Multilevel parametrization of fissile nuclei resonance cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukyanov, A.A.; Kolesov, V.V.; Janeva, N.
1987-01-01
Because the resonance interference has an important influence on the resonance structure of neutron cross sections energy dependence at lowest energies, multilevel scheme of the cross section parametrization which take into account the resonance interference is used for the description with the same provisions in the regions of the interferential maximum and minimum of the resonance cross sections of the fissile nuclei
Multilevel resonance parameters of 241Pu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weston, L.W.; Todd, J.H.
1978-01-01
The data previously reported by the authors on the neutron fission and capture cross sections of 241 Pu were simultaneously fit with the Adler formalism to obtain multilevel resonance parameters. The neutron energy range of the fit was 0.01 to 100 eV. The 241 Pu cross sections in the resonance region of neutron energies are complex, and the Adler parameters present an efficient method of representing these cross sections, which are important for plutonium-fueled reactors. The parameters represent the data to an accuracy within the quoted experimental errors. 5 figures, 2 tables
Mizuyama, Kazuhito; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Iwamoto, Osamu; Hasemi, Hiroyuki; Kino, Koichi; Kimura, Atsushi; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki
2017-09-01
In order to analyze the experimental data measured by the Accurate Neutron-Nucleus Reaction Measurement Instrument (ANNRI) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex/Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (J-PARC/MLF), it is necessary to take into account the double-bunch structure of the neutron pulse and the energy resolution function for the operational condition of the J-PARC/MLF. The modified REFIT code has been developed to treat the double-bunch neutron pulse and the energy resolution function for J-PARC/MLF. In this study, we applied the modified REFIT code to analyze the new data of the neutron capture cross section of 155Gd and 157Gd recently measured by ANNRI in the J-PARC/MLF, and obtained the resonance parameters of two Gd isotopes. We discussed the differences between the our obtained results and the other libraries.
The efficiency of Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doherty, Ronan; O'Malley, Mark
2011-01-01
Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation has some unusual features making it different from other REFIT schemes around the world. By utilising an annual floor price element the scheme presents an option value to the contract holder, which to date has gone unnoticed or unvalued in the market. By employing an option pricing framework, this paper has quantified for the first time in the public domain the expected costs and value of the Irish REFIT support scheme for wind generation. While the cost of the REFIT scheme to the electricity consumer appears to be lower than the cost of schemes in other countries, significant inefficiencies exist as a result of the structure of the scheme. The Irish REFIT scheme is contrasted with a single Fixed Price support scheme and the analysis suggests that the Fixed Price scheme can provide a similar or greater incentive to the wind sector at half the cost to the end electricity consumer, and may also prove more compatible with consumers desire to reduce inter-year electricity portfolio cost volatility. - Highlights: → We review and summarise Ireland's support scheme for renewable energy. → We present information about the operation of the scheme in industry to date. → The scheme is really a series of put options. → Our option pricing model shows that the scheme is much more expensive/valuable than the industry has recognised to date. → The existing scheme is inefficient and simple variations represent much better policy instruments.
LCC Resonant Multilevel Converter for X-ray Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Pernía
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Medical X-ray appliances use high-voltage power supplies that must be able to work with very different energy requirements. Two techniques can be distinguished in X-ray medical imaging: fluoroscopy and radioscopy. The former involves low power radiation with a long exposure time, while radioscopy requires large power during short radiographic exposure times. Since the converter has to be designed by taking into account the maximum power specification, it will exhibit a poor efficiency when operating at low power levels. Such a problem can be solved by using a new multilevel LCC topology. This topology is based on a classical series-parallel resonant topology, but includes an additional low-voltage auxiliary transformer whose function depends on the X-ray technique considered. When radioscopy operation is selected, the transformer will allow the power to be shared between two full-bridges. If fluoroscopy mode is activated, the auxiliary full bridge is disconnected and the magnetizing inductance of the auxiliary transformer is used to increase the resonant inductor in order to reduce the resonant currents, thus improving the efficiency of the converter.
REFIT and RPS: options for a harmonised Community framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lauber, Volkmar
2004-01-01
Discussions of the two main support schemes for RES-E-renewable energy feed-in tariffs (REFIT) and renewable portfolio standards with tradable green certificates (RPS/TGC) usually take an either-or approach. This is fuelled in part by European Commission plans to propose a Community framework for harmonisation of support schemes by 2005, widely expected to permit only RPS/TGC schemes. But conditions have changed since 2001. In fact, the two systems serve different purposes and cannot be measured against a common efficiency standard. Based on evidence from Britain, Germany and the United States, the article argues that RPS schemes purport to develop a set percentage of RES-E consumption at least cost and thus restrict geographical distribution, limit technological diversity, contribute little to the early phases of RES-E technology development and often lead to a reliance on foreign equipment producers. REFIT schemes promote RES-E technology development and equipment industries even at early stages and across a broad technological and geographical spectrum. To use harmonisation to eliminate all but RPS systems is to ignore a key requirement of a rapid transition to renewable energy. The coexistence of state-of-the-art models of both schemes is likely to be more helpful
Off-resonant transitions in the collective dynamics of multi-level atomic ensembles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
We study the contributions of off-resonant transitions to the dynamics of a system of N multi-level atoms sharing one excitation and interacting with the quantized vector electromagnetic field. The rotating wave approximation significantly simplifies the derivation of the equations of motion...... describing the collective atomic dynamics, but it leads to an incorrect expression for the dispersive part of the atom–atom interaction terms. For the case of two-level atoms and a scalar electromagnetic field, it turns out that the atom–atom interaction can be recovered correctly if integrals over...... the photon mode frequencies are extended to incorporate negative values. We explicitly derive the atom–atom interaction for multi-level atoms, coupled to the full vector electromagnetic field, and we recover also in this general case the validity of the results obtained by the extension to negative...
Multilevel effect in uranium-238 and thorium-232 effective neutron capture resonance integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tellier, H.
1981-01-01
Until now, there has been a discrepancy between the computed and the measured values of the /sup 238/U effective capture integral. Recently, several new measurements of the resonance parameters were carried out and the use of a multilevel formalism was suggested to compute the /sup 238/U cross sections. This paper shows that the simultaneous use of recent parameters and the Reich-Moore formalism explain the discrepancy. 31 refs
Non-linear interactions of multi-level atoms with a near-resonant standing wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Kane, T.J.; Scholten, R.E.; Walkiewicz, M.R.; Farrell, P.M.
1998-01-01
Using a semiclassical density matrix formalism we have calculated the behavior of multi-level atoms interacting with a standing wave field, and show how complex non-linear phenomena, including multi-photon effects, combine to produce saturation spectra as observed in experiments. We consider both 20-level sodium and 24-level rubidium models, contrasting these with a simple 2-level case. The influence of parameters such as atomic trajectory and the time the atom remains in the beam are shown to have a critical effect on the lineshape of these resonances and the emission/absorption processes. Stable oscillations in the excited state populations for both the two-level and multi-level cases are shown to be limit cycles. These limit cycles undergo period doubling as the system evolves into chaos. Finally, using a Monte Carlo treatment, these processes average to produce saturated absorption spectra complete with power and Doppler broadening effects consistent with experiment. (authors)
Multi-level converter with auxiliary resonant-commutated pole
Dijkhuizen, F.R.; Duarte, J.L.; Groningen, van W.D.H.
1998-01-01
The family of multi-level power converters offers advantages for high-power, high-voltage systems. A multi-level nested-cell structure has the attractive feature of static and dynamic voltage sharing among the switches. This is achieved by using clamping capacitors (floating capacitors) rather than
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lhermenier, Andre; Van Craeynest, J.-C.
1980-05-01
The 'Celimene' cell adjoining the EL3 reactor provides for the acceptance, handling and the examination of irradiated fuel assemblies from power reactors (length approximately 4m, weight approximately 700 kg). Within the framework of the PWR fuel behavior follow-up or reprocessing, it is possible to extract an assembly representative of the normal fuel cycle, carry out non destructive tests on this assembly, extract pencils from it and re-insert this assembly, after refitting the head, into the normal fuel cycle for handling in a reprocessing plant or storage pond. Given suitable refitting techniques, the re-irradiation of the assembly can be considered after examination. Significant changes have been made to the buildings and the hoist facilities for handling very heavy flasks. It was necessary to rearrange the handling, machining and in-cell storage facilities. The development of an inspection rig will make it possible, some time in 1980, to carry out non destructive tests of assemblies, optical and metrological examination of assemblies prior to dismantling or of the structure after dismantling [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marianne Deschamps
Full Text Available We use stone tool refitting to assess palimpsest formation and stratigraphic integrity in the basal units of the Gruta da Oliveira archeo-stratigraphic sequence, layers 15-27, which TL and U-series dating places in late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 5 or early MIS 4. As in most karst contexts, the formation of this succession involved multiple and complex phenomena, including subsidence, bioturbation, carnivore activity and runoff as agents of potential post-depositional disturbance. During phases of stabilization, such as represented by layers 15, 21 and 22, the excavated area was inhabited and refits corroborate that post-depositional displacement is negligible. Layers 23-25 and 16-19 correspond to subdivisions that slice thick geological units primarily formed of material derived from the cave's entrance via slope dynamics. Refit links are consistent with rapid fill-up of the interstitial spaces found in the Karren-like bedrock (for layers 23-25, or left between large boulders after major roof-collapse events (for layers 16-19. Layers 26 (the "Mousterian Cone" and 27 are a "bottom-of-hourglass" deposit underlying the main sedimentary body; the refits show that this deposit consists of material derived from layers 15-25 that gravitated through fissures open in the sedimentary column above. Layer 20, at the interface between two major stratigraphic ensembles, requires additional analysis. Throughout, we found significant vertical dispersion along the contact between sedimentary fill and cave wall. Given these findings, a preliminary analysis of technological change across the studied sequence organized the lithic assemblages into five ensembles: layer 15; layers 16-19; layer 20; layers 21-22; layers 23-25. The lower ensembles show higher percentages of flint and of the Levallois method. Uniquely at the site, the two upper ensembles feature bifaces and cleavers.
Combined photogrammetry and 3-D CAD for plant documentation and planning of refits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraas, K.C.; Giese, U.; Kamsties, K.D.
1991-01-01
Meticulous advance planning and erection studies using a three-dimensional computer-aided design model of the plant area concerned can reduce the problem that unexpected events during a plant refit will prolong the required inspection period. This presupposes that a 3-D CAD scale model of the running plant has been generated. A method is described with which the as-built condition of the plant area is converted into a 3-D CAD model by combining photogrammetry with 3-D CAD. The minimum amount of time required for in-plant surveying and the completeness and clarity of results are the special advantages of this method in comparison with other measurement techniques. Selected applications are presented. (orig.) [de
New techniques for multi-level cross section calculation and fitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froehner, F.H.
1980-09-01
A number of recent developments in multi-level cross section work are described. A new iteration scheme for the conversion of Reich-Moore resonance parameters to Kapur-Peierls parameters allows application of Turing's method for Gaussian broadening of meromorphic functions directly to multi-level cross section expressions, without recourse to the Voigt profiles psi and chi. This makes calculation of Doppler-broadened Reich-Moore and MLBW cross sections practically as fast as SLBW and Adler-Adler cross section calculations involving the Voigt profiles. A convenient distant-level treatment utilizing average resonance parameters is presented. Apart from effectively dealing with edge effects in resonance fitting work it also leads to a simple prescription for the determination of bound levels which reproduce the thermal cross sections correctly. A brief discussion of improved resonance shape fitting techniques is included, with empahsis on the importance of correlated errors and proper use of prior information by application of Bayes' theorem. (orig.) [de
New techniques for multi-level cross section calculation and fitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froehner, F.H.
1981-01-01
A number of recent developments in multi-level cross section work are described. A new iteration scheme for the conversion of Reich-Moore resonance parameters to Kapur-Peierls parameters allows application of Turing's method for Gaussian broadening of meromorphic functions directly to multi-level cross section expressions, without recourse to the Voigt profiles psi and chi. This makes calculation of Doppler-broadened Reich-Moore and MLBW cross sections practically as fast as SLBW and Adler-Adler cross section calculations involving the Voigt profiles. A convenient distant-level treatment utilizing average resonance parameters is presented. Apart from effectively dealing with edge effects in resonance fitting work it also leads to a simple prescription for the determination of bound levels which reproduce the thermal cross sections correctly. A brief discussion of improved resonance shape fitting techniques is included, with emphasis on the importance of correlated errors and proper use of prior information by application of Bayes' theorem
A multilevel shape fit analysis of neutron transmission data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naguib, K.; Sallam, O.H.; Adib, M.
1989-01-01
A multilevel shape fit analysis of neutron transmission data is presented. A multilevel computer code SHAPE is used to analyse clean transmission data obtained from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. The shape analysis deduces the parameters of the observed resonances in the energy region considered in the measurements. The shape code is based upon a least square fit of a multilevel Breit-Wigner formula and includes both instrumental resolution and Doppler broadenings. Operating the SHAPE code on a test example of a measured transmission data of 151 Eu, 153 Eu and natural Eu in the energy range 0.025-1 eV acquired a good result for the used technique of analysis. (author)
Ryabov, G. A.; Folomeev, O. M.; Litun, D. S.; Sankin, D. A.; Dmitryukova, I. G.
2009-01-01
The present state and development of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology around the world are briefly reviewed. Questions of increasing the capacity of single boiler units and raising the parameters of steam are discussed. CFB boilers for 225- and 330-MW power units are described and their parameters are estimated as applied to the conditions of firing different Russian fuels. Indicators characterizing CFB boilers and pulverized-coal boilers are given. Capital outlays and operational costs for new coal-fired units are compared, and the results from this comparison are used to show the field of the most promising use of the CFB technology during technical refitting of Russian thermal power stations.
Tomioka, Kimiko; Natori, Yuji; Kumagai, Shinji; Kurumatani, Norio
2011-12-01
To evaluate the long-term health effects of occupational asbestos exposure, an updated historical cohort mortality study of workers at a refitting shipyard was undertaken. The cohort consisted of 249 male ship repair workers (90 laggers, 159 boiler repairers). To determine relative excess mortality, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using mortality rates among the Japanese male population. Mortality follow-up of study subjects was performed for the period from 1947 till the end of 2007. We identified the vital status of 87 (96.7%) laggers and 150 (94.3%) boiler repairers. Of these, 63 (72.4%) and 95 (63.3%), respectively, died. Laggers, who had handled asbestos materials directly, showed a significantly elevated SMR of 2.64 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-5.44) for lung cancer and 2.49 (95% CI: 1.36-4.18) for nonmalignant respiratory diseases. Boiler repairers, who had many opportunities for secondary exposure to asbestos and a few for direct exposure, showed no significant elevation in SMR for lung cancer but a significantly elevated SMR of 1.78 (95% CI: 1.06-2.81) for nonmalignant respiratory diseases. In an analysis according to duration of employment, there was a significantly elevated SMR of nonmalignant respiratory diseases in the longer working years group. Among workers from both jobs, no deaths caused by mesothelioma in addition to those in the original study were found and no subject died from larynx cancer. This updated study confirmed a significant excess of asbestos-related mortality from diseases such as lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases among workers in a refitting shipyard in Japan.
Review of 241 Pu resonance parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derrien, H.
1981-10-01
The status of 241 Pu resonance parameters is reviewed. The most important recent results are compared in some energy ranges, both from single level and multilevel point of view. It appears that an accurate set of resonance parameters is not still obtained for a general description of the cross-sections in the resonance region. Some recommendations are given for further experiments or evaluations
Multilevel fitting of 235U resonance data sensitive to Bohr-and Brosa-fission channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, M.S.
1995-01-01
The recent determination of the K, J dependence of the neutron induced fission cross section of 235 U by the Dubna group has led to a renewed interest in the mechanism of fission from saddle to scission. The K quantum numbers designate the so-called Bohr fission channels, which describe the fission properties at the saddle point. Certain other fission properties, e.g., the fragment mass and kinetic-energy distribution, are related to the properties of the scission point. The neutron energy dependence of the fragment kinetic energies has been measured by Hambsch et al., who analyzed their data according to a channel description of Brosa et al. How these two channel descriptions, the saddle-point Bohr channels and the scission-point Brosa channels, relate to one another is an open question, and is the subject matter of the present paper. We use the correlation coefficient between various data sets, in which variations are reported from resonance to resonance, as a measure of both-the statistical reliability of the data and of the degree to which different scission variables relate to different Bohr channels. We have carried out an adjustment of the ENDF/B-VI multilevel evaluation of the fission cross section of 235 U, one that provides a reasonably good fit to the energy dependence of the fission, capture, and total cross sections below 100 eV, and to the Bohr-channel structure deduced from an earlier measurement by Pattenden and Postma. We have also further explored the possibility of describing the data of Hambsch et al. in the Brosa-channel framework with the same set of fission-width vectors, only in a different reference system. While this approach shows promise, it is clear that better data are also needed for the neutron energy variation of the scission-point variables
Nonresonant interaction of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses with multilevel quantum systems
Belenov, E.; Isakov, V.; Nazarkin, A.
1994-01-01
Some features of the excitation of multilevel quantum systems under the action of electromagnetic pulses which are shorter than the inverse frequency of interlevel transitions are considered. It is shown that the interaction is characterized by a specific type of selectivity which is not connected with the resonant absorption of radiation. The simplest three-level model displays the inverse population of upper levels. The effect of an ultrashort laser pulse on a multilevel molecule was regarded as an instant reception of the oscillation velocity by the oscillator and this approach showed an effective excitation and dissociation of the molecule. The estimations testify to the fact that these effects can be observed using modern femtosecond lasers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brusegan, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Lobo, G.; Borella, A.; Volev, K.; Janeva, N.
2003-01-01
To deduce the resonance parameters for 232 Th in the resolved resonance region, high resolution transmission and capture measurements are being performed. The measurements are performed at the Time-Of-Flight facility GELINA. A comparison of experimental data resulting from capture (top) and transmission (bottom) are shown. The transmission measurements are performed at a 50 m flight path. The neutron are detected with a 0.25' thick lithium glass (NE912) placed in an Al sphere and viewed by a 5' EMI KQB photomultiplier orthogonal to the neutron beam axis. The injection of a stabilised light pulse in the detector during the measurements provided an efficient tool to control to better than 1% the gain of the entire electronics. The experimental set-up includes a sample-changer, placed at 23 m from the neutron source, which is driven by the acquisition system. The determination of the flight path length, was based on transmission of the 6.673 eV resonance of 238 U. We summarise, for the different energy regions of interest, the scheduled measurement conditions: the operation frequency of the accelerator and the target thickness. A simultaneous analysis of the data using REFIT will result in the resonance parameters from 0 to 4 keV. We show the result of a resonance shape analysis for the resonances at 21.8 and 23.5 eV. The resulting resonance parameters are important for the energy calibration and normalisation of the capture measurements in both the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The capture measurements are completed and were performed at a 60 m flight path. The sample consisted of a metallic natural thorium disc of 8 cm diameter and 1.0 mm thick, corresponding to a thickness of 3.176 10 -3 at/b. The neutron flux was measured with an ionisation chamber loaded with three back-to-back layers of about 40 μg/cm 2 10 B. The gamma rays, originating from the 232 Th(n,γ) reaction, were detected by four C 6 D 6 -based liquid scintillators (NE230) placed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre
2014-01-01
The great refit of the EDF nuclear fleet aims at extending the service lifetime of nuclear reactors. If the extension to 40 years is well undertaken, an extension to 50 or 60 years could only be approved after a return on experience of the Fukushima accident and possible additional requests made by the ASN in reference to facilities ageing. The authors first recall some elements related to the Fukushima accident and outline the fact that the possibility of such a strong tsunami had not been taken in to account by the operator (as it had been for a neighbouring nuclear power station, Onagawa). They also highlight the differences between Japan and France in terms of organisation of the nuclear industry. They also outline technical differences in the design of power stations. Thus, the first lessons learned from the accident seem to support French options. They discuss the evolutions which however are planned for the French nuclear stations after the Fukushima accident. Then, the authors present the great refit and the issue of the extension of the service lifetime of the EDF nuclear fleet. This project is presented as a major challenge for EDF, and implies a management of expenses. They outline the good level of French energy production with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, and briefly discuss the issue of competitiveness for renewable energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lepretre, A.; Herault, N. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Brusegan, A.; Noguere, G.; Siegler, P. [Institut des Materiaux et des Metrologies - IRMM, Joint Research Centre, Gell (Belgium)
2002-12-01
This report is a follow up of the report CEA DAPNIA/SPHN-99-04T of Vincent Gressier. In the frame of a collaboration between the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)' and the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM, Geel, Belgique), the resonance parameters of neptunium 237 have been determined in the energy interval between 0 and 500 eV. These parameters have been obtained by using the Refit code in analysing simultaneously three transmission experiments. The covariance matrix of statistical origin is provided. A new method, based on various sensitivity studies is proposed for determining also the covariance matrix of systematic origin, relating the resonance parameters. From an experimental viewpoint, the study indicated that, with a large probability, the background spectrum has structure. A two dimensional profiler for the neutron density has been proved feasible. Such a profiler could, among others, demonstrate the existence of the structured background. (authors)
Resolved resonance parameters for 236Np
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morogovskij, G.B.; Bakhanovich, L.A.
2002-01-01
Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters were obtained for fission cross-section representation in the 0.01-33 eV energy region from evaluation of a 236 Np experimental fission cross-section in the resolved resonance region. (author)
New Approaches to Circulating Current Controllers for Modular Multilevel Converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel Moranchel
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the next years, modular multilevel converters (MMCs are going to be a next generation multilevel converters for medium to high voltage conversion applications, such as medium voltage motor drives, medium voltage flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS and high voltage direct current transmission. They provide advantages such as high modularity, availability, low generation of harmonics, etc. However, the circulating current distorts the leg currents and increases the rated current of power devices, which further increases system cost. This paper focuses on analysis and suppression of these currents in a MMC using two algorithms for tracking of harmonics. For this work resonant controllers and repetitive controllers have been selected. Both controllers are analyzed and simulations results are presented. Moreover, the controllers have been tested and validated for a three phase MMC operating as an inverter using a real processing platform based on Zynq by Xilinx and designed to control large multilevel converters and in a real MMC prototype. These results are provided to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lepretre, A.; Herault, N.; Brusegan, A.; Noguere, G.; Siegler, P.
2002-12-01
This report is a follow up of the report CEA DAPNIA/SPHN-99-04T of Vincent Gressier. In the frame of a collaboration between the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)' and the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM, Geel, Belgique), the resonance parameters of neptunium 237 have been determined in the energy interval between 0 and 500 eV. These parameters have been obtained by using the Refit code in analysing simultaneously three transmission experiments. The covariance matrix of statistical origin is provided. A new method, based on various sensitivity studies is proposed for determining also the covariance matrix of systematic origin, relating the resonance parameters. From an experimental viewpoint, the study indicated that, with a large probability, the background spectrum has structure. A two dimensional profiler for the neutron density has been proved feasible. Such a profiler could, among others, demonstrate the existence of the structured background. (authors)
Finch, W Holmes; Kelley, Ken
2014-01-01
A powerful tool for analyzing nested designs in a variety of fields, multilevel/hierarchical modeling allows researchers to account for data collected at multiple levels. Multilevel Modeling Using R provides you with a helpful guide to conducting multilevel data modeling using the R software environment.After reviewing standard linear models, the authors present the basics of multilevel models and explain how to fit these models using R. They then show how to employ multilevel modeling with longitudinal data and demonstrate the valuable graphical options in R. The book also describes models fo
Calculating trajectories for atoms in near-resonant lightfields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scholten, R.E.; O' Kane, T.J.; Mackin, T.R.; Hunt, T.A.; Farrell, P.M.
1999-01-01
We review several methods for calculating the time development of the internal state and the external motion of atoms in near-resonant light fields, with emphasis on studying the focussing of atomic beams into microscopic and potentially nanoscopic patterns. Three different approaches are considered: two-level semiclassical, multi-level semiclassical, and the Monte Carlo wavefunction method. The two-level semiclassical technique of McClelland and Scheinfein (1991) and McClelland (1995) is extended to three dimensions, and used to calculate the trajectories of atoms and the imaging properties of a simple lens formed from a near-resonant travelling TEM 01 mode laser. The model is then extended to multi-level atoms, where we calculate the density matrix for the internal state of a sample of thermal atoms in a standing wave, and show how cooling processes can be simulated. Finally, we use the Monte Carlo wavefunction method to calculate the internal state of the atom, and compare the results and required computation time to those of the multi-level semiclassical technique. (authors)
Electromagnetically induced transparency in an open multilevel system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Tian; Lu Meiju; Weinstein, Jonathan D.
2011-01-01
Electromagnetically induced transparency in a multilevel system is investigated in 173 Yb. The level structure investigated is ''open'' in that the light that gives rise to the transparency also resonantly couples the atoms to excited states which do not exhibit electromagnetically induced transparency. The resulting reduction of transparency is investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is found that, while the transparency is poor in certain regimes, it can be made to perform arbitrarily well in the limit of a large intensity imbalance between the optical fields.
A Multilevel Shape Fit Analysis of Neutron Transmission Data
Naguib, K.; Sallam, O. H.; Adib, M.; Ashry, A.
A multilevel shape fit analysis of neutron transmission data is presented. A multilevel computer code SHAPE is used to analyse clean transmission data obtained from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. The shape analysis deduces the parameters of the observed resonances in the energy region considered in the measurements. The shape code is based upon a least square fit of a multilevel Briet-Wigner formula and includes both instrumental resolution and Doppler broadenings. Operating the SHAPE code on a test example of a measured transmission data of 151Eu, 153Eu and natural Eu in the energy range 0.025-1 eV accquired a good result for the used technique of analysis.Translated AbstractAnalyse von Neutronentransmissionsdaten mittels einer VielniveauformanpassungNeutronentransmissionsdaten werden in einer Vielniveauformanpassung analysiert. Dazu werden bereinigte Daten aus Flugzeitmessungen mit dem Rechnerprogramm SHAPE bearbeitet. Man erhält die Parameter der beobachteten Resonanzen im gemessenen Energiebereich. Die Formanpassung benutzt eine Briet-Wignerformel und berücksichtigt Linienverbreiterungen infolge sowohl der Meßeinrichtung als auch des Dopplereffekts. Als praktisches Beispiel werden 151Eu, 153Eu und natürliches Eu im Energiebereich 0.025 bis 1 eV mit guter Übereinstimmung theoretischer und experimenteller Werte behandelt.
EUROPEAN INTEGRATION: A MULTILEVEL PROCESS THAT REQUIRES A MULTILEVEL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roxana-Otilia-Sonia HRITCU
2015-11-01
Full Text Available A process of market regulation and a system of multi-level governance and several supranational, national and subnational levels of decision making, European integration subscribes to being a multilevel phenomenon. The individual characteristics of citizens, as well as the environment where the integration process takes place, are important. To understand the European integration and its consequences it is important to develop and test multi-level theories that consider individual-level characteristics, as well as the overall context where individuals act and express their characteristics. A central argument of this paper is that support for European integration is influenced by factors operating at different levels. We review and present theories and related research on the use of multilevel analysis in the European area. This paper draws insights on various aspects and consequences of the European integration to take stock of what we know about how and why to use multilevel modeling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shore, B.W.; Sacks, R.; Karr, T.
1987-01-01
This memo discusses the equations of motion used to describe multilevel molecular excitation induced by Raman transitions. These equations are based upon the time-dependent Schroedinger equation expressed in a basis of molecular energy states. A partition of these states is made into two sets, those that are far from resonance (and hence unpopulated) and those that are close to resonance, either by one-photon transition or two-photon (Raman) processes. By adiabatic elimination an effective Schroedinger equation is obtained for the resonance states alone. The effective Hamiltonian is expressible in terms of a polarizibility operator
Theoretical calculation of saturated absorption for multilevel atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Kane, T.J.; Scholten, R.E.; Farrell, P.M.
1998-01-01
We present the first theoretical saturated absorption spectra for general multi-level atoms, using a model based on extensions of the optical Bloch equations, and using Monte Carlo averaging of the absorption of individual atoms with random trajectories through a standing wave. We are for the first time able to accurately predict the merging of hyperfine and cross-over resonances due to intensity dependent phenomena such as power broadening. Results for 20-level sodium and 24-level rubidium models are presented and compared to experiment, demonstrating excellent agreement
Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua
2015-01-01
Considering that group comparisons are common in social science, we examined two latent group mean testing methods when groups of interest were either at the between or within level of multilevel data: multiple-group multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MG ML CFA) and multilevel multiple-indicators multiple-causes modeling (ML MIMIC). The performance of these methods were investigated through three Monte Carlo studies. In Studies 1 and 2, either factor variances or residual variances were manipulated to be heterogeneous between groups. In Study 3, which focused on within-level multiple-group analysis, six different model specifications were considered depending on how to model the intra-class group correlation (i.e., correlation between random effect factors for groups within cluster). The results of simulations generally supported the adequacy of MG ML CFA and ML MIMIC for multiple-group analysis with multilevel data. The two methods did not show any notable difference in the latent group mean testing across three studies. Finally, a demonstration with real data and guidelines in selecting an appropriate approach to multilevel multiple-group analysis are provided.
Multilevel resonance analysis of sup 59 Co neutron transmission measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Saussure, G.; Larson, N.M.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))
1992-07-01
Large discrepancies exist between the recent high-resolution neutron transmission data of {sup 59}Co measured at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) and transmissions computed from the resolved resonance parameters of the nuclear data collection ENDF/B-VI. In order to provide new resonance parameters consistent with these data, the transmission measurements have been analyzed with the computer code SAMMY in the energy range 200 eV to 100 keV. The resonance parameters reported in this paper provide an accurate total cross section from 10{sup -5} eV to 100 keV and correctly reproduce the thermal capture cross section. Thermal cross-section values and related quantities are also reviewed here. (author).
Resonance structure in the fission of ( sup 235 U+n)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moore, M.S. (Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), NM (USA). Physics Div.); Leal, L.C.; De Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.; Larson, N.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
1989-10-09
A new multilevel reduced R-matrix analysis of the neutron-induced resonance cross sections of {sup 235}U has been carried out. We used as a constraint in the analysis the angular anisotropy measurements of Pattenden and Postma, obtaining a Bohr-channel (or J, K channel) representation of the resonances in a two-fission vector space for each spin state. Hambsch et al., have reported definitive measurements of the mass- and kinetic-energy distributions of fission fragments of ({sup 235}U+n) in the resonance region and analyzed their results according to the fission-channel representation of Brosa et al., extracting relative contributions of the two asymmetric and one symmetric Brosa fission channels. We have explored the connection between Bohr-channel and asymmetric Brosa-channel representations. The results suggest that a simple rotation of coordinates in channel space may be the only transformation required; the multilevel fit to the total and partial cross sections is invariant to such a transformation. (orig.).
Observation and quantification of the quantum dynamics of a strong-field excited multi-level system.
Liu, Zuoye; Wang, Quanjun; Ding, Jingjie; Cavaletto, Stefano M; Pfeifer, Thomas; Hu, Bitao
2017-01-04
The quantum dynamics of a V-type three-level system, whose two resonances are first excited by a weak probe pulse and subsequently modified by another strong one, is studied. The quantum dynamics of the multi-level system is closely related to the absorption spectrum of the transmitted probe pulse and its modification manifests itself as a modulation of the absorption line shape. Applying the dipole-control model, the modulation induced by the second strong pulse to the system's dynamics is quantified by eight intensity-dependent parameters, describing the self and inter-state contributions. The present study opens the route to control the quantum dynamics of multi-level systems and to quantify the quantum-control process.
Conceptualising Multilevel Regulation in the EU: A Legal Translation of Multilevel Governance?
Chowdhury, Nupur; Wessel, Ramses A.
2012-01-01
How should we conceive of regulation in the European context? This paper attempts to answer this by developing multilevel regulation as a theoretical concept. The basic aim of the paper is to explore the difference and convergence between regulation and governance and develop multilevel governance
Transport in a three-terminal graphene quantum dot in the multi-level regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobsen, Arnhild; Simonet, Pauline; Ensslin, Klaus; Ihn, Thomas
2012-01-01
We investigate transport in a three-terminal graphene quantum dot. All nine elements of the conductance matrix have been independently measured. In the Coulomb blockade regime, accurate measurements of individual conductance resonances reveal slightly different resonance energies depending on which pair of leads is used for probing. Rapid changes in the tunneling coupling between the leads and the dot due to localized states in the constrictions have been excluded by tuning the difference in resonance energies using in-plane gates which couple preferentially to individual constrictions. The interpretation of the different resonance energies is then based on the presence of a number of levels in the dot with an energy spacing of the order of the measurement temperature. In this multi-level transport regime, the three-terminal device offers the opportunity to sense if the individual levels couple with different strengths to the different leads. This in turn gives qualitative insight into the spatial profile of the corresponding quantum dot wave functions. (paper)
Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.
Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad
2016-12-01
The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Multilevel geometry optimization
Rodgers, Jocelyn M.; Fast, Patton L.; Truhlar, Donald G.
2000-02-01
Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol.
Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering
Hoel, Hakon
2016-06-14
This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.
Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering
Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul
2016-01-01
This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.
Multilevel Models: Conceptual Framework and Applicability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roxana-Otilia-Sonia Hrițcu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Individuals and the social or organizational groups they belong to can be viewed as a hierarchical system situated on different levels. Individuals are situated on the first level of the hierarchy and they are nested together on the higher levels. Individuals interact with the social groups they belong to and are influenced by these groups. Traditional methods that study the relationships between data, like simple regression, do not take into account the hierarchical structure of the data and the effects of a group membership and, hence, results may be invalidated. Unlike standard regression modelling, the multilevel approach takes into account the individuals as well as the groups to which they belong. To take advantage of the multilevel analysis it is important that we recognize the multilevel characteristics of the data. In this article we introduce the outlines of multilevel data and we describe the models that work with such data. We introduce the basic multilevel model, the two-level model: students can be nested into classes, individuals into countries and the general two-level model can be extended very easily to several levels. Multilevel analysis has begun to be extensively used in many research areas. We present the most frequent study areas where multilevel models are used, such as sociological studies, education, psychological research, health studies, demography, epidemiology, biology, environmental studies and entrepreneurship. We support the idea that since hierarchies exist everywhere, multilevel data should be recognized and analyzed properly by using multilevel modelling.
Application of Simplified Neutral Point Clamped Multilevel Converter in a Small Wind Turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mlodzikowski Pawel
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In low power distributed generation systems low cost together with the energy quality requirements are a key element. It is known that quality of voltage waveforms generated from multilevel converters is better in comparison with those from two-level. Due to advancements in power electronics and microcontrollers, multilevel converters are being built with the use of integrated power modules thus this type of converters are getting more compact in size. This paper investigates performance of a derivation from the most popular multilevel topology - a neutral point clamped converter (NPC. Applying the idea for simplifying the topology by reducing the number of switches (what came from drives this NPC converter is capable of bidirectional AC/DC/AC operation. For the AC/DC part two schemes are tested: Direct Torque Control Space Vector Modulated and Field Oriented Control but for the DC/AC part a control scheme utilizing the proportional-resonant controller was chosen. Laboratory setup was based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator with control and acquisition completed with the help of dSpace 1005 control box. Experimental verification shows that system operates properly.
Multilevel geometry optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodgers, Jocelyn M. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Fast, Patton L. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Truhlar, Donald G. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)
2000-02-15
Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Multilevel models applications using SAS
Wang, Jichuan; Fisher, James F
2011-01-01
This book covers a broad range of topics about multilevel modeling. The goal is to help readers to understand the basic concepts, theoretical frameworks, and application methods of multilevel modeling. It is at a level also accessible to non-mathematicians, focusing on the methods and applications of various multilevel models and using the widely used statistical software SAS®. Examples are drawn from analysis of real-world research data.
Multilevel models for longitudinal data
Fiona Steele
2008-01-01
Repeated measures and repeated events data have a hierarchical structure which can be analysed by using multilevel models. A growth curve model is an example of a multilevel random-coefficients model, whereas a discrete time event history model for recurrent events can be fitted as a multilevel logistic regression model. The paper describes extensions to the basic growth curve model to handle auto-correlated residuals, multiple-indicator latent variables and correlated growth processes, and e...
Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter
Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul
2016-01-01
This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.
Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter
Chernov, Alexey
2016-01-06
This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gressier, V
1999-10-01
For studies of future nuclear reactors dedicated to nuclear waste transmutation, an improvement of the accuracy of the neutron radiative capture cross section of {sup 237}Np appears necessary. In the framework of a collaboration between the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique (CEA) and Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM, Geel, Bergium), a new determination of the resonance parameters of {sup 237}Np has been performed. Two types of experiments are carried out at GELINA, the IRMM pulsed neutron source, using the time of flight method: a transmission experiment which is related to the neutron total cross section and a capture experiment which gives the neutron radiative capture cross section. The resonance parameters presented in this work are extracted from the transmission data between 0 and 500 eV with the least square code REFIT, using the Reich-Moore formalism. In parallel, the Doppler effect is investigated. The commonly used free gas model appears inadequate below 20 eV for neptunium dioxide at room temperature. By the use of the program DOPUSH, which calculates the Doppler broadening with a harmonic crystal model according to Lamb's theory, we are able to produce abetter fit of the experimental data for the resonances of {sup 237}Np in NpO{sub 2} at low energy or temperatures. In addition to the resonance parameters, a study of their mean value and distribution is included in this work. (authors)
Advancing multilevel thinking and methods in HRM research
Renkema, Maarten; Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana
2016-01-01
Purpose Despite the growing belief that multilevel research is necessary to advance HRM understanding, there remains a lack of multilevel thinking – the application of principles for multilevel theory building. The purpose of this paper is to propose a systematic approach for multilevel HRM
Multilevel marketing společnosti Amway
Drozdková, Markéta
2010-01-01
This thesis analyses effectiveness and principles of multilevel marketing as a possible way of selling products and services. Theoretical part describes basis of marketing and direct selling, which is the basis of multilevel marketing. The thesis also states illegal forms of selling that misuse the advantages of multilevel marketing. Pracical part applies gained knowledge on Amway corporation and it atteds to operation of the company, which is evaluated by SWOT analysis.
A Container-based Trusted Multi-level Security Mechanism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Xiao-Yong
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Multi-level security mechanism has been widely applied in the military, government, defense and other domains in which information is required to be divided by security-level. Through this type of security mechanism, users at different security levels are provided with information at corresponding security levels. Traditional multi-level security mechanism which depends on the safety of operating system finally proved to be not practical. We propose a container-based trusted multi-level security mechanism in this paper to improve the applicability of the multi-level mechanism. It guarantees multi-level security of the system through a set of multi-level security policy rules and trusted techniques. The technical feasibility and application scenarios are also discussed. The ease of realization, strong practical significance and low cost of our method will largely expand the application of multi-level security mechanism in real life.
Multi-Level Secure Local Area Network
Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.); Center for Information Systems Studies Security and Research (CISR)
2011-01-01
Multi-Level Secure Local Area Network is a cost effective, multi-level, easy to use office environment leveraging existing high assurance technology. The Department of Defense and U.S. Government have an identified need to securely share information classified at differing security levels. Because there exist no commercial solutions to this problem, NPS is developing a MLS LAN. The MLS LAN extends high assurance capabilities of an evaluated multi-level secure system to commercial personal com...
Liu, W. Y.; Xu, H. K.; Su, F. F.; Li, Z. Y.; Tian, Ye; Han, Siyuan; Zhao, S. P.
2018-03-01
Superconducting quantum multilevel systems coupled to resonators have recently been considered in some applications such as microwave lasing and high-fidelity quantum logical gates. In this work, using an rf-SQUID type phase qudit coupled to a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator, we study both theoretically and experimentally the energy spectrum of the system when the qudit level spacings are varied around the resonator frequency by changing the magnetic flux applied to the qudit loop. We show that the experimental result can be well described by a theoretical model that extends from the usual two-level Jaynes-Cummings system to the present four-level system. It is also shown that due to the small anharmonicity of the phase device a simplified model capturing the leading state interactions fits the experimental spectra very well. Furthermore we use the Lindblad master equation containing various relaxation and dephasing processes to calculate the level populations in the simpler qutrit-resonator system, which allows a clear understanding of the dynamics of the system under the microwave drive. Our results help to better understand and perform the experiments of coupled multilevel and resonator systems and can be applied in the case of transmon or Xmon qudits having similar anharmonicity to the present phase device.
Iordache, Octavian
2011-01-01
This book is devoted to modeling of multi-level complex systems, a challenging domain for engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs, confronted with the transition from learning and adaptability to evolvability and autonomy for technologies, devices and problem solving methods. Chapter 1 introduces the multi-scale and multi-level systems and highlights their presence in different domains of science and technology. Methodologies as, random systems, non-Archimedean analysis, category theory and specific techniques as model categorification and integrative closure, are presented in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 describe polystochastic models, PSM, and their developments. Categorical formulation of integrative closure offers the general PSM framework which serves as a flexible guideline for a large variety of multi-level modeling problems. Focusing on chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and environmental case studies, the chapters 5 to 8 analyze mixing, turbulent dispersion and entropy production for multi-scale sy...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froehner, F.H.
1977-11-01
A least-squares shape analysis program is described which is used at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center for the extraction of resonance parameters from high-resolution capture data. The FORTRAN program was written for light to medium-weight or near-magic target nuclei whose cross sections are characterized on one hand by broad s-wave levels with negligible Doppler broadening but pronounced multi-level interference, on the other hand by narrow p-, d- ... wave resonances with negligible multi-level interference but pronounced Doppler broadening. Accordingly the Reich-Moore multi-level formalism without Doppler broadening is used for s-wave levels, and a single-level description with Doppler braodening for p-, d- ... wave levels. Calculated capture yields are resolution broadened. Multiple-collision events are simulated by Monte Carlo techniques. Up to five different time-of-flight capture data sets can be fitted simultaneously for samples containing up to ten isotopes. Input and output examples are given and a FORTRAN list is appended. (orig.)
Fundamentals and approximations of multilevel resonance theory for reactor physics applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, M.S.
1980-01-01
The formal theory of nuclear reactions leads to any of a number of alternative representations for describing resonance behavior. None of these is satisfactory for applications, and, depending on the problem to be addressed, approximate expressions are used. The specializations and approximations found to be most useful by evaluators are derived from R-matrix theory and are discussed from the viewpoint of convenience in numerical calculations. Finally, we illustrate the application of the theory by reviewing a particular example: the spin-separated neutron-induced cross sections of 235 U in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions and the use of these results in the U.S. evaluated nuclear data file ENDF/B. (author)
Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Bevensee
2008-01-01
This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation...... or a combination of the two have been studied. The use of polarization multiplexing (PolMux) to double the bit rate has also been investigated. The impact of transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion, self phase modulation and cross phase modulation has been investigated. The feasibility of multilevel...... modulation for network oriented scenarios has been demonstrated....
Li, Tiefeng; Shi, Lei; Luo, Yibin; Chen, Deyu; Chen, Yu
2018-02-01
The treatment of multilevel lumbar degenerative disease (LDD) is complicated and challenging, and the optimal surgical strategy remains controversial. To compare the differences in clinical and radiologic outcomes and in complications after 1-level interbody fusion versus multilevel interbody fusion for the treatment of multilevel LDD. A total of 100 patients with multilevel LDD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio into the 1-level interbody fusion group or the multilevel interbody fusion group. Clinical and radiologic results and major complications in the 2 groups were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale for radicular and back pain, the Oswestry Disability Index, and the short-form 36 physical score. Clinical status was assessed by the Whitecloud classification. Radiologic evaluation included assessment of lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, and sacral slope. There were no significant differences in clinical and radiologic results between the 2 groups. Procedure duration and intraoperative blood loss were significantly greater in the multilevel interbody fusion group than in the 1-level interbody fusion group; the multilevel interbody fusion group also had greater incidences of temporary nerve root palsy, wound infection, and adjacent segment disease. A hybrid technique including 1-level interbody fusion and multilevel posterolateral fusion is recommended for patients with multilevel LDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Multilevel index decomposition analysis: Approaches and application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Y.; Ang, B.W.
