WorldWideScience

Sample records for refiring pulverized coal

  1. Pulverized coal burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

    1998-11-03

    A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

  2. Pulverized coal devolatilization prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Andres F; Barraza, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the two bituminous coals devolatilization at low rate of heating (50 Celsius degrade/min), with program FG-DVC (functional group Depolymerization. Vaporization and crosslinking), and to compare the devolatilization profiles predicted by program FG-DVC, which are obtained in the thermogravimetric analyzer. It was also study the volatile liberation at (10 4 k/s) in a drop-tube furnace. The tar, methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, formation rate profiles, and the hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur, elemental distribution in the devolatilization products by FG-DVC program at low rate of heating was obtained; and the liberation volatile and R factor at high rate of heating was calculated. it was found that the program predicts the bituminous coals devolatilization at low rate heating, at high rate heating, a volatile liberation around 30% was obtained

  3. Classification of pulverized coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; Van der Hoek, E.E.; De Groot, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1992-09-01

    The leachability of fifty different pulverized coal ashes from utilities in the Netherlands, Federal Republic of Germany and Belgium has been studied. Five different ashes were analyzed according to the complete standard leaching test and the results were published earlier. The examination of a wide variety of ashes under a wide range of pH and Liquid to Solid ratio (LS) conditions creates the possibility of identifying systematic trends in fly ash leaching behaviour and to identify the mechanisms controlling release. 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 app., 25 refs

  4. Pushing the pulverized coal envelope with LEBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M. [and others

    1995-11-01

    In response to challenges from technologies such as IGCC and PFBC, the ABB LEBS Team has proposed removing the barriers to very large advances in environmental and thermal performance of pulverized coal plants. Pulverized coal will continue to be the source of more than half of our electric generation well into the next century and we must develop low-risk low-cost advances that will compete with the claimed performance of other technologies. This paper describes near-term PC technologies for new and retrofit applications which will accomplish this.

  5. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  6. Coal char combustion under a CO{sub 2}-rich atmosphere: Implications for pulverized coal injection in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrego, A.G.; Casal, M.D. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC. P.O. Box 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Osorio, E.; Vilela, A.C.F. [Laboratorio de Siderurgia, DEMET/PPGEM - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. P.O. Box 15021, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is employed in blast furnace tuyeres attempting to maximize the injection rate without increasing the amount of unburned char inside the stack of the blast furnace. When coal is injected with air through the injection lance, the resolidified char will burn in an atmosphere with a progressively lower oxygen content and higher CO{sub 2} concentration. In this study an experimental approach was followed to separate the combustion process into two distinct devolatilization and combustion steps. Initially coal was injected into a drop tube furnace (DTF) operating at 1300 C in an atmosphere with a low oxygen concentration to ensure the combustion of volatiles and prevent the formation of soot. Then the char was refired into the DTF at the same temperature under two different atmospheres O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (typical combustion) and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (oxy-combustion) with the same oxygen concentration. Coal injection was also performed under a higher oxygen concentration in atmospheres typical for both combustion and oxy-combustion. The fuels tested comprised a petroleum coke and coals currently used for PCI injection ranging from high volatile to low volatile bituminous rank. Thermogravimetric analyses and microscopy techniques were used to establish the reactivity and appearance of the chars. Overall similar burnouts were achieved with N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} for similar oxygen concentrations and therefore no loss in burnout should be expected as a result of enrichment in CO{sub 2} in the blast furnace gas. The advantage of increasing the amount of oxygen in a reacting atmosphere during burnout was found to be greater, the higher the rank of the coal. (author)

  7. Large-eddy simulation of swirling pulverized-coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, L.Y.; Luo, Y.H. [Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Zhou, L.X.; Xu, C.S. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Mechanics

    2013-07-01

    A Eulerian-Lagrangian large-eddy simulation (LES) with a Smagorinsky-Lilly sub-grid scale stress model, presumed-PDF fast chemistry and EBU gas combustion models, particle devolatilization and particle combustion models are used to study the turbulence and flame structures of swirling pulverized-coal combustion. The LES statistical results are validated by the measurement results. The instantaneous LES results show that the coherent structures for pulverized coal combustion is stronger than that for swirling gas combustion. The particles are concentrated in the periphery of the coherent structures. The flame is located at the high vorticity and high particle concentration zone.

  8. Pulverized coal vs. circulating fluidized bed: An economic comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As the power industry looks to the 1990s for expanded steam generation capacity, boiler owners will continue on their long-standing assignment to evaluate and select the best, lowest cost alternative to meet their energy needs. For coal-fired plants, this evaluation process includes pulverized coal-fired boilers (PC) and circulating fluidized bed boilers (CFB). The cost difference between these products is site specific and depends on several variables, including: Boiler size, pressure, and temperature; Operating variables, such as the cost for fuel, auxiliary power, SO 2 reagent, and ash disposal; Capital cost; and Financial variables, such as evaluation period and interest rate. This paper provides a technical and economic comparison between a pulverized coal-fired boiler and circulating fluidized bed boiler

  9. Imulation of temperature field in swirl pulverized coal boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Wu, Weifeng; Chen, Chen; Chen, Weifeng; Qi, Guoli; Zhang, Songsong

    2018-02-01

    In order to achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction and energy efficient utilization, taking a 58MW swirl pulverized coal boiler as the research object, the three-dimensional model of the rotor is established. According to the principle of CFD, basic assumptions and boundary conditions are selected, the temperature field in the furnace of 6 kinds of working conditions is numerically solved, and the temperature distribution in the furnace is analyzed. The calculation results show that the temperature of the working condition 1 is in good agreement with the experimental data, and the error is less than 10%,the results provide a theoretical basis for the following calculation. Through the comparison of the results of the 6 conditions, it is found that the working condition 3 is the best operating condition of the pulverized coal boiler.

  10. Numerical simulation of altitude impact on pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Xiaohui; He, Boshu; Ling, Ling; Wang, Lei [Beijing Jiaotong Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering

    2013-07-01

    A drop-tube Furnace simulation model has been developed to investigate the pulverized coal combustion characteristics under different altitudes using the commercially available software Fluent. The altitude conditions of 0, 500, 1,000, 1,500 m have been discussed. The results included the fields of temperature, pressure, velocity, the coal burnout, CO burnout and NO emission in the tube furnace. The variation of these parameters with altitude has been analyzed. The coal combustion characteristics were affected by the altitude. The time and space for coal burnout should be increased with the rise of altitude. The valuable results could be referenced in the design of coal- fired furnaces for the high altitude areas.

  11. Possibilities of using pulverized non coking coals in ironmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijk, Olle; Mathiesen, Mihkel; Eketorp, Sven

    1977-08-01

    The use of pulverized coal in iron making suggests solutions to the mounting problems created by the increasing scarcity of coking coals, and other fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas. The unavailability of coke can be met with two principally different measures. Blast furnace coke rates can be decreased by substituting injected pulverized coal or other carbon containing fuels for part of the coke burden, and the coke itself may be substituted by formed coke. A more radical solution is to abandon the blast furnace process, and instead produce the raw iron in processes not requiring coke. Two such processes are discussed in the paper, the Inred process, developed by Boliden Kemi AB, Sweden, and the smelting reduction process by means of injection, currently being developed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Both processes have potential advantages over the coke oven/sintering plant/blast furnace-complex especially concerning energy requirements and structure, but also in economical terms. The injection process seems to present a further advantage in the possibility of gasifying coal in the process, thus yielding a synthesis gas for methanol production in addition to the raw iron.

  12. Fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustion residues for secondary pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoori, N.; Diawara, H.; Wang, L.

    2009-01-01

    The United States produced nearly 125 million tons of coal combustion products in 2006. These by-products include fly ash, flue gas desulphurization materials, bottom ash, boiler slag, and other power plant by-products. The expense associated with waste disposal, lack of disposal sites, and significant environmental damage linked with the disposal of coal combustion residues have encouraged innovative utilization strategies such as the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit. This paper presented the results of a laboratory investigation that examined the properties of composites developed with different proportions of pre-conditioned FBC spent bed, pulverized coal combustion fly ash, natural fine aggregate, and Portland cement. The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which the by-product composites could replace currently used materials in secondary roads. The paper presented the research objectives and experimental programs, including matrix constituent and proportions; mixture proportions; and mixing, curing, sampling, and testing. The discussion of results centered around compressive strength and expansion by internal sulfate attack. It was concluded that with proper proportioning, by-products of pulverized and fluidized bed combustion promote binding of sand particles and provide adequate strength under various curing and moisture conditions 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Combustion of pulverized coal in counter-current flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timnat, Y M; Goldman, Y [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Faculty of Aerospace Engineering

    1991-01-01

    In this report we describe the results obtained with two prototypes of pulverized coal combustors operating in counter-current flow, one at atmospheric pressure, the other at higher pressure and compare them to the predictions of a theoretical-numerical model, we have developed. The first prototype treats a vertical configuration, eight times larger than the one treated before (Hazanov et al. 1985), while in the second a horizontal arrangement with a smaller volume is studied. Attention was focused on particle trajectories, burnout, angle of injection, ash separation by rotational motion, effects of initial particle size and temperature, impingement velocity and the effect of gravity. Main development activity was directed to achieving stable and reliable coal burning in the combustors.

  14. Propagation characteristics of pulverized coal and gas two-phase flow during an outburst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aitao; Wang, Kai; Fan, Lingpeng; Tao, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are dynamic failures that can involve the ejection of thousands tons of pulverized coal, as well as considerable volumes of gas, into a limited working space within a short period. The two-phase flow of gas and pulverized coal that occurs during an outburst can lead to fatalities and destroy underground equipment. This article examines the interaction mechanism between pulverized coal and gas flow. Based on the role of gas expansion energy in the development stage of outbursts, a numerical simulation method is proposed for investigating the propagation characteristics of the two-phase flow. This simulation method was verified by a shock tube experiment involving pulverized coal and gas flow. The experimental and simulated results both demonstrate that the instantaneous ejection of pulverized coal and gas flow can form outburst shock waves. These are attenuated along the propagation direction, and the volume fraction of pulverized coal in the two-phase flow has significant influence on attenuation of the outburst shock wave. As a whole, pulverized coal flow has a negative impact on gas flow, which makes a great loss of large amounts of initial energy, blocking the propagation of gas flow. According to comparison of numerical results for different roadway types, the attenuation effect of T-type roadways is best. In the propagation of shock wave, reflection and diffraction of shock wave interact through the complex roadway types.

  15. Numerical simulation of pulverized coal combustion to reduce pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Bagher Ayani; Behnam Rahmanian

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In this research, the numerical simulation of pollutant reduction and in a pulverized coal combustion at 2D combustion chamber have been studied. Finite volume method using structured grid arrangement was utilized for modeling the pulverized coal combustion. The pressure base algorithm and implicit solver has been employed to simulate non-premix combustion model. The air was diluted by some participative gaseous such as whose percentages varied from 0 % to 20 %. Participative gases and air were preheated by a high-temperature gas generator, and the preheated oxidizer temperature could achieve. The combustion simulation with the generalized finite rate chemistry model, referred to as the Magnussen model and the reacting flow with the mixture fraction PDF/ equilibrium chemistry model, referred to as the PDF model are studied. Quick scheme was adopted for the discretization of all convective terms of the advective transport equations. So, as a result of addition participative gases into oxidizer the rate of formation of pollutants as well as NO x suppressed. The addition only a few percent of halogen components can make some systems nonflammable. The effects of addition halogen components and non-reaction gaseous such as Helium and Argon are fuel dilution and its acts as catalysts in reducing the H atom concentration necessary for the chain branching reaction sequence. Moreover, they act like surface and they make the increment of surface ratio versus volume. Because of this, the number of radical conflicts and hence destruction them will be increase. Furthermore, the rate of formation of pollutants will be decreased if the halogen components and non-reaction gaseous injection will be increased. However, as a result of this research, in the case of injection in pulverized coal combustion the flame temperature is lower than Steam, Argon and Helium. So, the emission levels of carbon dioxide is significantly lower than other participative gases, but in this

  16. EXPERIMENTS AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF PULVERIZED-COAL IGNITION; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel Owusu-Ofori; John C. Chen

    1999-01-01

    Under typical conditions of pulverized-coal combustion, which is characterized by fine particles heated at very high rates, there is currently a lack of certainty regarding the ignition mechanism of bituminous and lower rank coals as well as the ignition rate of reaction. furthermore, there have been no previous studies aimed at examining these factors under various experimental conditions, such as particle size, oxygen concentration, and heating rate. Finally, there is a need to improve current mathematical models of ignition to realistically and accurately depict the particle-to-particle variations that exist within a coal sample. Such a model is needed to extract useful reaction parameters from ignition studies, and to interpret ignition data in a more meaningful way. The authors propose to examine fundamental aspects of coal ignition through (1) experiments to determine the ignition temperature of various coals by direct measurement, and (2) modeling of the ignition process to derive rate constants and to provide a more insightful interpretation of data from ignition experiments. The authors propose to use a novel laser-based ignition experiment to achieve their first objective. Laser-ignition experiments offer the distinct advantage of easy optical access to the particles because of the absence of a furnace or radiating walls, and thus permit direct observation and particle temperature measurement. The ignition temperature of different coals under various experimental conditions can therefore be easily determined by direct measurement using two-color pyrometry. The ignition rate-constants, when the ignition occurs heterogeneously, and the particle heating rates will both be determined from analyses based on these measurements

  17. How can we reduce carbon in ash in firing pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, W. (and others)

    1992-12-01

    The article discusses solutions to the problem of reducing carbon in ash in firing pulverized coal. Suggested solutions to the problem include: reviewing air flow through the mills; examining the pulverizers for coal fineness variations; investigating air distribution in the burners; review dual-firing equations; examining the burners for slag build up; checking coal fineness is appropriate to the boiler; increasing air flow; and checking instrumentation. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  18. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philips, S.D.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    The need to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions commercial furnaces has prompted energy companies to search for optimized operating conditions and improved designs in their fossil-fuel burning facilities. Historically, companies have relied on the use of empirical correlations and pilot-plant data to make decisions about operating conditions and design changes. The high cost of collecting data makes obtaining large amounts of data infeasible. The main objective of the data book is to provide a single source of detailed three-dimensional combustion and combustion-related data suitable for comprehensive combustion model evaluation. Five tasks were identified as requirements to achieve the main objective. First, identify the types of data needed to evaluate comprehensive combustion models, and establish criteria for selecting the data. Second, identify and document available three-dimensional combustion data related to pulverized coal combustion. Third, collect and evaluate three-dimensional data cases, and select suitable cases based on selection criteria. Fourth, organize the data sets into an easy-to-use format. Fifth, evaluate and interpret the nature and quality of the data base. 39 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Exergetic and environmental analysis of a pulverized coal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Álvaro; Miyake, Raphael; Kleveston, Fábio; Bazzo, Edson

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exergetic and environmental analysis of a typical pulverized coal power plant located in Brazil. The goal was to quantify both the exergy destruction and the environmental impact associated with a thermal power plant. The problem boundary consists of the entire coal delivery route, including mining and beneficiation, transport, pre-burning processes and the power plant. The used data were obtained mainly from field measurements taken in all system processes, from mining to the power plant. The study focused only on the operation period. Previous works have shown that the construction and decommissioning periods contribute less than 1% of the environmental impact. The exergetic analysis was based on the second law of thermodynamics while the environmental analysis was based on life cycle assessment (LCA) using SimaPro 7.2, focussing on the climate change and acidification impact categories. The CO 2 -eq emission was 1300 kg per MWh. The highest degree of environmental impact occurred during the combustion process. The exergetic and environmental analysis provides a tool to evaluate irreversibilities and the environmental impact, identifying the most significant stages and equipment of the entire power generation process. -- Highlights: ► Exergetic and environmental analysis of a typical Brazilian PC power plant. ► Environmental impact associated with the mining, transport and thermal power plant. ► Life cycle assessment used for environmental analysis. ► Acidification impact category evaluated using Eco-indicator 99. ► Climate change impact evaluation using (Global Warming Potential) GWP 100a.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Effect of Coal Rank on Burn-off Time in Pulverized Coal Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Nozawa, Sohei; Wada, Nozomi; Matsushita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Omori, Motohira; Harada, Tatsuro

    2012-01-01

    Thermogravimetry (TG) for two different coal ranks, Loy Yang coal and Newlands coal, was carried out in an atmospheric air environment. Detailed parameters of the heterogeneous oxidation reaction for each coal rank were estimated by analyzing the TG results. Heat and mass transfer of a single pulverized coal particle that was heated at a constant temperature were numerically simulated. In this calculation, the decrease in the mass ratio caused by the oxidation reaction was considered. The num...

  1. NO emission characteristics of superfine pulverized coal combustion in the O2/CO2 atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiaxun; Gao, Shan; Jiang, Xiumin; Shen, Jun; Zhang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Superfine pulverized coal combustion in O 2 /CO 2 atmosphere is a new promising technology. • NO emissions of superfine pulverized coal combustion in O 2 /CO 2 mixture were focused. • Coal particle sizes have significant effects on NO emissions in O 2 /CO 2 combustion. - Abstract: The combination of O 2 /CO 2 combustion and superfine pulverized coal combustion technology can make full use of their respective merits, and solve certain inherent disadvantages of each technology. The technology of superfine pulverized coal combustion in the O 2 /CO 2 atmosphere is easy and feasible to be retrofitted with few reconstructions on the existing devices. It will become a useful and promising method in the future. In this paper, a one-dimensional drop-tube furnace system was adopted to study the NO emission characteristics of superfine pulverized coal combustion in the O 2 /CO 2 atmosphere. The effects of coal particle size, coal quality, furnace temperature, stoichiometric ratio, etc. were analyzed. It is important to note that coal particle sizes have significant influence on NO emissions in the O 2 /CO 2 combustion. For the homogeneous NO reduction, smaller coal particles can inhibit the homogeneous NO formations under fuel-rich combustion conditions, while it becomes disadvantageous for fuel-lean combustion. However, under any conditions, heterogeneous reduction is always more significant for smaller coal particle sizes, which have smoother pore surfaces and simpler pore structures. The results from this fundamental research will provide technical support for better understanding and developing this new combustion process

  2. Review of coal-water fuel pulverization technology and atomization quality registration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of coal-water fuel application in industrial power engineering are considered and described. Two main problems and disadvantages of this fuel type are suggested. The paper presents information about liquid fuel atomization technologies and provides data on nozzle type for coal-water fuel pulverization. This article also mentions some of the existing technologies for coal-water slurry spraying quality determination.

