with the performance of children free from anxiety disorders. Our sample comprised 68 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years (41 with current diagnoses of anxiety disorders and 27 controls) selected from a larger cross-sectional community sample of adolescents. Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders were categorized into two groups on the basis of anxiety severity (mild or severe). All participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery to evaluate attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, and executive and cognitive functions. No differences were found in any neuropsychological tests, with the single exception that the group with mild anxiety had better performance on the Digit Span backward test compared to subjects with severe anxiety and to controls (p = 0.041; η2 = 0.11). Not only might anxiety disorders spare main cognitive functions during adolescence, they may even enhance certain working memory processes.

  6. Attention, memory, visuoconstructive, and executive task performance in adolescents with anxiety disorders: a case-control community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Behs Jarros

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess children and adolescents with mild and severe anxiety disorders for their performance in attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, executive functions, and cognitive global functioning and conduct comparative analyses with the performance of children free from anxiety disorders. Methods: Our sample comprised 68 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years (41 with current diagnoses of anxiety disorders and 27 controls selected from a larger cross-sectional community sample of adolescents. Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders were categorized into two groups on the basis of anxiety severity (mild or severe. All participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery to evaluate attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, and executive and cognitive functions. Results: No differences were found in any neuropsychological tests, with the single exception that the group with mild anxiety had better performance on the Digit Span backward test compared to subjects with severe anxiety and to controls (p = 0.041; η2 = 0.11. Conclusions: Not only might anxiety disorders spare main cognitive functions during adolescence, they may even enhance certain working memory processes.

  7. Anatomical substrates of the alerting, orienting and executive control components of attention: focus on the posterior parietal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuntao Yin

    Full Text Available Both neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies have identified that the posterior parietal lobe (PPL is critical for the attention function. However, the unique role of distinct parietal cortical subregions and their underlying white matter (WM remains in question. In this study, we collected both magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data in normal participants, and evaluated their attention performance using attention network test (ANT, which could isolate three different attention components: alerting, orienting and executive control. Cortical thickness, surface area and DTI parameters were extracted from predefined PPL subregions and correlated with behavioural performance. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS was used for the voxel-wise statistical analysis. Results indicated structure-behaviour relationships on multiple levels. First, a link between the cortical thickness and WM integrity of the right inferior parietal regions and orienting performance was observed. Specifically, probabilistic tractography demonstrated that the integrity of WM connectivity between the bilateral inferior parietal lobules mediated the orienting performance. Second, the scores of executive control were significantly associated with the WM diffusion metrics of the right supramarginal gyrus. Finally, TBSS analysis revealed that alerting performance was significant correlated with the fractional anisotropy of local WM connecting the right thalamus and supplementary motor area. We conclude that distinct areas and features within PPL are associated with different components of attention. These findings could yield a more complete understanding of the nature of the PPL contribution to visuospatial attention.

  8. Building oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks by composition: unmanned vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, J. T.; Pinto, J.; Martins, R.; Costa, M.; Ferreira, F.; Gomes, R.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of developing mobile oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks (MOAO) with coordinated air and ocean vehicles is discussed in the framework of the communications and control software tool chain developed at Underwater Systems and Technologies Laboratory (LSTS) from Porto University. This is done with reference to field experiments to illustrate key capabilities and to assess future MOAO operations. First, the motivation for building MOAO by "composition" of air and ocean vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks is discussed - in networked vehicle systems information and commands are exchanged among multiple vehicles and operators, and the roles, relative positions, and dependencies of these vehicles and operators change during operations. Second, the planning and execution control framework developed at LSTS for multi-vehicle systems is discussed with reference to key concepts such as autonomy, mixed-initiative interactions, and layered organization. Third, the LSTS tool software tool chain is presented to show how to develop MOAO by composition. The tool chain comprises the Neptus command and control framework for mixed initiative interactions, the underlying IMC messaging protocol, and the DUNE on-board software. Fourth, selected LSTS operational deployments illustrate MOAO capability building. In 2012 we demonstrated the use of UAS to "ferry" data from UUVs located beyond line of sight (BLOS). In 2013 we demonstrated coordinated observations of coastal fronts with small UAS and UUVs, "bent" BLOS through the use of UAS as communication relays, and UAS tracking of juvenile hammer-head sharks. In 2014 we demonstrated UUV adaptive sampling with the closed loop controller of the UUV residing on a UAS; this was done with the help of a Wave Glider ASV with a communications gateway. The results from these experiments provide a background for assessing potential future UAS operations in a compositional MOAO.

  9. Study on a new framework of Human Reliability Analysis to evaluate soft control execution error in advanced MCRs of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Jung, Wondea; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting new HSIs. • The operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. • New HRA framework should be considered in the HRA for advanced MCRs. • HRA framework for evaluation of soft control execution human error is suggested. • Suggested method will be helpful to analyze human reliability in advance MCRs. - Abstract: Since the Three Mile Island (TMI)-2 accident, human error has been recognized as one of the main causes of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accidents, and numerous studies related to Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) have been carried out. Most of these methods were developed considering the conventional type of Main Control Rooms (MCRs). However, the operating environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed with the adoption of new Human-System Interfaces (HSIs) that are based on computer-based technologies. The MCRs that include these digital technologies, such as large display panels, computerized procedures, and soft controls, are called advanced MCRs. Among the many features of advanced MCRs, soft controls are a particularly important feature because operating actions in NPP advanced MCRs are performed by soft control. Due to the differences in interfaces between soft control and hardwired conventional type control, different Human Error Probabilities (HEPs) and a new HRA framework should be considered in the HRA for advanced MCRs. To this end, a new framework of a HRA method for evaluating soft control execution human error is suggested by performing a soft control task analysis and the literature regarding widely accepted human error taxonomies is reviewed. Moreover, since most current HRA databases deal with operation in conventional MCRs and are not explicitly designed to deal with digital HSIs, empirical analysis of human error and error recovery considering soft controls under an advanced MCR mockup are carried out to collect human error data, which is

  10. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618.

  11. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age and a popular puzzle game (Tetris. Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the healthy young adults. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields

  12. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: Why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Quin eYow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-year-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching and n-back task that measure the executive function components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only, indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related executive functions such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global

  13. Track and mode controller (TMC): a software executive for a high-altitude pointing and tracking experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michnovicz, Michael R.

    1997-06-01

    A real-time executive has been implemented to control a high altitude pointing and tracking experiment. The track and mode controller (TMC) implements a table driven design, in which the track mode logic for a tracking mission is defined within a state transition diagram (STD). THe STD is implemented as a state transition table in the TMC software. Status Events trigger the state transitions in the STD. Each state, as it is entered, causes a number of processes to be activated within the system. As these processes propagate through the system, the status of key processes are monitored by the TMC, allowing further transitions within the STD. This architecture is implemented in real-time, using the vxWorks operating system. VxWorks message queues allow communication of status events from the Event Monitor task to the STD task. Process commands are propagated to the rest of the system processors by means of the SCRAMNet shared memory network. The system mode logic contained in the STD will autonomously sequence in acquisition, tracking and pointing system through an entire engagement sequence, starting with target detection and ending with aimpoint maintenance. Simulation results and lab test results will be presented to verify the mode controller. In addition to implementing the system mode logic with the STD, the TMC can process prerecorded time sequences of commands required during startup operations. It can also process single commands from the system operator. In this paper, the author presents (1) an overview, in which he describes the TMC architecture, the relationship of an end-to-end simulation to the flight software and the laboratory testing environment, (2) implementation details, including information on the vxWorks message queues and the SCRAMNet shared memory network, (3) simulation results and lab test results which verify the mode controller, and (4) plans for the future, specifically as to how this executive will expedite transition to a fully

  14. The benefits of executive control training and the implications for language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika K. Hussey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent psycholinguistics research suggests that the executive function (EF skill known as conflict resolution—the ability to adjust behavior in the service of resolving among incompatible representations—is important for several language processing tasks such as lexical and syntactic ambiguity resolution, verbal fluency, and common-ground assessment. Here, we discuss work showing that various EF skills can be enhanced through consistent practice with working memory tasks that tap these EFs, and, moreover, that improvements on the training tasks transfer across domains to novel tasks that may rely on shared underlying EFs. These findings have implications for language processing and could launch new research exploring if EF training, within a process-specific framework, could be used as a remediation tool for improving general language use. Indeed, work in our lab demonstrates that EF training that increases conflict-resolution processes has selective benefits on an untrained sentence-processing task requiring syntactic ambiguity resolution, which relies on shared conflict-resolution functions. Given claims that conflict-resolution abilities contribute to a range of linguistic skills, EF training targeting this process could theoretically yield wider performance gains beyond garden-path recovery. We offer some hypotheses on the potential benefits of EF training as a component of interventions to mitigate general difficulties in language processing. However, there are caveats to consider as well, which we also address.

  15. Working memory capacity and Stroop interference: global versus local indices of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matt E; Kane, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments examined the relations among working memory capacity (WMC), congruency-sequence effects, proportion-congruency effects, and the color-word Stroop effect to test whether congruency-sequence effects might inform theoretical claims regarding WMC's prediction of Stroop interference. In Experiment 1, subjects completed either a high-congruency or low-congruency Stroop task that restricted trial-to-trial repetitions of stimulus dimensions to examine WMC's relation to congruency-sequence effects while minimizing bottom-up, stimulus-driven contributions. Congruency-sequence effects and congruency-proportion effects were significant but did not interact. WMC predicted global Stroop interference under low-congruency conditions but neither local congruency-sequence effects nor global Stroop interference under high-congruency conditions, contrary to previous studies (e.g., Kane & Engle, 2003). A high-congruency Stroop task in Experiment 2 removed the Experiment 1 task constraints, and, here, we obtained the typical, global association between WMC and Stroop interference but still no relation between WMC and congruency-sequence effects. We thus examined the methodological differences between Experiments 1 and 2 to determine whether any of these were locally responsible for the global WMC-related differences. They were not, suggesting that the changes between Experiments 1 and 2 created a general task context that engaged (or disengaged) the executive processes associated with WMC.

  16. Design, Analysis, and On-Sun Evaluation of Reflective Strips Under Controlled Buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Solar concentrators are envisioned for use in a variety of space-based applications, including applications involving in situ resource utilization. Identifying solar concentrators that minimize mass and cost are of great interest, especially since launch cost is driven in part by the mass of the payload. Concentrators must also be able to survive the wide temperature excursions on the lunar surface. Identifying smart structures which compensate for changes in concentrator geometry brought about by temperature extremes are of interest. Some applications may benefit from the ability to change the concentrators focal pattern at will. This paper addresses a method of designing a single reflective strip to produce a desired focal pattern through the use of controlled buckling. Small variations in the cross section over the length of the reflective strip influence the distribution of light in the focal region. A finite element method of analysis is utilized here which calculates the curve produced for a given strip cross section and axial load. Varying axial force and strip cross section over the length of the reflective strip provide a means of optimizing ray convergence in the focal region. Careful selection of a tapered cross section yields a reflective strip that approximates a parabola. An array of reflective strips under controlled buckling produces a light weight concentrator and adjustments in the compression of individual strips provide a means of compensating for temperature excursions or changing the focal pattern at will.

  17. Reflective and impulsive influences on unhealthy snacking. The moderating effects of food related self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Verplanken, Bas; Tuu, Ho Huy

    2012-04-01

    This study proposes that snacking behaviour may be either reflective and deliberate or impulsive, thus following a dual-process account. We hypothesised that chronic individual differences in food related self-control would moderate the relationships between reflective and impulsive processes. The reflective route was represented by an attitude toward unhealthy snacking, while the impulsive route was represented by the tendency to buy snack on impulse. A web survey was conducted with 207 students and employees at a Norwegian university, and a moderated hierarchical regression analysis using structural equation modelling was used to estimate the theoretical model. The findings showed that both attitudes towards unhealthy snacking and impulsive snack buying tendency were positively related to snack consumption. Food related self-control moderated the relation between attitude and behaviour, as well as the relation between impulsive snack buying tendency and behaviour. The effect of attitude on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was strong, while the effect of impulsive snack buying on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was weak. The results thus suggest that while weak self-control exposes individuals vulnerable to impulsive tendencies, strong self-control does not necessarily lead to less unhealthy snacking, but this depends on the valence of an individual's attitude. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Randomized controlled effectiveness trial of executive function intervention for children on the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Naiman, Daniel Q; Cannon, Lynn; Wills, Meagan C; Luong-Tran, Caroline; Werner, Monica Adler; Alexander, Katie C; Strang, John; Bal, Elgiz; Sokoloff, Jennifer L; Wallace, Gregory L

    2014-04-01

    Unstuck and On Target (UOT) is an executive function (EF) intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) targeting insistence on sameness, flexibility, goal-setting, and planning through a cognitive-behavioral program of self-regulatory scripts, guided/faded practice, and visual/verbal cueing. UOT is contextually-based because it is implemented in school and at home, the contexts in which a child uses EF skills. To evaluate the effectiveness of UOT compared with a social skills intervention (SS), 3rd-5th graders with ASD (mean IQ = 108; UOT n = 47; SS n = 20) received interventions delivered by school staff in small group sessions. Students were matched for gender, age, race, IQ, ASD symptomotolgy, medication status, and parents' education. Interventions were matched for 'dose' of intervention and training. Measures of pre-post change included classroom observations, parent/teacher report, and direct child measures of problem-solving, EF, and social skills. Schools were randomized and evaluators, but not parents or teachers, were blinded to intervention type. Interventions were administered with high fidelity. Children in both groups improved with intervention, but mean change scores from pre- to postintervention indicated significantly greater improvements for UOT than SS groups in: problem-solving, flexibility, and planning/organizing. Also, classroom observations revealed that participants in UOT made greater improvements than SS participants in their ability to follow rules, make transitions, and be flexible. Children in both groups made equivalent improvements in social skills. These data support the effectiveness of the first contextually-based EF intervention for children with ASD. UOT improved classroom behavior, flexibility, and problem-solving in children with ASD. Individuals with variable background/training in ASD successfully implemented UOT in mainstream educational settings. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and

  19. Control of generation spectrum of gyrotron with external reflection in mode of several longitudinal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental', R.M.; Ginzburg, N.S.; Zajtsev, N.I.; Ilyakov, E.V.; Kulagin, I.S.

    2006-01-01

    One studies possibility to control the spectrum of multiparticle generation in a gyrotron due to application of external reflections. It is shown that in self-modulation regimes of generation the radiation spectrum lines may be close to the resonance frequencies throughout electrodynamic system covering a part of output waveguide restricted by a reflector. Under the mentioned conditions variation of distance between mode frequencies and, respectively, period of self-modulation may be reached due to varying of position of the reflector. The theory deductions are supported by the results of experimental investigation into 30 GHz region relativistic gyrotron with external reflections [ru

  20. Multiple roles for executive control in belief-desire reasoning: distinct neural networks are recruited for self perspective inhibition and complexity of reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwright, Charlotte E; Apperly, Ian A; Hansen, Peter C

    2012-07-16

    Belief-desire reasoning is a core component of 'Theory of Mind' (ToM), which can be used to explain and predict the behaviour of agents. Neuroimaging studies reliably identify a network of brain regions comprising a 'standard' network for ToM, including temporoparietal junction and medial prefrontal cortex. Whilst considerable experimental evidence suggests that executive control (EC) may support a functioning ToM, co-ordination of neural systems for ToM and EC is poorly understood. We report here use of a novel task in which psychologically relevant ToM parameters (true versus false belief; approach versus avoidance desire) were manipulated orthogonally. The valence of these parameters not only modulated brain activity in the 'standard' ToM network but also in EC regions. Varying the valence of both beliefs and desires recruits anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting a shared inhibitory component associated with negatively valenced mental state concepts. Varying the valence of beliefs additionally draws on ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, reflecting the need to inhibit self perspective. These data provide the first evidence that separate functional and neural systems for EC may be recruited in the service of different aspects of ToM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Trait anxiety and impaired control of reflective attention in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Takatoshi; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the control of reflective attention in working memory (WM) is impaired in high trait anxiety individuals. We focused on the consequences of refreshing-a simple reflective process of thinking briefly about a just-activated representation in mind-on the subsequent processing of verbal stimuli. Participants performed a selective refreshing task, in which they initially refreshed or read one word from a three-word set, and then refreshed a non-selected item from the initial phrase or read aloud a new word. High trait anxiety individuals exhibited greater latencies when refreshing a word after experiencing the refreshing of a word from the same list of semantic associates. The same pattern was observed for reading a new word after prior refreshing. These findings suggest that high trait anxiety individuals have difficulty resolving interference from active distractors when directing reflective attention towards contents in WM or processing a visually presented word.

  2. Controlling the EU Executive? The Politics of Delegation in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsma, Gijs Jan; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    Every year the EU Commission issues thousands of rules based on powers delegated by the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament. But delegation is carefully controlled. Traditionally, control has been exerted through a system of committees of member state representatives (‘comitology......’). However, this system was contested by the European Parliament which was left without any influence. The Lisbon Treaty introduced a new control regime for delegated powers, the so-called delegated acts system, which was meant to supplement the existing system. The new system involves direct control...... by the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament and thus for the first time gave the European Parliament real influence over delegated powers. However, the choice over which delegation regime to use in practice has turned into one of the most vehement institutional conflicts in the EU political system...

  3. Executive Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovici, Gil D.; Stephens, Melanie L.; Possin, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Executive functions represent a constellation of cognitive abilities that drive goal-oriented behavior and are critical to the ability to adapt to an ever-changing world. This article provides a clinically oriented approach to classifying, localizing, diagnosing, and treating disorders of executive function, which are pervasive in clinical practice. Recent Findings: Executive functions can be split into four distinct components: working memory, inhibition, set shifting, and fluency. These components may be differentially affected in individual patients and act together to guide higher-order cognitive constructs such as planning and organization. Specific bedside and neuropsychological tests can be applied to evaluate components of executive function. While dysexecutive syndromes were first described in patients with frontal lesions, intact executive functioning relies on distributed neural networks that include not only the prefrontal cortex, but also the parietal cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Executive dysfunction arises from injury to any of these regions, their white matter connections, or neurotransmitter systems. Dysexecutive symptoms therefore occur in most neurodegenerative diseases and in many other neurologic, psychiatric, and systemic illnesses. Management approaches are patient specific and should focus on treatment of the underlying cause in parallel with maximizing patient function and safety via occupational therapy and rehabilitation. Summary: Executive dysfunction is extremely common in patients with neurologic disorders. Diagnosis and treatment hinge on familiarity with the clinical components and neuroanatomic correlates of these complex, high-order cognitive processes. PMID:26039846

  4. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-12-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals performed the Simon task and the Attentional Networks Task (ANT). Language proficiencies and socioeconomic status were controlled. We found that the Simon effect advantage, reported in earlier research for bilingual children and adults over monolinguals, differed across groups, with bilinguals and trilinguals showing enhanced conflict resolution over monolinguals and marginally so over second-language learners. In the ANT, bilinguals and trilinguals displayed enhanced conflict resolution over second-language learners. This extends earlier research to child second-language learners and trilinguals, who were in the process of becoming proficient in an additional language, while corroborating earlier findings demonstrating enhanced executive control in bilinguals assumed to be caused by continuous inhibitory control processes necessary in competition resolution between two (or possibly more) languages. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children, both for early second-language learners and for early bilinguals and trilinguals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of the Cognitive-Functional (Cog-Fun) Intervention on Executive Functions and Participation Among Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Markowitz, Jeri; Berger, Itai; Manor, Iris; Maeir, Adina

    We examined the effect of the Cognitive-Functional (Cog-Fun) occupational therapy intervention on executive functions and participation among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We used a randomized, controlled study with a crossover design. One hundred and seven children age 7-10 yr diagnosed with ADHD were allocated to treatment or wait-list control group. The control group received treatment after a 3-mo wait. Outcome measures included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Significant improvements were found on both the BRIEF and COPM after intervention with large treatment effects. Before crossover, significant Time × Group interactions were found on the BRIEF. This study supports the effectiveness of the Cog-Fun intervention in improving executive functions and participation among children with ADHD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. Executive summary of the special safeguards study on material control and accounting systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This report assesses the feasibility of real-time systems applied to mixed-oxide fuel rod fabrication. Their interaction with other material control and accounting measures are considered. Economics, effectiveness, and acceptance factors are discussed. A cost-benefit evaluation is made and recommendations given for safeguards improvements

  7. The Role of Executive Control of Attention and Selective Encoding for Preschoolers' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderer, Thomas; Krebs, Saskia; Schmid, Corinne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2012-01-01

    Selectivity in encoding, aspects of attentional control and their contribution to learning performance were explored in a sample of preschoolers. While the children are performing a learning task, their encoding of relevant and attention towards irrelevant information was recorded through an eye-tracking device. Recognition of target items was…

  8. The Interplay between Executive Control and Motor Functioning in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Darren R.; Thomas, Daniel; Menant, Jasmine C.; Porter, Melanie A.; Smith, Stuart; Lord, Stephen R.; Cornish, Kim M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, show specific weaknesses in visual attention and response inhibition within the visuospatial domain. Here we examine the extent to which impairments in attentional control extend to the visuomotor domain using a…

  9. The executive control network and symptomatic improvement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francx, Winke; Oldehinkel, Marianne; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Beckmann, Christian F.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Background: One neurodevelopmental theory hypothesizes remission of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to result from improved prefrontal top-down control, while ADHD, independent of the current diagnosis, is characterized by stable non-cortical deficits (Halperin & Schulz, 2006). We

  10. REPORT TO CONGRESS: ASSESSMENT OF INTERNATIONAL AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The technologies may be entirely new to the U.S., or they may be ...

  11. Perceived social isolation is associated with altered functional connectivity in neural networks associated with tonic alertness and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layden, Elliot A; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Cappa, Stefano F; Dodich, Alessandra; Falini, Andrea; Canessa, Nicola

    2017-01-15

    Perceived social isolation (PSI), colloquially known as loneliness, is associated with selectively altered attentional, cognitive, and affective processes in humans, but the neural mechanisms underlying these adjustments remain largely unexplored. Behavioral, eye tracking, and neuroimaging research has identified associations between PSI and implicit hypervigilance for social threats. Additionally, selective executive dysfunction has been evidenced by reduced prepotent response inhibition in social Stroop and dichotic listening tasks. Given that PSI is associated with pre-attentional processes, PSI may also be related to altered resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in the brain. Therefore, we conducted the first resting-state fMRI FC study of PSI in healthy young adults. Five-minute resting-state scans were obtained from 55 participants (31 females). Analyses revealed robust associations between PSI and increased brain-wide FC in areas encompassing the right central operculum and right supramarginal gyrus, and these associations were not explained by depressive symptomatology, objective isolation, or demographics. Further analyses revealed that PSI was associated with increased FC between several nodes of the cingulo-opercular network, a network known to underlie the maintenance of tonic alertness. These regions encompassed the bilateral insula/frontoparietal opercula and ACC/pre-SMA. In contrast, FC between the cingulo-opercular network and right middle/superior frontal gyrus was reduced, a finding associated with diminished executive function in prior literature. We suggest that, in PSI, increased within-network cingulo-opercular FC may be associated with hypervigilance to social threat, whereas reduced right middle/superior frontal gyrus FC to the cingulo-opercular network may be associated with diminished impulse control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy based on the control of cavity reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixin; Ma, Weiguang; Fu, Xiaofang; Tan, Wei; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang

    2013-07-29

    A new type of continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectrometer based on the control of cavity reflection for trace gas detection was designed and evaluated. The technique separated the acquisitions of the ringdown event and the trigger signal to optical switch by detecting the cavity reflection and transmission, respectively. A detailed description of the time sequence of the measurement process was presented. In order to avoid the wrong extraction of ringdown time encountered accidentally in fitting procedure, the laser frequency and cavity length were scanned synchronously. Based on the statistical analysis of measured ringdown times, the frequency normalized minimum detectable absorption in the reflection control mode was 1.7 × 10(-9)cm(-1)Hz(-1/2), which was 5.4 times smaller than that in the transmission control mode. However the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption spectrum was only 3 times improved since the etalon effect existed. Finally, the peak absorption coefficients of the C(2)H(2) transition near 1530.9nm under different pressures showed a good agreement with the theoretical values.

  13. Determination of functions of controlling drives of main executive mechanisms of mining excavators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunova, Yu A.; Komissarov, A. P.; Lukashuk, O. A.

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that a special shovel is a feature of the structure of the drives of the main mechanisms (mechanisms of lifting and pressure) of career excavators with working equipment, the presence in the transfer device of a two-crank-lever mechanism of working equipment that connects the main mechanisms with the working body (bucket). In this case, the transformation of the mechanical energy parameters of the motors into energy-force parameters realized at the cutting edge of the bucket (teeth) takes place depending on the type of the kinematic scheme of the two-link-lever mechanism. The concept of “control function” defining the relationship between the parameters characterizing the position of the bucket in the face (the coordinates of the tip of the cutting edge of the bucket, the digging speed) and the required control level are introduced. These are the values of the lifting and head speeds ensuring the bucket movement along a given trajectory.

  14. The test-retest reliability of the latent construct of executive function depends on whether tasks are represented as formative or reflective indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Kuhn, Laura J; Blair, Clancy B; Samek, Anya; List, John A

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the test-retest reliability of a battery of executive function (EF) tasks with a specific interest in testing whether the method that is used to create a battery-wide score would result in differences in the apparent test-retest reliability of children's performance. A total of 188 4-year-olds completed a battery of computerized EF tasks twice across a period of approximately two weeks. Two different approaches were used to create a score that indexed children's overall performance on the battery-i.e., (1) the mean score of all completed tasks and (2) a factor score estimate which used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Pearson and intra-class correlations were used to investigate the test-retest reliability of individual EF tasks, as well as an overall battery score. Consistent with previous studies, the test-retest reliability of individual tasks was modest (rs ≈ .60). The test-retest reliability of the overall battery scores differed depending on the scoring approach (r mean  = .72; r factor_ score  = .99). It is concluded that the children's performance on individual EF tasks exhibit modest levels of test-retest reliability. This underscores the importance of administering multiple tasks and aggregating performance across these tasks in order to improve precision of measurement. However, the specific strategy that is used has a large impact on the apparent test-retest reliability of the overall score. These results replicate our earlier findings and provide additional cautionary evidence against the routine use of factor analytic approaches for representing individual performance across a battery of EF tasks.

  15. Bragg reflection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.W.

    This user's guide to the Bragg Reflection Program (BRP) is in the nature of an informal report. The general purpose of BRP is to scan a series of Bragg reflections automatically in order to obtain profiles and integrated intensities. The program is used in conjunction with the SUPERVISOR and READ packages, and the procedures for using it are similar to those for the Triple-Axis Control program. All the general features of the system, SUPERVISOR and READ packages as described in the Spectrometer Control Systems User's Guide are preserved. The presentation assumes that the reader is familiar with these. Sections are given on the READ package, execution and use, error messages, and output. A few sample problems are shown. (1 figure) (U.S.)

  16. Multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in children with an autism spectrum disorder: "weak" central coherence and its relationship to theory of mind and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Maybery, Murray; Durkin, Kevin; Maley, Alana

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the validity of "weak" central coherence (CC) in the context of multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in autism. Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and matched typically developing children were administered tasks tapping visuospatial coherence, false-belief understanding and aspects of executive control. Significant group differences were found in all three cognitive domains. Evidence of local processing on coherence tasks was widespread in the ASD group, but difficulties in attributing false beliefs and in components of executive functioning were present in fewer of the children with ASD. This cognitive profile was generally similar for younger and older children with ASD. Furthermore, weak CC was unrelated to false-belief understanding, but aspects of coherence (related to integration) were associated with aspects of executive control. Few associations were found between cognitive variables and indices of autistic symptomatology. Implications for CC theory are discussed.

  17. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W. Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English–Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number–letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number–letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting. PMID:25767451

  18. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting.

  19. Executive control deficits in substance-dependent individuals: a comparison of alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine and of men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, E.A.A.; Crone, E.A.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Tranel, D.; Bechara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Substance dependence is associated with executive function deficits, but the nature of these executive defects and the effect that different drugs and sex have on these defects have not been fully clarified. Therefore, we compared the performance of alcohol- (n = 33; 18 women), cocaine- (n = 27; 14

  20. 75 FR 43165 - Information Collection; OMB Control No. 3090-00XX; FFATA Subaward and Executive Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ...Rulemaking portal by inputting ``Information Collection 3090-XXXX, FFATA Subaward and Executive Compensation... ``Submit a Comment'' that corresponds with ``Information Collection 3090-XXXX, FFATA Subaward and Executive.... Please include your name, company name (if any), and ``Information Collection 3090-XXXX, FFATA Subaward...