2014-01-01
With the growing interest in using the technique of index decomposition analysis (IDA) in energy and energy-related emission studies, such as to analyze the impacts of activity structure change or to track economy-wide energy efficiency trends, the conventional single-level IDA may not be able to meet certain needs in policy analysis. In this paper, some limitations of single-level IDA studies which can be addressed through applying multilevel decomposition analysis are discussed. We then introduce and compare two multilevel decomposition procedures, which are referred to as the multilevel-parallel (M-P) model and the multilevel-hierarchical (M-H) model. The former uses a similar decomposition procedure as in the single-level IDA, while the latter uses a stepwise decomposition procedure. Since the stepwise decomposition procedure is new in the IDA literature, the applicability of the popular IDA methods in the M-H model is discussed and cases where modifications are needed are explained. Numerical examples and application studies using the energy consumption data of the US and China are presented. - Highlights: • We discuss the limitations of single-level decomposition in IDA applied to energy study. • We introduce two multilevel decomposition models, study their features and discuss how they can address the limitations. • To extend from single-level to multilevel analysis, necessary modifications to some popular IDA methods are discussed. • We further discuss the practical significance of the multilevel models and present examples and cases to illustrate
Multilevel electrochemical signal detections of metalloprotein heterolayers for bioelectronic device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Yong-Ho; Yoo, Si-Youl; Lee, Taek [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro(Sinsu-dong), Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hun Joo [Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeomro(Sinsu-dong), Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Junhong [School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Woo, E-mail: jwchoi@sogang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro(Sinsu-dong), Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeomro(Sinsu-dong), Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-01-31
In the present study, we investigated the simultaneous detection of multilevel electrochemical signals from various metalloprotein heterolayers for the bioelectronic devices. A layer-by-layer assembly method based on simple electrostatic interaction was introduced to form protein bilayers. The gold substrate was modified with poly (ethylene glycol) thiol acid as the precursor, which introduced negative charges to the surface. Based on the isoelectric point, net-charge controlled metalloproteins by pH adjustment were sequentially immobilized on this negatively charged substrate. The degree of protein immobilization on the gold substrate was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, and the surface topology changes due to the protein immobilization were confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Redox signals in the protein layers were measured by cyclic voltammetry. As a result, various redox signals generated from different metalloproteins on a single electrode were monitored. This proposed method for the detection of multi-level electrochemical signals can be directly applied to bioelectronic devices that store multi-information in a single electrode. - Highlights: • We fabricated heterolayers composed of various metalloproteins. • Metalloproteins were immobilized by layer-by-layer assembly. • The degree of immobilization was controlled by the net charge of metalloproteins. • Various redox signals generated from heterolayers were well monitored.
Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers
Jasra, Ajay
2016-01-01
Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.
Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers
Jasra, Ajay
2016-01-05
Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.
Multilevel modelling: Beyond the basic applications.
Wright, Daniel B; London, Kamala
2009-05-01
Over the last 30 years statistical algorithms have been developed to analyse datasets that have a hierarchical/multilevel structure. Particularly within developmental and educational psychology these techniques have become common where the sample has an obvious hierarchical structure, like pupils nested within a classroom. We describe two areas beyond the basic applications of multilevel modelling that are important to psychology: modelling the covariance structure in longitudinal designs and using generalized linear multilevel modelling as an alternative to methods from signal detection theory (SDT). Detailed code for all analyses is described using packages for the freeware R.
Radtke, Jan Philipp; Wiesenfarth, Manuel; Kesch, Claudia; Freitag, Martin T; Alt, Celine D; Celik, Kamil; Distler, Florian; Roth, Wilfried; Wieczorek, Kathrin; Stock, Christian; Duensing, Stefan; Roethke, Matthias C; Teber, Dogu; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Hohenfellner, Markus; Bonekamp, David; Hadaschik, Boris A
2017-12-01
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is gaining widespread acceptance in prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis and improves significant PC (sPC; Gleason score≥3+4) detection. Decision making based on European Randomised Study of Screening for PC (ERSPC) risk-calculator (RC) parameters may overcome prostate-specific antigen (PSA) limitations. We added pre-biopsy mpMRI to ERSPC-RC parameters and developed risk models (RMs) to predict individual sPC risk for biopsy-naïve men and men after previous biopsy. We retrospectively analyzed clinical parameters of 1159 men who underwent mpMRI prior to MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy between 2012 and 2015. Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine significant sPC predictors for RM development. The prediction performance was compared with ERSPC-RCs, RCs refitted on our cohort, Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) v1.0, and ERSPC-RC plus PI-RADSv1.0 using receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs). Discrimination and calibration of the RM, as well as net decision and reduction curve analyses were evaluated based on resampling methods. PSA, prostate volume, digital-rectal examination, and PI-RADS were significant sPC predictors and included in the RMs together with age. The ROC area under the curve of the RM for biopsy-naïve men was comparable with ERSPC-RC3 plus PI-RADSv1.0 (0.83 vs 0.84) but larger compared with ERSPC-RC3 (0.81), refitted RC3 (0.80), and PI-RADS (0.76). For postbiopsy men, the novel RM's discrimination (0.81) was higher, compared with PI-RADS (0.78), ERSPC-RC4 (0.66), refitted RC4 (0.76), and ERSPC-RC4 plus PI-RADSv1.0 (0.78). Both RM benefits exceeded those of ERSPC-RCs and PI-RADS in the decision regarding which patient to receive biopsy and enabled the highest reduction rate of unnecessary biopsies. Limitations include a monocentric design and a lack of PI-RADSv2.0. The novel RMs, incorporating clinical parameters and PI-RADS, performed significantly better
Analysis of the 235U neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leal, L.C.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.
1989-01-01
Using recent high-resolution measurements of the neutron transmission of 235 U and the spin-separated fission cross-section data of Moore et al., a multilevel analysis of the 235 U neutron cross sections was performed up to 300 eV. The Dyson Metha Δ 3 statistics were used to help locate small levels above 100 eV where resonances are not clearly resolved even in the best resolution measurements available. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are discussed
Law, Kody
2016-01-06
This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.
Analysis of the 235U neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leal, L.C.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.
1989-01-01
Using recent high-resolution measurements of the neutron transmission of 235 U and the spin-separated fission cross-section data of Moore et al., a multilevel analysis of the 235 U neutron cross sections was performed up to 300 eV. The Dyson Metha Δ 3 statistics were used to help locate small levels above 100 eV where resonances are not clearly resolved even in the best resolution measurements available. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are discussed. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
The multilevel governance of migration and integration
Scholten, P.; Penninx, R.; Garcés–Mascareñas, B.; Penninx, R.
2016-01-01
This chapter focuses on migration and integration as multilevel policy issues and explores the consequences in terms of multilevel governance. Immigration policymaking has been characterized by continued struggle between national governments and the EU about the amount of discretion states have in
Multilevel security for relational databases
Faragallah, Osama S; El-Samie, Fathi E Abd
2014-01-01
Concepts of Database Security Database Concepts Relational Database Security Concepts Access Control in Relational Databases Discretionary Access Control Mandatory Access Control Role-Based Access Control Work Objectives Book Organization Basic Concept of Multilevel Database Security IntroductionMultilevel Database Relations Polyinstantiation Invisible Polyinstantiation Visible Polyinstantiation Types of Polyinstantiation Architectural Consideration
Multilevel optimization algorithms and applications
Pardalos, Panos; Värbrand, Peter
1998-01-01
Researchers working with nonlinear programming often claim "the word is non linear" indicating that real applications require nonlinear modeling. The same is true for other areas such as multi-objective programming (there are always several goals in a real application), stochastic programming (all data is uncer tain and therefore stochastic models should be used), and so forth. In this spirit we claim: The word is multilevel. In many decision processes there is a hierarchy of decision makers, and decisions are made at different levels in this hierarchy. One way to handle such hierar chies is to focus on one level and include other levels' behaviors as assumptions. Multilevel programming is the research area that focuses on the whole hierar chy structure. In terms of modeling, the constraint domain associated with a multilevel programming problem is implicitly determined by a series of opti mization problems which must be solved in a predetermined sequence. If only two levels are considered, we have ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakagawa, Tsuneo
1984-10-01
RESENDD is a computer program to calculate resonance cross sections from evaluated resonance parameters in the ENDF/B format. This program was improved from RESEND by modifying the multi-level Breit-Wigner formula, adding a function of Doppler broadening, and so on. This report explains functions of RESENDD and describes input data. Some examples are also given. (author)
A rigorous pole representation of multilevel cross sections and its practical applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, R.N.
1987-01-01
In this article a rigorous method for representing the multilevel cross sections and its practical applications are described. It is a generalization of the rationale suggested by de Saussure and Perez for the s-wave resonances. A computer code WHOPPER has been developed to convert the Reich-Moore parameters into the pole and residue parameters in momentum space. Sample calculations have been carried out to illustrate that the proposed method preserves the rigor of the Reich-Moore cross sections exactly. An analytical method has been developed to evaluate the pertinent Doppler-broadened line shape functions. A discussion is presented on how to minimize the number of pole parameters so that the existing reactor codes can be best utilized
Scalable Adaptive Multilevel Solvers for Multiphysics Problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Jinchao [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics
2014-11-26
In this project, we carried out many studies on adaptive and parallel multilevel methods for numerical modeling for various applications, including Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and complex fluids. We have made significant efforts and advances in adaptive multilevel methods of the multiphysics problems: multigrid methods, adaptive finite element methods, and applications.
Average values of 235U resonance parameters up to 500 eV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leal, L.C.
1991-01-01
An R-matrix analysis of 235 U neutron cross sections was recently completed. The analysis was performed with the multilevel-multichannel Reich-Moore computer code SAMMY and extended the resolved resonance region up to 500 eV. Several high resolution measurements namely, transmission, fission and capture data as well as spin separated fission data were analyzed in a consistent manner and a very accurate parametrization up to 500 eV of these data were obtained. The aim of this paper is to present the results of average values of the resonance parameters. 9 refs., 1 tab
Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering
Hoel, Haakon
2016-01-08
The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.
Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering
Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul
2016-01-01
The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.
Teaching Multilevel Adult ESL Classes. ERIC Digest.
Shank, Cathy C.; Terrill, Lynda R.
Teachers in multilevel adult English-as-a-Second-Language classes are challenged to use a variety of materials, activities, and techniques to engage the interest of the learners and assist them in their educational goals. This digest recommends ways to choose and organize content for multilevel classes, explains grouping strategies, discusses a…
Multilevel Higher-Order Item Response Theory Models
Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung
2014-01-01
In the social sciences, latent traits often have a hierarchical structure, and data can be sampled from multiple levels. Both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data can occur simultaneously. In this study, we developed a general class of item response theory models to accommodate both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data. The…
Neutron Capture and Transmission Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Niobium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
NJ Drindak; JA Burke; G Leinweber; JA Helm; JG Hoole; RC Block; Y Danon; RE Slovacek; BE Moretti; CJ Werner; ME Overberg; SA Kolda; MJ Trbovich; DP Barry
2005-01-01
Epithermal neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed using the time-of-flight method at the RPI linac using metallic Nb samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25-meter flight station with a 16-section sodium iodide multiplicity detector and the transmission measurements at the 25-meter flight station with a Li-6 glass scintillation detector. Resonance parameters were determined for all resonances up to 500eV with a combined analysis of capture and transmission data using the multi-level R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY. The present results are compared to those presented in ENDF/B-VI, updated through Release 3
van Herk, H.; Fischer, Ronald; van Herk, Hester; Torelli, Carlos J.
2017-01-01
Multi-level structures are omnipresent. Consumers live in geographical locations, shop in specific stores, or are members of clubs. Consumers who belong to the same group share characteristics and are expected to be more similar than consumers belonging to another group. In data analysis this
Peng, Bo; Wang, Suhong; Zhou, Zhiyong; Liu, Yan; Tong, Baotong; Zhang, Tao; Dai, Yakang
2017-06-09
Machine learning methods have been widely used in recent years for detection of neuroimaging biomarkers in regions of interest (ROIs) and assisting diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. The innovation of this study is to use multilevel-ROI-features-based machine learning method to detect sensitive morphometric biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (PD). Specifically, the low-level ROI features (gray matter volume, cortical thickness, etc.) and high-level correlative features (connectivity between ROIs) are integrated to construct the multilevel ROI features. Filter- and wrapper- based feature selection method and multi-kernel support vector machine (SVM) are used in the classification algorithm. T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance (MR) images of 69 PD patients and 103 normal controls from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) dataset are included in the study. The machine learning method performs well in classification between PD patients and normal controls with an accuracy of 85.78%, a specificity of 87.79%, and a sensitivity of 87.64%. The most sensitive biomarkers between PD patients and normal controls are mainly distributed in frontal lobe, parental lobe, limbic lobe, temporal lobe, and central region. The classification performance of our method with multilevel ROI features is significantly improved comparing with other classification methods using single-level features. The proposed method shows promising identification ability for detecting morphometric biomarkers in PD, thus confirming the potentiality of our method in assisting diagnosis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neutron capture measurements and resonance parameters of dysprosium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shin, S.G.; Kye, Y.U.; Namkung, W.; Cho, M.H. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Y.R.; Lee, M.W. [Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Research Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G.N. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ro, T.I. [Dong-A University, Department of Physics, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Danon, Y.; Williams, D. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Troy, NY (United States); Leinweber, G.; Block, R.C.; Barry, D.P.; Rapp, M.J. [Naval Nuclear Laboratory, Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Schenectady, NY (United States)
2017-10-15
Neutron capture yields of dysprosium isotopes ({sup 161}Dy, {sup 162}Dy, {sup 163}Dy, and {sup 164}Dy) were measured using the time-of-flight method with a 16 segment sodium iodide multiplicity detector. The measurements were made at the 25m flight station at the Gaerttner LINAC Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Resonance parameters were obtained using the multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY. The neutron capture data for four enriched dysprosium isotopes and one natural dysprosium sample were sequentially fitted. New resonances not listed in ENDF/B-VII.1 were observed. There were 29 and 17 new resonances from {sup 161}Dy and {sup 163}Dy isotopes, respectively. Six resonances from {sup 161}Dy isotope, two resonances from {sup 163}Dy, and four resonances from {sup 164}Dy were not observed. The capture resonance integrals of each isotope were calculated with the resulting resonance parameters and those of ENDF/B-VII.1 in the energy region from 0.5 eV to 20 MeV and were compared to the capture resonance integrals with the resonance parameters from ENDF/B-VII.1. A resonance integral value of the natural dysprosium calculated with present resonance parameters was 1405 ± 3.5 barn. The value is ∝ 0.3% higher than that obtained with the ENDF/B-VII.1 parameters. The distributions of the present and ENDF/B-VII.1 neutron widths were compared to a Porter-Thomas distribution. Neutron strength functions for {sup 161}Dy and {sup 163}Dy were calculated with the present resonance parameters and both values were in between the values of ''Atlas of Neutron Resonances'' and ENDF/B-VII.1. The present radiation width distributions of {sup 161}Dy and {sup 163}Dy were fitted with the χ{sup 2} distribution by varying the degrees of freedom. (orig.)
A multilevel evolutionary framework for sustainability analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy M. Waring
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Sustainability theory can help achieve desirable social-ecological states by generalizing lessons across contexts and improving the design of sustainability interventions. To accomplish these goals, we argue that theory in sustainability science must (1 explain the emergence and persistence of social-ecological states, (2 account for endogenous cultural change, (3 incorporate cooperation dynamics, and (4 address the complexities of multilevel social-ecological interactions. We suggest that cultural evolutionary theory broadly, and cultural multilevel selection in particular, can improve on these fronts. We outline a multilevel evolutionary framework for describing social-ecological change and detail how multilevel cooperative dynamics can determine outcomes in environmental dilemmas. We show how this framework complements existing sustainability frameworks with a description of the emergence and persistence of sustainable institutions and behavior, a means to generalize causal patterns across social-ecological contexts, and a heuristic for designing and evaluating effective sustainability interventions. We support these assertions with case examples from developed and developing countries in which we track cooperative change at multiple levels of social organization as they impact social-ecological outcomes. Finally, we make suggestions for further theoretical development, empirical testing, and application.
Multilevel sparse functional principal component analysis.
Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Jank, Wolfgang S
2014-01-29
We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions.
Multi-level trellis coded modulation and multi-stage decoding
Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Wu, Jiantian; Lin, Shu
1990-01-01
Several constructions for multi-level trellis codes are presented and many codes with better performance than previously known codes are found. These codes provide a flexible trade-off between coding gain, decoding complexity, and decoding delay. New multi-level trellis coded modulation schemes using generalized set partitioning methods are developed for Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) signal sets. New rotationally invariant multi-level trellis codes which can be combined with differential encoding to resolve phase ambiguity are presented.
Proposed Novel Multiphase-Multilevel Inverter Configuration for Open-End Winding Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Padamanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Wheeler, Patrick; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
This paper presents a new multiphase-multilevel inverter configuration for open-winding loads and suitable for medium power (low-voltage/high-current) applications such as `More Electric Aircraft'. Modular structure comprised of standard dual three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) along with one...... is developed in this work and overcomes the complexity of standard space vector modulations, easy for real implementation purposes in digital processors. Proposed six-phase multilevel inverter configuration generates multilevel outputs with benefit in comprises with standard multilevel inverter topologies...
Long bone reconstruction using multilevel lengthening of bone defect fragments.
Borzunov, Dmitry Y
2012-08-01
This paper presents experimental findings to substantiate the use of multilevel bone fragment lengthening for managing extensive long bone defects caused by diverse aetiologies and shows its clinical introduction which could provide a solution for the problem of reducing the total treatment time. Both experimental and clinical multilevel lengthening to bridge bone defect gaps was performed with the use of the Ilizarov method only. The experimental findings and clinical outcomes showed that multilevel defect fragment lengthening could provide sufficient bone formation and reduction of the total osteosynthesis time in one stage as compared to traditional Ilizarov bone transport. The method of multilevel regeneration enabled management of critical-size defects that measured on average 13.5 ± 0.7 cm in 78 patients. The experimental and clinical results proved the efficiency of the Ilizarov non-free multilevel bone plasty that can be recommended for practical use.
Synchronous Control of Modular Multilevel Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bose, Bimal K.
2002-01-01
A novel method of direct synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is applied for control of modular multilevel converters consisting from three standard triphase inverter modules along with an 0.33 p.u. output transformer. The proposed method provides synchronisation of the voltage waveforms...... for each module and the composed voltage at the output of the converter. Multilevel output voltage of the converter has quarter-wave symmetry during the whole range including the zone of overmodulation. Both continuous and discontinuous versions of synchronous PWM, based on vector approach...
Towards the development of multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.
1991-10-01
Presented here is our methodology for developing automated aids for diagnosing faults in complex systems. We have designed these aids as multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids based on principles that should be generally applicable to any complex system. In this methodology, ''multilevel'' refers to information models described at successful levels of abstraction that are tied together in such a way that reasoning is directed to the appropriate level as determined by the problem solving requirements. The concept of ''multiagent'' refers to the method of information processing within the multilevel model network; each model in the network is an independent information processor, i.e., an intelligent agent. 19 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs
Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo
Ben Issaid, Chaouki; Long, Quan; Scavino, Marco; Tempone, Raul
2015-01-01
Experimental design is very important since experiments are often resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. We carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information, which can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data for our purpose. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that the integral is nested and can be high dimensional. We propose using Multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, the Multilevel Monte Carlo can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the Multilevel Monte Carlo method imposes less assumptions, such as the concentration of measures, required by Laplace method. We test our Multilevel Monte Carlo technique using a numerical example on the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by one dimensional Laplace equation. We also compare the performance of the Multilevel Monte Carlo, Laplace approximation and direct double loop Monte Carlo.
Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo
Ben Issaid, Chaouki
2015-01-07
Experimental design is very important since experiments are often resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. We carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information, which can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data for our purpose. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that the integral is nested and can be high dimensional. We propose using Multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, the Multilevel Monte Carlo can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the Multilevel Monte Carlo method imposes less assumptions, such as the concentration of measures, required by Laplace method. We test our Multilevel Monte Carlo technique using a numerical example on the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by one dimensional Laplace equation. We also compare the performance of the Multilevel Monte Carlo, Laplace approximation and direct double loop Monte Carlo.
Intermediate and advanced topics in multilevel logistic regression analysis.
Austin, Peter C; Merlo, Juan
2017-09-10
Multilevel data occur frequently in health services, population and public health, and epidemiologic research. In such research, binary outcomes are common. Multilevel logistic regression models allow one to account for the clustering of subjects within clusters of higher-level units when estimating the effect of subject and cluster characteristics on subject outcomes. A search of the PubMed database demonstrated that the use of multilevel or hierarchical regression models is increasing rapidly. However, our impression is that many analysts simply use multilevel regression models to account for the nuisance of within-cluster homogeneity that is induced by clustering. In this article, we describe a suite of analyses that can complement the fitting of multilevel logistic regression models. These ancillary analyses permit analysts to estimate the marginal or population-average effect of covariates measured at the subject and cluster level, in contrast to the within-cluster or cluster-specific effects arising from the original multilevel logistic regression model. We describe the interval odds ratio and the proportion of opposed odds ratios, which are summary measures of effect for cluster-level covariates. We describe the variance partition coefficient and the median odds ratio which are measures of components of variance and heterogeneity in outcomes. These measures allow one to quantify the magnitude of the general contextual effect. We describe an R 2 measure that allows analysts to quantify the proportion of variation explained by different multilevel logistic regression models. We illustrate the application and interpretation of these measures by analyzing mortality in patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Federalism and multilevel governance
van der Wusten, H.; Agnew, J.; Mamadouh, V.; Secor, A.J.; Sharp, J.
2015-01-01
Federalism and multilevel governance both emphasize polycentricity in governing arrangements. With their different intellectual pedigrees, these concepts are discussed in two separate sections. Fragments are now increasingly mixed up in hybrid forms of governance that also encompass originally
POLIDENT: A Module for Generating Continuous-Energy Cross Sections from ENDF Resonance Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunn, M.E.; Greene, N.M.
2000-12-01
POLIDENT (Point Libraries of Data from ENDF/B Tapes) is an AMPX module that accesses the resonance parameters from File 2 of an ENDF/B library and constructs the continuous-energy cross sections in the resonance energy region. The cross sections in the resonance range are subsequently combined with the File 3 background data to construct the cross-section representation over the complete energy range. POLIDENT has the capability to process all resonance reactions that are identified in File 2 of the ENDF/B library. In addition, the code has the capability to process the single- and multi-level Breit-Wigner, Reich-Moore and Adler-Adler resonance formalisms that are identified in File 2. POLIDENT uses a robust energy-mesh-generation scheme that determines the minimum, maximum and points of inflection in the cross-section function in the resolved-resonance region. Furthermore, POLIDENT processes all continuous-energy cross-section reactions that are identified in File 3 of the ENDF/B library and outputs all reactions in an ENDF/B TAB1 format that can be accessed by other AMPX modules.
Multilevel Image Segmentation Based on an Improved Firefly Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Multilevel image segmentation is time-consuming and involves large computation. The firefly algorithm has been applied to enhancing the efficiency of multilevel image segmentation. However, in some cases, firefly algorithm is easily trapped into local optima. In this paper, an improved firefly algorithm (IFA is proposed to search multilevel thresholds. In IFA, in order to help fireflies escape from local optima and accelerate the convergence, two strategies (i.e., diversity enhancing strategy with Cauchy mutation and neighborhood strategy are proposed and adaptively chosen according to different stagnation stations. The proposed IFA is compared with three benchmark optimal algorithms, that is, Darwinian particle swarm optimization, hybrid differential evolution optimization, and firefly algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently segment multilevel images and obtain better performance than the other three methods.
Integrity Based Access Control Model for Multilevel XML Document
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HONG Fan; FENG Xue-bin; HUANO Zhi; ZHENG Ming-hui
2008-01-01
XML's increasing popularity highlights the security demand for XML documents. A mandatory access control model for XML document is presented on the basis of investigation of the function dependency of XML documents and discussion of the integrity properties of multilevel XML document. Then, the algorithms for decomposition/recovery multilevel XML document into/from single level document are given, and the manipulation rules for typical operations of XQuery and XUpdate: QUERY, INSERT,UPDATE, and REMOVE, are elaborated. The multilevel XML document access model can meet the requirement of sensitive information processing application.
Multilevel- marketing v České republice
Prudičová, Petra
2009-01-01
Graduation Theses concerns an analysis and evaluation, of how a multi-level marketing, functions in the Czech Republic. Explaining its ideals and principals, while it theoretically applies on a specific company, which is involved with multi-level marketing. The target is to introduce such system in an objective way and evaluate it in practice.
cudaBayesreg: Parallel Implementation of a Bayesian Multilevel Model for fMRI Data Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adelino R. Ferreira da Silva
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Graphic processing units (GPUs are rapidly gaining maturity as powerful general parallel computing devices. A key feature in the development of modern GPUs has been the advancement of the programming model and programming tools. Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA is a software platform for massively parallel high-performance computing on Nvidia many-core GPUs. In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, the volume of the data to be processed, and the type of statistical analysis to perform call for high-performance computing strategies. In this work, we present the main features of the R-CUDA package cudaBayesreg which implements in CUDA the core of a Bayesian multilevel model for the analysis of brain fMRI data. The statistical model implements a Gibbs sampler for multilevel/hierarchical linear models with a normal prior. The main contribution for the increased performance comes from the use of separate threads for fitting the linear regression model at each voxel in parallel. The R-CUDA implementation of the Bayesian model proposed here has been able to reduce significantly the run-time processing of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulations used in Bayesian fMRI data analyses. Presently, cudaBayesreg is only configured for Linux systems with Nvidia CUDA support.
An attempt to explain the uranium 238 resonance integral discrepancy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tellier, H.; Grandotto, M.
1978-01-01
Studies on uranium 238 resonance integral discrepancy were carried out for light water reactor physics. It was shown that using recently published resonance parameters and substituting a multilevel formalism to the usual Breit and Wigner formula reduced the well known discrepancy between two values of the uranium 238 effective resonance integral: the value calculated with the nuclear data and the one deduced from critical experiments. Since the cross section computed with these assumptions agrees quite well with the Oak-Ridge transmission data, it was used to obtain the self-shielding effect and the capture rate in light water lattices. The multiplication factor calculated with this method is found very close to the experimental value. Preliminary results for a set of benchmarks relative to several types of thermal neutron reactors lead to very low discrepancies. The reactivity loss is only 130 x 10 -5 instead of 650 x 10 -5 in the case of the usual libraries and the single level formula
Self-balanced modulation and magnetic rebalancing method for parallel multilevel inverters
Li, Hui; Shi, Yanjun
2017-11-28
A self-balanced modulation method and a closed-loop magnetic flux rebalancing control method for parallel multilevel inverters. The combination of the two methods provides for balancing of the magnetic flux of the inter-cell transformers (ICTs) of the parallel multilevel inverters without deteriorating the quality of the output voltage. In various embodiments a parallel multi-level inverter modulator is provide including a multi-channel comparator to generate a multiplexed digitized ideal waveform for a parallel multi-level inverter and a finite state machine (FSM) module coupled to the parallel multi-channel comparator, the FSM module to receive the multiplexed digitized ideal waveform and to generate a pulse width modulated gate-drive signal for each switching device of the parallel multi-level inverter. The system and method provides for optimization of the output voltage spectrum without influence the magnetic balancing.
Resonance parameters of the 6.67-, 20.9-, and 36.8-eV levels in 238U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, D.K.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.; Difilippo, F.C.
1976-01-01
The ENDF/B-IV 238 U cross sections (MAT-1262) yield an effective capture resonance integral in strongly self-shielded situations which is too high. This situation suggests that the ENDF/B capture widths for the first few s-wave levels may be too large. Recent ORELA measurements of transmission through 238 U have been analyzed with a multilevel formula to determine the parameters of the 6.67-, 20.9-, and 36.6-eV levels. These three levels provide 86 percent of the infinitely dilute capture resonance integral
Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; White, Ian R
2018-06-01
In multilevel settings such as individual participant data meta-analysis, a variable is 'systematically missing' if it is wholly missing in some clusters and 'sporadically missing' if it is partly missing in some clusters. Previously proposed methods to impute incomplete multilevel data handle either systematically or sporadically missing data, but frequently both patterns are observed. We describe a new multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE) algorithm for multilevel data with arbitrary patterns of systematically and sporadically missing variables. The algorithm is described for multilevel normal data but can easily be extended for other variable types. We first propose two methods for imputing a single incomplete variable: an extension of an existing method and a new two-stage method which conveniently allows for heteroscedastic data. We then discuss the difficulties of imputing missing values in several variables in multilevel data using MICE, and show that even the simplest joint multilevel model implies conditional models which involve cluster means and heteroscedasticity. However, a simulation study finds that the proposed methods can be successfully combined in a multilevel MICE procedure, even when cluster means are not included in the imputation models.
Multilevel structural equation models for assessing moderation within and across levels of analysis.
Preacher, Kristopher J; Zhang, Zhen; Zyphur, Michael J
2016-06-01
Social scientists are increasingly interested in multilevel hypotheses, data, and statistical models as well as moderation or interactions among predictors. The result is a focus on hypotheses and tests of multilevel moderation within and across levels of analysis. Unfortunately, existing approaches to multilevel moderation have a variety of shortcomings, including conflated effects across levels of analysis and bias due to using observed cluster averages instead of latent variables (i.e., "random intercepts") to represent higher-level constructs. To overcome these problems and elucidate the nature of multilevel moderation effects, we introduce a multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) logic that clarifies the nature of the problems with existing practices and remedies them with latent variable interactions. This remedy uses random coefficients and/or latent moderated structural equations (LMS) for unbiased tests of multilevel moderation. We describe our approach and provide an example using the publicly available High School and Beyond data with Mplus syntax in Appendix. Our MSEM method eliminates problems of conflated multilevel effects and reduces bias in parameter estimates while offering a coherent framework for conceptualizing and testing multilevel moderation effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
TIMS-1, Multigroup Cross-Sections of Heavy Isotope Mixture with Resonance from ENDF/B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takano, Hideki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Matsui, Yasushi
1984-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: TIMS-1 is a code for calculating the group constants of heavy resonant nuclei by using ENDF/ B-4 format data. This code calculates infinitely dilute cross sections and self-shielding factors as a function of composition sigma-0 temperature T and R-parameter, where R is the ratio of ato- mic number density of two different resonant nuclei. 2 - Method of solution: In the unresolved resonance region, a ladder of resonance parameters and levels is generated with Monte Carlo method. The temperature dependent cross sections are calculated with the Breit-Wigner single-level and multi-level formula. The neutron spectrum is accurately calculated by solving numerically the neutron slowing down equation using a recurrence formula for neutron slowing down source. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum numbers of energy groups, temperatures and compositions are 60, 4 and 10 respectively
On multi-level thinking and scientific understanding
McIntyre, Michael Edgeworth
2017-10-01
Professor Duzheng YE's name has been familiar to me ever since my postdoctoral years at MIT with Professors Jule CHARNEY and Norman PHILLIPS, back in the late 1960s. I had the enormous pleasure of meeting Professor YE personally in 1992 in Beijing. His concern to promote the very best science and to use it well, and his thinking on multi-level orderly human activities, reminds me not only of the communication skills we need as scientists but also of the multi-level nature of science itself. Here I want to say something (a) about what science is; (b) about why multi-level thinking—and taking more than one viewpoint—is so important for scientific as well as for other forms of understanding; and (c) about what is meant, at a deep level, by "scientific understanding" and trying to communicate it, not only with lay persons but also across professional disciplines. I hope that Professor YE would approve.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ciobotaru, Mihai; Iov, Florin; Zanchetta, P.
2008-01-01
will be needed in order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid with an increased level of renewable power. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper presents an analysis of the natural...... reference frame controller, based on proportional-resonant (PR) technique, for a multi-level H-bridge power converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electricity Network. The proposed method is tested in terms of harmonic content in the Point of Common Coupling (PCC), voltage...
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation of a Multi-Level Diode ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation of a Multi-Level Diode Clamped ... of MATLAB /SIMULINK modeling of the space vector pulse-width modulation and the ... two adjacent active vectors in determining the switching process of the multilevel ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Peng
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This study is to exam self-esteem related brain morphometry on brain magnetic resonance (MR images using multilevel-features-based classification method.Method: The multilevel region of interest (ROI features consist of two types of features: (i ROI features, which include gray matter volume, white matter volume, cerebrospinal fluid volume, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area, and (ii similarity features, which are based on similarity calculation of cortical thickness between ROIs. For each feature type, a hybrid feature selection method, comprising of filter-based and wrapper-based algorithms, is used to select the most discriminating features. ROI features and similarity features are integrated by using multi-kernel support vector machines (SVMs with appropriate weighting factor.Results: The classification performance is improved by using multilevel ROI features with an accuracy of 96.66%, a specificity of 96.62%, and a sensitivity of 95.67%. The most discriminating ROI features that are related to self-esteem spread over occipital lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, temporal lobe, and central region, mainly involving white matter and cortical thickness. The most discriminating similarity features are distributed in both the right and left hemisphere, including frontal lobe, occipital lobe, limbic lobe, parietal lobe, and central region, which conveys information of structural connections between different brain regions.Conclusion: By using ROI features and similarity features to exam self-esteem related brain morphometry, this paper provides a pilot evidence that self-esteem is linked to specific ROIs and structural connections between different brain regions.
Multilevel techniques for Reservoir Simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Max la Cour
The subject of this thesis is the development, application and study of novel multilevel methods for the acceleration and improvement of reservoir simulation techniques. The motivation for addressing this topic is a need for more accurate predictions of porous media flow and the ability to carry...... Full Approximation Scheme) • Variational (Galerkin) upscaling • Linear solvers and preconditioners First, a nonlinear multigrid scheme in the form of the Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) is implemented and studied for a 3D three-phase compressible rock/fluids immiscible reservoir simulator...... is extended to include a hybrid strategy, where FAS is combined with Newton’s method to construct a multilevel nonlinear preconditioner. This method demonstrates high efficiency and robustness. Second, an improved IMPES formulated reservoir simulator is implemented using a novel variational upscaling approach...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anaf, J.; Chalhoub, E.S.
1989-01-01
A program (RESQ) based on quadratures that evaluates, from ENDF/B data, the resolved resonance contribution in group-averaged cross sections (capture, fission and scattering) was developed. Single and Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters are accepted. Constant weighting function and zero Kelvin were considered. To assure convergence, different quadrature orders may be analysed. Results are compared with other codes' reconstruction and integration methods. (author) [pt
An Original Stepwise Multilevel Logistic Regression Analysis of Discriminatory Accuracy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Merlo, Juan; Wagner, Philippe; Ghith, Nermin
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many multilevel logistic regression analyses of "neighbourhood and health" focus on interpreting measures of associations (e.g., odds ratio, OR). In contrast, multilevel analysis of variance is rarely considered. We propose an original stepwise analytical approach that disting...
Design and Implementation of 13 Levels Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic System
Subramani, C.; Dhineshkumar, K.; Palanivel, P.
2018-04-01
This paper approaches the appearing and modernization of S-Type PV based 13- level multilevel inverter with less quantity of switch. The current S-Type Multi level inverter contains more number of switches and voltage sources. Multilevel level inverter is a be understandable among the most gainful power converters for high power application and present day applications with reduced switches. The fundamental good arrangement of the 13-level multilevel inverter is to get ventured voltage from a couple of levels of DC voltages.. The controller gives actual way day and age to switches through driver circuit using PWM methodology. The execution assessment of proposed multilevel inverter is checked using MATLAB/Simulink. This is the outstanding among other techniquem appeared differently in relation to all other existing system
Fast Multilevel Panel Method for Wind Turbine Rotor Flow Simulations
van Garrel, Arne; Venner, Cornelis H.; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie
2017-01-01
A fast multilevel integral transform method has been developed that enables the rapid analysis of unsteady inviscid flows around wind turbines rotors. A low order panel method is used and the new multi-level multi-integration cluster (MLMIC) method reduces the computational complexity for
Stability of Boolean multilevel networks.
Cozzo, Emanuele; Arenas, Alex; Moreno, Yamir
2012-09-01
The study of the interplay between the structure and dynamics of complex multilevel systems is a pressing challenge nowadays. In this paper, we use a semiannealed approximation to study the stability properties of random Boolean networks in multiplex (multilayered) graphs. Our main finding is that the multilevel structure provides a mechanism for the stabilization of the dynamics of the whole system even when individual layers work on the chaotic regime, therefore identifying new ways of feedback between the structure and the dynamics of these systems. Our results point out the need for a conceptual transition from the physics of single-layered networks to the physics of multiplex networks. Finally, the fact that the coupling modifies the phase diagram and the critical conditions of the isolated layers suggests that interdependency can be used as a control mechanism.
FBILI method for multi-level line transfer
Kuzmanovska, O.; Atanacković, O.; Faurobert, M.
2017-07-01
Efficient non-LTE multilevel radiative transfer calculations are needed for a proper interpretation of astrophysical spectra. In particular, realistic simulations of time-dependent processes or multi-dimensional phenomena require that the iterative method used to solve such non-linear and non-local problem is as fast as possible. There are several multilevel codes based on efficient iterative schemes that provide a very high convergence rate, especially when combined with mathematical acceleration techniques. The Forth-and-Back Implicit Lambda Iteration (FBILI) developed by Atanacković-Vukmanović et al. [1] is a Gauss-Seidel-type iterative scheme that is characterized by a very high convergence rate without the need of complementing it with additional acceleration techniques. In this paper we make the implementation of the FBILI method to the multilevel atom line transfer in 1D more explicit. We also consider some of its variants and investigate their convergence properties by solving the benchmark problem of CaII line formation in the solar atmosphere. Finally, we compare our solutions with results obtained with the well known code MULTI.
Multi-Level Wavelet Shannon Entropy-Based Method for Single-Sensor Fault Location
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiaoning Yang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In actual application, sensors are prone to failure because of harsh environments, battery drain, and sensor aging. Sensor fault location is an important step for follow-up sensor fault detection. In this paper, two new multi-level wavelet Shannon entropies (multi-level wavelet time Shannon entropy and multi-level wavelet time-energy Shannon entropy are defined. They take full advantage of sensor fault frequency distribution and energy distribution across multi-subband in wavelet domain. Based on the multi-level wavelet Shannon entropy, a method is proposed for single sensor fault location. The method firstly uses a criterion of maximum energy-to-Shannon entropy ratio to select the appropriate wavelet base for signal analysis. Then multi-level wavelet time Shannon entropy and multi-level wavelet time-energy Shannon entropy are used to locate the fault. The method is validated using practical chemical gas concentration data from a gas sensor array. Compared with wavelet time Shannon entropy and wavelet energy Shannon entropy, the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve accurate location of a single sensor fault and has good anti-noise ability. The proposed method is feasible and effective for single-sensor fault location.
Multi-level decision making models, methods and applications
Zhang, Guangquan; Gao, Ya
2015-01-01
This monograph presents new developments in multi-level decision-making theory, technique and method in both modeling and solution issues. It especially presents how a decision support system can support managers in reaching a solution to a multi-level decision problem in practice. This monograph combines decision theories, methods, algorithms and applications effectively. It discusses in detail the models and solution algorithms of each issue of bi-level and tri-level decision-making, such as multi-leaders, multi-followers, multi-objectives, rule-set-based, and fuzzy parameters. Potential readers include organizational managers and practicing professionals, who can use the methods and software provided to solve their real decision problems; PhD students and researchers in the areas of bi-level and multi-level decision-making and decision support systems; students at an advanced undergraduate, master’s level in information systems, business administration, or the application of computer science.
Multilevel Thoracolumbar Spondylolysis with Spondylolisthesis at L4 on L5.
Kim, Whoan Jeang; Song, Young Dong; Choy, Won Sik
2015-09-01
A 24-year-old male patient was initially evaluated for persistent back pain. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score was 7 points. Physical examination revealed a decreased range of lumbar spinal motion, which caused pain. Simple X-ray revealed Meyerding grade 1 spondylolisthesis at L4 on L5, with mild dome-shaped superior endplate and consecutive multilevel spondylolysis at T12-L5. Standing anteroposterior and lateral views of the entire spine revealed normal balance of sagittal and coronal alignment. A computed tomography scan revealed bilateral spondylolysis at T12-L4, left unilateral spondylolysis at L5, and spina bifida at L5 to sacral region. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed mild dural ectasia at the lumbar region. Due to the absence of any neurological symptoms, the patient was managed conservatively. He was rested a few weeks with corset brace and physiotherapy. After treatment, his back pain improved, VAS score changed from 7 to 2, and he was able to return to normal activity.
Thermo-mechanical analysis for multi-level HLW repository concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Sang Ki; Choi, Jong Won
2004-01-01
This work aims to investigate the influence of design parameters for the underground high-level nuclear waste repository with multi-level concept. B. Necessity o In order to construct an HLW repository in deep underground, it is required to select a site, which is far from major discontinuities. To dispose the whole spent fuels generated from the Korean nuclear power plants in a repository, the underground area of about 4km 2 is required. This would be a constraints for selecting an adequate repository site. It is recommended to dispose the two different spent fuels, PWR and CANDU, in different areas at the operation efficiency point of view. It is necessary to investigate the influence of parameters, which can affect the stability of multi-level repository. It is also needed to consider the influence of heat generated from the HLW and the high in situ stress in deep location. Therefore, thermo-mechanical coupling analysis should be carried out and the results should be compared with the results from single-level repository concept. Three-dimensional analysis is required to model the disposal tunnel and deposition hole. It is recommended to use the Korean geological condition and actually measured rock properties in Korea in order to achieve reliable modeling results. A FISH routine developed for effective modeling of Thermal-Mechanical coupling was implemented in the modeling using FLAC3D, which is a commercial three-dimensional FDM code. The thermal and mechanical properties of rock and rock mass achieved from Yusung drilling site, were used for the computer modeling. Different parameters such as level distance, waste type disposed on different levels, and time interval between the operation on different levels, were considered in the three-dimensional analysis. From the analysis, it was possible to derive adequate multi-level repository concept. Results and recommendations for application From the thermal-mechanical analysis for the multi-level repository
Handbook of multilevel analysis
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Leeuw, Jan de; Meijer, Erik
2008-01-01
... appropriate and eﬃcient model-based methods have become available to deal with this issue, that we have come to appreciate the power that more complex models provide for describing the world and providing new insights. This book sets out to present some of the most recent developments in what has come to be known as multilevel modelling. An...
Three-phase multilevel inverter configuration for open-winding high power application
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick William
2015-01-01
This paper work exploits a new dual open-winding three-phase multilevel inverter configuration suitable for high power medium-voltage applications. Modular structure comprised of standard three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) along with one additional bi-directional semiconductor device (MOSFET...... for implementation purpose. Proposed dual-inverter configuration generates multilevel outputs with benefit includes reduced THD and dv/dt in comparison to other dual-inverter topologies. Complete model of the multilevel ac drive is developed with simple MSCFM modulation in Matlab/PLECs numerical software...
Variable-speed wind power system with improved energy capture via multilevel conversion
Erickson, Robert W.; Al-Naseem, Osama A.; Fingersh, Lee Jay
2005-05-31
A system and method for efficiently capturing electrical energy from a variable-speed generator are disclosed. The system includes a matrix converter using full-bridge, multilevel switch cells, in which semiconductor devices are clamped to a known constant DC voltage of a capacitor. The multilevel matrix converter is capable of generating multilevel voltage wave waveform of arbitrary magnitude and frequencies. The matrix converter can be controlled by using space vector modulation.
A Multilevel Secure Workflow Management System
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kang, Myong H; Froscher, Judith N; Sheth, Amit P; Kochut, Krys J; Miller, John A
1999-01-01
The Department of Defense (DoD) needs multilevel secure (MLS) workflow management systems to enable globally distributed users and applications to cooperate across classification levels to achieve mission critical goals...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghasemi, Negareh; Zare, Firuz; Davari, Pooya
2017-01-01
Several factors can affect performance of an ultrasound system such as quality of excitation signal and ultrasound transducer behaviour. Nonlinearity of piezoelectric ultrasound transducers is a key determinant in designing a proper driving power supply. Although, the nonlinearity of piezoelectric...... was excited at different frequencies. Different excitation signals were generated using a linear power amplifier and a multilevel converter within a range of 30–200 V. Empirical relation was developed to express the resistance of the piezoelectric transducer as a nonlinear function of both excitation voltage...... and resonance frequency. The impedance measurements revealed that at higher voltage ranges, the piezoelectric transducer can be easily saturated. Also, it was shown that for the developed ultrasound system composed of two transducers (one transmitter and one receiver), the output voltage measured across...
Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Elsayed, Mohannad; Nabki, Frederic; El-Gamal, Mourad
2017-11-01
An above-IC compatible multi-level MEMS surface microfabrication technology based on a silicon carbide structural layer is presented. The fabrication process flow provides optimal electrostatic transduction by allowing the creation of independently controlled submicron vertical and lateral gaps without the need for high resolution lithography. Adopting silicon carbide as the structural material, the technology ensures material, chemical and thermal compatibility with modern semiconductor nodes, reporting the lowest peak processing temperature (i.e. 200 °C) of all comparable works. This makes this process ideally suited for integrating capacitive-based MEMS directly above standard CMOS substrates. Process flow design and optimization are presented in the context of bulk-mode disk resonators, devices that are shown to exhibit improved performance with respect to previous generation flexural beam resonators, and that represent relatively complex MEMS structures. The impact of impending improvements to the fabrication technology is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Elsayed, Mohannad; Nabki, Frederic; El-Gamal, Mourad
2017-01-01
An above-IC compatible multi-level MEMS surface microfabrication technology based on a silicon carbide structural layer is presented. The fabrication process flow provides optimal electrostatic transduction by allowing the creation of independently controlled submicron vertical and lateral gaps without the need for high resolution lithography. Adopting silicon carbide as the structural material, the technology ensures material, chemical and thermal compatibility with modern semiconductor nodes, reporting the lowest peak processing temperature (i.e. 200 °C) of all comparable works. This makes this process ideally suited for integrating capacitive-based MEMS directly above standard CMOS substrates. Process flow design and optimization are presented in the context of bulk-mode disk resonators, devices that are shown to exhibit improved performance with respect to previous generation flexural beam resonators, and that represent relatively complex MEMS structures. The impact of impending improvements to the fabrication technology is discussed. (paper)
Analysis of Harmonic Injection to the Modulation of Multi-Level ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper explores the analysis of third and ninth harmonic injection to the modulation of a multilevel diode clamped converter (DCC) at a varying modulation index. The spectral distributions of the various multi-level waveforms obtained under normal modulation index of 0.8 and over modulation index of 1.15 were ...
Analyzing chromatographic data using multilevel modeling.
Wiczling, Paweł
2018-06-01
It is relatively easy to collect chromatographic measurements for a large number of analytes, especially with gradient chromatographic methods coupled with mass spectrometry detection. Such data often have a hierarchical or clustered structure. For example, analytes with similar hydrophobicity and dissociation constant tend to be more alike in their retention than a randomly chosen set of analytes. Multilevel models recognize the existence of such data structures by assigning a model for each parameter, with its parameters also estimated from data. In this work, a multilevel model is proposed to describe retention time data obtained from a series of wide linear organic modifier gradients of different gradient duration and different mobile phase pH for a large set of acids and bases. The multilevel model consists of (1) the same deterministic equation describing the relationship between retention time and analyte-specific and instrument-specific parameters, (2) covariance relationships relating various physicochemical properties of the analyte to chromatographically specific parameters through quantitative structure-retention relationship based equations, and (3) stochastic components of intra-analyte and interanalyte variability. The model was implemented in Stan, which provides full Bayesian inference for continuous-variable models through Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Graphical abstract Relationships between log k and MeOH content for acidic, basic, and neutral compounds with different log P. CI credible interval, PSA polar surface area.
Application of Multilevel Models to Morphometric Data. Part 2. Correlations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Tsybrovskyy
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Multilevel organization of morphometric data (cells are “nested” within patients requires special methods for studying correlations between karyometric features. The most distinct feature of these methods is that separate correlation (covariance matrices are produced for every level in the hierarchy. In karyometric research, the cell‐level (i.e., within‐tumor correlations seem to be of major interest. Beside their biological importance, these correlation coefficients (CC are compulsory when dimensionality reduction is required. Using MLwiN, a dedicated program for multilevel modeling, we show how to use multivariate multilevel models (MMM to obtain and interpret CC in each of the levels. A comparison with two usual, “single‐level” statistics shows that MMM represent the only way to obtain correct cell‐level correlation coefficients. The summary statistics method (take average values across each patient produces patient‐level CC only, and the “pooling” method (merge all cells together and ignore patients as units of analysis yields incorrect CC at all. We conclude that multilevel modeling is an indispensable tool for studying correlations between morphometric variables.
Sun, Yuan; Bhattacherjee, Anol
2011-11-01
Information technology (IT) usage within organisations is a multi-level phenomenon that is influenced by individual-level and organisational-level variables. Yet, current theories, such as the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, describe IT usage as solely an individual-level phenomenon. This article postulates a model of organisational IT usage that integrates salient organisational-level variables such as user training, top management support and technical support within an individual-level model to postulate a multi-level model of IT usage. The multi-level model was then empirically validated using multi-level data collected from 128 end users and 26 managers in 26 firms in China regarding their use of enterprise resource planning systems and analysed using the multi-level structural equation modelling (MSEM) technique. We demonstrate the utility of MSEM analysis of multi-level data relative to the more common structural equation modelling analysis of single-level data and show how single-level data can be aggregated to approximate multi-level analysis when multi-level data collection is not possible. We hope that this article will motivate future scholars to employ multi-level data and multi-level analysis for understanding organisational phenomena that are truly multi-level in nature.
Designing of vague logic based multilevel feedback queue scheduler
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supriya Raheja
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Multilevel feedback queue scheduler suffers from major issues of scheduling such as starvation for long tasks, fixed number of queues, and static length of time quantum in each queue. These factors directly affect the performance of the scheduler. At many times impreciseness exists in attributes of tasks which make the performance even worse. In this paper, our intent is to improve the performance by providing a solution to these issues. We design a multilevel feedback queue scheduler using a vague set which we call as VMLFQ scheduler. VMLFQ scheduler intelligently handles the impreciseness and defines the optimum number of queues as well as the optimal size of time quantum for each queue. It also resolves the problem of starvation. This paper simulates and analyzes the performance of VMLFQ scheduler with the other multilevel feedback queue techniques using MatLab.
Optimized Thermal Management System of Modular Multilevel Converter for HVDC applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hajizadeh, Amin
2017-01-01
The dynamical behavior of temperature is becoming a critical design consideration for the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC). Investigation of an advanced control structure for Grid Connected-Modular Multilevel Converter (GC-MMC) is proposed in this paper. To achieve this goal, an non-linear mode...
The Sage handbook of multilevel modeling
Scott, Marc A; Marx, Brian D
2013-01-01
Leading contributors combine practical pieces with overviews of the state of the art in the field, making this handbook essential reading for any student or researcher looking to apply multilevel techniques in their own research
Optimal Multi-Level Lot Sizing for Requirements Planning Systems
Earle Steinberg; H. Albert Napier
1980-01-01
The wide spread use of advanced information systems such as Material Requirements Planning (MRP) has significantly altered the practice of dependent demand inventory management. Recent research has focused on development of multi-level lot sizing heuristics for such systems. In this paper, we develop an optimal procedure for the multi-period, multi-product, multi-level lot sizing problem by modeling the system as a constrained generalized network with fixed charge arcs and side constraints. T...
Resonance analysis and evaluation of the 235U neutron induced cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leal, L.C.
1990-06-01
Neutron cross sections of fissile nuclei are of considerable interest for the understanding of parameters such as resonance absorption, resonance escape probability, resonance self-shielding,and the dependence of the reactivity on temperature. In the present study, new techniques for the evaluation of the 235 U neutron cross sections are described. The Reich-Moore formalism of the Bayesian computer code SAMMY was used to perform consistent R-matrix multilevel analyses of the selected neutron cross-section data. The Δ 3 -statistics of Dyson and Mehta, along with high-resolution data and the spin-separated fission cross-section data, have provided the possibility of developing a new methodology for the analysis and evaluation of neutron-nucleus cross sections. The results of the analysis consists of a set of resonance parameters which describe the 235 U neutron cross sections up to 500 eV. The set of resonance parameters obtained through a R-matrix analysis are expected to satisfy statistical properties which lead to information on the nuclear structure. The resonance parameters were tested and showed good agreement with the theory. It is expected that the parametrization of the 235 U neutron cross sections obtained in this dissertation represents the current state of art in data as well as in theory and, therefore, can be of direct use in reactor calculations. 44 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Masloboev
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with development of methods and tools for mathematical and computer modeling of the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security. This research is carried out under development strategy implementation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national safeguarding for the period before 2020 in the Murmansk region territory. Creation of unified interdepartmental multilevel computer-aided system is proposed intended for decision-making information support and socio-economic security monitoring of the Arctic regions of Russia. The distinctive features of the investigated system class are openness, self-organization, decentralization of management functions and decision-making, weak hierarchy in the decision-making circuit and goal generation capability inside itself. Research techniques include functional-target approach, mathematical apparatus of multilevel hierarchical system theory and principles of network-centric control of distributed systems with pro-active components and variable structure. The work considers network-centric management local decisions coordination problem-solving within the multilevel distributed systems intended for information support of regional security. The coordination problem-solving approach and problem formalization in the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security have been proposed based on developed multilevel recurrent hierarchical model of regional socio-economic system complex security. The model provides coordination of regional security indexes, optimized by the different elements of multilevel control systems, subject to decentralized decision-making. The model specificity consists in application of functional-target technology and mathematical apparatus of multilevel hierarchical system theory for coordination procedures implementation of the network-centric management local decisions. The work-out and research results can find further
Analog Filter Design Rules for Multilevel Polybinary Signaling Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Cavallero, Francisco javier Vaquero; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2014-01-01
Polybinary signaling has gained attention lately due to its generation simplicity and reduced spectral usage. This paper presents a study on the requirements for analog filters for the generation of multilevel polybinary signals with three to nine levels.......Polybinary signaling has gained attention lately due to its generation simplicity and reduced spectral usage. This paper presents a study on the requirements for analog filters for the generation of multilevel polybinary signals with three to nine levels....
Domain decomposition and multilevel integration for fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ce, Marco; Giusti, Leonardo; Schaefer, Stefan
2016-01-01
The numerical computation of many hadronic correlation functions is exceedingly difficult due to the exponentially decreasing signal-to-noise ratio with the distance between source and sink. Multilevel integration methods, using independent updates of separate regions in space-time, are known to be able to solve such problems but have so far been available only for pure gauge theory. We present first steps into the direction of making such integration schemes amenable to theories with fermions, by factorizing a given observable via an approximated domain decomposition of the quark propagator. This allows for multilevel integration of the (large) factorized contribution to the observable, while its (small) correction can be computed in the standard way.
Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies
Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro
2012-01-01
Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212
Governance and the Commons in a Multi-Level World
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Derek Armitage
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Multi-level governance may facilitate learning and adaptation in complex social-ecological circumstances. Such arrangements should connect community-based management with regional/national government-level management, link scientific management and traditional management systems, encourage the sharing of knowledge and information, and promote collaboration and dialogue around goals and outcomes. Governance innovations of this type can thus build capacity to adapt to change and manage for resilience. However, critical reflection on the emergence of adaptive, multi-level governance for the commons is warranted. Drawing on examples from the North and South, the purpose of this review is to connect three complementary bodies of scholarship with insights for commons governance in a multi-level world: common property theory, resilience thinking and political ecology. From the commons and resilience literature, normative principles of adaptive, multi-level governance are synthesized (e.g., participation, accountability, leadership, knowledge pluralism, learning and trust. Political ecological interpretations, however, help to reveal the challenge of actualizing these principles and the contextual forces that make entrenched, top-down management systems resilient to change. These forces include the role of power, scale and levels of organization, knowledge valuation, the positioning of social actors and social constructions of nature. Also addressed are the policy narratives that shape governance, and the dialectic relationship among ecological systems and social change. tekst
Asynchronous monitoring of the quality of multilevel optical PAM signals
Siuzdak, J.
2017-08-01
In the paper, there is analyzed the signal quality assessment method based on delay tap asynchronous sampling, both for binary and multilevel PAM signals. The obtained multilevel phase diagrams are far more complicated than binary ones. The phase diagrams are affected by the signal distortions but it is difficult to relate reliably the phase diagram form to the distortion type and its influence on the signal quality.
DC-DC Type High-Frequency Link DC for Improved Power Quality of Cascaded Multilevel Inverter
Sadikin, Muhammad; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi
2013-06-01
Multilevel inverters are emerging as a new breed of power converter options for power system applications. Recent advances in power switching devices enabled the suitability of multilevel inverters for high voltage and high power applications because they are connecting several devices in series without the need of component matching. Usually, a transformerless battery energy storage system, based on a cascaded multilevel inverter, is used as a measure for voltage and frequency deviations. System can be reduced in size, weight, and cost of energy storage system. High-frequency link circuit topology is advantageous in realizing compact and light-weight power converters for uninterruptible power supply systems, new energy systems using photovoltaic-cells, fuel-cells and so on. This paper presents a DC-DC type high-frequency link DC (HFLDC) cascaded multilevel inverter. Each converter cell is implemented a control strategy for two H-bridge inverters that are controlled with the same multicarrier pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. The proposed cascaded multilevel inverter generates lower voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) in comparison with conventional cascaded multilevel inverter. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of the proposed cascaded multilevel inverter.
Quantum speed limit time in a magnetic resonance
Ivanchenko, E. A.
2017-12-01
A visualization for dynamics of a qudit spin vector in a time-dependent magnetic field is realized by means of mapping a solution for a spin vector on the three-dimensional spherical curve (vector hodograph). The obtained results obviously display the quantum interference of precessional and nutational effects on the spin vector in the magnetic resonance. For any spin the bottom bounds of the quantum speed limit time (QSL) are found. It is shown that the bottom bound goes down when using multilevel spin systems. Under certain conditions the non-nil minimal time, which is necessary to achieve the orthogonal state from the initial one, is attained at spin S = 2. An estimation of the product of two and three standard deviations of the spin components are presented. We discuss the dynamics of the mutual uncertainty, conditional uncertainty and conditional variance in terms of spin standard deviations. The study can find practical applications in the magnetic resonance, 3D visualization of computational data and in designing of optimized information processing devices for quantum computation and communication.
Mathematical model comparing of the multi-level economics systems
Brykalov, S. M.; Kryanev, A. V.
2017-12-01
The mathematical model (scheme) of a multi-level comparison of the economic system, characterized by the system of indices, is worked out. In the mathematical model of the multi-level comparison of the economic systems, the indicators of peer review and forecasting of the economic system under consideration can be used. The model can take into account the uncertainty in the estimated values of the parameters or expert estimations. The model uses the multi-criteria approach based on the Pareto solutions.
Updated User's Guide for Sammy: Multilevel R-Matrix Fits to Neutron Data Using Bayes' Equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larson, Nancy M [ORNL
2008-10-01
In 1980 the multilevel multichannel R-matrix code SAMMY was released for use in analysis of neutron-induced cross section data at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator. Since that time, SAMMY has evolved to the point where it is now in use around the world for analysis of many different types of data. SAMMY is not limited to incident neutrons but can also be used for incident protons, alpha particles, or other charged particles; likewise, Coulomb exit hannels can be included. Corrections for a wide variety of experimental conditions are available in the code: Doppler and resolution broadening, multiple-scattering corrections for capture or reaction yields, normalizations and backgrounds, to name but a few. The fitting procedure is Bayes' method, and data and parameter covariance matrices are properly treated within the code. Pre- and post-processing capabilities are also available, including (but not limited to) connections with the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files. Though originally designed for use in the resolved resonance region, SAMMY also includes a treatment for data analysis in the unresolved resonance region.
Multi-level governance in EU climate law
Vedder, Hans; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn
2015-01-01
This chapter analyses the multi-level governance in EU climate law; it connects the international arena, with EU and national decision-making and relates climate change considerations to competitiveness concerns.
CoR's White Paper on Multilevel Governance - Advantages and Disadvantages
Gal, Diana; Brie, Mircea
2011-01-01
By the multilevel governance concept we can see the European Union as a political system with interconnected institutions that exist at multiple levels with unique policy features. The White Paper on Multilevel Governance reflects the determination to "Build Europe in partnership" and sets two main strategic objectives: encouraging participation in the European process and reinforcing the efficiency of Community action. The fact that public interest in European elections is decreasing, whils...
Multilevel models in international business research
Peterson, M.F.; Arregle, J-L.; Martin, Xavier
2012-01-01
Multiple-level (or mixed linear) modeling (MLM) can simultaneously test hypotheses at several levels of analysis (usually two or three), or control for confounding effects at one level while testing hypotheses at others. Advances in multi-level modeling allow increased precision in quantitative
Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel
Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G.; Ruggeri, Kai
2016-01-01
Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed. PMID:27252672
Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel.
Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G; Ruggeri, Kai
2016-01-01
Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed.
Pulse design for multilevel systems by utilizing Lie transforms
Kang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Huang, Bi-Hua; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan
2018-03-01
We put forward a scheme to design pulses to manipulate multilevel systems with Lie transforms. A formula to reverse construct a control Hamiltonian is given and is applied in pulse design in the three- and four-level systems as examples. To demonstrate the validity of the scheme, we perform numerical simulations, which show the population transfers for cascaded three-level and N -type four-level Rydberg atoms can be completed successfully with high fidelities. Therefore, the scheme may benefit quantum information tasks based on multilevel systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghasemi, N.; Zare, F.; Boora, A.A.
2012-01-01
Multilevel converters, because of the benefits they attract in generating high quality output voltage, are used in several applications. Various modulation and control techniques are introduced by several researchers to control the output voltage of the multilevel converters like space vector...... modulation and harmonic elimination (HE) methods. Multilevel converters may have a DC link with equal or unequal DC voltages. In this study a new HE technique based on the HE method is proposed for multilevel converters with unequal DC link voltage. The DC link voltage levels are considered as additional...
Multilevel (mental) health promotion as social innovation in peripheral areas of Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Delica, Kristian Nagel
, bureaucratic level over the front line welfare professionals’ practices to the young mother’s experiences. The paper aligns a multilevel approach to theories of social innovation. This forms a fundament for discussing ‘horizontal’ and ‘vertical’ multilevel health promotion and analysing the interwoven...
Parker, Scott L; Adogwa, Owoicho; Davis, Brandon J; Fulchiero, Erin; Aaronson, Oran; Cheng, Joseph; Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J
2013-02-01
Two-year cost-utility study comparing minimally invasive (MIS) versus open multilevel hemilaminectomy in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. The objective of the study was to determine whether MIS versus open multilevel hemilaminectomy for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis is a cost-effective advancement in lumbar decompression surgery. MIS-multilevel hemilaminectomy for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis allows for effective treatment of back and leg pain while theoretically minimizing blood loss, tissue injury, and postoperative recovery. No studies have evaluated comprehensive healthcare costs associated with multilevel hemilaminectomy procedures, nor assessed cost-effectiveness of MIS versus open multilevel hemilaminectomy. Fifty-four consecutive patients with lumbar stenosis undergoing multilevel hemilaminectomy through an MIS paramedian tubular approach (n=27) versus midline open approach (n=27) were included. Total back-related medical resource utilization, missed work, and health state values [quality adjusted life years (QALYs), calculated from EuroQuol-5D with US valuation] were assessed after 2-year follow-up. Two-year resource use was multiplied by unit costs based on Medicare national allowable payment amounts (direct cost) and work-day losses were multiplied by the self-reported gross-of-tax wage rate (indirect cost). Difference in mean total cost per QALY gained for MIS versus open hemilaminectomy was assessed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER: COST(MIS)-COST(OPEN)/QALY(MIS)-QALY(OPEN)). MIS versus open cohorts were similar at baseline. MIS and open hemilaminectomy were associated with an equivalent cumulative gain of 0.72 QALYs 2 years after surgery. Mean direct medical costs, indirect societal costs, and total 2-year cost ($23,109 vs. $25,420; P=0.21) were similar between MIS and open hemilaminectomy. MIS versus open approach was associated with similar total costs and utility, making it a cost equivalent technology
Pastor, Dena A; Lazowski, Rory A
2018-01-01
The term "multilevel meta-analysis" is encountered not only in applied research studies, but in multilevel resources comparing traditional meta-analysis to multilevel meta-analysis. In this tutorial, we argue that the term "multilevel meta-analysis" is redundant since all meta-analysis can be formulated as a special kind of multilevel model. To clarify the multilevel nature of meta-analysis the four standard meta-analytic models are presented using multilevel equations and fit to an example data set using four software programs: two specific to meta-analysis (metafor in R and SPSS macros) and two specific to multilevel modeling (PROC MIXED in SAS and HLM). The same parameter estimates are obtained across programs underscoring that all meta-analyses are multilevel in nature. Despite the equivalent results, not all software programs are alike and differences are noted in the output provided and estimators available. This tutorial also recasts distinctions made in the literature between traditional and multilevel meta-analysis as differences between meta-analytic choices, not between meta-analytic models, and provides guidance to inform choices in estimators, significance tests, moderator analyses, and modeling sequence. The extent to which the software programs allow flexibility with respect to these decisions is noted, with metafor emerging as the most favorable program reviewed.
The multi-level perspective analysis: Indonesia geothermal energy transition study
Wisaksono, A.; Murphy, J.; Sharp, J. H.; Younger, P. L.
2018-01-01
The study adopts a multi-level perspective in technology transition to analyse how the transition process in the development of geothermal energy in Indonesia is able to compete against the incumbent fossil-fuelled energy sources. Three levels of multi-level perspective are socio-technical landscape (ST-landscape), socio-technical regime (ST-regime) and niche innovations in Indonesia geothermal development. The identification, mapping and analysis of the dynamic relationship between each level are the important pillars of the multi-level perspective framework. The analysis considers the set of rules, actors and controversies that may arise in the technological transition process. The identified geothermal resource risks are the basis of the emerging geothermal technological innovations in Indonesian geothermal. The analysis of this study reveals the transition pathway, which yields a forecast for the Indonesian geothermal technology transition in the form of scenarios and probable impacts.
POLLA-NESC, Resonance Parameter R-Matrix to S-Matrix Conversion by Reich-Moore Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saussure, G. de; Perez, R.B.
1975-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: The program transforms a set of r-matrix nuclear resonance parameters into a set of equivalent s-matrix (or Kapur-Peierls) resonance parameters. 2 - Method of solution: The program utilizes the multilevel formalism of Reich and Moore and avoids diagonalization of the level matrix. The parameters are obtained by a direct partial fraction expansion of the Reich-Moore expression of the collision matrix. This approach appears simpler and faster when the number of fission channels is known and small. The method is particularly useful when a large number of levels must be considered because it does not require diagonalization of a large level matrix. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: By DIMENSION statements, the program is limited to maxima of 100 levels and 5 channels
Multi-stage decoding of multi-level modulation codes
Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.
1991-01-01
Various types of multi-stage decoding for multi-level modulation codes are investigated. It is shown that if the component codes of a multi-level modulation code and types of decoding at various stages are chosen properly, high spectral efficiency and large coding gain can be achieved with reduced decoding complexity. Particularly, it is shown that the difference in performance between the suboptimum multi-stage soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding of a modulation code and the single-stage optimum soft-decision decoding of the code is very small, only a fraction of dB loss in signal to noise ratio at a bit error rate (BER) of 10(exp -6).
Validation of Multilevel Constructs: Validation Methods and Empirical Findings for the EDI
Forer, Barry; Zumbo, Bruno D.
2011-01-01
The purposes of this paper are to highlight the foundations of multilevel construct validation, describe two methodological approaches and associated analytic techniques, and then apply these approaches and techniques to the multilevel construct validation of a widely-used school readiness measure called the Early Development Instrument (EDI;…
Analysing the effect of area of residence over the life course in multilevel epidemiology.
Naess, Oyvind; Leyland, Alastair H
2010-11-01
In this paper we present multilevel models of individuals' residential history at multiple time points through the life course and their application and discuss some advantages and disadvantages for their use in epidemiological studies. Literature review of research using longitudinal multilevel models in studies of neighbourhood effects, statistical multilevel models that take individuals' residential history into account, and the application of these models in the Oslo mortality study. Measures of variance have been used to investigate the contextual impact of membership to collectives, such as area of residence, at several time points. The few longitudinal multilevel models that have been used suggest that early life area of residence may have an effect on mortality independently of residence later in life although the proportion of variation attributable to area level is small compared to individual level. The following multilevel models have been developed: simple multilevel models for each year separately, a multiple membership model, a cross-classified model, and finally a correlated cross-classified model. These models have different assumptions regarding the timing of influence through the life course. To fully recognise the origin of adult chronic diseases, factors at all stages of the life course at both individual and area level needs to be considered in order to avoid biased estimates. Important challenges in making life course residential data available for research and assessing how changing administrative coding over time reflect contextual impact need to be overcome before these models can be implemented as normal practice in multilevel epidemiology.
MULTILEVEL SYNCRETISM AND THE EVOLUTION OF ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
MULTILEVEL SYNCRETISM AND THE EVOLUTION OF AFRIKAANS. PERIPHRASTIC POSSESSIVES WITH SE. Paul T. Roberge. University or North Carolina, Chapel ..... van hem ook een bees gestoole ben ook drie volk !lli!. spoor en ook ben daar bij Bester een velds waage uijt gespanne gewees heef zulle de man zijn ...
Adjusting to Social Change - A Multi-Level Analysis in Three Cultures
2013-08-01
example, coping may be more collective in collectivist , compared to individualist , societies (Chang & Sivam, 2004). Some cultures have a greater sense...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0041 Adjusting to Social Change - A multi-level Analysis in three cultures Prof Robin Goodwin...COVERED (From – To) 23 May 2012 – 22 May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adjusting to Social Change - A multi-level Analysis in three cultures
Space vector-based modeling and control of a modular multilevel converter in HVDC applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonavoglia, M.; Casadei, G.; Zarri, L.
2013-01-01
Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an emerging multilevel topology for high-voltage applications that has been developed in recent years. In this paper, the modeling and the control of MMCs are restated in terms of space vectors, which may allow a deeper understanding of the converter behavior....... As a result, a control scheme for three-phase MMCs based on the previous theoretical analysis is presented. Numerical simulations are used to test its feasibility.......Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an emerging multilevel topology for high-voltage applications that has been developed in recent years. In this paper, the modeling and the control of MMCs are restated in terms of space vectors, which may allow a deeper understanding of the converter behavior...
Multilevel model of safety climate for furniture industries.
Rodrigues, Matilde A; Arezes, Pedro M; Leão, Celina P
2015-01-01
Furniture companies can analyze their safety status using quantitative measures. However, the data needed are not always available and the number of accidents is under-reported. Safety climate scales may be an alternative. However, there are no validated Portuguese scales that account for the specific attributes of the furniture sector. The current study aims to develop and validate an instrument that uses a multilevel structure to measure the safety climate of the Portuguese furniture industry. The Safety Climate in Wood Industries (SCWI) model was developed and applied to the safety climate analysis using three different scales: organizational, group and individual. A multilevel exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyze the factorial structure. The studied companies' safety conditions were also analyzed. Different factorial structures were found between and within levels. In general, the results show the presence of a group-level safety climate. The scores of safety climates are directly and positively related to companies' safety conditions; the organizational scale is the one that best reflects the actual safety conditions. The SCWI instrument allows for the identification of different safety climates in groups that comprise the same furniture company and it seems to reflect those groups' safety conditions. The study also demonstrates the need for a multilevel analysis of the studied instrument.
Kern, K.; Bulkeley, H.
2009-01-01
This article focuses on a variant of multi-level governance and Europeanization, i.e. the transnational networking of local authorities. Focusing on local climate change policy, the article examines how transnational municipal networks (TMNs) govern in the context of multi-level European governance.
The Extrapolation-Accelerated Multilevel Aggregation Method in PageRank Computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bing-Yuan Pu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available An accelerated multilevel aggregation method is presented for calculating the stationary probability vector of an irreducible stochastic matrix in PageRank computation, where the vector extrapolation method is its accelerator. We show how to periodically combine the extrapolation method together with the multilevel aggregation method on the finest level for speeding up the PageRank computation. Detailed numerical results are given to illustrate the behavior of this method, and comparisons with the typical methods are also made.
Multi-level methods and approximating distribution functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, D.; Baker, R. E.
2016-01-01
Biochemical reaction networks are often modelled using discrete-state, continuous-time Markov chains. System statistics of these Markov chains usually cannot be calculated analytically and therefore estimates must be generated via simulation techniques. There is a well documented class of simulation techniques known as exact stochastic simulation algorithms, an example of which is Gillespie’s direct method. These algorithms often come with high computational costs, therefore approximate stochastic simulation algorithms such as the tau-leap method are used. However, in order to minimise the bias in the estimates generated using them, a relatively small value of tau is needed, rendering the computational costs comparable to Gillespie’s direct method. The multi-level Monte Carlo method (Anderson and Higham, Multiscale Model. Simul. 10:146–179, 2012) provides a reduction in computational costs whilst minimising or even eliminating the bias in the estimates of system statistics. This is achieved by first crudely approximating required statistics with many sample paths of low accuracy. Then correction terms are added until a required level of accuracy is reached. Recent literature has primarily focussed on implementing the multi-level method efficiently to estimate a single system statistic. However, it is clearly also of interest to be able to approximate entire probability distributions of species counts. We present two novel methods that combine known techniques for distribution reconstruction with the multi-level method. We demonstrate the potential of our methods using a number of examples.
Multi-level methods and approximating distribution functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilson, D., E-mail: daniel.wilson@dtc.ox.ac.uk; Baker, R. E. [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)
2016-07-15
Biochemical reaction networks are often modelled using discrete-state, continuous-time Markov chains. System statistics of these Markov chains usually cannot be calculated analytically and therefore estimates must be generated via simulation techniques. There is a well documented class of simulation techniques known as exact stochastic simulation algorithms, an example of which is Gillespie’s direct method. These algorithms often come with high computational costs, therefore approximate stochastic simulation algorithms such as the tau-leap method are used. However, in order to minimise the bias in the estimates generated using them, a relatively small value of tau is needed, rendering the computational costs comparable to Gillespie’s direct method. The multi-level Monte Carlo method (Anderson and Higham, Multiscale Model. Simul. 10:146–179, 2012) provides a reduction in computational costs whilst minimising or even eliminating the bias in the estimates of system statistics. This is achieved by first crudely approximating required statistics with many sample paths of low accuracy. Then correction terms are added until a required level of accuracy is reached. Recent literature has primarily focussed on implementing the multi-level method efficiently to estimate a single system statistic. However, it is clearly also of interest to be able to approximate entire probability distributions of species counts. We present two novel methods that combine known techniques for distribution reconstruction with the multi-level method. We demonstrate the potential of our methods using a number of examples.
Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis
Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix
2014-01-01
Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…
Multi-Level Formation of Complex Software Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Li
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We present a multi-level formation model for complex software systems. The previous works extract the software systems to software networks for further studies, but usually investigate the software networks at the class level. In contrast to these works, our treatment of software systems as multi-level networks is more realistic. In particular, the software networks are organized by three levels of granularity, which represents the modularity and hierarchy in the formation process of real-world software systems. More importantly, simulations based on this model have generated more realistic structural properties of software networks, such as power-law, clustering and modularization. On the basis of this model, how the structure of software systems effects software design principles is then explored, and it could be helpful for understanding software evolution and software engineering practices.
Health reforms as examples of multilevel interventions in cancer care.
Flood, Ann B; Fennell, Mary L; Devers, Kelly J
2012-05-01
To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation's health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform.
Phase reconstruction by a multilevel iteratively regularized Gauss–Newton method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langemann, Dirk; Tasche, Manfred
2008-01-01
In this paper we consider the numerical solution of a phase retrieval problem for a compactly supported, linear spline f : R → C with the Fourier transform f-circumflex, where values of |f| and |f-circumflex| at finitely many equispaced nodes are given. The unknown phases of complex spline coefficients fulfil a well-structured system of nonlinear equations. Thus the phase reconstruction leads to a nonlinear inverse problem, which is solved by a multilevel strategy and iterative Tikhonov regularization. The multilevel strategy concentrates the main effort of the solution of the phase retrieval problem in the coarse, less expensive levels and provides convenient initial guesses at the next finer level. On each level, the corresponding nonlinear system is solved by an iteratively regularized Gauss–Newton method. The multilevel strategy is motivated by convergence results of IRGN. This method is applicable to a wide range of examples as shown in several numerical tests for noiseless and noisy data
The off-resonant aspects of decoherence and a critique of the two-level approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savran, Kerim; Hakioglu, T; Mese, E; Sevincli, Haldun
2006-01-01
Conditions in favour of a realistic multilevelled description of a decohering quantum system are examined. In this regard the first crucial observation is that the thermal effects, contrary to the conventional belief, play a minor role at low temperatures in the decoherence properties. The system-environment coupling and the environmental energy spectrum dominantly affect the decoherence. In particular, zero temperature quantum fluctuations or non-equilibrium sources can be present and influential on the decoherence rates in a wide energy range allowed by the spectrum of the environment. A crucial observation against the validity of the two-level approximation is that the decoherence rates are found to be dominated not by the long time resonant but the short time off-resonant processes. This observation is demonstrated in two stages. Firstly, our zero temperature numerical results reveal that the calculated short time decoherence rates are Gaussian-like (the time dependence of the density matrix is led by the second time derivative at t = 0). Exact analytical results are also permitted in the short time limit, which, consistent with our numerical results, reveal that this specific Gaussian-like behaviour is a property of the non-Markovian correlations in the environment. These Gaussian-like rates have no dependence on any spectral parameter (position and the width of the spectrum) except, in totality, the spectral area itself. The dependence on the spectral area is a power law. Furthermore, the Gaussian-like character at short times is independent of the number of levels (N), but the numerical value of the decoherence rates is a monotonic function of N. In this context, we demonstrate that leakage, as a characteristic multilevel effect, is dominated by the non-resonant processes. The long time behaviour of decoherence is also examined. Since our spectral model allows Markovian environmental correlations at long times, the decoherence rates in this regime become
New multilevel inverter with reduction of switches and gate driver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banaei, M.R., E-mail: m.banaei@azaruniv.ed [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salary, E. [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-02-15
This paper presents a novel topology for symmetrical cascade multilevel converter. The proposed circuit consists of series connected sub multilevel converters units and it can generate DC voltage levels similar to other topologies. The proposed topology results in reduction of switches number, losses, installation area and converter cost. This converter has been used in a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). Simulation results carried out by MATLAB/SIMULINK show the voltage injection capability of converter and the efficiency of its controller in compensating voltage sag and swell.
A multilevel control approach for a modular structured space platform
Chichester, F. D.; Borelli, M. T.
1981-01-01
A three axis mathematical representation of a modular assembled space platform consisting of interconnected discrete masses, including a deployable truss module, was derived for digital computer simulation. The platform attitude control system as developed to provide multilevel control utilizing the Gauss-Seidel second level formulation along with an extended form of linear quadratic regulator techniques. The objectives of the multilevel control are to decouple the space platform's spatial axes and to accommodate the modification of the platform's configuration for each of the decoupled axes.
56Fe resonance parameters for neutron energies up to 850 keV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perey, C.M.; Perey, F.G.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Larson, N.M.
1990-12-01
High-resolution neutron measurements for 56 Fe-enriched iron targets were made at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in transmission below 20 MeV and in differential elastic scattering below 5 MeV. Transmission measurements were also performed with a natural iron target below 160 keV. The transmission data were analyzed from 5 to 850 keV with the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY which uses Bayes' theorem for the fitting process. This code provides energies and neutron widths of the resonances inside the 5- to 850-keV energy region, as well as possible parameterization for resonances external to the analyzed region to describe the smooth cross section from a few eV to 850 keV. The resulting set of resonance parameters yields the accepted values for the thermal total and capture cross sections. The differential elastic-scattering data at several scattering angles were compared to theoretical calculations from 40 to 850 keV using the R-matrix code RFUNC based on the Blatt-Biedenharn formalism. Various combinations of spin and parity were tried to predict cross sections for the well defined ell > 0 resonances; comparison of these predictions with the data allowed us to determine the most likely spin and parity assignments for these resonances. The results of a capture data analysis by Corvi et al. (COR84), from 2 to 350 keV, were combined with our results to obtain the radiation widths of the resonances below 350 keV observed in transmission, capture, and differential elastic-scattering experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Saussure, G.; Olsen, D. K.; Perez, R. B.
1978-05-01
The FORTRAN-IV code SIOB was developed to least-square fit the shape of neutron transmission curves. Any number of measurements on a common energy scale for different sample thicknesses can be simultaneously fitted. The computed transmission curves can be broadened with either a Gaussian or a rectangular resolution function or both, with the resolution width a function of energy. The total cross section is expressed as a sum of single-level or multilevel Breit--Wigner terms and Doppler broadened by using the fast interpolation routine QUICKW. The number of data points, resonance levels, and variables which can be handled simultaneously is only limited by the overall dimensions of two arrays in the program and by the stability of the matrix inversion. In a test problem seven transmissions each with 3750 data points were simultaneously fitted with 74 resonances and 110 variable parameters. The problem took 47 min of CPU time on an IBM-360/91, for 3 iterations. 3 figures, 2 tables.
Upton, Matthew G.; Egan, Toby Marshall
2007-01-01
The established limitations of career development (CD) theory and human resource development (HRD) theory building are addressed by expanding the framing of these issues to multilevel contexts. Multilevel theory building is an approach most effectively aligned with HRD literature and CD and HRD practice realities. An innovative approach multilevel…
THE MODEL OF LIFELONG EDUCATION IN A TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY AS A MULTILEVEL EDUCATIONAL COMPLEX
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Svetlana V. Sergeyeva
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: the current leading trend of the educational development is characterised by its continuity. Institutions of higher education as multi-level educational complexes nurture favourable conditions for realisation of the strategy of lifelong education. Today a technical university offering training of future engineers is facing a topic issue of creating a multilevel educational complex. Materials and Methods: this paper is put together on the basis of modern Russian and foreign scientific literature about lifelong education. The authors used theoretical methods of scientific research: systemstructural analysis, synthesis, modeling, analysis and generalisations of concepts. Results: the paper presents a model of lifelong education developed by authors for a technical university as a multilevel educational complex. It is realised through a set of principles: multi-level and continuity, integration, conformity and quality, mobility, anticipation, openness, social partnership and feedback. In accordance with the purpose, objectives and principles, the content part of the model is formed. The syllabi following the described model are run in accordance with the training levels undertaken by a technical university as a multilevel educational complex. All syllabi are based on the gradual nature of their implementation. In this regard, the authors highlight three phases: diagnostic, constructive and transformative, assessing. Discussion and Conclusions: the expected result of the created model of lifelong education development in a technical university as a multilevel educational complex is presented by a graduate trained for effective professional activity, competitive, prepared and sought-after at the regional labour market.
Multilevel Modeling of the Performance Variance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Teixeira Dias
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Focusing on the identification of the role played by Industry on the relations between Corporate Strategic Factors and Performance, the hierarchical multilevel modeling method was adopted when measuring and analyzing the relations between the variables that comprise each level of analysis. The adequacy of the multilevel perspective to the study of the proposed relations was identified and the relative importance analysis point out to the lower relevance of industry as a moderator of the effects of corporate strategic factors on performance, when the latter was measured by means of return on assets, and that industry don‟t moderates the relations between corporate strategic factors and Tobin‟s Q. The main conclusions of the research are that the organizations choices in terms of corporate strategy presents a considerable influence and plays a key role on the determination of performance level, but that industry should be considered when analyzing the performance variation despite its role as a moderator or not of the relations between corporate strategic factors and performance.
Multilevel quadrature of elliptic PDEs with log-normal diffusion
Harbrecht, Helmut
2015-01-07
We apply multilevel quadrature methods for the moment computation of the solution of elliptic PDEs with lognormally distributed diffusion coefficients. The computation of the moments is a difficult task since they appear as high dimensional Bochner integrals over an unbounded domain. Each function evaluation corresponds to a deterministic elliptic boundary value problem which can be solved by finite elements on an appropriate level of refinement. The complexity is thus given by the number of quadrature points times the complexity for a single elliptic PDE solve. The multilevel idea is to reduce this complexity by combining quadrature methods with different accuracies with several spatial discretization levels in a sparse grid like fashion.
A new configuration for multilevel converters with diode clamped topology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nami, A.; Zare, F.; Ledwich, G.
2008-01-01
Due to the increased use of renewable energy and power elctronic applications, more multilevel converters (MLC) are developed. A Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter is one of the most used multilevel topologies for wind turbine (WT) and photovoltaic (PV) applications. One of the most crucial...... of load changes which can avoid neutral point balancing problem in such converters. In addition, the presented topology is suitable for renewable energy systems to boost the low rectified output-voltage. In order to verify the proposed topology, steady state analysis, modelling and simulations are carried...
Converter DC/AC Multilevel of Three Cells: Modeling and Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julián Peláez-Restrepo
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a three-cell converter DC / AC. Multilevel topologies are attracting attention in the industry, obtained as a ripple on the state variables much smaller, and reduces stress on the switching devices. The topology used in this work is known in the technical literature as floating capacitor multilevel inverter, which imposes the challenge of balancing the voltage across each cell switching using floating capacitors, besides obtaining a sinusoidal signal regulated. The paper presents the averaged model of the inverter, and results obtained through simulation.
Robust Algebraic Multilevel Methods and Algorithms
Kraus, Johannes
2009-01-01
This book deals with algorithms for the solution of linear systems of algebraic equations with large-scale sparse matrices, with a focus on problems that are obtained after discretization of partial differential equations using finite element methods. Provides a systematic presentation of the recent advances in robust algebraic multilevel methods. Can be used for advanced courses on the topic.
Finite Volume Element (FVE) discretization and multilevel solution of the axisymmetric heat equation
Litaker, Eric T.
1994-12-01
The axisymmetric heat equation, resulting from a point-source of heat applied to a metal block, is solved numerically; both iterative and multilevel solutions are computed in order to compare the two processes. The continuum problem is discretized in two stages: finite differences are used to discretize the time derivatives, resulting is a fully implicit backward time-stepping scheme, and the Finite Volume Element (FVE) method is used to discretize the spatial derivatives. The application of the FVE method to a problem in cylindrical coordinates is new, and results in stencils which are analyzed extensively. Several iteration schemes are considered, including both Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel; a thorough analysis of these schemes is done, using both the spectral radii of the iteration matrices and local mode analysis. Using this discretization, a Gauss-Seidel relaxation scheme is used to solve the heat equation iteratively. A multilevel solution process is then constructed, including the development of intergrid transfer and coarse grid operators. Local mode analysis is performed on the components of the amplification matrix, resulting in the two-level convergence factors for various combinations of the operators. A multilevel solution process is implemented by using multigrid V-cycles; the iterative and multilevel results are compared and discussed in detail. The computational savings resulting from the multilevel process are then discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Hui; Ma, Ke; Loh, Poh Chiang
2016-01-01
challenges but may also result in overstressed components for the modular multi-level converter. However, the thermal loading of the modular multi-level converter under various grid faults has not yet been clarified. In this article, the power loss and thermal performance of the modular multi-level converter...... low-voltage ride-through strongly depend on the types and severity values of grid voltage dips. The thermal distribution among the three phases of the modular multi-level converter may be quite uneven, and some devices are much more stressed than the normal operating condition, which may...
Behavioral spillovers from freeriding in multilevel interactions.
Thommes, K; Vyrastekova, J.; Akkerman, A.
2015-01-01
We study multilevel interactions using experimental methods. Does the efficiency of a production team suffer from the freeriding behavior of some team members at the firm level? Can we identify behavioral spillovers affecting teams? We isolate common tasks that teams must complete - coordination and
Rights, Jason D; Sterba, Sonya K
2016-11-01
Multilevel data structures are common in the social sciences. Often, such nested data are analysed with multilevel models (MLMs) in which heterogeneity between clusters is modelled by continuously distributed random intercepts and/or slopes. Alternatively, the non-parametric multilevel regression mixture model (NPMM) can accommodate the same nested data structures through discrete latent class variation. The purpose of this article is to delineate analytic relationships between NPMM and MLM parameters that are useful for understanding the indirect interpretation of the NPMM as a non-parametric approximation of the MLM, with relaxed distributional assumptions. We define how seven standard and non-standard MLM specifications can be indirectly approximated by particular NPMM specifications. We provide formulas showing how the NPMM can serve as an approximation of the MLM in terms of intraclass correlation, random coefficient means and (co)variances, heteroscedasticity of residuals at level 1, and heteroscedasticity of residuals at level 2. Further, we discuss how these relationships can be useful in practice. The specific relationships are illustrated with simulated graphical demonstrations, and direct and indirect interpretations of NPMM classes are contrasted. We provide an R function to aid in implementing and visualizing an indirect interpretation of NPMM classes. An empirical example is presented and future directions are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Multi-Level Security Cannot Realise NEC Objectives
Schotanus, H.A.; Hartog, T.; Verkoelen, C.A.A.