  3. Advanced char burnout models for the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Severin; S. Wirtz; V. Scherer [Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany). Institute of Energy Plant Technology (LEAT)

    2005-07-01

    The numerical simulation of coal combustion processes is widely used as an efficient means to predict burner or system behaviour. In this paper an approach to improve CFD simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers with advanced coal combustion models is presented. In simple coal combustion models, first order Arrhenius rate equations are used for devolatilization and char burnout. The accuracy of such simple models is sufficient for the basic aspects of heat release. The prediction of carbon-in-ash is one aspect of special interest in the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers. To determine the carbon-in-ash levels in the fly ash of coal fired furnaces, the char burnout model has to be more detailed. It was tested, in how far changing operating conditions affect the carbon-in-ash prediction of the simulation. To run several test cases in a short time, a simplified cellnet model was applied. To use a cellnet model for simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers, it was coupled with a Lagrangian particle model, used in CFD simulations, too. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Experimental Research on the Impactive Dynamic Effect of Gas-Pulverized Coal of Coal and Gas Outburst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal and gas outburst is one of the major serious natural disasters during underground coal, and the shock air flow produced by outburst has a huge threat on the mine safety. In order to study the two-phase flow of a mixture of pulverized coal and gas of a mixture of pulverized coal and gas migration properties and its shock effect during the process of coal and gas outburst, the coal samples of the outburst coal seam in Yuyang Coal Mine, Chongqing, China were selected as the experimental subjects. By using the self-developed coal and gas outburst simulation test device, we simulated the law of two-phase flow of a mixture of pulverized coal and gas in the roadway network where outburst happened. The results showed that the air in the roadway around the outburst port is disturbed by the shock wave, where the pressure and temperature are abruptly changed. For the initial gas pressure of 0.35 MPa, the air pressure in different locations of the roadway fluctuated and eventually remain stable, and the overpressure of the outburst shock wave was about 20~35 kPa. The overpressure in the main roadway and the distance from the outburst port showed a decreasing trend. The highest value of temperature in the roadway increased by 0.25 °C and the highest value of gas concentration reached 38.12% during the experiment. With the action of shock air flow, the pulverized coal transportation in the roadway could be roughly divided into three stages, which are the accelerated movement stage, decelerated movement stage and the particle settling stage respectively. Total of 180.7 kg pulverized coal of outburst in this experiment were erupted, and most of them were accumulated in the main roadway. Through the analysis of the law of outburst shock wave propagation, a shock wave propagation model considering gas desorption efficiency was established. The relationships of shock wave overpressure and outburst intensity, gas desorption rate, initial gas pressure, cross

  5. A Model for Nitrogen Chemistry in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Pulverized Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Hansen, Stine; Toftegaard, Maja Bøg

    2011-01-01

    , heating and devolatilization of particles, and gas–solid reactions. The model is validated by comparison with entrained flow reactor results from the present work and from the literature on pulverized coal combustion in O2/CO2 and air, covering the effects of fuel, mixing conditions, temperature......In this work, a model for the nitrogen chemistry in the oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized coal has been developed. The model is a chemical reaction engineering type of model with a detailed reaction mechanism for the gas-phase chemistry, together with a simplified description of the mixing of flows......, stoichiometry, and inlet NO level. In general, the model provides a satisfactory description of NO formation in air and oxy-fuel combustion of coal, but under some conditions, it underestimates the impact on NO of replacing N2 with CO2. According to the model, differences in the NO yield between the oxy...

  6. Effect of multiphase radiation on coal combustion in a pulverized coal jet flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bifen; Roy, Somesh P.; Zhao, Xinyu; Modest, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    The accurate modeling of coal combustion requires detailed radiative heat transfer models for both gaseous combustion products and solid coal particles. A multiphase Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) radiation solver is developed in this work to simulate a laboratory-scale pulverized coal flame. The MCRT solver considers radiative interactions between coal particles and three major combustion products (CO 2 , H 2 O, and CO). A line-by-line spectral database for the gas phase and a size-dependent nongray correlation for the solid phase are employed to account for the nongray effects. The flame structure is significantly altered by considering nongray radiation and the lift-off height of the flame increases by approximately 35%, compared to the simulation without radiation. Radiation is also found to affect the evolution of coal particles considerably as it takes over as the dominant mode of heat transfer for medium-to-large coal particles downstream of the flame. To investigate the respective effects of spectral models for the gas and solid phases, a Planck-mean-based gray gas model and a size-independent gray particle model are applied in a frozen-field analysis of a steady-state snapshot of the flame. The gray gas approximation considerably underestimates the radiative source terms for both the gas phase and the solid phase. The gray coal approximation also leads to under-prediction of the particle emission and absorption. However, the level of under-prediction is not as significant as that resulting from the employment of the gray gas model. Finally, the effect of the spectral property of ash on radiation is also investigated and found to be insignificant for the present target flame. - Highlights: • A Monte Carlo–based nongray radiation solver is developed to study effects of radiation. • Radiation alters the lift-off height, and the distribution of temperature andspecies for the target flame. • Radiation alters the heat transfer mechanism of medium

  7. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  8. Combustion characteristics and kinetic analysis of pulverized coal under different pressure grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei ZUO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By using thermo gravimetric balance, experimental research on combustion characteristics and dynamics parameters of the typical coal injection from some domestic steelworks are conducted with non-isothermal method. The combustion characteristic parameters of the sample pulverized coal such as ignition temperature, peak temperature at maximum weight loss rate, burnout temperature, general burn exponent(S, and maximum combustion rate are studied under pressure grades of 0.1, 1.1, 2.1, 3.1 and 4.1 MPa, the activation energy (E and pre-exponential factor in the combustion process are calculated. The results show that when the pressure increases from 0.1 to 4.1 MPa, ignition temperature decreases by 85.7 K at most, peak temperature at maximum weight loss rate decreases by 249.3 K at most, burnout temperature decreases by 375 K at most, maximum weight loss rate increases by 10 times, and S increases by 33.6 times at most. It is also shown that there exists a kinetic complementation between E and ln A from the view point of dynamics, and the critical pressure of pulverized coal reaction control requirement and combustion mode transform is 3.1 MPa for the pulverized coal.

  9. Relationship between Particle Size Distribution of Low-Rank Pulverized Coal and Power Plant Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajive Ganguli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of particle size distribution (PSD of pulverized, low rank high volatile content Alaska coal on combustion related power plant performance was studied in a series of field scale tests. Performance was gauged through efficiency (ratio of megawatt generated to energy consumed as coal, emissions (SO2, NOx, CO, and carbon content of ash (fly ash and bottom ash. The study revealed that the tested coal could be burned at a grind as coarse as 50% passing 76 microns, with no deleterious impact on power generation and emissions. The PSD’s tested in this study were in the range of 41 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. There was negligible correlation between PSD and the followings factors: efficiency, SO2, NOx, and CO. Additionally, two tests where stack mercury (Hg data was collected, did not demonstrate any real difference in Hg emissions with PSD. The results from the field tests positively impacts pulverized coal power plants that burn low rank high volatile content coals (such as Powder River Basin coal. These plants can potentially reduce in-plant load by grinding the coal less (without impacting plant performance on emissions and efficiency and thereby, increasing their marketability.

  10. Pyrolysis of superfine pulverized coal. Part 3. Mechanisms of nitrogen-containing species formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiaxun; Jiang, Xiumin; Shen, Jun; Zhang, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • NH 3 and NO formation mechanisms during superfine pulverized coal pyrolysis are investigated. • Influences of temperature, heating rate, particle size, atmosphere, and acid wash on the NH 3 and NO formation are analyzed. • Transformations of nitrogen-containing structures in coal/char during pyrolysis are recognized through XPS observation. • Relationships among nitrogen-containing gaseous species during pyrolysis are discussed. - Abstract: With more stringent regulations being implemented, elucidating the formation mechanisms of nitrogen-containing species during the initial pyrolysis step becomes important for developing new NO x control strategies. However, there is a lack of agreement on the origins of NO x precursors during coal pyrolysis, in spite of extensive investigations. Hence, it is important to achieve a more precise knowledge of the formation mechanisms of nitrogen-contain species during coal pyrolysis. In this paper, pyrolysis experiments of superfine pulverized coal were performed in a fixed bed at low heating rates. The influences of temperature, coal type, particle size and atmosphere on the NH 3 and NO evolution were discussed. There is a central theme to develop knowledge of the relationship between particle sizes and evolving behaviors of nitrogen-containing species. Furthermore, the catalytic role of inherent minerals in coal was proved to be effective on the partitioning of nitrogen during coal pyrolysis. In addition, the conversion pathways of heteroaromatic nitrogen structures in coal/char during pyrolysis were recognized through the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Large quantities of pyridinic and quanternary nitrogen functionalities were formed during the thermal degradation. Finally, the relationships among the nitrogen-containing gaseous species during coal pyrolysis were discussed. In brief, a comprehensive picture of the volatile-nitrogen partitioning during coal pyrolysis is obtained in this

  11. Firing a sub-bituminous coal in pulverized coal boilers configured for bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Spitz; R. Saveliev; M. Perelman; E. Korytni; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2008-07-15

    It is important to adapt utility boilers to sub-bituminous coals to take advantage of their environmental benefits while limiting operation risks. We discuss the performance impact that Adaro, an Indonesian sub-bituminous coal with high moisture content, has on opposite-wall and tangentially-fired utility boilers which were designed for bituminous coals. Numerical simulations were made with GLACIER, a computational-fluid-dynamic code, to depict combustion behavior. The predictions were verified with full-scale test results. For analysis of the operational parameters for firing Adaro coal in both boilers, we used EXPERT system, an on-line supervision system developed by Israel Electric Corporation. It was concluded that firing Adaro coal, compared to a typical bituminous coal, lowers NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions, lowers LOI content and improves fouling behavior but can cause load limitation which impacts flexible operation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Final report (Part I). Pulverized coal combustion and gasification in a cyclone reactor: experiment and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, J. S.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1979-05-01

    A unified experimental and analytical study of pulverized coal combustion and low-BTU gasification in an atmospheric cyclone reactor was performed. Experimental results include several series of coal combustion tests and a coal gasification test carried out via fuel-rich combustion without steam addition. Reactor stability was excellent over a range of equivalence ratios from .67 to 2.4 and air flowrates from 60 to 220 lb/hr. Typical carbon efficiencies were 95% for air-rich and stoichiometric tests and 80% for gasification tests. The best gasification results were achieved at an equivalence ratio of 2.0, where the carbon, cold gas and hot gas efficiencies were 83, 45 and 75%, respectively. The corresponding product gas heating value was 70 BTU/scf. A macroscopic model of coal combustion in the cyclone has been developed. Fuel-rich gasification can also be modeled through a gas-phase equilibrium treatment. Fluid mechanics are modeled by a particle force balance and a series combination of a perfectly stirred reactor and a plug flow reactor. Kinetic treatments of coal pyrolysis, char oxidation and carbon monoxide oxidation are included. Gas composition and temperature are checked against equilibrium values. The model predicts carbon efficiency, gas composition and temperature and reactor heat loss; gasification parameters, such as cold and hot gas efficiency and make gas heating value, are calculated for fuel-rich conditions. Good agreement exists between experiment and theory for conditions of this investigation.

  13. LES and RANS modeling of pulverized coal combustion in swirl burner for air and oxy-combustion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warzecha, Piotr; Boguslawski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Combustion of pulverized coal in oxy-combustion technology is one of the effective ways to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The process of transition from conventional combustion in air to the oxy-combustion technology, however, requires a thorough investigations of the phenomena occurring during the combustion process, that can be greatly supported by numerical modeling. The paper presents the results of numerical simulations of pulverized coal combustion process in swirl burner using RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations) and LES (large Eddy simulation) methods for turbulent flow. Numerical simulations have been performed for the oxyfuel test facility located at the Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer at RWTH Aachen University. Detailed analysis of the flow field inside the combustion chamber for cold flow and for the flow with combustion using different numerical methods for turbulent flows have been done. Comparison of the air and oxy-coal combustion process for pulverized coal shows significant differences in temperature, especially close to the burner exit. Additionally the influence of the combustion model on the results has been shown for oxy-combustion test case. - Highlights: • Oxy-coal combustion has been modeled for test facility operating at low oxygen ratio. • Coal combustion process has been modeled with simplified combustion models. • Comparison of oxy and air combustion process of pulverized coal has been done. • RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations) and LES (large Eddy simulation) results for pulverized coal combustion process have been compared

  14. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  15. Pyrolysis of superfine pulverized coal. Part 4. Evolution of functionalities in chars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiaxun; Ma, Yang; Luo, Lei; Ma, Junfang; Zhang, Hai; Jiang, Xiumin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A combination of XPS and NMR is adopted for analyzing char chemical structures during superfine pulverized coal pyrolysis. • The chemisorbed NO can be transformed into pyridine N with the favor of adjacent oxygenated groups in chars. • Particle size has significant influence on oxygen-containing configurations in chars. - Abstract: The properties of the coal-derived char play crucial roles in coal conversion reactions and the formation of air pollutants. The nascent char is highly reactive due to the existence of numerous free radicals, active sites, and organic functional groups on its surface. Here, we showed that a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques is an effective and precise way to characterize the occurrence, distribution, and evolution of organic functionalities in coal chars. Using these methods, we explored detailed information about chemical features of superfine pulverized coal chars in different atmospheres, and we also discussed the influence of particle size on the evolutionary behavior of functionalities. Results indicate that, in both N_2 and CO_2 atmospheres, the content of C−O species increases with the reduction in char particle sizes. This increment facilitates the heterogeneous reduction of NOx on char surfaces. The chemisorbed NO is susceptible to being incorporated into chars, and being transformed into pyridine-type nitrogen with the favor of adjacent oxygen-containing groups. Moreover, the significant increment in oxygen-containing groups with the reduction of particle size is further confirmed through "1"3C NMR analysis. It was shown that there is an excellent correlation between estimates derived from XPS and NMR for oxygen configuration. The findings from this work provide some new insights into NOx reduction mechanisms and shed light on the practical application of superfine pulverized coal in the future.

  16. Examination of flame length for burning pulverized coal in laminar flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Dong; Kim, Gyu Bo; Chang, Young June; Song, Ju Hun; Jeon, Chung Hwan [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Because there has been a recent increase in the use of low calorific coal compared to standard coal, it is crucial to control the char flame length governing the burning life-time of coal in a coal-fired utility boiler. The main objective of this study is to develop a simplified model that can theoretically predict the flame length for burning coal in a laboratory-scale entrained laminar flow reactor (LFR) system. The char burning behavior was experimentally observed when sub-bituminous pulverized coal was fed into the LFR under burning conditions similar to those in a real boiler: a heating rate of 1000 K/s, an oxygen molar fraction of 7.7 %, and reacting flue gas temperatures ranging from 1500 to 2000 K. By using the theoretical model developed in this study, the effect of particle size on the coal flame length was exclusively addressed. In this model, the effect of particle mass was eliminated to compare with the experimental result performed under a constant mass feeding of coal. Overall, the computed results for the coal flame length were in good agreement with the experimental data, particularly when the external oxygen diffusion effect was considered in the model

  17. Examination of flame length for burning pulverized coal in laminar flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Dong; Kim, Gyu Bo; Chang, Young June; Song, Ju Hun; Jeon, Chung Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Because there has been a recent increase in the use of low calorific coal compared to standard coal, it is crucial to control the char flame length governing the burning life-time of coal in a coal-fired utility boiler. The main objective of this study is to develop a simplified model that can theoretically predict the flame length for burning coal in a laboratory-scale entrained laminar flow reactor (LFR) system. The char burning behavior was experimentally observed when sub-bituminous pulverized coal was fed into the LFR under burning conditions similar to those in a real boiler: a heating rate of 1000 K/s, an oxygen molar fraction of 7.7 %, and reacting flue gas temperatures ranging from 1500 to 2000 K. By using the theoretical model developed in this study, the effect of particle size on the coal flame length was exclusively addressed. In this model, the effect of particle mass was eliminated to compare with the experimental result performed under a constant mass feeding of coal. Overall, the computed results for the coal flame length were in good agreement with the experimental data, particularly when the external oxygen diffusion effect was considered in the model

  18. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  19. Simulation of pulverized coal fired boiler: reaction chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, C.P.; Lansarin, M.A.; Secchi, A.R.; Mendes, T.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Modelagem, Simulacao, Controle e Otimizacao de Processos)]. E-mail: {cperdomo, marla, arge, talita}@enq.ufrgs.br

    2005-06-15

    This work is part of a joint project to built a computational tool for power plant simulation, dealing specifically with the reaction chamber (place of the boiler where the fuel is burned). In order to describe the conversion of chemical energy to thermal energy, an one dimensional pseudo-homogeneous mathematical model, with variable physical properties, and based on mass and energy balances, was developed. The equations were implemented in the gPROMS simulator and the model parameters were estimated using the module gEST of this software, with experimental data from a large-scale coal-fired utility boiler and kinetic data from the open literature. The results showed that the model predicts the composition of the outlet combustion gas satisfactorily. (author)

  20. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  1. Volatile release and particle formation characteristics of injected pulverized coal in blast furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Yang, Tsung-Han

    2007-01-01

    Volatiles release and particle formation for two kinds of pulverized coals (a high volatile bituminous coal and a low volatile bituminous coal) in a drop tube furnace are investigated to account for the reactions of pulverized coal injected in blast furnaces. Two different sizes of feed particles are considered; one is 100-200 mesh and the other is 200-325 mesh. By evaluating the R-factor, the devolatilization extent of the larger feed particles is found to be relatively poor. However, the swelling behavior of individual or two agglomerated particles is pronounced, which is conducive to gasification of the chars in blast furnaces. In contrast, for the smaller feed particles, volatiles liberated from the coal particles can be improved in a significant way as a result of the amplified R-factor. This enhancement can facilitate the performance of gas phase combustion. Nevertheless, the residual char particles are characterized by agglomeration, implying that the reaction time of the char particles will be lengthened, thereby increasing the possibility of furnace instability. Double peak distributions in char particle size are observed in some cases. This possibly results from the interaction of the plastic state and the blowing effect at the particle surface. Considering the generation of tiny aerosols composed of soot particles and tar droplets, the results indicate that their production is highly sensitive to the volatile matter and elemental oxygen contained in the coal. Comparing the reactivity of the soot to that of the unburned char, the former is always lower than the latter. Consequently, the lower is the soot formation, the better is the blast furnace stability

  2. REDUCING THE INTENSITY OF TAKEAWAY PULVERIZED COAL BY USING SPECIAL SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed: 1 to develop the coal coating solution in open railway cars or to cover coal piles to minimize the coal dust losses; 2 creating a mathematical model of the process of the solution feeding to the surface of coal. Methodology. To solve this problem, it was developed a special solution containing cheap industrial wastes and semiproducts of chemical industries. It was conducted a physical experiment to assess the intensity of coal dust loss when using the developed solution. A mathematical model based on the use of the motion equations of the ideal fluid and mass transfer was developed. The developed numerical models are the basis of the application program package created for assessing the quality of processing the coal surface by special solution. Findings. The results of the conducted physical experiment to assess the magnitude of the coal dust loss on the model of the coal pile in the processing of its surface with a special solution and without processing are presented in the article. It is shown that the application of the proposed solution for surface processing of coal can significantly reduce the coal dust loss. This makes it possible to reduce the amount of economic losses and reduce the level of air dust pollution in work areas. The results of computational experiments carried out on the basis of the constructed numerical models are presented in the article. Originality. Authors proposed a new solution for the coal surface processing in order to minimize the removal of pulverized coal from the coal pile, which substantially reduces the coal losses. There were created numerical models to take into account the relevant factors influencing the solution dispersion process in the atmosphere from coal processing in gondola cars. Practical value. Solution, proposed in the article has a low price, because it can be created on the basis of industrial production wastes. Application of this solution can significantly

  3. Conceptual designs of pressurized fluidized bed and pulverized coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doss, H.S.; Bezella, W.A.; Hamm, J.R.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the major technical and economic characteristics of steam and air-cooled pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) power plant concepts, along with the characteristics of a pulverized coal fired power plant equipped with an adipic acid enhanced wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization system. Conceptual designs for the three plants were prepared to satisfy a set of common groundrules developed for the study. Grassroots plants, located on a generic plant site were assumed. The designs incorporate technologies projected to be commercial in the 1990 time frame. Power outputs, heat rates, and costs are presented

  4. Low NO{sub x} burner modifications to front-fired pulverized coal boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, R G; Wagner, M

    1998-07-01

    Madison Gas and Electric Blount Street Station Units 8 and 9 are Babcock and Wilcox pulverized coal fired and natural gas fired boilers. These boilers were build in the late 1950's and early 1960's with each boiler rated at 425,000 lb./hr of steam producing 50 MW of electricity. The boilers are rated at 9,500 F at 1,350 psig. Each unit is equipped with one Ljungstroem air heater and two B and W EL pulverizers. These units burn subbituminous coal with higher heating value of 10,950 Btu/LB on an as-received basis. The nitrogen content is approximately 1.23% with 15% moisture. In order to comply with the new Clean Air Act Madison Gas and Electric needs to reduce NO{sub x} on these units to less than .5 LB/mmBtu. Baseline NO{sub x} emissions on these units range between .8--.9 lb./mmBtu. LOIs average approximately 8%. Madison Gas and Electric contracted with RJM Corporation to modify the existing burners to achieve this objective. These modifications consisted of adding patented circumferentially and radially staged flame stabilizers, modifying the coal pipe, and replacing the coal impeller with a circumferentially staged coal spreader. RJM Corporation utilized computational fluid dynamics modeling in order to design the equipment to modify these burners. The equipment was installed during the March 1997 outage and start-up and optimization was conducted in April 1997. Final performance results and economic data will be included in the final paper.