  1. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: working memory and inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Annalise A; Moradzadeh, Linda; Wiseheart, Melody

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated whether long-term experience in music or a second language is associated with enhanced cognitive functioning. Early studies suggested the possibility of a cognitive advantage from musical training and bilingualism but have failed to be replicated by recent findings. Further, each form of expertise has been independently investigated leaving it unclear whether any benefits are specifically caused by each skill or are a result of skill learning in general. To assess whether cognitive benefits from training exist, and how unique they are to each training domain, the current study compared musicians and bilinguals to each other, plus to individuals who had expertise in both skills, or neither. Young adults ( n = 153) were categorized into one of four groups: monolingual musician; bilingual musician; bilingual non-musician; and monolingual non-musician. Multiple tasks per cognitive ability were used to examine the coherency of any training effects. Results revealed that musically trained individuals, but not bilinguals, had enhanced working memory. Neither skill had enhanced inhibitory control. The findings confirm previous associations between musicians and improved cognition and extend existing evidence to show that benefits are narrower than expected but can be uniquely attributed to music compared to another specialized auditory skill domain. The null bilingual effect despite a music effect in the same group of individuals challenges the proposition that young adults are at a performance ceiling and adds to increasing evidence on the lack of a bilingual advantage on cognition.

  2. Towards a Better Understanding of the Relationship between Executive Control and Theory of Mind: An Intra-Cultural Comparison of Three Diverse Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaeian, Ameneh; Henry, Julie D.; Razmjoee, Maryam; Teymoori, Ali; Wang, Cen

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has consistently indicated that theory of mind (ToM) is associated with executive control in the preschool years. However, interpretation of this literature is limited by the fact that most studies have focused exclusively on urbanized Western cultural samples. Consequently, it is not clear whether the association between ToM and…

  3. Executive control resources and frequency of fatty food consumption: findings from an age-stratified community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A

    2012-03-01

    Fatty foods are regarded as highly appetitive, and self-control is often required to resist consumption. Executive control resources (ECRs) are potentially facilitative of self-control efforts, and therefore could predict success in the domain of dietary self-restraint. It is not currently known whether stronger ECRs facilitate resistance to fatty food consumption, and moreover, it is unknown whether such an effect would be stronger in some age groups than others. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between ECRs and consumption of fatty foods among healthy community-dwelling adults across the adult life span. An age-stratified sample of individuals between 18 and 89 years of age attended two laboratory sessions. During the first session they completed two computer-administered tests of ECRs (Stroop and Go-NoGo) and a test of general cognitive function (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence); participants completed two consecutive 1-week recall measures to assess frequency of fatty and nonfatty food consumption. Regression analyses revealed that stronger ECRs were associated with lower frequency of fatty food consumption over the 2-week interval. This association was observed for both measures of ECR and a composite measure. The effect remained significant after adjustment for demographic variables (age, gender, socioeconomic status), general cognitive function, and body mass index. The observed effect of ECRs on fatty food consumption frequency was invariant across age group, and did not generalize to nonfatty food consumption. ECRs may be potentially important, though understudied, determinants of dietary behavior in adults across the life span.

  4. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of sapropterin to treat ADHD symptoms and executive function impairment in children and adults with sapropterin-responsive phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, B; Grant, M; Feigenbaum, A; Singh, R; Hendren, R; Siriwardena, K; Phillips, J; Sanchez-Valle, A; Waisbren, S; Gillis, J; Prasad, S; Merilainen, M; Lang, W; Zhang, C; Yu, S; Stahl, S

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly inattention, and impairments in executive functioning have been reported in early and continuously treated children, adolescents, and adults with phenylketonuria (PKU). In addition, higher blood phenylalanine (Phe) levels have been correlated with the presence of ADHD symptoms and executive functioning impairment. The placebo-controlled PKU ASCEND study evaluated the effects of sapropterin therapy on PKU-associated symptoms of ADHD and executive and global functioning in individuals who had a therapeutic blood Phe response to sapropterin therapy. The presence of ADHD inattentive symptoms and executive functioning deficits was confirmed in this large cohort of 206 children and adults with PKU, of whom 118 responded to sapropterin therapy. In the 38 individuals with sapropterin-responsive PKU and ADHD symptoms at baseline, sapropterin therapy resulted in a significant improvement in ADHD inattentive symptoms in the first 4 weeks of treatment, and improvements were maintained throughout the 26 weeks of treatment. Sapropterin was well-tolerated with a favorable safety profile. The improvements in ADHD inattentive symptoms and aspects of executive functioning in response to sapropterin therapy noted in a large cohort of individuals with PKU indicate that these symptoms are potentially reversible when blood Phe levels are reduced. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Executive and Perceptual Distraction in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The contents of visual working memory are likely to reflect the influence of both executive control resources and information present in the environment. We investigated whether executive attention is critical in the ability to exclude unwanted stimuli by introducing concurrent potentially distracting irrelevant items to a visual working memory paradigm, and manipulating executive load using simple or more demanding secondary verbal tasks. Across 7 experiments varying in presentation format, timing, stimulus set, and distractor number, we observed clear disruptive effects of executive load and visual distraction, but relatively minimal evidence supporting an interactive relationship between these factors. These findings are in line with recent evidence using delay-based interference, and suggest that different forms of attentional selection operate relatively independently in visual working memory. PMID:28414499

  6. Executive and perceptual distraction in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J

    2017-09-01

    The contents of visual working memory are likely to reflect the influence of both executive control resources and information present in the environment. We investigated whether executive attention is critical in the ability to exclude unwanted stimuli by introducing concurrent potentially distracting irrelevant items to a visual working memory paradigm, and manipulating executive load using simple or more demanding secondary verbal tasks. Across 7 experiments varying in presentation format, timing, stimulus set, and distractor number, we observed clear disruptive effects of executive load and visual distraction, but relatively minimal evidence supporting an interactive relationship between these factors. These findings are in line with recent evidence using delay-based interference, and suggest that different forms of attentional selection operate relatively independently in visual working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A tweaking principle for executive control: neuronal circuit mechanism for rule-based task switching and conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardid, Salva; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2013-12-11

    A hallmark of executive control is the brain's agility to shift between different tasks depending on the behavioral rule currently in play. In this work, we propose a "tweaking hypothesis" for task switching: a weak rule signal provides a small bias that is dramatically amplified by reverberating attractor dynamics in neural circuits for stimulus categorization and action selection, leading to an all-or-none reconfiguration of sensory-motor mapping. Based on this principle, we developed a biologically realistic model with multiple modules for task switching. We found that the model quantitatively accounts for complex task switching behavior: switch cost, congruency effect, and task-response interaction; as well as monkey's single-neuron activity associated with task switching. The model yields several testable predictions, in particular, that category-selective neurons play a key role in resolving sensory-motor conflict. This work represents a neural circuit model for task switching and sheds insights in the brain mechanism of a fundamental cognitive capability.

  8. Hierarchical Control and Skilled Typing: Evidence for Word-Level Control over the Execution of Individual Keystrokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Matthew J. C.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2010-01-01

    Routine actions are commonly assumed to be controlled by hierarchically organized processes and representations. In the domain of typing theories, word-level information is assumed to activate the constituent keystrokes required to type each letter in a word. We tested this assumption directly using a novel single-letter probe technique. Subjects…

  9. Atomoxetine effects on executive function as measured by the BRIEF--a in young adults with ADHD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenard A Adler

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine treatment on executive functions in young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.In this Phase 4, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, young adults (18-30 years with ADHD were randomized to receive atomoxetine (20-50 mg BID, N = 220 or placebo (N = 225 for 12 weeks. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult (BRIEF-A consists of 75 self-report items within 9 nonoverlapping clinical scales measuring various aspects of executive functioning. Mean changes from baseline to 12-week endpoint on the BRIEF-A were analyzed using an ANCOVA model (terms: baseline score, treatment, and investigator.At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the percentage of patients with BRIEF-A composite or index T-scores ≥60 (p>.5, with over 92% of patients having composite scores ≥60 (≥60 deemed clinically meaningful for these analyses. At endpoint, statistically significantly greater mean reductions were seen in the atomoxetine versus placebo group for the BRIEF-A Global Executive Composite (GEC, Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI, and Metacognitive Index (MI scores, as well as the Inhibit, Self-Monitor, Working Memory, Plan/Organize and Task Monitor subscale scores (p<.05, with decreases in scores signifying improvements in executive functioning. Changes in the BRIEF-A Initiate (p = .051, Organization of Materials (p = .051, Shift (p = .090, and Emotional Control (p = .219 subscale scores were not statistically significant. In addition, the validity scales: Inconsistency (p = .644, Infrequency (p = .097, and Negativity (p = .456 were not statistically significant, showing scale validity.Statistically significantly greater improvement in executive function was observed in young adults with ADHD in the atomoxetine versus placebo group as measured by changes in the BRIEF-A scales.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00510276.

  10. Controllable transmission and total reflection through an impedance-matched acoustic metasurface

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun

    2014-12-02

    A general design paradigm for a novel type of acoustic metasurface is proposed by introducing periodically repeated supercells on a rigid thin plate, where each supercell contains multiple cut-through slits that are filled with materials possessing different refractive indices but the same impedance as that of the host medium. When the wavelength of the incident wave is smaller than the periodicity, the direction of the transmitted wave with nearly unity transmittance can be chosen by engineering the phase discontinuities along the transverse direction. When the wavelength is larger than the periodicity, even though the metasurface is impedance matched to the host medium, most of the incident energy is reflected back and the remaining portion is converted into a surface-bound mode. We show that both the transmitted wave control and the high reflection with the surface mode excitation can be interpreted by a unified analytic model based on mode-coupling theory. Our general design principle not only supplies the functionalities of reflection-type acoustic metasurfaces, but also exhibits unprecedented flexibility and efficiency in various domains of wave manipulation for possible applications in fields like refracting, collimating, focusing or absorbing wave energy.

  11. 76 FR 4901 - Submission for OMB Review; OMB Control No. 3090-0292; FFATA Subaward and Executive Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... and bonus. ii. Awards of stock, stock options, and stock appreciation rights. Use the dollar amount... property) for the executive exceeds $10,000. Under the Act, a prime entity will be required to report...

  12. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Demography Monitor 2008 gives a concise overview of current demographic trends and related developments in education, the labour market and retirement for the European Union and some other countries. This executive summary highlights the major findings of the Demography Monitor 2008 and further

  13. BWR Radiation Assessment and Control Program: assessment and control of BWR radiation fields. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstine, L.D.

    1983-05-01

    This report covers work on the BWR Radiation Assessment and Control (BRAC) Program from 1978 to 1982. The major activities during this report period were assessment of the radiation-level trends in BWRs, evaluation of the effects of forward-pumped heater drains on BWR water quality, installation and operation of a corrosion-product deposition loop in an operating BWR, and analyzation of fuel-deposit samples from two BWRs. Radiation fields were found to be controlled by cobalt-60 and to vary from as low as 50 mr/hr to as high as 800 mr/hr on the recirculation-system piping. Detailed information on BWR corrosion films and system deposits is presented in the report. Additionally, the results of an oxygen-injection experiment and recontamination monitoring studies are provided

  14. Centralized Command, Distributed Control, and Decentralized Execution - a Command and Control Solution to US Air Force A2/AD Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    backup or “retrograde” locations.61 The “low” portion of the design could be Control and Reporting Centers (CRCs), Airborne C2 platforms (e.g., E-3’s...technology and emerging capabilities must continue to be investigated (e.g., the “combat cloud ”).93 94 A2/AD is a dynamic family of problems that is...Report (Institute for Software Research, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA: Center for the Computational Analysis of Social and

  15. LightLeaves: computer controlled kinetic reflection hologram installation and a brief discussion of earlier work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connors Chen, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    LightLeaves is an installation combining leaf shaped, white light reflection holograms of landscape images with a special kinetic lighting device that houses a lamp and moving leaf shaped masks. The masks are controlled by an Arduino microcontroller and servomotors that position the masks in front of the illumination source of the holograms. The work is the most recent in a long series of landscapes that combine multi-hologram installations with computer controlled devices that play with the motion of the holograms, the light, sound or other elements in the work. LightLeaves was first exhibited at the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts in a show titled E ye Spy: Playing with Perception .

  16. LightLeaves: computer controlled kinetic reflection hologram installation and a brief discussion of earlier work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connors Chen, Betsy, E-mail: acmeholo@gmail.com [ACME Holography, Somerville, Massachusetts USA 02144 (United States)

    2013-02-22

    LightLeaves is an installation combining leaf shaped, white light reflection holograms of landscape images with a special kinetic lighting device that houses a lamp and moving leaf shaped masks. The masks are controlled by an Arduino microcontroller and servomotors that position the masks in front of the illumination source of the holograms. The work is the most recent in a long series of landscapes that combine multi-hologram installations with computer controlled devices that play with the motion of the holograms, the light, sound or other elements in the work. LightLeaves was first exhibited at the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts in a show titled {sup E}ye Spy: Playing with Perception{sup .}.

  17. A randomised controlled trial of a web-based multi-modal therapy program to improve executive functioning in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesana, Adina; Ross, Stephanie; Lloyd, Owen; Whittingham, Koa; Ziviani, Jenny; Ware, Robert S; McKinlay, Lynne; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2017-10-01

    To examine the efficacy of a multi-modal web-based therapy program, Move it to improve it (Mitii™) delivered at home to improve Executive Functioning (EF) in children with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Randomised Waitlist controlled trial. Home environment. Sixty children with an ABI were matched in pairs by age and intelligence quotient then randomised to either 20-weeks of Mitii™ training or 20 weeks of Care As Usual (waitlist control; n=30; 17 males; mean age=11y, 11m (±2y, 6m); Full Scale IQ=76.24±17.84). Fifty-eight children completed baseline assessments (32 males; mean age=11.87±2.47; Full Scale IQ=75.21±16.76). Executive functioning was assessed on four domains: attentional control, cognitive flexibility, goal setting, and information processing using subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (D-KEFS), Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT), Tower of London (TOL), and Test of Everyday Attention for Children (Tea-Ch). Executive functioning performance in everyday life was assessed via parent questionnaire (Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning; BRIEF). No differences were observed at baseline measures. Groups were compared at 20-weeks using linear regression with no significant differences found between groups on all measures of EF. Out of a potential total dose of 60 hours, children in the Mitii™ group completed a mean of 17 hours of Mitii™ intervention. Results indicate no additional benefit to receiving Mitii™ compared to standard care. Mitii™, in its current form, was not shown to improve EF in children with ABI.

  18. Carving Executive Control At Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, But Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and two different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (SR) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC’s relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict), response-selection processes (captured by S-R conflict), or both. In Experiment 1, subjects completed a single task presenting both S-S and S-R conflict trials, plus trials that combined the two conflict types. We limited ostensible goal-maintenance contributions to performance by requiring the same goal for all trial types and by presenting frequent conflict trials that reinforced the goal. WMC predicted resolution of S-S conflict as expected: Higher-WMC subjects showed reduced response time interference. Although WMC also predicted S-R interference, here, higher-WMC subjects showed increased error interference. Experiment 2A replicated these results in a version of the conflict task without combined S-S/S-R trials. Experiment 2B increased the proportion of congruent (non-conflict) trials to promote reliance on goal-maintenance processes. Here, higher-WMC subjects resolved both S-S and S-R conflict more successfully than did lower-WMC subjects. The results were consistent with Kane and Engle’s (2003) two-factor theory of cognitive control, according to which WMC predicts executive-task performance through goal-maintenance and conflict-resolution processes. However, the present results add specificity to the account by suggesting that higher-WMC subjects better resolve cognitive conflict because they more efficiently select relevant stimulus features against irrelevant, distracting ones. PMID:26120774

  19. Numerical controlled diamond fly cutting machine for grazing incidence X-ray reflection mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Fumihiko; Moriyama, Shigeo; Seya, Eiiti

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has reached the stage of practical use, and the application to the wide fields that support future advanced technologies such as spectroscopy, the structural analysis of matters, semiconductor lithography and medical light source is expected. For the optical system of the equipment utilizing synchrotron radiation, the total reflection mirrors of oblique incidence are used for collimating and collecting X-ray. In order to restrain their optical aberration, nonspherical shape is required, and as the manufacturing method with high precision for nonspherical mirrors, a numerically controlled diamond cutting machine was developed. As for the cutting of soft metals with diamond tools, the high precision machining of any form can be done by numerical control, the machining time can be reduced as compared with grinding, and the cooling effect is large in metals. The construction of the cutting machine, the principle of machining, the control system, the method of calculating numerical control data, the investigation of machinable forms and the result of evaluation are reported. (K.I.)

  20. Intelligence, creativity, and cognitive control: The common and differential involvement of executive functions in intelligence and creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Sommer, Markus; Arendasy, Martin; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence and creativity are known to be correlated constructs suggesting that they share a common cognitive basis. The present study assessed three specific executive abilities – updating, shifting, and inhibition – and examined their common and differential relations to fluid intelligence and creativity (i.e., divergent thinking ability) within a latent variable model approach. Additionally, it was tested whether the correlation of fluid intelligence and creativity can be explained by a common executive involvement. As expected, fluid intelligence was strongly predicted by updating, but not by shifting or inhibition. Creativity was predicted by updating and inhibition, but not by shifting. Moreover, updating (and the personality factor openness) was found to explain a relevant part of the shared variance between intelligence and creativity. The findings provide direct support for the executive involvement in creative thought and shed further light on the functional relationship between intelligence and creativity. PMID:25278640

  1. Control of back surface reflectance from aluminum alloyed contacts on silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cudzinovic, M.; Sopori, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A process for forming highly reflective aluminum back contacts with low contact resistance to silicon solar cells is described. By controlling the process conditions, it is possible to vary the silicon/aluminum interface from a specular to a diffuse reflector while maintaining a high interface reflectance. The specular interface is found to be a uniform silicon/aluminum alloy layer a few angstroms thick that has epitaxially regrown on the silicon. The diffuse interface consists of randomly distributed (111) pyramids produced by crystallographic out-diffusion of the bulk silicon. The light trapping ability of the diffuse contact is found to be close to the theoretical limit. Both types of contacts are found to have specific contact resistivities of 10{sup {minus}5} {Omega}-cm{sup 2}. The process for forming the contacts involves illuminating the devices with tungsten halogen lamps. The process is rapid (under 100 s) and low temperature (peak temperature < 580{degrees}C), making it favorable for commercial solar cell fabrication.

  2. Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J.; Göbel, Silke M.; Hulme, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3–4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4–5 years, and written arithmetic in primary school. The same cognitive processes accounted for variability in arithmetic skills in both groups. Early language and executive skills predicted variations in preschool verbal number skills, which in turn, predicted arithmetic skills in school. In contrast, phonological awareness was not a predictor of later arithmetic skills. These results suggest that verbal and executive processes provide the foundation for verbal number skills, which in turn influence the development of formal arithmetic skills. Problems in early language development may explain the comorbidity between reading and mathematics disorder. PMID:26412946

  3. Atomoxetine Effects on Executive Function as Measured by the BRIEF-A in Young Adults with ADHD: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lenard A.; Clemow, David B.; Williams, David W.; Durell, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine treatment on executive functions in young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods In this Phase 4, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, young adults (18–30 years) with ADHD were randomized to receive atomoxetine (20–50 mg BID, N = 220) or placebo (N = 225) for 12 weeks. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult (BRIEF-A) consists of 75 self-report items within 9 nonoverlapping clinical scales measuring various aspects of executive functioning. Mean changes from baseline to 12-week endpoint on the BRIEF-A were analyzed using an ANCOVA model (terms: baseline score, treatment, and investigator). Results At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the percentage of patients with BRIEF-A composite or index T-scores ≥60 (p>.5), with over 92% of patients having composite scores ≥60 (≥60 deemed clinically meaningful for these analyses). At endpoint, statistically significantly greater mean reductions were seen in the atomoxetine versus placebo group for the BRIEF-A Global Executive Composite (GEC), Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI), and Metacognitive Index (MI) scores, as well as the Inhibit, Self-Monitor, Working Memory, Plan/Organize and Task Monitor subscale scores (patomoxetine versus placebo group as measured by changes in the BRIEF-A scales. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00510276 PMID:25148243

  4. Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J; Göbel, Silke M; Hulme, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3-4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4-5 years, and written arithmetic in primary school. The same cognitive processes accounted for variability in arithmetic skills in both groups. Early language and executive skills predicted variations in preschool verbal number skills, which in turn, predicted arithmetic skills in school. In contrast, phonological awareness was not a predictor of later arithmetic skills. These results suggest that verbal and executive processes provide the foundation for verbal number skills, which in turn influence the development of formal arithmetic skills. Problems in early language development may explain the comorbidity between reading and mathematics disorder.

  5. A Paradigm for Investigating Executive Control Mechanisms in Word Retrieval in Language-Impaired and Neurotypical Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Middleton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An unresolved question in research on executive control in language production is whether the processes responsible for inhibiting a dominant, prepotent response in order to comply with task goals is the same or different from control processes that bias intrinsic competition during lexical selection. Heretofore, these processes have been studied with different paradigms, such as the Stroop task and semantic blocking paradigm [1], respectively. The present study introduces a new paradigm to study both mechanisms as they impact word retrieval in neuropsychological and neurotypical populations. The task included several blocks of trials, where within a block two pictures were named repeatedly in random order. Two manipulated factors were: (1 relatedness of the pair of names, which bore either a semantic (duck/pig or phonological relationship (ball/bag; or were unrelated (map/gun; (2 canonicity, where participants named each picture either with the canonical name (e.g., say “pig” for pig, “duck” for duck or reversed the labels (e.g., say “duck” for pig, “pig” for duck. The names were closely matched for length, frequency, and other variables. Crossing the factors created six conditions (semantic-canonical, semantic-reverse, phonological-canonical, phonological-reverse, unrelated-canonical, unrelated-reverse, with each condition administered in one block of 16 trials (8 trials per picture. The task was administered to 12 participants with aphasia (PWA with mild to severe naming impairment and 25 neurotypical controls. The dependent variables were naming latency (calculated for correct naming trials only and naming accuracy, defined as a binary variable (correct versus error, which were analyzed with mixed linear and logistic regression analysis, respectively. For each dependent variable in each participant group, contrasting each related condition with the unrelated condition permitted measurement of three effects--a main effect of

  6. Executive functions in synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, Romke; van Driel, Joram; Knip, Koen; Richard Ridderinkhof, K.

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were

  7. The Effect of Negative Affect on Cognition: Anxiety, Not Anger, Impairs Executive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Grant S.; Moons, Wesley G.; Tewell, Carl A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these two affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in parti...

  8. Bio-inspired, subwavelength surface structures to control reflectivity, transmission, and scattering in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora Gonzalez, Federico

    Controlling the reflection of visible and infrared (IR) light at interfaces is extremely important to increase the power efficiency and performance of optics, electro-optical and (thermo)photovoltaic systems. The eye of the moth has evolved subwavelength protuberances that increase light transmission into the eye tissue and prevent reflection. The subwavelength protuberances effectively grade the refractive index from that of air (n=1) to that of the tissue (n=1.4), making the interface gradual, suppressing reflection. In theory, the moth-eye (ME) structures can be implemented with any material platform to achieve an antireflectance effect by scaling the pitch and size of protuberances for the wavelength range of interest. In this work, a bio-inspired, scalable and substrate-independent surface modification protocol was developed to realize broadband antireflective structures based on the moth-eye principle. Quasi-ordered ME arrays were fabricated in IR relevant materials using a colloidal lithography method to achieve highly efficient, omni-directional transmission of mid and far infrared (IR) radiation. The effect of structure height and aspect ratio on transmittance and scattering is explored, with discussion on experimental techniques and effective medium theory (EMT). The highest aspect ratio structures (AR = 9.4) achieved peak single-side transmittance of 98%, with >85% transmission for lambda = 7--30 microns. A detailed photon balance constructed by transmission, forward scattering, specular reflection and diffuse reflection measurements to quantify optical losses due to near-field effects will be discussed. In addition, angle-dependent transmission measurements showed that moth-eye structures provide superior antireflective properties compared to unstructured interfaces over a wide angular range (0--60° incidence). Finally, subwavelength ME structures are incorporated on a Si substrate to enhance the absorption of near infrared (NIR) light in PtSi films to

  9. Multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in children with an autism spectrum disorder: 'Weak' central coherence and its relationship to theory of mind and executive control

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicano, E.; Maybery, M.; Durkin, K.; Maley, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the validity of “weak” central coherence (CC) in the context of multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in autism. Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and matched typically developing children were administered tasks tapping visuospatial coherence, false-belief understanding and aspects of executive control. Significant group differences were found in all three cognitive domains. Evidence of local processing on coherence tasks was widespread in the ASD group, ...

  10. The Extent of Working Memory Deficits Associated with Williams Syndrome: Exploration of Verbal and Spatial Domains and Executively Controlled Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Riby, Deborah M.; Fraser, Emma; Campbell, Lorna Elise

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated verbal and spatial working memory (WM) functioning in individuals with the neuro-developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) using WM component tasks. While there is strong evidence of WM impairments in WS, previous research has focused on short-term memory and has neglected assessment of executive components of…

  11. Cognitive control and motivation in children with ADHD: How reinforcement interacts with the assessment and training of executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovis, S.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the interaction between two neuropsychological processes that are proposed to play a pivotal role in explaining the problems of children with ADHD: executive functioning (EF) and motivation. We examined the effects of reinforcement on assessment and training of EF in

  12. Conducting the Train of Thought: Working Memory Capacity, Goal Neglect, and Mind Wandering in an Executive-Control Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the executive-attention theory of working memory capacity (WMC; e.g., M. J. Kane, A. R. A. Conway, D. Z. Hambrick, & R. W. Engle, 2007), the authors tested the relations among WMC, mind wandering, and goal neglect in a sustained attention to response task (SART; a go/no-go task). In 3 SART versions, making conceptual versus…

  13. Executive attention control and emotional responding in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder — A functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonjo Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study demonstrated disrupted recruitment of regions implicated in executive function and impaired connectivity within those regions in children/adolescents with ADHD. There were also indications of heightened representation of emotional stimuli in patients with ADHD. However, as the findings were specific for positive stimuli, the suggestion of a general failure in emotion regulation in ADHD was not supported.

  14. Working Memory Capacity and the Top-Down Control of Visual Search: Exploring the Boundaries of "Executive Attention"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael J.; Poole, Bradley J.; Tuholski, Stephen W.; Engle, Randall W.