2012-01-01
Multi-Level Security (MLS) is often viewed as the holy grail of information security, especially in those environments where information of different classifications is being processed. In this paper we argue that MLS cannot facilitate the right balance between need-to-protect and duty-to-share as
First 3D Cadastral Registration of Multi-level Ownerships Rights in the Netherlands
Ploeger, H.D.; Stoter, J.E.; Roes, R; Van der Riet, E.; Biljecki, F.; Ledoux, H.
2016-01-01
This paper reports on the first 3D cadastral registration of multi-level ownerships rights in the Netherlands, which was accomplished in March 2016. It is the result of a study that was undertaken from 2013 to 2015 to determine how insight about multi-level ownership can be provided in 3D by the
A water treatment case study for quantifying model performance with multilevel flow modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emil K. Nielsen
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Decision support systems are a key focus of research on developing control rooms to aid operators in making reliable decisions and reducing incidents caused by human errors. For this purpose, models of complex systems can be developed to diagnose causes or consequences for specific alarms. Models applied in safety systems of complex and safety-critical systems require rigorous and reliable model building and testing. Multilevel flow modeling is a qualitative and discrete method for diagnosing faults and has previously only been validated by subjective and qualitative means. To ensure reliability during operation, this work aims to synthesize a procedure to measure model performance according to diagnostic requirements. A simple procedure is proposed for validating and evaluating the concept of multilevel flow modeling. For this purpose, expert statements, dynamic process simulations, and pilot plant experiments are used for validation of simple multilevel flow modeling models of a hydrocyclone unit for oil removal from produced water. Keywords: Fault Diagnosis, Model Validation, Multilevel Flow Modeling, Produced Water Treatment
Examining multi-level effects on corporate social responsibility and irresponsibility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mazzei Matthew J.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available What influences firms to engage in socially responsible (irresponsible activities? Corporate social responsibility (CSR, the efforts of firms to create a positive and desirable impact on society, and corporate social irresponsibility (CSI, contrary actions of unethical behavior that negatively influence society, have become an important focus of discussion for both corporations and scholars. Despite this interest, our understanding of organizations’ socially responsible (irresponsible actions and their antecedents is still developing. A dearth of knowledge about the multi-level nature of the drivers of CSR and CSI continues to exist. Utilizing a longitudinal sample composed of 899 firms in 66 industries, we follow a prominent model to empirically examine industry-, firm-, and individual-level effects on CSR and CSI. Employing variance decomposition analysis, our results confirm that all three levels of investigation do indeed influence CSR and CSI. More substantively, our analysis estimates the magnitude of the effects attributable to each of the three levels for both CSR and CSI. We also compare multi-level influences on two separate CSR strategies, those targeting primary stakeholders (strategic CSR and those targeting secondary stakeholders (social CSR. We find greater industry- and firmlevel effects on social CSR, and higher individual-level effects on strategic CSR. Our results build on the conceptual work of previous authors by providing empirical analyses to confirm multilevel influences on CSR and extending prior multi-level theory to the concept of CSI. Further, we add to the emerging literature regarding stakeholder demands by examining the various influences on CSR strategies targeting different stakeholder groups.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible use of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) to quantify mold contamination in multi-level, office buildings. Settled-dust samples were collected in multi-level, office buildings and the ERMI value for each sample de...
Experiments of Multi-Level Read-Only Recording Using Readout Signal Wave-Shape Modulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi, Tang; Jing, Pei; Long-Fa, Pan; Yi, Ni; Hua, Hu; Bu-Qing, Zhang
2008-01-01
An innovative multilevel read-only recording method is proposed. In this method, a short pit/land is deliberately inserted to the original land/pit. This modifies the wave-shape of readout signal. Taking the wave-shape as the symbol of level detection, a signal wave-shape modulation (SWSM) multilevel method is realized. This method is carried out and validated on the DVD read-only manufacture and readout system. A capacity of 15 GB can be expected, and a bit error rate of 10 −4 is achieved. The capacity can meet the demand of high definition movie publication. This method also provides a potential multi-level solution for other storage formats and systems. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
A Goal Programming Model for the Siting of Multilevel EMS Systems.
1980-03-01
Management," unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 1971. -23- (11) Daskin , M. and E. Stern, " A Multiobjective Set Covering...GOAL PROGRAM4MING MODEL FOR THE SITING OF MULTILEVEL EMS SYSTE-ETC(U) UNM1AR 80 A CHARNES, J E STORBECK N000iA-75-C-569 WICLASSIFIED CCS-366 N...366 A GOAL PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR THE SITING OF MULTILEVEL EMS SYSTEMS by A . Charnes J. Storbeck March 1980 This project was partially supported by
Fall, Mandiaye; Boutami, Salim; Glière, Alain; Stout, Brian; Hazart, Jerome
2013-06-01
A combination of the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) and boundary element method (BEM) can solve large scale photonics problems of arbitrary geometry. Here, MLFMM-BEM algorithm based on a scalar and vector potential formulation, instead of the more conventional electric and magnetic field formulations, is described. The method can deal with multiple lossy or lossless dielectric objects of arbitrary geometry, be they nested, in contact, or dispersed. Several examples are used to demonstrate that this method is able to efficiently handle 3D photonic scatterers involving large numbers of unknowns. Absorption, scattering, and extinction efficiencies of gold nanoparticle spheres, calculated by the MLFMM, are compared with Mie's theory. MLFMM calculations of the bistatic radar cross section (RCS) of a gold sphere near the plasmon resonance and of a silica coated gold sphere are also compared with Mie theory predictions. Finally, the bistatic RCS of a nanoparticle gold-silver heterodimer calculated with MLFMM is compared with unmodified BEM calculations.
Multilevel inverter switching controller using a field programmable ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Conducted simulation and measurement results verified and validated the switching controller design functionality and requirement. Keywords: multilevel inverter, switching controller; FPGA, general purpose processor (GPP);digital signal processing (DSP); IGBT; Verilog, power consumption; harmonic elimination (SHE).
Castrillon, Julio; Genton, Marc G.; Yokota, Rio
2015-01-01
We develop a multi-level restricted Gaussian maximum likelihood method for estimating the covariance function parameters and computing the best unbiased predictor. Our approach produces a new set of multi-level contrasts where the deterministic
Neutron Capture and Transmission Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Samarium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leinweber, G.; Burke, J.A.; Knox, H.D.; Drindak, N.J.; Mesh, D.W.; Haines, W.T.; Ballad, R.V.; Block, R.C.; Slovacek, R.E.; Werner, C.J.; Trbovich, M.J.; Barry, D.P.; Sato, T.
2001-01-01
The purpose of the present work is to accurately measure the neutron cross sections of samarium. The most significant isotope is 149 Sm, which has a large neutron absorption cross section at thermal energies and is a 235 U fission product with a 1% yield. Its cross sections are thus of concern to reactor neutronics. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic institute (RPI) LINAC facility using metallic and liquid Sm samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25 meter flight station with a multiplicity-type capture detector, and the transmission total cross-section measurements were performed at 15- and 25-meter flight stations with 6 Li glass scintillation detectors. Resonance parameters were determined by a combined analysis of six experiments (three capture and three transmission) using the multi-level R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY version M2. The significant features of this work are as follows. Dilute samples of samarium nitrate in deuterated water (D 2 O) were prepared to measure the strong resonances at 0.1 and 8 eV without saturation. Disk-shaped spectroscopic quartz cells were obtained with parallel inner surfaces to provide a uniform thickness of solution. The diluent feature of the SAMMY program was used to analyze these data. The SAMMY program also includes multiple scattering corrections to capture yield data and resolution functions specific to the RPI facility. Resonance parameters for all stable isotopes of samarium were deduced for all resonances up to 30 eV. Thermal capture cross-section and capture resonance integral calculations were made using the resultant resonance parameters and were compared to results obtained using resonance parameters from ENDF/B-VI updated through release 3. Extending the definition of the capture resonance integral to include the strong 0.1 eV resonance in 149 Sm, present measurements agree within estimated uncertainties with En
Multi-stage decoding for multi-level block modulation codes
Lin, Shu
1991-01-01
In this paper, we investigate various types of multi-stage decoding for multi-level block modulation codes, in which the decoding of a component code at each stage can be either soft-decision or hard-decision, maximum likelihood or bounded-distance. Error performance of codes is analyzed for a memoryless additive channel based on various types of multi-stage decoding, and upper bounds on the probability of an incorrect decoding are derived. Based on our study and computation results, we find that, if component codes of a multi-level modulation code and types of decoding at various stages are chosen properly, high spectral efficiency and large coding gain can be achieved with reduced decoding complexity. In particular, we find that the difference in performance between the suboptimum multi-stage soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding of a modulation code and the single-stage optimum decoding of the overall code is very small: only a fraction of dB loss in SNR at the probability of an incorrect decoding for a block of 10(exp -6). Multi-stage decoding of multi-level modulation codes really offers a way to achieve the best of three worlds, bandwidth efficiency, coding gain, and decoding complexity.
Detecting bots using multi-level traffic analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup
2016-01-01
introduces a novel multi-level botnet detection approach that performs network traffic analysis of three protocols widely considered as the main carriers of botnet Command and Control (C&C) and attack traffic, i.e. TCP, UDP and DNS. The proposed method relies on supervised machine learning for identifying...
Power and type I error of local fit statistics in multilevel latent class analysis
Nagelkerke, E.; Oberski, D.L.; Vermunt, J.K.
2017-01-01
In the social and behavioral sciences, variables are often categorical and people are often nested in groups. Models for such data, such as multilevel logistic regression or the multilevel latent class model, should account for not only the categorical nature of the variables, but also the nested
Pore-scale uncertainty quantification with multilevel Monte Carlo
Icardi, Matteo; Hoel, Haakon; Long, Quan; Tempone, Raul
2014-01-01
. Since there are no generic ways to parametrize the randomness in the porescale structures, Monte Carlo techniques are the most accessible to compute statistics. We propose a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) technique to reduce the computational cost
Zhang, Xinyan; Li, Bingzong; Han, Huiying; Song, Sha; Xu, Hongxia; Hong, Yating; Yi, Nengjun; Zhuang, Wenzhuo
2018-05-10
Multiple myeloma (MM), like other cancers, is caused by the accumulation of genetic abnormalities. Heterogeneity exists in the patients' response to treatments, for example, bortezomib. This urges efforts to identify biomarkers from numerous molecular features and build predictive models for identifying patients that can benefit from a certain treatment scheme. However, previous studies treated the multi-level ordinal drug response as a binary response where only responsive and non-responsive groups are considered. It is desirable to directly analyze the multi-level drug response, rather than combining the response to two groups. In this study, we present a novel method to identify significantly associated biomarkers and then develop ordinal genomic classifier using the hierarchical ordinal logistic model. The proposed hierarchical ordinal logistic model employs the heavy-tailed Cauchy prior on the coefficients and is fitted by an efficient quasi-Newton algorithm. We apply our hierarchical ordinal regression approach to analyze two publicly available datasets for MM with five-level drug response and numerous gene expression measures. Our results show that our method is able to identify genes associated with the multi-level drug response and to generate powerful predictive models for predicting the multi-level response. The proposed method allows us to jointly fit numerous correlated predictors and thus build efficient models for predicting the multi-level drug response. The predictive model for the multi-level drug response can be more informative than the previous approaches. Thus, the proposed approach provides a powerful tool for predicting multi-level drug response and has important impact on cancer studies.
Surgical management of contiguous multilevel thoracolumbar tuberculous spondylitis.
Qureshi, Muhammad Asad; Khalique, Ahmed Bilal; Afzal, Waseem; Pasha, Ibrahim Farooq; Aebi, Max
2013-06-01
Tuberculous spondylitis (TBS) is the most common form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The mainstay of TBS management is anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. Most of the patients with TBS are treated conservatively; however in some patients surgery is indicated. Most common indications for surgery include neurological deficit, deformity, instability, large abscesses and necrotic tissue mass or inadequate response to anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. The most common form of TBS involves a single motion segment of spine (two adjoining vertebrae and their intervening disc). Sometimes TBS involves more than two adjoining vertebrae, when it is called multilevel TBS. Indications for correct surgical management of multilevel TBS is not clear from literature. We have retrospectively reviewed 87 patients operated in 10 years for multilevel TBS involving the thoracolumbar spine at our spine unit. Two types of surgeries were performed on these patients. In 57 patients, modified Hong Kong operation was performed with radical debridement, strut grafting and anterior instrumentation. In 30 patients this operation was combined with pedicle screw fixation with or without correction of kyphosis by osteotomy. Patients were followed up for correction of kyphosis, improvement in neurological deficit, pain and function. Complications were noted. On long-term follow-up (average 64 months), there was 9.34 % improvement in kyphosis angle in the modified Hong Kong group and 47.58 % improvement in the group with pedicle screw fixation and osteotomy in addition to anterior surgery (p debridement and anterior column reconstruction.
Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo
Ben Issaid, Chaouki
2015-01-01
informative data about the model parameters. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that it naturally involves nested integration over a possibly high dimensional domain. We use the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DP Barry; MJ Trbovich; Y Danon; RC Block; RE Slovacek
2005-01-01
Neodymium is a 235 U fission product and is important for reactor neutronic calculations. The aim of the present work is to improve upon the existing neutron cross section data of neodymium. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-off-light technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute LINAC laboratory using metallic neodymium samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25-m flight station with a 16-segment NaI multiplicity detector, and the transmission measurements were performed at 15-m and 25-m flight stations, respectively, with 6 Li glass scintillation detectors. After the data were collected and reduced, resonance parameters were determined by combined fitting of the transmission and capture data with the multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY. The resonance parameters for all naturally occurring neodymium isotopes were deduced within the energy range of 1 eV to 500 eV. The resulting resonance parameters were used to calculate the capture resonance integrals from this energy. The RPI parameters gave a resonance integral value of 32 ± 1 barns that is approximately 7% lower than that obtained with the ENDF-B/VI parameters. The current measurements significantly reduce the uncertainties on the resonance parameters when compared with previously published parameters
Multidimensional radiative transfer with multilevel atoms. II. The non-linear multigrid method.
Fabiani Bendicho, P.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Auer, L.
1997-08-01
A new iterative method for solving non-LTE multilevel radiative transfer (RT) problems in 1D, 2D or 3D geometries is presented. The scheme obtains the self-consistent solution of the kinetic and RT equations at the cost of only a few (iteration (Brandt, 1977, Math. Comp. 31, 333; Hackbush, 1985, Multi-Grid Methods and Applications, springer-Verlag, Berlin), an efficient multilevel RT scheme based on Gauss-Seidel iterations (cf. Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho, 1995ApJ...455..646T), and accurate short-characteristics formal solution techniques. By combining a valid stopping criterion with a nested-grid strategy a converged solution with the desired true error is automatically guaranteed. Contrary to the current operator splitting methods the very high convergence speed of the new RT method does not deteriorate when the grid spatial resolution is increased. With this non-linear multigrid method non-LTE problems discretized on N grid points are solved in O(N) operations. The nested multigrid RT method presented here is, thus, particularly attractive in complicated multilevel transfer problems where small grid-sizes are required. The properties of the method are analyzed both analytically and with illustrative multilevel calculations for Ca II in 1D and 2D schematic model atmospheres.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carvalho Humberto M.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to outline a multilevel modeling approach to fit individual angle-specific torque curves describing concentric knee extension and flexion isokinetic muscular actions in Master athletes. The potential of the analytical approach to examine between individual differences across the angle-specific torque curves was illustrated including between-individuals variation due to gender differences at a higher level. Torques in concentric muscular actions of knee extension and knee extension at 60°·s-1 were considered within a range of motion between 5°and 85° (only torques “truly” isokinetic. Multilevel time series models with autoregressive covariance structures with standard multilevel models were superior fits compared with standard multilevel models for repeated measures to fit anglespecific torque curves. Third and fourth order polynomial models were the best fits to describe angle-specific torque curves of isokinetic knee flexion and extension concentric actions, respectively. The fixed exponents allow interpretations for initial acceleration, the angle at peak torque and the decrement of torque after peak torque. Also, the multilevel models were flexible to illustrate the influence of gender differences on the shape of torque throughout the range of motion and in the shape of the curves. The presented multilevel regression models may afford a general framework to examine angle-specific moment curves by isokinetic dynamometry, and add to the understanding mechanisms of strength development, particularly the force-length relationship, both related to performance and injury prevention.
Fast multilevel radiative transfer
Paletou, Frédéric; Léger, Ludovick
2007-01-01
The vast majority of recent advances in the field of numerical radiative transfer relies on approximate operator methods better known in astrophysics as Accelerated Lambda-Iteration (ALI). A superior class of iterative schemes, in term of rates of convergence, such as Gauss-Seidel and Successive Overrelaxation methods were therefore quite naturally introduced in the field of radiative transfer by Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho (1995); it was thoroughly described for the non-LTE two-level atom case. We describe hereafter in details how such methods can be generalized when dealing with non-LTE unpolarised radiation transfer with multilevel atomic models, in monodimensional geometry.
Multilevel and kin selection in a connected world
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wade, Michael J; Wilson, David S; Goodnight, Charles
2010-01-01
in the opposition of two processes: within-group and among-group selection. This distinction is important in light of the current controversy among evolutionary biologists in which some continue to affirm that natural selection centres only and always at the level of the individual organism or gene, despite......Wild et al. argue that the evolution of reduced virulence can be understood from the perspective of inclusive fitness, obviating the need to evoke group selection as a contributing causal factor. Although they acknowledge the mathematical equivalence of the inclusive fitness and multilevel...... selection approaches, they conclude that reduced virulence can be viewed entirely as an individual-level adaptation by the parasite. Here we show that their model is a well-known special case of the more general theory of multilevel selection, and that the cause of reduced virulence resides...
Castrillon, Julio
2015-11-10
We develop a multi-level restricted Gaussian maximum likelihood method for estimating the covariance function parameters and computing the best unbiased predictor. Our approach produces a new set of multi-level contrasts where the deterministic parameters of the model are filtered out thus enabling the estimation of the covariance parameters to be decoupled from the deterministic component. Moreover, the multi-level covariance matrix of the contrasts exhibit fast decay that is dependent on the smoothness of the covariance function. Due to the fast decay of the multi-level covariance matrix coefficients only a small set is computed with a level dependent criterion. We demonstrate our approach on problems of up to 512,000 observations with a Matérn covariance function and highly irregular placements of the observations. In addition, these problems are numerically unstable and hard to solve with traditional methods.
Anderson, Emma L; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Emmett, Pauline; Cribb, Victoria; Northstone, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D
2013-07-01
Methods for the assessment of changes in dietary intake across the life course are underdeveloped. We demonstrate the use of linear-spline multilevel models to summarize energy-intake trajectories through childhood and adolescence and their application as exposures, outcomes, or mediators. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children assessed children's dietary intake several times between ages 3 and 13 years, using both food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 3-day food diaries. We estimated energy-intake trajectories for 12,032 children using linear-spline multilevel models. We then assessed the associations of these trajectories with maternal body mass index (BMI), and later offspring BMI, and also their role in mediating the relation between maternal and offspring BMIs. Models estimated average and individual energy intake at 3 years, and linear changes in energy intake from age 3 to 7 years and from age 7 to 13 years. By including the exposure (in this example, maternal BMI) in the multilevel model, we were able to estimate the average energy-intake trajectories across levels of the exposure. When energy-intake trajectories are the exposure for a later outcome (in this case offspring BMI) or a mediator (between maternal and offspring BMI), results were similar, whether using a two-step process (exporting individual-level intercepts and slopes from multilevel models and using these in linear regression/path analysis), or a single-step process (multivariate multilevel models). Trajectories were similar when FFQs and food diaries were assessed either separately, or when combined into one model. Linear-spline multilevel models provide useful summaries of trajectories of dietary intake that can be used as an exposure, outcome, or mediator.
Sotoodeh, Pedram
This dissertation presents the design of a novel multi-level inverter with FACTS capability for small to mid-size (10-20kW) permanent-magnet wind installations using modular multi-level converter (MMC) topology. The aim of the work is to design a new type of inverter with D-STATCOM option to provide utilities with more control on active and reactive power transfer of distribution lines. The inverter is placed between the renewable energy source, specifically a wind turbine, and the distribution grid in order to fix the power factor of the grid at a target value, regardless of wind speed, by regulating active and reactive power required by the grid. The inverter is capable of controlling active and reactive power by controlling the phase angle and modulation index, respectively. The unique contribution of the proposed work is to combine the two concepts of inverter and D-STATCOM using a novel voltage source converter (VSC) multi-level topology in a single unit without additional cost. Simulations of the proposed inverter, with 5 and 11 levels, have been conducted in MATLAB/Simulink for two systems including 20 kW/kVAR and 250 W/VAR. To validate the simulation results, a scaled version (250 kW/kVAR) of the proposed inverter with 5 and 11 levels has been built and tested in the laboratory. Experimental results show that the reduced-scale 5- and 11-level inverter is able to fix PF of the grid as well as being compatible with IEEE standards. Furthermore, total cost of the prototype models, which is one of the major objectives of this research, is comparable with market prices.
Liu, Yan; Fan, Xi; Chen, Houpeng; Wang, Yueqing; Liu, Bo; Song, Zhitang; Feng, Songlin
2017-08-01
In this brief, multilevel data storage for phase-change memory (PCM) has attracted more attention in the memory market to implement high capacity memory system and reduce cost-per-bit. In this work, we present a universal programing method of SET stair-case current pulse in PCM cells, which can exploit the optimum programing scheme to achieve 2-bit/ 4state resistance-level with equal logarithm interval. SET stair-case waveform can be optimized by TCAD real time simulation to realize multilevel data storage efficiently in an arbitrary phase change material. Experimental results from 1 k-bit PCM test-chip have validated the proposed multilevel programing scheme. This multilevel programming scheme has improved the information storage density, robustness of resistance-level, energy efficient and avoiding process complexity.
Bezrukova, Katerina; Spell, Chester S; Caldwell, David; Burger, Jerry M
2016-01-01
Integrating the literature on faultlines, conflict, and pay, we drew on the basic principles of multilevel theory and differentiated between group- and organizational-level faultlines to introduce a novel multilevel perspective on faultlines. Using multisource, multilevel data on 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) teams, we found that group-level faultlines were negatively associated with group performance, and that internally focused conflict exacerbated but externally focused conflict mitigated this effect. Organizational-level faultlines were negatively related to organizational performance, and were most harmful in organizations with high levels of compensation. Implications for groups and teams in the sports/entertainment and other industries are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Generalization of Random Intercept Multilevel Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rehan Ahmad Khan
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The concept of random intercept models in a multilevel model developed by Goldstein (1986 has been extended for k-levels. The random variation in intercepts at individual level is marginally split into components by incorporating higher levels of hierarchy in the single level model. So, one can control the random variation in intercepts by incorporating the higher levels in the model.
Multi-level Reconfigurable Self-organization in Overlay Services
Pournaras, E.
2013-01-01
Large-scale decentralized systems organized in overlay networks are complex to manage. Such systems integrate organizational complexity in the application-level resulting in low abstraction and modularity in their services. This thesis introduces a multi-level conceptual architecture for overlay
Challenges for Multilevel Health Disparities Research in a Transdisciplinary Environment
Holmes, John H.; Lehman, Amy; Hade, Erinn; Ferketich, Amy K.; Sarah, Gehlert; Rauscher, Garth H.; Abrams, Judith; Bird, Chloe E.
2008-01-01
Numerous factors play a part in health disparities. Although health disparities are manifested at the level of the individual, other contexts should be considered when investigating the associations of disparities with clinical outcomes. These contexts include families, neighborhoods, social organizations, and healthcare facilities. This paper reports on health disparities research as a multilevel research domain from the perspective of a large national initiative. The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) program was established by the NIH to examine the highly dimensional, complex nature of disparities and their effects on health. Because of its inherently transdisciplinary nature, the CPHHD program provides a unique environment in which to perform multilevel health disparities research. During the course of the program, the CPHHD centers have experienced challenges specific to this type of research. The challenges were categorized along three axes: sources of subjects and data, data characteristics, and multilevel analysis and interpretation. The CPHHDs collectively offer a unique example of how these challenges are met; just as importantly, they reveal a broad range of issues that health disparities researchers should consider as they pursue transdisciplinary investigations in this domain, particularly in the context of a large team science initiative. PMID:18619398
Multilevel control of the metastable states in a manganite film
Jin, Feng; Feng, Qiyuan; Guo, Zhuang; Lan, Da; Chen, Binbin; Xu, Haoran; Wang, Ze; Wang, Lingfei; Gao, Guanyin; Chen, Feng; Lu, Qingyou; Wu, Wenbin
2017-06-01
For high density memory applications, the dynamic switching between multilevel resistance states per cell is highly desirable, and for oxide-based memory devices, the multistate operation has been actively explored. We have previously shown that for La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 films, the antiferromagnetic charge-ordered-insulator (COI) phase can be induced via the anisotropic epitaxial strain, and it competes with the doping-determined ferromagnetic-metal (FMM) ground state in a wide temperature range. Here, we show that for the phase competitions, in various magnetic fields and/or thermal cycling, the reappearance of the COI phase and thus the resistance and magnetization can be manipulated and quantified in a multilevel manner at lower temperatures. Furthermore, by using a high-field magnetic force microscope, we image the COI/FMM domain structures in accordance with the transport measurements, and find that the evolving domains or the phase fraction ratios do underline the metastability of the reappeared COI droplets, possibly protected by the energy barriers due to accommodation strain. These results may add new insights into the design and fabrication of future multilevel memory cells.
Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods
Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.
1989-01-01
Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.
Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Kawachi, Ichiro
2016-01-01
Scholars and practitioners frequently make recommendations to develop family planning interventions that are "multilevel." Such interventions take explicit account of the role of environments by incorporating multilevel or social-ecological frameworks into their design and implementation. However, research on how interventions have…
PLTS Transformerless Tegangan 20 kV menggunakan Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ANGGARA BRAJAMUSTHI
2018-03-01
Full Text Available ABSTRAK Aplikasi dari inverter multilevel pada sistem Pusat Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS dapat menghilangkan kebutuhan terhadap transformator, sehingga dapat mengurangi biaya investasi, mengurangi kompleksitas instalasi dan menghilangkan rugi-rugi daya transformator. Pada penelitian ini, sebuah inverter dengan topologi Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter dirancang agar mampu mengubah tegangan rendah DC dari beberapa Photovoltaic (PV array menjadi tegangan fasa-fasa 20 kV AC. Perancangan menghasilkan sebuah inverter 3 fasa 27-level dimana setiap level masing-masing memiliki PV array, DC-DC boost converter, H-bridge inverter, dan keluaran 3 fasa terhubung dengan filter LCL. Setiap komponen dari inverter dan sistem tersebut kemudian dimodelkan pada MATLAB Simulink untuk mensimulasikan kinerja dari setiap komponen dan sistem pada Standard Test Condition (STC dari modul PV. Pada keadaan STC, daya 3 fasa maksimum yang dapat dihasilkan adalah 1,716 MW atau 68,54% dari daya DC maksimum sebesar 2,5 MWp. Sistem dapat menghasilkan tegangan fasa-fasa keluaran sebesar 20 kV dengan Total Harmonic Distortion (THD di bawah 5%. Kata kunci: Pusat Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS, photovoltaic, Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter ABSTRACT The application of Multilevel Inverter in a Photovoltaic Solar Power Plant system could eliminate the needs of step-up transformer, which will reduce the system investment cost, simplify the system installation and also eliminate power losses of the transformer. In this paper, an inverter design was proposed with Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter topology that is capable of converting low voltage DC power from several PV arrays into 20 kV AC power. The design resulted a 3 phase 27-level inverter where each level in the inverter has its own photovoltaic array, DC-DC boost converter, H-bridge inverter, and the 3 phase output is connected to LCL filter. Each component of the Inverter and the system were then modelled in MATLAB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manel Hammami
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The implementation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT schemes by the ripple correlation control (RCC algorithm is presented in this paper. A reference is made to single-phase single-stage multilevel photovoltaic (PV generation systems, when the inverter input variables (PV voltage and PV current have multiple low-frequency (ripple harmonics. The harmonic analysis is carried out with reference to a multilevel configuration consisting of an H-bridge inverter and level doubling network (LDN cell, leading to the multilevel inverter having double the output voltage levels as compared to the basic H-bridge inverter topology (i.e., five levels vs. three levels. The LDN cell is basically a half-bridge fed by a floating capacitor, with self-balancing voltage capability. The multilevel configuration introduces additional PV voltage and current low-frequency harmonics, perturbing the basic implementation of the RCC scheme (based on the second harmonic component, leading to malfunctioning. The proposed RCC algorithm employs the PV current and voltage harmonics at a specific frequency for the estimation of the voltage derivative of power dP/dV (or dI/dV, driving the PV operating point toward the maximum power point (MPP in a faster and more precise manner. The steady-state and transient performances of the proposed RCC-MPPT schemes have been preliminarily tested and compared using MATLAB/Simulink. Results have been verified by experimental tests considering the whole multilevel PV generation system, including real PV modules, multilevel insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT inverters, and utility grids.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodriguez, Pedro; Busquets-Monge, Sergio; Blaabjerg, Frede
2011-01-01
This work presents the development of the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) of a new multi-level converter topology. First, the proposed converter and its natural space vector diagram are presented. Secondly, a modified space vector diagram based on the virtual-vectors technique is show...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jollands, Nigel; Gasc, Emilien; Pasquier, Sara Bryan
2009-12-15
Despite creating a plethora of national and international regulations and voluntary programmes to improve energy efficiency, countries are far from achieving full energy efficiency potential across all sectors of the economy. One major challenge, among numerous barriers, is policy implementation. One strategy that many national governments and international organisations have used to address the implementation issue is to engage regional and local authorities. To that end, many programmes have been created that foster energy efficiency action and collaboration across levels of government. The aim of this report is to identify trends and detail recent developments in multi-level governance in energy efficiency (MLGEE). By sharing lessons learned from daily practitioners in the field, the IEA hopes energy efficiency policy makers at all levels of government will be able to identify useful multilevel governance (MLG) practices across geographical and political contexts and use these to design robust programmes; modify existing programmes, and connect and share experiences with other policy makers in this field.
Multilevel interventions aimed at adult obesity prevention
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Benwell, Ann Fenger
A growing body of literature emphasizes the importance of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the wide range of aspects which hinder or promote the success of health interventions. The pilot phase of this study highlights how mixed-method approaches can be strengthened ...... to investigate factors associated with multi-level obesity prevention....
Design of a Modular Multilevel Converter as an Active Front-End for a magnet supply application
Panagiotis, Asimakopoulos; Massimo, Bongiorno
2015-01-01
The aim of this work is to describe the general design procedure of a Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) applied as an Active Front-End (AFE) for a magnet supply for beam accelerators. The dimensioning criteria for the converter and the dc-link capacitance are presented and the grid transformer requirements are set. Considering the converter design, the arm inductance calculation is based on the specifications for the arm-current ripple and the DC-link fault tolerance, but, also, on the limitation of the second harmonic and the second-order LC resonance of the arm current. The module capacitance value is evaluated by focusing on the required switching dynamics and the capacitor-voltage ripple according to a newly proposed graphical method. The loading of each semiconductor in the half bridge is calculated via simulation, indicating the unsymmetrical current distribution. It is concluded that the current distribution for each semiconductor depends on the mode of operation of the converter. The different criter...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MUDASIR AHMED MEMON
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization based technique is proposed to derive optimized switching angles that minimizes the THD (Total Harmonic Distortion and reduces the effect of selected low order non-triple harmonics from the output of the multilevel inverter. Conventional harmonic elimination techniques have plenty of limitations, and other heuristic techniques also not provide the satisfactory results. In this paper, single phase symmetrical cascaded H-Bridge 11-Level multilevel inverter is considered, and proposed algorithm is utilized to obtain the optimized switching angles that reduced the effect of 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th non-triplen harmonics from the output voltage of the multilevel inverter. A simulation result indicates that this technique outperforms other methods in terms of minimizing THD and provides high-quality output voltage waveform.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Memon, M.A.; Memon, S.; Khan, S.
2017-01-01
In this paper, PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) based technique is proposed to derive optimized switching angles that minimizes the THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) and reduces the effect of selected low order non-triple harmonics from the output of the multilevel inverter. Conventional harmonic elimination techniques have plenty of limitations, and other heuristic techniques also not provide the satisfactory results. In this paper, single phase symmetrical cascaded H-Bridge 11-Level multilevel inverter is considered, and proposed algorithm is utilized to obtain the optimized switching angles that reduced the effect of 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th non-triplen harmonics from the output voltage of the multilevel inverter. A simulation result indicates that this technique outperforms other methods in terms of minimizing THD and provides high-quality output voltage waveform. (author)
Sung, Yao-Ting; Chen, Ju-Ling; Cha, Ji-Her; Tseng, Hou-Chiang; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Chang, Kuo-En
2015-06-01
Multilevel linguistic features have been proposed for discourse analysis, but there have been few applications of multilevel linguistic features to readability models and also few validations of such models. Most traditional readability formulae are based on generalized linear models (GLMs; e.g., discriminant analysis and multiple regression), but these models have to comply with certain statistical assumptions about data properties and include all of the data in formulae construction without pruning the outliers in advance. The use of such readability formulae tends to produce a low text classification accuracy, while using a support vector machine (SVM) in machine learning can enhance the classification outcome. The present study constructed readability models by integrating multilevel linguistic features with SVM, which is more appropriate for text classification. Taking the Chinese language as an example, this study developed 31 linguistic features as the predicting variables at the word, semantic, syntax, and cohesion levels, with grade levels of texts as the criterion variable. The study compared four types of readability models by integrating unilevel and multilevel linguistic features with GLMs and an SVM. The results indicate that adopting a multilevel approach in readability analysis provides a better representation of the complexities of both texts and the reading comprehension process.
Multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petiton, S.; Sato, M.; Emad, N.; Calvin, C.; Tsuji, M.; Dandouna, M.
2013-01-01
In order to propose a framework and programming paradigms for post peta-scale computing, on the road to exa-scale computing and beyond, we introduced new languages, associated with a hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm, allowing scientific end-users and developers to program highly hierarchical architectures designed for extreme computing. In this paper, we explain the interest of such hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing and its well adaptation to several large computational science applications, such as for linear algebra solvers used for reactor core physic. We describe the YML language and framework allowing describing graphs of parallel components, which may be developed using PGAS-like language such as XMP, scheduled and computed on supercomputers. Then, we propose experimentations on supercomputers (such as the 'K' and 'Hooper' ones) of the hybrid method MERAM (Multiple Explicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method) as a case study for iterative methods manipulating sparse matrices, and the block Gauss-Jordan method as a case study for direct method manipulating dense matrices. We conclude proposing evolutions for this programming paradigm. (authors)
Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.
2000-01-01
The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of delta f particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future
Multi-level governance of forest resources (Editorial to the special feature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esther Mwangi
2012-08-01
Full Text Available A major challenge for many researchers and practitioners relates to how to recognize and address cross-scale dynamics in space and over time in order to design and implement effective governance arrangements. This editorial provides an overview of the concept of multi-level governance (MLG. In particular we highlight definitional issues, why the concept matters as well as more practical concerns related to the processes and structure of multi-level governance. It is increasingly clear that multi-level governance of forest resources involves complex interactions of state, private and civil society actors at various levels, and institutions linking higher levels of social and political organization. Local communities are increasingly connected to global networks and influences. This creates new opportunities to learn and address problems but may also introduce new pressures and risks. We conclude by stressing the need for a much complex approach to the varieties of MLG to better understand how policies work as instruments of governance and to organize communities within systems of power and authority.
Multi-level Control Framework for Enhanced Flexibility of Active Distribution Network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna
2017-01-01
In this paper, the control objectives of future active distribution networks with high penetration of renewables and flexible loads are analyzed and reviewed. From a state of the art review, the important control objectives seen from the perspective of a distribution system operator are identifie......-ordination and management of the network assets at different voltage levels and geographical locations. The paper finally shows the applicability of the multi-level control architecture to some of the key challenges in the distribution system operation by relevant scenarios....... to be hosting capacity improvement, high reliable operation and cost effective network management. Based on this review and a state of the art review concerning future distribution network control methods, a multi-level control architecture is constructed for an active distribution network, which satisfies...... the selected control objectives and provides enhanced flexibility. The control architecture is supported by generation/load forecasting and distribution state estimation techniques to improve the controllability of the network. The multi-level control architecture consists of three levels of hierarchical...
Proton resonance spectroscopy in 40Ca
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warthen, B.J.
1987-01-01
The differential cross sections for the 39 K(p,p o ) 39 K and 39 K-(p,α o ) 36 Ar reactions have been measured for E p = 1.90 to 4.02 MeV at laboratory angles θ = 90 degree, 108 degree, 150 degree and 165 degree. Data were taken with the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) KN Van de Graaff accelerator and the associated high resolution system. The targets consisted of 1-2 μg/cm 2 of potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ), enriched to 99.97% 39 K, evaporated onto gold coated carbon backings. Excitation functions were measured in proton energy steps varying from 100 to 400 3V. The energy region studied corresponds to an excitation energy range in the 40 Ca nucleus of E x = 10.2 to 12.3 MeV. A multi-level multi-channel R-matrix based computer code was used to fit the experimental excitation functions. Resonance parameters obtained include resonance energy, spin, parity, partial widths, and channel spin and orbital angular momentum mixing ratios. Of the 248 resonances observed in the proton channel, 148 were also observed in the alpha channel. A fit to the observed level density yielded a nuclear temperature of 1.5 MeV. The data were compared with predictions of statistical theories of energy levels for both level spacing and reduced width distributions. The alpha reduced widths agree with the Porter-Thomas distribution and suggest that only 5-10% of the states with alpha widths were not observed. The summed strength in each of the alpha channels represents a significant fraction of the Wigner limit for these channels. The proton channels, on the other hand, generally have much smaller fractions. The two proton s-wave strength functions are equal and thus show no evidence for spin-exchange forces in the nucleon-nucleus interaction
Age, forgiveness, and meeting behavior: A multilevel study
Schulte, E.-M.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.
2013-01-01
Purpose: This paper aims to examine the effects of age on counteractive team meeting behaviors (e.g. complaining). Forgiveness is included as a potential buffer against these behaviors. A multilevel model is developed to test individual and team level age effects. Design/methodology/approach: A
Determinants of Academic Entrepreneurship Behavior: A Multilevel Model
Llano, Joseph Anthony
2010-01-01
It is well established that universities encourage the acquisition and dissemination of new knowledge among university community members and beyond. However, what is less well understood is how universities encourage entrepreneurial (opportunity discovery, evaluation, and exploiting) behavior. This research investigated a multilevel model of the…
Attachment, Autonomy, and Emotional Reliance: A Multilevel Model
Lynch, Martin F.
2013-01-01
This article reports a test of a multilevel model investigating how attachment security and autonomy contribute to emotional reliance, or the willingness to seek interpersonal support. Participants ("N" = 247) completed online measures of attachment, autonomy, emotional reliance, and vitality with respect to several everyday…
Studying historical occupational careers with multilevel growth models
Schulz, W.; Maas, I.
2010-01-01
In this article we propose to study occupational careers with historical data by using multilevel growth models. Historical career data are often characterized by a lack of information on the timing of occupational changes and by different numbers of observations of occupations per individual.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomason, M.D.
1982-07-01
Rates for resonant vibrational and rotational energy transfer from the 001 state by CO 2 + CO 2 collisions have been measured. All data were obtained by double resonance spectroscopy with CO 2 lasers in a 2.5 meter absorption cell at 700 0 K. Results for rotation transfer include pumped-level relaxation and the response of other 001 levels with ΔJ up to 18. These data are compared to four relevant collision models via a 35-level rate equation analysis. Sequence-band (002 → 101) and hot-band (011 → 110) lasting have been used to observe resonant nu 3 -transfer relaxation involving 001 + 001 reversible 002 + 000, 001 + 100 reversible 101 + 000, and 001 + 010 reversible 011 + 000. A multilevel rate analysis has been utilized to determine the rate coefficients for 001 going to the 002, the 101, and the 011 levels. Part of the hot-band data has been interpreted as due to 110 + 000 reversible 100 + 010, and the associated rate constant has been estimated. The results of the study are compared to the theory and to other experiments
Multilevel processes and cultural adaptation: Examples from past and present small-scale societies
Reyes-García, V.; Balbo, A. L.; Gomez-Baggethun, E.; Gueze, M.; Mesoudi, A.; Richerson, P.; Rubio-Campillo, X.; Ruiz-Mallén, I.; Shennan, S.
2016-01-01
Cultural adaptation has become central in the context of accelerated global change with authors increasingly acknowledging the importance of understanding multilevel processes that operate as adaptation takes place. We explore the importance of multilevel processes in explaining cultural adaptation by describing how processes leading to cultural (mis)adaptation are linked through a complex nested hierarchy, where the lower levels combine into new units with new organizations, functions, and e...
Hybrid dual gate ferroelectric memory for multilevel information storage
Khan, Yasser
2015-01-01
Here, we report hybrid organic/inorganic ferroelectric memory with multilevel information storage using transparent p-type SnO semiconductor and ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymer. The dual gate devices include a top ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) and a bottom thin-film transistor (TFT). The devices are all fabricated at low temperatures (∼200°C), and demonstrate excellent performance with high hole mobility of 2.7 cm2 V-1 s-1, large memory window of ∼18 V, and a low sub-threshold swing ∼-4 V dec-1. The channel conductance of the bottom-TFT and the top-FeFET can be controlled independently by the bottom and top gates, respectively. The results demonstrate multilevel nonvolatile information storage using ferroelectric memory devices with good retention characteristics.
Multi-level tree analysis of pulmonary artery/vein trees in non-contrast CT images
Gao, Zhiyun; Grout, Randall W.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Saha, Punam K.
2012-02-01
Diseases like pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension are associated with vascular dystrophy. Identifying such pulmonary artery/vein (A/V) tree dystrophy in terms of quantitative measures via CT imaging significantly facilitates early detection of disease or a treatment monitoring process. A tree structure, consisting of nodes and connected arcs, linked to the volumetric representation allows multi-level geometric and volumetric analysis of A/V trees. Here, a new theory and method is presented to generate multi-level A/V tree representation of volumetric data and to compute quantitative measures of A/V tree geometry and topology at various tree hierarchies. The new method is primarily designed on arc skeleton computation followed by a tree construction based topologic and geometric analysis of the skeleton. The method starts with a volumetric A/V representation as input and generates its topologic and multi-level volumetric tree representations long with different multi-level morphometric measures. A new recursive merging and pruning algorithms are introduced to detect bad junctions and noisy branches often associated with digital geometric and topologic analysis. Also, a new notion of shortest axial path is introduced to improve the skeletal arc joining two junctions. The accuracy of the multi-level tree analysis algorithm has been evaluated using computer generated phantoms and pulmonary CT images of a pig vessel cast phantom while the reproducibility of method is evaluated using multi-user A/V separation of in vivo contrast-enhanced CT images of a pig lung at different respiratory volumes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Merlo, J; Chaix, B; Ohlsson, H
2006-01-01
STUDY OBJECTIVE: In social epidemiology, it is easy to compute and interpret measures of variation in multilevel linear regression, but technical difficulties exist in the case of logistic regression. The aim of this study was to present measures of variation appropriate for the logistic case...... in a didactic rather than a mathematical way. Design and PARTICIPANTS: Data were used from the health survey conducted in 2000 in the county of Scania, Sweden, that comprised 10 723 persons aged 18-80 years living in 60 areas. Conducting multilevel logistic regression different techniques were applied...... propensity areas with the area educational level. The sorting out index was equal to 82%. CONCLUSION: Measures of variation in logistic regression should be promoted in social epidemiological and public health research as efficient means of quantifying the importance of the context of residence...
Hybrid dual gate ferroelectric memory for multilevel information storage
Khan, Yasser; Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso; Alshareef, Husam N.