  5. Flat-flame burner studies of pulverized-coal combustion. Experimental results on char reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, R.E.; Shi, L.

    1996-12-01

    Structure of laminar, premixed pulverized-coal flames in a 1-D reactor has been studied with emphasis on char reactivity. A 1.1-meter-long tube furnace accommodated high-temperature environments and long residence times for the laminar flames produced by a flat-flame, coal-dust burner. Experiments were conducted at different operating conditions (fuel type/size, fuel-air ratio). Measurements included solid sample composition, major gas species and hydrocarbon species concentrations, and gas- and particle-phase line-of-sight temperatures at different axial locations in flames. Degree of char burnout increased with coal volatiles content and decreased with coal particle size. Combustion in furnace was in oxidizer-deficient environment and higher burnout was achieved as the fuel-air ratio neared stoichiometric. For 0-45 {mu}m particles most of the fixed carbon mass loss occurred within 5 cm of the furnace inlet, and char reaction was slow downstream due to low oxidizer concentrations. Fixed carbon consumption of the 45-90 {mu}m particles generally was slower than for the small particles. About 40%-80% of the fixed carbon was oxidized in the furnace. Primary volatiles mass loss occurred within the first 4.5 cm, and more than 90% of the volatiles were consumed in the flames. The flames stabilized in the furnace produced less CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} in the burnt gas than similar unconfined flames. NO concentrations were found to decrease along the furnace and to increase with decreasing fuel/air ratio. Temperature measurement results showed that gas-phase temperatures were higher than solid-phase temperatures. Temperatures generally decreased with decreasing volatiles content and increased as the equivalence ratio approached one. The results can be used to interpret thermochemical processes occurring in pulverized-coal combustion. (au) 15 refs.

  6. Determining the radiative properties of pulverized-coal particles from experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.

    1992-02-01

    A comprehensive coupled experimental-theoretical study has been performed to determine the effective radiative properties of pulverized-coal/char particles. The results obtained show that the ``effective`` scattering phase function of coal particles are highly forward scattering and show less sensitivity to the size than predicted from the Lorenz-Mie theory. The main reason for this is the presence of smaller size particles associated with each larger particle. Also, the coal/char particle clouds display more side scattering than predicted for the same size range spheres, indicating the irregular shape of the particles and fragmentation. In addition to these, it was observed that in the visible wavelength range the coal absorption is not gray, and slightly vary with the wavelength. These two experimental approaches followed in this study are unique in a sense that the physics of the problem are not approximated. The properties determined include all uncertainties related to the particle shape, size distribution, inhomogeneity and spectral complex index of refraction data. In order to obtain radiative property data over a wider wavelength spectrum, additional ex-situ experiments have been carried out using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer. The spectral measurements were performed over the wavelength range of 2 to 22 {mu}m. These results were interpreted to obtain the ``effective`` efficiency factors of coal particles and the corresponding refractive index values. The results clearly show that the coal/char radiative properties display significant wavelength dependency in the infrared spectrum.

  7. A simple numerical model to estimate the effect of coal selection on pulverized fuel burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.K.; Hurt, R.H.; Niksa, S.; Muzio, L.; Mehta, A.; Stallings, J. [Brown University, Providence, RI (USA). Division Engineering

    2003-06-01

    The amount of unburned carbon in ash is an important performance characteristic in commercial boilers fired with pulverized coal. Unburned carbon levels are known to be sensitive to fuel selection, and there is great interest in methods of estimating the burnout propensity of coals based on proximate and ultimate analysis - the only fuel properties readily available to utility practitioners. A simple numerical model is described that is specifically designed to estimate the effects of coal selection on burnout in a way that is useful for commercial coal screening. The model is based on a highly idealized description of the combustion chamber but employs detailed descriptions of the fundamental fuel transformations. The model is validated against data from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors burning a range of international coals, and then against data obtained from full-scale units during periods of coal switching. The validated model form is then used in a series of sensitivity studies to explore the role of various individual fuel properties that influence burnout.

  8. A Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Optimized for Oxyfuel Combustion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Dlouhý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on modifying a pulverized coal-fired steam boiler in a 250 MWe power plant for oxygen combustion conditions. The entry point of the study is a boiler that was designed for standard air combustion. It has been proven that simply substituting air by oxygen as an oxidizer is not sufficient for maintaining a satisfactory operating mode, not even with flue gas recycling. Boiler design optimization aggregating modifications to the boiler’s dimensions, heating surfaces and recycled flue gas flow rate, and specification of a flue gas recycling extraction point is therefore necessary in order to achieve suitable conditions for oxygen combustion. Attention is given to reducing boiler leakage, to which external pre-combustion coal drying makes a major contribution. The optimization is carried out with regard to an overall power plant conception for which a decrease in efficiency due to CO2 separation is formulated.

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) to Blast Furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chenn

    2008-01-01

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process

  10. CFD modelling and analysis of pulverized coal injection in blast furnace: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing [Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Zulli, Paul [BlueScope Steel Research (BSR), P.O. Box 202, Port Kembla, NSW 2505 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    In order to understand the complicated phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), several mathematical models have been developed by the UNSW and BSR cooperation. These models are featuring from coal combustion in a pilot-scale test rig, to coal combustion in a real BF, and then to coal/coke combustion in a real BF, respectively. This paper reviews these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model applicability. The model development is firstly discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model applicability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that the three PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The model of coal/coke combustion in a real BF is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. Such model gives a more reliable burnout prediction over the raceway surface, which could better represent the amount of unburnt char entering the coke bed. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviours and then optimising the PCI operation in practice. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Reconstruction of the aero-mixture channels of the pulverized coal plant of the 100MW power plant unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovic Vladan B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the last revitalization of thermal power block of 100 MW in TPP “Kostolac A”, made in the year 2004, during the operation of the plant, pulverized coal deposition often occurred in horizontal sections of the aero-mixture channels. Deposition phenomenon manifested itself in places ahead of spherical compensators in the direction of flow of pulverized coal to the burners, due to unfavorable configuration of these channels. Coal dust deposited in the channels dried and spontaneously combusted, causing numerous damage to channels and its isolation as well as the frequent stoppage of the operation for necessary interventions. The paper presents the original solution of reconstruction of aero-mixture channels which prevented deposition of coal dust and its eventual ignition. In this way the reliability of the mill plant is maximized and higher availability of boiler and block as a whole is achieved.

  12. Effect of the Reburning Zone Stoichiometry on the Nox Concentration at the Three-Stage Combustion of Pulverized Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernetskaya Nelya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical study of heat and mass transfer taking into account the combustion of coal particles in the furnace at the three-stage combustion of pulverized coal was performed. Analysis of the reburning zone stoichiometry on the concentration of nitrogen oxides at the furnace outlet was made. The values of excess air in the primary and reburning combustion zones, providing for the concentration of nitrogen oxides at the furnace outlet is not more than 350 mg/m3 and unburned carbon not more than 1 % when burning coal with a high content of nitrogen were established.

  13. Physical and chemical characterization of 50 pulverized coal ashes with respect to partial cement replacement in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sloot, H A; Weijers, E G

    1986-04-01

    Physical and chemical characterization of 50 pulverized coal ashes from Dutch, Belgian and German installations has been carried out to identify the parameters that have to be kept under control, when pulverized coal ashes are to be used as partial cement replacement in concrete. For a good workability of fly ash/cement mortars the particle size and the carbon content are important. By performing a mortar flow test (Heagermann) upon delivery exterme ashes can be easily eliminated. The compressive strength is largely determined by the fineness of the ash (weight fraction below 20 micron). A direct effect of carbon content on strength development is not observed, but a reduction in mortar slow due to carbon leads to loss in strength, while the workability has to be adjusted. Size distribution measurement by optical methods is recommended as the relevant part of the ash size distribution cannot be properly assessed by sieve methods. The net contribution of fly ash to the compressive strength of a fly ash/cement (20/80) mortar exhibits a minimum at 14 days curing, which is common to all 50 ashes studied. Improvements in ash quality as obtained from pulverized-coal fired installations can be achieved by improvements in coal milling and optimizing ash collection. 6 figs., 4 tabs., 19 refs.

  14. Online X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis of Heavy Metals in Pulverized Coal on a Conveyor Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhang; XinLei, Zhang; WenBao, Jia; Qing, Shan; YongSheng, Ling; DaQian, Hei; Da, Chen

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metals in haze episode will continue to threaten the quality of public health around the world. In order to decrease the emission of heavy metals produced from coal burning, an online X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer system, consisting of an XRF analyzer with data acquisition software and a laser rangefinder, was developed to carry out the measurement of heavy metals in pulverized coal. The XRF analyzer was mounted on a sled, which can effectively smooth the surface of pulverized coal and reduce the impact of surface roughness during online measurement. The laser rangefinder was mounted over the sled for measuring the distance between a pulverized coal sample and the analyzer. Several heavy metals and other elements in pulverized coal were online measured by the XRF analyzer directly above a conveyor belt. The limits of detection for Hg, Pb, Cr, Ti, Fe, and Ca by the analyzer were 44 ± 2, 34 ± 2, 17 ± 3, 41 ± 4, 19 ± 3, and 65 ± 2 mg·kg(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) for the elements mentioned was less than 7.74%. By comparison with the results by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), relative deviation (%D) of the online XRF analyzer was less than 10% for Cr, Ti, and Ca, in the range of 0.8-24.26% for Fe, and greater than 20% for Hg and Pb. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass–coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xiangchen; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yong; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass–coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass–coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow. (paper)

  16. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiangchen; Yan, Yong; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Chao

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass-coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow.

  17. Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2009-07-01

    The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

  18. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  19. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Filip P.; Berić Ivana M.; Jovanović Petar M.; Jovanović Aca D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reductio...

  20. Deposit formation in a full-scale pulverized wood-fired power plant with and without coal fly ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Ash transformation and deposition in a pulverized wood-fired power plant boiler of 800 MWth were studied with and without the addition of coal fly ash. The transient ash deposition behavior was investigated by using an advanced deposit probe system at two different boiler locations with flue gas...... at the low-temperature location showed a slow initial build-up and a stable mass of deposits after approximately 1-5 h. The deposits collected during pulverized wood combustion contained a considerable amount of K2SO4, KCl, and KOH/K2CO3. With the addition of coal fly ash (~4 times of the mass flow of wood...... ash) to the boiler, these alkali species were effectively removed both in the fly ash and in the deposits, and a more frequent shedding of the deposits was observed. The results imply that coal fly ash can be an effective additive to reduce ash deposition and corrosion problems in a pulverized wood...

  1. Assessment of ecotoxicological risks of element leaching from pulverized coal ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenner, H.A.

    1995-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects on representative organisms, after exposure to pulverized fuel ashes (PFA) or leachates of PFA. The studies dealt primarily with toxic effects and focused on the impact of PFA on single species and groups of related species including their acute effects, bioconcentration and ultimate body burden. Emphasis was placed on reproductive effects in this study. Crawling behaviour of mussels was also studied to reflection to the physical differences of PFA from other substrates. A newly developed device was therefore used for valve movement monitoring. A phytomonitoring system with duckweed was developed for assessing effects on yield, using image processing. The results are presented in three parts according to the environmental compartments concerned i.e. marine, freshwater and terrestrial. In Part 1, marine studies with benthic invertebrates were carried out in model ecosystems with different compositions of PFA and Waddensea sediment. In Part 2, the freshwater studies were carried out in flow chambers using the painters mussel Unio pictorum. Besides behavioural studies with PFA specific research was carried out with selenium on body burden and effects on reproduction. Selenium is a prominent constituent of PFA. In Part 3 research is described on the monitoring of leachates of PFA with duckweed. A separate chapter deals with growth, mortality and accumulation in plants and worms exposed to coal gasification slag. figs., tabs., refs

  2. Experimental investigation on NO{sub x} emission and carbon burnout from a radially biased pulverized coal whirl burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shan; Hui, Shi' en; Zhou, Qulan; Xu, Tongmo; Hu, Hongli [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Taisheng [Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd., Zigong, Sichuan 643001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Experiments have been performed on 1 MW pulverized coal (pc) furnace in order to investigate the characteristics of coal combustion and NO{sub x} emission from a new type of radially biased dual register whirl burner. The burner is characterized by a primary air pipe with a continuously changing cross-section and an impact ring. The mixture of pulverized coal and air inside the primary pipe is split into two streams, which are the outer pc rich annular jet and the inner pc lean annular jet respectively. Three Chinese coals, which are high rank bituminous coal, low rank bituminous coal and meager coal respectively, are used in the experiments. We examine the influences of various parameters such as the relative position of the over-fire air (OFA) nozzle, over-fire air ratio (19.1%), primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, inner secondary air swirling intensity, and outer secondary air swirling intensity on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash. With the primary air ratio increasing from 13.4% to 23.4%, the value of the NO{sub x} emission of the SH coal decreases by 26.7% at first, and then increases by 21.7%. In contrast, the value of the carbon in fly ash (C{sub FA}) increases by 40.1% at first, and then decreases by 58.3%. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased whirl burner, the configuration of the furnace and the distribution of the air. (author)

  3. Coal type and burnout performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, E.; Cloke, M. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A variety of coals underwent refire tests in a drop tube furnace. Characteristics of the coal fractions, the pyrolysed char fractions and the refired char fractions were compared to determine links between coal composition, intermediate char products and burnout. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Simulation of blast furnace operation during the substitution of coke and pulverized coal with granulated waste plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Tihomir M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using the waste plastic as reducing agent in blast furnace for obtaining pig iron is in focus for the past couple year. The simulation of blast furnace process in BFC software has been performed in order to analyze the coke and coals saving, CO2 emission and determining the economic benefits. Three different batches were made for comparative analysis, depending on the batch composition and input of batch components into the blast furnace: case 1 (C1, case 2 (C2 and case 3 (C3. The base case, C1 contains sinter (bulk material which is needed for obtaining 1 tone of pig iron, quartz which provides slag alkalinity and coke as reducing and energy agent. C2 has the same components as C1, but contains pulverized coal instead one part of coke and C3 contains granulated waste plastic instead coke in an approximately the same amount as pulverized coal. The substitution of coke with pulverized coal and waste plastic is 18.6 % and 25.2 %, respectively. The economic, productivity and ecologic aspects have been analyzed. The consumption of each tone of waste plastic in blast furnace saves 360 $, which is 18 times more than its price, bearing in mind that the market price of coke is 380 $/t % and waste plastic 20 $/t. Regarding the specific productivity, it decreases from 2.13 for C1 to 1.87 for C3. From an environmental aspect there are two main benefits: reduction of CO2 emission and impossibility of dioxin formation. The CO2 emission was 20.18, 19.46 and 17.21 for C1, C2 and C3, respectively.

  5. Combustion behaviors and kinetics of sewage sludge blended with pulverized coal: With and without catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hong, Chen; Xing, Yi; Li, Yifei; Feng, Lihui; Jia, Mengmeng

    2018-04-01

    The combustion behaviors of sewage sludge (SS), pulverized coal (PC), and their blends were studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The effect of the mass ratio of SS to PC on the co-combustion characteristics was analyzed. The experiments showed that the ignition performance of the blends improved significantly as the mass percentage of SS increased, but its combustion intensity decreased. The burnout temperature (T b ) and comprehensive combustibility index (S) of the blends were almost unchanged when the mass percentage of SS was less than 10%. However, a high mass percentage of SS (>10%) resulted in a great increase in T b and a notable decrease in S. Subsequently, the effects of different catalysts (CaO, CeO 2 , MnO 2 , and Fe 2 O 3 ) on the combustion characteristics and activation energy of the SS/PC blend were investigated. The four catalysts promoted the release and combustion of volatile matters in the blended fuels and shifted their combustion profiles to a low temperature. In addition, their peak separating tendencies were obvious at 350-550 C, resulting in high peak widths. All the catalysts improved combustion activity of the blended fuel and accelerated fixed carbon combustion, which decreased the ignition temperature and burnout temperature of the fuels. CeO 2 had the best catalytic effects in terms of the comprehensive combustion performance and activation energy, followed closely by Fe 2 O 3 . However, the rare-earth compounds are expensive to be applied in the catalytic combustion process of SS/PC blend at present. Based on both catalytic effects and economy, Fe 2 O 3 was potentially an optimal option for catalytic combustion among the tested catalysts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  7. Effect of the parameters of a straight-through pulverized coal spray on formation of nitrogen oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1987-04-01

    Experiments were conducted on varying the parameters affecting intensity of the mixing process at the starting point of a pulverized coal spray. Investigations were carried out using Donetsk black coal in a BKZ-210-140FZhSh steam generator equipped with a tangential combustion chamber. The plant featured liquid slag removal and direct blow-in as well as a medium-speed model VSM-140 mill. Four experiments were conducted in which gas samples were taken from the combustion chamber and analyzed for RO/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ as well as CO and H/sub 2/. A relationship between reducing gases at the starting point of the torch and the initial air feed factor was demonstrated. Experiments were conducted to determine a relationship between NO/sub x/ concentrations in exhaust gases and the initial air feed factor. 5 refs.

  8. Aspects on prediction of two-phase reacting flow in a swirl-stabilized pulverized coal flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennerberg, D. (LSTM, Erlangen (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge of NO{sub x} formation routes in a pulverized coal flame is essential for understanding the problematics. Coal-bound N is the dominated source of NO{sub x} in a pf flame. The so-called 'thermal' NO{sub x} plays a minor role, since the temperature level is lower in a pf flame than in a gas - or oilfired flame. The coalbound N is mainly released along with the volatiles in the coal as HCN. This release takes place in the central recirculation zone when the coal is first heated up. The continued reaction processes of the HCN take different paths, dependent on whether the burner near field zone is fuel-rich or fuel-lean: Under fuel-rich conditions: HCN {yields} CN {yields} N{sub 2}. Under fuel-lean conditions: HCN {yields} NH/NCO {yields} NO. This reaction scheme is strongly simplified in order to clarify the main influence of the aerodynamics on the NO{sub x} formation. Concentration of radicals O, OH, H are also important for the reaction routes as well as the residence time for the coal particles under respective conditions. The conditions for reactions are however determined largely by the aerodynamics of the near-field burner zone. (orig./GL).