    2006-01-01

    The executive attention theory of working memory capacity (WMC) proposes that measures of WMC broadly predict higher order cognitive abilities because they tap important and general attention capabilities (R. W. Engle & M. J. Kane, 2004). Previous research demonstrated WMC-related differences in attention tasks that required restraint of habitual…

  15. Functional Connectivity Between Anterior Insula and Key Nodes of Frontoparietal Executive Control and Salience Networks Distinguish Bipolar Depression From Unipolar Depression and Healthy Control Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellard, Kristen K; Zimmerman, Jared P; Kaur, Navneet; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Roffman, Joshua L; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Dougherty, Darin D; Deckersbach, Thilo; Camprodon, Joan A

    2018-05-01

    Patients with bipolar depression are characterized by dysregulation across the full spectrum of mood, differentiating them from patients with unipolar depression. The ability to switch neural resources among the default mode network, salience network, and executive control network (ECN) has been proposed as a key mechanism for adaptive mood regulation. The anterior insula is implicated in the modulation of functional network switching. Differential connectivity between anterior insula and functional networks may provide insights into pathophysiological differences between bipolar and unipolar mood disorders, with implications for diagnosis and treatment. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 98 subjects (35 unipolar, 24 bipolar, and 39 healthy control subjects). Pearson correlations were computed between bilateral insula seed regions and a priori defined target regions from the default mode network, salience network, and ECN. After r-to-z transformation, a one-way multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to identify significant differences in connectivity between groups. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted and Bonferroni corrections were applied. Receiver-operating characteristics were computed to assess diagnostic sensitivity. Patients with bipolar depression evidenced significantly altered right anterior insula functional connectivity with the inferior parietal lobule of the ECN relative to patients with unipolar depression and control subjects. Right anterior insula-inferior parietal lobule connectivity significantly discriminated patients with bipolar depression. Impaired functional connectivity between the anterior insula and the inferior parietal lobule of the ECN distinguishes patients with bipolar depression from those with unipolar depression and healthy control subjects. This finding highlights a pathophysiological mechanism with potential as a therapeutic target and a clinical biomarker for bipolar

  16. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This paper is an 'executive summary' of work undertaken to review proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high level radioactive wastes in an underground repository, appropriate to the U.K. context, with particular reference to: waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially-shielded block; stages of disposal; transportation within the repository; emplacement in vertical holes or horizontal tunnels; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; and costs. The paper contains a section on general conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  17. Effect of an Ecological Executive Skill Training Program for School-aged Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ying; Chen, Min; Shuai, Lan; Cao, Qing-Jiu; Yang, Li; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2017-07-05

    As medication does not normalize outcomes of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially in real-life functioning, nonpharmacological methods are important to target this field. This randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive executive skill training program for school-aged children with ADHD in a relatively large sample. The children (aged 6-12 years) with ADHD were randomized to the intervention or waitlist groups. A healthy control group was composed of gender- and age-matched healthy children. The intervention group received a 12-session training program for multiple executive skills. Executive function (EF), ADHD symptoms, and social functioning in the intervention and waitlist groups were evaluated at baseline and the end of the final training session. The healthy controls (HCs) were only assessed once at baseline. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to compare EF, ADHD symptoms, and social function between intervention and waitlist groups. Thirty-eight children with ADHD in intervention group, 30 in waitlist group, and 23 healthy children in healthy control group were included in final analysis. At posttreatment, intervention group showed significantly lower Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) total score (135.89 ± 16.80 vs. 146.09 ± 23.92, P= 0.04) and monitoring score (18.05 ± 2.67 vs. 19.77 ± 3.10, P= 0.02), ADHD-IV overall score (41.11 ± 7.48 vs. 47.20 ± 8.47, PADHD-IV overall score (F = 21.72, PADHD-rating scale-IV, and WEISS Functional Impairment Scale-Parent form (WFIRS-P) among the intervention and waitlist groups at posttreatment and HCs at baseline. This randomized controlled study on executive skill training in a relatively large sample provided some evidences that the training could improve EF deficits, reduce problematic symptoms, and potentially enhance the social functioning in school-aged children with ADHD. http

  18. Age-related changes in overcoming proactive interference in associative memory: The role of PFC-mediated executive control processes at retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulas, Michael R; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-05-15

    Behavioral evidence has shown age-related impairments in overcoming proactive interference in memory, but it is unclear what underlies this deficit. Imaging studies in the young suggest overcoming interference may require several executive control processes supported by the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether age-related changes in dissociable executive control processes underlie deficits in overcoming proactive interference in associative memory during retrieval. Participants were tasked with remembering which associate (face or scene) objects were paired with most recently during study, under conditions of high or low proactive interference. Behavioral results demonstrated that, as interference increased, memory performance decreased similarly across groups, with slight associative memory deficits in older adults. Imaging results demonstrated that, across groups, left mid-VLPFC showed increasing activity with increasing interference, though activity did not distinguish correct from incorrect associative memory responses, suggesting this region may not directly serve in successful resolution of proactive interference, per se. Under conditions of high interference, older adults showed reduced associative memory accuracy effects in the DLPFC and anterior PFC. These results suggest that age-related PFC dysfunction may not be ubiquitous. Executive processes supported by ventral regions that detect mnemonic interference may be less affected than processes supported by dorsal and anterior regions that directly resolve interference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying Balance and Fall Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Women: The Effect of Executive Function on Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Muir-Hunter, Susan W.; Clark, Jennifer; McLean, Stephanie; Pedlow, Sam; Van Hemmen, Alysia; Montero Odasso, Manuel; Overend, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The mechanisms linking cognition, balance function, and fall risk among older adults are not fully understood. An evaluation of the effect of cognition on balance tests commonly used in clinical practice to assess community-dwelling older adults could enhance the identification of at-risk individuals. The study aimed to determine (1) the association between cognition and clinical tests of balance and (2) the relationship between executive function (EF) and balance under single- and d...

  20. The Efficacy of Adapted MBCT on Core Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Adults With ADHD: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepark, Sevket; Janssen, Lotte; de Vries, Alicia; Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Donders, Rogier; Kan, Cornelis C; Speckens, Anne E M

    2015-11-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness as a treatment for adults diagnosed with ADHD. A 12-week-adapted mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) program is compared with a waiting list (WL) group. Adults with ADHD were randomly allocated to MBCT (n = 55) or waitlist (n = 48). Outcome measures included investigator-rated ADHD symptoms (primary), self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, depressive and anxiety symptoms, patient functioning, and mindfulness skills. MBCT resulted in a significant reduction of ADHD symptoms, both investigator-rated and self-reported, based on per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. Significant improvements in executive functioning and mindfulness skills were found. Additional analyses suggested that the efficacy of MBCT in reducing ADHD symptoms and improving executive functioning is partially mediated by an increase in the mindfulness skill "Act With Awareness." No improvements were observed for depressive and anxiety symptoms, and patient functioning. This study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of MBCT for adults with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    On 18 May 2001, the Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, within the municipality of Eurajoki. The Municipality Council and the government has made positive decisions earlier, at the end of 2000, and in compliance with the Nuclear Energy Act, Parliament's ratification was then required. The decision is valid for the spent fuel generated by the existing Finnish nuclear power plants and means that the construction of the final disposal facility is considered to be in line with the overall good of society. Earlier steps included, amongst others, the approval of the technical project by the Safety Authority. Future steps include construction of an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO (2003-2004), and application for separate construction and operating licences for the final disposal facility (from about 2010). How did this political and societal decision come about? The FSC Workshop provided the opportunity to present the history leading up to the Decision in Principle (DiP), and to examine future perspectives with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement. This Executive Summary gives an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. It presents, for the most part, a factual account of the individual presentations and of the discussions that took place. It relies importantly on the notes that were taken at the meeting. Most materials are elaborated upon in a fuller way in the texts that the various speakers and session moderators contributed for these proceedings. The structure of the Executive Summary follows the structure of the workshop itself. Complementary to this Summary and also provided with this document, is a NEA Secretariat's perspective aiming to place the results of all discussions, feedback and site visit into an international perspective. (authors)

  2. Interventions to improve executive functioning and working memory in school-aged children with AD(H)D: a randomised controlled trial and stepped-care approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Donk, Marthe L A; Hiemstra-Beernink, Anne-Claire; Tjeenk-Kalff, Ariane C; van der Leij, Aryan V; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2013-01-11

    Deficits in executive functioning are of great significance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One of these executive functions, working memory, plays an important role in academic performance and is often seen as the core deficit of this disorder. There are indications that working memory problems and academic performance can be improved by school-oriented interventions but this has not yet been studied systematically. In this study we will determine the short- and long-term effects of a working memory--and an executive function training applied in a school situation for children with AD(H)D, taking individual characteristics, the level of impairment and costs (stepped-care approach) into account. The study consists of two parts: the first part is a randomised controlled trial with school-aged children (8-12 yrs) with AD(H)D. Two groups (each n = 50) will be randomly assigned to a well studied computerized working memory training 'Cogmed', or to the 'Paying attention in class' intervention which is an experimental school-based executive function training. Children will be selected from regular -and special education primary schools in the region of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The second part of the study will determine which specific characteristics are related to non-response of the 'Paying attention in class' intervention. School-aged children (8-12 yrs) with AD(H)D will follow the experimental school-based executive function training 'Paying attention in class' (n = 175). Academic performance and neurocognitive functioning (primary outcomes) are assessed before, directly after and 6 months after training. Secondary outcome measures are: behaviour in class, behaviour problems and quality of life. So far, there is limited but promising evidence that working memory - and other executive function interventions can improve academic performance. Little is know about the applicability and generalization effects of these interventions in a classroom

  3. Interventions to improve executive functioning and working memory in school-aged children with AD(HD: a randomised controlled trial and stepped-care approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Donk Marthe LA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficits in executive functioning are of great significance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. One of these executive functions, working memory, plays an important role in academic performance and is often seen as the core deficit of this disorder. There are indications that working memory problems and academic performance can be improved by school-oriented interventions but this has not yet been studied systematically. In this study we will determine the short- and long-term effects of a working memory - and an executive function training applied in a school situation for children with AD(HD, taking individual characteristics, the level of impairment and costs (stepped-care approach into account. Methods/design The study consists of two parts: the first part is a randomised controlled trial with school-aged children (8–12 yrs with AD(HD. Two groups (each n = 50 will be randomly assigned to a well studied computerized working memory training ‘Cogmed’, or to the ‘Paying attention in class’ intervention which is an experimental school-based executive function training. Children will be selected from regular -and special education primary schools in the region of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The second part of the study will determine which specific characteristics are related to non-response of the ‘Paying attention in class’ intervention. School-aged children (8–12 yrs with AD(HD will follow the experimental school-based executive function training ‘Paying attention in class’ (n = 175. Academic performance and neurocognitive functioning (primary outcomes are assessed before, directly after and 6 months after training. Secondary outcome measures are: behaviour in class, behaviour problems and quality of life. Discussion So far, there is limited but promising evidence that working memory – and other executive function interventions can improve academic performance. Little is know about the

  4. Event-Related Potentials in a Cued Go-NoGo Task Associated with Executive Functions in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder; A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L. Høyland

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions are often affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The underlying biology is however not well known. In the DSM-5, ASD is characterized by difficulties in two domains: Social Interaction and Repetitive and Restricted Behavior, RRB. Insistence of Sameness is part of RRB and has been reported related to executive functions. We aimed to identify differences between ASD and typically developing (TD adolescents in Event Related Potentials (ERPs associated with response preparation, conflict monitoring and response inhibition using a cued Go-NoGo paradigm. We also studied the effect of age and emotional content of paradigm related to these ERPs. We investigated 49 individuals with ASD and 49 TD aged 12–21 years, split into two groups below (young and above (old 16 years of age. ASD characteristics were quantified by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ and executive functions were assessed with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, both parent-rated. Behavioral performance and ERPs were recorded during a cued visual Go-NoGo task which included neutral pictures (VCPT and pictures of emotional faces (ECPT. The amplitudes of ERPs associated with response preparation, conflict monitoring, and response inhibition were analyzed. The ASD group showed markedly higher scores than TD in both SCQ and BRIEF. Behavioral data showed no case-control differences in either the VCPT or ECPT in the whole group. While there were no significant case-control differences in ERPs from the combined VCPT and ECPT in the whole sample, the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV was significantly enhanced in the old ASD group (p = 0.017. When excluding ASD with comorbid ADHD we found a significantly increased N2 NoGo (p = 0.016 and N2-effect (p = 0.023 for the whole group. We found no case-control differences in the P3-components. Our findings suggest increased response preparation in adolescents with ASD older than 16 years and

  5. Brain reflections: A circuit-based framework for understanding information processing and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Gabriele

    2018-03-01

    Here, I propose a view of the architecture of the human information processing system, and of how it can be adapted to changing task demands (which is the hallmark of cognitive control). This view is informed by an interpretation of brain activity as reflecting the excitability level of neural representations, encoding not only stimuli and temporal contexts, but also action plans and task goals. The proposed cognitive architecture includes three types of circuits: open circuits, involved in feed-forward processing such as that connecting stimuli with responses and characterized by brief, transient brain activity; and two types of closed circuits, positive feedback circuits (characterized by sustained, high-frequency oscillatory activity), which help select and maintain representations, and negative feedback circuits (characterized by brief, low-frequency oscillatory bursts), which are instead associated with changes in representations. Feed-forward activity is primarily responsible for the spread of activation along the information processing system. Oscillatory activity, instead, controls this spread. Sustained oscillatory activity due to both local cortical circuits (gamma) and longer corticothalamic circuits (alpha and beta) allows for the selection of individuated representations. Through the interaction of these circuits, it also allows for the preservation of representations across different temporal spans (sensory and working memory) and their spread across the brain. In contrast, brief bursts of oscillatory activity, generated by novel and/or conflicting information, lead to the interruption of sustained oscillatory activity and promote the generation of new representations. I discuss how this framework can account for a number of psychological and behavioral phenomena. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Executive Coaching Practices in the Adult Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campone, Francine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key principles and practices in executive coaching. Coaching is discussed as a reflective learning opportunity and offers the theoretical grounding, strategies, and case studies for each of four key elements of a coaching engagement.

  7. Jet Grouting. Control of execution and result parameters. Test fields - Experience in Chile; Jet Grouting. Control de parametros de ejecucion y de resultados. Campos de prueba-Experiencia en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayarza, P. M.; Vukotic, G.

    2014-07-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of Test Fields in project that includes the Jet Grouting technique. In particular, the Chilean experience is analyzed, where the Jet Grouting was first introduced by Pilots Terratest S. A. in the year 2010, only, only in 2011 the first project using jet columns was constructed. The versatilely of this technique allows its use in a wide variety of projects, for example, soil capacity improvement, settlement control, reduction of soil permeability and other environmental applications. Currently, the most common applications are underpinning existing foundations, ground improvement, lateral support of excavations, hydraulic barriers, slope stabilization, liquefaction control, among others. The Jet Grouting is one of the most demanding soil improvement technique and requires excellence in designing and execution engineers and other involved specialist. It is therefore essential to ensure exhaustive control to the execution and final parameters, in order to check that the product- Jet Grouting element-have the design properties, and implement modifications if necessary. Many authors strongly advises that if there is no comparable experience and even if there is, a Test Field of Jet Grouting elements has to be executed in site. This field consists in a nearby area with similar geotechnical conditions of the project, where Jet Grouting test columns will be constructed. This Test Field will allow selecting the most effective execution parameters and verifying that the final product has he correct design properties. (Author)

  8. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gricel eOrellana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The executive function (EF is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory, set-shifting, flexibility, planning and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e. the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial /orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems and working memory occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in executive functions may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.

  9. Highly Reflecting, Broadband Deformable Membrane Mirror for Wavefront Control Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I STTR project will develop a highly reflecting, broadband, radiation resistant, low-stress and lightweight, membrane integrated into an electrostatically...

  10. Controllable transmission and total reflection through an impedance-matched acoustic metasurface

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun; Wu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    supplies the functionalities of reflection-type acoustic metasurfaces, but also exhibits unprecedented flexibility and efficiency in various domains of wave manipulation for possible applications in fields like refracting, collimating, focusing or absorbing

  11. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions.Methods: Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group. The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12.Results: After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55 and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52 in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.Keywords: fall prevention, exercise, dance, video game

  12. Dysfunctional default mode network and executive control network in people with Internet gaming disorder: Independent component analysis under a probability discounting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wu, L; Lin, X; Zhang, Y; Zhou, H; Du, X; Dong, G

    2016-04-01

    The present study identified the neural mechanism of risky decision-making in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) under a probability discounting task. Independent component analysis was used on the functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 19 IGD subjects (22.2 ± 3.08 years) and 21 healthy controls (HC, 22.8 ± 3.5 years). For the behavioral results, IGD subjects prefer the risky to the fixed options and showed shorter reaction time compared to HC. For the imaging results, the IGD subjects showed higher task-related activity in default mode network (DMN) and less engagement in the executive control network (ECN) than HC when making the risky decisions. Also, we found the activities of DMN correlate negatively with the reaction time and the ECN correlate positively with the probability discounting rates. The results suggest that people with IGD show altered modulation in DMN and deficit in executive control function, which might be the reason for why the IGD subjects continue to play online games despite the potential negative consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Why do people fail to turn good intentions into action? The role of executive control processes in the translation of healthy eating intentions into action in young Scottish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Julia L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the significant health benefits associated with eating healthily, diet is extremely difficult to change, with the majority of people who intend to eat more healthily failing to do so. Recent evidence has suggested that the ability to turn intentions into actions may be related to individual differences in one facet of executive control – cognitive inhibition (i.e. the ability to inhibit irrelevant information and suppress prepotent responses. The present study investigates the role of this and other executive processes (inhibition, task switching, planning and cognitive flexibility in the translation of dietary intentions into action. In addition, as the literature suggests that weak executive control may be associated with hyper-responsivity to cues to action, the role of executive processes in susceptibility to environmental food cues and responses to If-Then plans designed to cue intended behaviour are investigated. Methods Future intentions about consumption of fruits and vegetables and snack foods will be measured in a sample of young adults. Actual consumption of the target foods will be recorded with computerised diaries over a subsequent 3-day period. Performance on a battery of established executive control tasks (Go-NoGo, Tower task, Verbal Fluency task and Trail-Making will be used to predict the discrepancy between intended and actual dietary behaviour. In addition, executive control scores will be used to predict reported susceptibility to environmental food cues and benefit derived from the use of 'If-Then plans' designed to cue intended behaviour. Discussion Our findings will add to understanding about the role of executive control in translating intentions into actions and may demonstrate potential for future public health interventions. If participants with weak executive control are found to be less likely to eat as they intend than those with strong executive control, then interventions that

  14. Young adults perinatally infected with HIV perform more poorly on measures of executive functioning and motor speed than ethnically matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willen, Elizabeth J; Cuadra, Anai; Arheart, Kristopher L; Post, M J D; Govind, Varan

    2017-03-01

    Perinatal HIV is associated with significant neurocognitive morbidities, but few studies have examined cognitive impact of early HIV infection on patients surviving to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurocognitive outcomes among a cohort of perinatally infected young adults. Individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 with perinatal infection were recruited for this cross-sectional study along with similarly aged healthy controls. Participants completed an MRI and brief neuropsychological assessment battery. Multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education was completed to detect differences between the HIV+ and control groups. Multivariable linear regression was performed to assess HIV-associated factors potentially impacting neuropsychological findings among the HIV+ group. Twenty-nine HIV+ young adults and 13 healthy controls were included in the study. After adjusting for age and sociodemographic variables, the HIV+ group scored lower on attention/working memory (Digit Span (p = .008) and Letter-Number Sequencing (p = .038)), set-shifting (DKEFS Trail Making Test Condition 4 (p = .026) and motor speed (DKEFS Trail Making Test Condition 5 (p = .003)). For the HIV+ group, nadir CD4 was associated with better Letter-Number Sequencing score (p = .029) and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy was associated with better performance on Category Fluency (p = .040). After controlling for sociodemographic variables, executive dysfunction persists among young adults with perinatal HIV infection in comparison to controls. Future studies to further elucidate the impact of executive dysfunction on independent living and functional outcomes are indicated.

  15. Drifting from Slow to “D’oh!” Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering Predict Extreme Reaction Times and Executive-Control Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A combined experimental, individual-differences, and thought-sampling study tested the predictions of executive attention (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004) and coordinative binding (e.g., Oberauer, Süß, Wilhelm, & Sander, 2007) theories of working memory capacity (WMC). We assessed 288 subjects’ WMC and their performance and mind-wandering rates during a sustained-attention task; subjects completed either a go/no-go version requiring executive control over habit, or a vigilance version that did not. We further combined the data with those from McVay and Kane (2009) to: (1) gauge the contributions of WMC and attentional lapses to the worst-performance rule and the tail, or τ parameter, of response time (RT) distributions; (2) assess which parameters from a quantitative evidence-accumulation RT model were predicted by WMC and mind-wandering reports, and (3) consider intra-subject RT patterns – particularly, speeding – as potential objective markers of mind wandering. We found that WMC predicted action and thought control in only some conditions, that attentional lapses (indicated by TUT reports and drift-rate variability in evidence accumulation) contributed to τ, performance accuracy, and WMC’s association with them, and that mind-wandering experiences were not predicted by trial-to-trial RT changes, and so they cannot always be inferred from objective performance measures. PMID:22004270

  16. China's SOE Executives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Hubbard, Paul; Cai, Guilong

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on a database tracking the career of 1,250 top Chinese executives from 1,084 publicly-listed state-owned enterprises (SOEs), this article analyzes differences in career incentives for subsidiaries controlled by the central government compared to those controlled by local governments. It a...... of promotion. However, in the case of central SOE subsidiaries, leaders are more likely to be promoted based on financial performance. For both central and local 'direct' SOE groups age is a significant negative factor for promotion, whereas tenure is a significant positive factor....

  17. Supervision of execution of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, J.

    2015-01-01

    Enresa create and organizational structure that covers various areas involved in effective control of Decommissioning Project. One area is the Technical Supervision of Works Decommissioning Project, as Execution Department dependent Technical Management. In the structure, Execution Department acts as liaison between the project, disciplines involved in developing and specialized companies contracted work to achieve your intended target. Equally important is to ensure that such activities are carried out correctly, according to the project documentation. (Author)

  18. The size control of silver nanocrystals with different polyols and its application to low-reflection coating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keum Hwan; Park, O Ok [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Sang Hyuk, E-mail: imromy@krict.re.kr, E-mail: ookpark@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 19 Singsungno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-28

    The size of silver nanocrystals in polyol synthesis can be simply controlled by tuning the viscosity of the reaction medium such as ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol and 1,5-pentanediol. We found that a higher viscose medium (1,5-pentanediol) led to monodispersed smaller particles thanks to the slow addition of silver atoms into the nuclei. Size-controlled silver nanocrystals of 30 nm were obtained in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol to synthesize a low refractive index filler by coating with silica and subsequent etching of the silver core. The coated low-reflection layer from the hollow silica nanoparticles on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film can greatly reduce the reflection of the PET film from 10% to 2% over the entire visible region.

  19. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Executive Control Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia : A Combined fMRI and SPECT Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimbu, A.; Guyot, M.; Allard, M.; Amieva, H.; Fabrigoulle, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Every motor act requires a fine tuned balance between initiatory and inhibitory processes in order to provide appropriate preparation, initiation, on-line control and timely inhibition of this act. A decline of executive control seems to occur early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). Purpose: To investigate the relationship between Go/noGo activation pattern (executive function task) and regional cerebral flow in AD and FTD patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), SPECT and statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Material and methods: fMRI data during Go/noGo task (that required response inhibition) and rCBF SPECT were performed from twelve AD patients (mean age 70), seven FTD patients (mean age 68) and twelve healthy elderly controls (mean age 72).The cognitive decline was measured using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). All patients presented a MMSE score > 17 and healthy elderly controls > 25. SPECT imaging was performed 1 hour post-injection of 740 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO, using a dual-head gamma camera, according to standard protocols. Go/noGo task, in which a motor response to a visual stimulus had to be executed or inhibited, consisted of 7 interleaved rest and activation periods (30s each). Activation periods consisted of randomized presentation of red full circle (Go trials, 75%) and blue full triangle (NoGo trials, 25%). Results: All AD and FTD patients as well as controls performed well the Go/noGo task, making few commission and omission errors. The correlation of neural brain activation related to response inhibition and competition and temporal hypoperfusion degree in AD and FTD patients was studies. A significant correlation was observed, for AD patients in: bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (BA32), right insula (BA13), right middle frontal gyrus (BA9), right precuneus (BA31), right posterior cingulate (BA23), bilateral cuneus (BA18), right thalamus and for FTD

  20. Tunable natural nano-arrays : controlling surface properties and light reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.A.; Myhra, S.; Cribb, B.W.; Hope, G.A.; Watson, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    A sudden transition or impedance mismatch from one optical medium to another can result in unwanted reflections from the surface plane. Modification of a surface by creation of a gradual change in refractive index over a significant portion of a wavelength range will result in a reduction in reflection. Multi-layered thin film coatings based on this phenomenon are widely used on a number of different surfaces (e.g. solar cells, lenses, display screens etc.) to suppress undesired reflections and/or increase light transmittance. An alternative surface modification to the multi-layered stack coating (gradient index coating) is to produce a surface with structures having a period and heights shorter than the light wavelength. These structures act like a pseudo-gradient index coating and can be described by the effective medium theory. In this study we report on nano-structures (a natural pseudo-gradient index coating) which we have found on certain species of cicada wings demonstrating their reflective effectiveness using manipulative atomic force microscopy. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs

  1. Effect of Play-based Therapy on Meta-cognitive and Behavioral Aspects of Executive Function: A Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial on the Students With Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamali Esmaili, Samaneh; Shafaroodi, Narges; Hassani Mehraban, Afsoon; Parand, Akram; Zarei, Masoume; Akbari-Zardkhaneh, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Although the effect of educational methods on executive function (EF) is well known, training this function by a playful method is debatable. The current study aimed at investigating if a play-based intervention is effective on metacognitive and behavioral skills of EF in students with specific learning disabilities. In the current randomized, clinical trial, 49 subjects within the age range of 7 to 11 years with specific learning disabilities were randomly assigned into the intervention (25 subjects; mean age 8.5±1.33 years) and control (24 subjects; mean age 8.7±1.03 years) groups. Subjects in the intervention group received EF group training based on playing activities; subjects in the control group received no intervention. The behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) was administered to evaluate the behavioral and cognitive aspects of EF. The duration of the intervention was 6 hours per week for 9 weeks. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare mean changes (before and after) in the BRIEF scores between the groups. The assumptions of multivariate analysis of covariance were examined. After controlling pre-test conditions, the intervention and control groups scored significantly differently on both the metacognition (P=0.002; effect size=0.20) and behavior regulation indices (P=0.01; effect size=0.12) of BRIEF. Play-based therapy is effective on the metacognitive and behavioral aspects of EF in students with specific learning disabilities. Professionals can use play-based therapy rather than educational approaches in clinical practice to enhance EF skills.

  2. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  3. Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilduff Liam P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of sleep deprivation with or without acute supplementation of caffeine or creatine on the execution of a repeated rugby passing skill. Method Ten elite rugby players completed 10 trials on a simple rugby passing skill test (20 repeats per trial, following a period of familiarisation. The players had between 7-9 h sleep on 5 of these trials and between 3-5 h sleep (deprivation on the other 5. At a time of 1.5 h before each trial, they undertook administration of either: placebo tablets, 50 or 100 mg/kg creatine, 1 or 5 mg/kg caffeine. Saliva was collected before each trial and assayed for salivary free cortisol and testosterone. Results Sleep deprivation with placebo application resulted in a significant fall in skill performance accuracy on both the dominant and non-dominant passing sides (p Conclusion Acute sleep deprivation affects performance of a simple repeat skill in elite athletes and this was ameliorated by a single dose of either caffeine or creatine. Acute creatine use may help to alleviate decrements in skill performance in situations of sleep deprivation, such as transmeridian travel, and caffeine at low doses appears as efficacious as higher doses, at alleviating sleep deprivation deficits in athletes with a history of low caffeine use. Both options are without the side effects of higher dose caffeine use.

  4. Identifying balance and fall risk in community-dwelling older women: the effect of executive function on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir-Hunter, Susan W; Clark, Jennifer; McLean, Stephanie; Pedlow, Sam; Van Hemmen, Alysia; Montero Odasso, Manuel; Overend, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms linking cognition, balance function, and fall risk among older adults are not fully understood. An evaluation of the effect of cognition on balance tests commonly used in clinical practice to assess community-dwelling older adults could enhance the identification of at-risk individuals. The study aimed to determine (1) the association between cognition and clinical tests of balance and (2) the relationship between executive function (EF) and balance under single- and dual-task testing. Participants (24 women, mean age of 76.18 [SD 16.45] years) completed six clinical balance tests, four cognitive tests, and two measures of physical function. Poor balance function was associated with poor performance on cognitive testing of EF. In addition, the association with EF was strongest under the dual-task timed up-and-go (TUG) test and the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale. Measures of global cognition were associated only with the dual-task performance of the TUG. Postural sway measured with the Standing Balance Test, under single- or dual-task test conditions, was not associated with cognition. Decreased EF was associated with worse performance on functional measures of balance. The relationship between EF and balance was more pronounced with dual-task testing using a complex cognitive task combined with the TUG.

  5. Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation on Executive Functions in Adolescent Survivors of Leukemia: A Randomized and Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Amani

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion The results of this study have shown that the effect of cognitive rehabilitation on executive functions reaps significant dividends with regard to the promotion of hope in adolescents who survived leukemia and have been under the chemotherapy. The promotion of hope in participants belonging to the intervention group was more than in the participants of the wait list group. Given the fact that, today, one of the main goals of treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer is to enhance the quality of mental health of the surviving patients, the use of inexpensive and accessible programs like cognitive rehabilitation would be very effective. Consequently, healthcare professionals could attempt to reduce the side effects caused by chemotherapy and radiation, in addition to improving the cognitive issues of affected individuals, by placing emphasis on hope among the concerned patients. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct further research by considering the results of this work in order to develop effective cognitive rehabilitation interventions, thereby, enhancing the coping strategies, quality of life, and mental health of patients who are afflicted with cancer and those who survived cancer. Cognitive rehabilitation services should also be considered for post-treatment follow-up projects. 