2015-01-01
Here, we report hybrid organic/inorganic ferroelectric memory with multilevel information storage using transparent p-type SnO semiconductor and ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymer. The dual gate devices include a top ferroelectric field
Tschoeke, Sven K; Kayser, Ralph; Gulow, Jens; Hoeh, Nicolas von der; Salis-Soglio, Georg von; Heyde, Christoph
2014-11-01
Despite significant advances in the conservative management of pyogenic spondylodiscitis, consecutive instability, deformity, and/or neurologic compromise demands a prompt surgical intervention. However, in rare cases involving additional multilevel epidural abscess formation, the appropriate surgical strategy remains controversial. In this retrospective cohort analyses, we evaluated the efficacy of a single-stage posterior approach with the addition of a one-time multilevel epidural lavage via the surgically exposed interlaminar fenestration of the infected segment. From January 2009 through December 2010, 73 patients presenting pyogenic spondylodiscitis with instability of the lumbar spine were admitted. In all cases, the surgical strategy included a radical resection of the affected intervertebral disc and stabilization by intervertebral fusion using a titanium cage with autologous bone grafting in a level-dependent posterior approach with additional pedicle screw-and-rod instrumentation. In cases where multilevel abscess formation was evident, the standard surgical procedure was complemented by drainage and irrigation of the abscess from posterior by carefully advancing a soft infant feeding tube via the surgically exposed epidural space under fluoroscopic guidance. All patients received complementary oral antibiotic therapy for 12 weeks and were followed-up for a minimum of 12 months postoperatively. Ten patients (three male and seven female patients; mean age: 64.9 ± 10.9 years) presented with an additional lumbar epidural abscess extending beyond three levels proximal or distal to the infected disc. In all 10 patients the laboratory-chemical inflammatory parameters (leukocyte count, C-reactive protein) remained within the physiologic range after completing antibiotic therapy throughout the 1-year follow-up period. The plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated solid fusion and the complete remission of the initial abscess formation after
Total and fission cross-sections of 239Pu - statistical study of resonance parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derrien, H.; Blons, J.; Eggermann, C.; Michaudon, A.; Paya, D.; Ribon, P.
1967-01-01
The authors measured the total and fission cross-sections of 239 Pu with the linear accelerator at Saclay as a pulsed source of neutrons. The total cross-section was measured in the range from 4 to 700 eV and the best resolution used was 1.5 ns/m; the fission cross-section was measured between 4 eV and 6 keV, the best resolution having been 6 ns/m. The transmission measurements on five samples were made at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, and comparisons made with supplementary experiments at ambient temperature made it possible to determine the Doppler broadening factor (Δ = η√E). The resonances were identified from 4 to 500 eV in the total cross-section; the average level spacing was of the order of 2.4 eV. It would appear that, in this energy range, nearly all the levels were identified. The resonance parameters were determined by analysis of shape in conjunction with a least-squares programme on an IBM-7094 computer. The existence of a large number of broad resonances corresponding to very large fission widths has been shown to exist. Statistical study of the fission widths actually shows the existence of two families of resonances, one corresponding to a mean Γ f of the order of 45 meV and the other to a mean Γ/f of about 750 meV. The authors were therefore able to postulate a classification of resonances in terms of two spin states, the level population ratio in each family being: (2J 1 +1)/(2J 2 +1) = 1/3; J 1 = 0 corresponds to the broad resonances and J 2 = 1 to the narrow ones. The partial widths for radiative capture fluctuate slightly around a mean value of 40 meV. By using a multilevel programme, the authors were able to investigate the extent to which the existence of large fission widths might give rise to fictitious resonances (quasi-resonances) and perturbations and also to make a statistical study of the resonance parameters. (author) [fr
Multilevel solvers of first-order system least-squares for Stokes equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lai, Chen-Yao G. [National Chung Cheng Univ., Chia-Yi (Taiwan, Province of China)
1996-12-31
Recently, The use of first-order system least squares principle for the approximate solution of Stokes problems has been extensively studied by Cai, Manteuffel, and McCormick. In this paper, we study multilevel solvers of first-order system least-squares method for the generalized Stokes equations based on the velocity-vorticity-pressure formulation in three dimensions. The least-squares functionals is defined to be the sum of the L{sup 2}-norms of the residuals, which is weighted appropriately by the Reynolds number. We develop convergence analysis for additive and multiplicative multilevel methods applied to the resulting discrete equations.
The Differences between Multilevel Marketing and the Financial Pyramids or “Pyramid Scheme”
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vanessa Braga Santos
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This research aims to analyze and understand the difference between the concept of Multilevel Marketing and the Financial Pyramids. The main objective of this work is to clarify the differences between these two business models that are growing worldwide and also present concepts that show the success of professionals in this kind of new business model. Multilevel Marketing shows a sustainable system, a direct selling business that includes recruiting distributors with a profit share and also by recruiting new members. In the Financial Pyramid concept, the problem is that business support is the network itself, and often there are no products to be commercialized, so this model is unsustainable and considered as an illegal business in several countries, including Brazil. Within this approach, a case study was conducted with one of the largest Multilevel Marketing companies in the world, Mary Kay. We conducted a direct interview with one of Mary Kay Independent Sales Directors from the city of Piracicaba, held in October 2016, and collected data surveys from the internet. The markets today are based on moving products, so we concluded that Multilevel Marketing is a great business opportunity to make an extra income by marketing services and products.
Determinants of firms' investment behaviour : a multilevel approach
Farla, K.
2013-01-01
This paper investigates micro and macro determinants of firms' investment behaviour using firm data from 101 developing and emerging economies. A substantial number of firms in our sample does not invest in fixed capital or invests little relative to sales revenue. Using a multilevel probit model we
Modular Multilevel Converter Control Strategy with Fault Tolerance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Teodorescu, Remus; Eni, Emanuel-Petre; Mathe, Laszlo
2013-01-01
The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) technology has recently emerged in VSC-HVDC applications where it demonstrated higher efficiency and fault tolerance compared to the classical 2-level topology. Due to the ability of MMC to connect to HV levels, MMC can be also used in transformerless STATCOM...
Multilevel Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap
Moraes, Alvaro
2016-01-06
Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks, among many others. In this work [6] we present a novel multilevel algorithm for the Chernoff-based hybrid tauleap algorithm. This variance reduction technique allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.
Multilevel Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap
Moraes, Alvaro
2015-01-07
Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks, among many others. In this work [6] we present a novel multilevel algorithm for the Chernoff-based hybrid tauleap algorithm. This variance reduction technique allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.
Multilevel Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap
Moraes, Alvaro
2014-01-06
Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks, among many others. In this work [6] we present a novel multilevel algorithm for the Chernoff-based hybrid tauleap algorithm. This variance reduction technique allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.
Multilevel resistive information storage and retrieval
Lohn, Andrew; Mickel, Patrick R.
2016-08-09
The present invention relates to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) systems, as well as methods of employing multiple state variables to form degenerate states in such memory systems. The methods herein allow for precise write and read steps to form multiple state variables, and these steps can be performed electrically. Such an approach allows for multilevel, high density memory systems with enhanced information storage capacity and simplified information retrieval.
Multilevel classification of security concerns in cloud computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syed Asad Hussain
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Threats jeopardize some basic security requirements in a cloud. These threats generally constitute privacy breach, data leakage and unauthorized data access at different cloud layers. This paper presents a novel multilevel classification model of different security attacks across different cloud services at each layer. It also identifies attack types and risk levels associated with different cloud services at these layers. The risks are ranked as low, medium and high. The intensity of these risk levels depends upon the position of cloud layers. The attacks get more severe for lower layers where infrastructure and platform are involved. The intensity of these risk levels is also associated with security requirements of data encryption, multi-tenancy, data privacy, authentication and authorization for different cloud services. The multilevel classification model leads to the provision of dynamic security contract for each cloud layer that dynamically decides about security requirements for cloud consumer and provider.
Improved Bat Algorithm Applied to Multilevel Image Thresholding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adis Alihodzic
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed.
Using iMCFA to Perform the CFA, Multilevel CFA, and Maximum Model for Analyzing Complex Survey Data.
Wu, Jiun-Yu; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Lin, John J H
2018-01-01
To construct CFA, MCFA, and maximum MCFA with LISREL v.8 and below, we provide iMCFA (integrated Multilevel Confirmatory Analysis) to examine the potential multilevel factorial structure in the complex survey data. Modeling multilevel structure for complex survey data is complicated because building a multilevel model is not an infallible statistical strategy unless the hypothesized model is close to the real data structure. Methodologists have suggested using different modeling techniques to investigate potential multilevel structure of survey data. Using iMCFA, researchers can visually set the between- and within-level factorial structure to fit MCFA, CFA and/or MAX MCFA models for complex survey data. iMCFA can then yield between- and within-level variance-covariance matrices, calculate intraclass correlations, perform the analyses and generate the outputs for respective models. The summary of the analytical outputs from LISREL is gathered and tabulated for further model comparison and interpretation. iMCFA also provides LISREL syntax of different models for researchers' future use. An empirical and a simulated multilevel dataset with complex and simple structures in the within or between level was used to illustrate the usability and the effectiveness of the iMCFA procedure on analyzing complex survey data. The analytic results of iMCFA using Muthen's limited information estimator were compared with those of Mplus using Full Information Maximum Likelihood regarding the effectiveness of different estimation methods.
Damman, Olga C; Stubbe, Janine H; Hendriks, Michelle; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Delnoij, Diana M J; Groenewegen, Peter P
2009-04-01
Ratings on the quality of healthcare from the consumer's perspective need to be adjusted for consumer characteristics to ensure fair and accurate comparisons between healthcare providers or health plans. Although multilevel analysis is already considered an appropriate method for analyzing healthcare performance data, it has rarely been used to assess case-mix adjustment of such data. The purpose of this article is to investigate whether multilevel regression analysis is a useful tool to detect case-mix adjusters in consumer assessment of healthcare. We used data on 11,539 consumers from 27 Dutch health plans, which were collected using the Dutch Consumer Quality Index health plan instrument. We conducted multilevel regression analyses of consumers' responses nested within health plans to assess the effects of consumer characteristics on consumer experience. We compared our findings to the results of another methodology: the impact factor approach, which combines the predictive effect of each case-mix variable with its heterogeneity across health plans. Both multilevel regression and impact factor analyses showed that age and education were the most important case-mix adjusters for consumer experience and ratings of health plans. With the exception of age, case-mix adjustment had little impact on the ranking of health plans. On both theoretical and practical grounds, multilevel modeling is useful for adequate case-mix adjustment and analysis of performance ratings.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bond, Stephen D.
2014-01-01
The availability of efficient algorithms for long-range pairwise interactions is central to the success of numerous applications, ranging in scale from atomic-level modeling of materials to astrophysics. This report focuses on the implementation and analysis of the multilevel summation method for approximating long-range pairwise interactions. The computational cost of the multilevel summation method is proportional to the number of particles, N, which is an improvement over FFTbased methods whos cost is asymptotically proportional to N logN. In addition to approximating electrostatic forces, the multilevel summation method can be use to efficiently approximate convolutions with long-range kernels. As an application, we apply the multilevel summation method to a discretized integral equation formulation of the regularized generalized Poisson equation. Numerical results are presented using an implementation of the multilevel summation method in the LAMMPS software package. Preliminary results show that the computational cost of the method scales as expected, but there is still a need for further optimization.
Extending the enterprise through multi-level supply control
Vlist, van der P.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.J.E.M.; Hegge, H.M.H.
1997-01-01
Demands for flexibility require larger parts of the supply chain to become customer driven. This article describes multi-level supply control (MLSC) as a mechanism to facilitate that; it allows to specify gradually and thus to shift the customer order decoupling point well across the boundary to the
Local posterior concentration rate for multilevel sparse sequences
Belitser, E.N.; Nurushev, N.
2017-01-01
We consider empirical Bayesian inference in the many normal means model in the situation when the high-dimensional mean vector is multilevel sparse, that is,most of the entries of the parameter vector are some fixed values. For instance, the traditional sparse signal is a particular case (with one
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Rosvall
Full Text Available To comprehend the hierarchical organization of large integrated systems, we introduce the hierarchical map equation, which reveals multilevel structures in networks. In this information-theoretic approach, we exploit the duality between compression and pattern detection; by compressing a description of a random walker as a proxy for real flow on a network, we find regularities in the network that induce this system-wide flow. Finding the shortest multilevel description of the random walker therefore gives us the best hierarchical clustering of the network--the optimal number of levels and modular partition at each level--with respect to the dynamics on the network. With a novel search algorithm, we extract and illustrate the rich multilevel organization of several large social and biological networks. For example, from the global air traffic network we uncover countries and continents, and from the pattern of scientific communication we reveal more than 100 scientific fields organized in four major disciplines: life sciences, physical sciences, ecology and earth sciences, and social sciences. In general, we find shallow hierarchical structures in globally interconnected systems, such as neural networks, and rich multilevel organizations in systems with highly separated regions, such as road networks.
Batistic, S.; Cerne, Matej; Vogel, Bernd
2017-01-01
The use of multi-level theories and methodologies in leadership has gained momentum in recent years. However, the leadership field still suffers from a fragmented and unclear evolution and practice of multi-level approaches. The questions of how and to what extent multi-level research has evolved in
[How to fit and interpret multilevel models using SPSS].
Pardo, Antonio; Ruiz, Miguel A; San Martín, Rafael
2007-05-01
Hierarchic or multilevel models are used to analyse data when cases belong to known groups and sample units are selected both from the individual level and from the group level. In this work, the multilevel models most commonly discussed in the statistic literature are described, explaining how to fit these models using the SPSS program (any version as of the 11 th ) and how to interpret the outcomes of the analysis. Five particular models are described, fitted, and interpreted: (1) one-way analysis of variance with random effects, (2) regression analysis with means-as-outcomes, (3) one-way analysis of covariance with random effects, (4) regression analysis with random coefficients, and (5) regression analysis with means- and slopes-as-outcomes. All models are explained, trying to make them understandable to researchers in health and behaviour sciences.
On the multi-level solution algorithm for Markov chains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horton, G. [Univ. of Erlangen, Nuernberg (Germany)
1996-12-31
We discuss the recently introduced multi-level algorithm for the steady-state solution of Markov chains. The method is based on the aggregation principle, which is well established in the literature. Recursive application of the aggregation yields a multi-level method which has been shown experimentally to give results significantly faster than the methods currently in use. The algorithm can be reformulated as an algebraic multigrid scheme of Galerkin-full approximation type. The uniqueness of the scheme stems from its solution-dependent prolongation operator which permits significant computational savings in the evaluation of certain terms. This paper describes the modeling of computer systems to derive information on performance, measured typically as job throughput or component utilization, and availability, defined as the proportion of time a system is able to perform a certain function in the presence of component failures and possibly also repairs.
Johnson, Sara B; Little, Todd D; Masyn, Katherine; Mehta, Paras D; Ghazarian, Sharon R
2017-06-01
Characterizing the determinants of child health and development over time, and identifying the mechanisms by which these determinants operate, is a research priority. The growth of precision medicine has increased awareness and refinement of conceptual frameworks, data management systems, and analytic methods for multilevel data. This article reviews key methodological challenges in cohort studies designed to investigate multilevel influences on child health and strategies to address them. We review and summarize methodological challenges that could undermine prospective studies of the multilevel determinants of child health and ways to address them, borrowing approaches from the social and behavioral sciences. Nested data, variation in intervals of data collection and assessment, missing data, construct measurement across development and reporters, and unobserved population heterogeneity pose challenges in prospective multilevel cohort studies with children. We discuss innovations in missing data, innovations in person-oriented analyses, and innovations in multilevel modeling to address these challenges. Study design and analytic approaches that facilitate the integration across multiple levels, and that account for changes in people and the multiple, dynamic, nested systems in which they participate over time, are crucial to fully realize the promise of precision medicine for children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gao, Congzhe; Jiang, Xinjian; Li, Yongdong
2013-01-01
Voltage balance issue of dc-link capacitors is very important for applications of a cascade multilevel converter or a modular multilevel converter. In this paper, a novel diode-clamped modular multilevel converter (DCM2C) topology is proposed and a power feedback control method is developed...... used traditional method; therefore, the system performance improvement and cost reduction are expected. Based on the proposed DCM2C, a novel N +1-level cascade multilevel topology is proposed for a cascade active power filter (CS-APF). The simulation and experimental results from the CS-APF have...
Multi-level approach for parametric roll analysis
Kim, Taeyoung; Kim, Yonghwan
2011-03-01
The present study considers multi-level approach for the analysis of parametric roll phenomena. Three kinds of computation method, GM variation, impulse response function (IRF), and Rankine panel method, are applied for the multi-level approach. IRF and Rankine panel method are based on the weakly nonlinear formulation which includes nonlinear Froude- Krylov and restoring forces. In the computation result of parametric roll occurrence test in regular waves, IRF and Rankine panel method show similar tendency. Although the GM variation approach predicts the occurrence of parametric roll at twice roll natural frequency, its frequency criteria shows a little difference. Nonlinear roll motion in bichromatic wave is also considered in this study. To prove the unstable roll motion in bichromatic waves, theoretical and numerical approaches are applied. The occurrence of parametric roll is theoretically examined by introducing the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation. Instability criteria are well predicted from stability analysis in theoretical approach. From the Fourier analysis, it has been verified that difference-frequency effects create the unstable roll motion. The occurrence of unstable roll motion in bichromatic wave is also observed in the experiment.
Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.; Tang, X.Z.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.
1999-01-01
The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of δf particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
A collision dynamics model of a multi-level train
2006-11-05
In train collisions, multi-level rail passenger vehicles can deform in modes that are different from the behavior of single level cars. The deformation in single level cars usually occurs at the front end during a collision. In one particular inciden...
The Effects of Autonomy and Empowerment on Employee Turnover: Test of a Multilevel Model in Teams
Liu, Dong; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Lei; Lee, Thomas W.
2011-01-01
Extending research on voluntary turnover in the team setting, this study adopts a multilevel self-determination theoretical approach to examine the unique roles of individual and social-contextual motivational precursors, autonomy orientation and autonomy support, in reducing team member voluntary turnover. Analysis of multilevel time-lagged data…
Multilevel joint competing risk models
Karunarathna, G. H. S.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.
2017-09-01
Joint modeling approaches are often encountered for different outcomes of competing risk time to event and count in many biomedical and epidemiology studies in the presence of cluster effect. Hospital length of stay (LOS) has been the widely used outcome measure in hospital utilization due to the benchmark measurement for measuring multiple terminations such as discharge, transferred, dead and patients who have not completed the event of interest at the follow up period (censored) during hospitalizations. Competing risk models provide a method of addressing such multiple destinations since classical time to event models yield biased results when there are multiple events. In this study, the concept of joint modeling has been applied to the dengue epidemiology in Sri Lanka, 2006-2008 to assess the relationship between different outcomes of LOS and platelet count of dengue patients with the district cluster effect. Two key approaches have been applied to build up the joint scenario. In the first approach, modeling each competing risk separately using the binary logistic model, treating all other events as censored under the multilevel discrete time to event model, while the platelet counts are assumed to follow a lognormal regression model. The second approach is based on the endogeneity effect in the multilevel competing risks and count model. Model parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood based on the Laplace approximation. Moreover, the study reveals that joint modeling approach yield more precise results compared to fitting two separate univariate models, in terms of AIC (Akaike Information Criterion).
Dispersion Tolerance of 40 Gbaud Multilevel Modulation Formats with up to 3 bits per Symbol
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Tokle, Torger; Geng, Yan
2006-01-01
We present numerical and experimental investigations of dispersion tolerance for multilevel phase- and amplitude modulation with up to 3 bits per symbol at a symbol rate of 40 Gbaud......We present numerical and experimental investigations of dispersion tolerance for multilevel phase- and amplitude modulation with up to 3 bits per symbol at a symbol rate of 40 Gbaud...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardy, David J.; Schulten, Klaus; Wolff, Matthew A.; Skeel, Robert D.; Xia, Jianlin
2016-01-01
The multilevel summation method for calculating electrostatic interactions in molecular dynamics simulations constructs an approximation to a pairwise interaction kernel and its gradient, which can be evaluated at a cost that scales linearly with the number of atoms. The method smoothly splits the kernel into a sum of partial kernels of increasing range and decreasing variability with the longer-range parts interpolated from grids of increasing coarseness. Multilevel summation is especially appropriate in the context of dynamics and minimization, because it can produce continuous gradients. This article explores the use of B-splines to increase the accuracy of the multilevel summation method (for nonperiodic boundaries) without incurring additional computation other than a preprocessing step (whose cost also scales linearly). To obtain accurate results efficiently involves technical difficulties, which are overcome by a novel preprocessing algorithm. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the resulting method offers substantial improvements in accuracy and that its performance is competitive with an implementation of the fast multipole method in general and markedly better for Hamiltonian formulations of molecular dynamics. The improvement is great enough to establish multilevel summation as a serious contender for calculating pairwise interactions in molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, the method appears to be uniquely capable for molecular dynamics in two situations, nonperiodic boundary conditions and massively parallel computation, where the fast Fourier transform employed in the particle–mesh Ewald method falls short.
Customized binary and multi-level HfO2-x-based memristors tuned by oxidation conditions.
He, Weifan; Sun, Huajun; Zhou, Yaxiong; Lu, Ke; Xue, Kanhao; Miao, Xiangshui
2017-08-30
The memristor is a promising candidate for the next generation non-volatile memory, especially based on HfO 2-x , given its compatibility with advanced CMOS technologies. Although various resistive transitions were reported independently, customized binary and multi-level memristors in unified HfO 2-x material have not been studied. Here we report Pt/HfO 2-x /Ti memristors with double memristive modes, forming-free and low operation voltage, which were tuned by oxidation conditions of HfO 2-x films. As O/Hf ratios of HfO 2-x films increase, the forming voltages, SET voltages, and R off /R on windows increase regularly while their resistive transitions undergo from gradually to sharply in I/V sweep. Two memristors with typical resistive transitions were studied to customize binary and multi-level memristive modes, respectively. For binary mode, high-speed switching with 10 3 pulses (10 ns) and retention test at 85 °C (>10 4 s) were achieved. For multi-level mode, the 12-levels stable resistance states were confirmed by ongoing multi-window switching (ranging from 10 ns to 1 μs and completing 10 cycles of each pulse). Our customized binary and multi-level HfO 2-x -based memristors show high-speed switching, multi-level storage and excellent stability, which can be separately applied to logic computing and neuromorphic computing, further suitable for in-memory computing chip when deposition atmosphere may be fine-tuned.
The Readability of Malaysian English Children Books: A Multilevel Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adlina Ismail
2016-11-01
Full Text Available These days, there are more English books for children published by local publishers in Malaysia. It is a positive development because the books will be more accessible to the children. However, the books have never been studied and evaluated in depth yet. One important factor in assessing reading materials is readability. Readability determines whether a text is easy or difficult to understand and a balanced mix of both can promote learning and language development. Various researchers mentioned a multilevel framework of discourse that any language assessment on a text should take into account. The levels that were proposed were word, syntax, textbase, situation model and genre and rhetorical structures. Traditional readability measures such as Flesh Reading Ease Formula, Gunning Readability Index, Fog Count, and Fry Grade Level are not able to address the multilevel because they are based on shallow variables. In contrast, Coh-metrix TERA provided five indices that are correlated to grade level and aligned to the multilevel framework. This study analyzed ten Malaysian English chapter books for children using this Coh-metrix TERA. The result revealed that the Malaysian English children books were easy in shallow level but there was a possible difficulty in textbase and situation model level because of the lack of cohesion. In conclusion, more attention should be given on deeper level of text rather than just word and syntax level.
Multilevel component analysis of time-resolved metabolic fingerprinting data
Jansen, J.J.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Greef, J. van der; Timmerman, M.E.; Smilde, A.K.
2005-01-01
Genomics-based technologies in systems biology have gained a lot of popularity in recent years. These technologies generate large amounts of data. To obtain information from this data, multivariate data analysis methods are required. Many of the datasets generated in genomics are multilevel
Outline of a multilevel approach of the network society
van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.
2005-01-01
Social and media networks, the Internet in particular, increasingly link interpersonal, organizational and mass communication. It is argued that this gives a cause for an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach of the network society. This will have to link traditional micro- and meso-level
Improved Multilevel Fast Multipole Method for Higher-Order discretizations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borries, Oscar Peter; Meincke, Peter; Jorgensen, Erik
2014-01-01
The Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) allows for a reduced computational complexity when solving electromagnetic scattering problems. Combining this with the reduced number of unknowns provided by Higher-Order discretizations has proven to be a difficult task, with the general conclusion b...
An introduction to multilevel flow modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lind, Morten
2011-01-01
Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) is a methodology for functional modeling of industrial processes on several interconnected levels of means-end and part-whole abstractions. The basic idea of MFM is to represent an industrial plant as a system which provides the means required to serve purposes in i...... in detail by a water mill example. The overall reasoning capabilities of MFM and its basis in cause-effect relations are also explained. The appendix contains an overview of MFM concepts and their definitions....
Min, Ari; Park, Chang Gi; Scott, Linda D
2016-05-23
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is an advantageous non-parametric technique for evaluating relative efficiency of performance. This article describes use of DEA to estimate technical efficiency of nursing care and demonstrates the benefits of using multilevel modeling to identify characteristics of efficient facilities in the second stage of analysis. Data were drawn from LTCFocUS.org, a secondary database including nursing home data from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting System and Minimum Data Set. In this example, 2,267 non-hospital-based nursing homes were evaluated. Use of DEA with nurse staffing levels as inputs and quality of care as outputs allowed estimation of the relative technical efficiency of nursing care in these facilities. In the second stage, multilevel modeling was applied to identify organizational factors contributing to technical efficiency. Use of multilevel modeling avoided biased estimation of findings for nested data and provided comprehensive information on differences in technical efficiency among counties and states. © The Author(s) 2016.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Talayeh Razzaghi
Full Text Available This work is motivated by the needs of predictive analytics on healthcare data as represented by Electronic Medical Records. Such data is invariably problematic: noisy, with missing entries, with imbalance in classes of interests, leading to serious bias in predictive modeling. Since standard data mining methods often produce poor performance measures, we argue for development of specialized techniques of data-preprocessing and classification. In this paper, we propose a new method to simultaneously classify large datasets and reduce the effects of missing values. It is based on a multilevel framework of the cost-sensitive SVM and the expected maximization imputation method for missing values, which relies on iterated regression analyses. We compare classification results of multilevel SVM-based algorithms on public benchmark datasets with imbalanced classes and missing values as well as real data in health applications, and show that our multilevel SVM-based method produces fast, and more accurate and robust classification results.
Optical image encryption using QR code and multilevel fingerprints in gyrator transform domains
Wei, Yang; Yan, Aimin; Dong, Jiabin; Hu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingtao
2017-11-01
A new concept of GT encryption scheme is proposed in this paper. We present a novel optical image encryption method by using quick response (QR) code and multilevel fingerprint keys in gyrator transform (GT) domains. In this method, an original image is firstly transformed into a QR code, which is placed in the input plane of cascaded GTs. Subsequently, the QR code is encrypted into the cipher-text by using multilevel fingerprint keys. The original image can be obtained easily by reading the high-quality retrieved QR code with hand-held devices. The main parameters used as private keys are GTs' rotation angles and multilevel fingerprints. Biometrics and cryptography are integrated with each other to improve data security. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed encryption scheme. In the future, the method of applying QR codes and fingerprints in GT domains possesses much potential for information security.
Enabling multi-level relevance feedback on PubMed by integrating rank learning into DBMS.
Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Taehoon; Oh, Jinoh; Ko, Ilhwan; Kim, Sungchul; Han, Wook-Shin
2010-04-16
Finding relevant articles from PubMed is challenging because it is hard to express the user's specific intention in the given query interface, and a keyword query typically retrieves a large number of results. Researchers have applied machine learning techniques to find relevant articles by ranking the articles according to the learned relevance function. However, the process of learning and ranking is usually done offline without integrated with the keyword queries, and the users have to provide a large amount of training documents to get a reasonable learning accuracy. This paper proposes a novel multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, called RefMed, which supports both ad-hoc keyword queries and a multi-level relevance feedback in real time on PubMed. RefMed supports a multi-level relevance feedback by using the RankSVM as the learning method, and thus it achieves higher accuracy with less feedback. RefMed "tightly" integrates the RankSVM into RDBMS to support both keyword queries and the multi-level relevance feedback in real time; the tight coupling of the RankSVM and DBMS substantially improves the processing time. An efficient parameter selection method for the RankSVM is also proposed, which tunes the RankSVM parameter without performing validation. Thereby, RefMed achieves a high learning accuracy in real time without performing a validation process. RefMed is accessible at http://dm.postech.ac.kr/refmed. RefMed is the first multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, which achieves a high accuracy with less feedback. It effectively learns an accurate relevance function from the user's feedback and efficiently processes the function to return relevant articles in real time.
Voisin, Mathew R; Witiw, Christopher D; Deorajh, Ryan; Guha, Daipayan; Oremakinde, Adetunji; Wang, Shelly; Yang, Victor
2018-01-01
Multilevel spondylolysis is a rare cause of progressive lower back pain, and patients who fail conservative management are treated surgically. Direct repair methods can maintain mobility and lead to decreased morbidity compared with spinal fusion in single-level spondylolysis. In this paper, we present a patient with nonadjacent multilevel spondylolysis who underwent the "smiley face" technique of direct multilevel repair without fusion using 3-dimensional intraoperative spinal navigation. Bilateral spondylolysis at L3 and L5 with associated spondylolisthesis in a 50-year-old male was repaired using the "smiley face" technique. Patient-reported outcomes, including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale scores for back and leg pain, were assessed preoperatively along with 6 weeks and 4 months postoperatively. Postoperative computed tomography imaging showed precise screw insertion and rod placement along with stable hardware alignment in follow-up imaging. The patient's ODI and lower back visual analog scale scores decreased from 25 to 8 and 7.5 to 4, respectively, correlating to an excellent outcome on ODI. Direct repair and avoidance of fusion is possible and can provide good functional outcomes in patients with nonadjacent multilevel spondylolysis and associated spondylolisthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Generalized latent variable modeling multilevel, longitudinal, and structural equation models
Skrondal, Anders; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia
2004-01-01
This book unifies and extends latent variable models, including multilevel or generalized linear mixed models, longitudinal or panel models, item response or factor models, latent class or finite mixture models, and structural equation models.
Příležitosti a rizika fungování multilevel marketingu v ČR
Hašková, Lenka
2017-01-01
This paper presents the model of the business called Multilevel Marketing that is known as MLM. In the first part there is the characterization, the origin and historical development of Multilevel Marketing. The companies that became pioneers in this branch in The Czech Republic and became successful thanks to this model of the business are also mentioned in the first part of the paper. The differences between pyramid, non-ethical and illegal Multilevel Marketing are also contained in this pa...
On decoding of multi-level MPSK modulation codes
Lin, Shu; Gupta, Alok Kumar
1990-01-01
The decoding problem of multi-level block modulation codes is investigated. The hardware design of soft-decision Viterbi decoder for some short length 8-PSK block modulation codes is presented. An effective way to reduce the hardware complexity of the decoder by reducing the branch metric and path metric, using a non-uniform floating-point to integer mapping scheme, is proposed and discussed. The simulation results of the design are presented. The multi-stage decoding (MSD) of multi-level modulation codes is also investigated. The cases of soft-decision and hard-decision MSD are considered and their performance are evaluated for several codes of different lengths and different minimum squared Euclidean distances. It is shown that the soft-decision MSD reduces the decoding complexity drastically and it is suboptimum. The hard-decision MSD further simplifies the decoding while still maintaining a reasonable coding gain over the uncoded system, if the component codes are chosen properly. Finally, some basic 3-level 8-PSK modulation codes using BCH codes as component codes are constructed and their coding gains are found for hard decision multistage decoding.
Multi-Level Bitmap Indexes for Flash Memory Storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Kesheng; Madduri, Kamesh; Canon, Shane
2010-07-23
Due to their low access latency, high read speed, and power-efficient operation, flash memory storage devices are rapidly emerging as an attractive alternative to traditional magnetic storage devices. However, tests show that the most efficient indexing methods are not able to take advantage of the flash memory storage devices. In this paper, we present a set of multi-level bitmap indexes that can effectively take advantage of flash storage devices. These indexing methods use coarsely binned indexes to answer queries approximately, and then use finely binned indexes to refine the answers. Our new methods read significantly lower volumes of data at the expense of an increased disk access count, thus taking full advantage of the improved read speed and low access latency of flash devices. To demonstrate the advantage of these new indexes, we measure their performance on a number of storage systems using a standard data warehousing benchmark called the Set Query Benchmark. We observe that multi-level strategies on flash drives are up to 3 times faster than traditional indexing strategies on magnetic disk drives.
Design and Implementation of Wiki Services in a Multilevel Secure Environment
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ong, Kar L
2007-01-01
The Monterey Security Architecture (MYSEA) provides a distributed multilevel secure networking environment where authenticated users can securely access data and services at different security classification levels...
Evaluation and analysis of nuclear resonance data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frohner, F.H.
2000-01-01
A probabilistic foundations of data evaluation are reviewed, with special emphasis on parameter estimation based on Bayes' theorem and a quadratic loss function, and on modern methods for the assignment of prior probabilities. The data reduction process leading from raw experimental data to evaluated computer files of nuclear reaction cross sections is outlined, with a discussion of systematic and statistical errors and their propagation and of the generalized least squares formalism including prior information and nonlinear theoretical models. It is explained how common errors induce correlations between data, what consequences they have for uncertainty propagation and sensitivity studies, and how evaluators can construct covariance matrices from the usual error information provided by experimentalists. New techniques for evaluation of inconsistent data are also presented. The general principles are then applied specifically to the analysis and evaluation of neutron resonance data in terms of theoretical models - R-matrix theory (and especially its practically used multi-level Breit-Wigner and Reich-Moore variants) in the resolved region, and resonance-averaged R-matrix theory (Hauser-Feshbach theory with width-fluctuation corrections) in the unresolved region. Complications arise because the measured transmission data, capture and fission yields, self-indication ratios and other observables are not yet the wanted cross sections. These are obtained only by means of parametrisation. The intervening effects - Doppler and resolution broadening, self-shielding, multiple scattering, backgrounds, sample impurities, energy-dependent detector efficiencies, inaccurate reference data etc - are therefore also discussed. (author)
Fast multilevel radiative transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paletou, Frederic; Leger, Ludovick
2007-01-01
The vast majority of recent advances in the field of numerical radiative transfer relies on approximate operator methods better known in astrophysics as Accelerated Lambda-Iteration (ALI). A superior class of iterative schemes, in term of rates of convergence, such as Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation methods were therefore quite naturally introduced in the field of radiative transfer by Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho [A novel iterative scheme for the very fast and accurate solution of non-LTE radiative transfer problems. Astrophys J 1995;455:646]; it was thoroughly described for the non-LTE two-level atom case. We describe hereafter in details how such methods can be generalized when dealing with non-LTE unpolarised radiation transfer with multilevel atomic models, in monodimensional geometry
Su, Gui-Jia
2003-06-10
A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.
Charging capacitors of multilevel inverter from dc intermediate circuit
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bejvl, Martin
2011-01-01
Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), s. 159-170 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : electric drive * multilevel inverter * modulation and demodulation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electric al Engineering
Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability
Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.
2017-01-01
Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.R. Banaei
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Multilevel inverters are suggested to obtain high quality output voltage. In this paper, a new hybrid configuration is proposed, obtained by cascading one four switches H-bridge cell with a family of multilevel inverters. In addition, by the use of specific sequence for value of DC sources named Fibonacci series, asymmetrical topology of proposed inverter is introduced. Main advantages are that proposed inverter has least Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV than other conventional multilevel converters in both symmetric and asymmetric modes. Also, this topology doubles the number of output levels using only one cascaded four switches H-bridge cell. The PCI-1716 DAQ using PC has been used to generate switching pulses in experimental results. For presenting valid performance of proposed configuration, simulation results carried out by MATLAB/SIMULINK software and the validity of the proposed multilevel inverter is verified by experimental results.
Multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems with priorities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yassouridis, A.; Koller, R.
1983-01-01
The well-known multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems without priorities is extended to M/G/1 systems with priority classes. The average response time t/sub j/(x) and the average waiting time w/sub j/(x) for a j-class job, which requires a total service of x sec, are analytically calculated. Some figures demonstrate how the priority classes and the total number of different levels affect the behaviour of the functions t/sub j/(x) and w/sub j/(x). In addition, the foreground-background algorithm with priorities, which is not yet covered in the literature, is treated as a special case of the multilevel processor-sharing algorithm. 8 references.
Integration of multi-level marketing management systems geographically industry development
Aleksandr Lavrov; Lada Polikarpova; Alla Handramai
2015-01-01
In the article the authors attempt to develop a multi-level management system territorially industry development in market conditions, built in the widespread use of various types of marketing and their horizontal and vertical integration.
Dual deep modeling: multi-level modeling with dual potencies and its formalization in F-Logic.
Neumayr, Bernd; Schuetz, Christoph G; Jeusfeld, Manfred A; Schrefl, Michael
2018-01-01
An enterprise database contains a global, integrated, and consistent representation of a company's data. Multi-level modeling facilitates the definition and maintenance of such an integrated conceptual data model in a dynamic environment of changing data requirements of diverse applications. Multi-level models transcend the traditional separation of class and object with clabjects as the central modeling primitive, which allows for a more flexible and natural representation of many real-world use cases. In deep instantiation, the number of instantiation levels of a clabject or property is indicated by a single potency. Dual deep modeling (DDM) differentiates between source potency and target potency of a property or association and supports the flexible instantiation and refinement of the property by statements connecting clabjects at different modeling levels. DDM comes with multiple generalization of clabjects, subsetting/specialization of properties, and multi-level cardinality constraints. Examples are presented using a UML-style notation for DDM together with UML class and object diagrams for the representation of two-level user views derived from the multi-level model. Syntax and semantics of DDM are formalized and implemented in F-Logic, supporting the modeler with integrity checks and rich query facilities.
Gochhayat, Jyotiranjan; Giri, Vijai N.; Suar, Damodar
2017-01-01
This study provides a new conceptualization of educational leadership with a multilevel and integrative approach. It examines the impact of multilevel leadership (MLL) on the effectiveness of technical educational institutes through the mediating effects of organizational communication, bases of power and organizational culture. Data were…
Miller, Jeffrey R.; Piper, Tinka Markham; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro
2005-01-01
Evidence on the relationship between income inequality and suicide is inconsistent. Data from the New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for all fatal injuries was collected to conduct a multilevel case-control study. In multilevel models, suicide decedents (n = 374) were more likely than accident controls (n = 453) to reside in…
Individualist-Collectivist Culture and Trust Radius : A Multilevel Approach
van Hoorn, André
We apply a multilevel approach to examine empirically the nexus between individualist and collectivist culture on the one hand and people’s radius of trust on the other. People’s trust level (i.e., the intensity with which people trust other people) has been extensively studied. Increasingly,
Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach
Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria
2013-01-01
This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…
Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Simulation
Hoel, H
2011-08-23
This work generalizes a multilevel forward Euler Monte Carlo method introduced in Michael B. Giles. (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607–617, 2008.) for the approximation of expected values depending on the solution to an Itô stochastic differential equation. The work (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607– 617, 2008.) proposed and analyzed a forward Euler multilevelMonte Carlo method based on a hierarchy of uniform time discretizations and control variates to reduce the computational effort required by a standard, single level, Forward Euler Monte Carlo method. This work introduces an adaptive hierarchy of non uniform time discretizations, generated by an adaptive algorithmintroduced in (AnnaDzougoutov et al. Raùl Tempone. Adaptive Monte Carlo algorithms for stopped diffusion. In Multiscale methods in science and engineering, volume 44 of Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Eng., pages 59–88. Springer, Berlin, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. Stoch. Anal. Appl. 23(3):511–558, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. An adaptive algorithm for ordinary, stochastic and partial differential equations. In Recent advances in adaptive computation, volume 383 of Contemp. Math., pages 325–343. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2005.). This form of the adaptive algorithm generates stochastic, path dependent, time steps and is based on a posteriori error expansions first developed in (Anders Szepessy et al. Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 54(10):1169– 1214, 2001). Our numerical results for a stopped diffusion problem, exhibit savings in the computational cost to achieve an accuracy of ϑ(TOL),from(TOL−3), from using a single level version of the adaptive algorithm to ϑ(((TOL−1)log(TOL))2).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zahtamal .
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Konsekuensi dari penyakit-penyakit yang sering dialami oleh pekerja merupakan kerugian besar bagi perusahaan dan pekerja. Dalam rangka mengatasi persoalan penyakit pada pekerja, perlu upaya promosi kesehatan di tempat kerja, khususnya untuk mengubah perilaku. Penerapan perubahan perilaku di tempat kerja bersifat lebih kompleks. Perubahan perilaku tidak saja didorong oleh faktor-faktor individu, tetapi juga oleh peran faktor eksternal, sehingga pihak yang dijadikan sasaran workplace health promotion (WHP adalah secara multilevel. Artikel ini menjelaskan rumusan model WHP multilevel yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengubah perilaku pekerja yang tidak sehat, sehingga diharapkan dapat menurunkan kesakitan dan kematian penyakit pada pekerja. Prinsip pemilihan model perubahan perilaku, perlu diperhatikan dalam merumuskan WHP secara multilevel. Hal ini dijadikan sebagai acuan memodifikasi perilaku yang akan dituju. Selanjutnya, prinsip memilih strategi dan metode perubahan perilaku, disesuaikan dengan level sasaran yang diintervensi. Secara keseluruhan, prinsip-prinsip ini dirumuskan dalam sebuah acuan program WHP secara komprehensif dan dilaksanakan dengan efektif dan efisien di tempat kerja. Artikel ini dapat menjadi acuan bagi pihak yang akan mengimplementasikan WHP dengan pendekatan perubahan perilaku secara multilevel.
Li, Baoyue; Bruyneel, Luk; Lesaffre, Emmanuel
2014-05-20
A traditional Gaussian hierarchical model assumes a nested multilevel structure for the mean and a constant variance at each level. We propose a Bayesian multivariate multilevel factor model that assumes a multilevel structure for both the mean and the covariance matrix. That is, in addition to a multilevel structure for the mean we also assume that the covariance matrix depends on covariates and random effects. This allows to explore whether the covariance structure depends on the values of the higher levels and as such models heterogeneity in the variances and correlation structure of the multivariate outcome across the higher level values. The approach is applied to the three-dimensional vector of burnout measurements collected on nurses in a large European study to answer the research question whether the covariance matrix of the outcomes depends on recorded system-level features in the organization of nursing care, but also on not-recorded factors that vary with countries, hospitals, and nursing units. Simulations illustrate the performance of our modeling approach. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Extended SVM algorithms for multilevel trans-Z-source inverter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aida Baghbany Oskouei
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper suggests extended algorithms for multilevel trans-Z-source inverter. These algorithms are based on space vector modulation (SVM, which works with high switching frequency and does not generate the mean value of the desired load voltage in every switching interval. In this topology the output voltage is not limited to dc voltage source similar to traditional cascaded multilevel inverter and can be increased with trans-Z-network shoot-through state control. Besides, it is more reliable against short circuit, and due to several number of dc sources in each phase of this topology, it is possible to use it in hybrid renewable energy. Proposed SVM algorithms include the following: Combined modulation algorithm (SVPWM and shoot-through implementation in dwell times of voltage vectors algorithm. These algorithms are compared from viewpoint of simplicity, accuracy, number of switching, and THD. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the expected representations.
High resolution study of proton resonances in 65Ga and 67Ga
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sales, K.B.
1980-01-01
Differential cross sections were measured for 64 Zn(p,p) from 2.50 to 3.24 MeV and for 66 Zn(p,p) from 2.60 to 3.26 MeV at laboratory angles of 90 0 , 105 0 , 135 0 , and 160 0 . These experiments were performed with the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator and associated electrostatic analyzer-homogenizer system. The total overall energy resolution was 420 to 525 eV for 64 Zn(p,p) and 360 to 405 eV for 66 Zn(p,p). Resonances observed in the excitation functions were analyzed with a multilevel R-Matrix formalism. Resonance energies, spins, parities, and elastic widths were extracted for 39 resonances in 65 Ga and 148 resonances in 67 Ga. The l = 0 proton strength functions were calculated for 64 Zn and 66 Zn. The s-wave strength function shows an increase for A=66, which is consistent with earlier results from (p,n) cross section studies. Statistical properties of the 1/2 + resonances in 65 Ga and 67 Ga were examined. The spacing and reduced width distributions were compared with the Wigner and Porter-Thomas distributions, respectively. This comparison indicates that 50% of the 1/2 + resonances were missed in 65 Ga and that 70% of the 1/2 + resonances were missed in 67 Ga. The observed s-wave level densities in 65 Ga and 67 Ga are compared with predictions from conventional level density models. The analogs of the 0.867 MeV, the 0.910 MeV, and the 1.370 MeV states of 65 Zn are observed in 65 Ga; the analogs of the 0.093 MeV and the 0.394 MeV states of 67 Zn are observed in 67 Ga. The analog states in 65 Ga were fragmented into only two or three resonances, while the two analog states in 67 Ga were highly fragmented. Fits to the fine structure distributions of these two analogs were obtained and the resulting parameters compared with the Robson model. Coulomb energies were extracted for these five analogs
Enhanced DC-Link Capacitor Voltage Balancing Control of DC–AC Multilevel Multileg Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Busquets-Monge, Sergio; Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Nicolas-Apruzzese, Joan
2015-01-01
This paper presents a capacitor voltage balancing control applicable to any multilevel dc–ac converter formed by a single set of series-connected capacitors implementing the dc link and semiconductor devices, such as the diode-clamped topology. The control is defined for any number of dc-link vol......This paper presents a capacitor voltage balancing control applicable to any multilevel dc–ac converter formed by a single set of series-connected capacitors implementing the dc link and semiconductor devices, such as the diode-clamped topology. The control is defined for any number of dc...