  9. Burning characteristics and gaseous/solid emissions of blends of pulverized coal with waste tire-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Courtemanche, B.; Carlson, J.B. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

    1998-10-01

    The combustion behaviour and the emissions from blends of a pulverized bituminous coal and ground waste automobile tires were investigated. Combustion took place under steady flow conditions, in an electrically-heated drop-tube furnace in air at a gas temperature of 1150{degree}C and a particle heating rate of approximate to 10{sup 5}{degree}C/s. Combustion observations were conducted with simultaneous pyrometry and cinematography. Interparticle flame interactions were visually observed in the near-stoichiometric and fuel-rich regions. Volatile flame interactions were apparent at a lower phi for tire crumb particles than for coal particles and became progressively more intense with increasing phi until at sufficiently high phi`s large group flames formed for tire particles. As particle flame interactions increased, average maximum temperatures in the flame decreased. Coal particles resisted the formation of group flames, even at high phi`s. Such observations correlated with the trends observed for the PAH emissions of the two fuels, those of tire crumb being much higher than those of coal Some stratification in the combustion of blends of particles of the two fuels was observed. This kept the PAH emissions lower levels than expected. NO{sub x} emissions from tires were much lower than those of coal, while those of the blends were close to the weighted average emissions. SO{sub 2} emissions from the blends were close to the weighted average emissions of the two fuels. Blending coal with tire reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions of coal but increased the CO emissions. Particulate emissions (soot and ash), measured in the range of 0.4 to 8{mu}m, increased with phi. Generally, tire produced more mass of submicron particulates than coal. Particulate emissions of blends of the two fuels were close to those expected based on weighted average of the two fuels.

  10. Revised users manual, Pulverized Coal Gasification or Combustion: 2-dimensional (87-PCGC-2): Final report, Volume 2. [87-PCGC-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1987-12-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and non-reactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. Recent code revisions and additions are described. The model, referred to as 87-PCGC-2, is applicable to cylindrical axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using either a flux method or discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a Lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. Several multi-step coal devolatilization schemes are included along with a heterogeneous reaction scheme that allows for both diffusion and chemical reaction. Major gas-phase reactions are modeled assuming local instantaneous equilibrium, and thus the reaction rates are limited by the turbulent rate mixing. A NO/sub x/ finite rate chemistry submodel is included which integrates chemical kinetics and the statistics of the turbulence. The gas phase is described by elliptic partial differential equations that are solved by an iterative line-by-line technique. Under-relaxation is used to achieve numerical stability. The generalized nature of the model allows for calculation of isothermal fluid mechanicsgaseous combustion, droplet combustion, particulate combustion and various mixtures of the above, including combustion of coal-water and coal-oil slurries. Both combustion and gasification environments are permissible. User information and theory are presented, along with sample problems. 106 refs.

  11. Impact of Coal Fly Ash Addition on Combustion Aerosols (PM2.5) from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Pulverized Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    The formation of combustion aerosols was studied in an 800 MWth suspension-fired power plant boiler, during combustion of pulverized wood pellets with and without addition of coal fly ash as alkali capture additive. The aerosol particles were sampled and characterized by a low-pressure cascade im...

  12. Numerical study of furnace process of a 600 MW pulverized coal boiler under low load with SNCR application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Q.X.; Shi, Y.; Liu, H.; Yang, C.H.; Wu, S.H. [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2013-07-01

    Numerical simulation of flow, heat transfer, and combustion process in a 600MW pulverized coal boiler under low load is performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code Fluent. The distributions of temperature and species were obtained and their influences on Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) were analyzed. The results indicate that the furnace temperature changed significantly as the operation load declines. The furnace space with proper temperature for SNCR reaction becomes lower with decreasing of operation load. As the load falls off, the available O{sub 2}concentration for SNCR reactions rises gently and the initial NOx concentration for SNCR reactions debases slightly. These variations can have some influence on the SNCR process. For the upper furnace where the temperature is suitable for SNCR reactions, the CO concentration is close to 0 under different load. Consequently, the SNCR process will not be affected by CO based on the calculation in this work.

  13. The application of RANS CFD for design of SNCR technology for a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszak Monika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the technology of NOx emission abatement by SNCR method. The scope of research included CDF simulations as well as design and construction of the pilot plant and tests of NOx reduction by urea in the plant located in industrial pulverized-coal fired boiler. The key step of research was to determine the appropriate temperature window for the SNCR process. The proposed solution of the location of injection lances in the combustion chamber enabled to achieve over a 30% reduction of NOx. It is possible to achieve higher effectiveness of the proposed SNCR technology and meet the required emission standards via providing prior reduction of NOx to the level of 350 mg/um3 using the primary methods.

  14. Ignition and devolatilization of pulverized coals in lower oxygen content O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhaohui; Yang, Ming; Wang, Dingbang; Zheng, Chuguang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    High speed camera is employed to capture the transient images of the burning particle in a flat-flame entrained flow reactor, some information of the burning particle, such as the optical intensity and the residence time, are obtained through analysis of transient images. The ignition and devolatilization behavior of different rank coals at 1,670, 1,770 and 1,940 K over a range of 2-30% O{sub 2} in both N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} diluent gases are researched. The results indicate that the laws of ignition and devolatilization of pulverized coals in low oxygen O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere are consistent with the literature, which focus on the environments of high oxygen contents (10-30%) or lower temperate (900-1,500 K). With the gas temperature and oxygen content increased, the ignition delay time and devolatilization time for the lower oxygen content cases decreased for both N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} atmosphere. With the use CO{sub 2} in place of N{sub 2} in low oxygen content, the ignition delay was retarded and the duration of devolatilization was increased. The effect of CO{sub 2} on coal particle ignition is explained by its higher molar specific heat. And the effect of CO{sub 2} on devolatilization results from its effect on the diffusion rates of volatile fuel and oxygen.

  15. Anatomy of an upgraded pulverized coal facility: Combustion modification through flue gas scrubbing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, J.U. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center; Savichky, W.J.; O`Dea, D.T. [New York State Electric and Gas Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Regeneration is a biological term for formation or creating anew. In the case of Milliken station, a species of steam generation (Tangentus coali) regeneration refers to refitting critical systems with the latest technological advances to reduce emissions while maintaining or improving performance. The plant has undergone a series of operations which provided anatomical changes as well as a face lift. Each of the two units were place in suspended animation (outage) to allow these changes to be made. The paper describes the project which includes retrofitting combustion systems, pulverizers, boiler liners, scrubbers, and control room. This retrofit is meant to increase thermal efficiency while reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides.

  16. Combustion of wet pulverized coal in reactor flow; Combustao de particulas de carvao pulverizado contendo umidade em seu interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Valdeci Jose [Universidade do Planalto Catarinense (UNIPLAC), Lages, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas]. E-mail: vcosta@iscc.com.br; Krioukov, Viktor [Universidade Regional do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUI), Ijui, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica]. E-mail: krioukov@main.unijui.tche.br; Maliska, Clovis Raimundo [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: maliska@sinmec.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    In this work I propose a numeric study destined to the combustion of wet pulverized coal in reacting flow. The mathematical model is composed by equations for the concentration of the substances in the reacting flow, written based in the chemical kinetics and exponential form, conservation equations and devolatilization equations, combustion of the carbon and residues. The study detects fluctuation among the temperatures of the gas and of the particles. The inclusion of the humidity as constituent part of the volatile matter doesn't affect the performance of the model, however, its presence alters the temperature profiles and the gaseous composition. With the increase of the humidity in the coal have a slight reduction in the time of combustion of the particle, what agrees with experimental data. The model foresees an increment in the difference Tp-Tg and a smaller production of CO with the increase of the wetness rate. The volatile ones, in spite of they have its fraction relatively reduced with the wetness presence they are liberated more slowly with its increment, provoking change in the position of front flame. (author)

  17. Chemical forms of the fluorine and carbon in fly ashes recovered from electrostatic precipitators of pulverized coal-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoto Tsubouchi; Hidekazu Hayashi; Akiyuki Kawashima; Masahide Sato; Noboru Suzuki; Yasuo Ohtsuka [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials

    2011-01-15

    The functionalities of the fluorine and carbon present in fly ashes formed in pulverized coal combustion have been studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) techniques. The ash samples include 20-130 {mu}g/g-dry and 0.4-4.1 mass%-dry of fluorine and carbon elements, respectively, and these components are enriched at the outermost layer of the ash surface. The F consists of both inorganic and organic functionalities, and the proportion of the latter is as high as 84-98 mol%. The C has different types of surface oxygen species, such as carboxyl, lactone/acid anhydride and phenolic groups, and most of these groups decompose to CO{sub 2} or CO up to 700{sup o}C to yield carbon active sites. When the amount of the O-functional forms increases, the content of organic C-F forms tends to increase almost linearly. On the basis of the above results, it may be speculated as one possibility that the formation of covalent C-F bonds takes place mainly through secondary reactions between gaseous F-containing compounds (HF and/or F{sub 2}) in flue gas and carbon active sites produced below 700{sup o}C downstream of coal-fired boilers. 30 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Influence of rank and macerals on the burnout behaviour of pulverized Indian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Nandita; Biswas, S.; Sarkar, P.; Kumar, Manish; Mukherjee, A.; Choudhury, A. [Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Digwadih Campus (Formerly Central Fuel Research Institute), P.O. FRI, Dhanbad-828 108, Jharkhand (India); Ghosal, Sujit; Mitra, Tandra [Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032, West Bengal (India)

    2008-04-03

    The combustion behaviour of coal is significantly influenced by its rank and maceral and microlithotype compositions. Different macerals, due to their distinct and unique physical properties and chemical makeup, have different burning characteristics. This paper deals with the burning behaviour of coals of Indian origin by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and in drop tube furnace (DTF) with particular emphasis on the role of macerals and their associations. Four coals of different rank and petrographic makeup, along with their two density fractions, with enriched vitrinite and inertinites, respectively,were studied in both TGA and DTF. The burnout behaviour was estimated from the chemical analyses of the char samples collected from the DTF. The burning characteristics of one of the coals deviate from the trend expected with the variations of rank. The behaviour of the density fractions in DTF was found to be different from that observed in TGA analyses. An attempt has been made to correlate the burnout with the petrographic macerals and microlithotypes present in the coals. The morphology of the residual chars indicates the contributions of the inertinites towards the formation of cenospheres and network types of reactive chars. The superior burning behaviour of the higher density inertinite-rich fractions over the raw coals and also some vitrinite-rich fractions indicate the better reactivity of the inertinites towards combustion. (author)

  19. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  20. Numerical study on NO formation in a pulverized coal-fired furnace using oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Aiyue; Chen, Yuan; Sheng, Changdong [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was employed to numerically investigate NO formation in a 600 MW wall-fired pulverized coal-fired furnace retrofitted for oxy-coal combustion, aimed at the impacts of flue gas recycle ratio, O{sub 2} staging and recycled NO with the recycled flue gas (RFG) on NO formation and emission. An in-house CFD research code for conventional air combustion was developed and extended to simulate O{sub 2}/RFG combustion with specific considerations of the change of gas properties and its impact on coal particle combustion processes. The extended De Soete mechanisms including NO reburning mechanism were applied to describe transformations of fuel nitrogen. It was shown that CFD simulation represented the significant reduction of NO formation during O{sub 2}/RFG combustion compared to that during air combustion. The in-burner and particularly the in-furnace O{sub 2} staging were confirmed still to play very important roles in NO formation control. Changing the recycle ratio had significant impact on the combustion performance and consequently on NO formation and emission. With the combustion performance ensured, decreasing the flue gas recycle ratio or increasing the inlet O{sub 2} concentration of combustion gas led to reduction of NO formation and emission. Although NO formation and emission was found to increase with increasing the inlet NO concentration of combustion gas, CFD simulation indicated that {proportional_to}74% of the inlet NO was reduced in the furnace, consistent with the experimental data reported in the literature. This demonstrated the significant contribution of reburning mechanism to the reduction of the recycled NO in the furnace.

  1. Research on pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of super fine and conventional pulverized coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chaoqun; Jiang Xiumin; Wei Lihong; Wang Hui

    2007-01-01

    Based on isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and kinetic equations, the optimization toolbox of MATLAB was applied to study the effects of particle size and heating rate on the pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics and to obtain the mechanism function and kinetic parameters of Yuanbaoshan coal at four different particle sizes and heating rates. The pyrolysis characteristics of the samples were analyzed using thermogravimetric (TG) curves and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The results show that the coal pyrolysis process is strongly affected by heating rate and particle size. As the heating rate increases, the temperature of volatile matter initiation increases, the total volatile matter evolved decreases and the DTG peak shifts toward higher temperature. As the particle size decreases, the temperature of volatile matter initiation of the coal sample decreases and the maximum rate of mass loss increases. In the pyrolysis of coal, the activation energies of the samples were found to increase with growing particle size and decreasing heating rate for both of the devolatilization temperature stages. In the lower temperature stage, the coal samples show a great difference in mechanism function at different particle sizes and heating rates

  2. Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Woo; Jang, Cheol-Hyeon

    2011-03-01

    Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500°C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang-Woo; Jang, Cheol-Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500 deg. C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

  4. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  5. Processing woody debris biomass for co-milling with pulverized coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Bob Rummer

    2007-01-01

    The USDA, Forest Service, Forest Products Lab funds several grants each year for the purpose of studying woody biomass utilization. One selected project proposed removing small diameter stems and unmerchantable woody material from National Forest lands and delivering it to a coal-fired power plant in Alabama for energy conversion. The Alabama Power Company...

  6. Assessment of ecotoxicological risks of element leaching from pulverized coal ashes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the consequences of the disposal of the combustion residues of coal, especially the uptake of elements from such residues and their effects on various organisms. The effects on benthic organisms in fresh and in seawater are considered in the first two parts. The third

  7. An artificial intelligence treatment of devolatilization for pulverized coal and biomass in co-fired flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, T.; Awais, M.M.; Lockwood, F.C. [Lahore University of Management & Science, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2003-02-01

    In most of the existing predictive procedures for devolatilization, combustion and emissions are modeled by a single-step, global chemical reaction, with the yield of volatile matter presumed to experience mixing-controlled combustion. Several more detailed multi-step coal devolatilization models have recently emerged. A common shortcoming of these models is that they require a large set of input data, involving kinetic parameters, gas precursor compositions, and additional parameters describing the coal's polymeric structure. The input data must be generated from an extensive series of experimental measurements for each coal of interest. Very significant computational expense and application restricted to coals, which have already been studied, are implied. All of these problems are exacerbated when coal blending or co-firing with renewable solid fuels, such as forest and agricultural waste, and sewage sludge, is considered. In this paper, a new approach based on neural networks is proposed; it is capable of handling a range of solid fuels. The model considers heating rate, fuel atomic ratios, and the temperature of the fuel particles to predict the volatiles released by the particles. The 'learning' properties of the model implicitly facilitate all the physical conditions, of devolatilization experiments, which were used during its training and validation phases. The neural-network model was implemented into an existing 3D CFD combustion code. The predictions for high- and low-NOx burners demonstrate improved prediction of in-flame data for reduced computational effort, one-fifth of that with the standard single-global-reaction devolatilization model. Its devolatilization predictions have also been compared with a detailed devolatilization model (FLASHCHAIN) and were found to be comparable.

  8. Weighted sum of gray gases model optimization for numerical investigations of processes inside pulverized coal-fired furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnomarkovic, Nenad; Belosevic, Srdjan; Tomanovic, Ivan; Milicevic, Aleksandar

    2017-12-01

    The effects of the number of significant figures (NSF) in the interpolation polynomial coefficients (IPCs) of the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGM) on results of numerical investigations and WSGM optimization were investigated. The investigation was conducted using numerical simulations of the processes inside a pulverized coal-fired furnace. The radiative properties of the gas phase were determined using the simple gray gas model (SG), two-term WSGM (W2), and three-term WSGM (W3). Ten sets of the IPCs with the same NSF were formed for every weighting coefficient in both W2 and W3. The average and maximal relative difference values of the flame temperatures, wall temperatures, and wall heat fluxes were determined. The investigation showed that the results of numerical investigations were affected by the NSF unless it exceeded certain value. The increase in the NSF did not necessarily lead to WSGM optimization. The combination of the NSF (CNSF) was the necessary requirement for WSGM optimization.

  9. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Filip P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reduction of the quantity of coke, whose production requires large amounts of energy, reduction of harmful exhaust emission and increase productivity of blast furnaces through the reduction of production costs. The project was complex and had high costs, so that it was necessary to predict risk events and plan responses to identified risks at an early stage of implementation, in the course of the project design, in order to minimise losses and implement the project in accordance with the defined time and cost limitations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179081: Researching contemporary tendencies of strategic management using specialized management disciplines in function of competitiveness of Serbian economy

  10. Nitrogen oxide suppression by using a new design of pulverized-coal burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Cameron, S.D.; Grekhov, L.L. [All-Russian Thermal Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-07-01

    The results of testing a low-NO{sub x} swirl burner are presented. This burner was developed by Babcock Energy Ltd., for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions when burning Ekibastuz and Kuznetsk low-caking coals in power boilers. The tests conducted at a large plant of the BEL Technological Center showed that the new burner reduces NO{sub x} emissions by approximately two times. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The Technology of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions Reduction at Pulverized Coal Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunaevska, N.I.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effectiveness of the influence of thermochemical preparation of anthracite on the formation of nitrogen oxides the three-dimensional numerical model of the TPP-210A boiler`s furnace for standard and modified burners was created. The calculation results are shown the decrease of NOx concentration across the height of the furnace and reduce of the unburnt coal for the modified burners in comparison with standard ones.

  12. Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

    2011-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry.

  13. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. First annual technical progress report, May 1978-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.E.; Hines, J.E.; Stewart, D.L. Jr.; Yu, H.

    1979-10-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has begun with the design and construction of a 350 lb/h (coal) staged slagging cyclone combustor (SSCC) attached to a 7-ft dia aluminum melting ladle furnace. Process development will culminate with a 1000 pph prototype SSCC firing a 40,000 lb capacity open hearth melting furnace at the Alcoa Laboratories. Phase II implementation is currently planned for Alcoa's Lafayette, IN, Works, where two of the ingot plant's five open hearth melting furnaces will be converted to utilize coal. In addition to confirmation of data gathered in Phase I, the effect of extended production schedule operation on equipment and efficiencies will be determined. This work would begin in 1982 pursuant to technical and economic evaluation of the process development at that time. A major design subcontract for assistance in the design of the SSCC is 80% completed.

  14. Characterization of bottom ashes from coal pulverized power plants to determine their potential use feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez, E.; Alvaro, A. M.; Argiz, C.; Parra, J. L.; Moragues, A.

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of coal by products represents environmental and economical problems around the world. Therefore, the reuse and valorisation of this waste has become an important issue in the last decades. While high-value construction products containing fly ash were developed and its use is actually totally accepted as an addition to cement, the use of the bottom ash as supplementary cementitious material has not been allow. This paper examines the chemical and physical properties of fly ashes and bottom ashes from two different coal power plants in order to compare them and analyse the potential feasibility of bottom ash as cement replacement. The mechanical properties of cement mortars made with different percentages of both ashes were also study. The results obtained showed similar chemical composition of both kinds of ashes. The compressive strength values of mortars with 10 % and 25 % of cement replacement (at 28 days) were above the limits established in European standards and there were not significant differences between fly ash and bottom ash from both origins. (Author)

  15. Advanced pulverized-coal power plants: A U.S. export opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, L.A.; Ramezan, M.; Izsak, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) power generation systems and its potential for generating power worldwide. Based on the fuel availability, power requirements, and environmental regulations, countries have been identified that need to build advanced, clean, efficient, and economical power generation, systems. It is predicted that ''more electrical generation capacity will be built over the next 25 years than was built in the previous century''. For example, China and India alone, with less than 10% of today's demand, plan to build what would amount to a quarter of the world's new capacity. For the near- to mid-term, the LEBS program of Combustion 2000 has the promise to fill some of the needs of the international coal-fired power generation market. The high efficiency of LEBS, coupled with the use of advanced, proven technologies and low emissions, make it a strong candidate for export to those areas whose need for additional power is greatest. LEBS is a highly advanced version of conventional coal-based power plants that have been utilized throughout the world for decades. LEBS employs proven technologies and doesn't require gasification and/or an unconventional combustion environment (e.g., fluidized bed). LEBS is viewed by the utility industry as technically acceptable and commercially feasible

  16. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żymełka, Piotr; Nabagło, Daniel; Janda, Tomasz; Madejski, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.