  6. Expression of executive control in situational context: Effects of facilitating versus restraining cues on snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter; Tran, Betty; Lowe, Cassandra; Vincent, Corita; Mourtzakis, Marina; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Prapavessis, Harry; Gidron, Yori

    2015-05-01

    To examine the effects of executive function (EF) on objectively measured high-calorie snack food consumption in 2 age groups and to explore the moderating influence of environmental cues. In Study 1, 43 older adults (M(age) = 74.81) and in Study 2, 79 younger adults (M(age) = 18.71) completed measures of EF and subsequently participated in a bogus taste-test paradigm wherein they were required to rate 3 highly appetitive (but high-calorie) snack foods on taste and texture. Grams of snack food consumed was measured covertly in the presence randomly assigned contextual cues (explicit semantic cues in Study 1; implicit visual cues in Study 2) that were facilitating or restraining in nature. Findings indicated that in both age groups, stronger EF predicted lower consumption of snack foods across conditions, and the effects of EF were most pronounced in the presence of facilitating cues. Older and younger adults with weaker EF tend to consume more high-calorie snack food compared with their stronger EF counterparts. These tendencies appear to be especially amplified in the presence of facilitating cues. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Identifying Balance and Fall Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Women: The Effect of Executive Function on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jennifer; McLean, Stephanie; Pedlow, Sam; Van Hemmen, Alysia; Montero Odasso, Manuel; Overend, Tom

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The mechanisms linking cognition, balance function, and fall risk among older adults are not fully understood. An evaluation of the effect of cognition on balance tests commonly used in clinical practice to assess community-dwelling older adults could enhance the identification of at-risk individuals. The study aimed to determine (1) the association between cognition and clinical tests of balance and (2) the relationship between executive function (EF) and balance under single- and dual-task testing. Methods: Participants (24 women, mean age of 76.18 [SD 16.45] years) completed six clinical balance tests, four cognitive tests, and two measures of physical function. Results: Poor balance function was associated with poor performance on cognitive testing of EF. In addition, the association with EF was strongest under the dual-task timed up-and-go (TUG) test and the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale. Measures of global cognition were associated only with the dual-task performance of the TUG. Postural sway measured with the Standing Balance Test, under single- or dual-task test conditions, was not associated with cognition. Conclusions: Decreased EF was associated with worse performance on functional measures of balance. The relationship between EF and balance was more pronounced with dual-task testing using a complex cognitive task combined with the TUG. PMID:24799756

  8. The Effects of Reflective Training on the Disposition of Critical Thinking for Nursing Students in China: A Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caihong; Fan, Huiying; Xia, Jieqiong; Guo, Honghua; Jiang, Xinjun; Yan, Yane

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of reflective trainings for nursing students on their critical thinking disposition. A total of 157 senior undergraduate nursing students sampled from Hainan Medical University in China participated in this study in 2014. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group students were provided the reflective training during their entire 12-month clinical internship, whereas students in the control group were requested to keep their reflective diaries but without a formal training. Before and after the intervention, nursing students' critical thinking disposition was rated using the Chinese version of Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CTDI-CV). Before the start of the intervention, the critical thinking disposition scores of the two groups had no significant differences. At the end of the intervention, it was found that the experimental students performed better in each subscale of CTDI-CV. These include the search for truth, open mind, analytical ability, systematic ability, critical thinking, self-confidence, curiosity, and cognitive maturity. By summing the scores of all categories, the results showed that the experimental group had a significantly higher total score than that of the control group (p ≤ .044). Evaluating the score difference in each function indicated that there was a range of improvements on the critical thinking disposition because of the reflective training intervention. Reflective training during the internship period improves nursing students' disposition of critical thinking and promotes their readiness for their clinical practices in the rapidly increasing demands of the healthcare field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The Effects of Reflective Training on the Disposition of Critical Thinking for Nursing Students in China: A Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Zhang, Ph.D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of reflective trainings for nursing students on their critical thinking disposition. Methods: A total of 157 senior undergraduate nursing students sampled from Hainan Medical University in China participated in this study in 2014. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group students were provided the reflective training during their entire 12-month clinical internship, whereas students in the control group were requested to keep their reflective diaries but without a formal training. Before and after the intervention, nursing students' critical thinking disposition was rated using the Chinese version of Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CTDI-CV. Results: Before the start of the intervention, the critical thinking disposition scores of the two groups had no significant differences. At the end of the intervention, it was found that the experimental students performed better in each subscale of CTDI-CV. These include the search for truth, open mind, analytical ability, systematic ability, critical thinking, self-confidence, curiosity, and cognitive maturity. By summing the scores of all categories, the results showed that the experimental group had a significantly higher total score than that of the control group (p ≤ .044. Evaluating the score difference in each function indicated that there was a range of improvements on the critical thinking disposition because of the reflective training intervention. Conclusion: Reflective training during the internship period improves nursing students' disposition of critical thinking and promotes their readiness for their clinical practices in the rapidly increasing demands of the healthcare field. Keywords: thinking, education, nursing, students, nursing

  10. A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Study of Gabapentin: Effects on Cannabis Use, Withdrawal and Executive Function Deficits in Cannabis-Dependent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18–65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200 mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (pbrain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal. PMID:22373942

  11. Executive control in schizophrenia: a preliminary study on the moderating role of COMT Val158Met for comorbid alcohol and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Nicolini, Gabriella; Crocamo, Cristina; Lax, Annamaria; Amidani, Francesca; Bartoli, Francesco; Castellano, Filippo; Chiorazzi, Alessia; Gamba, Giulia; Papagno, Costanza; Clerici, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met) appears to influence cognition in people with alcohol/substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) and in those with psychosis. To explore the potential moderating effect of these factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted, randomly recruiting subjects with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia. AUD/SUD was rigorously assessed, as well as COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Executive control functioning was measured using the Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED). The effect of a possible interaction between comorbid AUD/SUD and COMT Val158Met polymorphism on IED scores was explored. Subjects with schizophrenia, comorbid AUD/SUD, and MetMet carriers for SNP rs4680 of the COMT gene showed worse performance on IED completed stages scores, as compared with individuals with ValVal genotype. However, among subjects without AUD/SUD, those with the MetMet variant performed better than people carrying ValVal genotype. This study is the first to date examining the impact of COMT on cognition in a highly representative sample of people with schizophrenia and comorbid AUD/SUD. Differential moderating effects of COMT Val/Met genotype variations may similarly influence executive functions in people with schizophrenia and comorbid AUD/SUD.

  12. A proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of gabapentin: effects on cannabis use, withdrawal and executive function deficits in cannabis-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

    2012-06-01

    There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200 mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (pcannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal.

  13. Project Execution Plan, Rev. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas

    2002-01-01

    This plan addresses project activities encompassed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division and conforms to the requirements contained in the Life-Cycle Asset Management, DOE Order 430.1A; The Joint Program Office Policy on Project Management in Support of DOE Order 430.1; Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, DOE Order 413.3; the Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning Guide, GPG-FM-010; and other applicable Good Practice Guides; and the FY 2001 Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System Policy Guidance. The plan also reflects the milestone philosophies of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense; and traditional project management philosophies such as the development of life-cycle costs, schedules, and work scope; identification o f roles and responsibilities; and baseline management and controls

  14. Optically controlled reflection modulator using GaAs-AlGaAs n-i-p-i/multiple-quantum-well structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, K.-K.; Simes, R. J.; Coldren, L. A.; Gossard, A. C.; Maserjian, J.

    1989-01-01

    An optically controlled reflection modulator has been demonstrated that consists of a combination of a GaAs-AlGaAs n-i-p-i doping structure with a multiple-quantum-well structures on top of a distributed Bragg reflector, all grown by MBE. A modulation of approximately 60 percent is obtained on the test structure, corresponding to a differential change of absorption coefficient in the quantum wells of approximately 7500/cm. Changes in reflectance can be observed with a control beam power as low as 1.5 microW. This device structure has the potential of being developed as an optically addressed spatial light modulator for optical information processing.

  15. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This is a report on studies that value the environmental impacts resulting from generation and conservation of electric power. The purpose is to review the literature on the methodologies used to assign monetary costs to environmental externalities and to present the results of studies which have applied these methodologies. For those environmental damages for which the literature has not established a value, the report identifies the indicated ranges of adverse effects and provides a road map of issues that require research. The report is intended to assist utilities, government regulators, legislators, policy analysts and public interest groups in estimating the costs of the environmental impacts of electricity. It should be useful, as well, to assist in valuing the environmental impacts of pollutants from other industries, for setting environmental control standards, and in establishing pollution taxes or fees

  16. Cannabinoid modulation of executive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattij, T.; Wiskerke, J.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Executive functions are higher-order cognitive processes such as attention, behavioural flexibility, decision-making, inhibitory control, planning, time estimation and working memory that exert top-down control over behaviour. In addition to the role of cannabinoid signaling in other cognitive

  17. Multitasking vs. multiplexing: Toward a normative account of limitations in the simultaneous execution of control-demanding behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, S. F.; Schwemmer, M.; Gershman, S. J.; Cohen, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Why is it that behaviors that rely on control, so striking in their diversity and flexibility, are also subject to such striking limitations? Typically, people cannot engage in more than a few — and usually only a single — control-demanding task at a time. This limitation was a defining element in the earliest conceptualizations of controlled processing, it remains one of the most widely accepted axioms of cognitive psychology, and is even the basis for some laws (e.g., against the use of mob...

  18. Increasing Working Memory Load Reduces Processing of Cross-Modal Task-Irrelevant Stimuli Even after Controlling for Task Difficulty and Executive Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sharon S; Tusch, Erich S; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2016-01-01

    The classic account of the load theory (LT) of attention suggests that increasing cognitive load leads to greater processing of task-irrelevant stimuli due to competition for limited executive resource that reduces the ability to actively maintain current processing priorities. Studies testing this hypothesis have yielded widely divergent outcomes. The inconsistent results may, in part, be related to variability in executive capacity (EC) and task difficulty across subjects in different studies. Here, we used a cross-modal paradigm to investigate whether augmented working memory (WM) load leads to increased early distracter processing, and controlled for the potential confounders of EC and task difficulty. Twenty-three young subjects were engaged in a primary visual WM task, under high and low load conditions, while instructed to ignore irrelevant auditory stimuli. Demands of the high load condition were individually titrated to make task difficulty comparable across subjects with differing EC. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure neural activity in response to stimuli presented in both the task relevant modality (visual) and task-irrelevant modality (auditory). Behavioral results indicate that the load manipulation and titration procedure of the primary visual task were successful. ERPs demonstrated that in response to visual target stimuli, there was a load-related increase in the posterior slow wave, an index of sustained attention and effort. Importantly, under high load, there was a decrease of the auditory N1 in response to distracters, a marker of early auditory processing. These results suggest that increased WM load is associated with enhanced attentional engagement and protection from distraction in a cross-modal setting, even after controlling for task difficulty and EC. Our findings challenge the classic LT and offer support for alternative models.

  19. Increasing working memory load reduces processing of cross-modal task-irrelevant stimuli even after controlling for task difficulty and executive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Sanz Simon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The classic account of the Load Theory (LT of attention suggests that increasing cognitive load leads to greater processing of task-irrelevant stimuli due to competition for limited executive resource that reduces the ability to actively maintain current processing priorities. Studies testing this hypothesis have yielded widely divergent outcomes. The inconsistent results may, in part, be related to variability in executive capacity (EC and task difficulty across subjects in different studies. Here, we used a cross-modal paradigm to investigate whether augmented working memory (WM load leads to increased early distracter processing, and controlled for the potential confounders of EC and task difficulty. Twenty-three young subjects were engaged in a primary visual WM task, under high and low load conditions, while instructed to ignore irrelevant auditory stimuli. Demands of the high load condition were individually titrated to make task difficulty comparable across subjects with differing EC. Event-related potentials (ERPs were used to measure neural activity in response to stimuli presented in both the task relevant modality (visual and task-irrelevant modality (auditory. Behavioral results indicate that the load manipulation and titration procedure of the primary visual task were successful. ERPs demonstrated that in response to visual target stimuli, there was a load-related increase in the posterior slow wave, an index of sustained attention and effort. Importantly, under high load, there was a decrease of the auditory N1 in response to distracters, a marker of early auditory processing. These results suggest that increased WM load is associated with enhanced attentional engagement and protection from distraction in a cross-modal setting, even after controlling for task difficulty and EC. Our findings challenge the classic LT and offer support for alternative models.

  20. A RCT Comparing Daily Mindfulness Meditations, Biofeedback Exercises, and Daily Physical Exercise on Attention Control, Executive Functioning, Mindful Awareness, Self-Compassion, and Worrying in Stressed Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Esther I; van der Zwan, J Esi; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Our Western society is characterized by multitasking, competition, and constant time pressure. Negative effects of stress for the individual (anxiety, depression, somatic complaints) and for organizations and society (costs due to work absence) are very high. Thus, time-efficient self-help interventions to address these issues are necessary. This study assessed the effects of daily mindfulness meditations (MM) versus daily heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) and daily physical exercise (PE) on attention control, executive functioning, mindful awareness, self-compassion, and worrying. Young adults ( n  = 75, age range 18 to 40) with elevated stress levels were randomized to MM, HRV-BF, or PE, and measurements were taken at pre-test, post-test, and follow-up. Interventions in all three groups were self-guided and lasted for 5 weeks. Generalized estimating equation analyses showed that overall, all three interventions were effective and did not differ from each other. However, practice time differed between groups, with participants in the PE group practicing much more than participants in the other two groups. Therefore, additional analyses were carried out in two subsamples. The optimal dose sample included only those participants who practiced for at least 70 % of the total prescribed time. In the equal dose sample, home practice intensity was equal for all three groups. Again, the effects of the three interventions did not differ. In conclusion, MM, HRV-BF, and PE are all effective self-help methods to improve attention control, executive functioning, mindful awareness, self-compassion, and worrying, and mindfulness meditation was not found to be more effective than HRV-biofeedback or physical exercise for these cognitive processes.

  1. Demonstration of a Concurrently Programmed Tactical Level Control Software for Autonomous Vehicles and the Interface to the Execution Level Code

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, William

    2000-01-01

    .... One of the greatest challenges to the successful development of truly autonomous vehicles is the ability to link logically based high-level mission planning with low-level vehicle control software...

  2. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations.

  3. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations

  4. Investigating the role of executive attentional control to self-harm in a non-clinical cohort with borderline personality features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eDrabble

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-injurious behavior (or self-harm is a frequently reported maladaptive behavior in the general population and a key feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD. Poor affect regulation is strongly linked to a propensity to self-harm, is a core component of BPD, and is linked with reduced attentional control abilities. The idea that attentional control difficulties may provide a link between BPD, negative affect and self-harm has yet to be established, however. The present study explored the putative relationship between levels of BPD features, three aspects of attentional/executive control, affect, and self-harm history in a sample of 340 non-clinical participants recruited online from self-harm forums and social networking sites. Analyses showed that self-reported levels of BPD features and attentional focusing predicted self-harm incidence, and high attentional focusing increased the likelihood of a prior self-harm history in those with high BPD features. Ability to shift attention was associated with a reduced likelihood of self-harm, suggesting that good attentional switching ability may provide a protective buffer against self-harm behavior for some individuals. These attentional control differences mediated the association between negative affect and self-harm, but the relationship between BPD and self-harm appears independent.

  5. Should Controls With Respiratory Symptoms Be Excluded From Case-Control Studies of Pneumonia Etiology? Reflections From the PERCH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Melissa M; Hammitt, Laura L; Deloria Knoll, Maria; Baggett, Henry C; Brooks, W Abdullah; Howie, Stephen R C; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Orin S; Madhi, Shabir A; Murdoch, David R; Scott, J Anthony G; Thea, Donald M; Driscoll, Amanda J; Karron, Ruth A; Park, Daniel E; Prosperi, Christine; Zeger, Scott L; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2017-06-15

    Many pneumonia etiology case-control studies exclude controls with respiratory illness from enrollment or analyses. Herein we argue that selecting controls regardless of respiratory symptoms provides the least biased estimates of pneumonia etiology. We review 3 reasons investigators may choose to exclude controls with respiratory symptoms in light of epidemiologic principles of control selection and present data from the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study where relevant to assess their validity. We conclude that exclusion of controls with respiratory symptoms will result in biased estimates of etiology. Randomly selected community controls, with or without respiratory symptoms, as long as they do not meet the criteria for case-defining pneumonia, are most representative of the general population from which cases arose and the least subject to selection bias. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. An outlook on robust model predictive control algorithms : Reflections on performance and computational aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saltik, M.B.; Özkan, L.; Ludlage, J.H.A.; Weiland, S.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the model predictive control algorithms that are tailored for uncertain systems. Robustness notions with respect to both deterministic (or set based) and stochastic uncertainties are discussed and contributions are reviewed in the model predictive control literature. We

  7. Effect of UV irradiation on cutaneous cicatrices: a randomized, controlled trial with clinical, skin reflectance, histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Eva; Rossen, Kristian; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Kliem, Anette; Karlsmark, Tonny; Haedersdal, Merete

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on human cutaneous cicatrices. In this randomized, controlled study, dermal punch biopsy wounds served as a wound healing model. Wounds healed by primary or second intention and were randomized to postoperative solar UV irradiation or to no UV exposure. Evaluations after 5 and 12 weeks included blinded clinical assessments, skin reflectance measurements, histology, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical analyses of the N-terminal propeptide from procollagen-1, hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine, and proline. Twelve weeks postoperatively, UV-irradiated cicatrices healing by second intention: (i) were significantly pointed out as the most disfiguring; (ii) obtained significantly higher scores of colour, infiltration and cicatrix area; and (iii) showed significantly higher increase in skin-reflectance measurements of skin-pigmentation vs. non-irradiated cicatrices. No histological, immunohistochemical or biochemical differences were found. In conclusion, postoperative UV exposure aggravates the clinical appearance of cicatrices in humans.

  8. Thermally controllable reflective characteristics from rupture and self-assembly of hydrogen bonds in cholesteric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wang; Cao, Hui; Song, Li; Zhao, Haiyan; Li, Sijin; Yang, Zhou; Yang, Huai

    2009-10-22

    A cholesteric liquid crystal (Ch-LC) composite, made of a series of cholesteryl esters, a nematic LC, and a hydrogen bond (H-bond) chiral dopant (HCD), was prepared and filled into a planar treated cell. When the cell was heated, the selective reflection of the cell exhibited an unusual blue shift. One of the reasonable mechanisms was that the helical twisting power (HTP) value of cholesteryl esters increased with an increasing temperature. The other one was that the H-bonds of HCD were ruptured when the temperature was above 60.0 degrees C and HCD was split into two kinds of new chiral dopants, which made the HTP value of the chiral dopants change a lot, thus changing the pitch length of the composite greatly. On the basis of this mechanism, a novel thermally controllable reflective color paper could be achieved.

  9. Quality Control of Valerianae Radix by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad-Langerodi, Ramin; Arth, Katharina; Klatte-Asselmeyer, Valerie; Bressler, Sabine; Saukel, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dobeš, Christoph

    2018-04-01

    (Acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content are important quality attributes of pharmacy grade valerian root (Valerianae radix). Traditional analysis of these quantities is time-consuming and necessitates (harmful) solvents. Here we investigated an application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for extractionless analysis of these quality attributes on a representative sample comprising 260 wild-crafted individuals covering the Central European taxonomic diversity of the Valeriana officinalis L. s. l. species aggregate with its three major ploidy cytotypes (i.e., di-, tetra- and octoploid). Calibration models were built by orthogonal partial least squares regression for quantitative analysis of (acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content. For the latter, we propose a simplistic protocol involving apolar extraction followed by gas chromatography as a reference method for multivariate calibration in order to handle the analysis of samples taken from individual plants. We found good predictive ability of chemometric models for quantification of valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid, total sesquiterpenoid acid, and essential oil content with a root mean squared error of cross-validation of 0.064, 0.043, and 0.09 and root mean squared error of prediction of 0.066, 0.057, and 0.09 (% content), respectively. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed good discriminability between the most productive phenotype (i.e., the octoploid cytotype) in terms of sesquiterpenoid acids, and the less productive ones (i.e., di- and tetraploid). All in all, our results demonstrate the application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for rapid, extractionless estimation of the most important quality attributes of valerian root and minimally invasive identification of the most productive phenotype in terms of sesquiterpenoid acids. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New

  10. Executive control, ERP and pro-inflammatory activity in emotionally exhausted middle-aged employees. Comparison between subclinical burnout and mild to moderate depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Boden, Sylvia; Freude, Gabriele; Potter, Guy G; Claus, Maren; Bröde, Peter; Watzl, Carsten; Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Burnout is a syndrome occurring mainly in individuals with long-term stressful work. The main complaints are emotional exhaustion and reduced performance. Burnout also largely overlaps with depression. Both are characterized by increased incidence of infections due to dysregulation of the immune system, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cognitive deficits, particularly related to executive functions. To distinguish between burnout and depression already at the pre-clinical stage, the present double-blinded study compared immunological and cognitive parameters in seventy-six employees from emotionally demanding occupations who were post-hoc subdivided into two groups scoring low (EE-) and high (EE+) in emotional exhaustion and low (DE-) and high (DE+) in depression. Immunological parameters were measured from blood samples. Executive functions were studied by analyzing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and performance during a task switching paradigm. Psychosocial job parameters were measured with standardized questionnaires. Burnout and mild to moderate depression largely overlapped. However, several subjects showed burnout without depressive symptoms. Higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 were correlated with burnout severity and depressive symptoms in male individuals. In the switch task a trend for lower performance in the EE+ vs. EE- group and no difference between DE+ and DE- groups were found. In the ERPs, however, differences were observed which distinguished between subclinical burnout and depression: the terminal contingent negative variation (CNV), indicating preparatory activity and the P3b, related to allocation of cognitive resources were generally reduced in EE+ vs. EE-, whereas no differences were found in the DE+ vs. DE- groups. The frontal P3a was selectively reduced in switch trials in the EE+ vs. EE- group and showed only a trend in DE+ vs. DE-, indicating impairment of executive control in subclinical

  11. Gate-voltage control of equal-spin Andreev reflection in half-metal/semiconductor/superconductor junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiuqiang, E-mail: xianqiangzhe@126.com [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Meng, Hao, E-mail: menghao1982@shu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China)

    2016-04-22

    With the Blonder–Tinkham–Klapwijk (BTK) approach, we investigate conductance spectrum in Ferromagnet/Semiconductor/Superconductor (FM/Sm/SC) double tunnel junctions where strong Rashba spin–orbit interaction (RSOI) is taken into account in semiconductors. For the half-metal limit, we find that the in-gap conductance becomes finite except at zero voltage when inserting a ferromagnetic insulator (FI) at the Sm/SC interface, which means that the appearance of a long-range triplet states in the half-metal. This is because of the emergence of the unconventional equal-spin Andreev reflection (ESAR). When the FI locates at the FM/Sm interface, however, we find the vanishing in-gap conductance due to the absence of the ESAR. Moreover, the non-zero in-gap conductance shows a nonmonotonic dependence on RSOI which can be controlled by applying an external gate voltage. Our results can be used to generate and manipulate the long-range spin triplet correlation in the nascent field of superconducting spintronics. - Highlights: • We study the equal-spin Andreev reflection in half-metal/semiconductor/superconductor (HM/Sm/SC) junctions. • The equal-spin Andreev reflection appearance when inserting a ferromagnetic insulator at the Sm/SC interface. • The finite in-gap conductance is attributed to the emergence of the equal-spin Andreev reflection. • The finite in-gap conductance shows a nonmonotonic dependence on Rashba spin–orbit interaction. • The finite in-gap conductance can be controlled by applying an external gate voltage.

  12. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: Evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German–English bilinguals, German–English–Language

  13. The response-time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control and constant execution times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction uses an equal number of

  14. Multitasking vs. multiplexing: Toward a normative account of limitations in the simultaneous execution of control-demanding behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S. F.; Schwemmer, M.; Gershman, S. J.; Cohen, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Why is it that behaviors that rely on control, so striking in their diversity and flexibility, are also subject to such striking limitations? Typically, people cannot engage in more than a few — and usually only a single — control-demanding task at a time. This limitation was a defining element in the earliest conceptualizations of controlled processing, it remains one of the most widely accepted axioms of cognitive psychology, and is even the basis for some laws (e.g., against the use of mobile devices while driving). Remarkably, however, the source of this limitation is still not understood. Here, we examine one potential source of this limitation, in terms of a tradeoff between the flexibility and efficiency of representation (“multiplexing”) and the simultaneous engagement of different processing pathways (“multitasking”). We show that even a modest amount of multiplexing rapidly introduces cross-talk among processing pathways, thereby constraining the number that can be productively engaged at once. We propose that, given the large number of advantages of efficient coding, the human brain has favored this over the capacity for multitasking of control-demanding processes. PMID:24481850

  15. Multitasking versus multiplexing: Toward a normative account of limitations in the simultaneous execution of control-demanding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S F; Schwemmer, M; Gershman, S J; Cohen, J D

    2014-03-01

    Why is it that behaviors that rely on control, so striking in their diversity and flexibility, are also subject to such striking limitations? Typically, people cannot engage in more than a few-and usually only a single-control-demanding task at a time. This limitation was a defining element in the earliest conceptualizations of controlled processing; it remains one of the most widely accepted axioms of cognitive psychology, and is even the basis for some laws (e.g., against the use of mobile devices while driving). Remarkably, however, the source of this limitation is still not understood. Here, we examine one potential source of this limitation, in terms of a trade-off between the flexibility and efficiency of representation ("multiplexing") and the simultaneous engagement of different processing pathways ("multitasking"). We show that even a modest amount of multiplexing rapidly introduces cross-talk among processing pathways, thereby constraining the number that can be productively engaged at once. We propose that, given the large number of advantages of efficient coding, the human brain has favored this over the capacity for multitasking of control-demanding processes.

  16. Extending brain-training to the affective domain: increasing cognitive and affective executive control through emotional working memory training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schweizer

    Full Text Available So-called 'brain-training' programs are a huge commercial success. However, empirical evidence regarding their effectiveness and generalizability remains equivocal. This study investigated whether brain-training (working memory [WM] training improves cognitive functions beyond the training task (transfer effects, especially regarding the control of emotional material since it constitutes much of the information we process daily. Forty-five participants received WM training using either emotional or neutral material, or an undemanding control task. WM training, regardless of training material, led to transfer gains on another WM task and in fluid intelligence. However, only brain-training with emotional material yielded transferable gains to improved control over affective information on an emotional Stroop task. The data support the reality of transferable benefits of demanding WM training and suggest that transferable gains across to affective contexts require training with material congruent to those contexts. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that intensive cognitively demanding brain-training can improve not only our abstract problem-solving capacity, but also ameliorate cognitive control processes (e.g. decision-making in our daily emotive environments.

  17. Executive Functions and Inhibitory Control in Multilingual Children: Evidence from Second-Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German…

  18. The assessment of executive functioning in children

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, L.; Bettenay, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Executive functioning is increasingly seen as incorporating several component sub-skills and clinical assessments should reflect this complexity. \\ud \\ud Method: Tools for assessing executive functioning in children are reviewed within five key areas, across verbal and visuospatial abilities, with emphasis on batteries of tests. \\ud \\ud Results: There are many appropriate tests for children, although the choice is more limited for those under the age of 8 years. \\ud \\ud Conclusion...

  19. The passage of tobacco control law 174 in Lebanon: reflections on the problem, policies and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R T; Torossian, L; El Hajj, T; Khalil, J; Afifi, R A

    2018-06-01

    Progress in tobacco control policy making has occurred worldwide through advocacy campaigns involving multiple players- civil society groups, activists, academics, media and policymakers. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-the first ever global health treaty-outlines evidence-based tobacco control policies. Lebanon ratified the FCTC in 2005, but until 2011, tobacco control policies remained rudimentary and not evidence-based. Beginning in 2009, a concerted advocacy campaign was undertaken by a variety of stakeholders with the aim of accelerating the process of adopting a strong tobacco control policy. The campaign was successful, and Law 174 passed the Lebanese Parliament in August 2011. In this article, we analyse the policy making process that led to the adoption of Law 174 using Kingdon's model. The analysis relies on primary and secondary data sources including historical records of key governmental decisions, documentation of the activities of the concerted advocacy campaign and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. We describe the opening of a window of opportunity as a result of the alignment of the problem, policy and politics streams. Furthermore, findings revealed that despite the challenge of persistent tobacco industry interference and established power relations between the industry, its allies and policymakers; policy entrepreneurs succeeded in supporting the alignment of the streams, and influencing the passage of the law. Kingdon's multiple stream approach was useful in explaining how tobacco control became an emerging policy issue at the front of the policy agenda in Lebanon.

  20. Culture, executive function, and social understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting that the relationships among social interaction, executive function, and social understanding are different in these cultures, implying that social and executive skills are underpinned by key cultural processes.