H.B. Kekre; Sudeep Thepade; Karan Dhamejani; Sanchit Khandelwal; Adnan Azmi
2012-01-01
The paper presents a performance analysis of Multilevel Block Truncation Coding based Face Recognition among widely used color spaces. In [1], Multilevel Block Truncation Coding was applied on the RGB color space up to four levels for face recognition. Better results were obtained when the proposed technique was implemented using Kekre’s LUV (K’LUV) color space [25]. This was the motivation to test the proposed technique using assorted color spaces. For experimental analysis, two face databas...
A New Family of Multilevel Grid Connected Inverters Based on Packed U Cell Topology.
Pakdel, Majid; Jalilzadeh, Saeid
2017-09-29
In this paper a novel packed U cell (PUC) based multilevel grid connected inverter is proposed. Unlike the U cell arrangement which consists of two power switches and one capacitor, in the proposed converter topology a lower DC power supply from renewable energy resources such as photovoltaic arrays (PV) is used as a base power source. The proposed topology offers higher efficiency and lower cost using a small number of power switches and a lower DC power source which is supplied from renewable energy resources. Other capacitor voltages are extracted from the base lower DC power source using isolated DC-DC power converters. The operation principle of proposed transformerless multilevel grid connected inverter is analyzed theoretically. Operation of the proposed multilevel grid connected inverter is verified through simulation studies. An experimental prototype using STM32F407 discovery controller board is performed to verify the simulation results.
Hersh, David S; Kim, Yong H; Razi, Afshin
2011-01-01
The incidence of isthmic spondylolysis is approximately 3% to 6% in the general population. Spondylolytic defects involving multiple vertebral levels, on the other hand, are extremely rare. Only a handful of reports have examined the outcomes of surgical treatment of multi-level spondylolysis. Here, we present one case of bilateral pars defects at L3, L4, and L5. The patient, a 46-year-old female, presented with lower back pain radiating into the left lower extremity. Radiographs and CT scans of the lumbar spine revealed bilateral pars defects at L3-L5. The patient underwent lumbar discectomy and interbody fusion of L4-S1 as well as direct repair of the pars defect at L3. There were no postoperative complications, and by seven months the patient had improved clinically. While previous reports describe the use of either direct repair or fusion in the treatment of spondylolysis, we are unaware of reports describing the use of both techniques at adjacent levels.
The EU as Multilevel Democracy: Conceptual and Practical Challenges
Crum, B.J.J.
2016-01-01
The aim of this paper is to systematically think through the implications of conceiving of the European Union as a ‘multilevel democracy’. The central claim on which this notion depends is that parliamentary sovereignty in the EU is not embodied in a single institution but remains essentially
Multilevel flow modelling of process plant for diagnosis and control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lind, M.
1982-08-01
The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure of complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and functions and may be used as a basis for design of computer-based support systems for the plant operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as basic for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator. (author)
Multilevel Flow Modelling of Process Plant for Diagnosis and Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lind, Morten
1982-01-01
The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure...... of complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and functions and may be used as a basis for design of computer-based support systems for the plant...... operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as a basis for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator....
Lynch, Shannon M; Rebbeck, Timothy R
2013-04-01
To address the complex nature of cancer occurrence and outcomes, approaches have been developed to simultaneously assess the role of two or more etiologic agents within hierarchical levels including the: (i) macroenvironment level (e.g., health care policy, neighborhood, or family structure); (ii) individual level (e.g., behaviors, carcinogenic exposures, socioeconomic factors, and psychologic responses); and (iii) biologic level (e.g., cellular biomarkers and inherited susceptibility variants). Prior multilevel approaches tend to focus on social and environmental hypotheses, and are thus limited in their ability to integrate biologic factors into a multilevel framework. This limited integration may be related to the limited translation of research findings into the clinic. We propose a "Multi-level Biologic and Social Integrative Construct" (MBASIC) to integrate macroenvironment and individual factors with biology. The goal of this framework is to help researchers identify relationships among factors that may be involved in the multifactorial, complex nature of cancer etiology, to aid in appropriate study design, to guide the development of statistical or mechanistic models to study these relationships, and to position the results of these studies for improved intervention, translation, and implementation. MBASIC allows researchers from diverse fields to develop hypotheses of interest under a common conceptual framework, to guide transdisciplinary collaborations, and to optimize the value of multilevel studies for clinical and public health activities.
Austin, Peter C; Wagner, Philippe; Merlo, Juan
2017-03-15
Multilevel data occurs frequently in many research areas like health services research and epidemiology. A suitable way to analyze such data is through the use of multilevel regression models (MLRM). MLRM incorporate cluster-specific random effects which allow one to partition the total individual variance into between-cluster variation and between-individual variation. Statistically, MLRM account for the dependency of the data within clusters and provide correct estimates of uncertainty around regression coefficients. Substantively, the magnitude of the effect of clustering provides a measure of the General Contextual Effect (GCE). When outcomes are binary, the GCE can also be quantified by measures of heterogeneity like the Median Odds Ratio (MOR) calculated from a multilevel logistic regression model. Time-to-event outcomes within a multilevel structure occur commonly in epidemiological and medical research. However, the Median Hazard Ratio (MHR) that corresponds to the MOR in multilevel (i.e., 'frailty') Cox proportional hazards regression is rarely used. Analogously to the MOR, the MHR is the median relative change in the hazard of the occurrence of the outcome when comparing identical subjects from two randomly selected different clusters that are ordered by risk. We illustrate the application and interpretation of the MHR in a case study analyzing the hazard of mortality in patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction at hospitals in Ontario, Canada. We provide R code for computing the MHR. The MHR is a useful and intuitive measure for expressing cluster heterogeneity in the outcome and, thereby, estimating general contextual effects in multilevel survival analysis. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Habit, custom, and power: a multi-level theory of population health.
Zimmerman, Frederick J
2013-03-01
In multi-level theory, individual behavior flows from cognitive habits, either directly through social referencing, rules of thumb, or automatic behaviors; or indirectly through the shaping of rationality itself by framing or heuristics. Although behavior does not arise from individually rational optimization, it generally appears to be rational, because the cognitive habits that guide behavior evolve toward optimality. However, power imbalances shaped by particular social, political, and economic structures can distort this evolution, leading to individual behavior that fails to maximize individual or social well-being. Replacing the dominant rational-choice paradigm with a multi-level theoretical paradigm involving habit, custom, and power will enable public health to engage in rigorous new areas of research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A fast photo-counter with multi-level buffers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Hu; Zhou Peiling; Yao Kun; Guo Guangcan
1992-01-01
Digital Photon Correlator (DPC) is composed of a Photo-counter and a data processing unit. The performance of Photo-counter in data acquisition system has a direct influence on data processing. The Photo-counter with fast carry designed here has multi-level buffers. Photon pulses can be correctly and dynamically recorded by the Photo-counter and processed by a single chip computer
An Adaptive Multilevel Factorized Sparse Approximate Inverse Preconditioning
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kopal, Jiří; Rozložník, Miroslav; Tůma, Miroslav
2017-01-01
Roč. 113, November (2017), s. 19-24 ISSN 0965-9978 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : approximate inverse * Gram–Schmidt orthogonalization * incomplete factorization * multilevel methods * preconditioned conjugate gradient method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2016
Totally parallel multilevel algorithms
Frederickson, Paul O.
1988-01-01
Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.
THE CREATION OF ANALYTICAL PREDICATION CONCEPT IN MULTILEVEL ORGANIZATION SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. M. Pisareva
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This article deals with analytical and forecasting methodology problems in the integrated business systems management. The theoretical framework of analytical predication concept in multilevel organization systems is presented.
Elimination of harmonics in multilevel inverters with non-equal dc sources using PSO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Othman, A.K.; Abdelhamid, Tamer H.
2009-01-01
Multilevel inverters supplied from equal and constant dc sources almost do not exist in practical applications. The variation of the dc sources affects the values of the switching angles required for each specific harmonic profile, as well as increases the difficulty of the harmonic elimination's equations. This paper presents an extremely fast optimal solution of harmonic elimination of multilevel inverters with non-equal dc sources using a novel Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The overall system is suitable for large variable speed drives, UPS systems, and on-line utility applications such as static var compensation. A set of mathematical equations describing the general output waveform of the multilevel inverter with non-equal dc sources is formulated. PSO is then employed to compute the optimal solution set of switching angles, if it exists, for each required harmonic profile. Theoretical studies for different case studies regarding the number of levels and harmonic profile are carried out to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed technique, and validated through both simulations and laboratory experimentation
Nature vs. nurture in human sociality: multi-level genomic analyses of social conformity.
Chen, Biqing; Zhu, Zijian; Wang, Yingying; Ding, Xiaohu; Guo, Xiaobo; He, Mingguang; Fang, Wan; Zhou, Qin; Zhou, Shanbi; Lei, Han; Huang, Ailong; Chen, Tingmei; Ni, Dongsheng; Gu, Yuping; Liu, Jianing; Rao, Yi
2018-05-01
Social conformity is fundamental to human societies and has been studied for more than six decades, but our understanding of its mechanisms remains limited. Individual differences in conformity have been attributed to social and cultural environmental influences, but not to genes. Here we demonstrate a genetic contribution to conformity after analyzing 1,140 twins and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies of 2,130 young adults. A two-step genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed replicable associations in 9 genomic loci, and a meta-analysis of three GWAS with a sample size of ~2,600 further confirmed one locus, corresponding to the NAV3 (Neuron Navigator 3) gene which encodes a protein important for axon outgrowth and guidance. Further multi-level (haplotype, gene, pathway) GWAS strongly associated genes including NAV3, PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D), ARL10 (ADP ribosylation factor-like GTPase 10), and CTNND2 (catenin delta 2), with conformity. Magnetic resonance imaging of 64 subjects shows correlation of activation or structural features of brain regions with the SNPs of these genes, supporting their functional significance. Our results suggest potential moderate genetic influence on conformity, implicate several specific genetic elements in conformity and will facilitate further research on cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying human conformity.
Help Seeking in Online Collaborative Groupwork: A Multilevel Analysis
Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao
2015-01-01
This study examined predictive models for students' help seeking in the context of online collaborative groupwork. Results from multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance in help seeking was at the individual student level, and multiple variables at the individual level were predictive of help-seeking behaviour. Help seeking was…
Design of shared unit-dose drug distribution network using multi-level particle swarm optimization.
Chen, Linjie; Monteiro, Thibaud; Wang, Tao; Marcon, Eric
2018-03-01
Unit-dose drug distribution systems provide optimal choices in terms of medication security and efficiency for organizing the drug-use process in large hospitals. As small hospitals have to share such automatic systems for economic reasons, the structure of their logistic organization becomes a very sensitive issue. In the research reported here, we develop a generalized multi-level optimization method - multi-level particle swarm optimization (MLPSO) - to design a shared unit-dose drug distribution network. Structurally, the problem studied can be considered as a type of capacitated location-routing problem (CLRP) with new constraints related to specific production planning. This kind of problem implies that a multi-level optimization should be performed in order to minimize logistic operating costs. Our results show that with the proposed algorithm, a more suitable modeling framework, as well as computational time savings and better optimization performance are obtained than that reported in the literature on this subject.
Active control of flying capacitor currents in multilevel voltage-source inverters
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kokeš, Petr; Semerád, Radko
2013-01-01
Roč. 58, č. 4 (2013), s. 393-410 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : voltage source inverter (VSI) * multilevel inverter * flying capacitor Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering
Pons, Tracey; Shipton, Edward A
2011-04-01
There are no comparative randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy modalities for chronic low back and radicular pain associated with multilevel fusion. Physiotherapy-based rehabilitation to control pain and improve activation levels for persistent pain following multilevel fusion can be challenging. This is a case report of a 68-year-old man who was referred for physiotherapy intervention 10 months after a multilevel spinal fusion for spinal stenosis. He reported high levels of persistent postoperative pain with minimal activity as a consequence of his pain following the surgery. The physiotherapy interventions consisted of three phases of rehabilitation starting with pool exercise that progressed to land-based walking. These were all combined with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) that was used consistently for up to 8 hours per day. As outcome measures, daily pain levels and walking distances were charted once the pool programme was completed (in the third phase). Phase progression was determined by shuttle test results. The pain level was correlated with the distance walked using linear regression over a 5-day average. Over a 5-day moving average, the pain level reduced and walking distance increased. The chart of recorded pain level and walking distance showed a trend toward decreased pain with the increased distance walked. In a patient undergoing multilevel lumbar fusion, the combined use of TENS and a progressive walking programme (from pool to land) reduced pain and increased walking distance. This improvement was despite poor medication compliance and a reported high level of postsurgical pain.
Batistic, S.; Cerne, M.; Vogel, Bernd
2017-01-01
The use of multi-level theories and methodologies in leadership has gained momentum in recent years. However, the leadership field still suffers from a fragmented and unclear evolution and practice of multi-level approaches. The questions of how and to what extent multi-level research has evolved in both leadership phenomena and leadership outcomes, and which informal research networks drove this evolution, remain vastly unexplored. In this study, the extent of literature published between 19...
Multilevel interfaces for power plant control rooms I: An integrative review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vicente, K.J.
1992-01-01
Events that are unfamiliar to operators and that have not been anticipated by designers pose the greatest threat to system safety in nuclear power plants. The abstraction hierarchy has been proposed as a representation framework that can be adopted to design interfaces that support operators in dealing with these unanticipated events. This multilevel representation format represents a plant in terms of both physical and functional constraints. This article reviews, for the first time, the work that has been done in academia, industry, and research laboratories on multilevel interfaces based on the abstraction hierarchy. The review indicates that there are many degrees of freedom in designing an interface based on the abstraction hierarchy but that very little systematic work has been done in evaluating how best to deal with those degrees of freedom. As a result, there is very little defensible guidance to provide designers. As a first step in overcoming this barrier, a companion paper uses the results of the review presented here to develop a preliminary design space for multilevel interfaces based on the abstraction hierarchy. This space serves several worthwhile purposes relevant not only to research but also to design and regulation as well. Consequently this complementary set of papers should be of interest to researchers, designers, and regulators concerned with nuclear power-plant control rooms. 53 refs., 8 figs
Multilevel converters for 10 MW Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede
2011-01-01
Several promising multi-level converter configurations for 10 MW Wind Turbines both with direct drive and one-stage gear box drive using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) are proposed, designed and compared. Reliability is a crucial indicator for large scale wind power converters...... that the three-level and five-level H-bridge converter topologies both have potential to achieve improved thermal performances compared to the three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped converter topology in the wind power application....
Multilevel Monte Carlo in Approximate Bayesian Computation
Jasra, Ajay
2017-02-13
In the following article we consider approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) inference. We introduce a method for numerically approximating ABC posteriors using the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC). A sequential Monte Carlo version of the approach is developed and it is shown under some assumptions that for a given level of mean square error, this method for ABC has a lower cost than i.i.d. sampling from the most accurate ABC approximation. Several numerical examples are given.
Tabu search approaches for the multi-level warehouse layout problem with adjacency constraints
Zhang, G. Q.; Lai, K. K.
2010-08-01
A new multi-level warehouse layout problem, the multi-level warehouse layout problem with adjacency constraints (MLWLPAC), is investigated. The same item type is required to be located in adjacent cells, and horizontal and vertical unit travel costs are product dependent. An integer programming model is proposed to formulate the problem, which is NP hard. Along with a cube-per-order index policy based heuristic, the standard tabu search (TS), greedy TS, and dynamic neighbourhood based TS are presented to solve the problem. The computational results show that the proposed approaches can reduce the transportation cost significantly.
A Dynamic Multi-Level Factor Model with Long-Range Dependence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir
A dynamic multi-level factor model with stationary or nonstationary global and regional factors is proposed. In the model, persistence in global and regional common factors as well as innovations allows for the study of fractional cointegrating relationships. Estimation of global and regional...
Optimal algebraic multilevel preconditioning for local refinement along a line
Margenov, S.D.; Maubach, J.M.L.
1995-01-01
The application of some recently proposed algebraic multilevel methods for the solution of two-dimensional finite element problems on nonuniform meshes is studied. The locally refined meshes are created by the newest vertex mesh refinement method. After the introduction of this refinement technique
Multi-level comparison of empathy in schizophrenia: an fMRI study of a cartoon task.
Lee, Seung Jae; Kang, Do Hyung; Kim, Chi-Won; Gu, Bon Mi; Park, Ji-Young; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Shin, Na Young; Lee, Jong-Min; Kwon, Jun Soo
2010-02-28
Empathy deficits might play a role in social dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the neuroanatomical underpinnings of the subcomponents of empathy in schizophrenia. This study investigated the hemodynamic responses to three subcomponents of empathy in patients with schizophrenia (N=15) and healthy volunteers (N=18), performing an empathy cartoon task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The experiment used a block design with four conditions: cognitive, emotional, and inhibitory empathy, and physical causality control. Data were analyzed by comparing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal activation between the two groups. The cognitive empathy condition activated the right temporal pole to a lesser extent in the patient group than in comparison subjects. In the emotional and inhibitory conditions, the patients showed greater activation in the left insula and in the right middle/inferior frontal cortex, respectively. These findings add to our understanding of the impaired empathy in patients with schizophrenia by identifying a multi-level cortical dysfunction that underlies a deficit in each subcomponent of empathy and highlighting the importance of the fronto-temporal cortical network in ability to empathize. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Jianqi; Zeng Ruixi
2017-01-01
Quantum-dot-molecular phase coherence (and the relevant quantum-interference-switchable optical response) can be utilized to control electromagnetic wave propagation via a gate voltage, since quantum-dot molecules can exhibit an effect of quantum coherence (phase coherence) when quantum-dot-molecular discrete multilevel transitions are driven by an electromagnetic wave. Interdot tunneling of carriers (electrons and holes) controlled by the gate voltage can lead to destructive quantum interference in a quantum-dot molecule that is coupled to an incident electromagnetic wave, and gives rise to a quantum coherence effect (e.g., electromagnetically induced transparency, EIT) in a quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film. The tunable on- and off-resonance tunneling effect of an incident electromagnetic wave (probe field) through such a quantum-coherent quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film is investigated. It is found that a high gate voltage can lead to the EIT phenomenon of the quantum-dot-molecular systems. Under the condition of on-resonance light tunneling through the present quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film, the probe field should propagate without loss if the probe frequency detuning is zero. Such an effect caused by both EIT and resonant tunneling, which is sensitive to the gate voltage, can be utilized for designing devices such as photonic switching, transistors, and logic gates. (author)
A multilevel correction adaptive finite element method for Kohn-Sham equation
Hu, Guanghui; Xie, Hehu; Xu, Fei
2018-02-01
In this paper, an adaptive finite element method is proposed for solving Kohn-Sham equation with the multilevel correction technique. In the method, the Kohn-Sham equation is solved on a fixed and appropriately coarse mesh with the finite element method in which the finite element space is kept improving by solving the derived boundary value problems on a series of adaptively and successively refined meshes. A main feature of the method is that solving large scale Kohn-Sham system is avoided effectively, and solving the derived boundary value problems can be handled efficiently by classical methods such as the multigrid method. Hence, the significant acceleration can be obtained on solving Kohn-Sham equation with the proposed multilevel correction technique. The performance of the method is examined by a variety of numerical experiments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meenakshi Jayaraman
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Recently, multilevel inverters are more researched due to the advantages they offer over conventional voltage source inverters in grid connected applications. Passive filters are connected at the output of these inverters to produce sinusoidal waveforms with reduced harmonics and to satisfy grid interconnection standard requirements. This work proposes a new passive filter topology for a pulse width modulated five-level cascaded inverter interfaced grid connected system. The proposed passive filter inserts an additional resistance-capacitance branch in parallel to the filter capacitor of the traditional inductive–capacitive–inductive filter in addition to a resistance in series with it to reduce damping power loss. It can attenuate the switching frequency harmonic current components much better than the traditional filter while maintaining the same overall inductance, reduced capacitance and resistance values. The basic parameter design procedure and an approach to discover the parameters of the proposed filter is introduced. Further, a novel methodology using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is recommended to guarantee minimum damping loss while ensuring reduced peak during resonance. In addition, PSO algorithm is newly employed in this work to maximize harmonic attenuation in and around the switching frequency on the premise of allowable values of filter inductance and capacitance. A comparative discussion considering traditional passive filters and the proposed filter is presented and evaluated through experiments conducted on a 110 V, 1 kW five-level grid connected inverter. The modulation algorithm for the multilevel inverter is implemented using a SPARTAN 6-XC6SLX25 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA processor. The analysis shows that the proposed filter not only provides decreased damping power loss but also is capable of providing considerable harmonic ripple reduction in the high frequency band, improved output waveforms and lesser
An Automatic Multilevel Image Thresholding Using Relative Entropy and Meta-Heuristic Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josue R. Cuevas
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Multilevel thresholding has been long considered as one of the most popular techniques for image segmentation. Multilevel thresholding outputs a gray scale image in which more details from the original picture can be kept, while binary thresholding can only analyze the image in two colors, usually black and white. However, two major existing problems with the multilevel thresholding technique are: it is a time consuming approach, i.e., finding appropriate threshold values could take an exceptionally long computation time; and defining a proper number of thresholds or levels that will keep most of the relevant details from the original image is a difficult task. In this study a new evaluation function based on the Kullback-Leibler information distance, also known as relative entropy, is proposed. The property of this new function can help determine the number of thresholds automatically. To offset the expensive computational effort by traditional exhaustive search methods, this study establishes a procedure that combines the relative entropy and meta-heuristics. From the experiments performed in this study, the proposed procedure not only provides good segmentation results when compared with a well known technique such as Otsu’s method, but also constitutes a very efficient approach.
Wang, Bo; Tian, Kuo; Zhao, Haixin; Hao, Peng; Zhu, Tianyu; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Yunlong
2017-06-01
In order to improve the post-buckling optimization efficiency of hierarchical stiffened shells, a multilevel optimization framework accelerated by adaptive equivalent strategy is presented in this paper. Firstly, the Numerical-based Smeared Stiffener Method (NSSM) for hierarchical stiffened shells is derived by means of the numerical implementation of asymptotic homogenization (NIAH) method. Based on the NSSM, a reasonable adaptive equivalent strategy for hierarchical stiffened shells is developed from the concept of hierarchy reduction. Its core idea is to self-adaptively decide which hierarchy of the structure should be equivalent according to the critical buckling mode rapidly predicted by NSSM. Compared with the detailed model, the high prediction accuracy and efficiency of the proposed model is highlighted. On the basis of this adaptive equivalent model, a multilevel optimization framework is then established by decomposing the complex entire optimization process into major-stiffener-level and minor-stiffener-level sub-optimizations, during which Fixed Point Iteration (FPI) is employed to accelerate convergence. Finally, the illustrative examples of the multilevel framework is carried out to demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness to search for the global optimum result by contrast with the single-level optimization method. Remarkably, the high efficiency and flexibility of the adaptive equivalent strategy is indicated by compared with the single equivalent strategy.
Using Multilevel Modeling in Language Assessment Research: A Conceptual Introduction
Barkaoui, Khaled
2013-01-01
This article critiques traditional single-level statistical approaches (e.g., multiple regression analysis) to examining relationships between language test scores and variables in the assessment setting. It highlights the conceptual, methodological, and statistical problems associated with these techniques in dealing with multilevel or nested…
Multilevel photonic modules for millimeter-wave phased-array antennas
Paolella, Arthur C.; Bauerle, Athena; Joshi, Abhay M.; Wright, James G.; Coryell, Louis A.
2000-09-01
Millimeter wave phased array systems have antenna element sizes and spacings similar to MMIC chip dimensions by virtue of the operating wavelength. Designing modules in traditional planar packaing techniques are therefore difficult to implement. An advantageous way to maintain a small module footprint compatible with Ka-Band and high frequency systems is to take advantage of two leading edge technologies, opto- electronic integrated circuits (OEICs) and multilevel packaging technology. Under a Phase II SBIR these technologies are combined to form photonic modules for optically controlled millimeter wave phased array antennas. The proposed module, consisting of an OEIC integrated with a planar antenna array will operate on the 40GHz region. The OEIC consists of an InP based dual-depletion PIN photodetector and distributed amplifier. The multi-level module will be fabricated using an enhanced circuit processing thick film process. Since the modules are batch fabricated using an enhanced circuit processing thick film process. Since the modules are batch fabricated, using standard commercial processes, it has the potential to be low cost while maintaining high performance, impacting both military and commercial communications systems.
Simon, M. K.
1974-01-01
Multilevel amplitude-shift-keying (MASK) and quadrature amplitude-shift-keying (QASK) as signaling techniques for multilevel digital communications systems, and the problem of providing symbol synchronization in the receivers of such systems are discussed. A technique is presented for extracting symbol sync from an MASK or QASK signal. The scheme is a generalization of the data transition tracking loop used in PSK systems. The performance of the loop was analyzed in terms of its mean-squared jitter and its effects on the data detection process in MASK and QASK systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
de Saussure, G.; Olsen, D.K.; Perez, R.B.
1976-01-01
The ENDF/B-IV prescription fails to represent correctly the 238 U total (and scattering) cross section between the levels of the resolved range. It is shown how this representation can be improved by properly accounting for the contribution of levels outside the resolved region to the cross section at energies inside the resolved region, and by substituting the more precise multilevel Breit-Wigner formula for the presently used single-level formula. The importance of computing accurately the minima in the total cross section is illustrated by comparing values of the self-shielded capture resonance integral computed with ENDF/B-IV and with a more accurate cross section model
Li, Xiucan; Wang, Yiguo; Zhao, Yongfei; Liu, Jianheng; Xiao, Songhua; Mao, Keya
2017-11-15
MINI: A 3D printing technology is proposed for reconstructing multilevel cervical spine (C2-C4) after resection of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. The personalized porous implant printed in Ti6AL4V provided excellent physicochemical properties and biological performance, including biocompatibility, osteogenic activity, and bone ingrowth effect. A unique case report. A three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is proposed for reconstructing multilevel cervical spine (C2-C4) after resection of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a middle-age female patient. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm with a relatively favorable prognosis. A metastatic lesion in multilevel cervical spine (C2-C4) destroys neurological functions and causes local instability. Radical excision of the metastasis and reconstruction of the cervical vertebrae sequence conforms with therapeutic principles, whereas the special-shaped multilevel upper-cervical spine requires personalized implants. 3D printing is an additive manufacturing technology that produces personalized products by accurately layering material under digital model control via a computer. Reporting of this recent technology for reconstructing multilevel cervical spine (C2-C4) is rare in the literature. Anterior-posterior surgery was performed in one stage. Radical resection of the metastatic lesion (C2-C4) and thyroid gland, along with insertion of a personalized implant manufactured by 3D printing technology, were performed to rebuild the cervical spine sequences. The porous implant was printed in Ti6AL4V with perfect physicochemical properties and biological performance, such as biocompatibility and osteogenic activity. Finally, lateral mass screw fixation was performed via a posterior approach. Patient neurological function gradually improved after the surgery. The patient received 11/17 on the Japanese Orthopedic Association scale and ambulated with a personalized skull-neck-thorax orthosis on
space vector pulse width modulation of a multi-level diode clamped
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ES Obe
step by step development of MATLAB /SIMULINK modeling of the space vector ..... Pulse Width Mod. of Multi-Level Diode Clamped Converter 119 powergui. Discrete, .... Load. Figure 22: Block diagram of the three level DCC design. 3 LEVEL ...
PRINCIPLE OF VALIDATION OF MULTILEVEL RGB COLORIMETRIC SYSTEMS OF REMOTE SENSING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lala Rustam Bekirova
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The possibility of development of two-level RGB colorimetric systems of remote sensing is analyzed. The principle of validation in multi-level RGB colorimetric systems taking into account the effect of metamerizm is formulated
93-106, 2015 93 Multilevel random effect and marginal models
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Multilevel random effect and marginal models for longitudinal data ... and random effect models that take the correlation among measurements of the same subject ... comparing the level of redness, pain and irritability ... clinical trial evaluating the safety profile of a new .... likelihood-based methods to compare models and.
College on Credit: A Multilevel Analysis of Student Loan Default
Hillman, Nicholas W.
2014-01-01
This study updates and expands the literature on student loan default. By applying multilevel regression to the Beginning Postsecondary Students survey, four key findings emerge. First, attending proprietary institutions is strongly associated with default, even after accounting for students' socioeconomic and academic backgrounds. Second,…
The Integrated Multi-Level Bilingual Teaching of "Social Research Methods"
Zhu, Yanhan; Ye, Jian
2012-01-01
"Social Research Methods," as a methodology course, combines theories and practices closely. Based on the synergy theory, this paper tries to establish an integrated multi-level bilingual teaching mode. Starting from the transformation of teaching concepts, we should integrate interactions, experiences, and researches together and focus…
Empowering leaders optimize working conditions for engagement: a multilevel study.
Tuckey, Michelle R; Bakker, Arnold B; Dollard, Maureen F
2012-01-01
Using a multilevel framework, this study examined the role of empowering leadership at the group level by fire brigade captains in facilitating the individual level motivational processes that underpin work engagement in volunteer firefighters. Anonymous mail surveys were completed by 540 volunteer firefighters from 68 fire brigades and, separately, by 68 brigade captains. As predicted on the basis of the Job Demands-Resources model, increased levels of cognitive demands and cognitive resources partially mediated the relationship between empowering leadership and work engagement. In a three-way Leadership × Demands × Resources interaction, empowering leadership also had the effect of optimizing working conditions for engagement by strengthening the positive effect of a work context in which both cognitive demands and cognitive resources were high. Our findings shed light on a process through which leaders can empower workers and enhance well-being: via their influence on and interaction with the work environment. They also underscore the need to examine work engagement from a multilevel theoretical perspective.
Multilevel criticality computations in AREVA NP'S core simulation code artemis - 195
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Geemert, R.
2010-01-01
This paper discusses the multi-level critical boron iteration approach that is applied per default in AREVA NP's whole-core neutronics and thermal hydraulics core simulation program ARTEMIS. This multi-level approach is characterized by the projection of variational boron concentration adjustments to the coarser mesh levels in a multi-level re-balancing hierarchy that is associated with the nodal flux equations to be solved in steady-state core simulation. At each individual re-balancing mesh level, optimized variational criticality tuning formulas are applied. The latter drive the core model to a numerically highly accurate self-sustaining state (i.e. with the neutronic eigenvalue being 1 up to a very high numerical precision) by continuous adjustment of the boron concentration as a system-wide scalar criticality parameter. Due to the default application of this approach in ARTEMIS reactor cycle simulations, an accuracy of all critical boron concentration estimates better than 0.001 ppm is enabled for all burnup time steps in a computationally efficient way. This high accuracy is relevant for precision optimization in industrial core simulation as well as for enabling accurate reactivity perturbation assessments. The developed approach is presented from a numerical methodology point of view with an emphasis on the multi-grid aspect of the concept. Furthermore, an application-relevant verification is presented in terms of achieved coupled iteration convergence efficiency for an application-representative industrial core cycle computation. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanjana Charansiriphaisan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Multilevel thresholding is a highly useful tool for the application of image segmentation. Otsu’s method, a common exhaustive search for finding optimal thresholds, involves a high computational cost. There has been a lot of recent research into various meta-heuristic searches in the area of optimization research. This paper analyses and discusses using a family of artificial bee colony algorithms, namely, the standard ABC, ABC/best/1, ABC/best/2, IABC/best/1, IABC/rand/1, and CABC, and some particle swarm optimization-based algorithms for searching multilevel thresholding. The strategy for an onlooker bee to select an employee bee was modified to serve our purposes. The metric measures, which are used to compare the algorithms, are the maximum number of function calls, successful rate, and successful performance. The ranking was performed by Friedman ranks. The experimental results showed that IABC/best/1 outperformed the other techniques when all of them were applied to multilevel image thresholding. Furthermore, the experiments confirmed that IABC/best/1 is a simple, general, and high performance algorithm.
Application of Multilevel Models to Morphometric Data. Part 1. Linear Models and Hypothesis Testing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Tsybrovskyy
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Morphometric data usually have a hierarchical structure (i.e., cells are nested within patients, which should be taken into consideration in the analysis. In the recent years, special methods of handling hierarchical data, called multilevel models (MM, as well as corresponding software have received considerable development. However, there has been no application of these methods to morphometric data yet. In this paper we report our first experience of analyzing karyometric data by means of MLwiN – a dedicated program for multilevel modeling. Our data were obtained from 34 follicular adenomas and 44 follicular carcinomas of the thyroid. We show examples of fitting and interpreting MM of different complexity, and draw a number of interesting conclusions about the differences in nuclear morphology between follicular thyroid adenomas and carcinomas. We also demonstrate substantial advantages of multilevel models over conventional, single‐level statistics, which have been adopted previously to analyze karyometric data. In addition, some theoretical issues related to MM as well as major statistical software for MM are briefly reviewed.
Multilevel variance estimators in MLMC and application for random obstacle problems
Chernov, Alexey
2014-01-06
The Multilevel Monte Carlo Method (MLMC) is a recently established sampling approach for uncertainty propagation for problems with random parameters. In this talk we present new convergence theorems for the multilevel variance estimators. As a result, we prove that under certain assumptions on the parameters, the variance can be estimated at essentially the same cost as the mean, and consequently as the cost required for solution of one forward problem for a fixed deterministic set of parameters. We comment on fast and stable evaluation of the estimators suitable for parallel large scale computations. The suggested approach is applied to a class of scalar random obstacle problems, a prototype of contact between deformable bodies. In particular, we are interested in rough random obstacles modelling contact between car tires and variable road surfaces. Numerical experiments support and complete the theoretical analysis.
Photon scattering from a system of multilevel quantum emitters. I. Formalism
Das, Sumanta; Elfving, Vincent E.; Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders S.
2018-04-01
We introduce a formalism to solve the problem of photon scattering from a system of multilevel quantum emitters. Our approach provides a direct solution of the scattering dynamics. As such the formalism gives the scattered fields' amplitudes in the limit of a weak incident intensity. Our formalism is equipped to treat both multiemitter and multilevel emitter systems, and is applicable to a plethora of photon-scattering problems, including conditional state preparation by photodetection. In this paper, we develop the general formalism for an arbitrary geometry. In the following paper (part II) S. Das et al. [Phys. Rev. A 97, 043838 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevA.97.043838], we reduce the general photon-scattering formalism to a form that is applicable to one-dimensional waveguides and show its applicability by considering explicit examples with various emitter configurations.
Multilevel variance estimators in MLMC and application for random obstacle problems
Chernov, Alexey; Bierig, Claudio
2014-01-01
The Multilevel Monte Carlo Method (MLMC) is a recently established sampling approach for uncertainty propagation for problems with random parameters. In this talk we present new convergence theorems for the multilevel variance estimators. As a result, we prove that under certain assumptions on the parameters, the variance can be estimated at essentially the same cost as the mean, and consequently as the cost required for solution of one forward problem for a fixed deterministic set of parameters. We comment on fast and stable evaluation of the estimators suitable for parallel large scale computations. The suggested approach is applied to a class of scalar random obstacle problems, a prototype of contact between deformable bodies. In particular, we are interested in rough random obstacles modelling contact between car tires and variable road surfaces. Numerical experiments support and complete the theoretical analysis.
A comprehensive multimodal pain treatment reduces opioid consumption after multilevel spine surgery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, Benny; Thomsen, Berit A
2013-01-01
and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) treatment protocol would improve pain treatment in this population. METHODS: A new regimen with acetaminophen, NSAIDs, gabapentin, S-ketamine, dexamethasone, ondansetron and epidural local anesthetic infusion or patient controlled analgesia with morphine, was introduced......PURPOSE: Major spine surgery with multilevel instrumentation is followed by large amount of opioid consumption, significant pain and difficult mobilization in a population of predominantly chronic pain patients. This case-control study investigated if a standardized comprehensive pain...... and dizziness on POD 1-6. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of patients scheduled for multilevel spine surgery, it was demonstrated that compared to a historic group of patients receiving usual care, a comprehensive and standardized multimodal pain and PONV protocol significantly reduced opioid consumption, improved...
Girotra, Shantanu; Yeghiazaryan, Kristina; Golubnitschaja, Olga
2016-09-01
Breast cancer (BC) prevalence has reached an epidemic scale with half a million deaths annually. Current deficits in BC management include predictive and preventive approaches, optimized screening programs, individualized patient profiling, highly sensitive detection technologies for more precise diagnostics and therapy monitoring, individualized prediction and effective treatment of BC metastatic disease. To advance BC management, paradigm shift from delayed to predictive, preventive and personalized medical services is essential. Corresponding step forwards requires innovative multilevel diagnostics procuring specific panels of validated biomarkers. Here, we discuss current instrumental advancements including genomics, proteomics, epigenetics, miRNA, metabolomics, circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells with a focus on biomarker discovery and multilevel diagnostic panels. A list of the recommended biomarker candidates is provided.
Simon, M. K.
1975-01-01
Much has been said in the literature regarding the problem of establishing symbol synchronization in binary baseband digital communication systems. By comparison, the literature contains little information relating to the extraction of symbol sync from multilevel baseband data. With the recent interest in multilevel amplitude-shift keying (MASK) and quadrature amplitude-shift keying (QASK) as signaling techniques for multilevel digital communications systems, the problem of providing symbol synchronization in the receivers of such systems becomes paramount. This paper presents a technique for extracting symbol sync from a MASK or QASK signal which has been transmitted over an infinite-bandwidth white Gaussian noise channel. The scheme is essentially a generalization of the data transition tracking loop (DTTL) which has heretofore been used in PSK systems. The performance of the loop is analyzed in terms of its mean-squared symbol sync jitter and its effects on the data detection process in MASK and QASK systems.
Within-Cluster and Across-Cluster Matching with Observational Multilevel Data
Kim, Jee-Seon; Steiner, Peter M.; Hall, Courtney; Thoemmes, Felix
2013-01-01
When randomized experiments cannot be conducted in practice, propensity score (PS) techniques for matching treated and control units are frequently used for estimating causal treatment effects from observational data. Despite the popularity of PS techniques, they are not yet well studied for matching multilevel data where selection into treatment…
Multilevel inverter based class D audio amplifier for capacitive transducers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2014-01-01
The reduced semiconductor voltage stress makes the multilevel inverters especially interesting, when driving capacitive transducers for audio applications. A ± 300 V flying capacitor class D audio amplifier driving a 100 nF load in the midrange region of 0.1-3.5 kHz with Total Harmonic Distortion...
Unifying and generating of space vector modulation sequences for multilevel converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede
2014-01-01
Space Vector Modulation (SVM) is a powerful method which enables some freedom to generate the modulation sequences and modify the performances of converter. However, in the multi-level converter structures, the number of switching state redundancies significantly increases, and the determination...
An efficient multilevel optimization method for engineering design
Vanderplaats, G. N.; Yang, Y. J.; Kim, D. S.
1988-01-01
An efficient multilevel deisgn optimization technique is presented. The proposed method is based on the concept of providing linearized information between the system level and subsystem level optimization tasks. The advantages of the method are that it does not require optimum sensitivities, nonlinear equality constraints are not needed, and the method is relatively easy to use. The disadvantage is that the coupling between subsystems is not dealt with in a precise mathematical manner.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo
2016-01-01
Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO 2 film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ito, Kota, E-mail: kotaito@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)
2016-02-01
Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO{sub 2} film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management.
Hong, Sehee; Kim, Soyoung
2018-01-01
There are basically two modeling approaches applicable to analyzing an actor-partner interdependence model: the multilevel modeling (hierarchical linear model) and the structural equation modeling. This article explains how to use these two models in analyzing an actor-partner interdependence model and how these two approaches work differently. As an empirical example, marital conflict data were used to analyze an actor-partner interdependence model. The multilevel modeling and the structural equation modeling produced virtually identical estimates for a basic model. However, the structural equation modeling approach allowed more realistic assumptions on measurement errors and factor loadings, rendering better model fit indices.
Modeling, Development and Control of Multilevel Converters for Power System Application =
Vahedi, Hani
The main goal of this project is to develop a multilevel converter topology to be useful in power system applications. Although many topologies are introduced rapidly using a bunch of switches and isolated dc sources, having a single-dc-source multilevel inverter is still a matter of controversy. In fact, each isolated dc source means a bulky transformer and a rectifier that have their own losses and costs forcing the industries to avoid entering in this topic conveniently. On the other hand, multilevel inverters topologies with single-dc-source require associated controllers to regulate the dc capacitors voltages in order to have multilevel voltage waveform at the output. Thus, a complex controller would not interest investors properly. Consequently, developing a single-dc-source multilevel inverter topology along with a light and reliable voltage control is still a challenging topic to replace the 2-level inverters in the market effectively. The first effort in this project was devoted to the PUC7 inverter to design a simple and yet efficient controller. A new modelling is performed on the PUC7 inverter and it has been simplified to first order system. Afterwards, a nonlinear cascaded controller is designed and applied to regulate the capacitor voltage at 1/3 of the DC source amplitude and to generate 7 identical voltage levels at the output supplying different type of loads such as RL or rectifier harmonic ones. In next work, the PUC5 topology is proposed as a remedy to the PUC7 that requires a complicated controller to operate properly. The capacitor voltage is regulated at half of dc source amplitude to generate 5 voltage levels at the output. Although the 7-level voltage waveform is replaced by a 5-level one in PUC5 topology, it is shown that the PUC5 needs a very simple and reliable voltage balancing technique due to having some redundant switching states. Moreover, a sensor-less voltage balancing technique is designed and implemented on the PUC5 inverter
L-L multilevel boost converter topology for renewable energy applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Fedák, Viliam
2017-01-01
; such as a photovoltaic (PV) system with a Multilevel Inverter (MLI), electrical drives, automotive, hybrid electric cars etc. The proposed topology is derived by attaching the Cockcroft Walton (CW) multiplier to an upper L-converter of the LL topology of XY family. The mode of operation of L-LMBC with mathematical...
Graduate Attribute Attainment in a Multi-Level Undergraduate Geography Course
Mager, Sarah; Spronken-Smith, Rachel
2014-01-01
We investigated students' perceptions of graduate attributes in a multi-level (second and third year) geography course. A case study with mixed methodology was employed, with data collected through focus groups and a survey. We found that undergraduate geography students can identify the skills, knowledge and attributes that are developed through…
Multilevel Modeling: Overview and Applications to Research in Counseling Psychology
Kahn, Jeffrey H.
2011-01-01
Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers…
Multilevel Simulation of Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Platforms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damien Picard
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a general system-level simulation and testing methodology for reconfigurable System-on-Chips, starting from behavioral specifications of system activities to multilevel simulations of accelerated tasks running on the reconfigurable circuit. The system is based on a common objectoriented environment that offers valuable debugging and probing facilities as well as integrated testing features. Our system brings these benefits to the hardware simulation, while enforcing validation through characterization tests and interoperability through on-demand mainstream tools connections. This framework has been partially developed in the scope of the EU Morpheus project and is used to validate our contribution to the spatial design task.