  17. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żymełka Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS data.

  18. Combustion of pulverized coal in vortex structures. Final report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollahalli, S.R.; Butuk, N.

    1996-03-01

    The objectives of the project were: (i) to understand the effects of heating one of the streams on the characteristics of shear layers, (ii) to investigate the changes in the characteristics of large scale vortex structures in the shear layer caused by the introduction of inert solid particles in one of the feed streams; (iii) to understand the effects of pyrolyzing solids on the shear layer behavior; and (iv) to study the effects of combustion of particles and their pyrolysis products on the shear layer structure, heat release rate, and pollutant emission characteristics. An experimental facility for generating two-dimensional shear layers containing vortex structures has been designed and fabricated. The experimental facility is essentially a low speed wind tunnel designed to (i) provide two gas streams, initially with uniform velocity profiles and isotropic turbulence, mixing at the end of a splitter plate, (ii) introduce vorticity by passively perturbing one of the streams, (iii) allow heating of one of the streams to temperatures high enough to cause pyrolysis of coal particles, and (iv) provide a natural gas flame in one of the streams to result in ignition and burning of coal particles.

  19. Numerical simulation of the gasification based biomass cofiring on a 600 MW pulverized coal boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R.; Dong, C.Q.; Yang, Y.P.; Zhang, J.J. [Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Security and Clean Energy Technology

    2008-07-01

    Biomass cofiring is the practice of supplementing a base fuel with biomass fuels such as wood waste, short rotation woody crops, short rotation herbaceous crops, alfalfa stems, various types of manure, landfill gas and wastewater treatment gas. The practice began in the 1980s and is becoming commonplace in Europe and the United States. The benefits include reduced carbon dioxide emissions and other airborne emissions such as nitrous oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide and trace metals; potential for reduced fuel cost; and supporting economic development among wood products and agricultural industries in a given service area. However, technical challenges remain when biomass is directly cofired with coal. These include limited percentage of biomass for cofiring; fuel preparation, storage, and delivery; ash deposition and corrosion associated with the high alkali metal and chlorine content in biomass; fly ash utilization; and impacts on the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. This study involved a numerical simulation of cofiring coal and biomass gas in a 600 MWe tangential PC boiler using Fluent software. Combustion behaviour and pollutant formation in the conventional combustion and cofiring cases were compared. The study revealed that reduced NOx emissions can be achieved when producer gas is injected from the lowest layer burner. The nitrogen monoxide (NO) removal rate was between 56.64 and 70.37 per cent. In addition, slagging can be reduced because of the lower temperature. It was concluded that the convection heat transfer area should be increased or the proportion of biomass gas should be decreased to achieve higher boiler efficiency. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. The effect of char structure on burnout during pulverized coal combustion at pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, G.; Wu, H.; Benfell, K.E.; Lucas, J.A.; Wall, T.F.

    1999-07-01

    An Australian bituminous coal sample was burnt in a drop tube furnace (DTF) at 1 atm and a pressurized drop tube furnace (PDTF) at 15 atm. The char samples were collected at different burnout levels, and a scanning electron microscope was used to examine the structures of chars. A model was developed to predict the burnout of char particles with different structures. The model accounts for combustion of the thin-walled structure of cenospheric char and its fragmentation during burnout. The effect of pressure on reaction rate was also considered in the model. As a result, approximately 40% and 70% cenospheric char particles were observed in the char samples collected after coal pyrolysis in the DTF and PDTF respectively. A large number of fine particles (< 30 mm) were observed in the 1 atm char samples at burnout levels between 30% and 50%, which suggests that significant fragmentation occurred during early combustion. Ash particle size distributions show that a large number of small ash particles formed during burnout at high pressure. The time needed for 70% char burnout at 15 atm is approximately 1.6 times that at 1 atm under the same temperature and gas environment conditions, which is attributed to the different pressures as well as char structures. The overall reaction rate for cenospheric char was predicted to be approximately 2 times that of the dense chars, which is consistent with previous experimental results. The predicted char burnout including char structures agrees reasonably well with the experimental measurements that were obtained at 1 atm and 15 atm pressures.

  1. Dispersion of pollutants, environmental externalities due to a pulverized coal power plant and their effect on the cost of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnowska, Lucyna; Frangopoulos, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion systems generate pollution that causes damages to the environment and the society. The objective of this work is to study the dispersion of pollutants and assess the environmental and social cost due to pollution from such a system. For this purpose, a pulverized coal power plant is selected. Using thermodynamic principles combined with empirical techniques, the quantities of pollutants emitted by the plant are estimated. Then, using the EcoSenseWeb software, which is based on the results of the ExternE project, the external environmental cost (externalities) of pollution is assessed. The plant is considered as located in four different cities in Poland and the externalities are calculated for each city separately. It is shown that the external environmental cost has a strong influence on the unit cost of electricity. In addition, the dispersion of pollutants is presented for the plant located in Olsztyn city. Furthermore, the plant is considered as located near the capitals of European countries and the environmental externalities are calculated for each city. The neighboring countries that are strongly affected by the plant in each particular city are identified. The sensitivity of the unit cost of electricity to certain important parameters is investigated. -- Highlights: ► The external cost of pollution has a significant impact on the cost of electricity. ► The results depend on the particular plant, location and level (local-global). ► Externalities make the installation of abatement equipment economical. ► The source location of emissions has a significant effect on the external cost. ► The transboundary pollution has a strong effect on the environmental cost.

  2. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  3. Fundamental study of the pulverized coal char combustion in oxyfuel mode with drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Takamasa; Takafuji, Makoto; Suda, Toshiyuki; Fujimori, Toshiro [Heat and Fluid Dynamics Department, Yokohama (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The combustion characteristics of coal char particles in either O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} conditions were experimentally investigated. Especially, the char burnout, the char particle temperature and the shrinkage of the char particles were discussed. A Drop Tube Furnace (DTF: whose wall temperature was set at 873, 923 and 973 K) was used as the experimental apparatus. The experimental results revealed that, in equivalent oxygen concentration, the char burnout and the char particle temperature were higher in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} conditions than those in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} conditions. The shrinkage of the char particle did not show the large difference in either O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} conditions. Up to 15% of char burnout, the char particle diameters were reduced gradually. Up to 80% of char burnout, the char particle diameters were not changed. This is supposed that the chemical reaction is mainly occurred not on the external surface but on the internal surface of the char particle. Over 80% of char burnout, sudden shrinkage could be seen. Finally, an empirical equation for the prediction of the char particle shrinkage was introduced. Further investigation is required in high operating temperature, where CO{sub 2} gasification may have a large influence on the char burnout.

  4. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  5. Assessing the Exergy Costs of a 332-MW Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Rangel-Hernandez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the exergy costs of a real large industrial boiler with the aim of improving efficiency. Specifically, the 350-MW front-fired, natural circulation, single reheat and balanced draft coal-fired boiler forms part of a 1050-MW conventional power plant located in Spain. We start with a diagram of the power plant, followed by a formulation of the exergy cost allocation problem to determine the exergy cost of the product of the boiler as a whole and the expenses of the individual components and energy streams. We also define a productive structure of the system. Furthermore, a proposal for including the exergy of radiation is provided in this study. Our results show that the unit exergy cost of the product of the boiler goes from 2.352 to 2.5, and that the maximum values are located in the ancillary electrical devices, such as induced-draft fans and coil heaters. Finally, radiation does not have an effect on the electricity cost, but affects at least 30% of the unit exergy cost of the boiler’s product.

  6. Staged combustion - main method for suppressing nitrogen oxides in pulverized-coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R. (Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1989-08-01

    Describes principles behind staged combustion, which is based on organizing furnace operations so that only part of the air from the fuel is taken into the furnace. The remaining air, which is needed for combustion, is fed as a tertiary blast jet into the intermediate flame zone. Following inflammation and combustion of the volatile matter, the oxygen concentration in the flame drops sharply causing a retardation of the oxidation reactions forming NO and an intensification of the reactions causing the nitrogen-containing radicals NH{sub i} and CN to be converted into N{sub 2}. When the reducing agents CO, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} are present in certain flame zones, even the nitrogen oxide is reduced to N{sub 2}. The NO concentrations in the flame are reduced until the jet of tertiary air is introduced. Discusses with reference to practice in the USA and Western Europe how to achieve maximum effect of this method for different types of boiler and presents the results of observations of the introduction of staged combustion to the BKZ-210-140 boiler burning Kuznetsk gassy coal. 5 refs.

  7. Reducing NOx Emissions for a 600 MWe Down-Fired Pulverized-Coal Utility Boiler by Applying a Novel Combustion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lun; Fang, Qingyan; Lv, Dangzhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Gang; Duan, Xuenong; Wang, Xihuan

    2015-11-03

    A novel combustion system was applied to a 600 MWe Foster Wheeler (FW) down-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler to solve high NOx emissions, without causing an obvious increase in the carbon content of fly ash. The unit included moving fuel-lean nozzles from the arches to the front/rear walls and rearranging staged air as well as introducing separated overfire air (SOFA). Numerical simulations were carried out under the original and novel combustion systems to evaluate the performance of combustion and NOx emissions in the furnace. The simulated results were found to be in good agreement with the in situ measurements. The novel combustion system enlarged the recirculation zones below the arches, thereby strengthening the combustion stability considerably. The coal/air downward penetration depth was markedly extended, and the pulverized-coal travel path in the lower furnace significantly increased, which contributed to the burnout degree. The introduction of SOFA resulted in a low-oxygen and strong-reducing atmosphere in the lower furnace region to reduce NOx emissions evidently. The industrial measurements showed that NOx emissions at full load decreased significantly by 50%, from 1501 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%) to 751 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%). The carbon content in the fly ash increased only slightly, from 4.13 to 4.30%.

  8. Numerical analysis of loads effect on combustion performance and NO{sub x} emissions of a 220 MW pulverized coal boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Weihong; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Energy and Furnace Technology; Jankowski, Radoslaw; Kotecki, Michal; Szewczyk, Dariusz [Industrial Combustion Systems (ICS) Company, Poznan (Poland); Brzdekiewicz, Artur [Remak-Rozruch SA, Opole (Poland)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents numerical study on the combustion performance and NO{sub x} emissions of a 220 MW pulverized coal boiler. Three different loads have been simulated with combusting coal, 200, 170 and 140 MW, respectively. In order to get as precise as possible numerical analysis results, two-step simulation method has been adopted in this work, namely, air supply system simulation and furnace simulation. After air supply system simulation, the results have been taken as the initial and boundary conditions for furnace simulation. The comparison between the measured values and predicted results from 200 MW case shows much better agreement. According to the simulation results, the adopted two-step simulation method is reasonable and suitable for predicting the characters of the flow and combustion process. It is concluded that the distributions of temperature, O{sub 2} and CO concentration inside furnace with different loads shows good similarly. The total NOx emissions decreased with the boiler load reducing, and fuel NO{sub x} has the same trend as total NO{sub x}, and fuel NO{sub x} account for about 66% in total NO{sub x} in all the three cases. More important, thermal NO{sub x} slowly decreased with the rise of boiler load. More detailed results presented in this paper enhance the understanding of combustion processes and complex flow patterns of front-wall pulverized coal boilers.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

    2003-10-01

    The primary objective of the proposed study was the study and analysis of, and design recommendations for, a novel radiatively-conductively stabilized combustion (RCSC) process for pulverized coal, which, based on our prior studies with both fluid fuels and pulverized coal, holds a high promise to reduce NO{sub x} production significantly. We have primarily engaged in continuing and improving our process modeling and analysis, obtained a large amount of quantitative information about the effects of the major parameters on NO{sub x} production, conducted an extensive exergy analysis of the process, evaluated the practicalities of employing the Radiatively-Conductively Stabilized Combustor (RCSC) to large power and heat plants, and improved the experimental facility. Prior experimental work has proven the feasibility of the combustor, but slagging during coal combustion was observed and should be dealt with. The primary outcomes and conclusions from the study are: (1) we developed a model and computer program that represents the pulverized coal combustion in the RCSC, (2) the model predicts that NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by a number of methods, detailed in the report. (3) the exergy analysis points out at least a couple of possible ways to improve the exergetic efficiency in this combustor: increasing the effectiveness of thermal feedback, and adjusting the combustor mixture exit location, (4) because of the low coal flow rates necessitated in this study to obtain complete combustion in the burner, the size of a burner operating under the considered conditions would have to be up to an order of magnitude, larger than comparable commercial burners, but different flow configurations of the RCSC can yield higher feed rates and smaller dimensions, and should be investigated. Related to this contract, eleven papers were published in journals and conference proceedings, and ten invited presentations were given at university and research institutions, as well as at

  10. CFD analysis of the pulverized coal combustion processes in a 160 MWe tangentially-fired-boiler of a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiano V. da; Beskow, Arthur B. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (LABSIM/GEAPI/URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Ciencia da Computacao. Grupo de Engenharia Aplicada a Processos Industriais], Emails: cristiano@uricer.edu.br, Arthur@uricer.edu.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza S. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: sperbindrusiak@via-rs.net

    2010-10-15

    The strategic role of energy and the current concern with greenhouse effects, energetic and exegetic efficiency of fossil fuel combustion greatly enhance the importance of the studies of complex physical and chemical processes occurring inside boilers of thermal power plants. The state of the art in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of commercial codes encourage numeric studies of the combustion processes. In the present work the commercial software CFX Ansys Europe Ltd. was used to study the combustion of coal in a 160 MWe commercial thermal power plant with the objective of simulating the operational conditions and identifying factors of inefficiency. The behavior of the flow of air and pulverized coal through the burners was analyzed, and the three-dimensional flue gas flow through the combustion chamber and heat exchangers was reproduced in the numeric simulation. (author)

  11. Observer-Based Fuel Control Using Oxygen Measurement. A study based on a first-principles model of a pulverized coal fired Benson Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Mortensen, Jan Henrik; Just Nielsen, Rene; Soendergaard Pedersen, Tom [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Control Engineering

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an attempt to improve the existing control of coal mills used at the Danish power plant Nordjyllandsvaerket Unit 3. The coal mills pulverize raw coal to a fine-grained powder, which is injected into the furnace of the power plant. In the furnace the coal is combusted, producing heat, which is used for steam production. With better control of the coal mills, the power plant can be controlled more efficiently during load changes, thus improving the overall availability and efficiency of the plant. One of the main difficulties from a control point of view is that the coal mills are not equipped with sensors that detect how much coal is injected into the furnace. During the project, a fairly detailed, non-linear differential equation model of the furnace and the steam circuit was constructed and validated against data obtained at the plant. It was observed that this model was able to capture most of the important dynamics found in the data. Based on this model, it is possible to extract linearized models in various operating points. The report discusses this approach and illustrates how the model can be linearized and reduced to a lower-order linear model that is valid in the vicinity of an operating point by removing states that have little influence on the overall response. A viable adaptive control strategy would then be to design controllers for each of these simplified linear models, i.e., the control loop that sets references to the coal mills and feedwater, and use the load as a separate input to the control. The control gains should then be scheduled according to the load. However, the variations and uncertainties in the coal mill are not addressed directly in this approach. Another control approach was taken in this project, where a Kalman filter based on measurements of air flow blown into the furnace and the oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate

  12. The influence of near burner region aerodynamics on the formation and emission of nitrogen oxides in a pulverized coal-fired furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, T.; Costen, P.; Lockwood, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that detailed measurements have been performed for two distinct pulverized-coal-fired burners in a large-scale laboratory furnace. Comparative in-flame data are archived and include gas temperature, O 2 , CO concentration, and an inventory of stable fuel nitrogen species and solids (HCN, NH 3 , N 2 O, NO, nitrogen release, mass flux, and particle burnout). A significant decrease in the NO concentration in the near burner region and a substantial decrease in the furnace exit values are observed when the central tube from a single annular orifice burner jet (normally the location of a gas or oil burner for light-up purposes) is replaced with a single central orifice burner jet of same cross-sectional area. The latter burner exhibits the delayed combustion phenomena normally associated with a tangentially fired system. The particle burnout remains unaffected due to the longer particles' residence time in the all-important oxygen lean internal recirculation zone

  13. Influence of the gray gases number in the weighted sum of gray gases model on the radiative heat exchange calculation inside pulverized coal-fired furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnomarković Nenad Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the number of gray gases in the weighted sum in the gray gases model on the calculation of the radiative heat transfer is discussed in the paper. A computer code which solved the set of equations of the mathematical model describing the reactive two-phase turbulent flow with radiative heat exchange and with thermal equilibrium between phases inside the pulverized coal-fired furnace was used. Gas-phase radiative properties were determined by the simple gray gas model and two combinations of the weighted sum of the gray gases models: one gray gas plus a clear gas and two gray gases plus a clear gas. Investigation was carried out for two values of the total extinction coefficient of the dispersed phase, for the clean furnace walls and furnace walls covered by an ash layer deposit, and for three levels of the approximation accuracy of the weighting coefficients. The influence of the number of gray gases was analyzed through the relative differences of the wall fluxes, wall temperatures, medium temperatures, and heat transfer rate through all furnace walls. The investigation showed that there were conditions of the numerical investigations for which the relative differences of the variables describing the radiative heat exchange decrease with the increase in the number of gray gases. The results of this investigation show that if the weighted sum of the gray gases model is used, the complexity of the computer code and calculation time can be reduced by optimizing the number of gray gases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in-house developed software tools

  14. Pulverizing Portraits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    Pulverizing Portraits provides the first book-length study of contemporary American poet Lynn Emanuel. Emanuel's poetry is significant because it situates itself in relation to current debates about the state of poetry, creative writing in the academia, and the importance of drawing on interdisci......Pulverizing Portraits provides the first book-length study of contemporary American poet Lynn Emanuel. Emanuel's poetry is significant because it situates itself in relation to current debates about the state of poetry, creative writing in the academia, and the importance of drawing...... been increasingly concerned with poetry as a tool for cultural criticism which constantly redefines our poetic discourse. Elias traces the power of Emanuel's writing and looks at her subtleties in combining intrinsic and formal constraints in poetry with extrinsic and socio-historical methodologies...

  15. PASSIVE CONTROL OF PARTICLE DISPERSION IN A PARTICLE-LADEN CIRCULAR JET USING ELLIPTIC CO-ANNULAR FLOW: A MEANS FOR IMPROVING UTILIZATION AND EMISSION REDUCTIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL BURNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2003-06-01

    A passive control technology utilizing elliptic co-flow to control the particle flinging and particle dispersion in a particle (coal)-laden flow was investigated using experimental and numerical techniques. Preferential concentration of particles occurs in particle-laden jets used in pulverized coal burner and causes uncontrollable NO{sub x} formation due to inhomogeneous local stoichiometry. This particular project was aimed at characterizing the near-field flow behavior of elliptic coaxial jets. The knowledge gained from the project will serve as the basis of further investigation on fluid-particle interactions in an asymmetric coaxial jet flow-field and thus is important to improve the design of pulverized coal burners where non-homogeneity of particle concentration causes increased NO{sub x} formation.

  16. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  17. Radiation/turbulence interactions in pulverized-coal flames. Second year technical progress report, September 30, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.; Manickavsagam, S.; Mukerji, S.; Wang, D.; Ghosal, S.; Swabb, S.

    1995-12-31

    Our goal in this project is to investigate the interaction of radiation and turbulence in coalfired laboratory scale flames and attempt to determine the boundaries of the ``uncertainty domain`` in Figure 3 more rigorously. We have three distinct objectives: (1) To determine from experiments the effect of turbulent fluctuations on the devolatilization/pyrolysis of coal particles and soot yield, and to measure the change in the ``effective`` radiative properties of particulates due to turbulence interactions; (2) To perform local small-scale simulations to investigate the radiation-turbulence interactions in coal-fired flames starting from first principles; and (3) To develop a thorough and rigorous, but computationally practical, turbulence model for coal flames, starting from the experimental observations and small scale simulations.