  1. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical nerve identification. Preliminary ex vivo results for feedback controlled oral and maxillofacial laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Zam, Azhar; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael

    Objective: Laser surgery has many advantages. However, due to a lack of haptic feedback it is accompanied by the risk of iatrogenic nerve damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of optical nerve identification by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Materials and Methods: Diffuse reflectance spectra of nerve tissue, skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone (15120 spectra) of ex vivo pig heads were acquired in the wavelength range of 350-650 nm. Tissue differentiation was performed by principal components analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Results: Nerve tissue could correctly be identified and differed from skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone in more than 90% of the cases (AUC results) with a specificity of over 78% and a sensitivity of more than 86%. Conclusion: Nerve tissue can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with high precision and reliability. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent iatrogenic nerve damage performing oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.

  2. The Development of Radiation hardened tele-robot system - Development of artificial force reflection control for teleoperated mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Jang; Hong, Sun Gi; Kang, Young Hoon; Kim, Min Soeng [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    One of the most important issues in teleoperation is to provide the sense of telepresence so as to conduct the task more reliably. In particular, teleoperated mobile robots are needed to have some kinds of backup system when the operator is blind for remote situation owing to the failure of vision system. In the first year, the idea of artificial force reflection was researched to enhance the reliability of operation when the mobile robot travels on the plain ground. In the second year, we extend previous results to help the teleoperator even when the robot climbs stairs. Finally, we apply the developed control algorithms to real experiments. The artificial force reflection method has two modes; traveling on the plain ground and climbing stairs. When traveling on the plain ground, the force information is artificially generated by using the range data from the environment while generating the impulse force when climbing stairs. To verify the validity of our algorithm, we develop the simulator which consists of the joystick and the visual display system. Through some experiments using this system, we confirm the validity and effectiveness of our new idea of artificial force reflection in the teleoperated mobile robot. 11 refs., 30 figs. (Author)

  3. Working-memory capacity predicts the executive control of visual search among distractors: the influences of sustained and selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Bradley J; Kane, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Variation in working-memory capacity (WMC) predicts individual differences in only some attention-control capabilities. Whereas higher WMC subjects outperform lower WMC subjects in tasks requiring the restraint of prepotent but inappropriate responses, and the constraint of attentional focus to target stimuli against distractors, they do not differ in prototypical visual-search tasks, even those that yield steep search slopes and engender top-down control. The present three experiments tested whether WMC, as measured by complex memory span tasks, would predict search latencies when the 1-8 target locations to be searched appeared alone, versus appearing among distractor locations to be ignored, with the latter requiring selective attentional focus. Subjects viewed target-location cues and then fixated on those locations over either long (1,500-1,550 ms) or short (300 ms) delays. Higher WMC subjects identified targets faster than did lower WMC subjects only in the presence of distractors and only over long fixation delays. WMC thus appears to affect subjects' ability to maintain a constrained attentional focus over time.

  4. Autonomy and Control when Working with Humans—A Reflection on Sociotechnical Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Amble

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sociotechnical concepts of responsible autonomy and to be in control were originally developed from men’s work in order to describe and develop mostly industrial work. This article explores how these conceptions may be useful in modern service work, when working with humans. It is based on a set of development projects in mainly municipal care institutions in Norway, between 2000 and 2011. The projects were theoretically grounded in the Norwegian and international sociotechnical system theory (STS tradition. It argues that there are many valuable lessons to be learnt from this tradition also concerning nursing and care work in the municipalities. However, the article points to a need for development of the concept control as autonomy to embrace “working with humans.” A central finding is that assistance and support from and to colleagues are prerequisites for “being in control.” Moreover, that development of trust through communication alongside work is necessary in order to establish relations of mutual support. Trust and mutual support point to the social relations at work; so in this way it takes the concept control as autonomy from an individual to a more collective concept as Trist et al. (1963 and Herbst (1974/1993 defined their concept of control as collective responsible autonomy. In a prospective perspective, the article sets up the hypothesis that an organization that combines the two, an individual together with a more collective scope on autonomy when working with humans, will meet what Kira (2006 calls as regenerative work. This means sustainability—in resources involved; health, quality, and milieu—through the staff ’s dominion over the conditions of their work.

  5. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review of the Report "Exercise Improves Executive Function and Achievement and Alters Brain Activation in Overweight Children: A Randomized, Controlled Trial"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined whether exercise offered to sedentary, overweight children ages 7 to 11 improved executive function--defined as strategy execution when presented with a novel task--and academic performance in reading and math. The study authors analyzed data on about 170 students from Georgia who were recruited in five cohorts from 2003 to…

  6. Interventions to improve executive functioning and working memory in school-aged children with AD(H)D: a randomised controlled trial and stepped-care approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Donk, Marthe L. A.; Hiemstra-Beernink, Anne-Claire; Tjeenk-Kalff, Ariane C.; van der Leij, Aryan V.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in executive functioning are of great significance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One of these executive functions, working memory, plays an important role in academic performance and is often seen as the core deficit of this disorder. There are indications that working

  7. Interventions to improve executive functioning and working memory in school-aged children with AD(H)D : A randomised controlled trial and stepped-care approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Donk, M.L.A.; Hiemstra-Beernink, A.-C.; Tjeenk-Kalff, A.C.; van der Leij, A.V.; Lindauer, R.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Deficits in executive functioning are of great significance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One of these executive functions, working memory, plays an important role in academic performance and is often seen as the core deficit of this disorder. There are indications

  8. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the Occupational Goal Intervention method for the improvement of executive functioning in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzotto, Adriana D B; Celestino, Diego L; Buchain, Patricia C; Oliveira, Alexandra M; Oliveira, Graça M R; Di Sarno, Elaine S; Napolitano, Isabel C; Elkis, Helio

    2016-11-30

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disabling mental disorder that involves impairments in several cognitive domains, especially in executive functions (EF), as well as impairments in functional performance. This is particularly true in patients with Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia (TRS). The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the Occupational Goal Intervention (OGI) method for the improvement of EF in patients with TRS. In this randomized, controlled, single-blind pilot study, 25 TRS patients were randomly assigned to attend 30 sessions of either OGI or craft activities (control) over a 15-week period and evaluated by the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) as the primary outcome and the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS-BR) as well as the Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS-BR) as secondary outcomes, all adapted for the Brazilian population. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used for monitoring symptom severity. Results showed significant statistical differences, favoring the OGI group in terms of improvement on the BADS, both in subtests (Action Program and Key Search) and the total score. Improvements in EFs were observed by families in various dimensions as measured by different subtests of the ILSS-BR inventory. The OGI group showed no significant results in secondary outcomes (DAFS-BR) except in terms of improvement of communication skills. Although preliminary, our results indicate that the OGI method is efficacious and effective for patients with TRS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Executive summary of the GeSIDA consensus document on control and monitoring of HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-21

    The continuous increase in our knowledge of HIV medicine and antiretroviral treatment has led us to draft specific consensus documents focused on topics other than antiretroviral therapy, such as treatment of opportunistic diseases, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, metabolic abnormalities, treatment of HBV or HCV coinfection, treatment of patients coinfected with tuberculosis, osteoporosis, kidney disorders, and cardiovascular risk. Accordingly, the AIDS Study Group (GeSIDA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology has promoted the drafting of this consensus document on the control and monitoring of adult patients infected with HIV. The document provides recommendations on the initial evaluation and subsequent monitoring of HIV-infected patients that will prove useful for all professionals involved in the management of this infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Stability Control of Force-Reflected Nonlinear Multilateral Teleoperation System under Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel control algorithm based on the modified wave-variable controllers is proposed to achieve accurate position synchronization and reasonable force tracking of the nonlinear single-master-multiple-slave teleoperation system and simultaneously guarantee overall system’s stability in the presence of large time-varying delays. The system stability in different scenarios of human and environment situations has been analyzed. The proposed method is validated through experimental work based on the 3-DOF trilateral teleoperation system consisting of three different manipulators. The experimental results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to achieve high transparency and robust stability in nonlinear single-master-multiple-slave teleoperation system in the presence of time-varying delays.

  11. Decision making and executive function in male adolescents with early-onset or adolescence-onset conduct disorder and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Stollery, Sarah J; Aitken, Michael R F; Savage, Justin; Moore, Simon C; Goodyer, Ian M

    2009-07-15

    Although conduct disorder (CD) is associated with an increased susceptibility to substance use disorders, little is known about decision-making processes or reward mechanisms in CD. This study investigated decision making under varying motivational conditions in CD. Performances on the Risky Choice Task (RCT) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were assessed in 156 adolescents (84 control subjects, 34 with adolescence-onset CD, and 38 with early-onset CD). The RCT was performed twice, once under normal motivational conditions and once under conditions of increased motivation and psychosocial stress. Increased motivation and stress led to more cautious decision making and changes in framing effects on the RCT in all groups, although such effects were least pronounced in the early-onset CD group. Participants from both CD subgroups selected the risky choice more frequently than control subjects. Under normal motivational conditions, early-onset CD participants chose the risky choice more frequently in trials occurring after small gains, relative to control subjects and adolescence-onset CD participants. Following adjustment for IQ differences, the groups did not differ significantly in terms of WCST performance. Differences in decision making between control subjects and individuals with CD suggest that the balance between sensitivity to reward and punishment is shifted in this disorder, particularly the early-onset form. Our data on modulation of decision making according to previous outcomes suggest altered reward mechanisms in early-onset CD. The WCST data suggest that impairments in global executive function do not underlie altered decision making in CD.

  12. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  13. Need for insulin to control gestational diabetes is reflected in the ambulatory arterial stiffness index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärkkäinen Henna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to evaluate the metabolic profile in conjunction with vascular function using the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI in women with uncomplicated pregnancies and in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Methods Plasma glucose, lipids, HOMA –IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and AASI, as obtained from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in third trimester pregnancy and at three months postpartum, were measured in three groups of women: controls (N = 32, women with GDM on diet (N = 42 and women with GDM requiring insulin treatment (N = 10. Results Women with GDM had poorer glycemic control and higher HOMA-IR during and after pregnancy and their total and LDL (low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly higher after pregnancy than in the controls. After delivery, there was an improvement in AASI from 0.26 ± 0.10 to 0.17 ± 0.09 (P = 0.002 in women with GDM on diet, but not in women with GDM receiving insulin whose AASI tended to worsen after delivery from 0.30 ± 0.23 to 0.33 ± 0.09 (NS, then being significantly higher than in the other groups (P = 0.001-0.047. Conclusions Women with GDM had more unfavorable lipid profile and higher blood glucose values at three months after delivery, the metabolic profile being worst in women requiring insulin. Interestingly, the metabolic disturbances at three months postpartum were accompanied by a tendency towards arterial stiffness to increase in women requiring insulin.

  14. Precise in situ etch depth control of multilayered III−V semiconductor samples with reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kathrin Kleinschmidt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS equipment is applied to monitor dry-etch processes (here specifically reactive ion etching (RIE of monocrystalline multilayered III–V semiconductors in situ. The related accuracy of etch depth control is better than 16 nm. Comparison with results of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS reveals a deviation of only about 4 nm in optimal cases. To illustrate the applicability of the reported method in every day settings for the first time the highly etch depth sensitive lithographic process to form a film lens on the waveguide ridge of a broad area laser (BAL is presented. This example elucidates the benefits of the method in semiconductor device fabrication and also suggests how to fulfill design requirements for the sample in order to make RAS control possible.

  15. Executive Semantic Processing Is Underpinned by a Large-scale Neural Network: Revealing the Contribution of Left Prefrontal, Posterior Temporal, and Parietal Cortex to Controlled Retrieval and Selection Using TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Carin; Kirk, Marie; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    To understand the meanings of words and objects, we need to have knowledge about these items themselves plus executive mechanisms that compute and manipulate semantic information in a task-appropriate way. The neural basis for semantic control remains controversial. Neuroimaging studies have focused on the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus…

  16. Challenging executive dominance in European democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.

    2014-01-01

    Executive dominance in the contemporary EU is part of a wider migration of executive power towards types of decision making that eschew electoral accountability and popular democratic control. This democratic gap is fed by far-going secrecy arrangements and practices exercised in a concerted fashion

  17. Challenging Executive Dominance in European Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.

    2013-01-01

    Executive dominance in the contemporary EU is part of a wider migration of executive power towards types of decision making that eschew electoral accountability and popular democratic control. This democratic gap is fed by far‐going secrecy arrangements and practices exercised in a concerted fashion

  18. A FORESIGHT REFLECTION ON SUSTAINABLE METHODS FOR CONTROLLING MAMMALIAN FARM ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chemineau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Controlling farm animal reproduction was/is one of the essential tools for domestication of species. It is still of high interest for genetic improvement, adjustment of production to feed availability, to market and reduction of unproductive periods. Detection of oestrous behaviour in cyclic females, synchronization of conceptions and increase of the potency of diffusion of sires are three common objectives among species. The various situations of reproductive systems, which are reviewed here, are very different among the various livestock systems in the world, because of intrinsic properties of species, but also because of the various degrees of intensification of the livestock systems themselves. A clear tendency appears to continue increasing productivity by improving reproductive efficiency, developing new and sustainable techniques without hormones, and continuing to develop AI and reproductive biotechnologies. Future areas of investment in research could be, first, the physiological and ethological bases of the socio-sexual inter-relationships between animals, second the genetic control of reproductive traits, third increasing the efficiency of classical and new reproductive biotechnologies and fourth engineering new and innovative reproductive techniques to be used in farm conditions. These reproductive techniques should be developed respecting the three pillars of sustainability: environment, economy and society. Thus, they should be included within the livestock systems in which they are supposed to be applied and which should be assessed for sustainability.

  19. Temporo-Parietal and Fronto-Parietal Lobe Contributions to Theory of Mind and Executive Control: An fMRI Study of Verbal Jokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen eChan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Getting a joke’ always requires resolving an apparent incongruity but the particular cognitive operations called upon vary depending on the nature of the joke itself. Previous research has identified the primary neural correlates of the cognitive and affective processes called upon to respond to humor generally, but little work has been done on the substrates underlying the distinct cognitive operations required to comprehend particular joke types. This study explored the neural correlates of the cognitive processes required to successfully comprehend three joke types: bridging-inference jokes, exaggeration jokes and ambiguity jokes. For all joke types, the left dlPFC appeared to support common cognitive mechanisms, such as script-shifting, while the vACC was associated with affective appreciation. The temporo-parietal lobe (TPJ and MTG was associated with bridging-inference jokes, suggesting involvement of these regions with ‘theory of mind’ processing. The ventral fronto-parietal lobe (IPL and IFG was associated with both exaggeration and ambiguity jokes, suggesting that it supports executive control processes such as retrieval from episodic memory, self-awareness, and language-based decoding. The social-affective appreciation of verbal jokes was associated with activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC, and parahippocampal gyrus. These results allow a more precise account of the neural

  20. Child Executive Control as a Moderator of the Longitudinal Association Between Sleep Problems and Subsequent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Hankey, Maren; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Nelson, Timothy D

    2017-11-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations among sleep, executive control (EC), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. In this longitudinal study (N = 271), parents answered questions about sleep problems when children were 3 years old, children completed a comprehensive EC task battery at 4.5 years, and teachers completed standardized measures of child ADHD symptoms in 4th grade. Latent moderated structural equation models demonstrated that sleep problems at 3 years and EC deficits at 4.5 years were associated with ADHD symptoms in 4th grade. EC moderated the relationship between sleep problems and hyperactivity/impulsivity, such that children with both sleep problems and poor EC were particularly at risk for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Sleep problems and EC deficits early in development were associated with increased risk for ADHD symptoms in elementary school. Early assessment and intervention to promote healthy sleep and EC development may be helpful in ADHD prevention. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Parental control mechanisms and their reflection on identity styles of Turkish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Nermin Çelen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that authoritarian parents limit their children's freedom of expression and monitor their children's behavior according to their rules. Children of authoritative families tend to have high self-esteem and refer to internalized norms. Parenting is a cultural product. In this study the model presented is limited in the sense that it does not consider the cultural diversity. We must evaluate the identity not only with perceived parenting style but also within the socio-cultural context. The present study explored the relationships between identity styles and perceived parenting control patterns in late adolescents. Responses of 402 Turkish university students to the Berzonsky's Identity Style Inventory were factor-analyzed, and patterns of correlations between four identity statuses, Steinberg's Authoritative Parenting Scale, and Kağitçibaş1's Authoritarianism Scale and parental education were examined. The findings are discussed in relation to ways of incorporating the cultural context into the study of identity development.

  2. A wireless reflectance pulse oximeter with digital baseline control for unfiltered photoplethysmograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kejia; Warren, Steve

    2012-06-01

    Pulse oximeters are central to the move toward wearable health monitoring devices and medical electronics either hosted by, e.g., smart phones or physically embedded in their design. This paper presents a small, low-cost pulse oximeter design appropriate for wearable and surface-based applications that also produces quality, unfiltered photo-plethysmograms (PPGs) ideal for emerging diagnostic algorithms. The design's "filter-free" embodiment, which employs only digital baseline subtraction as a signal compensation mechanism, distinguishes it from conventional pulse oximeters that incorporate filters for signal extraction and noise reduction. This results in high-fidelity PPGs with thousands of peak-to-peak digitization levels that are sampled at 240 Hz to avoid noise aliasing. Electronic feedback controls make these PPGs more resilient in the face of environmental changes (e.g., the device can operate in full room light), and data stream in real time across either a ZigBee wireless link or a wired USB connection to a host. On-board flash memory is available for store-and-forward applications. This sensor has demonstrated an ability to gather high-integrity data at fingertip, wrist, earlobe, palm, and temple locations from a group of 48 subjects (20 to 64 years old).

  3. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Dubray, Claude; Pereira, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467) was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature), and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g) or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P memory initial thinking time were decreased ( P =0.04). All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect ( P body temperature did not change. This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance and antinociception are independent of APAP effect on thermogenesis. We suggest that cognitive performance mirrors the analgesic rather than thermic cascade of events, with possibly a central role for serotonergic and cannabinoid systems that need to be explored further in the context of pain and cognition.

  4. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kotchoubey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise: no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels, or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data, both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data, no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms.

  5. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gisèle Pickering,1–3 Nicolas Macian,1,2 Claude Dubray,1–3 Bruno Pereira4 1University Hospital, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique, 2Inserm, CIC 1405, UMR Neurodol 1107, 3Clermont Université, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculté de médecine, 4CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Délégation Recherche Clinique Innovation, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background: Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467 was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature, and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. Results: APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05. Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04. All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01 and body temperature did not change. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance

  6. Tutoring executives online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programmes have largely neglected programmes catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA programme through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviours already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  7. Tutoring Executives Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programs have largely neglected programs catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA program through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviors already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  8. Attentional bias and executive control in treatment-seeking substance-dependent adolescents: A cross-sectional and follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; Wiers, Reinout W; Brook, Frank G; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    Research in adults shows that substance dependent individuals demonstrate attentional bias (AB) for substance-related stimuli. This study investigated the role of AB in adolescents diagnosed with alcohol, cannabis, amphetamine or GHB dependency on entering therapy and six months later, and the role of executive control (EC) as a moderator of the relationship between problem severity and AB. Seventy-eight young substance-dependent (SD) patients (mean age=19.5), and 64 healthy controls (HC; mean age=19.0) were tested. Thirty-eight SD patients took part at 6-month follow-up (FU). AB was indexed by a visual probe task, EC by the attention network task, problem severity by the short alcohol (or drug) use disorder identification test and the severity of dependence questionnaire. SD patients demonstrated an AB for substance stimuli presented for 500 ms and 1250 ms, with the latter related to severity of dependence. There was a nonsignificant tendency indicating that EC was higher in HC than SD participants, but EC did not moderate the relationship between AB and dependency. Substance use, dependency, EC and AB remained unchanged in the 6 month FU period. Young SD patients showed a stronger relatively early as well as maintained AB toward substance cues. A stronger maintained attention was related to higher severity of dependence. Further, there were some indications that EC might play a role in adolescent substance use. The finding that at FU AB and problem severity were not decreased, and EC was not increased underlines the persistent character of addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Executive Control and Striatal Resting-State Network Interact with Risk Factors to Influence Treatment Outcomes in Alcohol-Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milky Kohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Alterations within mesocorticolimbic terminal regions commonly occur with alcohol use disorder (AUD. As pathological drug-seeking behavior may arise as a consequence of alcohol-induced neuroadaptations, it is critical to understand how such changes increase the likelihood of relapse. This report examined resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC using both a seed-based and model-free approach in individuals in treatment for AUD and how dysregulation of network connectivity contributes to treatment outcomes. In order to provide a mechanism by which neural networks promote relapse, interactive effects of mesocorticolimbic connectivity and AUD risk factors in treatment completers and non-completers were examined. AUD group showed stronger RSFC between striatum, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex than controls. Within the AUD group, non-completers compared to completers showed enhanced RSFC between (1 striatum–insula, (2 executive control network (ECN–amygdala, and (3 basal ganglia/salience network and striatum, precuneus, and insula. Completers showed enhanced RSFC between striatum-right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, completers and non-completers differed in relationships between RSFC and relapse risk factors, where non-completers exhibited positive associations between craving intensity and RSFC of striatum–insula and ECN–amygdala. These findings provide evidence for interactions between corticolimbic connectivity in AUD and craving and establish an important link between network connectivity and dynamic risk factors that contribute to relapse. Results demonstrate that relapse vulnerability is attributed to craving dysregulation manifested by enhanced connectivity in striato-limbic regions and diminished corticostriatal connectivity.

  10. Renewal and change for health care executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, G C; Bice, M O

    1991-01-01

    Health care executives must consider renewal and change within their own lives if they are to breathe life into their own institutions. Yet numerous barriers to executive renewal exist, including time pressures, fatigue, cultural factors, and trustee attitudes. This essay discusses such barriers and suggests approaches that health care executives may consider for programming renewal into their careers. These include self-assessment for professional and personal goals, career or job change, process vs. outcome considerations, solitude, networking, lifelong education, surrounding oneself with change agents, business travel and sabbaticals, reading outside the field, physical exercise, mentoring, learning from failures, a sense of humor, spiritual reflection, and family and friends. Renewal is a continuous, lifelong process requiring constant learning. Individual executives would do well to develop a framework for renewal in their careers and organizations.

  11. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  13. Open- and Closed-Skill Exercise Interventions Produce Different Neurocognitive Effects on Executive Functions in the Elderly: A 6-Month Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Liang Tsai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effects of open- and closed-skill exercise interventions on the neurocognitive performance of executive functions in the elderly. Sixty-four healthy elderly males were randomly assigned to either a closed-skill (bike riding or brisk walking/jogging, n = 22, open-skill (table tennis, n = 21, or control (n = 21 group. Various neuropsychological [e.g., accuracy rates (AR and reaction time (RT] and electrophysiological [e.g., event-related potential (ERP P3 component] measures were assessed during a variant of the task-switching paradigm, as well as an N-back task at baseline and after either a 6-month exercise intervention or control period. The results showed that, when performing the task-switching paradigm, the two exercise groups relative to control group showed significantly faster RTs in the switch trials after the exercise intervention. However, the RT facilitation in the non-switch and switch trials post-exercise relative to pre-exercise only emerged in the open-skill group. In terms of the N-back task, the two exercise groups significantly increased ARs in the 1-back condition after the exercise intervention, and the beneficial AR effect on the 2-back condition only emerged in the closed-skill group. In addition, the two exercise groups exhibited significantly larger P3 amplitudes on the frontal-to-parietal cortex areas after the exercise intervention relative to the baseline when performing the two cognitive tasks. These neurocognitive results still remained unchanged even when the confounding factors (e.g., cardiorespiratory fitness, social participation, and BMI were controlled for. The present study concluded that, although 6-month open- and closed-skill exercise interventions facilitate overall electrophysiological effects (i.e., increased ERP P3 amplitudes on the frontal-to-parietal cortices in the elderly, the two exercise modes produced different levels of neuropsychologically beneficial effects on

  14. Execute-Only Attacks against Execute-Only Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-18

    strongest implementations of execute-only defenses: it exploits novel hardware features to incorporate non-readable code to prevent direct information...build two proof-of- concept exploits that can achieve control flow hijacking on a system protected by full- featured Readactor. • We evaluate the...According to the CVE [31], 123 such arbitrary read vulnerabilities were reported between January and September of 2015, in Firefox (CVE-2015-4495

  15. Validation of a Comprehensive Executive Learning and Development Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrofi, Solomon; Clarke, Nicholas; Vernon, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the returns on intangible assets in general and executive human capital in particular is still a challenging endeavour. One possible means of addressing this challenge involves developing a broad measure of executive learning and development (L&D), encapsulating both the formal and informal activities that closely reflect the dynamic…

  16. Constitutional Basis for the Enforcement of ''Executive'' Policies that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although "executive" policies remain an important governance tool, there appears to be confusion on the status and possible basis for their judicial enforcement in South Africa. The aim of this article is to critically reflect on the status and possible constitutional basis for the enforceability of "executive" policies that give effect ...

  17. Evaluating Market Orientation of an Executive MBA Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas, Khalid M.; Ghani, Waqar I.; Davis, Stanley; Strong, James T.

    1998-01-01

    A study assessed the market orientation of the executive Master's in Business Administration (MBA) program at Saint Joseph's University (Pennsylvania) in terms of 12 skills and knowledge areas that reflect effective managerial performance and the student-executives' perceptions of program strengths and weaknesses in delivering these skills.…

  18. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would

  19. Investigating the relationship between subjective drug craving and temporal dynamics of the default mode network, executive control network, and salience network in methamphetamine dependents using rsfMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Somayyeh; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali; Shahbabaie, Alireza; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) studies using fMRI provides a great deal of knowledge on the spatiotemporal organization of the brain. The relationships between and within a number of resting state functional networks, namely the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and executive control network (ECN) have been intensely studied in basic and clinical cognitive neuroscience [1]. However, the presumption of spatial and temporal stationarity has mostly restricted the assessment of rsFC [1]. In this study, sliding window correlation analysis and k-means clustering were exploited to examine the temporal dynamics of rsFC of these three networks in 24 abstinent methamphetamine dependents. Afterwards, using canonical correlation analysis (CCA) the possible relationship between the level of self-reported craving and the temporal dynamics was examined. Results indicate that the rsFC transits between 6 discrete "FC states" in the meth dependents. CCA results show that higher levels of craving are associated with higher probability of transiting from state 4 to 6 (positive FC of DMN-ECN getting weak and negative FC of DMN-SN appearing) and staying in state 4 (positive FC of DMN-ECN), lower probability of staying in state 2 (negative FC of DMN-ECN), transiting from state 4 to 2 (change of positive FC of DMN-ECN to negative FC), and transiting from state 3 to 5 (appearance of negative FC of DMN-SN and positive FC of DMN-ECN with the presence of negative FC of SN-ECN). Quantitative measures of temporal dynamics in large-scale brain networks could bring new added values to increase potentials for applications of rsfMRI in addiction medicine.

  20. 品行障碍青少年执行功能的对照研究%Executive function of adolescents with conduct disorder: a control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志礼; 蒙华庆; 李静; 胡华; 马中锐; 杜莲

    2012-01-01

    目的 使用剑桥神经心理自动化成套测试(CANTAB)探讨青少年品行障碍与执行功能的关系.方法 采用韦氏成人智力测验(WAIS)简易版、CANTAB中的内外空间成套变换(IED)、剑桥袋球(SOC)和空间工作记忆(SWM)对86名品行障碍青少年和110名职高学生进行对照研究.结果 品行障碍青少年的智商水平(98.17±5.07)低于对照组[(103.42±5.40),P<0.01];在IED中,品行障碍青少年的外维转换前期错误数、外维转换期错误数、错误总数[(12.23±9.15)、(16.69±10.57)、(35.44±11.09)次]均多于对照组[(8.31±3.80)、(13.07±10.31)、(25.63±12.24)次,P<0.01],阶段完成数[(7.47±1.96)次]少于对照组[(8.29±0.91)次,P<0.05];在SOC中,品行障碍青少年完成任务的最少步数(7.65±1.96)多于对照组[(6.70±2.05),P<0.01],3步和5步的平均步数多于对照组(P<0.05),4步和5步的起始思考时间短于对照组(P<0.05);在SWM中,品行障碍青少年总的组间搜索错误数[(27.56±18.88)次]多于对照组[ (20.47±18.40)次,P<0.01],在6个和8个盒子中的组间搜索错误数均多于对照组(P<0.01),策略分[(33.84±4.58)分]高于对照组[(32.00 ±5.05)分,P<0.01].结论 品行障碍青少年在执行功能方面存在一定的缺陷.%Objective To study the correlation between conduct disorder and executive function of adolescents using Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery ( CANTAB ). Methods A control study was performed in 86 adolescents with conduct disorder and 118 normal controls using Wechsler adult intelligence scale short form (WAIS-S) , intra/extra dimensional set shift (IED) , stockings of Cambridge ( SoC ) and spatial working memory (SWM) in CANTAB. Results The intelligence quotient (IQ) of adolescents with conduct disorder was lower than that of normal controls (98. 17 ±5. 07 vs 103.42 ±5. 40, P <0. 01). IED showed that the number of pre-ED errors, EDS errors, and total errors was greater in

  1. A science-based executive for autonomous planetary vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S.

    2001-01-01

    If requests for scientific observations, rather than specific plans, are uplinked to an autonomous execution system on the vehicle, it would be able to adjust its execution based upon actual performance. Such a science-based executive control system had been developed and demonstrated for the Rocky7 research rover.