Governing the energy challenge : Canada and Germany in a multi-level regional and global context
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eberlein, B.; Doern, G.B.; Exeter Univ.,
2009-01-01
This book features essays by leading energy and public policy specialists from Canada and Germany. It originated in the Transatlantic Energy Conference which was hosted by the Canadian Centre for German and European Studies at Toronto's York University in September 2005. The conference was attended by leading energy scholars and experts from Canadian and European universities, research institutes and governmental and non-governmental organizations. The purpose of this book was to compare the dynamics of multi-level energy regulatory governance in Germany and Canada, notably the energy policy challenges that include energy security, environmental sustainability and a competitive resource economy. Many strategies to produce more efficient and sustainable energy are presented in the book. Part 1 of the book focuses on the energy industry, with particular emphasise on electricity, nuclear energy and natural gas. Part 2 of the book focuses on domestic patterns of multi-level energy governance and regulation in the two countries. As a member of the European Union, Germany is more advanced in dealing with multi-level governmental and sustainability constraints than Canada is as a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The book focuses on the influence that the energy sector and multi-level institutional arrangements have on energy governance, with particular attention to the link between environmental study, climate change issues and economic market reforms. The growing differences between NAFTA and European Union member countries were highlighted. refs., tabs., figs.
The Impact of Partial Measurement Invariance on Testing Moderation for Single and Multi-Level Data.
Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Lai, Mark H C
2018-01-01
Moderation effect is a commonly used concept in the field of social and behavioral science. Several studies regarding the implication of moderation effects have been done; however, little is known about how partial measurement invariance influences the properties of tests for moderation effects when categorical moderators were used. Additionally, whether the impact is the same across single and multilevel data is still unknown. Hence, the purpose of the present study is twofold: (a) To investigate the performance of the moderation test in single-level studies when measurement invariance does not hold; (b) To examine whether unique features of multilevel data, such as intraclass correlation (ICC) and number of clusters, influence the effect of measurement non-invariance on the performance of tests for moderation. Simulation results indicated that falsely assuming measurement invariance lead to biased estimates, inflated Type I error rates, and more gain or more loss in power (depends on simulation conditions) for the test of moderation effects. Such patterns were more salient as sample size and the number of non-invariant items increase for both single- and multi-level data. With multilevel data, the cluster size seemed to have a larger impact than the number of clusters when falsely assuming measurement invariance in the moderation estimation. ICC was trivially related to the moderation estimates. Overall, when testing moderation effects with categorical moderators, employing a model that accounts for the measurement (non)invariance structure of the predictor and/or the outcome is recommended.
The Impact of Partial Measurement Invariance on Testing Moderation for Single and Multi-Level Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Yu Hsiao
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Moderation effect is a commonly used concept in the field of social and behavioral science. Several studies regarding the implication of moderation effects have been done; however, little is known about how partial measurement invariance influences the properties of tests for moderation effects when categorical moderators were used. Additionally, whether the impact is the same across single and multilevel data is still unknown. Hence, the purpose of the present study is twofold: (a To investigate the performance of the moderation test in single-level studies when measurement invariance does not hold; (b To examine whether unique features of multilevel data, such as intraclass correlation (ICC and number of clusters, influence the effect of measurement non-invariance on the performance of tests for moderation. Simulation results indicated that falsely assuming measurement invariance lead to biased estimates, inflated Type I error rates, and more gain or more loss in power (depends on simulation conditions for the test of moderation effects. Such patterns were more salient as sample size and the number of non-invariant items increase for both single- and multi-level data. With multilevel data, the cluster size seemed to have a larger impact than the number of clusters when falsely assuming measurement invariance in the moderation estimation. ICC was trivially related to the moderation estimates. Overall, when testing moderation effects with categorical moderators, employing a model that accounts for the measurement (noninvariance structure of the predictor and/or the outcome is recommended.
Power analysis of trials with multilevel data
Moerbeek, Mirjam
2015-01-01
Power Analysis of Trials with Multilevel Data covers using power and sample size calculations to design trials that involve nested data structures. The book gives a thorough overview of power analysis that details terminology and notation, outlines key concepts of statistical power and power analysis, and explains why they are necessary in trial design. It guides you in performing power calculations with hierarchical data, which enables more effective trial design.The authors are leading experts in the field who recognize that power analysis has attracted attention from applied statisticians i
2015-01-01
A step toward the development of optimally effective, efficient, and feasible implementation strategies that increase evidence-based treatment integration in mental health services involves identification of the multilevel mechanisms through which these strategies influence implementation outcomes. This article (a) provides an orientation to, and rationale for, consideration of multilevel mediating mechanisms in implementation trials, and (b) systematically reviews randomized controlled trials that examined mediators of implementation strategies in mental health. Nine trials were located. Mediation-related methodological deficiencies were prevalent and no trials supported a hypothesized mediator. The most common reason was failure to engage the mediation target. Discussion focuses on directions to accelerate implementation strategy development in mental health. PMID:26474761
MODEL MULTILEVEL PERTUMBUHAN ANAK USIA 0-24 BULAN DAN VARIABEL YANG MEMPENGARUHINYA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irianton Aritonang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Tujuan umum penelitian ini untuk mengkaji bagaimana berbagai variabel mempengaruhi pertumbuhan anak usia 0-24 bulan di kabupaten Sleman. Penelitian noneksperimen desain korelasional ini dilakukan pada 272 anak usia 0-24 bulan yang diambil secara acak stratifikasi dari dua kecamatan (Sleman dan Moyudan yang ditentukan secara purposif. Analisis multilevel pertumbuhan anak dilakukan dengan program Stata-10 dan analisis jalur dilakukan dengan program Amos-8. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada hubungan variabel berat badan lahir, jenis kelamin dan strata usia anak dan status gizi ibu dengan pertumbuhan anak pada level-1 dan ada hubungan variabel hasil penimbangan pada level-2, sedangkan pada level 3 ada hubungan yang tidak signifikan hasil penimbangan dan pencapaian program. Hasil analisis jalur yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan anak 0-24 bulan, yakni variabel endogenous terdiri dari status gizi ibu, pengetahuan ibu tentang gizi seimbang, pertumbuhan anak indeks BB/U, hasil penimbangan tingkat dusun dan hasil program tingkat desa. Sedangkan variabel exogenous terdiri dari sikap ibu terhadap posyandu, berat badan lahir, jenis kelamin dan stratifikasi usia anak. Kata kunci: Model multilevel, Pertumbuhan anak 0-24 bulan ______________________________________________________________ A MULTILEVEL MODEL FOR THE GROWTH OF CHILDREN AGED 0-24 MONTHS AND THE VARIABLES AFFECTING IT Abstract The main objective of this study is to investigate how various variables contribute to the growth of children between 0-24 months old in Sleman Regency. This study was a non-experimental correlational design which was conducted on 272 children aged 0-24 months, selected using the purposive stratified random sampling technique from 21 hamlets in two districts (Sleman and Moyudan. The multilevel analysis of children’s growth of was carried out using the Stata-10 program and the path analysis using the Amos-8 program. The results show that there is a significant
Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study
Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio
2013-01-01
In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…
Applications of Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling to Cross-Cultural Research
Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Au, Kevin
2005-01-01
Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) has been proposed as an extension to structural equation modeling for analyzing data with nested structure. We have begun to see a few applications in cross-cultural research in which MSEM fits well as the statistical model. However, given that cross-cultural studies can only afford collecting data…
Measuring Collective Efficacy: A Multilevel Measurement Model for Nested Data
Matsueda, Ross L.; Drakulich, Kevin M.
2016-01-01
This article specifies a multilevel measurement model for survey response when data are nested. The model includes a test-retest model of reliability, a confirmatory factor model of inter-item reliability with item-specific bias effects, an individual-level model of the biasing effects due to respondent characteristics, and a neighborhood-level…
A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program
Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.
2012-01-01
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…
To center or not to center? Investigating inertia with a multilevel autoregressive model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ellen L. Hamaker
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Whether level 1 predictors should be centered per cluster has received considerable attention in the multilevel literature. While most agree that there is no one preferred approach, it has also been argued that cluster mean centering is desirable when the within-cluster slope and the between-cluster slope are expected to deviate, and the main interest is in the within-cluster slope. However, we show in a series of simulations that if one has a multilevel autoregressive model in which the level 1 predictor is the lagged outcome variable (i.e., the outcome variable at the previous occasion, cluster mean centering will in general lead to a downward bias in the parameter estimate of the within-cluster slope (i.e., the autoregressive relationship. This is particularly relevant if the main question is whether there is on average an autoregressive effect. Nonetheless, we show that if the main interest is in estimating the effect of a level 2 predictor on the autoregressive parameter (i.e., a cross-level interaction, cluster mean centering should be preferred over other forms of centering. Hence, researchers should be clear on what is considered the main goal of their study, and base their choice of centering method on this when using a multilevel autoregressive model.
Climate change and energy policies in Shanghai: A multilevel governance perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Francesch-Huidobro, Maria
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Multilevel governance is a useful framework to understand how resources, tasks and power are distributed for decision making. • Shifts in national climate and energy policy mandate local governments to develop climate change and energy policies. • Local governments have greater autonomy for incorporating climate and energy issues into development goals. • Climate mitigation and energy policy is dominated by hierarchical governance. - Abstract: Despite growing interest in China’s response to climate change and energy security, studies undertaken at the subnational level are rare. In the context of the multilevel governance paradigm, this article examines the governance of climate change and energy policy in Shanghai, a rapidly growing Chinese megacity highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Although the energy and carbon intensity of Shanghai’s economy have fallen significantly since China launched its economic reforms, overall carbon emissions in the municipality continue to rise. Through examining the Shanghai case, this article argues that Chinese subnational climate mitigation policy is dominated by hierarchical governance arrangements. Nevertheless, shifts in national climate and energy policy since 2007 have mandated provincial-level governments, including Shanghai, to develop their own climate and energy policies while offering greater local autonomy for incorporating climate and energy issues into development goals: is this attributable to a decentred form of multilevel governance? The article concludes that Shanghai’s climate mitigation and energy policy is dominated by hierarchical governance whereby policies are ‘downloaded’ from the central government. Perspectives for other cities and insights for policymakers are discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiashen Meng; Chaojiang Niu; Xiong Liu; Ziang Liu; Hongliang Chen; Xuanpeng Wang; Jiantao Li
2016-01-01
Metal oxide hollow structures with multilevel interiors are of great interest for potential applications such as catalysis,chemical sensing,drug delivery,and energy storage.However,the controlled synthesis of multilevel nanotubes remains a great challenge.Here we develop a facile interface-modulated approach toward the synthesis of complex metal oxide multilevel nanotubes with tunable interior structures through electrospinning followed by controlled heat treatment.This versatile strategy can be effectively applied to fabricate wire-in-tube and tubein-tube nanotubes of various metal oxides.These multilevel nanotubes possess a large specific surface area,fast mass transport,good strain accommodation,and high packing density,which are advantageous for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).Specifically,shrinkable CoMn2O4 tube-in-tube nanotubes as a lithium-ion battery anode deliver a high discharge capacity of ～565 mAh.g-1 at a high rate of 2 A.g-1,maintaining 89％ of the latter after 500 cycles.Further,as an oxygen reduction reaction catalyst,these nanotubes also exhibit excellent stability with about 92％ current retention after 30,000 s,which is higher than that of commercial Pt/C (81％).Therefore,this feasible method may push the rapid development of one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials.These multifunctional nanotubes have great potential in many frontier fields.
Multilevel Flow Modeling for Nuclear Power Plant Diagnosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gola, G; Lind, Morten; Thunem, Harald P-J
2012-01-01
, especially if extended to the whole plant. Monitoring plant performances by means of data reconciliation techniques has proved successful to detect anomalies during operation, provide early warnings and eventually schedule maintenance. At the same time, the large amount of information provided by large...... detected anomalies. The combination of a data reconciliation system and the Multilevel Flow Modeling approach is illustrated with regard to the secondary loop of the Loviisa-2 Pressurized Water Reactor located in Finland....
Voltage-Balancing Method for Modular Multilevel Converters Switched at Grid Frequency
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe
2015-01-01
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) becomes attractive for high-voltage and high-power applications due to its high modularity, availability, and power quality. The voltage balance issue of capacitors is very important in the MMC, and the balancing of the capacitor voltage is increasingly...
Three essays on multi-level optimization models and applications
Rahdar, Mohammad
The general form of a multi-level mathematical programming problem is a set of nested optimization problems, in which each level controls a series of decision variables independently. However, the value of decision variables may also impact the objective function of other levels. A two-level model is called a bilevel model and can be considered as a Stackelberg game with a leader and a follower. The leader anticipates the response of the follower and optimizes its objective function, and then the follower reacts to the leader's action. The multi-level decision-making model has many real-world applications such as government decisions, energy policies, market economy, network design, etc. However, there is a lack of capable algorithms to solve medium and large scale these types of problems. The dissertation is devoted to both theoretical research and applications of multi-level mathematical programming models, which consists of three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the renewable energy portfolio under two major renewable energy policies. The potential competition for biomass for the growth of the renewable energy portfolio in the United States and other interactions between two policies over the next twenty years are investigated. This problem mainly has two levels of decision makers: the government/policy makers and biofuel producers/electricity generators/farmers. We focus on the lower-level problem to predict the amount of capacity expansions, fuel production, and power generation. In the second part, we address uncertainty over demand and lead time in a multi-stage mathematical programming problem. We propose a two-stage tri-level optimization model in the concept of rolling horizon approach to reducing the dimensionality of the multi-stage problem. In the third part of the dissertation, we introduce a new branch and bound algorithm to solve bilevel linear programming problems. The total time is reduced by solving a smaller relaxation
Developing the multi-level functioning interface framework for DER models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Han, Xue; Bindner, Henrik W.; You, Shi
2013-01-01
The paper summarises several modelling applications of distributed energy resources (DERs) for various purposes, and describes the related operational issues regarding the complexity of the future distribution grid. Furthermore, a multi-level functioning interface framework is proposed for DER mo....... The information mapping for photovoltaic panel (PV) modelling is also provided as an example....
Simulation and Analysis of a Grid Connected Multi-level Converter Topologies and their Comparison
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Shadab Mirza
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents simulation and analysis of a grid connected multi-level converter topologies. In this paper, converter circuit works as an inverter by controlling the switching angle (α. This paper, presents a MATLAB/SIMULINK model of multi-level converter topologies (topology1 & topology2. Topology1 is without transformer while topology2 with transformer. Both the topologies are simulated and analyzed for three level converters in order to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD. A comparative study of topology1 and topology2 is also presented in this paper for different switching angles (α and battery voltages. The results have been tabulated and discussed.
Capacity region of the 3 receiver state dependent multilevel BC with noncausal state information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viswanathan Ramachandran
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We consider a three receiver state dependent multilevel broadcast channel (BC, where the state information is known non-causally at the encoder as well as all the decoders. This is an extension of Nair and El Gamal’s three receiver multilevel BC (Nair and El Gamal, 2009, wherein two of the receivers decode only a common message while a third receiver decodes a private message as well. The objective is to characterize the rate tuples that are simultaneously achievable while ensuring negligible probability of error at each of the receivers. We characterize the capacity region of this setup in the paper.
Andrade, Fernando H.
2014-01-01
A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use. PMID:25057764
Results of single-event multilevel orthopedic surgery in children with cerebral palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akhmed Tomov
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Background: Single-event multilevel orthopedic surgery is a modern approach in the operative treatment of children with cerebral palsy. Methods: Single-event multilevel orthopedic surgery was carried out in 108 patients with cerebral palsy. Patients’ average age was 11.3±1.7 years. Surgical results were analyzed at follow-up after 18 to 24 months, by way of detailed physical examination, functional assessment, imaging, the Edinburgh Visual Gait Score and Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire. Results: In our series, 647 procedures were performed during 141 surgeries. Patients had an average of 4.59 procedures per surgery. Observational gait analysis showed an improvement in stance and swing gait phases in ambulatory children. According to the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire, an increase of functional level was noted in 50 patients but did not change in 32 patients. Conclusions: For children with cerebral palsy, single-event multilevel surgery is defined as two or more surgical procedures of the soft tissue or bone at two or more anatomical levels during one operative procedure. In cases where a large volume of surgery is required, two separate operations with a short break in between, but requiring only one hospital admission and one rehabilitation period, are also included. This approach requires adapted methods of surgical intervention, and appropriate methods of anesthesia and pain control in the postoperative period to the start of rehabilitation. Compliance with the above principles allowed the necessary correction of orthopedic complications to be achieved in all cases.
Multilevel flow models studio: human-centralized development for operation support system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Yangping; Hidekazu Yoshikawa; Liu Jingquan; Yang Ming; Ouyang Jun
2005-01-01
Computerized Operation Support Systems (COSS), integrating Artificial Intelligence, Multimedia and Network Technology, are now being proposed for reducing operator's cognitive load for process operation. This study proposed a Human-Centralized Development (HCD) that COSS can be developed and maintained independently, conveniently and flexibly by operator and expert of industry system with little expertise on software development. A graphical interface system for HCD, Multilevel Flow Models Studio (MFMS), is proposed for development assistance of COSS. An Extensible Markup Language based file structure is designed to represent the Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) model for the target system. With a friendly graphical interface, MFMS mainly consists of two components: 1) an editor to intelligently assist user establish and maintain the MFM model; 2) an executor to implement the application for monitoring, diagnosis and operational instruction in terms of the established MFM model. A prototype MFMS system has been developed and applied to construct a trial operation support system for a Nuclear Power Plant simulated by RELAP5/MOD2. (authors)
Under multilevel selection: "when shall you be neither spiteful nor envious?".
Garay, József; Csiszár, Villő; Móri, Tamás F
2014-01-07
In this paper, we study the egalitarianism-game in multilevel selection situation. The individuals form reproductive groups. In each group, an egalitarianism-game determines the number of juveniles of different phenotypes (spiteful, envious, neutral and donator). Before the juveniles form the next reproductive group, they have to survive either predators' attacks or a fight between two groups. We adopt the ESS definition of Maynard Smith to multilevel selection. Based on the "group size advantage" assumption (which claims that each juvenile's survival rate depends on the size of his own group, supposing that either the survival rate under predators' attacks is higher in larger groups, or in inter-group aggression usually the larger group wins) we found that when the survival probability has a massive effect on the average fitness, then "group fitness maximizing behavior" (in our case, either neutral or donator) has evolutionary advantage over "competitive behavior" (in our case, either spiteful or envious). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Wen, Xiaoli; Faria, Ann-Marie; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; Korfmacher, Jon
2012-01-01
Guided by a developmental and ecological model, the study employed latent profile analysis to identify a multilevel typology of family involvement and Head Start classroom quality. Using the nationally representative Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 1997; N = 1870), six multilevel latent profiles were estimated, characterized…
Multi-level damage identification with response reconstruction
Zhang, Chao-Dong; Xu, You-Lin
2017-10-01
Damage identification through finite element (FE) model updating usually forms an inverse problem. Solving the inverse identification problem for complex civil structures is very challenging since the dimension of potential damage parameters in a complex civil structure is often very large. Aside from enormous computation efforts needed in iterative updating, the ill-condition and non-global identifiability features of the inverse problem probably hinder the realization of model updating based damage identification for large civil structures. Following a divide-and-conquer strategy, a multi-level damage identification method is proposed in this paper. The entire structure is decomposed into several manageable substructures and each substructure is further condensed as a macro element using the component mode synthesis (CMS) technique. The damage identification is performed at two levels: the first is at macro element level to locate the potentially damaged region and the second is over the suspicious substructures to further locate as well as quantify the damage severity. In each level's identification, the damage searching space over which model updating is performed is notably narrowed down, not only reducing the computation amount but also increasing the damage identifiability. Besides, the Kalman filter-based response reconstruction is performed at the second level to reconstruct the response of the suspicious substructure for exact damage quantification. Numerical studies and laboratory tests are both conducted on a simply supported overhanging steel beam for conceptual verification. The results demonstrate that the proposed multi-level damage identification via response reconstruction does improve the identification accuracy of damage localization and quantization considerably.
Regulatory networks, legal federalism, and multi-level regulatory systems
Kerber, Wolfgang; Wendel, Julia
2016-01-01
Transnational regulatory networks play important roles in multi-level regulatory regimes, as e.g, the European Union. In this paper we analyze the role of regulatory networks from the perspective of the economic theory of legal federalism. Often sophisticated intermediate institutional solutions between pure centralisation and pure decentralisation can help to solve complex tradeoff problems between the benefits and problems of centralised and decentralised solutions. Drawing upon the insight...
Grid Connection of Wave Power Farm Using an N-Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rickard Ekström
2013-01-01
Full Text Available An N-level cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter is proposed for grid connection of large wave power farms. The point-absorber wave energy converters are individually rectified and used as isolated DC-sources. The variable power characteristics of the wave energy converters are discussed, and a method of mitigating this issue is demonstrated. The complete power control system is given in detail and has been experimentally verified for a single-phase setup of the 9-level inverter. Theoretical expressions of the power sharing between multilevel cells are derived and show good correspondence with the experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Woei-Cherng; Chao, Tien-Sheng; Yang, Tsung-Yu; Peng, Wu-Chin; Yang, Wen-Luh; Chen, Jian-Hao; Ma, Ming Wen; Lai, Chao-Sung; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Hsieh, Tsung-Min; Liou, Jhyy Cheng; Chen, Tzu Ping; Chen, Chien Hung; Lin, Chih Hung; Chen, Hwi Huang; Ko, Joe
2008-01-01
In this paper, highly reliable wrapped-select-gate (WSG) silicon–oxide–nitride–oxide–silicon (SONOS) memory cells with multi-level and 2-bit/cell operation have been successfully demonstrated. The source-side injection mechanism for WSG-SONOS memory with different ONO thickness was thoroughly investigated. The different programming efficiencies of the WSG-SONOS memory under different ONO thicknesses are explained by the lateral electrical field extracted from the simulation results. Furthermore, multi-level storage is easily obtained, and good V TH distribution presented, for the WSG-SONOS memory with optimized ONO thickness. High program/erase speed (10 µs/5 ms) and low programming current (3.5 µA) are used to achieve the multi-level operation with tolerable gate and drain disturbance, negligible second-bit effect, excellent data retention and good endurance performance
Multi-Level Risk Assessment of a Power Plant Gas Turbine Applying ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Multi-Level Risk Assessment of a Power Plant Gas Turbine Applying the Criticality Index Model. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... This study has carefully shown and expressed a step by step computation of the severity level of the Turbine component parts, using the Criticality Index model.
A Multilevel Adaptive Reaction-splitting Simulation Method for Stochastic Reaction Networks
Moraes, Alvaro; Tempone, Raul; Vilanova, Pedro
2016-01-01
In this work, we present a novel multilevel Monte Carlo method for kinetic simulation of stochastic reaction networks characterized by having simultaneously fast and slow reaction channels. To produce efficient simulations, our method adaptively classifies the reactions channels into fast and slow channels. To this end, we first introduce a state-dependent quantity named level of activity of a reaction channel. Then, we propose a low-cost heuristic that allows us to adaptively split the set of reaction channels into two subsets characterized by either a high or a low level of activity. Based on a time-splitting technique, the increments associated with high-activity channels are simulated using the tau-leap method, while those associated with low-activity channels are simulated using an exact method. This path simulation technique is amenable for coupled path generation and a corresponding multilevel Monte Carlo algorithm. To estimate expected values of observables of the system at a prescribed final time, our method bounds the global computational error to be below a prescribed tolerance, TOL, within a given confidence level. This goal is achieved with a computational complexity of order O(TOL-2), the same as with a pathwise-exact method, but with a smaller constant. We also present a novel low-cost control variate technique based on the stochastic time change representation by Kurtz, showing its performance on a numerical example. We present two numerical examples extracted from the literature that show how the reaction-splitting method obtains substantial gains with respect to the standard stochastic simulation algorithm and the multilevel Monte Carlo approach by Anderson and Higham. © 2016 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
A Multilevel Adaptive Reaction-splitting Simulation Method for Stochastic Reaction Networks
Moraes, Alvaro
2016-07-07
In this work, we present a novel multilevel Monte Carlo method for kinetic simulation of stochastic reaction networks characterized by having simultaneously fast and slow reaction channels. To produce efficient simulations, our method adaptively classifies the reactions channels into fast and slow channels. To this end, we first introduce a state-dependent quantity named level of activity of a reaction channel. Then, we propose a low-cost heuristic that allows us to adaptively split the set of reaction channels into two subsets characterized by either a high or a low level of activity. Based on a time-splitting technique, the increments associated with high-activity channels are simulated using the tau-leap method, while those associated with low-activity channels are simulated using an exact method. This path simulation technique is amenable for coupled path generation and a corresponding multilevel Monte Carlo algorithm. To estimate expected values of observables of the system at a prescribed final time, our method bounds the global computational error to be below a prescribed tolerance, TOL, within a given confidence level. This goal is achieved with a computational complexity of order O(TOL-2), the same as with a pathwise-exact method, but with a smaller constant. We also present a novel low-cost control variate technique based on the stochastic time change representation by Kurtz, showing its performance on a numerical example. We present two numerical examples extracted from the literature that show how the reaction-splitting method obtains substantial gains with respect to the standard stochastic simulation algorithm and the multilevel Monte Carlo approach by Anderson and Higham. © 2016 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Progress in parallel implementation of the multilevel plane wave time domain algorithm
Liu, Yang; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric
2013-01-01
The computational complexity and memory requirements of classical schemes for evaluating transient electromagnetic fields produced by Ns dipoles active for Nt time steps scale as O(NtN s 2) and O(Ns 2), respectively. The multilevel plane wave time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prabaharan, N.; Palanisamy, K.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Integration of MLI with boost converters in photovoltaic system including MPPT. • Results are taken for different irradiations and different temperature condition. • Proposed system is tested with sudden step changes from standard test condition. • Analysis of switching losses and conduction loss is discussed. • Theoretical calculation of % THD using asymptotic formula is discussed. - Abstract: This paper proposes a single phase multilevel inverter configuration that conjoins three series connected full bridge inverter and a single half bridge inverter for renewable energy application especially photo-voltaic system. This configuration of multilevel inverter reduces the value of total harmonic distortion. The half bridge inverter utilized in the proposed configuration increases the output voltage level to nearly twice the output voltage level of a conventional cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter. This higher output voltage level is generated with lesser number of power semiconductor switches compared to conventional configuration, thus reducing the total harmonic distortion and switching losses. The effectiveness of the proposed configuration is illustrated by replacing the isolated DC sources in multilevel inverter with individual photo-voltaic panels using separate perturb and observer based maximum power point tracking and boost converters. The verification of the proposed system is demonstrated successfully using MATLAB/Simulink based simulation with different irradiation and temperature conditions. Also, the transient operation of the system is verified with results depicted using step change in standard test condition. In the proposed system, total harmonic distortion of the output voltage is 9.85% without using passive filters and 3.91% with filter inductance. Theoretical calculation of the power losses and total harmonic distortion with mathematical equations are discussed. Selective experimental results are presented to prove the
Glynn, Robert J; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chen, Wendy Y; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter W; Rosner, Bernard
2017-08-01
A breast cancer risk prediction rule previously developed by Rosner and Colditz has reasonable predictive ability. We developed a re-fitted version of this model, based on more than twice as many cases now including women up to age 85, and further extended it to a model that distinguished risk factor prediction of tumors with different estrogen/progesterone receptor status. We compared the calibration and discriminatory ability of the original, the re-fitted, and the type-specific models. Evaluation used data from the Nurses' Health Study during the period 1980-2008, when 4384 incident invasive breast cancers occurred over 1.5 million person-years. Model development used two-thirds of study subjects and validation used one-third. Predicted risks in the validation sample from the original and re-fitted models were highly correlated (ρ = 0.93), but several parameters, notably those related to use of menopausal hormone therapy and age, had different estimates. The re-fitted model was well-calibrated and had an overall C-statistic of 0.65. The extended, type-specific model identified several risk factors with varying associations with occurrence of tumors of different receptor status. However, this extended model relative to the prediction of any breast cancer did not meaningfully reclassify women who developed breast cancer to higher risk categories, nor women remaining cancer free to lower risk categories. The re-fitted Rosner-Colditz model has applicability to risk prediction in women up to age 85, and its discrimination is not improved by consideration of varying associations across tumor subtypes.
Multilevel Fast Multipole Method for Higher Order Discretizations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borries, Oscar Peter; Meincke, Peter; Jorgensen, Erik
2014-01-01
The multi-level fast multipole method (MLFMM) for a higher order (HO) discretization is demonstrated on high-frequency (HF) problems, illustrating for the first time how an efficient MLFMM for HO can be achieved even for very large groups. Applying several novel ideas, beneficial to both lower...... order and higher order discretizations, results from a low-memory, high-speed MLFMM implementation of a HO hierarchical discretization are shown. These results challenge the general view that the benefits of HO and HF-MLFMM cannot be combined....
2010-12-01
discontinuous coefficients on geometrically nonconforming substructures. Technical Report Serie A 634, Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Brazil, 2009...Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Brazil, 2010. submitted. [41] M. Dryja, M. V. Sarkis, and O. B. Widlund. Multilevel Schwarz methods for
Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability
Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.
2017-01-01
Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as well as across levels. For example, cross-level invariance implies equal factor loadings across levels, which is needed to give latent variables at the two levels a similar interpretation. Reliabili...
Tightly localized stationary pulses in a multilevel atomic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Xiong-Jun; Oh, C. H.; Liu, Xin; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Kwek, L. C.
2007-01-01
We show that the pulse matching phenomenon can be obtained in the general multilevel system with electromagnetically induced transparency. For this we find a different way to create tightly localized stationary pulses by using counterpropagating pump fields. The present process is a spatial compression of excitation so that it allows us to shape and further intensify the localized stationary pulses, without using standing waves of pump fields or spatially modulated pump fields
A New Structure Based on Cascaded Multilevel Converter for Variable Speed Wind Turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe
2010-01-01
An alternative structure for variable speed wind turbine, using multiple permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) drive-train configuration and cascaded multilevel converter is proposed in this paper. This study presents a power electronic solution for the wind turbine. A transformer......-less cascaded multilevel converter interface based on PMSGs is developed to synthesize a desired high ac sinusoidal output voltage. The benefits of high power and high ac voltage make this structure possible to be applied in the wind power generation. In addition, the bulky transformer could be omitted....... A simulation model of 10 MW variable speed wind turbine based on PMSGs developed in PSCAD/EMTDC is presented. The dynamic performance of grid-connected wind turbine is analyzed. Simulation results shows that the proposed structure may be attractive in wind power generation....
de Siqueira, Alexandre Fioravante; Cabrera, Flávio Camargo; Nakasuga, Wagner Massayuki; Pagamisse, Aylton; Job, Aldo Eloizo
2018-01-01
Image segmentation, the process of separating the elements within a picture, is frequently used for obtaining information from photomicrographs. Segmentation methods should be used with reservations, since incorrect results can mislead when interpreting regions of interest (ROI). This decreases the success rate of extra procedures. Multi-Level Starlet Segmentation (MLSS) and Multi-Level Starlet Optimal Segmentation (MLSOS) were developed to be an alternative for general segmentation tools. These methods gave rise to Jansen-MIDAS, an open-source software. A scientist can use it to obtain several segmentations of hers/his photomicrographs. It is a reliable alternative to process different types of photomicrographs: previous versions of Jansen-MIDAS were used to segment ROI in photomicrographs of two different materials, with an accuracy superior to 89%. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Control of modular multilevel converters based on time-scale analysis and orthogonal functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zarri, L.; Tani, A.; Mengoni, M.
2014-01-01
current is still a complex task and cannot be fully tackled with traditional linear control techniques. In this paper a multiple time-scale analysis is proposed to determine an approximated model of the MMC that can be used to solve the control problem of the capacitor voltages. In addition, it is shown...... that the reference signal of the circulating current can be built by combining orthogonal functions of the measured voltages and currents. Numerical simulations are used to test the feasibility of the developed approach.......Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is a promising multilevel topology for high-voltage applications that has been developed in recent years. The control of MMCs has been analyzed in detail in many papers, showing that the converter capacitors can be kept charged and balanced by controlling...
Martin, Angela; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Biron, Caroline; Sanderson, Kristy
2016-08-01
Although there have been several calls for incorporating multiple levels of analysis in employee health and well-being research, studies examining the interplay between individual, workgroup, organizational and broader societal factors in relation to employee mental health outcomes remain an exception rather than the norm. At the same time, organizational intervention research and practice also tends to be limited by a single-level focus, omitting potentially important influences at multiple levels of analysis. The aims of this conceptual paper are to help progress our understanding of work-related determinants of employee mental health by the following: (1) providing a rationale for routine multilevel assessment of the psychosocial work environment; (2) discussing how a multilevel perspective can improve related organizational interventions; and (3) highlighting key theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to these aims. We present five recommendations for future research, relating to using appropriate multilevel research designs, justifying group-level constructs, developing group-level measures, expanding investigations to the organizational level and developing multilevel approaches to intervention design, implementation and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Srholec, Martin
2015-01-01
Roč. 24, 1-2 (2015), s. 159-182 ISSN 1043-8599 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2310 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : innovation * cooperation * multilevel model Subject RIV: AH - Economics
Nicolas Sommet; Davide Morselli
2017-01-01
This paper aims to introduce multilevel logistic regression analysis in a simple and practical way. First, we introduce the basic principles of logistic regression analysis (conditional probability, logit transformation, odds ratio). Second, we discuss the two fundamental implications of running this kind of analysis with a nested data structure: In multilevel logistic regression, the odds that the outcome variable equals one (rather than zero) may vary from one cluster to another (i.e. the i...
Multilevel Analyses of School and Children's Characteristics Associated with Physical Activity
Gomes, Thayse Natacha; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Zhu, Weimo; Eisenmann, Joey; Maia, José A. R.
2014-01-01
Background: Children spend most of their awake time at school, and it is important to identify individual and school-level correlates of their physical activity (PA) levels. This study aimed to identify the between-school variability in Portuguese children PA and to investigate student and school PA correlates using multilevel modeling. Methods:…
Pedagogical Conditions of Multilevel Foreign Languages Teaching in Pedagogical Higher Education
Kadakin, Vasily V.; Shukshina, Tatiana I.; Piskunova, Svetlana I.; Babushkina, Larisa E.; Falileev, Alexander E.
2016-01-01
This article is devoted to pedagogical conditions of multilevel foreign languages teaching in pedagogical higher education. The purpose of the study is to form the students' skills in foreign language mastering, to form the ability to operate independently and autonomously in this activity, both in the specific learning situation, and in the…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yixin Tang
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Given the important role of family environment in children's psychological development, the objective of this study was to examine the linkages between family factors at the whole, dyadic, and individual levels and two dimensions (affective and behavioral of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD symptoms in Chinese children. Participants comprised of 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads from families with ODD children. The results indicated that multilevel family factors were differently associated with children's affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. All the family factors at the dyadic and individual levels were significantly associated with child affective ODD symptoms. However, only the most proximal factors (parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation, which were directly related to child were significantly related to child behavioral ODD symptoms. The present study extends the current knowledge regarding the relationships between family factors and two dimensions of child ODD symptoms by testing the comprehensive multilevel family factors model. This study also recommends that future interventions for ODD children should consider the multi-level family factors to enhance intervention efficacy.
Andrade, Fernando H
2014-08-01
A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Detailed Modeling and Evaluation of a Scalable Multilevel Checkpointing System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bronevetsky, Greg [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); de Supinski, Bronis R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2014-09-01
High-performance computing (HPC) systems are growing more powerful by utilizing more components. As the system mean time before failure correspondingly drops, applications must checkpoint frequently to make progress. But, at scale, the cost of checkpointing becomes prohibitive. A solution to this problem is multilevel checkpointing, which employs multiple types of checkpoints in a single run. Moreover, lightweight checkpoints can handle the most common failure modes, while more expensive checkpoints can handle severe failures. We designed a multilevel checkpointing library, the Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library, that writes lightweight checkpoints to node-local storage in addition to the parallel file system. We present probabilistic Markov models of SCR's performance. We show that on future large-scale systems, SCR can lead to a gain in machine efficiency of up to 35 percent, and reduce the load on the parallel file system by a factor of two. In addition, we predict that checkpoint scavenging, or only writing checkpoints to the parallel file system on application termination, can reduce the load on the parallel file system by 20 × on today's systems and still maintain high application efficiency.
Modeling Performance in C4ISR Sustained Operations: A Multi-Level Approach (Briefing Charts)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Barnes, Christopher; Miller, James C; Elliott, Linda; Coovert, Michael
2003-01-01
This briefing discusses methodology and preliminary findings focused on the application of multi-level modeling techniques to distinguish effects of sleep loss and task demands on individual and team...
Micro-macro multilevel latent class models with multiple discrete individual-level variables
Bennink, M.; Croon, M.A.; Kroon, B.; Vermunt, J.K.
2016-01-01
An existing micro-macro method for a single individual-level variable is extended to the multivariate situation by presenting two multilevel latent class models in which multiple discrete individual-level variables are used to explain a group-level outcome. As in the univariate case, the
Friendship and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence : A Multilevel Social Network Approach
Knecht, Andrea B.; Burk, William J.; Weesie, Jeroen; Steglich, Christian
2011-01-01
This study applies multilevel social network analytic techniques to examine processes of homophilic selection and social influence related to alcohol use among friends in early adolescence. Participants included 3,041 Dutch youth (M age =12 years, 49% female) from 120 classrooms in 14 schools. Three
Carbonizing forest governance: analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance
Vijge, M.J.
2016-01-01
Carbonizing forest governance:
Analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance
Marjanneke J. Vijge
Despite the fifty years of global action to combat deforestation and forest degradation, the world is still
Pulse-modulated multilevel data storage in an organic ferroelectric resistive memory diode
Lee, J.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Khikhlovskyi, V.; Kemerink, M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Gelinck, G.H.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate multilevel data storage in organic ferroelectric resistive memory diodes consisting of a phase-separated blend of P(VDF-TrFE) and a semiconducting polymer. The dynamic behaviour of the organic ferroelectric memory diode can be described in terms of the inhomogeneous field mechanism
Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert; Van Keer, Hilde
2009-01-01
In the present study the effects of a cooperative leadership team, distributed leadership, participative decision-making, and context variables on teachers' organizational commitment are investigated. Multilevel analyses on data from 1522 teachers indicated that 9% of the variance in teachers' organizational commitment is attributable to…
Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg
2016-08-08
Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guanpeng Dong
Full Text Available This paper develops a methodology for extending multilevel modelling to incorporate spatial interaction effects. The motivation is that classic multilevel models are not specifically spatial. Lower level units may be nested into higher level ones based on a geographical hierarchy (or a membership structure--for example, census zones into regions but the actual locations of the units and the distances between them are not directly considered: what matters is the groupings but not how close together any two units are within those groupings. As a consequence, spatial interaction effects are neither modelled nor measured, confounding group effects (understood as some sort of contextual effect that acts 'top down' upon members of a group with proximity effects (some sort of joint dependency that emerges between neighbours. To deal with this, we incorporate spatial simultaneous autoregressive processes into both the outcome variable and the higher level residuals. To assess the performance of the proposed method and the classic multilevel model, a series of Monte Carlo simulations are conducted. The results show that the proposed method performs well in retrieving the true model parameters whereas the classic multilevel model provides biased and inefficient parameter estimation in the presence of spatial interactions. An important implication of the study is to be cautious of an apparent neighbourhood effect in terms of both its magnitude and statistical significance if spatial interaction effects at a lower level are suspected. Applying the new approach to a two-level land price data set for Beijing, China, we find significant spatial interactions at both the land parcel and district levels.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dowlatabadi, Mohammadkazem Bakhshizadeh; Najjar, Mohammad; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
In this paper, a Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHE-PWM) method, which utilizes adjustable dc links, is presented for a Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) based on Cascaded H-Bridge (CHB) multilevel converter. The proposed switching algorithm is able to fix the capac......In this paper, a Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHE-PWM) method, which utilizes adjustable dc links, is presented for a Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) based on Cascaded H-Bridge (CHB) multilevel converter. The proposed switching algorithm is able to fix...... unequal dc link voltages more levels at the output is achievable compared to the symmetrical multilevel converters that could be used in enhancing the power quality, while keeping the switching frequency near the fundamental (the maximum switching frequency can be kept below 150 Hz). The validity...
Web Syndication in a Multilevel Security Environment
2012-03-01
Group LAMP Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP LAN Local Area Network MAC Mandatory Access Control MILS Multiple Independent Levels of Security MLS Multilevel...Reader [35] Section 1.4.3 – X X X X X FeedShow [36] Section 1.4.3 – X X X X feed on feeds [37] Section 1.4.3 GPL PHP 4.3.2+, MySQL – X X / Tiny Tiny RSS...38] Section 1.4.3 GPL PHP 5+, MySQL /Postgres – X X X X – zFeeder [39] Section 1.4.3 GPL PHP 4.2+ – X X – / lylina [40] Section 1.4.3 GPL PHP 5.2
Site-Specific Multilevel Modeling of Potato Response to Nitrogen Fertilization
Serge-Étienne Parent; Michaël A. Leblanc; Annie-Claude Parent; Zonlehoua Coulibali; Léon E. Parent
2017-01-01
Technologies of precision agriculture, digital soil maps, and meteorological stations provide a minimum data set to guide precision farming operations. However, determining optimal nutrient requirements for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crops at subfield scale remains a challenge given specific climatic, edaphic, and managerial conditions. Multilevel modeling can generalize yield response to fertilizer additions using data easily accessible to growers. Our objective was to elaborate a multile...
MultiSimPC: a multilevel logic simulator for microcomputers
Kelly, John S.
1986-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis describes extensions to a multilevel VLSI logic simulator named MultiSim. Originally developed by Dr. Ausif Mahmood of the Washington State University for large minicomputers such as the VAX-11/780; MultiSim is now operational on desktop microcomputers costing only a few thousand dollars. In addition, MultiSim has been expanded to include provisions for adding user-defined primitive cells to the circuit library, true mu...
Simulation and Study of Multilevel Inverter System Fed By Photovoltaic Source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Abdulrazzak Jasim
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a simulation of Photovoltaic energy used to supply an induction motor with acomparison of two types of inverters.In general, the greater number of motorswhich"are used incommercial and industrial applicationsare"induction motors. To use PV source to run the induction motor, an interface circuits are used which are a dc-dc"converter and an inverter, the PV cell has nonlinear behavior,"adc-dc converter is used along with Maximum Power Point Tracker controllerto improve theefficiency by boosting the output voltage of the PV module and to match the load demand."The dc output voltage of PV modulethen"converted to AC, two types of inverter are presented, A conventional Voltage Source Inverter system and multilevel inverter system which employselective harmonic eliminationmethod fed three phase induction motor, these two types of inverters are simulated using Matlab/Simulink and their results are presented. The FFT spectrum is presented of the output currents to analyze the harmonics reduction, which shows that the"multilevel inverter is better than VSI system"according to harmonics reduction and increment in output voltage and power.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Tokle, Torger; Peucheret, Christophe
2007-01-01
By combining differential 8-ary phase shift keying with polarization multiplexing, we present transmission of multilevel modulation with 6 bits per symbol through a 100 km fiber span with a receiver bit-error-ratio better than 10-9.......By combining differential 8-ary phase shift keying with polarization multiplexing, we present transmission of multilevel modulation with 6 bits per symbol through a 100 km fiber span with a receiver bit-error-ratio better than 10-9....
A comparison of particle swarm optimizations for uncapacitated multilevel lot-sizin problems
Han, Y.; Kaku, I.; Tang, J.; Dellaert, N.P.; Cai, J.; Li, Y.
2010-01-01
The multilevel lot-sizing (MLLS) problem is a key production planning problem in the material requirement planning (MRP) system. The MLLS problem deals with determining the production lot sizes of various items appearing in the product structure over a given finite planning horizon to minimize the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.S. Osman
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an interactive approach for solving multi-level multi-objective fractional programming (ML-MOFP problems with fuzzy parameters is presented. The proposed interactive approach makes an extended work of Shi and Xia (1997. In the first phase, the numerical crisp model of the ML-MOFP problem has been developed at a confidence level without changing the fuzzy gist of the problem. Then, the linear model for the ML-MOFP problem is formulated. In the second phase, the interactive approach simplifies the linear multi-level multi-objective model by converting it into separate multi-objective programming problems. Also, each separate multi-objective programming problem of the linear model is solved by the ∊-constraint method and the concept of satisfactoriness. Finally, illustrative examples and comparisons with the previous approaches are utilized to evince the feasibility of the proposed approach.