  18. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-01

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO(sub x) pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  19. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  20. The rates of production of CO and CO2 from the combustion of pulverized coal particles in a shock tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, F.A.C.M.; Banine, V.Y.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.; Veefkind, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents some results of experiments on coal combustion in a shock tube, as well as a time-dependent model of the boundary layer of a single, burning char particle under similar conditions. The partial pressure of O2 in a shock tube was varied between 0 and 10 bar, with gas temperatures

  1. Differential pulmonary inflammation and in vitro cytotoxicity of size-fractionated fly ash particles from pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ian Gilmour; Silvia O' Connor; Colin A.J. Dick; C. Andrew Miller; William P. Linak [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects in humans. Pulmonary inflammatory responses were examined in CD1 mice after intratracheal instillation of 25 or 100 {mu}g of ultrafine ({lt}0.2 {mu}m), fine ({lt}2.5 {mu}m), and coarse ({gt}2.5 {mu}m) coal fly ash from a combusted Montana subbituminous coal, and of fine and coarse fractions from a combusted western Kentucky bituminous coal. After 18 hr, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar fluid was assessed for cellular influx, biochemical markers, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The responses were compared with saline and endotoxin as negative and positive controls, respectively. On an equal mass basis, the ultrafine particles from combusted Montana coal induced a higher degree of neutrophil inflammation and cytokine levels than did the fine or coarse PM. The western Kentucky fine PM caused a moderate degree of inflammation and protein levels in bronchoalveolar fluid that were higher than the Montana fine PM. Coarse PM did not produce any significant effects. In vitro experiments with rat alveolar macrophages showed that of the particles tested, only the Montana ultrafine displayed significant cytotoxicity. It is concluded that fly ash toxicity is inversely related with particle size and is associated with increased sulfur and trace element content. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Exploring evaluation to influence the quality of pulverized coal fly ash. Co-firing of biomass in a pulverized coal plant or mixing of biomass ashes with pulverized coal fly ash; Verkennende evaluatie kwaliteitsbeinvloeding poederkoolvliegas. Bijstoken van biomassa in een poederkoolcentrale of bijmenging van biomassa-assen met poederkoolvliegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; Cnubben, P.A.J.P [ECN Schoon Fossiel, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-08-01

    In this literature survey the consequences of co-firing of biomass and mixing of biomass ash with coal fly ash on the coal fly ash quality is evaluated. Biomass ash considered in this context is produced by gasification, pyrolysis or combustion in a fluidized bed. The irregular shape of biomass ash obtained from gasification, pyrolysis or combustion has a negative influence on the water demand in concrete applications of the coal fly ash resulting from mixing biomass ash and coal fly ash. In case of co-firing, high concentrations of elements capable of lowering the ash melting point (e.g., Ca and Mg) may lead to more ash agglomeration. This leads to a less favourable particle size distribution of the coal fly ash, which has a negative impact on the water demand in cement bound applications. Gasification, pyrolysis and combustion may lead to significant unburnt carbon levels (>10%). The unburnt carbon generally absorbs water and thus has a negative influence on the water demand in cement-bound applications. The contribution of biomass ash to the composition of coal fly ash will not be significantly different, whether the biomass is co-fired or whether the biomass ash is mixed off-line with coal fly ash. The limit values for Cl, SO4 and soluble salts can form a limitation for the use of coal fly ash containing biomass for cement-bound applications. As side effects of biomass co-firing, the level of constituents such as Na, K, Ca and Mg may lead to slagging and fouling of the boiler. In addition, a higher emission of flue gas contaminants As, Hg, F, Cl and Br may be anticipated in case more contaminated biomass streams are applied. This may also lead to a higher contamination level of gypsum produced from flue gas cleaning residues. Relatively clean biomass streams (clean wood, cacao shells, etc.) will hardly lead to critical levels of elements from a leaching point of view. More contaminated streams, such as sewage sludge, used and preserved wood, petcoke and RDF

  3. Ash liberation from included minerals during combustion of pulverized coal: the relationship with char structure and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.; Wall, T.; Liu, G.; Bryant, G. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). CRC for Black Coal Utilization and Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-12-01

    In this study, the float fraction ({lt} specific gravity of 2.0) of a size cut (63-90 {mu}m) bituminous coal was combusted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) at a gas temperature of 1300{degree}C under an atmosphere of air, to investigate the ash liberation at five coal burnoff levels (35.5%, 54.3%, 70.1%, 87.1% and 95.6%). The data indicated that char structure determines the ash liberation at different burnoff levels. Fragmentation of porous char was found to be the determinative mechanism for formation of fine ash during the early and middle stages of char combustion, while coalescence of included mineral matter determines the coarse ash formed in the later stages of combustion. The investigation confirmed that the char morphology and structure play a key role in determining char fragmentation, char burnout history, and the ash liberation during combustion. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the NOX and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process.

  5. Co-combustion of pulverized coal and solid recovered fuel in an entrained flow reactor- General combustion and ash behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    .9 wt.%, 14.8 wt.% and 25 wt.%, respectively. The effect of additives was evaluated by maintaining the share of secondary fuel (mixture of SRF and additive) at 14.8 wt.%. The experimental results showed that the fuel burnout, NO and SO2 emission in co-combustion of coal and SRF were decreased...... with increasing share of SRF. The majority of the additives inhibited the burnout, except for NaCl which seemed to have a promoting effect. The impact of additives on NO emission was mostly insignificant, except for ammonium sulphate which greatly reduced the NO emission. For SO2 emission, it was found that all...

  6. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    showed an ultrafine mode centered at approximately 0.1 μm. Compared with coal combustion, co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the formation of submicron particles, especially ultrafine particles below 0.2 μm. The morphology of the particles indicated that supermicron particles were primarily formed...... by the melting of minerals. The ultrafine particles were generated through nucleation and coagulation of vaporized inorganic species, while for the particles in between supermicron and ultrafine particles, condensation of vaporized species or aggregation of nucleates on the existing spherical submicron particles...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  7. A theoretical approach to the restoration of azulejos by re-firing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Mimoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LNEC found, as a by-product of another research project, that in at least some cases, glazed ceramic tiles (azulejos could be restored by re-firing. The re-firing of façade glazed tiles as a viable alternative to their outright dumping should, in principle, present no doubts. However the mere idea of restoring in the kiln brings forth methodologic arguments unparalleled in other restoration techniques. The present communication discusses the re-firing of azulejos based on theoretical restoration principles, aiming to demonstrate that it cannot be discarded straightforwardly without considering individually its advantages and possible applications. However, and although no damaging consequences where identified, the eventual application of this method to azulejos that are not considered as industrial products still requires complementary studies regarding its long-term dangerousness.

  8. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  9. Report on 1980 result of R and D under Sunshine Project. Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology and demonstrative investigation on development of brown coal liquefaction technology (studies on high-temperature in-oil pulverization); 1980 nendo yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu / kattan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu jissho chosa seika hokokusho. Koon'yuchu funsai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of coal liquefaction technology under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. As a part of the development of brown coal liquefaction technology, pulverization of the first-dehydration brown coal was technologically established, as were adjustment of slurry and equipment for the second-dehydration process. A 20kg/h high temperature in-oil pulverizer was designed, constructed and made ready for the studies. A high temperature mill was a wet type ball mill, 500mm{phi}(diameter) x 1,500 mm length and 2.2kw. Coal was fully pulverized even in a solvent such as creosote oil and anthracene oil freed from crystal, and was adjustable to a prescribed particle size distribution. The wet type slurry adjustment method offered prospects that solvent/coal slurry moisture could be controlled to a prescribed value. An analysis was made on the mill outlet gas and drain collection liquid at the time of high temperature in-oil pulverization, which provided knowledge of securing safety. An analysis was also made on the influence of the heating temperature rise of the mill on the strength, which provided basic data for examining the strength of the mill. Using brown coal as the raw material, slurry was prepared, which confirmed that the device had functions as planned. (NEDO)

  10. REFIR/BB initial observations in the water vapour rotational band: Results from a field campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.; Grieco, G.; Leone, L.; Restieri, R.; Serio, C.; Bianchini, G.; Palchetti, L.; Pellegrini, M.; Cuomo, V.; Masiello, G.; Pavese, G.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the far infrared spectral region 17-50 μm as a remote sensing tool in atmospheric sciences, since this portion of the spectrum contains the characteristic molecular rotational band for water vapour. Much of the Earth energy lost to space is radiated through this spectral region. The Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed Breadboard (REFIR/BB) spectrometer was born because of the quest to make observations in the far infrared. REFIR/BB is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a sampling resolution of 0.5 cm -1 and it was tested for the first time in the field to check its reliability and radiometric performance. The field campaign was held at Toppo di Castelgrande (40 o 49' N, 15 o 27' E, 1258 m a. s. l.), a mountain site in South Italy. The spectral and radiometric performance of the instrument and initial observations are shown in this paper. Comparisons to both (1) BOMEM MR100 Fourier Transform spectrometer observations and (2) line-by-line radiative transfer calculations for selected clear sky are presented and discussed. These comparisons (1) show a very nice agreement between radiance measured by REFIR/BB and by BOMEM MR100 and (2) demonstrate that REFIR/BB accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the water vapour rotational band

  11. Aspects chimiques de la combustion du charbon pulvérisé. Première partie Chemical Aspects of the Combustion of Pulverized Coal. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    deux mécanismes totalement différents, par exemple entre le mécanisme d'ignition homogène et le mécanisme d'ignition hétérogène du charbon, avec des conséquences pratiques pour la stabilisation de la flamme industrielle ; autre exemple : la compétition entre les divers mécanismes homogènes de formation d'oxydes d'azote et les mécanismes hétérogènes de leur réduction sur des particules solides de coke, de suie et de cendre. Avec ces idées présentes comme un leitmotiv implicite, on passe en revue les grandes étapes de la flamme industrielle de charbon pulvérisé : la dévolatilisation rapide avec la formation progressive de volatils gazeux, de goudrons et de coke ; la transformation partielle des produits gazeux et liquides de pyrolyse en suies ainsi que leur oxydation en phase gazeuse ; la combustion hétérogène du coke ; l'ignition du charbon et sa dépendance par rapport à des processus critiques homogènes et (ou hétérogènes. Comme exemple typique d'un épiphénomènechimique, on suit la transformation des espèces azotées en NO et en N2, qui se greffe en contrepoint et à chaque pas sur tes différents thèmes successifs de cette symphonie de l'oxydation du charbon. En de nombreux points de cette évolution du charbon à travers la flamme, les connaissances de la chimie de com-bustion en phase gazeuse constituent un instrument utile d'interprétation (par exemple : pour l'oxydation des volatils, pour la discussion des modalités d'ignition. II n'en reste pas moins vrai que la plupart des problèmes chimiques hétérogènes sont bien spécifiques de la flamme de charbon ; leur traitement est rendu ardu à cause de la complexité, évolutive au cours de la combustion, du combustible solide lui-même. It is not easy to obtain a full picture of the multiple chemical phenomena which occur inside a pulverized coal flame. This bibliographie review attempts to give more than just a juxtaposition of data from the recent literature and risks making

  12. Influence of staged-air on airflow, combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler with direct flow split burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Kuang, Min; Zhang, Jia; Han, Yunfeng; Zhu, Qunyi; Yang, Lianjie; Kong, Weiguang

    2010-02-01

    Cold airflow experiments were conducted to investigate the aerodynamic field in a small-scale furnace of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler arranged with direct flow split burners enriched by cyclones. By increasing the staged-air ratio, a deflected flow field appeared in the lower furnace; larger staged-air ratios produced larger deflections. Industrial-sized experiments on a full-scale boiler were also performed at different staged-air damper openings with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner region and near the right-side wall, wall heat fluxes, and gas components (O(2), CO, and NO(x)) in the near-wall region. Combustion was unstable at staged-air damper openings below 30%. For openings of 30% and 40%, late ignition of the pulverized coal developed and large differences arose in gas temperatures and heat fluxes between the regions near the front and rear walls. In conjunction, carbon content in the fly ash was high and boiler efficiency was low with high NO(x) emission above 1200 mg/m(3) (at 6% O(2) dry). For fully open dampers, differences in gas temperatures and heat fluxes, carbon in fly ash and NO(x) emission decreased yielding an increase in boiler efficiency. The optimal setting is fully open staged-air dampers.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on project for supporting the formation of energy/environmental technology verification project. International joint verification research project (Verification project relative to ignition and NOx reduction using plasma sub-burner in pulverized coal-fired furnace); 1999 nendo plasma sabubana ni yoru bifuntan nenshoro ni okeru chakka oyobi NO{sub x} teigen gijutsu ni kansuru jissho project seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project is executed through the cooperation of a Russian research institute, Akita Prefectural University, and the Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. In the development of a plasma sub-burner and the basic research for its verification, a pulverized coal burning plasma sub-burner is designed and fabricated, a basic burning experiment is conducted for the plasma sub-burner, and plasma stabilization in a pulverized coal flow is simulated. In the verification study of the ignition by the plasma sub-burner in a pulverized coal-fired furnace, it is found that the newly-developed plasma sub-burner satisfies the prescribed operating conditions in the system and that the ignition of pulverized coal takes place across the air ratio range of 0.5-1.5 when pulverized coal is fed to the sub-burner. It is also found that NOx is reduced a great deal when a plasma operating on an orifice gas of air or nitrogen is generated in a gas which contains NOx. (NEDO)

  14. Kinetic extruder - a dry pulverized solid material pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. W.; Bonin, J. H.; Daniel, A. D. Jr.

    1983-03-15

    Method and apparatus are shown for the continuous feeding of pulverized material to a high pressure container. A rotor is located within the high pressure container. The pulverized material is fed from a feed hopper through a stationary feed pipe to a vented spin-up chamber to a plurality of two-stage sprues mounted in the rotor. Control nozzles downstream from the sprues meter the flow of coal through the sprues. 19 figs.

  15. Dry pulverized solid material pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1984-07-31

    Apparatus is shown for substantially increasing the feed rate of pulverized material into a pressurized container. The apparatus includes a rotor that is mounted internal to the pressurized container. The pulverized material is fed into an annular chamber defined by the center of the rotor. A plurality of impellers are mounted within the annular chamber for imparting torque to the pulverized material.

  16. The effects of re-firing process under oxidizing atmosphere and temperatures on the properties of strontium aluminate phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karacaoglu, Erkul; Karasu, Bekir

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The comparative emission spectra of standard and re-fired Phosphor A under oxidizing atmosphere at various temperatures. The colour of Phosphor A re-fired at higher temperatures above 900 °C shifted from yellowish-green to bluish-green in the dark. But, the bluish-green emission could only be seen when it was exposed to UV and disappeared as soon as the light source was removed. Moreover, the emission intensities decreased as the re-firing temperatures increased. This could be attributed to the oxidation of Eu 2+ during the re-firing process. It is well known fact from the literature that the reduction of Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ in appropriate host materials needs an annealing process in a reducing atmosphere such as H 2 , H 2 /N 2 mixture or CO. Up to now, the reduction phenomena of Eu 3+ → Eu 2+ in air have been found in phosphates (Ba 3 (PO 4 ) 2 :Eu), sulphates (BaSO 4 :Eu), borates (SrB 4 O 7 :Eu, SrB 6 O 10 :Eu and BaB 8 O 13 :Eu) and aluminates (Sr 4 Al 14 O 25 :Eu). Interestingly, an apparent blue shift in the phosphorescence spectrum was observed in the samples re-fired at 1000 °C and above, indicating a minimal effect on the oxidation state or the electronic energy levels of the co-doped Dy 3+ ions, which were thought to act as long-lived hole traps resulting in long afterglow. - Highlights: • This study examines the effects re-firing at oxidizing atmosphere of photoluminescence of three different commercial SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Dy 3+ -phosphors. • All the commercial SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Dy 3+ -phosphors completely lost their phosphorescence after being re-fired at 1300 °C. • Oxidizing environment and re-firing temperature naturally affecting the valance of Eu 2+ may cause the basic lattice structure to be modified and also limit their applications at higher temperatures, such as third firing vetrosa décor or glaze applications in ceramic industry. • It was thought that this kind of study may be promising to provide many outcome

  17. DRUCKFLAMM - Investigation on combustion and hot gas cleanup in pulverized coal combustion systems. Final report; DRUCKFLAMM - Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung und Heissgasreinigung bei der Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.R.G.; Benoehr, A.; Schuermann, H.; Stroehle, J.; Klaiber, C.; Kuhn, R.; Maier, J.; Schnell, U.; Unterberger, S.

    2001-07-01

    The ambitions of making energy supply more efficient and less polluting brought forth the development of coal based combined cycle power plants allowing considerable increases in net efficiencies. One of the regarded firing concepts for a coal based combined cycle power plant is represented by the pressurised pulverised coal combustion process which has the highest efficiency potential compared with the other coal based concepts. The fundamental purpose of the project was to gain firm knowledge concerning firing behaviour of coal in a pressurised pulverised coal combustion system. Detailed investigations were carried out in a pressurised entrained flow reactor taking into account fuel conversion and particle behaviour, pollutant formation and material behaviour under conditions of a pressurised pulverised coal firing. During the project's investigations several different measurement techniques were tested and partially also acquired (e.g. a two-colour-pyrometry system to measure simultaneous particle surface temperature and particle diameter of burning fuel particles). Calculation models under pressurised conditions for pressure vessel simulation and better scale-up were developed synchronously with the experimental investigations. The results gained using the pressurised entrained flow reactor show that many combustion mechanisms are influenced by increased pressure, for instance the fuel conversion is intensified and at the same time pollutant emissions decreased. The material investigations show that the ceramic materials used due to the very high combustion temperatures are very sensitive versus slagging and fast temperature changes, therefore further development requirements are needed to fully realise the high durability of ceramics in the pressurised furnace. Concerning the improvement of existing models for furnace simulation under pressurised conditions, a good resemblance can be observed when considering the actual measurement results from the test

  18. Particulate behavior in a controlled-profile pulverized coal-fired reactor: A study of coupled turbulent particle dispersion and thermal radiation transport. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, M.; Webb, B.W.

    1996-06-01

    To aid in the evaluation and development of advanced coal-combustion models, comprehensive experimental data sets are needed containing information on both the condensed and gas phases. To address this need a series of test were initiated on a 300 kW laboratory-scale, coal-fired reactor at a single test condition using several types of instrumentation. Data collected on the reactor during the course of the test includes: gas, particle, and wall temperature profiles; radiant, total, and convective heat fluxes to the walls; particle size and velocity profiles; transmission measurements; and gas species concentrations. Solid sampling was also performed to determine carbon and total burnout. Along with the extensive experimental measurements, the particle dispersion and radiation submodels in the ACERC comprehensive 2D code were studied in detail and compared to past experimental measurements taken in the CPR. In addition to the presentation and discussion of the experimental data set, a detailed description of the measurement techniques used in collecting the data, including a discussion of the error associated with each type of measurement, is given.

  19. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jr., Herbert E. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Chiu, John H. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Edberg, Carl D. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Thibeault, Paul R. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Turek, David G. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO2 from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO2 for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration

  20. Engineering and Economic Analysis of an Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant with and without Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Task 7. Design and Economic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booras, George [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Powers, J. [General Electric, Schenectady, NY (United States); Riley, C. [General Electric, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hendrix, H. [Hendrix Engineering Solutions, Inc., Calera, AL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report evaluates the economics and performance of two A-USC PC power plants; Case 1 is a conventionally configured A-USC PC power plant with superior emission controls, but without CO2 removal; and Case 2 adds a post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) system to the plant from Case 1, using the design and heat integration strategies from EPRI’s 2015 report, “Best Integrated Coal Plant.” The capture design basis for this case is “partial,” to meet EPA’s proposed New Source Performance Standard, which was initially proposed as 500 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1100 lb-CO2/MWh (gross), but modified in August 2015 to 635 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1400 lb-CO2/MWh (gross). This report draws upon the collective experience of consortium members, with EPRI and General Electric leading the study. General Electric provided the steam cycle analysis as well as v the steam turbine design and cost estimating. EPRI performed integrated plant performance analysis using EPRI’s PC Cost model.