  2. Clustering execution in a processing system to increase power savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Pradip; Buyuktosunoglu, Alper; Jacobson, Hans M.; Vega, Augusto J.

    2018-04-03

    Embodiments relate to clustering execution in a processing system. An aspect includes accessing a control flow graph that defines a data dependency and an execution sequence of a plurality of tasks of an application that executes on a plurality of system components. The execution sequence of the tasks in the control flow graph is modified as a clustered control flow graph that clusters active and idle phases of a system component while maintaining the data dependency. The clustered control flow graph is sent to an operating system, where the operating system utilizes the clustered control flow graph for scheduling the tasks.

  3. Clustering execution in a processing system to increase power savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Pradip; Buyuktosunoglu, Alper; Jacobson, Hans M.; Vega, Augusto J.

    2018-03-20

    Embodiments relate to clustering execution in a processing system. An aspect includes accessing a control flow graph that defines a data dependency and an execution sequence of a plurality of tasks of an application that executes on a plurality of system components. The execution sequence of the tasks in the control flow graph is modified as a clustered control flow graph that clusters active and idle phases of a system component while maintaining the data dependency. The clustered control flow graph is sent to an operating system, where the operating system utilizes the clustered control flow graph for scheduling the tasks.

  4. Nurse executive transformational leadership found in participative organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham-Taylor, J

    2000-05-01

    The study examined a national sample of 396 randomly selected hospital nurse executives to explore transformational leadership, stage of power, and organizational climate. Results from a few nurse executive studies have found nurse executives were transformational leaders. As executives were more transformational, they achieved better staff satisfaction and higher work group effectiveness. This study integrates Bass' transformational leadership model with Hagberg's power stage theory and Likert's organizational climate theory. Nurse executives (396) and staff reporting to them (1,115) rated the nurse executives' leadership style, staff extra effort, staff satisfaction, and work group effectiveness using Bass and Avolio's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Executives' bosses (360) rated executive work group effectiveness. Executives completed Hagberg's Personal Power Profile and ranked their organizational climate using Likert's Profile of Organizational Characteristics. Nurse executives used transformational leadership fairly often; achieved fairly satisfied staff levels; were very effective according to bosses; were most likely at stage 3 (power by achievement) or stage 4 (power by reflection); and rated their hospital as a Likert System 3 Consultative Organization. Staff satisfaction and work group effectiveness decreased as nurse executives were more transactional. Higher transformational scores tended to occur with higher educational degrees and within more participative organizations. Transformational qualities can be enhanced by further education, by achieving higher power stages, and by being within more participative organizations.

  5. Drifting from Slow to "D'oh!": Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering Predict Extreme Reaction Times and Executive Control Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A combined experimental, individual-differences, and thought-sampling study tested the predictions of executive attention (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004) and coordinative binding (e.g., Oberauer, Suss, Wilhelm, & Sander, 2007) theories of working memory capacity (WMC). We assessed 288 subjects' WMC and their performance and mind-wandering rates…

  6. Comparing the executive function of patients with schizophrenia, acute/chronic type I disorder (manic episode, and healthy controls on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Continuous Performance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From among various cognitive deficits, deficits in executive processes have an effective role in limiting the patients’ ability to retain, acquire, and re-learn the skills necessary for real-life performance. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the executive function of patients with schizophrenia, acute/chronic type I disorder, and the healthy group. Methods: The present research was an analytical-comparative study. The statistical population consisted of all the outpatients and inpatients with acute/chronic schizophrenia and acute/chronic type I disorder (manic episode visiting Shafa Psychiatric Hospital, Rasht, Iran. Using convenience sampling, 60 male subjects aging 18-49 years old were selected in 2014-2015. They were matched for the variables of sex, age, and education level. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Test, and Raven’s Progressive Matrices were administered, and the data were analyzed using MANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: A significant difference was observed between the acute/chronic schizophrenia group, acute/chronic type I disorder (manic episode, and healthy group on the two tests. Patients with schizophrenia had a weaker executive function and attention deficit compared to those with type I disorder and the healthy group (P0.05. Conclusion: Both schizophrenia and type I disorder patients show deficits in executive function and attention. However, the former group manifests higher impairment in cognitive activities, concept formation, cognitive flexibility, and attention deficit.

  7. Executive function training with game elements for obese children: A novel treatment to enhance self-regulatory abilities for weight-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeken, S.; Braet, C.; Goossens, L.; van der Oord, S.

    2013-01-01

    For obese children behavioral treatment results in only small changes in relative weight and frequent relapse. The current study investigated the effects of an Executive Functioning (EF) training with game-elements on weight loss maintenance in obese children, over and above the care as usual in an

  8. OROS-methylphenidate efficacy on specific executive functioning deficits in adults with ADHD: A randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, T.I.; Bijlenga, D.; Boonstra, A. M.; Breuk, M.; Pardoen, W.F.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Kooij, J.J.S

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to impaired executive functioning (EF). This is the first study to objectively investigate the effects of a long-acting methylphenidate on neurocognitive test performance of adults with ADHD. Twenty-two adults with ADHD participated in a

  9. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  10. The Executive as Integrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Hans M.

    1983-01-01

    Argues that although the executive has many tasks, he or she must view internal organizational integration as a primary task, making use of organizational charts, job descriptions, statements of goals and objectives, evaluations, and feedback devices. (RH)

  11. EgoFlecto: stimulating being calm and in control through self-reflection in the context of driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosleh, Sara Said; Schmidt, Nele; Teisanu, Tudor

    2015-01-01

    commuting and propose a concept for enhancing this notion. Based on an iterative design process, we have developed a platform to test different ways of enhancing self-reflection in the car. The concept EgoFlecto is based on a seductive design strategy that aims to alter people's behavior simply through self-reflection...

  12. Executive dysfunctions in pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Vonlaufen, Corinne

    2011-07-01

    There is some evidence that child molesters show neuropsychological abnormalities which might reflect specific structural and/or functional brain alterations, but there are also inconsistencies in the existing findings which need to be clarified. Most of the different outcomes can either be explained by the fact that different types of child molesters were examined or by not having accounted for basically confounding factors such as age, education/intelligence, or criminality. The present study therefore sought to determine whether pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters, compared to relevant control groups, show different profiles of executive dysfunction when accounting for potentially confounding factors. The performance of 30 child molesters (15 pedophilic and 15 nonpedophilic) and 33 age- and education-matched controls (16 nonsexual offenders and 17 healthy controls) was assessed regarding several neuropsychological functions. Scores on different neurocognitive tests and semistructured diagnostical interviews. Results indicate that pedophilic child molesters exhibited less performance deficits in cognitive functioning than nonpedophilic child molesters. Compared to healthy controls and nonsexual offenders, the pedophilic child molesters only showed executive dysfunction concerning response inhibition, whereas the nonpedophilic child molesters revealed more severe dysfunction, especially on tasks associated with cognitive flexibility and verbal memory. These results enhance our knowledge about executive dysfunction associated with criminality and/or pedophilia, as they suggest different profiles of impairment between groups. In summary, data suggest that nonpedophilic child molesters showed more severe cognitive deficits than pedophilic child molesters. However, as response inhibition is associated with prefrontal (i.e., orbitofrontal) functioning, the deficits observed in both child molester groups indicate dysfunction in the orbitofrontal cortex. This

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD. Analysis of ASD populations, whether high-functioning, Asperger's or autism Broad Phenotype, studied over a range of executive functions including response inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and alerting networks indicates an absence of damage/impairment compared to the typically-developed normal control subjects. These findings of intact executive functioning in ASD subjects provide a strong foundation on which to construct applications for growth environments and the rehabilitation of autistic subjects.

  14. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  15. Effects of Physical-Cognitive Dual Task Training on Executive Function and Gait Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, S; Condello, G; Capranica, L; Forte, R; Pesce, C

    2016-01-01

    Physical and cognitive training seem to counteract age-related decline in physical and mental function. Recently, the possibility of integrating cognitive demands into physical training has attracted attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of twelve weeks of designed physical-cognitive training on executive cognitive function and gait performance in older adults. Thirty-six healthy, active individuals aged 72.30 ± 5.84 years were assigned to two types of physical training with major focus on physical single task (ST) training ( n = 16) and physical-cognitive dual task (DT) training ( n = 20), respectively. They were tested before and after the intervention for executive function (inhibition, working memory) through Random Number Generation and for gait (walking with/without negotiating hurdles) under both single and dual task (ST, DT) conditions. Gait performance improved in both groups, while inhibitory performance decreased after exercise training with ST focus but tended to increase after training with physical-cognitive DT focus. Changes in inhibition performance were correlated with changes in DT walking performance with group differences as a function of motor task complexity (with/without hurdling). The study supports the effectiveness of group exercise classes for older individuals to improve gait performance, with physical-cognitive DT training selectively counteracting the age-related decline in a core executive function essential for daily living.

  16. Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Pediatric ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Irwin, Lauren N; Soto, Elia F; Groves, Nicole B; Harmon, Sherelle L; Sarver, Dustin E

    2018-04-28

    Neurocognitive heterogeneity is increasingly recognized as a valid phenomenon in ADHD, with most estimates suggesting that executive dysfunction is present in only about 33%-50% of these children. However, recent critiques question the veracity of these estimates because our understanding of executive functioning in ADHD is based, in large part, on data from single tasks developed to detect gross neurological impairment rather than the specific executive processes hypothesized to underlie the ADHD phenotype. The current study is the first to comprehensively assess heterogeneity in all three primary executive functions in ADHD using a criterion battery that includes multiple tests per construct (working memory, inhibitory control, set shifting). Children ages 8-13 (M = 10.37, SD = 1.39) with and without ADHD (N = 136; 64 girls; 62% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) completed a counterbalanced series of executive function tests. Accounting for task unreliability, results indicated significantly improved sensitivity and specificity relative to prior estimates, with 89% of children with ADHD demonstrating objectively-defined impairment on at least one executive function (62% impaired working memory, 27% impaired inhibitory control, 38% impaired set shifting; 54% impaired on one executive function, 35% impaired on two or all three executive functions). Children with working memory deficits showed higher parent- and teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms (BF 10  = 5.23 × 10 4 ), and were slightly younger (BF 10  = 11.35) than children without working memory deficits. Children with vs. without set shifting or inhibitory control deficits did not differ on ADHD symptoms, age, gender, IQ, SES, or medication status. Taken together, these findings confirm that ADHD is characterized by neurocognitive heterogeneity, while suggesting that contemporary, cognitively-informed criteria may provide improved precision for identifying a

  17. A protocol for a randomised active-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of an online mindfulness intervention on executive control, critical thinking and key thinking dispositions in a university student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Chris; Hogan, Michael J

    2016-04-12

    While most modern research focuses on the clinical benefits of mindfulness, an emerging body of work suggests that mindfulness can facilitate self-regulation of everyday thinking in typically developing individuals. This behaviour is best captured using critical thinking assessments. The aim of this paper is to describe a rigorous, pre-registered study which will investigate the effect of an online mindfulness intervention on Executive Functioning, critical thinking skills and associated thinking dispositions. The design employed is a randomised-controlled 2 (condition) X 2 (time) parallel-group design which is explanatory in nature. A sample of at least 60 participants will be recruited from the pool of students at NUI Galway, with those between the ages of 18 and 65 with an adequate level of English included. Participants will be randomly assigned following screening, using block randomisation with a fixed block of 6 and a 1:1 ratio, to either the mindfulness meditation group or a sham meditation group. Both groups will be given access to the Headspace app. This is an app which provides guided meditations to users. Participants in each group will receive unique codes granting access to either the experimental or active-control intervention materials. Group allocation will be double-blinded. The primary outcome measures will assess mindfulness, executive functioning, critical thinking, actively open-minded thinking and need for cognition. Secondary outcome measures will assess eudaimonic and hedonic wellbeing, positive and negative affect, and real-world outcomes. These will be measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Manipulation checks will assess adherence to the intervention, meditation quality and task difficulty and enjoyment. If this intervention proves effective, it will show the potential of mindfulness practice to facilitate everyday critical thinking and should stimulate more interest in this line of research. If ineffective, claims

  18. [Memory and the executive functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustárroz, J; Muñoz-Céspedes, J M

    The terms 'executive functioning' or 'executive control' refer to a set of mechanisms involved in the improvement of cognitive processes to guide them towards the resolution of complex problems. Both the frontal lobes, acting as structure, and the executive processes, acting as function, work with memory contents, operating with information placed in the diencephalic structures and in the medial temporal lobe. Generally, we can state that many works find an association between frontal damage and specific memory shortages like working memory deficit, metamemory problems, source amnesia, or difficulties in the prospective memory. This paper is a critical review of the working memory concept and proposes a new term: the attentional operative system that works with memory contents. Concerning the metamemory, the frontal lobes are essential for monitoring processes in general and for 'the feeling of knowing' kind of judgements in particular. Patients suffering prefrontal damage show serious problems to remember the information source. Thus, the information is rightly remembered but the spatiotemporal context where that information was learned has been forgotten. Finally, the prospective memory deals with remembering to make something in a particular moment in the future and performing the plan previously drawn up.

  19. Educating Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one’s life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic. Given their central role in reasoning and also in managing stress and emotion, scientists have conducted studies, primarily with adults, to determine whether executive functions can be improved by training. By and large, results have shown that they can be, in part through computer-based videogame-like activities. Evidence of wider, more general benefits from such computer-based training, however, is mixed. Accordingly, scientists have reasoned that training will have wider benefits if it is implemented early, with very young children as the neural circuitry of executive functions is developing, and that it will be most effective if embedded in children’s everyday activities. Evidence produced by this research, however, is also mixed. In sum, much remains to be learned about executive function training. Without question, however, continued research on this important topic will yield valuable information about cognitive development. PMID:27906522

  20. Virtual reality exercise on a home-based phase III cardiac rehabilitation program, effect on executive function, quality of life and depression, anxiety and stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ágata; Melo, Cristina; Machado, Jorge; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    To analyse the effect of a six-month home-based phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) specific exercise program, performed in a virtual reality (Kinect) or conventional (booklet) environment, on executive function, quality of life and depression, anxiety and stress of subjects with coronary artery disease. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with subjects, who had completed phase II, randomly assigned to intervention group 1 (IG1), whose program encompassed the use of Kinect (n = 11); or intervention group 2 (IG2), a paper booklet (n = 11); or a control group (CG), only subjected to the usual care (n = 11). The three groups received education on cardiovascular risk factors. The assessed parameters, at baseline (M0), 3 (M1) and 6 months (M2), were executive function, control and integration in the implementation of an adequate behaviour in relation to a certain objective, specifically the ability to switch information (Trail Making Test), working memory (Verbal Digit Span test), and selective attention and conflict resolution ability (Stroop test), quality of life (MacNew questionnaire) and depression, anxiety and stress (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21). Descriptive and inferential statistical measures were used, significance level was set at .05. The IG1 revealed significant improvements, in the selective attention and conflict resolution ability, in comparison with the CG in the variable difference M0 - M2 (p = .021) and in comparison with the IG2 in the variable difference M1 - M2 and M0 - M2 (p = .001 and p = .002, respectively). No significant differences were found in the quality of life, and depression, anxiety and stress. The virtual reality format had improved selective attention and conflict resolution ability, revealing the potential of CR, specifically with virtual reality exercise, on executive function. Implications for Rehabilitation In cardiac rehabilitation, especially in phase III, it is

  1. Project Execution Plan,Rev. 3; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas

    2002-01-01

    This plan addresses project activities encompassed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division and conforms to the requirements contained in the Life-Cycle Asset Management, DOE Order 430.1A; The Joint Program Office Policy on Project Management in Support of DOE Order 430.1; Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, DOE Order 413.3; the Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning Guide, GPG-FM-010; and other applicable Good Practice Guides; and the FY 2001 Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System Policy Guidance. The plan also reflects the milestone philosophies of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense; and traditional project management philosophies such as the development of life-cycle costs, schedules, and work scope; identification o f roles and responsibilities; and baseline management and controls

  2. Causal attributions of vineyard executives – A mental model study of vineyard management☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin FG Schaffernicht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes a reference of causal attributions made by vineyard executives in Chile, where increasing costs and stagnating prices challenge the vineyards’ profits. The investigation was motivated by the question how executives interpret the industry's mid term future and how they reflect on steering their companies. Based on in-depth interviews, causal maps were elaborated to represent the executives’ mental models. These are represented as sequences of attributions, connecting variables by causal links. It was found that some mental models guide policies bound to increase the prices, whereas other models suggest taking the prices as givens and control costs. The collection of causal attributions of the vineyard executives (CAVE has been made publicly available. As a result, CAVE can be used by other management scholars to elicit other executives’ mental models and increase the data base available. Since such research will be cumulative, a minimum size for meaningful statistical analysis can be reached, opening up an avenue for improving the design of business policies. CAVE can also serve executives and consultants in constructing causal argumentations and business policies. Future research and development of supporting software are called for. Keywords: Mental models, Strategy, Business model

  3. Acousto-optic control of internal acoustic reflection in tellurium dioxide crystal in case of strong elastic energy walkoff [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshinov, Vitaly; Polikarpova, Nataliya; Ivanova, Polina; Khorkin, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Peculiar cases of acoustic wave propagation and reflection may be observed in strongly anisotropic acousto-optical crystals. A tellurium dioxide crystal serves as a prime example of such media, since it possesses record indexes of acoustic anisotropy. We studied one of the unusual scenarios of acoustic incidence and reflection from a free crystal-vacuum boundary in paratellurite. The directions of the acoustic waves in the (001) plane of the crystal were determined, and their basic characteristics were calculated. The carried-out acousto-optic experiment at the wavelength of light 532 nm and the acoustic frequency 73 MHz confirmed the theoretical predictions. The effects examined in the paper include the acoustic wave propagation with the record walkoff angle 74°. We also observed the incidence of the wave on the boundary at the angle exceeding 90°. Finally, we registered the close-to-back reflection of acoustic energy following the incidence. One of the stunning aspects is the distribution of energy between the incident and the back-reflected wave. The unusual features of the acoustic wave reflections pointed out in the paper are valuable for their possible applications in acousto-optic devices.

  4. MIV Project: Executive Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Neefs, Marc

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a reference mission scenario was defined. This report gives an executive summary of the achievements and results from the project.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a reference mission scenario was defined. This report gives an executive summary of the achievements and results from the project....

  5. WEBSITE EXECUTION OF CAD MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lyalinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Web-based interface of modules that are part of the computer-aided design system in microelectronics is considered. The influence of several factors (available computer  memory, maximum allowed run time, degree of homogeneity of the software on the structure of the created system is investigated. Synchronous and asynchronous variants of interaction between control and executive parts are described. References on the systems that allow an access to applications in CAD microelectronics and are based on the principles discussed in this article are given.

  6. Memory and executive functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Hartmann, Tue Borst; Bennedsen, Birgit Egedal; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder have poorer memory and executive functions than healthy controls. The relatively inconsistent previous findings on this question reflect a lack of well-matched control groups, the inclusion of patients with comorbidity, and the use of noncomparable neuropsychological tests to assess memory and executive functions. We used well-accepted neuropsychological tests of memory and executive functions to assess 42 patients who had obsessive-compulsive disorder without comorbidity, and 42 healthy controls. We matched the patients and controls pairwise by sex, age, and years of education. The patients performed significantly worse than the controls on the Rey Complex Figure Test, which assesses visuospatial memory and organizational skills. This group difference remained after we controlled for age, education, intelligence, and severity of depressive symptoms. The findings indicate that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder may have impaired visuospatial memory and organizational skills, and these impairments should be considered in treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00792038.

  7. A REPRINT of a July 1991 Report to Congress, Executive Summary of Verification of Nuclear Warhead Dismantlement and Special Nuclear Material Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, James L.

    2008-01-01

    With the renewed thinking and debate about deep reductions in nuclear weapons, including recent proposals about eliminating nuclear warheads altogether, republishing the general conclusions of the Robinson Committee Report of 1992 appears useful. The report is sometimes referred to as the 3151 Report, from Section 3151 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY1991, from where its requirement originated. This report contains the Executive Summary only and the forwarding letters from the Committee, the President of the United States, the Secretary of Energy, and C Paul Robinson, the head of the Advisory Committee

  8. Executive functioning in schizophrenia: Unique and shared variance with measures of fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A K; Mowry, B; Reutens, D; Robinson, G A

    2015-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often display deficits on tasks thought to measure "executive" processes. Recently, it has been suggested that reductions in fluid intelligence test performance entirely explain deficits reported for patients with focal frontal lesions on classical executive tasks. For patients with schizophrenia, it is unclear whether deficits on executive tasks are entirely accountable by fluid intelligence and representative of a common general process or best accounted for by distinct contributions to the cognitive profile of schizophrenia. In the current study, 50 patients with schizophrenia and 50 age, sex and premorbid intelligence matched controls were assessed using a broad neuropsychological battery, including tasks considered sensitive to executive abilities, namely the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), word fluency, Stroop test, digit-span backwards, and spatial working memory. Fluid intelligence was measured using both the Matrix reasoning subtest from the Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and a composite score derived from a number of cognitive tests. Patients with schizophrenia were impaired on all cognitive measures compared with controls, except smell identification and the optimal betting and risk-taking measures from the Cambridge Gambling Task. After introducing fluid intelligence as a covariate, significant differences remained for HSCT suppression errors, and classical executive function tests such as the Stroop test and semantic/phonemic word fluency, regardless of which fluid intelligence measure was included. Fluid intelligence does not entirely explain impaired performance on all tests considered as reflecting "executive" processes. For schizophrenia, these measures should remain part of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment alongside a measure of fluid intelligence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  10. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  11. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  12. Executions in The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofquist, William Steele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The stories of those who have been executed in the Bahamas are heretofore untold. In telling these stories and in linking them to the changing course of Bahamian history, the present research adds an important dimension to our understanding of Bahamian history and politics. The major theme of this effort is that the changing practice of the death penalty is much more than a consequence of changes in crime. The use of the death penalty parallels the changing interests of colonial rulers, the changing practice of slavery, and the changing role of the Bahamas in colonial and regional affairs. Four distinctive eras of death penalty practice can be identified: (1 the slave era, where executions and commutations were used liberally and with a clear racial patterning; (2 a long era of stable colonialism, a period of marginalization and few executions; (3 an era of unstable colonialism characterized by intensive and efficient use of the death penalty; and (4 the current independence era of high murder rates and equally high impediments to the use of executions.

  13. School Executive Website Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The School Executive Website will be a one-stop, online site for officials who are looking for educational data, best practices, product reviews, school documents, professional opinions, and/or job-related networking. The format of the website is designed in certain sections similar to other current and popular websites, such as Angie's List.com,…

  14. Healthcare. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Gulish, Artem; Beach, Bennett H.

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary highlights several findings about healthcare. These are: (1) Healthcare is 18 percent of the U.S. economy, twice as high as in other countries; (2) There are two labor markets in healthcare: high-skill, high-wage professional and technical jobs and low-skill, low-wage support jobs; (3) Demand for postsecondary education in…

  15. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  16. Business Modeling to Implement an eHealth Portal for Infection Control: A Reflection on Co-Creation With Stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Limburg, A.H.M.; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is acknowledged that the success and uptake of eHealth improve with the involvement of users and stakeholders to make technology reflect their needs. Involving stakeholders in implementation research is thus a crucial element in developing eHealth technology. Business modeling is an

  17. Educating executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic. Given their central role in reasoning and also in managing stress and emotion, scientists have conducted studies, primarily with adults, to determine whether executive functions can be improved by training. By and large, results have shown that they can be, in part through computer-based videogame-like activities. Evidence of wider, more general benefits from such computer-based training, however, is mixed. Accordingly, scientists have reasoned that training will have wider benefits if it is implemented early, with very young children as the neural circuitry of executive functions is developing, and that it will be most effective if embedded in children's everyday activities. Evidence produced by this research, however, is also mixed. In sum, much remains to be learned about executive function training. Without question, however, continued research on this important topic will yield valuable information about cognitive development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1403. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1403 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Metacognition and executive functioning in Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinidad García

    Full Text Available This study analyzes differences in metacognitive skills and executive functioning between two groups of students (10-12 years with different levels of metacognitive knowledge (high n = 50, low n = 64. Groups were established based on students' score on a test of knowledge of strategy use. Metacognitive skills were assessed by means of self-report. Students reported the frequency with which they applied these strategies during the phases of planning, execution, and evaluation of learning. Information about student executive functioning was provided by families and teachers, who completed two parallel forms of a behavior rating scale. The results indicated that: a the group with high levels of metacognitive knowledge reported using their metacognitive skills more frequently than their peers in the other group. These differences were statistically significant in the phases of planning and execution; b both family and teachers informed of better levels of executive functioning in the students with high metacognitive knowledge. Statistically significant differences were found in planning, functional memory, focus, and sustained attention. These results show the existence of an association between different levels of metacognitive knowledge, and differences in metacognitive skills and executive functions, and suggest the need to emphasize this set of variables in order to encourage students to acquire increasing levels of control over their learning process.

  19. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  20. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical soft tissue differentiation as remote feedback control for tissue-specific laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Zam, Azhar; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre; Nkenke, Emeka

    2010-04-01

    Laser surgery does not provide haptic feedback for operating layer-by-layer and thereby preserving vulnerable anatomical structures like nerve tissue or blood vessels. Diffuse reflectance spectra can facilitate remote optical tissue differentiation. It is the aim of the study to use this technique on soft tissue samples, to set a technological basis for a remote optical feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectra (wavelength range: 350-650 nm) of ex vivo types of soft tissue (a total of 10,800 spectra) of the midfacial region of domestic pigs were remotely measured under reduced environmental light conditions and analyzed in order to differentiate between skin, mucosa, muscle, subcutaneous fat, and nerve tissue. We performed a principal components (PC) analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of variables. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was utilized for classification. For the tissue differentiation, we calculated the specificity and sensitivity by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Six PCs were found to be adequate for tissue differentiation with diffuse reflectance spectra using LDA. All of the types of soft tissue could be differentiated with high specificity and sensitivity. Only the tissue pairs nervous tissue/fatty tissue and nervous tissue/mucosa showed a decline of differentiation due to bio-structural similarity. However, both of these tissue pairs could still be differentiated with a specificity and sensitivity of more than 90%. Analyzing diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with PCA and LDA allows for remote differentiation of biological tissue. Considering the limitations of the ex vivo conditions, the obtained results are promising and set a basis for the further development of a feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Change in body fat mass is independently associated with executive functions in older women: a secondary analysis of a 12-month randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the independent contribution of change in sub-total body fat and lean mass to cognitive performance, specifically the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution, in community-dwelling older women. METHODS: This secondary analysis included 114 women aged 65 to 75 years old. Participants were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training, twice-weekly resistance training, or twice-weekly balance and tone training. The primary outcome measure was the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution as assessed by the Stroop Test. Sub-total body fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to determine the independent association of change in both sub-total body fat and sub-total body lean mass with Stroop Test performance at trial completion. RESULTS: A multiple linear regression model showed reductions in sub-total body fat mass to be independently associated with better performance on the Stroop Test at trial completion after accounting for baseline Stroop performance, age, baseline global cognitive state, baseline number of comorbidities, baseline depression, and experimental group. The total variance explained was 39.5%; change in sub-total body fat mass explained 3.9% of the variance. Change in sub-total body lean mass was not independently associated with Stroop Test performance (P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that reductions in sub-total body fat mass - not sub-total lean mass - is associated with better performance of selective attention and conflict resolution.