A multilevel particle method for gas dynamics: application to multi-fluids simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weynans, Lisl
2006-12-01
In inertial confinement fusion, laser implosions require to know hydrodynamic flow in presence of shocks. This work is devoted to the evaluation of the ability of a particle-mesh method, inspired from Vortex-In-Cell methods, to simulate gas dynamics, especially multi-fluids. First, we develop a particle method, associated with a conservative re-meshing step, which is performed with high order interpolating kernels. We study theoretically and numerically this method. This analysis gives evidence of a strong relationship between the particle method and high order Lax-Wendroff-like finite difference schemes. We introduce a new scheme for the advection of particles. Then we implement a multilevel technique, inspired from AMR, which allows us to increase locally the accuracy of the computations. Finally we develop a level set-like technique, discretized on the particles, to simulate the interface between compressible flows. We use the multilevel technique to improve the interface resolution and the conservation of partial masses. (author)
Fabricating a multi-level barrier-integrated microfluidic device using grey-scale photolithography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nam, Yoonkwang; Kim, Minseok; Kim, Taesung
2013-01-01
Most polymer-replica-based microfluidic devices are mainly fabricated by using standard soft-lithography technology so that multi-level masters (MLMs) require multiple spin-coatings, mask alignments, exposures, developments, and bakings. In this paper, we describe a simple method for fabricating MLMs for planar microfluidic channels with multi-level barriers (MLBs). A single photomask is necessary for standard photolithography technology to create a polydimethylsiloxane grey-scale photomask (PGSP), which adjusts the total amount of UV absorption in a negative-tone photoresist via a wide range of dye concentrations. Since the PGSP in turn adjusts the degree of cross-linking of the photoresist, this method enables the fabrication of MLMs for an MLB-integrated microfluidic device. Since the PGSP-based soft-lithography technology provides a simple but powerful fabrication method for MLBs in a microfluidic device, we believe that the fabrication method can be widely used for micro total analysis systems that benefit from MLBs. We demonstrate an MLB-integrated microfluidic device that can separate microparticles. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Kulkarni, Rishi M.; Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar
2016-01-01
In this paper hybrid non isolated/ non inverting Nx interleaved DC-DC multilevel Boost Converter for renewable energy applications is presented. The presented hybrid topology is derived from the conventional interleaved converter and the Nx Multilevel boost converter. In renewable energy...... applications, generated energy cannot be directly used at application end. In most of the cases it needs to be stepped up with DC-DC converter at operating voltage levels as per the requirement of the application. Though conventional boost converter can theoretically be used for this purpose, but obtaining...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianqiang Mo
Full Text Available For multi-level spondylolysis patients, surgeons commonly choose to fix all the segments with pars interarticularis defect even those without slippage and not responsible for clinical symptoms. In this study, we tried to study the necessity of the preventative long-segment surgery for the defected segment without slippage in treatment of multi-level spondylolysis patients from a biomechanical perspective.We established a bi-level spondylolysis model with pars defects at L4 and L5 segments, and simulated posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF and pedicle screw fixation at L5-S1 level. Then we compared the biomechanical changes at L4 segment before and after surgery in neutral, flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation position.The stress on L4 pars interarticularis was very similar before and after surgery, and reached the highest in axial rotation. The L3-L4 intradiscal pressure was almost the same, while L4-L5 intradiscal pressure changed a little in lateral bending (increase from 1.993 to 2.160 MPa and axial rotation (decrease from 1.639 to 1.307 MPa after surgery. The PLIF surgery caused a little increase of range of motion at adjacent L4-L5 and L3-L4 levels, but the change is very tiny (1 degree.The PLIF surgery will not cause significant biomechanical change at adjacent segment with pars defect in multi-level spondylolysis. On the contrary, excessive long-segment surgery will damage surrounding soft tissues which are important for maintaining the stability of spine. So a preventative long-segment surgery is not necessary for multi-level spondylolysis as long as there are no soft tissue degeneration signs at adjacent level.
Mo, Jianqiang; Zhang, Wen; Zhong, Dongyan; Xu, Hao; Wang, Lan; Yu, Jia; Luo, Zongping
2016-01-01
For multi-level spondylolysis patients, surgeons commonly choose to fix all the segments with pars interarticularis defect even those without slippage and not responsible for clinical symptoms. In this study, we tried to study the necessity of the preventative long-segment surgery for the defected segment without slippage in treatment of multi-level spondylolysis patients from a biomechanical perspective. We established a bi-level spondylolysis model with pars defects at L4 and L5 segments, and simulated posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and pedicle screw fixation at L5-S1 level. Then we compared the biomechanical changes at L4 segment before and after surgery in neutral, flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation position. The stress on L4 pars interarticularis was very similar before and after surgery, and reached the highest in axial rotation. The L3-L4 intradiscal pressure was almost the same, while L4-L5 intradiscal pressure changed a little in lateral bending (increase from 1.993 to 2.160 MPa) and axial rotation (decrease from 1.639 to 1.307 MPa) after surgery. The PLIF surgery caused a little increase of range of motion at adjacent L4-L5 and L3-L4 levels, but the change is very tiny (1 degree). The PLIF surgery will not cause significant biomechanical change at adjacent segment with pars defect in multi-level spondylolysis. On the contrary, excessive long-segment surgery will damage surrounding soft tissues which are important for maintaining the stability of spine. So a preventative long-segment surgery is not necessary for multi-level spondylolysis as long as there are no soft tissue degeneration signs at adjacent level.
Ren, Da-Jiang; Li, Fang; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Kai, Guan; Shan, Jian-Lin; Zhao, Guang-Min; Sun, Tian-Sheng
2015-08-05
Posterior cervical decompression is an accepted treatment for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Each posterior technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. In the present study, we compared the functional and radiological outcomes of expansive hemilaminectomy and laminoplasty with mini titanium plate in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Forty-four patients with multilevel CSM treated with posterior cervical surgery in Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Beijing Army General Hospital from March 2011 to June 2012 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups by surgical procedure: Laminoplasty (Group L) and hemilaminectomy (Group H). Perioperative parameters including age, sex, duration of symptoms, operative duration, and intraoperative blood loss were recorded and compared. Spinal canal area, calculated using AutoCAD ® software(Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA), and neurological improvement, evaluated with Japanese Orthopedic Association score, were also compared. Neurological improvement did not differ significantly between groups. Group H had a significantly shorter operative duration and significantly less blood loss. Mean expansion ratio was significantly greater in Group L (77.83 ± 6.41%) than in Group H (62.72 ± 3.86%) (P < 0.01). Both surgical approaches are safe and effective in treating multilevel CSM. Laminoplasty provides a greater degree of enlargement of the spinal canal, whereas expansive hemilaminectomy has the advantages of shorter operative duration and less intraoperative blood loss.
Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multi-level osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Gefang; Cheng Yongde; Wu Chungen; Zhang Ji; Gu Yifeng; Li Minghua
2008-01-01
Objective: To prospectively evaluate the clinical efficiency and safety of patients receiving percutaneous vertebroplasty due to multi-level osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to review eighty-six osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture patients including 23 with three and more levels of vertebroplasty. The outcome was considered carefully by pre and postoperatively the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)for pain relief, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)for the improvement activity of daily life and also the accompanied imaging information. Results: All procedures were performed successfully. Three patients had a transient high blood pressure and dyspnea, and recovered after sublingual nitroglycerin. The VAS and ODI improved from a mean preoperative score of 8.58±1.12 and 81.43 ±12.54 to a mean postoperative score of 3.03±0.98 and 31.04±11.11 one day afterward. Asymptomatic cement leakage rate was 17.8% with no major complications occurred during operation or post-operation. Five patients had new symptomatic vertebral fracture (s) during follow-up in one year. Conclusions: Vertebroplasty with cement to treat multi-level osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures in the elderly is safe and effective, providing immediate and long-term pain relief with improvement in quality of life. Due to the risk of fat embolism, the limitation of three per session must be kept strictly. (authors)
Optimization of Hydraulic Machinery Bladings by Multilevel CFD Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thum Susanne
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The numerical design optimization for complex hydraulic machinery bladings requires a high number of design parameters and the use of a precise CFD solver yielding high computational costs. To reduce the CPU time needed, a multilevel CFD method has been developed. First of all, the 3D blade geometry is parametrized by means of a geometric design tool to reduce the number of design parameters. To keep geometric accuracy, a special B-spline modification technique has been developed. On the first optimization level, a quasi-3D Euler code (EQ3D is applied. To guarantee a sufficiently accurate result, the code is calibrated by a Navier-Stokes recalculation of the initial design and can be recalibrated after a number of optimization steps by another Navier-Stokes computation. After having got a convergent solution, the optimization process is repeated on the second level using a full 3D Euler code yielding a more accurate flow prediction. Finally, a 3D Navier-Stokes code is applied on the third level to search for the optimum optimorum by means of a fine-tuning of the geometrical parameters. To show the potential of the developed optimization system, the runner blading of a water turbine having a specific speed n q = 41 1 / min was optimized applying the multilevel approach.
Pulsed laser planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuckerman, D.B.; Schmitt, R.L.
1985-05-01
Multilevel interconnect schemes for integrated circuits generally require one or more planarization steps, in order to maintain an acceptably flat topography for lithography and thin-film step coverage on the higher levels. Traditional approaches have involved planarization of the interlevel insulation (dielectric) layers, either by spin-on application (e.g., polyimide), or by reflow (e.g., phosphosilicate glass). We have pursued an alternative approach, in which each metal level is melted (hence planarized) using a pulsed laser prior to patterning. Short (approx.1 μs) pulses are used to preclude undesirable metallurgical reactions between the film, adhesion or barrier layer, and dielectric layer. Laser planarization of metals is particularly well suited to multilevel systems which include ground or power planes. Results are presented for planarization of gold films on SiO 2 dielectric layers using a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. The pulse duration is approx.1 μs, which allows the heat pulse to uniformly penetrate the gold while not penetrating substantially through the underlying SiO 2 (hence not perturbing the lower levels of metal). Excellent planarization of the gold films is achieved (less than 0.1 μm surface roughness, even starting with extreme topographic variations), as well as improved conductivity. To demonstrate the process, numerous planarized two-layer structures (transmission lines under a ground plane) were fabricated and characterized. 9 refs., 2 figs
GaAs circuit restructuring by multi-level laser-direct-written tungsten process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black, J.G.; Doran, S.P.; Rothschild, M.; Sedlacek, J.H.C.; Ehrlich, D.J.
1987-01-01
Laser-direct-writing processes are employed to fabricate a GaAs digital integrated circuit. The lithography-free techniques deposit and etch conductors and resistors, and remove insulating layers, thus enabling multilevel interconnections. These combined direct-write processes provide the flexibility of clip-lead prototyping on a micrometer scale
Modelling and Validating a Deoiling Hydrocyclone for Fault Diagnosis using Multilevel Flow Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Emil Krabbe; Bram, Mads Valentin; Frutiger, Jerome
a procedure to measure model performance, according to diagnosticrequirements, to ensure reliability during operation. A simple procedure is proposed for validatingand evaluating Multilevel Flow Modeling models. For this purpose expert statements, a dynamicprocess simulation in K-spice, and pilot plant...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Surendra Mohan Tuli
2011-01-01
Conclusion: Spinaplasty following posterior decompression for multilevel lumbar canal stenosis is a simple operation, without any serious complications, retaining median structures, maintaining the tension band and the strength with least disturbance of kinematics, mobility, stability and lordosis of the lumbar spine.
An introduction to multilevel flow modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lind, Morten
2011-01-01
Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) is a methodology for functional modeling of industrial processes on several interconnected levels of means-end and part-whole abstractions. The basic idea of MFM is to represent an industrial plant as a system which provides the means required to serve purposes in its environment. MFM has a primary focus on plant goals and functions and provide a methodological way of using those concepts to represent complex industrial plant. The paper gives a brief introduction to the historical development, introduces the concepts of MFM and presents the application of the concepts in detail by a water mill example. The overall reasoning capabilities of MFM and its basis in cause-effect relations are also explained. The appendix contains an overview of MFM concepts and their definitions. (author)
Profiling micro-organic contaminants in groundwater using multi-level piezometers
White, Debbie; Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Williams, Peter
2015-01-01
The presence of micro-organic pollutants, including ‘emerging contaminants’ within groundwater is of increasing interest. Robust protocols are required to minimise the introduction of contamination during the sampling process. Below we discuss the sampling protocols used to reduce inputs of plasticisers during the sampling process, as well as the techniques used to characterise the distribution of micro-organic pollutants in the subsurface. In this study multi-level piezometers...
The Master model on multi-actor and multilevel social responsibilities
Ashley, P.A.
2011-01-01
This working paper contributes to a collective discussion in a workshop occurring in January 2011 at the International Institute of Social Studies, bringing scholars from Europe and Brazil and aiming inter-university research collaboration on linking policies on social responsibility to development and equity. The paper serves as an introductory discussion for reframing the concept of corporate social responsibility into a broader umbrella concept of multi-actor and multilevel social responsi...
Resonances, resonance functions and spectral deformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balslev, E.
1984-01-01
The present paper is aimed at an analysis of resonances and resonance states from a mathematical point of view. Resonances are characterized as singular points of the analytically continued Lippman-Schwinger equation, as complex eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian with a purely outgoing, exponentially growing eigenfunction, and as poles of the S-matrix. (orig./HSI)
Hybrid Multilevel Monte Carlo Simulation of Stochastic Reaction Networks
Moraes, Alvaro
2015-01-01
even more, we want to achieve this objective with near optimal computational work. We first introduce a hybrid path-simulation scheme based on the well-known stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA)[3] and the tau-leap method [2]. Then, we introduce a Multilevel Monte Carlo strategy that allows us to achieve a computational complexity of order O(T OL−2), this is the same computational complexity as in an exact method but with a smaller constant. We provide numerical examples to show our results.
Ludtke, Oliver; Marsh, Herbert W.; Robitzsch, Alexander; Trautwein, Ulrich
2011-01-01
In multilevel modeling, group-level variables (L2) for assessing contextual effects are frequently generated by aggregating variables from a lower level (L1). A major problem of contextual analyses in the social sciences is that there is no error-free measurement of constructs. In the present article, 2 types of error occurring in multilevel data…
Multi-level predictive maintenance for multi-component systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Kim-Anh; Do, Phuc; Grall, Antoine
2015-01-01
In this paper, a novel predictive maintenance policy with multi-level decision-making is proposed for multi-component system with complex structure. The main idea is to propose a decision-making process considered on two levels: system level and component one. The goal of the decision rules at the system level is to address if preventive maintenance actions are needed regarding the predictive reliability of the system. At component level the decision rules aim at identifying optimally a group of several components to be preventively maintained when preventive maintenance is trigged due to the system level decision. Selecting optimal components is based on a cost-based group improvement factor taking into account the predictive reliability of the components, the economic dependencies as well as the location of the components in the system. Moreover, a cost model is developed to find the optimal maintenance decision variables. A 14-component system is finally introduced to illustrate the use and the performance of the proposed predictive maintenance policy. Different sensitivity analysis are also investigated and discussed. Indeed, the proposed policy provides more flexibility in maintenance decision-making for complex structure systems, hence leading to significant profits in terms of maintenance cost when compared with existing policies. - Highlights: • A predictive maintenance policy for complex structure systems is proposed. • Multi-level decision process based on prognostic results is proposed. • A cost-based group importance measure is introduced for decision-making. • Both positive and negative dependencies between components are investigated. • A cost model and Monte Carlo simulation are developed for optimization process.
Multilevel Drift-Implicit Tau-Leap
Ben Hammouda, Chiheb
2016-01-06
The dynamics of biochemical reactive systems with small copy numbers of one or more reactant molecules is dominated by stochastic effects. For those systems, discrete state-space and stochastic simulation approaches were proved to be more relevant than continuous state-space and deterministic ones. In systems characterized by having simultaneously fast and slowtimescales, the existing discrete space-state stochastic path simulation methods such as the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and the explicit tauleap method can be very slow. Implicit approximations were developed in the literature to improve numerical stability and provide efficient simulation algorithms for those systems. In this work, we propose an efficient Multilevel Monte Carlo method in the spirit of the work by Anderson and Higham (2012) that uses drift-implicit tau-leap approximations at levels where the explicit tauleap method is not applicable due to numerical stability issues. We present numerical examples that illustrate the performance of the proposed method.
Advanced Multilevel Monte Carlo Methods
Jasra, Ajay
2017-04-24
This article reviews the application of advanced Monte Carlo techniques in the context of Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC). MLMC is a strategy employed to compute expectations which can be biased in some sense, for instance, by using the discretization of a associated probability law. The MLMC approach works with a hierarchy of biased approximations which become progressively more accurate and more expensive. Using a telescoping representation of the most accurate approximation, the method is able to reduce the computational cost for a given level of error versus i.i.d. sampling from this latter approximation. All of these ideas originated for cases where exact sampling from couples in the hierarchy is possible. This article considers the case where such exact sampling is not currently possible. We consider Markov chain Monte Carlo and sequential Monte Carlo methods which have been introduced in the literature and we describe different strategies which facilitate the application of MLMC within these methods.
Advanced Multilevel Monte Carlo Methods
Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; Suciu, Carina
2017-01-01
This article reviews the application of advanced Monte Carlo techniques in the context of Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC). MLMC is a strategy employed to compute expectations which can be biased in some sense, for instance, by using the discretization of a associated probability law. The MLMC approach works with a hierarchy of biased approximations which become progressively more accurate and more expensive. Using a telescoping representation of the most accurate approximation, the method is able to reduce the computational cost for a given level of error versus i.i.d. sampling from this latter approximation. All of these ideas originated for cases where exact sampling from couples in the hierarchy is possible. This article considers the case where such exact sampling is not currently possible. We consider Markov chain Monte Carlo and sequential Monte Carlo methods which have been introduced in the literature and we describe different strategies which facilitate the application of MLMC within these methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudia Sattler
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We analyze four case studies from Latin America using the concept of multilevel governance to assess at what vertical and horizontal levels and in what roles various state, market, and civil society actors interact for successful community-based environmental management (CBEM. In particular, we address the problem of how a conflict over natural resources with high negative impacts on the livelihoods of the respective communities could be overcome by a governance change that resulted in a multilevel governance arrangement for CBEM. The analysis involves a mixed-methods approach that combines a variety of empirical methods in social research such as field visits, personal interviews, participant observations, and stakeholder workshops. To visualize results, we introduce two schemes to present the composition of the governance structures for cross-case comparison. The first scheme plots the different actors into an arrangement that shows their associations with different societal spheres and at which territorial scales they are primarily involved. The second scheme differentiates these actors based on their complementing governance roles. Active roles are attributed to actors who implement activities on the ground, whereas passive roles are assigned to actors who provide specific resources such as knowledge, funding, legislative framework, or others. All cases involved governance actors from more than one societal sphere who operate on at least three different territorial levels (local to international and in distinct roles. Results show that multilevel governance can strengthen CBEM in different ways. First, the success of CBEM is an outcome of the sum of horizontal and vertical interactions of all involved actors, and there is no most appropriate single level of social organization at which a problem can best be addressed. Only the cooperation of actors from different societal spheres within and across levels ensures accessibility to needed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jos Kramer
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Kin selection and multilevel selection are two major frameworks in evolutionary biology that aim at explaining the evolution of social behaviors. However, the relationship between these two theories has been plagued by controversy for almost half a century and debates about their relevance and usefulness in explaining social evolution seem to rekindle at regular intervals. Here, we first provide a concise introduction into the kin selection and multilevel selection theories and shed light onto the roots of the controversy surrounding them. We then review two major aspects of the current debate: the presumed formal equivalency of the two theories and the question whether group selection can lead to group adaptation. We conclude by arguing that the two theories can offer complementary approaches to the study of social evolution: kin selection approaches usually focus on the identification of optimal phenotypes and thus on the endresult of a selection process, whereas multilevel selection approaches focus on the ongoing selection process itself. The two theories thus provide different perspectives that might be fruitfully combined to promote our understanding of the evolution in group-structured populations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hioe, F.T.
1984-01-01
We have made significant advances in our understanding of multiphoton and multilevel coherent effects in laser induced excitation of atomic systems by obtaining a number of fundamental analytic solutions to these problems. In particular, we have obtained the following: an explicit analytic solution to the problem of multilevel atomic excitation by adiabatic rapid passages; analytic solutions for a class of nonadiabatic excitation processes by specific types of amplitude and phase modulated laser pulses; analytic solutions for a class of multiple soliton p2opagation problems; an analytic solution which gives one of very few known analytic theories describing the evolution of an atom excited by two amplitude modulated laser pulses differing by a pi/2 phase; and analytic reselts on the statistical maan motion of an atom when it interacts with a quantized radiation field
Multilevel and Multi-index Monte Carlo methods for the McKean–Vlasov equation
Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef; Tempone, Raul
2017-01-01
of particles. Based on these two parameters, we consider different variants of the Monte Carlo and Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) methods and show that, in the best case, the optimal work complexity of MLMC, to estimate the functional in one typical setting
Error rate performance of narrowband multilevel CPFSK signals
Ekanayake, N.; Fonseka, K. J. P.
1987-04-01
The paper presents a relatively simple method for analyzing the effect of IF filtering on the performance of multilevel FM signals. Using this method, the error rate performance of narrowband FM signals is analyzed for three different detection techniques, namely limiter-discriminator detection, differential detection and coherent detection followed by differential decoding. The symbol error probabilities are computed for a Gaussian IF filter and a second-order Butterworth IF filter. It is shown that coherent detection and differential decoding yields better performance than limiter-discriminator detection and differential detection, whereas two noncoherent detectors yield approximately identical performance.
AUTOMATIC MULTILEVEL IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON FUZZY REASONING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Tang
2011-05-01
Full Text Available An automatic multilevel image segmentation method based on sup-star fuzzy reasoning (SSFR is presented. Using the well-known sup-star fuzzy reasoning technique, the proposed algorithm combines the global statistical information implied in the histogram with the local information represented by the fuzzy sets of gray-levels, and aggregates all the gray-levels into several classes characterized by the local maximum values of the histogram. The presented method has the merits of determining the number of the segmentation classes automatically, and avoiding to calculating thresholds of segmentation. Emulating and real image segmentation experiments demonstrate that the SSFR is effective.
A multilevel method for conductive-radiative heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banoczi, J.M.; Kelley, C.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
1996-12-31
We present a fast multilevel algorithm for the solution of a system of nonlinear integro-differential equations that model steady-state combined radiative-conductive heat transfer. The equations can be formulated as a compact fixed point problem with a fixed point map that requires both a solution of the linear transport equation and the linear heat equation for its evaluation. We use fast transport solvers developed by the second author, to construct an efficient evaluation of the fixed point map and then apply the Atkinson-Brakhage, method, with Newton-GMRES as the coarse mesh solver, to the full nonlinear system.
Power Devices Loading in Multilevel Converters for 10 MW Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede; Xu, Dehong
2011-01-01
Several promising multilevel converter solutions for 10 MW wind turbines using permanent magnet synchronous generators are proposed, designed and compared both with one-stage gear-box drive and direct drive systems. The current and loss distributions, as well as the utilization of power devices......-level NeutralPoint-Clamped topology with both the direct-drive and one-stage gear box drive systems....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dargahi, Vahid; Corzine, Keith A.; Enslin, Johan H.
2018-01-01
For medium-voltage (MV) high-power industrial applications including HVDC and variable-speed motor drives, multilevel converters are deemed predominant topology. One of the promising derived-topologies from neutral-point-clamped (NPC) configuration is active NPC (ANPC) inverter that offers improved......-capacitor (FC) and four switches such as the insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). The I-ANPC converter has considerable advantages over the classic multilevel inverters that makes it a preferable topology for MV applications. The substantial reduction in the number of cells in comparison with classic...
Svehlik, Martin; Steinwender, Gerhard; Kraus, Tanja; Saraph, Vinay; Lehmann, Thomas; Linhart, Wolfgang E.; Zwick, Ernst B.
2011-01-01
Aim: Information on the timing and long-term outcome of single-event multilevel surgery in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) walking with flexed knee gait is limited. Based on our clinical experience, we hypothesized that older children with bilateral spastic CP would benefit more from single-event multilevel surgery than younger…
Tuikkala, Johannes; Vähämaa, Heidi; Salmela, Pekka; Nevalainen, Olli S; Aittokallio, Tero
2012-03-26
Graph drawing is an integral part of many systems biology studies, enabling visual exploration and mining of large-scale biological networks. While a number of layout algorithms are available in popular network analysis platforms, such as Cytoscape, it remains poorly understood how well their solutions reflect the underlying biological processes that give rise to the network connectivity structure. Moreover, visualizations obtained using conventional layout algorithms, such as those based on the force-directed drawing approach, may become uninformative when applied to larger networks with dense or clustered connectivity structure. We implemented a modified layout plug-in, named Multilevel Layout, which applies the conventional layout algorithms within a multilevel optimization framework to better capture the hierarchical modularity of many biological networks. Using a wide variety of real life biological networks, we carried out a systematic evaluation of the method in comparison with other layout algorithms in Cytoscape. The multilevel approach provided both biologically relevant and visually pleasant layout solutions in most network types, hence complementing the layout options available in Cytoscape. In particular, it could improve drawing of large-scale networks of yeast genetic interactions and human physical interactions. In more general terms, the biological evaluation framework developed here enables one to assess the layout solutions from any existing or future graph drawing algorithm as well as to optimize their performance for a given network type or structure. By making use of the multilevel modular organization when visualizing biological networks, together with the biological evaluation of the layout solutions, one can generate convenient visualizations for many network biology applications.
Multilevel markov chain monte carlo method for high-contrast single-phase flow problems
Efendiev, Yalchin R.
2014-12-19
In this paper we propose a general framework for the uncertainty quantification of quantities of interest for high-contrast single-phase flow problems. It is based on the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) and multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) methods. The former provides a hierarchy of approximations of different resolution, whereas the latter gives an efficient way to estimate quantities of interest using samples on different levels. The number of basis functions in the online GMsFEM stage can be varied to determine the solution resolution and the computational cost, and to efficiently generate samples at different levels. In particular, it is cheap to generate samples on coarse grids but with low resolution, and it is expensive to generate samples on fine grids with high accuracy. By suitably choosing the number of samples at different levels, one can leverage the expensive computation in larger fine-grid spaces toward smaller coarse-grid spaces, while retaining the accuracy of the final Monte Carlo estimate. Further, we describe a multilevel Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which sequentially screens the proposal with different levels of approximations and reduces the number of evaluations required on fine grids, while combining the samples at different levels to arrive at an accurate estimate. The framework seamlessly integrates the multiscale features of the GMsFEM with the multilevel feature of the MLMC methods following the work in [26], and our numerical experiments illustrate its efficiency and accuracy in comparison with standard Monte Carlo estimates. © Global Science Press Limited 2015.
Explaining Technology Integration in K-12 Classrooms: A Multilevel Path Analysis Model
Liu, Feng; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.
2017-01-01
The purpose of this research was to design and test a model of classroom technology integration in the context of K-12 schools. The proposed multilevel path analysis model includes teacher, contextual, and school related variables on a teacher's use of technology and confidence and comfort using technology as mediators of classroom technology…
French, Kimberly A.; Kottke, Janet L.
2013-01-01
Multilevel modeling is used to examine the impact of teamwork interest and group extraversion on group satisfaction. Participants included 206 undergraduates in 65 groups who were surveyed at the beginning and end of a requisite term-length group project for an upper-division university course. We hypothesized that teamwork interest and both…
Friendship and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence: A Multilevel Social Network Approach
Knecht, Andrea B.; Burk, William J.; Weesie, Jeroen; Steglich, Christian
2011-01-01
This study applies multilevel social network analytic techniques to examine processes of homophilic selection and social influence related to alcohol use among friends in early adolescence. Participants included 3,041 Dutch youth (M age =12 years, 49% female) from 120 classrooms in 14 schools. Three waves with 3-month intervals of friendship…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burlacu, Paul Dan; Mathe, Laszlo; Rejas, Marcos
2015-01-01
Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is very promising technology this days. It offers fault tolerant capabilities and ensures high efficiency with low output voltage harmonic content which results in need for smaller filter size. A disadvantage of the system is that the control becomes more...
Commitment to the Study of International Business and Cultural Intelligence: A Multilevel Model
Ramsey, Jase R.; Barakat, Livia L.; Aad, Amine Abi
2014-01-01
Adopting a multilevel theoretical framework, we examined how metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence influence an individual's commitment to the study of international business (IB). Data from 292 undergraduate and graduate business students nested in 12 U.S. business school classes demonstrated that individuals' metacognitive and…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Da-Jiang Ren
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Posterior cervical decompression is an accepted treatment for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM. Each posterior technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. In the present study, we compared the functional and radiological outcomes of expansive hemilaminectomy and laminoplasty with mini titanium plate in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Methods: Forty-four patients with multilevel CSM treated with posterior cervical surgery in Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Beijing Army General Hospital from March 2011 to June 2012 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups by surgical procedure: Laminoplasty (Group L and hemilaminectomy (Group H. Perioperative parameters including age, sex, duration of symptoms, operative duration, and intraoperative blood loss were recorded and compared. Spinal canal area, calculated using AutoCAD ® software(Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA, and neurological improvement, evaluated with Japanese Orthopedic Association score, were also compared. Results: Neurological improvement did not differ significantly between groups. Group H had a significantly shorter operative duration and significantly less blood loss. Mean expansion ratio was significantly greater in Group L (77.83 ± 6.41% than in Group H (62.72 ± 3.86% (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Both surgical approaches are safe and effective in treating multilevel CSM. Laminoplasty provides a greater degree of enlargement of the spinal canal, whereas expansive hemilaminectomy has the advantages of shorter operative duration and less intraoperative blood loss.
A Multilevel Gamma-Clustering Layout Algorithm for Visualization of Biological Networks
Hruz, Tomas; Lucas, Christoph; Laule, Oliver; Zimmermann, Philip
2013-01-01
Visualization of large complex networks has become an indispensable part of systems biology, where organisms need to be considered as one complex system. The visualization of the corresponding network is challenging due to the size and density of edges. In many cases, the use of standard visualization algorithms can lead to high running times and poorly readable visualizations due to many edge crossings. We suggest an approach that analyzes the structure of the graph first and then generates a new graph which contains specific semantic symbols for regular substructures like dense clusters. We propose a multilevel gamma-clustering layout visualization algorithm (MLGA) which proceeds in three subsequent steps: (i) a multilevel γ-clustering is used to identify the structure of the underlying network, (ii) the network is transformed to a tree, and (iii) finally, the resulting tree which shows the network structure is drawn using a variation of a force-directed algorithm. The algorithm has a potential to visualize very large networks because it uses modern clustering heuristics which are optimized for large graphs. Moreover, most of the edges are removed from the visual representation which allows keeping the overview over complex graphs with dense subgraphs. PMID:23864855
New Switched-Dual-Source Multilevel Inverter for Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Operation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kennedy Adinbo Aganah
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The increasing integration of large solar PV and wind farms into the power grid has fueled, over the past two decades, growing demands for high-power, high-voltage, utility-scale inverters. Multilevel inverters have emerged as the industry’s choice for megawatt-range inverters because of their reduced voltage stress, capability for generating an almost-sinusoidal voltage, built-in redundancy and other benefits. This paper presents a novel switched-source multilevel inverter (SS MLI architecture. This new inverter shows superior capabilities when compared to existing topologies. It has reduced voltage stress on the semiconductor, uses fewer switches (i.e., reduced size/weight/cost and exhibits increased efficiency. The proposed SS MLI is comprised of two voltage sources ( V 1 , V 2 and six switches. It is capable of generating five-level output voltage in symmetric mode (i.e., V 1 = V 2 and seven-level output voltage in asymmetric mode (i.e., V 1 ≠ V 2 . We present simulations results (using MATLAB®/Simulink® for five- and seven-level output voltages, and they strongly support the validity of the proposed inverter. These positive results are further supported experimentally using a laboratory prototype.
Agent-based model with multi-level herding for complex financial systems
Chen, Jun-Jie; Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo
2015-02-01
In complex financial systems, the sector structure and volatility clustering are respectively important features of the spatial and temporal correlations. However, the microscopic generation mechanism of the sector structure is not yet understood. Especially, how to produce these two features in one model remains challenging. We introduce a novel interaction mechanism, i.e., the multi-level herding, in constructing an agent-based model to investigate the sector structure combined with volatility clustering. According to the previous market performance, agents trade in groups, and their herding behavior comprises the herding at stock, sector and market levels. Further, we propose methods to determine the key model parameters from historical market data, rather than from statistical fitting of the results. From the simulation, we obtain the sector structure and volatility clustering, as well as the eigenvalue distribution of the cross-correlation matrix, for the New York and Hong Kong stock exchanges. These properties are in agreement with the empirical ones. Our results quantitatively reveal that the multi-level herding is the microscopic generation mechanism of the sector structure, and provide new insight into the spatio-temporal interactions in financial systems at the microscopic level.
Multilevel integration of patternable low-κ material into advanced Cu BEOL
Lin, Qinghuang; Chen, S. T.; Nelson, A.; Brock, P.; Cohen, S.; Davis, B.; Fuller, N.; Kaplan, R.; Kwong, R.; Liniger, E.; Neumayer, D.; Patel, J.; Shobha, H.; Sooriyakumaran, R.; Purushothaman, S.; Spooner, T.; Miller, R.; Allen, R.; Wisnieff, R.
2010-04-01
In this paper, we wish to report, for the first time, on a simple, low-cost, novel way to form dual-damascene copper (Cu) on-chip interconnect or Back-End-Of-the-Line (BEOL) structures using a patternable low dielectric constant (low-κ) dielectric material concept. A patternable low-κ dielectric material combines the functions of a traditional resist and a dielectric material into one single material. It acts as a traditional resist during patterning and is subsequently converted to a low-κ dielectric material during a post-patterning curing process. No sacrificial materials (separate resists or hardmasks) and their related deposition, pattern transfer (etch) and removal (strip) are required to form dual-damascene BEOL patterns. We have successfully demonstrated multi-level dual-damascene integration of a novel patternable low-κ dielectric material into advanced Cu BEOL. This κ=2.7 patternable low-κ material is based on the industry standard SiCOH-based (silsesquioxane polymer) material platform and is compatible with 248 nm optical lithography. Multilevel integration of this patternable low-κ material at 45 nm node Cu BEOL fatwire levels has been demonstrated with very high electrical yields using the current manufacturing infrastructure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioannis Tsaousis
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The current study sought to meet three aims: (a to understand the optimal factor structure of the Professional Engineering (ProfEng test, a measure aiming to assess competency in engineering, within a multilevel (nested perspective; (b to examine the psychometric measurement invariance of the ProfEng test across levels due to nesting and across gender at the person level, and, (c to examine the internal consistency of the engineering competency measure at both levels in the analysis. Data involved 1,696 individuals across 21 universities who took a national licensure test as part of the professional accreditation process to obtain a work permit and practice the engineering profession in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed by use of Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling (MLSEM. Results indicated that a 2-factor model at both levels of analysis provided the best fit to the data. We also examined violation of measurement invariance across clusters (cluster bias. Results showed that all factor loadings were invariant across levels, suggesting the presence of strong measurement invariance. Last, invariance across gender was tested by use of the MIMIC multilevel model. Results pointed to the existence of significant differences between genders on levels of personal and professional skills with females having higher levels on personal skills and males on professional. Estimates of internal consistency reliability also varied markedly due to nesting. It is concluded that ignoring a multilevel structure is associated with errors and inaccuracies in the measurement of person abilities as both measurement wise and precision wise the multilevel model provides increased accuracy at each level in the analysis.
Consequence Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole
2013-01-01
Consequence reasoning is a major element for operation support system to assess the plant situations. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how Multilevel Flow Models can be used to reason about consequences of disturbances in complex engineering systems. MFM is a modelling methodology...... for representing process knowledge for complex systems. It represents the system by using means-end and part-whole decompositions, and describes not only the purposes and functions of the system but also the causal relations between them. Thus MFM is a tool for causal reasoning. The paper introduces MFM modelling...... syntax and gives detailed reasoning formulas for consequence reasoning. The reasoning formulas offers basis for developing rule-based system to perform consequence reasoning based on MFM, which can be used for alarm design, risk monitoring, and supervision and operation support system design....
Modular Multilevel Converters: Control and Applications
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Fernando Martinez-Rodrigo
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This review article is mainly oriented to the control and applications of modular multilevel converters (MMC. The main topologies of the switching modules are presented, for normal operation and for the elimination of DC faults. Methods to keep the capacitor voltage balanced are included. The voltage and current modulators, that are the most internal loops of control, are detailed. Voltage control and current control schemes are included which regulate DC link voltage and reactive power. The cases of unbalanced and distorted networks are analyzed, and schemes are proposed so that MMC contribute to improve the quality of the grid in these situations. The main applications in high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission along with other medium voltage (MV and low voltage (LV applications are included. Finally, the application to offshore wind farms is specifically analyzed.
Zulvia, Pepi; Kurnia, Anang; Soleh, Agus M.
2017-03-01
Individual and environment are a hierarchical structure consist of units grouped at different levels. Hierarchical data structures are analyzed based on several levels, with the lowest level nested in the highest level. This modeling is commonly call multilevel modeling. Multilevel modeling is widely used in education research, for example, the average score of National Examination (UN). While in Indonesia UN for high school student is divided into natural science and social science. The purpose of this research is to develop multilevel and panel data modeling using linear mixed model on educational data. The first step is data exploration and identification relationships between independent and dependent variable by checking correlation coefficient and variance inflation factor (VIF). Furthermore, we use a simple model approach with highest level of the hierarchy (level-2) is regency/city while school is the lowest of hierarchy (level-1). The best model was determined by comparing goodness-of-fit and checking assumption from residual plots and predictions for each model. Our finding that for natural science and social science, the regression with random effects of regency/city and fixed effects of the time i.e multilevel model has better performance than the linear mixed model in explaining the variability of the dependent variable, which is the average scores of UN.
Lomsky-Feder, Edna; Sasson-Levy, Orna
2015-03-01
With the growing elusiveness of the state apparatus in late modernity, military service is one of the last institutions to be clearly identified with the state, its ideologies and its policies. Therefore, negotiations between the military and its recruits produce acting subjects of citizenship with long-lasting consequences. Arguing that these negotiations are regulated by multi-level (civic, group, and individual) contracts, we explore the various meanings that these contracts obtain at the intersectionality of gender, class, and ethnicity; and examine how they shape the subjective experience of soldierhood and citizenship. More particularly, we analyse the meaning of military service in the retrospective life stories of Israeli Jewish women from various ethno-class backgrounds who served as army secretaries - a low-status, feminine gender-typed occupation within a hyper-masculine organization. Findings reveal that for women of the lower class, the organizing cultural schema of the multi-level contract is that of achieving respectability through military service, which means being included in the national collective. Conversely, for middle-class women, it is the sense of entitlement that shapes their contract with the military, which they expect to signify and maintain their privileged status. Thus, while for the lower class, the multi-level contract is about inclusion within the boundaries of the national collective, for the dominant groups, this contract is about reproducing social class hierarchies within national boundaries. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
Multilevel Hierarchy of Economic Space: Formation of Evolutionary Taxonomy
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Daniil Petrovich Frolov
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The article considers methodological problems of hierarchical structuring of economic space. The evolution survey of multilevel analysis concepts reveals a dominant role of two-level (micro- macro neoclassical models because of the path dependence effect. In institutional and evolutionary theories the application of mesoanalysis and three-level models gradually becomes more active, but conventions in the field of taxonomy are extremely inert. The main methodological problems of a hierarchical taksonomization of economic space include the problem of taxonomical «rupture» of a subject and a method of Economics, the problem of an identification of the level (rank and scale of economic phenomena, the problem of an identification of subjects and business location, the problem of terminological unification. The author›s hierarchical model of economic space is developed in a context of the generalized evolutionary theory on the basis of multilevel population thinking. The model offers differentiation of industrial and territorial (spatial division and cooperation of labour and, more widely, economic activity. Branches and generation are treated as objects of the industrial analysis, population and ecocenosis – objects of the spatial analysis that allows reintegration of spatial formations in the system of economic analysis. The study of mesolevels and interlevel relations is particularly important. Institutionalism can be considered as metanarrative, i.e. one of universal languages of Economics. Scales and ranks of the functions assigned to subjects and objects of transactions define level differentiation of institutions’ forms in economic space
A novel five-level optimized carrier multilevel PWM quad-inverter six-phase AC drive
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sanjeevikumar, P.; Blaabjerg, F.; Wheeler, Pat
2016-01-01
A novel single carrier pulse-width modulation (PWM) for a new quad-inverter configuration for multilevel six-phase asymmetrical open-winding ac converter is proposed in this article. Modularity of the circuit consist of four standard two-level voltage source inverters (VSIs) with slight modificat......A novel single carrier pulse-width modulation (PWM) for a new quad-inverter configuration for multilevel six-phase asymmetrical open-winding ac converter is proposed in this article. Modularity of the circuit consist of four standard two-level voltage source inverters (VSIs) with slight...... modifications, i.e. one additional bi-direction switch (MOSFET/IGBT) in each phase and a link to neutral with two capacitors to generate increased output levels. Furthermore, original optimal single carrier zero-shifted five-level modulation (SCZSFM) algorithm is developed for each VSI to behave as equivalent...
Modeling And Simulation Of Highly Advanced Multilevel Inverter For Speed Control Of Induction Motor
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Ravi Raj
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this Paper the problem of removing Power dissipation from single phase Induction Motor with DC sources is considered by the speed control of Induction Motor with highly advanced 9-Level multi-level Inverter which having approximate zero Harmonics. As the demand of power is increasing day by day. So that we must introduced very advanced Electrical Instruments which having high efficiency and less dissipation of power. The requirement of very advanced Inverter is necessary. Here we are designing a Multi-level Inverter up to the 9-level using IGBT Insulated-gate bipolar transistor by Mat lab which having negligible total harmonic distortion THD thats why it will control the speed of single phase Induction motor which is presently widely used in our daily needs. Also several informative Simulation results verify the authority and truthiness of the proposed Model.
Fault diagnosis method based on FFT-RPCA-SVM for Cascaded-Multilevel Inverter.
Wang, Tianzhen; Qi, Jie; Xu, Hao; Wang, Yide; Liu, Lei; Gao, Diju
2016-01-01
Thanks to reduced switch stress, high quality of load wave, easy packaging and good extensibility, the cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter is widely used in wind power system. To guarantee stable operation of system, a new fault diagnosis method, based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Relative Principle Component Analysis (RPCA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), is proposed for H-bridge multilevel inverter. To avoid the influence of load variation on fault diagnosis, the output voltages of the inverter is chosen as the fault characteristic signals. To shorten the time of diagnosis and improve the diagnostic accuracy, the main features of the fault characteristic signals are extracted by FFT. To further reduce the training time of SVM, the feature vector is reduced based on RPCA that can get a lower dimensional feature space. The fault classifier is constructed via SVM. An experimental prototype of the inverter is built to test the proposed method. Compared to other fault diagnosis methods, the experimental results demonstrate the high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Multilevel microvibration test for performance predictions of a space optical load platform
Li, Shiqi; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Shiping; Wang, Yue
2018-05-01
This paper presents a framework for the multilevel microvibration analysis and test of a space optical load platform. The test framework is conducted on three levels, including instrument, subsystem, and system level. Disturbance source experimental investigations are performed to evaluate the vibration amplitude and study vibration mechanism. Transfer characteristics of space camera are validated by a subsystem test, which allows the calculation of transfer functions from various disturbance sources to optical performance outputs. In order to identify the influence of the source on the spacecraft performance, a system level microvibration measurement test has been performed on the ground. From the time domain analysis and spectrum analysis of multilevel microvibration tests, we concluded that the disturbance source has a significant effect on its installation position. After transmitted through mechanical links, the residual vibration reduces to a background noise level. In addition, the angular microvibration of the platform jitter is mainly concentrated in the rotation of y-axes. This work is applied to a real practical application involving the high resolution satellite camera system.
A Multilevel Network Study of the Effects of Delinquent Behavior on Friendship Evolution
Snijders, T.A.B.; Baerveldt, Chris
2003-01-01
A multilevel approach is proposed to the study of the evolution of multiple networks. In this approach, the basic evolution process is assumed to be the same, while parameter values may differ between different networks. For the network evolution process, stochastic actor-oriented models are used,
Streaming, Tracking and Reading Achievement: A Multilevel Analysis of Students in 40 Countries
Chiu, Ming Ming; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Joh, Sung Wook
2017-01-01
Grouping similar students together within schools ("streaming") or classrooms ("tracking") based on past literacy skills (reported by parents), family socioeconomic status (SES) or reading attitudes might affect their reading achievement. Our multilevel analysis of the reading tests of 208,057 fourth-grade students across 40…