  1. Mercury emissions from polish pulverized coalfired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichliński Michał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the research results carried out at one of Polish power plants at a pulverized hard coal-fired 225 MW unit. The research was carried out at full load of the boiler (100% MCR and focused on analysis of mercury content in the input fuel and limestone sorbent for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD system, as well as investigation of mercury content in the combustion products, i.e. fly ash, slag, FGD product (gypsum and FGD effluents (waste. Within the framework of the present study the concentration of mercury vapor in the exhaust gas was also investigated. The analysis was performed using Lumex RA-915+ spectrometer with an attachment (RP-91C. The measurements were carried out at three locations, i.e. before the electrostatic precipitator (ESP, downstream the ESP, and downstream the wet FGD plant. Design of the measurement system allowed to determine both forms of mercury in the flue gas (Hg0 and Hg2+ at all measurement locations.Based on the measurement results the balance of mercury for a pulverized coal (PC boiler was calculated and the amount of mercury was assessed both in the input solids (fuel and sorbent, as well as the gaseous and solids products (flue gas, slag, ash, gypsum and FGD waste.

  2. Chemical processes of coal for use in power plants. Part 1: Approximate analysis and associated indexes of pulverized coal; Procesos quimicos del carbon para su uso en centrales termoelectricas. Parte 1: Analisis aproximado e indices asociados del carbon pulverizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J. A.; Manzanares-Papayanopoulos, E.; Herrera-Velarde, J. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: emp@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The usage of hydrocarbons, such as natural gas, oil products and coal, will be the main source of energy to the mankind for next generations. Therefore, the actual research and technological developments point out to employ with high efficiency those fuels. The main interests are to release most of the energy as possible and to guide the combustion reactions. It is well known that during the combustion process of coal, the chemical energy is converted to thermal energy, which it allows the steam production, and therefore to produce energy through an electric generator. The main interest of the work presented here is to study the behavior of the coal combustion processes in function of the approximate analysis and some associate indices of that analysis, to point out the optimization of the coal usage as main fuel in electrical power generation plants. [Spanish] El uso de hidrocarburos como son el gas natural, los derivados del petroleo y el carbon mineral, continuara siendo en las proximas decadas la principal fuente de energia de la humanidad. Por consiguiente, la investigacion cientifica y los desarrollos tecnologicos actualmente se enfocan en emplear de manera mas eficiente dichos combustibles, satisfaciendo entre otros factores, dos intereses principales: liberar la mayor cantidad de energia, reduciendo al minimo el material combustible no quemado, y direccionar las reacciones del proceso de combustion para minimizar la cantidad de productos no deseados resultantes de la reaccion. A traves de los procesos quimicos de combustion del carbon, se transforma la energia quimica a energia termica, lo que permite la produccion de vapor para a su vez impulsar una turbina la cual esta acoplada a un generador electrico. El objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio del comportamiento de los procesos quimicos que se llevan a cabo durante las reacciones de combus-tion del carbon en funcion del analisis aproximado y de los indices asociados resultantes de dicho analisis; lo

  3. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  4. Means and apparatus for throttling a dry pulverized solid material pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. W.; Daniel, Jr, A. D.; Bonin, J. H.

    1982-12-07

    Method and apparatus are shown for control of continuous feeding of pulverized material to a high pressure container. A rotor is located within the high pressure container. The pulverized material is fed from a feed hopper through a stationary feed pipe to a vented spin-up zone chamber to a plurality of sprues mounted in the rotor. Control of the pressure within control nozzles downstream from the sprues adjusts the flow rate of coal through the sprues. 9 figs.

  5. Utilization of pulverized fuel ash in Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, Josette; Sammut, Michael; Montesin, Franco E.

    2006-01-01

    In Malta all of the waste produced is mixed and deposited at various sites around the island. None of these sites were purpose built, and all of the waste is above groundwater level. The landfills are not engineered and do not contain any measures to collect leachate and gases emanating from the disposal sites. Another waste, which is disposed of in landfills, is pulverized fuel ash (PFA), which is a by-product of coal combustion by the power station. This has been disposed of in landfill, because its use has been precluded due to the radioactivity of the ashes. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the pulverized fuel ash and to attempt to utilize it as a cement replacement in normal concrete mixes in the construction industry. The levels of radiation emitted from the ashes were measured by gamma spectrometry. The results of this study revealed that although at early ages cement replacement by PFA resulted in a reduction in compressive strength (P = 0), when compared to the reference concrete at later ages the strengths measured on concrete cores were comparable to the reference concrete (P > 0.05). The utilization of PFA up to 20% cement replacement in concrete did not raise the radioactivity of the concrete. In conclusion, utilization of PFA in the construction industry would be a better way of disposing of the ashes rather than controlling the leachate and any radioactivity emitted by the landfilled ashes

  6. Far-IR measurements at Cerro Toco, Chile: FIRST, REFIR, and AERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cageao, Richard P.; Alford, J. Ashley; Johnson, David G.; Kratz, David P.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2010-09-01

    In mid-2009, the Radiative Heating in the Underexplored Bands Campaign II (RHUBC-II) was conducted from Cerro Toco, Chile, a high, dry, remote mountain plateau, 23°S , 67.8°W at 5.4km, in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. From this site, dominant IR water vapor absorption bands and continuum, saturated when viewed from the surface at lower altitudes, or in less dry locales, were investigated in detail, elucidating infrared (IR) absorption and emission in the atmosphere. Three Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) instruments were at the site, the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST), the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared (REFIR), and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). In a side-by-side comparison, these measured atmospheric downwelling radiation, with overlapping spectral coverage from 5 to 100μm (2000 to 100cm-1), and instrument spectral resolutions from 0.5 to 0.643cm-1, unapodized. In addition to the FTIR and other ground-based IR and microwave instrumentation, pressure/temperature/relative humidity measuring sondes, for atmospheric profiles to 18km, were launched from the site several times a day. The derived water vapor profiles, determined at times matching the FTIR measurement times, were used to model atmospheric radiative transfer. Comparison of instrument data, all at the same spectral resolution, and model calculations, are presented along with a technique for determining adjustments to line-by-line calculation continuum models. This was a major objective of the campaign.

  7. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  8. Development of I and C system for the coal feeder of coal firing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Teak Soo; Park, Chan Ho [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    KECC(Kepco Coal Feeder Control System) receives coal weight, conveyor speed and boiler demand signals. It controls coal flow by generating speed signal of feeder which conveys coal in hopper to pulverizer, displaying measured coal quantity and providing local auto and manual manipulator (author). 33 figs.

  9. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  10. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  11. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  12. Thermal coal utilization for the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A selection of papers is presented originating from talks to coal utilization workshops for the ASEAN region in 1981. The papers cover: planning aspects - economic and technical aspects of coal usage, long term planning for fuel coal needs, planning and coal selection for coal-fired power plants, coal availability and marketing, and economic aspects of coal usage in developing countries; combustion and plant - changing from coal to oil, principles and problems of coal combustion, use of indigenous and imported coals and their effects on plant design, coal pulverizing mills, ash and dust disposal, environmental aspects of coal combustion, industrial sized coal-fired boilers; transport and storage -ocean shipment, coal receival facilities and associated operations, shipping and rail transport, coal handling and transport, environmental issue in the transport and handling of coal, coal preparation and blending; testing and properties - coal types, characterization properties and classification; training power plant operators; the cement industry and coal, the Australian black coal industry.

  13. On gas and particle radiation in pulverized fuel combustion furnaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2015-01-01

    Radiation is the principal mode of heat transfer in a combustor. This paper presents a refined weighted sum of gray gases model for computational fluid dynamics modelling of conventional air-fuel combustion, which has greater accuracy and completeness than the existing gaseous radiative property...... models. This paper also presents new conversion-dependent models for particle emissivity and scattering factor, instead of various constant values in literature. The impacts of the refined or new models are demonstrated via computational fluid dynamics simulation of a pulverized coal-fired utility boiler...

  14. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 2/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 2/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include an individual test of the receiving pit hopper vibrator, individual test of the pulverized coal related rotary valve, individual test of the pretreatment compressed air fan, individual test of the coal pulverizer lubricating device, individual test of the coal pulverizer pressure device, individual test of the coal pulverizer, individual test of the coal pulverizer motor, individual test of the coal feeder, individual test of the pulverized coal bunker exhaust fan, individual test of the pulverized coal bunker exhaust fan motor, test of capacity for pulverized coal, individual test of the pulverized coal conveyer blower, test of the sequence of the same, test of pulverizer inert clearing, individual test of the pretreatment condensed water pump in the coal pretreatment device, test of airborne conveyance in the same, verification test of inter-hopper transfer in the same, test of coal pulverization in the same, test operation of the raw material air/low pressure nitrogen compressor in the air separation facility, test operation of the raw material air freezer in the same, and a test operation of the MS adsorber/MS regeneration electric heater. (NEDO)

  15. An experimental and mathematical modeling study comparing the reactivity and burnout of pulverized coal in air (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) and oxyfuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liza Elliott; Yinghui Liu; Bart Buhre; Jennifer Martin; Raj Gupta; Terry Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development, Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Carbon dioxide in flue gas from conventional combustion processes is present as a dilute gas. CO{sub 2} capture is more easily achieved from a concentrated CO{sub 2} stream, which can be achieved by firing fuels with oxygen to obtain a sequestration ready gas stream, called oxy-fuel combustion. In this technology, the oxygen stream is usually diluted by recycled flue gas (RFG), so that the coal burns in an environment which is primarily O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}. A size cut of a number of pulverised coals were devolatalised in N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. These sized coals were also combusted in a drop-tube furnace in an O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environment simulating air combustion, and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} simulating oxyfuel combustion, with varying O{sub 2} levels from 3 to 30% v/v. Measurements of the extent of devolatilisation and coal burnout were completed. The detailed data provided for one coal indicated that the devolatilisation process in the O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environments is influenced by char gasification, and the char reaction rates are fitted better by a fractional order rate than first order in oxygen. Combustion rates in the oxyfuel environment were slightly higher. Estimates of the burnout for furnaces retrofitted from air to oxyfuel indicate that a better burnout can be expected. These trends were common for all coals. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Pulverized straw combustion in a low-NOx multifuel burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen

    2010-01-01

    A CFD simulation of pulverized coal and straw combustion using a commercial multifuel burner have been undertaken to examine the difference in combustion characteristics. Focus has also been directed to development of the modeling technique to deal with larger non-spherical straw particles...... and to determine the relative importance of different modeling choices for straw combustion. Investigated modeling choices encompass the particle size and shape distribution, the modification of particle motion and heating due to the departure from the spherical ideal, the devolatilization rate of straw......, the influence of inlet boundary conditions and the effect of particles on the carrier phase turbulence. It is concluded that straw combustion is associated with a significantly longer flame and smaller recirculation zones compared to coal combustion for the present air flow specifications. The particle size...

  17. Determination of the stagnation point in pulverized coal swirl flames by detailed analysis of laser velocity measurements; Staupunktbestimmung in Kohlenstaub-Drallflammen mittels detaillierter Analyse von LDA-Daten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohliger, A.; Stadler, H.; Foerster, M.; Kneer, R. [RWTH Aachen University (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung

    2009-07-01

    When Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) is used for experimental investigation of flow fields in pulverised coal flames, the measured coal particle velocities are usually averaged in order to determine the gas velocity. This paper shows that this approach can lead to a misinterpretation of the data. In the burner vicinity of the investigated flame, where high accelerations in the gas phase occur, a discrepancy appears between the measured velocity distribution and the expected normal distribution. Thus, a detailed analysis of the measured particle data is conducted and compared to conventional averaging. The difference can be attributed to large particles from the inner recirculation zone of the flame, which do not follow the gas flow properly. (orig.)

  18. Start-Up and Operation of the Pressurized-Pulverized-Coal Gasification Unit%贵州开阳粉煤加压气化装置开车及运行总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳军; 杨金

    2014-01-01

    Based on the 500 kt/a ammonia plant actual operation in our company ,describe the pressurized‐dry‐pulverized‐coal gasification unit process , start‐up , shut‐dow n and operation , the common problems and solutions are also described .%结合贵州开阳化工有限公司500 kt/a合成氨项目的实际情况,介绍干煤粉加压气化装置的工艺流程、开停车及运行状况,并阐述系统运行常见问题及其处理。

  19. A MACHINE FOR PULVERIZING AND SIFTING GARI MASH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    O.75kw electric motor. Fig. 2.Photograph of prototype gari pulverizing/sifting machine. A Side view of the Prototype Gari mash Pulverize/sifting machine. 1. Vee-belt drives; 2. Head pulley; 3 belt conveyor; 4, cake breaker, 5. tail pulley; 6. lump or cake of' gari mash;7hopper; 8pulverizing roller; 9. Side gaurds; 10.brush 11.

  20. Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels (PF), as a promising technology for CO2 capture from power plants, has gained a lot of concerns and also advanced considerable research, development and demonstration in the last past years worldwide. The use of CO2 or the mixture of CO2 and H2O vapor as th...

  1. Coal Calorific Value Prediction Based on Projection Pursuit Principle

    OpenAIRE

    QI Minfang; FU Zhongguang; JING Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The calorific value of coal is an important factor for the economic operation of coal-fired power plant. However, calorific value is tremendous difference between the different coal, and even if coal is from the same mine. Restricted by the coal market, most of coal fired power plants can not burn the designed-coal by now in China. The properties of coal as received are changing so frequently that pulverized coal firing is always with the unexpected condition. Therefore, the researches on the...

  2. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Y Jia, W. Morris [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pedel, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rezeai, D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wang, L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  3. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

  4. Burnout of pulverized biomass particles in large scale boiler - Single particle model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, Jaakko; Aho, Martti; Moilanen, Antero [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Soerensen, Lasse Holst [ReaTech/ReAddit, Frederiksborgsveij 399, Niels Bohr, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Clausen, Soennik [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Berg, Mogens [ENERGI E2 A/S, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 9, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    Burning of coal and biomass particles are studied and compared by measurements in an entrained flow reactor and by modelling. The results are applied to study the burning of pulverized biomass in a large scale utility boiler originally planned for coal. A simplified single particle approach, where the particle combustion model is coupled with one-dimensional equation of motion of the particle, is applied for the calculation of the burnout in the boiler. The particle size of biomass can be much larger than that of coal to reach complete burnout due to lower density and greater reactivity. The burner location and the trajectories of the particles might be optimised to maximise the residence time and burnout. (author)

  5. Effects of moisture release and radiation properties in pulverized fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2016-01-01

    and impacts via a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of a 609 MWe pulverized coal-fired utility boiler. Overall speaking, it is suggested to add the free moisture in the fuel to the primary air stream while lump the bound moisture with volatiles in PF combustion modelling, although different methods.......g., oxy-fuel or air–fuel), account for the variations in CO2 and H2O concentrations in a flame, and include the impacts of other participating gases (e.g., CO and hydrocarbons) needs to be derived for combustion CFD community....

  6. Soot, organics, and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pulverized bituminous coal was burned in a 10W externally heated entrained flow furnace under air-combustion and three oxy-combustion inlet oxygen conditions (28,...

  7. Use of image analysis on the prediction of coal burnout performance in a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Barranco; M. Cloke; E. Lester [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, SChEME

    2003-07-01

    An experimental investigation in a drop-tube furnace (DTF) into the combustion burnout performance of some South American coals was carried out. The coal samples, mainly from Colombia, were crushed and screened into three size fractions: 53-75 {mu}m, 106-125 {mu}m, and 150-180 {mu}m. These samples were characterised by standard tests along with a specially developed image analysis technique (grey-scale histogram). Pyrolysis of these samples was performed at a temperature of 1300{sup o}C, in a 1% of oxygen in nitrogen atmosphere for 200 ms. The chars obtained were then re-fired in the same apparatus, at the same temperature, at various residence times, in an atmosphere containing 5% of oxygen in nitrogen. The changes in the characteristics of the chars produced were assessed using a number of different techniques including intrinsic reactivity test and automatic char analysis. Despite the fact that all the coals used in this study were vitrinite-rich, variations in char morphology were evident. This demonstrated that it was impossible to assign any one char type to a single maceral group. It was apparent that vitrinite generates a wide range of char types depending upon the rank of the parent coal and on the maceral associations within the coal. In addition, a reactivity parameter, derived from the grey-scale histogram obtained by image analysis of the coal, was found to be important in the prediction of coal combustion behaviour. Some properties of the re-fired chars were compared with morphology and intrinsic reactivity data of the pyrolysed chars. The results showed that the poor burnout of one of the coals was clearly due to the formation of some particular chars during pyrolysis. This confirms the usefulness of high temperature pyrolysis chars as a predictor of burnout performance. 18 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Kinetics of devolatilization and oxidation of a pulverized biomass in an entrained flow reactor under realistic combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Santiago [LITEC-CSIC (Spanish Council for Scientific Research), Maria de Luna 10, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Remacha, Pilar; Ballester, Javier [LITEC-CSIC (Spanish Council for Scientific Research), Maria de Luna 10, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fluid Mechanics Group, University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Ballesteros, Juan C.; Gimenez, Antonio [ENDESA GENERACION, S.A., Ribera del Loira 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    In this paper the results of a complete set of devolatilization and combustion experiments performed with pulverized ({proportional_to}500 {mu}m) biomass in an entrained flow reactor under realistic combustion conditions are presented. The data obtained are used to derive the kinetic parameters that best fit the observed behaviors, according to a simple model of particle combustion (one-step devolatilization, apparent oxidation kinetics, thermally thin particles). The model is found to adequately reproduce the experimental trends regarding both volatile release and char oxidation rates for the range of particle sizes and combustion conditions explored. The experimental and numerical procedures, similar to those recently proposed for the combustion of pulverized coal [J. Ballester, S. Jimenez, Combust. Flame 142 (2005) 210-222], have been designed to derive the parameters required for the analysis of biomass combustion in practical pulverized fuel configurations and allow a reliable characterization of any finely pulverized biomass. Additionally, the results of a limited study on the release rate of nitrogen from the biomass particle along combustion are shown. (author)

  9. Perancangan Sistem Pemeliharaan Menggunakan Metode Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM Pada Pulverizer (Studi Kasus: PLTU Paiton Unit 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA BHAKTI PUSPITA SARI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PLTU Paiton Unit 3 merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang produksi listrik menggunakan bahan baku batubara yang terletak di Paiton, Probolinggo. Untuk mencapai target, proses produksi dilakukan 24 jam selama 1 tahun tanpa henti. Program pemeliharaan mesin sangat penting untuk kelancaran proses produksi. Dalam rangka mencapai target tersebut dituntut adanya kelancaran batubara dari silo hingga surface burner menggunakan pulverizer. Data dari Departemen Engineering menunjukkan bahwa beberapa subsistem pulverizer sering mengalami kerusakan yang dapat menimbulkan kegagalan pada sistem tersebut. Penelitian tugas akhir ini menggunakan metode Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM untuk menurunkan tingkat breakdown mesin dan downtime produksi. Data historis kerusakan pulverizer dianalisa. Kemudian kegagalan dari suatu komponen yang dapat menyebabkan kegagalan fungsi dari sistem diidentifikasi menggunakan metode Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. Selanjutnya menggunakan RCM Decision Worksheet untuk mengetahui bagian dari sistem yang gagal dan perlu dilakukan tindakan perbaikan dan pencegahan berdasarkan kegagalan yang ada agar kejadian yang sama tidak terulang dan menentukan kegiatan perancang perawatan yang tepat pada setiap komponen Berdasarkan analisis data secara Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM terdapat 12 failure mode yang terjadi pada pulverizer. 3 failure mode dapat dicegah dengan scheduled restoration task, 8 failure mode dapat dicegah dengan scheduled discard task, dan 1 failure mode dapat dicegah dengan redesign. Analisis kuantitatif menggunakan distribusi kegagalan dengan perangkat lunak Weibull++6 didapatkan MTBF grinding roller 2880,66 jam, MTBF hydraulic pump 5075,06 jam, MTBF gearbox 5381,65 jam dan MTBF coal feeder 525,17 jam.