  2. The separate roles of the reflective mind and involuntary inhibitory control in gatekeeping paranormal beliefs and the underlying intuitive confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedholm, Annika M; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-08-01

    Intuitive thinking is known to predict paranormal beliefs, but the processes underlying this relationship, and the role of other thinking dispositions, have remained unclear. Study 1 showed that while an intuitive style increased and a reflective disposition counteracted paranormal beliefs, the ontological confusions suggested to underlie paranormal beliefs were predicted by individual differences in involuntary inhibitory processes. When the reasoning system was subjected to cognitive load, the ontological confusions increased, lost their relationship with paranormal beliefs, and their relationship with weaker inhibition was strongly accentuated. These findings support the argument that the confusions are mainly intuitive and that they therefore are most discernible under conditions in which inhibition is impaired, that is, when thinking is dominated by intuitive processing. Study 2 replicated the findings on intuitive and reflective thinking and paranormal beliefs. In Study 2, ontological confusions were also related to the same thinking styles as paranormal beliefs. The results support a model in which both intuitive and non-reflective thinking styles and involuntary inhibitory processes give way to embracing culturally acquired paranormal beliefs. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  3. EXECUTIVE STOCK OPTION EXERCISING BEHAVIOR: EVIDENCE FROM BURSA MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Ibn Ibrahimy; Dr. Rubi Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the fact that shareholders exercise their options when it is in the money, s eparation of ownership and control creates the necessity of verifying the adoption of corporate governance mechanism, such as Executive Stock Option Scheme (ESOs). This study verifies the relationship between Executive Stock Option (ESO) exercise and firm performance to explore the exercise pattern of Malaysian executives whether there is any differences in trading option. We found a significant positive ...

  4. Spaceborne computer executive routine functional design specification. Volume 2: Computer executive design for space station/base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J. R.; Fitzpatrick, W. S.

    1971-01-01

    The computer executive functional system design concepts derived from study of the Space Station/Base are presented. Information Management System hardware configuration as directly influencing the executive design is reviewed. The hardware configuration and generic executive design requirements are considered in detail in a previous report (System Configuration and Executive Requirements Specifications for Reusable Shuttle and Space Station/Base, 9/25/70). This report defines basic system primitives and delineates processes and process control. Supervisor states are considered for describing basic multiprogramming and multiprocessing systems. A high-level computer executive including control of scheduling, allocation of resources, system interactions, and real-time supervisory functions is defined. The description is oriented to provide a baseline for a functional simulation of the computer executive system.

  5. Hot and cool executive functions in very and extremely preterm preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Zofia Walczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background In most countries, premature deliveries constitute 5% to 18% of births. Some preterm children, especially those born before 32 weeks of pregnancy, experience serious medical complications, which can affect their subsequent development and functioning. Even those who have an IQ within the normal range can be at risk of worse functioning. This study aimed to investigate the differences in development of hot and cool aspects of executive functions in children born prematurely in comparison to those born on time. It is also focused on evaluating relationships between executive functions in premature children and their socio-emotional competences. Participants and procedure All children participating in the study were preschoolers. The sample consisted of 20 children born before 32 weeks of gestation and 28 term controls (children born on time. Hot and cool aspects of executive functions were examined in both groups using tasks extracted from the Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment (PSRA. Parents of children born prematurely also completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, which is a brief behavioral screening questionnaire that consists of five scales: emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems and prosocial behavior. Results Premature children scored lower for both hot and cool executive functions in comparison to the children born at term in two of the five tasks. In addition, an association between worse executive functioning and more severe problems was found in the preterm group. This link applies to both general and specific problems, such as hyperactivity/inattention and behavioral problems. Conclusions Prematurely born children may have larger deficits both in hot and cool aspects of executive functions compared to their peers born at term. Deficits in hot aspect may be reflected in hyperactivity/inattention symptoms and conduct problems, whereas difficulties in

  6. What executives should remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Peter F

    2006-02-01

    In more than 30 essays for Harvard Business Review, Peter Drucker (1909-2005) urged readers to take on the hard work of thinking--always combined, he insisted, with decisive action. He closely analyzed the phenomenon of knowledge work--the growing call for employees who use their minds rather than their hands--and explained how it challenged the conventional wisdom about the way organizations should be run. He was intrigued by employees who knew more about certain subjects than their bosses or colleagues but who still had to cooperate with others in a large organization. As the business world matured in the second half of the twentieth century, executives came to think that they knew how to run companies--and Drucker took it upon himself to poke holes in their assumptions, lest organizations become stale. But he did so sympathetically, operating from the premise that his readers were intelligent, hardworking people of goodwill. Well suited to HBR's format of practical, idea-based essays for executives, his clear-eyed, humanistic writing enriched the magazine time and again. This article is a compilation of the savviest management advice Drucker offered HBR readers over the years--in short, his greatest hits. It revisits the following insightful, influential contributions: "The Theory of the Business" (September-October 1994), "Managing for Business Effectiveness" (May-June 1963), "What Business Can Learn from Nonprofits" (July-August 1989), "The New Society of Organizations" (September-October 1992), "The Information Executives Truly Need" (January-February 1995), "Managing Oneself" (March-April 1999 republished January 2005), "They're Not Employees, They're People" (February 2002), "What Makes an Effective Executive" (June 2004).

  7. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CHINESE EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfang Fayol-Song

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...

  8. Concurrent Models for Object Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Diertens, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we developed a framework of computational models for the concurrent execution of functions on different levels of abstraction. It shows that the traditional sequential execution of function is just a possible implementation of an abstract computational model that allows for the concurrent execution of functions. We use this framework as base for the development of abstract computational models that allow for the concurrent execution of objects.

  9. A protocol for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled superiority trial investigating the effects of two pedagogical methodologies in Swedish preschool settings on language and communication, executive functions, auditive selective attention, socioemotional skills and early maths skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerholm, Tove; Hörberg, Thomas; Tonér, Signe; Kallioinen, Petter; Frankenberg, Sofia; Kjällander, Susanne; Palmer, Anna; Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz

    2018-06-19

    During the preschool years, children develop abilities and skills in areas crucial for later success in life. These abilities include language, executive functions, attention, and socioemotional skills. The pedagogical methods used in preschools hold the potential to enhance these abilities, but our knowledge of which pedagogical practices aid which abilities, and for which children, is limited. The aim of this paper is to describe an intervention study designed to evaluate and compare two pedagogical methodologies in terms of their effect on the above-mentioned skills in Swedish preschool children. The study is a randomized control trial (RCT) where two pedagogical methodologies were tested to evaluate how they enhanced children's language, executive functions and attention, socioemotional skills, and early maths skills during an intensive 6-week intervention. Eighteen preschools including 28 units and 432 children were enrolled in a municipality close to Stockholm, Sweden. The children were between 4;0 and 6;0 years old and each preschool unit was randomly assigned to either of the interventions or to the control group. Background information on all children was collected via questionnaires completed by parents and preschools. Pre- and post-intervention testing consisted of a test battery including tests on language, executive functions, selective auditive attention, socioemotional skills and early maths skills. The interventions consisted of 6 weeks of intensive practice of either a socioemotional and material learning paradigm (SEMLA), for which group-based activities and interactional structures were the main focus, or an individual, digitally implemented attention and math training paradigm, which also included a set of self-regulation practices (DIL). All preschools were evaluated with the ECERS-3. If this intervention study shows evidence of a difference between group-based learning paradigms and individual training of specific skills in terms of

  10. Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A; Singh, M Fiatarone; Trey, T; Lavee, J

    2014-10-01

    Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China is internationally condemned, yet this practice continues unabated in 2014. This is despite repeated announcements from Chinese authorities that constructive measures have been undertaken to conform to accepted ethical standards. While there is unanimous agreement on the unethical nature of using organs from executed prisoners, due to its limitations on voluntary and informed consent, there is insufficient coverage of forced organ procurement from prisoners of conscience without consent. Strategies to influence positive change in China over the last few decades have failed to bring this practice to an end. While organ donation and transplantation services in China have undergone considerable structural changes in the last few years, fundamental attempts to shift practice to ethically sourced organs have floundered. In this article, we discuss the organ trade in China, reflect upon organ procurement from executed prisoners (including both capital prisoners and prisoners of conscience) and provide an overview of contradictory Chinese efforts to halt forced organ procurement from executed prisoners. Finally, we highlight current actions being taken to address this issue and offer comprehensive recommendations to bring this ethically indefensible practice to an immediate end. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Executive Energy Leadership Academy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Energy Leadership Academy Executive Energy Leadership Academy NREL's Executive Energy Leadership Academy is a nationally renowned program that provides non-technical business, governmental, and foreground. Leadership Program The Leadership Program is designed for community and industry leaders with an

  12. Increasing convergence between imagined and executed movement across development: evidence for the emergence of movement representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Wilson, Peter H; van Roon, Dominique; Swinnen, Stephan P; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2009-04-01

    Motor imagery (MI) has become a principal focus of interest in studies on brain and behavior. However, changes in MI across development have received virtually no attention so far. In the present study, children (N = 112, 6 to 16 years old) performed a new, computerized Virtual Radial Fitts Task (VRFT) to determine their MI ability as well as the age-related confluence between performance in executed and imagined movement conditions. Participants aimed at five targets, which were positioned along radial axes from a central target circle. The targets differed in width (2.5, 5, 10, 20 or 40 mm), resulting in an index of difficulty (ID) that varied from 6.9 to 2.9 bits. Performance was indexed by the linear relationship between ID and Movement Time (MT). The findings showed that executed task performance was slower than imagined performance. Moreover, conformance to Fitts' Law during executed movement performance was obtained from a very young age. Most importantly, correlations between imagined and executed movements were low in the young participants but gradually increased across age. These age-related changes in MI are hypothesized to reflect the children's emerging ability to represent internal models for prospective actions, consistent with the gradual unfolding of feedforward control processes.

  13. Relações entre controle executivo e memória episódica verbal no comprometimento cognitivo leve e na demência tipo Alzheimer Relationships between executive control and verbal episodic memory in the mild cognitive impairment and the Alzheimer-type dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou e relacionou o desempenho de idosos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve e Demência Tipo Alzheimer em testes de controle executivo e de memória episódica verbal. Para a avaliação da memória episódica verbal utilizamos a Tarefa de Recordação de Palavras Imediata e a Tarefa de Recordação de Palavras com Intervalo. Na avaliação do controle executivo foram utilizados, os seguintes testes: Random Number Generation, Trail Making Test, Fluência Verbal semântica e fonológica, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Reading Span Test e Brow-Peterson Test. Treze idosos do grupo controle foram equiparados quanto à idade e escolaridade com nove idosos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve e oito idosos com Demência Tipo Alzheimer. Foram encontradas diferenças e associações estatisticamente significantes em relação aos testes de controle executivo entre os grupos investigados. Apesar da presença de associações significativas entre a memória episódica verbal e o controle executivo, não foram evidenciados déficits do controle executivo nos idosos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve.This study compared and related the performance of older people with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer-type dementia in tests of executive control and of verbal episodic memory. In the evaluation of the verbal episodic memory we used the Task of Immediate Word Recall and the Task of Delayed Word Recall. In the evaluation of executive control we used the following tests: Random Number Generation, Trail Making Test, Semantic and Phonological Verbal Fluency, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Reading Span Test, and Brow-Peterson Test. Thirteen elders of the control group were compared by age and education with nine elders with Mild Cognitive Impairment and eight elders with Alzheimer-type dementia. Differences and significant statistical associations were found in relation to the tests of executive control with the groups investigated. Despite the

  14. Eficienţa economică a programării şi urmăririi automate a lucrărilor în execuţia drumurilor forestiere. [Economic efficiency of automatic planning and control of works in the execution of forest roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereziuc R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the prospect of forest roads network system development and examines the actual management of theirs execution. We suggest the extension of automatic planning and control with addition of specific charts. The research showed that, in contrast with actual methods, automatic planning may guides to economic efficiency, regarding manual and mechanized labour – with 30 % reduction in execution time and a 35 % cut in cost

  15. Executive Functions in Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVarvara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating different aspects of Executive Functions (EF in children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD.A neuropsychological battery tapping verbal fluency, spoonerism, attention, verbal shifting, short-term and working memory was used to assess 60 children with DD and 65 with typical reading abilities.Compared to their controls, children with DD showed deficits in several EF domains such as verbal categorical and phonological fluency, visual-spatial and auditory attention, spoonerism, verbal and visual short-term memory, and verbal working memory. Moreover, exploring predictive relationships between EF measures and reading, we found that spoonerism abilities better explained word and non-word reading deficits. Although to a lesser extent, auditory and visual-spatial attention also explained the increased percentage of variance related to reading deficit.EF deficits found in DD are interpreted as an expression of a deficient functioning of the Central Executive System and are discussed in the context of the recent temporal sampling theory.

  16. Execution Management Solutions for Geographically Distributed Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, H.G.M.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Managing the initialization, execution control and monitoring of HLA federates is not always straightforward, especially for a geographically distributed time managed federation. Issues include pre and post run-time data distribution and run-time data collection; starting, stopping and monitoring

  17. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls and 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found…

  18. Executive functioning independently predicts self-rated health and improvement in self-rated health over time among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Self-rated health, as distinct from objective measures of health, is a clinically informative metric among older adults. The purpose of our study was to examine the cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with self-rated health. 624 participants over the age of 60 were assessed at baseline, and of these, 510 were contacted for a follow-up two years later. Measures of executive function and self-rated health were assessed at baseline, and self-rated health was assessed at follow-up. We employed multiple linear regression analyses to investigate the relationship between executive functioning and self-rated health, while controlling for demographic, psychosocial and biological variables. Controlling for other relevant variables, executive functioning independently and solely predicted self-rated health, both at a cross-sectional level, and also over time. Loneliness was also found to cross-sectionally predict self-rated health, although this relationship was not present at a longitudinal level. Older adults' self-rated health may be related to their executive functioning and to their loneliness. Self-rated health appeared to improve over time, and the extent of this improvement was also related to executive functioning at baseline. Self-rated health may be a judgement made of one's functioning, especially executive functioning, which changes with age and therefore may be particularly salient in the reflections of older adults.

  19. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  20. DNA methylation changes separate allergic patients from healthy controls and may reflect altered CD4+ T-cell population structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm E Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered DNA methylation patterns in CD4(+ T-cells indicate the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in inflammatory diseases. However, the identification of these alterations is complicated by the heterogeneity of most inflammatory diseases. Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR is an optimal disease model for the study of DNA methylation because of its well-defined phenotype and etiology. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation (N(patients = 8, N(controls = 8 and gene expression (N(patients = 9, Ncontrols = 10 profiles of CD4(+ T-cells from SAR patients and healthy controls using Illumina's HumanMethylation450 and HT-12 microarrays, respectively. DNA methylation profiles clearly and robustly distinguished SAR patients from controls, during and outside the pollen season. In agreement with previously published studies, gene expression profiles of the same samples failed to separate patients and controls. Separation by methylation (N(patients = 12, N(controls = 12, but not by gene expression (N(patients = 21, N(controls = 21 was also observed in an in vitro model system in which purified PBMCs from patients and healthy controls were challenged with allergen. We observed changes in the proportions of memory T-cell populations between patients (N(patients = 35 and controls (N(controls = 12, which could explain the observed difference in DNA methylation. Our data highlight the potential of epigenomics in the stratification of immune disease and represents the first successful molecular classification of SAR using CD4(+ T cells.

  1. Towards a Reactive Semantic Execution Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komazec, Srdjan; Facca, Federico Michele

    Managing complex and distributed software systems built on top of the service-oriented paradigm has never been more challenging. While Semantic Web Service technologies offer a promising set of languages and tools as a foundation to resolve the heterogeneity and scalability issues, they are still failing to provide an autonomic execution environment. In this paper we present an approach based on Semantic Web Services to enable the monitoring and self-management of a Semantic Execution Environment (SEE), a brokerage system for Semantic Web Services. Our approach is founded on the event-triggered reactivity paradigm in order to facilitate environment control, thus contributing to its autonomicity, robustness and flexibility.

  2. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  3. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  4. NHS trust chief executives as heroes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a reading of the transcripts of interviews with NHS Trust Chief Executives. Using a poststructuralist understanding of the interviews, it privileges a reading that (ironically) represents these Chief Executives as heroes. Following the classic hero story line, they leave the civilized order of home and journey into a threatening wilderness where they encounter dangerous and magical things but overcome them all because of their masculine characteristics such as rationality, strength and resourcefulness. One way in which these stories can be understood to have significance is that they (misleadingly but powerfully) portray management as obvious and necessary by evocatively drawing on a myth of ancient origin. The piece concludes with some reflections on the ontological implications of the analysis and reflexive comments on the production of truth as a problem.

  5. Executive Functions in Premanifest Huntington’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, S. Christine; Geschwind, Michael D.; Sha, Sharon J.; Apple, Alexandra; Satris, Gabriella; Wood, Kristie A.; Johnson, Erica T.; Gooblar, Jonathan; Feuerstein, Jeanne S.; Finkbeiner, Steven; Kang, Gail A.; Miller, Bruce L.; Hess, Christopher P.; Kramer, Joel H.; Possin, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated the viability of psychometrically robust executive function measures as markers for premanifest Huntington’s disease (HD). Methods Fifteen premanifest HD subjects and 42 controls were compared on the NIH EXAMINER executive function battery. This battery yields an overall Executive Composite score, plus Working Memory, Cognitive Control, and Fluency Scores that are measured on psychometrically matched scales. The scores were correlated with two disease markers, disease burden and striatal volumes, in the premanifest HD subjects. Results The premanifest HD subjects scored significantly lower on the Working Memory Score. The Executive Composite positively correlated with striatal volumes, and Working Memory Score negatively correlated with disease burden. The Cognitive Control and Fluency Scores did not differ between the groups or correlate significantly with the disease markers. Conclusions The NIH EXAMINER Executive Composite and Working Memory Score are sensitive markers of cognitive dysfunction, striatal volume, and disease burden in premanifest HD. PMID:24375511

  6. Mismanagement Reasons of the Projects Execution Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Khaleefah Al-Agele

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The execution phase of the project is most dangerous and the most drain on the resources during project life cycle, therefore, its need to monitor and control by specialists to exceeded obstructions and achieve the project goals. The study aims to detect the actual reasons behind mismanagement of the execution phase. The study begins with theoretical part, where it deals with the concepts of project, project selection, project management, and project processes. Field part consists of three techniques: 1- brainstorming, 2- open interviews with experts and 3- designed questionnaire (with 49 reason. These reasons result from brainstorming and interviewing with experts., in order to find the real reasons behind mismanagement of the execution phase. The most important reasons which are negatively impact on management of the execution phase that proven by the study were (Inability of company to meet project requirements because it's specialized and / or large project, Multiple sources of decision and overlap in powers, Inadequate planning, Inaccurate estimation of cost, Delayed cash flows by owners, Poor performance of project manager, inefficient decision making process, and the Negative impact of people in the project area. Finally, submitting a set of recommendations which will contribute to overcome the obstructions of successful management of the execution phase.

  7. Evaluating the Theory of Executive Dysfunction in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper studies of executive function in autism spectrum disorder are reviewed. Executive function is an umbrella term for functions such as planning, working memory, impulse control, inhibition, and shifting set, as well as for the initiation and monitoring of action. In this review, the focus will be on planning, inhibition, shifting set,…

  8. A three-component, hierarchical model of executive attention

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, Sarah; Pantelis, Christos; Testa, Renee; Tiego, Jeggan; Bellgrove, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Executive attention refers to the goal-directed control of attention. Existing models of executive attention distinguish between three correlated, but empirically dissociable, factors related to selectively attending to task-relevant stimuli (Selective Attention), inhibiting task-irrelevant responses (Response Inhibition), and actively maintaining goal-relevant information (Working Memory Capacity). In these models, Selective Attention and Response Inhibition are moderately strongly correlate...

  9. Executive cognitive impairment detected by simple bedside testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims. Cognitive impairment in people with type 2 diabetes is a barrier to successful disease management. We sought to determine whether impaired executive function as detected by a battery of simple bedside cognitive tests of executive function was associated with inadequate glycaemic control. Methods. People with ...

  10. Ownership Structure and Earnings Management in periods of Executive Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Rasmus S.

    This paper reports evidence of earnings management associated with non-routine executive changes in a Danish context. It is hypothesised that incoming executives in non-owner-controlled companies decrease earnings by means of discretionary accruals in the financial statements relating to the period...

  11. Mandatory IFRS adoption and executive compensation: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Qingchuan Hou; Qinglu Jin; Lanfang Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how the mandatory adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) affects the contractual benefits of using accounting information to determine executive compensation in China. After controlling for firm and corporate governance characteristics, we find strong evidence supporting the positive role of mandatory IFRS adoption on the accounting-based performance sensitivity of executive compensation. Subsample analysis suggests that improvements in accounti...

  12. Social transactions with future generations for the management of high level radioactive waste in deep repositories: Reflections on institutional control and retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Viala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The management of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel is a key issue and one of the most sensitive aspect of radioactive waste management. Recognising that it is the responsibility of our generation to find a way to isolate the waste, deep geological disposals have been envisaged to provide a definitive solution to the problem, in order to avoid 'undue burden on future generations'. However, even if they are buried, the wastes still exist and human intrusion is still possible as well as releases into the environment in the very far future. At the same time, the ongoing reflections on the ethical aspects of disposals show that it is of great worth that we guarantee future generations the same right of control and responsibility that we ourselves enjoy. This paper presents some reflections on the social transactions associated with the management and design of geological repositories. It is focused on the mission of institutional control in the transmission to future generation of a safety patrimony, composed of the know-how and techniques that permit the human community to 'domesticate' and control the risk. As it appears that the efficiency and the confidence in the control system rely mainly on the capability of implementing corrective actions, some considerations on the role, the consequences and the implementation of retrievability are also presented

  13. Asymmetric training using virtual reality reflection equipment and the enhancement of upper limb function in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, DongJin; Lee, MyungMo; Lee, KyoungJin; Song, ChangHo

    2014-07-01

    Asymmetric movements with both hands contributed to the improvement of spatially coupled motion. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an asymmetric training program using virtual reality reflection equipment on upper limb function in stroke patients. Twenty-four stroke patients were randomly allocated to an experimental group (n=12) or a control group (n=12). Both groups participated in conventional physical therapy for 2×30 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 4 weeks. The experimental group also participated in an asymmetric training program using virtual reality reflection equipment, and the control group participated in a symmetric training program. Both asymmetric and symmetric programs were conducted for 30 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 4 weeks. To compare upper limb function before and after intervention, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), the Box and Block Test (BBT), grip strength, range of motion (ROM), and spasticity were assessed. Both groups showed significant increases in upper limb function, excepting spasticity, after intervention (Pinteraction was demonstrated only for shoulder/elbow/wrist items of FMA, BBT, grip strength, and ROM of wrist flexion, extension, and ulnar deviation (Pvirtual reality reflection equipment is an effective intervention method for improving upper limb function in stroke patients. We consider that an additional study based on a program using virtual reflection, which is more functional than performing simple tasks, and consisting of tasks relevant to the activities of daily living be conducted. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Writing executable assertions to test flight software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A.; Andrews, D. M.; Mccluskey, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    An executable assertion is a logical statement about the variables or a block of code. If there is no error during execution, the assertion statement results in a true value. Executable assertions can be used for dynamic testing of software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and exception and error detection during the operation phase. The present investigation is concerned with the problem of writing executable assertions, taking into account the use of assertions for testing flight software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and for exception handling and error detection during the operation phase The digital flight control system and the flight control software are discussed. The considered system provides autopilot and flight director modes of operation for automatic and manual control of the aircraft during all phases of flight. Attention is given to techniques for writing and using assertions to test flight software, an experimental setup to test flight software, and language features to support efficient use of assertions.

  15. Teachers’ way of reflecting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose of t......’ reflections on practice. Based on this model, the paper provides a proposal regarding how to work with teachers’ professional development and learning processes. Educational implications and future research directions are discussed.......This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose...... of the Danish study was to investigate and understand teachers’ classroom experiences using Fenstermacher’s approach to develop a practical argument, as these classroom experiences are regarded as a potential source of learning for teachers. A three-level scale model from the study describes the teach-ers...

  16. CSP for Executable Scientific Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard

    and can usually benefit performance-wise from both multiprocessing, cluster and grid environments. PyCSP is an implementation of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) for the Python programming language and takes advantage of CSP's formal and verifiable approach to controlling concurrency...... on multi-processing and cluster computing using PyCSP. Additionally, McStas is demonstrated to utilise grid computing resources using PyCSP. Finally, this thesis presents a new dynamic channel model, which has not yet been implemented for PyCSP. The dynamic channel is able to change the internal...... synchronisation mechanisms on-the-fly, depending on the location and number of channel-ends connected. Thus it may start out as a simple local pipe and evolve into a distributed channel spanning multiple nodes. This channel is a necessary next step for PyCSP to allow for complete freedom in executing CSP...

  17. Age-related changes in the temporal dynamics of executive control: A study in 5- and 6-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eLucenet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Dual Mechanisms of Control theory (Braver, Gray & Burgess, 2007, this study conducted in 5- and 6-year-olds, tested for a possible shift between two modes of control, proactive vs. reactive, which differ in the way goal information is retrieved and maintained in working memory. To this end, we developed a children-adapted version of the AX-Continuous-Performance Task (AX-CPT. Twenty-nine 5-year-olds and twenty-eight 6-year-olds performed the task in both low and high working-memory load conditions (corresponding respectively to a short and a long cue-probe delay. Analyses suggested that a qualitative change in the mode of control occurs within the 5-year-old group. However, quantitative, more graded changes were also observed both within the 5-year-olds, and between 5 and 6 years of age. These graded changes demonstrated an increasing efficiency in proactive control with age. The increase in working memory load did not impact the type of dynamics of control, but had a detrimental effect on sensitivity to cue information. These findings highlight that the development of the temporal dynamics of control can be characterized by a shift from reactive to proactive control together with a more protracted and gradual improvement in the efficiency of proactive control. Moreover, the question of whether the observed shift in the mode of control is task dependant is debated.

  18. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  19. +Gz load and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Marcin P; Tarnowski, Adam; Lengsfeld, Kamila; Lewkowicz, Rafał; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof; Dereń, Miroslaw

    2013-05-01

    Pilots are constantly exposed to a number of environmental factors, which include +Gz load. Physiological changes evoked by +Gz stimuli have already been well investigated in aviation medicine. However, the influence of +Gz stimulation on executive functions in pilots has not yet been thoroughly explored. There were 20 pilot cadets between the ages of 19 and 22 yr who volunteered to participate in the experiment. The subjects were divided into two groups: the G-load group, which was exposed to accelerations in the centrifuge, and the control group, which did not undergo this stimulation. Executive functions were assessed by means of the Schulte tables and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. +Gz load exposure significantly improved attention switching. This relationship was valid for performance speed (M = 268.09 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 228.09 s in the posttest in the G-load group) and for the cumulative time of mistakes (M = 26.73 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 12 s in the posttest in the G-load group), whereas reproduction of visuospatial stimuli from memory deteriorated significantly under the influence of +Gz stimulation (M = 17.18 points in the posttest in the G-load group; M = 28.18 points in the posttest in the control group). These results suggest that the impact of +Gz load is not homogenous and unidirectional, since it improves attention switching but visuospatial working memory decreases under its influence. These aspects are particularly important for understanding the mechanisms responsible for maintaining situational awareness during the flight.

  20. Postprandial effect of dietary fat quantity and quality on arterial stiffness and wave reflection: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is a component of vascular function and an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. There is a lack of conclusive evidence on the effect of a meal rich in monounsaturated fat (MUFA) compared with an isoenergetic meal rich in saturated fat (SFA) on postprandial vascular function and specifically on arterial stiffness. Methods Twenty healthy, non-smoking males (BMI 24 ± 2 kg/m2; age 37.7 ± 14.4 y) participated in this single-blind, randomised, cross-over dietary intervention study. Each subject was randomised to receive a high-fat test-meal (3 MJ; 56 ± 2 g fat) at breakfast on 2 separate occasions, one rich in oleic acid (MUFA-meal) and one rich in palmitic acid (SFA-meal), and the meals were isoenergetic. Blood pressure (BP), arterial stiffness (PWV) and arterial wave reflection (augmentation index, AIx) were measured using applanation tonometry at baseline and every 30 minutes up to 4 hours after the ingestion of the test-meals. Results All subjects completed both arms of the dietary intervention. There was no significant difference in BP parameters, PWV or AIx at baseline between the two treatments (P > 0.05). There was a significant increase in brachial and aortic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and PVW (time, P meal although the increase in PWV was no longer significant when adjusted for the increase in MAP. There was no difference in PWV between the two treatments (treatment*time, P > 0.05). There was a significant reduction in AIx (time, P  0.05). There was no difference in AIx between the two treatments (treatment*time, P > 0.05). However, the reduction in heart rate corrected augmentation index (AIx75) was significant when corrected for the increase in MAP (time, P  0.05). Conclusions This study has demonstrated a BP dependent increase in PWV and a decrease in arterial wave reflection in the four hour period in response to a high-fat meal. There was no evidence

  1. An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwald, Janna M.; Achermann, Sheila; Marciszko, Carin; Lindskog, Marcus; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-01-01

    The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasks—involving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibition—and a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants’ performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks. The current study provides evidence that motor control and executive functioning are intertwined early in life, which suggests an embodied perspective on executive-functioning development. We argue that executive functions and prospective motor control develop from a common source and a single motive: to control action. This is the first demonstration that low-level movement planning is related to higher-order executive control early in life. PMID:27765900

  2. Robustly stable adaptive control of a tandem of master-slave robotic manipulators with force reflection by using a multiestimation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeas, Asier; de la Sen, Manuel

    2006-10-01

    The problem of controlling a tandem of robotic manipulators composing a teleoperation system with force reflection is addressed in this paper. The final objective of this paper is twofold: 1) to design a robust control law capable of ensuring closed-loop stability for robots with uncertainties and 2) to use the so-obtained control law to improve the tracking of each robot to its corresponding reference model in comparison with previously existing controllers when the slave is interacting with the obstacle. In this way, a multiestimation-based adaptive controller is proposed. Thus, the master robot is able to follow more accurately the constrained motion defined by the slave when interacting with an obstacle than when a single-estimation-based controller is used, improving the transparency property of the teleoperation scheme. The closed-loop stability is guaranteed if a minimum residence time, which might be updated online when unknown, between different controller parameterizations is respected. Furthermore, the analysis of the teleoperation and stability capabilities of the overall scheme is carried out. Finally, some simulation examples showing the working of the multiestimation scheme complete this paper.

  3. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  4. Adaptations of prefrontal brain activity, executive functions, and gait in healthy elderly following exergame and balance training: A randomized-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schättin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During aging, the prefrontal cortex (PFC undergoes age-dependent neuronal changes influencing cognitive and motor functions. Motor-learning interventions are hypothesized to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits in older adults. Especially, video game-based physical exercise might have the potential to train motor in combination with cognitive abilities in older adults. The aim of this study was to compare conventional balance training with video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, on the relative power (RP of electroencephalographic (EEG frequencies over the PFC, executive function (EF, and gait performance. Twenty-seven participants (mean age 79.2 ± 7.3 years were randomly assigned to one of two groups. All participants completed 24 trainings including three times a 30min session/week. The EEG measurements showed that theta RP significantly decreased in favor of the exergame group (L(14 = 6.23, p = 0.007. Comparing pre- vs. post-test, EFs improved both within the exergame (working memory: z = -2.28, p = 0.021; divided attention auditory: z = -2.51, p = 0.009; divided attention visual: z = -2.06, p = 0.040; go/no-go: z = -2.55, p = 0.008; set-shifting: z = -2.90, p = 0.002 and within the balance group (set-shifting: z = -2.04, p = 0.042. Moreover, spatio-temporal gait parameters primarily improved within the exergame group under dual-task conditions (speed normal walking: z = -2.90, p = 0.002; speed fast walking: z = -2.97, p = 0.001; cadence normal walking: z = -2.97, p = 0.001; stride length fast walking: z = -2.69, p = 0.005 and within the balance group under single-task conditions (speed normal walking: z = -2.54, p = 0.009; speed fast walking: z = -1.98, p = 0.049; cadence normal walking: z = -2.79, p = 0.003. These results indicate that exergame training as well as balance training positively influence prefrontal cortex activity and/or function in varying proportion.

  5. Salivary a-Amylase Reflects Change in Attentional Demands during Postural Control: Comparison with Probe Reaction Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of attention on postural control and the relationship between attention and falling has been reported in previous studies. Although a dual-task procedure is commonly used to measure attentional demand, such procedures are affected by allocation policy, which is a mental strategy to divide attention between simultaneous…

  6. Faster, more intense! The relation between electrophysiological reflections of attentional orienting, sensory gain control, and speed of responding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Mulckhuyse, Manon; Slagter, Heleen A.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Selective visual attention is thought to facilitate goal-directed behavior by biasing the system in advance to favor certain stimuli over others, resulting in their selective processing. The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the link between control processes that induce a

  7. An Instrument to Assess Adults' Orientations toward Control versus Autonomy with Children: Reflections on Intrinsic Motivation and Perceived Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument to assess adults' orientations toward control versus autonomy in their interactions with children. The responses from 68 teachers had a good range and were internally consistent and temporally stable. Further, the measure was shown to be externally valid. (Author/BW)

  8. Build and Execute Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-21

    At exascale, the challenge becomes to develop applications that run at scale and use exascale platforms reliably, efficiently, and flexibly. Workflows become much more complex because they must seamlessly integrate simulation and data analytics. They must include down-sampling, post-processing, feature extraction, and visualization. Power and data transfer limitations require these analysis tasks to be run in-situ or in-transit. We expect successful workflows will comprise multiple linked simulations along with tens of analysis routines. Users will have limited development time at scale and, therefore, must have rich tools to develop, debug, test, and deploy applications. At this scale, successful workflows will compose linked computations from an assortment of reliable, well-defined computation elements, ones that can come and go as required, based on the needs of the workflow over time. We propose a novel framework that utilizes both virtual machines (VMs) and software containers to create a workflow system that establishes a uniform build and execution environment (BEE) beyond the capabilities of current systems. In this environment, applications will run reliably and repeatably across heterogeneous hardware and software. Containers, both commercial (Docker and Rocket) and open-source (LXC and LXD), define a runtime that isolates all software dependencies from the machine operating system. Workflows may contain multiple containers that run different operating systems, different software, and even different versions of the same software. We will run containers in open-source virtual machines (KVM) and emulators (QEMU) so that workflows run on any machine entirely in user-space. On this platform of containers and virtual machines, we will deliver workflow software that provides services, including repeatable execution, provenance, checkpointing, and future proofing. We will capture provenance about how containers were launched and how they interact to annotate

  9. Measuring the health systems impact of disease control programmes: a critical reflection on the WHO building blocks framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Griffiths, Ulla K; Closser, Svea; Burchett, Helen; Marchal, Bruno

    2014-03-25

    The WHO health systems Building Blocks framework has become ubiquitous in health systems research. However, it was not developed as a research instrument, but rather to facilitate investments of resources in health systems. In this paper, we reflect on the advantages and limitations of using the framework in applied research, as experienced in three empirical vaccine studies we have undertaken. We argue that while the Building Blocks framework is valuable because of its simplicity and ability to provide a common language for researchers, it is not suitable for analysing dynamic, complex and inter-linked systems impacts. In our three studies, we found that the mechanical segmentation of effects by the WHO building blocks, without recognition of their interactions, hindered the understanding of impacts on systems as a whole. Other important limitations were the artificial equal weight given to each building block and the challenge in capturing longer term effects and opportunity costs. Another criticism is not of the framework per se, but rather how it is typically used, with a focus on the six building blocks to the neglect of the dynamic process and outcome aspects of health systems.We believe the framework would be improved by making three amendments: integrating the missing "demand" component; incorporating an overarching, holistic health systems viewpoint and including scope for interactions between components. If researchers choose to use the Building Blocks framework, we recommend that it be adapted to the specific study question and context, with formative research and piloting conducted in order to inform this adaptation. As with frameworks in general, the WHO Building Blocks framework is valuable because it creates a common language and shared understanding. However, for applied research, it falls short of what is needed to holistically evaluate the impact of specific interventions on health systems. We propose that if researchers use the framework, it

  10. Guidelines for Automation Project Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Takkinen, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this Master’s thesis was to create instructions for executing an automation project. Sarlin Oy Ab needed directions on how to execute an automation project. Sarlin is starting up a new business area offering total project solutions for customers. Sarlin focuses on small and minor automation projects on domestic markets. The thesis represents issues related to project execution starting from the theory of the project to its kick-off and termination. Site work is one importan...

  11. Editor, Executive and Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøe-Lillegraven, Tor; Wilberg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    To survive in today’s increasingly complex business environments, firms must embrace strategic paradoxes: contradictory yet interrelated objectives that persist over time. This can be one of toughest of all leadership challenges, as managers must accept inconsistency and contradictions....... In this article, we develop and empirically test a set of hypotheses related to ambidexterity, a key example of a paradoxical strategy. Through our analysis of data from a survey of executive leaders, we find a link between organizational ambidexterity and strategic planning, suggesting that the complexities...... of navigating in explorative ventures require more explicit strategy work than the old certainties of a legacy business. We identify and discuss inherent paradoxes and their implications for firm performance in 22 industry-specific strategies, where empirical industry data shows a pattern of conflict between...

  12. Executable Use Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Bossen, Claus

    2004-01-01

    and into the work processes they're to support. However, prototypes typically provide an explicit representation only of the system itself. Executable use cases, on the other hand, can also describe the environment. EUCs are designed to: narrow the gap between informal ideas about requirements and the formalization...... modeling. This article describes a case study in which developers used EUCs to prototype an electronic patient record system for hospitals in Aarhus, Denmark.......Many software experts argue that when we design a new system, we should create an explicit description of the environment in which the proposed system is to be used. The argument becomes crucial for pervasive computing, which aims to tightly integrate systems into their environments...

  13. Poorer divided attention in children born very preterm can be explained by difficulty with each component task, not the executive requirement to dual-task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delane, Louise; Campbell, Catherine; Bayliss, Donna M; Reid, Corinne; Stephens, Amelia; French, Noel; Anderson, Mike

    2017-07-01

    Children born very preterm (VP, ≤ 32 weeks) exhibit poor performance on tasks of executive functioning. However, it is largely unknown whether this reflects the cumulative impact of non-executive deficits or a separable impairment in executive-level abilities. A dual-task paradigm was used in the current study to differentiate the executive processes involved in performing two simple attention tasks simultaneously. The executive-level contribution to performance was indexed by the within-subject cost incurred to single-task performance under dual-task conditions, termed dual-task cost. The participants included 77 VP children (mean age: 7.17 years) and 74 peer controls (mean age: 7.16 years) who completed Sky Search (selective attention), Score (sustained attention) and Sky Search DT (divided attention) from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children. The divided-attention task requires the simultaneous performance of the selective- and sustained-attention tasks. The VP group exhibited poorer performance on the selective- and divided-attention tasks, and showed a strong trend toward poorer performance on the sustained-attention task. However, there were no significant group differences in dual-task cost. These results suggest a cumulative impact of vulnerable lower-level cognitive processes on dual-tasking or divided attention in VP children, and fail to support the hypothesis that VP children show a separable impairment in executive-level abilities.

  14. Financial performance and remuneration of executive directors of brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Degenhart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine whether there is a relationship between financial performance and the remuneration of executive directors of Brazilian companies. Thus, there was a descriptive, documentary and quantitative research. The review period was the years 2011 to 2015. The study population consisted of Brazilian companies listed on the BM&FBovespa and the sample consisted of companies that presented all the variables used in each year surveyed, totaling 219 companies. For the data analysis was conducted to Spearman correlation analysis and linear regression, and was performed using the SPSS statistical software. From the study results it was found that the variables: Total Asset Profitability (ROA and company size had a significant and positive relationship with the fixed remuneration, variable and total executive directors. These results showed for the analyzed scenario, the compensation of executive officers is higher when the ROA is high and also in relation to the company size, large companies pay their executives more than smaller companies. Finally, it can be concluded that there is a relationship between financial performance and Fixed Compensation, and Variable Total executive directors of Brazilian companies listed on the BM&FBovespa. In addition, this research contributes to the understanding of the amounts paid to executive officers, demonstrating that the performance of companies reflected in the remuneration of the executive directors, so that they act in the company in order to raise the economic and financial results.

  15. Current status of quality evaluation of nursing care through director review and reflection from the Nursing Quality Control Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Xia; Shi, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The quality evaluation of nursing care is a key link in medical quality management. It is important and worth studying for the nursing supervisors to know the disadvantages during the process of quality evaluation of nursing care and then to improve the whole nursing quality. This study was to provide director insight on the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care from Nursing Quality Control Centers (NQCCs). Material and Methods: This qualitative study used a sample ...

  16. Executive Orders-Barack Obama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government....

  17. Two executives, one career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Cynthia R; Murray, Shelley S

    2005-02-01

    For six years, Cynthia Cunningham and Shelley Murray shared an executive job at Fleet Bank. One desk, one chair, one computer, one telephone, and one voice-mail account. To their clients and colleagues, they were effectively one person, though one person with the strengths and ideas of two, seamlessly handing projects back and forth. Although their department was dissolved after the bank merged with Bank of America, the two continue to consider themselves a package-they have one resume, and they are seeking their next opportunity together. Their choice to share a job was not only a quality-of-life decision but one intended to keep their careers on course: "Taking two separate part-time jobs would have thrown us completely off track" they write in this first-person account."We're both ambitious people, and neither of us wanted just a job. We wanted careers" In this article, the two highly motivated women reveal their determination to manage the demands of both family and career. Flextime,telecommuting, and compressed workweeks are just some of the options open to executives seeking greater work/ life balance, and the job share, as described by Cunningham and Murray, could well be the next solution for those wishing to avoid major trade-offs between their personal and professional lives. Cunningham and Murray describe in vivid detail how they structured their unusual arrangement, how they sold themselves to management, and the hurdles they faced along the way. Theirs is a win-win story, for the company and for them.

  18. Business Modeling to Implement an eHealth Portal for Infection Control: A Reflection on Co-Creation With Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Jobke; Sanderman, Robbert; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Background It is acknowledged that the success and uptake of eHealth improve with the involvement of users and stakeholders to make technology reflect their needs. Involving stakeholders in implementation research is thus a crucial element in developing eHealth technology. Business modeling is an approach to guide implementation research for eHealth. Stakeholders are involved in business modeling by identifying relevant stakeholders, conducting value co-creation dialogs, and co-creating a business model. Because implementation activities are often underestimated as a crucial step while developing eHealth, comprehensive and applicable approaches geared toward business modeling in eHealth are scarce. Objective This paper demonstrates the potential of several stakeholder-oriented analysis methods and their practical application was demonstrated using Infectionmanager as an example case. In this paper, we aim to demonstrate how business modeling, with the focus on stakeholder involvement, is used to co-create an eHealth implementation. Methods We divided business modeling in 4 main research steps. As part of stakeholder identification, we performed literature scans, expert recommendations, and snowball sampling (Step 1). For stakeholder analyzes, we performed “basic stakeholder analysis,” stakeholder salience, and ranking/analytic hierarchy process (Step 2). For value co-creation dialogs, we performed a process analysis and stakeholder interviews based on the business model canvas (Step 3). Finally, for business model generation, we combined all findings into the business model canvas (Step 4). Results Based on the applied methods, we synthesized a step-by-step guide for business modeling with stakeholder-oriented analysis methods that we consider suitable for implementing eHealth. Conclusions The step-by-step guide for business modeling with stakeholder involvement enables eHealth researchers to apply a systematic and multidisciplinary, co-creative approach for

  19. Business Modeling to Implement an eHealth Portal for Infection Control: A Reflection on Co-Creation With Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Limburg, Maarten; Wentzel, Jobke; Sanderman, Robbert; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette

    2015-08-13

    It is acknowledged that the success and uptake of eHealth improve with the involvement of users and stakeholders to make technology reflect their needs. Involving stakeholders in implementation research is thus a crucial element in developing eHealth technology. Business modeling is an approach to guide implementation research for eHealth. Stakeholders are involved in business modeling by identifying relevant stakeholders, conducting value co-creation dialogs, and co-creating a business model. Because implementation activities are often underestimated as a crucial step while developing eHealth, comprehensive and applicable approaches geared toward business modeling in eHealth are scarce. This paper demonstrates the potential of several stakeholder-oriented analysis methods and their practical application was demonstrated using Infectionmanager as an example case. In this paper, we aim to demonstrate how business modeling, with the focus on stakeholder involvement, is used to co-create an eHealth implementation. We divided business modeling in 4 main research steps. As part of stakeholder identification, we performed literature scans, expert recommendations, and snowball sampling (Step 1). For stakeholder analyzes, we performed "basic stakeholder analysis," stakeholder salience, and ranking/analytic hierarchy process (Step 2). For value co-creation dialogs, we performed a process analysis and stakeholder interviews based on the business model canvas (Step 3). Finally, for business model generation, we combined all findings into the business model canvas (Step 4). Based on the applied methods, we synthesized a step-by-step guide for business modeling with stakeholder-oriented analysis methods that we consider suitable for implementing eHealth. The step-by-step guide for business modeling with stakeholder involvement enables eHealth researchers to apply a systematic and multidisciplinary, co-creative approach for implementing eHealth. Business modeling becomes an

  20. Executive Function: Implications for Education. NCER 2017-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazo, Philip David; Blair, Clancy B.; Willoughby, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Executive function (EF) skills are the attention-regulation skills that make it possible to sustain attention, keep goals and information in mind, refrain from responding immediately, resist distraction, tolerate frustration, consider the consequences of different behaviors, reflect on past experiences, and plan for the future. As EF research…

  1. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  2. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  3. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  4. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  5. Experimental procedure execution in the software complex for the accumulation, control and supervising systems at the NSHR and SKAT spectrometers (the Join Task)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilov, A.S.; Heinitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    To eliminate routine work to control the spectrometer, a measurement procedure called an experiment program is created as a text file. This article is devoted to the basic ideas, the principle and the communication protocol of an interpreter task and its managed clients, as well as the implementation notes and user interface. Our approach is characterized by the following main features: comfortable spectrometer control; ease of making changes in the experimental procedure; versatility of the interpretation task both for managed clients and for the spectrometer itself; ease of extending the complex to handle new experimental equipment. (author)

  6. The Glycated Albumin (GA) to HbA1c Ratio Reflects Shorter-Term Glycemic Control than GA: Analysis of Patients with Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Masafumi; Inada, Shinya; Nakao, Taisei; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Kasayama, Soji

    2017-01-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) reflects shorter-term glycemic control than HbA1c. We have reported that HbA1c is paradoxically increased in diabetic patients whose glycemic control deteriorated before ameliorating. In this study, we analyzed paradoxical increases of glycemic control indicators after treatment in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D). We also investigated whether the GA/HbA1c ratio may reflect shorter-term glycemic control than GA. Five FT1D patients whose post-treatment HbA1c and GA levels were measured were enrolled. We also used a formula to estimate HbA1c and GA from the fictitious models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients. In this model, the periods during which HbA1c, GA, and the GA/HbA1c ratio were higher than at the first visit were compared. In addition, the half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was calculated in accordance with the half-lives for HbA1c and GA (36 and 14 days, respectively). In all FT1D patients, HbA1c levels 2-4 weeks after treatment were increased, with three patients (60%) experiencing an increase of GA levels. In contrast, an increase of the GA/HbA1c ratio was observed in only one patient. In all of the different models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients, the length of time during which the values were higher than at the first visit was in the order of HbA1c > GA > GA/HbA1c ratio. The half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was 9 days, shorter than GA. These findings suggest that the GA/HbA1c ratio reflects shorter-term glycemic control than GA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Reflections on the Anopheles gambiae genome sequence, transgenic mosquitoes and the prospect for controlling malaria and other vector borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2003-09-01

    The completion of the Anopheles gambiae Giles genome sequencing project is a milestone toward developing more effective strategies in reducing the impact of malaria and other vector borne diseases. The successes in developing transgenic approaches using mosquitoes have provided another essential new tool for further progress in basic vector genetics and the goal of disease control. The use of transgenic approaches to develop refractory mosquitoes is also possible. The ability to use genome sequence to identify genes, and transgenic approaches to construct refractory mosquitoes, has provided the opportunity that with the future development of an appropriate genetic drive system, refractory transgenes can be released into vector populations leading to nontransmitting mosquitoes. An. gambiae populations incapable of transmitting malaria. This compelling strategy will be very difficult to achieve and will require a broad substantial research program for success. The fundamental information that is required on genome structure, gene function and environmental effects on genetic expression are largely unknown. The ability to predict gene effects on phenotype is rudimentary, particularly in natural populations. As a result, the release of a refractory transgene into natural mosquito populations is imprecise and there is little ability to predict unintended consequences. The new genetic tools at hand provide opportunities to address an array of important issues, many of which can have immediate impact on the effectiveness of a host of strategies to control vector borne disease. Transgenic release approaches represent only one strategy that should be pursued. A balanced research program is required.

  8. Supporting executive functions during children's preliteracy learning with the computer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sande, E. van de; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined how embedded activities to support executive functions helped children to benefit from a computer intervention that targeted preliteracy skills. Three intervention groups were compared on their preliteracy gains in a randomized controlled trial design: an experimental

  9. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  10. Real-time Executive for a basic principle simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, L.; Szegi, Zs.; Vegh, E.

    1987-09-01

    A basic principle simulator for WWER-440 type nuclear power plants is under development in the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest. So far the technological models of both to primary and secondary circuits are ready and this paper presents the Real-time Executive and the on-line operating environment which controls the simulator. This executive system contains eight programs and the detailed structure of the data base is presented. The control of the execution of the model programs, their timing and the error recoveries are also discussed. (author) 5 refs

  11. Executive dysfunction affects word list recall performance: Evidence from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Monica; Rossi, Stefania; Cerami, Chiara; Marcone, Alessandra; Iannaccone, Sandro; Francesco Cappa, Stefano; Perani, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is widely used in clinical practice to evaluate verbal episodic memory. While there is evidence that RAVLT performance can be influenced by executive dysfunction, the way executive disorders affect the serial position curve (SPC) has not been yet explored. To this aim, we analysed immediate and delayed recall performances of 13 non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with a specific mild executive dysfunction (ALSci) and compared their performances to those of 48 healthy controls (HC) and 13 cognitively normal patients with ALS. Moreover, to control for the impact of a severe dysexecutive syndrome and a genuine episodic memory deficit on the SPC, we enrolled 15 patients with a diagnosis of behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and 18 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results documented that, compared to cognitively normal subjects, ALSci patients had a selective mid-list impairment for immediate recall scores. The bvFTD group obtained low performances with a selectively increased forgetting rate for terminal items, whereas the AD group showed a disproportionately large memory loss on the primary and middle part of the SPC for immediate recall scores and were severely impaired in the delayed recall trial. These results suggested that subtle executive dysfunctions might influence the recall of mid-list items, possibly reflecting deficiency in control strategies at retrieval of word lists, whereas severer dysexecutive syndrome might also affect the recall of terminal items possibly due to attention deficit or retroactive interference. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. 78 FR 35570 - Application Procedures, Execution and Filing of Forms: Correction of State Office Address for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ...] RIN 1004-AE31 Application Procedures, Execution and Filing of Forms: Correction of State Office Address for Filings and Recordings, Including Proper Offices for Recording of Mining Claims; Oregon... administrative final rule amends the regulations pertaining to execution and filing of forms in order to reflect...

  13. A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Study of Gabapentin: Effects on Cannabis Use, Withdrawal and Executive Function Deficits in Cannabis-Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial w...

  14. Disciplining and Screening Top Executives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia); O.H. Swank (Otto); B. Visser (Bauke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBoards of directors face the twin task of disciplining and screening executives. To perform these tasks directors do not have detailed information about executives' behaviour, and only infrequently have information about the success or failure of initiated strategies, reorganizations,

  15. Developmental Changes in Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry; Bull, Rebecca; Ho, Ringo M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Although early studies of executive functioning in children supported Miyake et al.'s (2000) three-factor model, more recent findings supported a variety of undifferentiated or two-factor structures. Using a cohort-sequential design, this study examined whether there were age-related differences in the structure of executive functioning among…

  16. PUBLIC CONTROL UNDER SUSPECTED: A REFLECTION ON THE STRUCTURE OF COURTS OF ACCOUNT AND THE EFFICIENCY OF EXTERNAL CONTROL ON THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella Barros Ferreira de Freitas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The external control in Brazil is constitutional attribution of the legislative power, with the assistance of the Courts of Accounts and aims to oversee the public administration regarding legality, impersonality, morality, efficiency and others. This type of control presupposes a public management, in all areas, proba and efficient, that attends to the yearnings of the society. However, the current news about corruption investigations in the Brazilian public administration indicates that there are flaws in the external control carried out by the Audit Courts. For the relevance of the question, this article intends to investigate the causes of this inefficiency and the alternatives that present to correct it.

  17. Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control (II&C) Research and Development Facility Buildout and Project Execution of LWRS II&C Pilot Projects 1 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Farris; Johanna Oxstrand; Gregory Weatherby

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on light water reactor sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current reactors. As technologies are introduced that change the operation of the plant, the LWRS pilot projects can help identify their best-advanced uses and help demonstrate the safety of these technologies. In early testing of operator performance given these emerging technologies will ensure the safety and usability of systems prior to large-scale deployment and costly verification and validation at the plant. The aim of these collaborations, demonstrations, and approaches are intended to lessen the inertia that sustains the current status quo of today's II&C systems technology, and to motivate transformational change and a shift in strategy to a long-term approach to II&C modernization that is more sustainable. Research being conducted under Pilot Project 1 regards understanding the conditions and behaviors that can be modified, either through process improvements and/or technology deployment, to improve the overall safety and efficiency of outage control at nuclear facilities. The key component of the research in this pilot project is accessing the delivery of information that will allow researchers to simulate the control room, outage control center (OCC) information, and plant status data. The simulation also allows researchers to identify areas of opportunity where plant operating status and outage activities can be analyzed to increase overall plant efficiency. For Pilot Project 3 the desire is to demonstrate the ability of technology deployment and the subsequent impact on maximizing the 'Collective Situational Awareness' of the various stakeholders in a commercial nuclear power plant. Specifically, the desire is to show positive

  18. Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control (II and C) Research and Development Facility Buildout and Project Execution of LWRS II and C Pilot Projects 1 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farris, Ronald; Oxstrand, Johanna; Weatherby, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on light water reactor sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current reactors. As technologies are introduced that change the operation of the plant, the LWRS pilot projects can help identify their best-advanced uses and help demonstrate the safety of these technologies. In early testing of operator performance given these emerging technologies will ensure the safety and usability of systems prior to large-scale deployment and costly verification and validation at the plant. The aim of these collaborations, demonstrations, and approaches are intended to lessen the inertia that sustains the current status quo of today's II and C systems technology, and to motivate transformational change and a shift in strategy to a long-term approach to II and C modernization that is more sustainable. Research being conducted under Pilot Project 1 regards understanding the conditions and behaviors that can be modified, either through process improvements and/or technology deployment, to improve the overall safety and efficiency of outage control at nuclear facilities. The key component of the research in this pilot project is accessing the delivery of information that will allow researchers to simulate the control room, outage control center (OCC) information, and plant status data. The simulation also allows researchers to identify areas of opportunity where plant operating status and outage activities can be analyzed to increase overall plant efficiency. For Pilot Project 3 the desire is to demonstrate the ability of technology deployment and the subsequent impact on maximizing the 'Collective Situational Awareness' of the various stakeholders in a commercial nuclear power plant. Specifically, the desire is to show positive results

  19. Executive functions in persons with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern man lyfestyle contributes to the increasing incidence of metabolic syndrome in the developed world. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in adults ranges from 20 to 25%, and it tends to increase. Each year, 3.2 million people around the world die from complications associated with this syndrome. Treatment involves cooperation of medical doctors of various specialties, but the decisive factor is patient motivation, given that the treatment requires significant lifestyle changes. Our hypothesis is that metabolic syndrome patients have reduced ability to plan, convert plan into action and effectively implement planned activities, showing signs of dysexecutive syndrome. The term executive functions comes from the English word 'executive', which also means the controlling, in neuropsychology reserved for high-level abilities that influence more basic abilities such as attention, perception, memory, thinking and speaking. The main objective of this study was to determine characteristics of executive functioning in patients with metabolic syndrome. The sample consisted of 61 subjects of both sexes, aged 20 to 60 years, divided into two groups - those with a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome and those without this diagnosis. The results suggest that people with metabolic syndrome showed significantly poorer performance in almost all indicators of executive functions, represented by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test variables.

  20. Current status of quality evaluation of nursing care through director review and reflection from the Nursing Quality Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xia; Shi, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The quality evaluation of nursing care is a key link in medical quality management. It is important and worth studying for the nursing supervisors to know the disadvantages during the process of quality evaluation of nursing care and then to improve the whole nursing quality. This study was to provide director insight on the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care from Nursing Quality Control Centers (NQCCs). Material and Methods: This qualitative study used a sample of 12 directors from NQCCs who were recruited from 12 provinces in China to evaluate the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care. Data were collected by in-depth interviews. Content analysis method was used to analyze the data. Results: Four themes emerged from the data: 1) lag of evaluation index; 2) limitations of evaluation content; 3) simplicity of evaluation method; 4) excessive emphasis on terminal quality. Conclusion: It is of great realistic significance to ameliorate nursing quality evaluation criteria, modify the evaluation content based on patient needs-oriented idea, adopt scientific evaluation method to evaluate nursing quality, and scientifically and reasonably draw horizontal comparisons of nursing quality between hospitals, as well as longitudinal comparisons of a hospital’s nursing quality. These methods mentioned above can all enhance a hospital’s core competitiveness and benefit more patients. PMID:25419427