  10. Observer-based Coal Mill Control using Oxygen Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; S., Tom

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control...... of the coal flow difficult, causing stability problems and limits the plant's load following capabilities. To alleviate this problem without having to rely on expensive flow measurement equipment, a novel observer-based approach is investigated. A Kalman filter based on measurements of combustion air flow led...... into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal mill itself, thus giving a better disturbance rejection capability. The approach is validated against...

  11. Study on the combustion properties of bio-coal briquette blends of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the properties of bio-coal briquette produced from blending cassava stalk and coal. The cassava stalk and coal lumps were carbonized at 160 oC, pulverized and used to produce biocoal briquettes of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 %, 60 %,70 %, 80 %, 90 % and 100 % biomasses.

  12. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  13. Advanced technique for computing fuel combustion properties in pulverized-fuel fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R. (Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (Russian Federation))

    1992-03-01

    Reviews foreign technical reports on advanced techniques for computing fuel combustion properties in pulverized-fuel fired boilers and analyzes a technique developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. (USA). Characteristics of 25 fuel types, including 19 grades of coal, are listed along with a diagram of an installation with a drop tube furnace. Characteristics include burn-out intensity curves obtained using thermogravimetric analysis for high-volatile bituminous, semi-bituminous and coking coal. The patented LFP-SKM mathematical model is used to model combustion of a particular fuel under given conditions. The model allows for fuel particle size, air surplus, load, flame height, and portion of air supplied as tertiary blast. Good agreement between computational and experimental data was observed. The method is employed in designing new boilers as well as converting operating boilers to alternative types of fuel. 3 refs.

  14. The development of clean coal technology is the main way to control of atmospheric pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Lixin; Xu Hong [Clean Coal Engineering & Research Center of Coal Industry (China)

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric pollution in China and its causes are analysed. Power stations, industrial boilers and kilns and domestic coal combustion are the main pollution sources. Clean coal technologies are urgently needed. Main clean coal technologies which can improve the present situation of industrial coal combustion are coal cleaning, blending and briquetting; boiler retrofitting; advanced technologies to improve combustion efficiency and reduce pollution - fluidized bed combustion and pulverized coal desulfurization; and advanced desulfurization and dedusting technologies and equipment.

  15. Influence of high-energy impact on the physical and technical characteristics of coal fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, L. I.; Belogurova, T. P.; Kravchenko, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in the world's large-scale coal-fired power industry, the combustion of pulverized coal is the most widely spread technology of combusting the coals. In recent years, the micropulverization technology for preparation and combustion of the coal has been developed in this field. As applied to the small-scale power industry, the method of combusting the coal in the form of a coal-water slurry has been explored for years. Fine coal powders are produced and used in the pulverized-coal gasification. Therefore, the coal preparation methods that involve high-dispersion disintegration of coals attract the greatest interest. The article deals with the problems of high-energy impact on the coal during the preparation of pulverized-coal fuels and coal-water slurries, in particular, during the milling of the coal in ball drum mills and the subsequent regrinding in disintegrators or the cavitation treatment of the coal-water slurries. The investigations were conducted using samples of anthracite and lignite from Belovskii open-pit mine (Kuznetsk Basin). It is shown that both the disintegration and the cavitation treatment are efficient methods for controlling the fuel characteristics. Both methods allow increasing the degree of dispersion of the coal. The content of the small-sized particles reground by cavitation considerably exceeds the similar figure obtained using the disintegrator. The specific surface area of the coal is increased by both cavitation and disintegration with the cavitation treatment producing a considerably greater effect. Being subjected to the cavitation treatment, most coal particles assume the form of a split characterized by the thermodynamically nonequilibrium state. Under external action, in particular, of temperature, the morphological structure of such pulverized materials changes faster and, consequently, the combustion of the treated coal should occur more efficiently. The obtained results are explained from the physical point of view.

  16. The power of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiak, T. [Duke/Fluor Daniel (United States)

    2003-02-01

    The paper presents three Indonesian projects carried out by Duke/Fluor Daniel whose unique construction and operation have demonstrated the versatility and value of coal-fired power generation. These are: the construction of units 7 and 8 of the Paiton Private Power Project, a 1230 MW pulverised coal plant in Paiton, East Java; construction of a coal fired generation plant and transmission system to provide power for the expansion of a copper and gold mine on the island of Papua; and construction of four 28 MW pulverized coal units to provide 'heavy lifting' for a new mine at Batu Hijau on the island of Sumbawa. Coal was found to cost less than diesel for power generation. 2 photos.

  17. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  18. Improved coal grinding and fuel flow control in thermal power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemczyk, Piotr; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    A novel controller for coal circulation and pulverized coal flow in a coal mill is proposed. The design is based on optimal control theory for bilinear systems with additional integral action. The states are estimated from the grinding power consumption and the amount of coal accumulated in the m......A novel controller for coal circulation and pulverized coal flow in a coal mill is proposed. The design is based on optimal control theory for bilinear systems with additional integral action. The states are estimated from the grinding power consumption and the amount of coal accumulated...... as well as when parameter uncertainties and noise are present. The proposed controller lowers the grinding power consumption while in most cases exhibiting superior performance in comparison with the PID controller....

  19. Numerical Simulation of Gas-Solid Two-Phase Flow for Four-Channels Pulverized Swirling Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defu LI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a mathematical model of cold gas-solid two-phase flow which is based on the cement rotary kiln in service. By altering the parameters of air supply system of four- channels pulverized burner, investigations are taken of that motion trajectory and particle distributions in the very turbulent field. The results show that motion trail of most particles in rotary kiln is a combination process of gradual diffusion and slow sedimentation; increasing internal flow velocity would aggravate coal particles to diffuse; external flow velocity should be controlled in a reasonable range.

  20. Comparative bioleaching of metals from pulverized and non-pulverized PCBs of cell phone charger: advantages of non-pulverized PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vyenkatesh; Shah, Neha; Wakte, Prashant; Dhakephalkar, Prashant; Dhakephalkar, Anita; Khobragade, Rahul; Naphade, Bhushan; Shaikh, Sajid; Deshmukh, Arvind; Adhapure, Nitin

    2017-12-01

    Sample inhomogeneity is a severe issue in printed circuit boards especially when we are comparing the bioleaching efficiency. To avoid the ambiguous results obtained due to inhomogeneity in PCBs, 12 similar cell phone chargers (of renowned company) having same make and batch number were collected from scrap market. PCBs obtained from them were used in present studies. Out of these 12, three PCBs were used separately for chemical analysis of PCBs with prior acid digestion in aqua regia. It was found that, 10.8, 68.0, and 710.9 mg/l of Zn, Pb, and Cu were present in it, respectively. Six PCBs were used for bioleaching experiment with two variations, pulverized and non-pulverized. Though the pulverized sample have shown better leaching than non-pulverized one, former has some disadvantages if overall recycling of e-waste (metallic and nonmetallic fraction) is to be addressed. At the end of leaching experiments, copper was recovered using a simple setup of electrodeposition and 92.85% recovery was attained. The acidophiles involved in bioleaching were identified by culture dependent and culture independent techniques such as DGGE and species specific primers in PCR.

  1. Brayton Point coal conversion project (NEPCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W.F. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    The New England Power Company (NEPCO) recently converted Brayton Point Power Station Units 1, 2, and 3 from oil to coal. The coal conversion project is the largest coal conversion project in the nation to date. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) was hired as the engineer/constructor for the project. Units 1 and 2 are 250-MW Combustion Engineering boilers, and Unit 3 is a 650-MW Babcock and Wilcox boiler. All three units were originally designed to burn pulverized coal but were converted to oil during the years of low oil prices. Studies performed by NEPCO and SWEC indicated that the areas discussed in the following paragraphs required upgrading before the units could efficiently burn coal and meet Federal and State environmental requirements. All units have been converted and are operating. This paper discusses design modifications required to burn coal, startup, and initial operating problems, and solutions.

  2. Soot, organics and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper is concerned with determining the effects of oxy-combustion of coal on the composition of the ultrafine fly ash. To this end, a 10 W externally heated entrained flow furnace was modified to allow the combustion of pulverized coal in flames under practically relevant s...

  3. Physicochemical characterization of Baizhi particles by ultrafine pulverization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lian-Wei; Sun, Peng; Gai, Guo-Sheng; Yang, Yu-Fen; Wang, Yu-Rong

    2011-04-01

    Baizhi, as a medicinal plant, has been demonstrated to be useful for the treatment of aches and pains in China. The physicochemical characterization of Baizhi particles is greatly influenced by ultrafine pulverization. To study the physicochemical characterization of Baizhi, the raw plant material of Baizhi was ground to 6 μm particles by a high speed centrifugal sheering (HSCS) pulverizer. The micron particles were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Imperatorin is one of the active ingredients of Baizhi, and its extraction yield is determined to evaluate the chemical characterization of Baizhi powder. Imperatorin was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that after ultrafine pulverization, the plant cell walls are broken into pieces and the extraction yield of imperatorin is increased by 11.93% compared with the normal particles.

  4. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  5. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  6. Burnout prediction using advance image analysis coal characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Lester; Dave Watts; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The link between petrographic composition and burnout has been investigated previously by the authors. However, these predictions were based on 'bulk' properties of the coal, including the proportion of each maceral or the reflectance of the macerals in the whole sample. Combustion studies relating burnout with microlithotype analysis, or similar, remain less common partly because the technique is more complex than maceral analysis. Despite this, it is likely that any burnout prediction based on petrographic characteristics will become more accurate if it includes information about the maceral associations and the size of each particle. Chars from 13 coals, 106-125 micron size fractions, were prepared using a Drop Tube Furnace (DTF) at 1300{degree}C and 200 millisecond and 1% Oxygen. These chars were then refired in the DTF at 1300{degree}C 5% oxygen and residence times of 200, 400 and 600 milliseconds. The progressive burnout of each char was compared with the characteristics of the initial coals. This paper presents an extension of previous studies in that it relates combustion behaviour to coals that have been characterized on a particle by particle basis using advanced image analysis techniques. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  7. A Machine for Pulverizing and Sifting Gari Mash | Odigboh | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prototype machine for pulverizing and sifting gari mash, designed as a companion to the gari frying machine developed by the authors, was built and tested. Driven by an electric motor, the prototype accepts lump3 of dewatered gari mash cuts them up into small pieces by a cake breaker and delivers the pieces by a belt ...

  8. PROJECT OF COAGULANT DISPENSER IN PULVERIZATION AERATOR WITH WIND DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Osuch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are one of most important freshwater ecosystems, playing significant role in functioning of nature and human economy. Swarzędzkie Lake is good example of ecosystem, which in last half-century was exposed to the influence of strong anthropopressure. Direct inflow of sewage with large number of biogens coming to the lake with water of inflows caused distinct disturbance of its functioning. In autumn 2011 restoration begined on Swarzędzkie Lake for reduction of lake trophy and improvement of water quality. For achieving better and quicker effect, simultaneously combination of some methods was applied, among others method of oxygenation of over-bottom water with help of pulverization aerator and method of precise inactivation of phosphorus in water depths. Characterization and analysis of improved coagulant dispenser applying active substance only during work of pulverization aerator is the aim of this thesis. Principle of dispenser work, its structure and location in pulverization aerator were explained. It was stated, that introduction to water a factor initiating process of phosphorus inactivation causes significant reduction of mineral phosphorus in water and size of coagulant dose correlates with intensity of work of pulverization aerator with wind drive.

  9. Aluminium dissolution for spray pulverization with nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Rodrigo Vilaseca, F.; Morales Calvo, G.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative study of the nitric acid dissolution of aluminium, by immersion and spray pulverization has been carried out in laboratory scale. As a result, the optimum operation conditions to control reaction in the plant are fixed. Operation costs are also evaluated. (author) [es

  10. Influence of wheat kernel physical properties on the pulverizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Dariusz; Cacak-Pietrzak, Grażyna; Miś, Antoni; Jończyk, Krzysztof; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-10-01

    The physical properties of wheat kernel were determined and related to pulverizing performance by correlation analysis. Nineteen samples of wheat cultivars about similar level of protein content (11.2-12.8 % w.b.) and obtained from organic farming system were used for analysis. The kernel (moisture content 10 % w.b.) was pulverized by using the laboratory hammer mill equipped with round holes 1.0 mm screen. The specific grinding energy ranged from 120 kJkg(-1) to 159 kJkg(-1). On the basis of data obtained many of significant correlations (p kernel physical properties and pulverizing process of wheat kernel, especially wheat kernel hardness index (obtained on the basis of Single Kernel Characterization System) and vitreousness significantly and positively correlated with the grinding energy indices and the mass fraction of coarse particles (> 0.5 mm). Among the kernel mechanical properties determined on the basis of uniaxial compression test only the rapture force was correlated with the impact grinding results. The results showed also positive and significant relationships between kernel ash content and grinding energy requirements. On the basis of wheat physical properties the multiple linear regression was proposed for predicting the average particle size of pulverized kernel.

  11. Slagging behavior of upgraded brown coal and bituminous coal in 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Katsuya; Pak, Haeyang; Takubo, Yoji [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Kobe (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.; Tada, Toshiya [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Takasago (Japan). Coal and Energy Technology Dept.; Ueki, Yasuaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Energy Science Div.; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate behaviors of ash deposition during combustion of Upgraded Brown Coal (UBC) and bituminous coal in a 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler. A blended coal consisting 20 wt% of the UBC and 80 wt% of the bituminous coal was burned for the combustion tests. Before the actual ash deposition tests, the molten slag fractions of ash calculated by chemical equilibrium calculations under the combustion condition was adopted as one of the indices to estimate the tendency of ash deposition. The calculation results showed that the molten slag fraction for UBC ash reached approximately 90% at 1,523 K. However, that for the blended coal ash became about 50%. These calculation results mean that blending the UBC with a bituminous coal played a role in decreasing the molten slag fraction. Next, the ash deposition tests were conducted, using a practical pulverized coal combustion boiler. A water-cooled stainless-steel tube was inserted in locations at 1,523 K in the boiler to measure the amount of ash deposits. The results showed that the mass of deposited ash for the blended coal increased and shape of the deposited ash particles on the tube became large and spherical. This is because the molten slag fraction in ash for the blended coal at 1,523 K increased and the surface of deposited ash became sticky. However, the mass of the deposited ash for the blended coal did not greatly increase and no slagging problems occurred for 8 days of boiler operation under the present blending conditions. Therefore, appropriate blending of the UBC with a bituminous coal enables the UBC to be used with a low ash melting point without any ash deposition problems in a practical boiler.

  12. Process to improve combustion and coalescing characteristics of coal pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, T.E.; Marlowe, W.H.

    1980-10-23

    Baking types of coal, which occur mainly in the Midwestern States of the USA, tend to form solid layers when heated to remove tar. In order to prevent this, it is proposed to pulverize the coal, to form small pellets and to coat these pellets. A suitable coating material mentioned here is sodium carbonate. Variants of the coating process are given. The coated pellets are heated.

  13. Overview of current and future - clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darthenay, A.

    1995-01-01

    A new generation of advanced coal technology, environmentally cleaner and in many cases more efficient, has been developed: flue gas treatment of pulverized coal combustion, circulating fluidized bed (CFB), integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). These techniques are described, giving a balance of their references and of the steps which are still to be got over in order to have industrial processes applicable to large size power plants. 4 tabs

  14. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change...

  15. Apparatus and method to pulverize rock using a superconducting electromagnetic linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, Alex (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A rock pulverizer device based on a superconducting linear motor. The superconducting electromagnetic rock pulverizer accelerates a projectile via a superconducting linear motor and directs the projectile at high speed toward a rock structure that is to be pulverized by collision of the speeding projectile with the rock structure. The rock pulverizer is comprised of a trapped field superconducting secondary magnet mounted on a movable car following a track, a wire wound series of primary magnets mounted on the track, and the complete magnet/track system mounted on a vehicle used for movement of the pulverizer through a mine as well as for momentum transfer during launch of the rock breaking projectile.

  16. Basic studies on coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of research and development of coal liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992, regarding the coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products. For the fundamental study on coal liquefaction reaction, were investigated effect of asphaltene in petroleum residue on coprocessing, pretreatment effect in coprocessing of Taiheiyo coal and tarsand bitumen using oil soluble catalyst, solubilization and liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal at mild conditions with the aid of super acid, and flash hydropyrolysis of finely pulverized swollen coal under high hydrogen pressure. On the other hand, for the study on hydrotreatment of coal derived liquid, were investigated catalytic hydroprocessing of Wandoan coal liquids, production of gasoline from coal liquids by fluid catalytic cracking, solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from coal liquids, and separation of hetero compounds in coal liquid by means of high pressure crystallization. Further progress in these studies has been confirmed. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Preventing performance drops of coal mills due to high moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Mataji, B.

    2007-01-01

    Coal mills pulverize and dry the coal dust before it is blown into the furnace in coal-fired power plants. The coal mills can only deliver the requested coal flow if certain conditions are fulfilled. These are normally considered as constraints on individual variables. However, combinations of more...... than one variable might cause problems even though these individually variables are in an acceptable region. This paper deals with such a problem. The combination of a high load of the power plant, a large load change and high moisture content in the coal, can force the coal mill into a state where...... coal is accumulated instead of being blown into the furnace. This paper suggests a simple method for preventing the accumulation of the coal in the mill, by limiting the requested coal flow considering the coal moisture content and the temperature outside the mill.  ...

  18. Coal combustion aerothermochemistry research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, A.B.; Gat, N.; Denison, M.R.; Cohen, L.M.

    1980-12-15

    On the basis of extensive aerothermochemistry analyses, laboratory investigations, and combustor tests, significant headway has been made toward improving the understanding of combustion phenomena and scaling of high swirl pulverized coal combustors. A special attempt has been made to address the gap between scientific data available on combustion and hardware design and scaling needs. Both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted to improve the predictive capability of combustor scaling laws. The scaling laws derived apply to volume and wall burning of pulverized coal in a slagging high-swirl combustor. They incorporate the findings of this investigation as follows: laser pyrolysis of coal at 10/sup 6/ K/sec and 2500K; effect of coal particle shape on aerodynamic drag and combustion; effect of swirl on heat transfer; coal burnout and slag capture for 20 MW/sub T/ combustor tests for fine and coarse coals; burning particle trajectories and slag capture; particle size and aerodynamic size; volatilization extent and burnout fraction; and preheat level. As a result of this work, the following has been gained: an increased understanding of basic burning mechanisms in high-swirl combustors and an improved model for predicting combustor performance which is intended to impact hardware design and scaling in the near term.

  19. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  20. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  1. Prediction of the burnout performance of some South American coals using a drop-tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richelieu Barranco; Michael Cloke; Edward Lester [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Fuel Technology Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-10-01

    An experimental investigation into the combustion burnout behaviour of some South American coals was carried out in a drop-tube furnace. The samples, in two size fractions, were initially pyrolysed at a temperature of 1300{sup o}C, in a 1% of oxygen in nitrogen atmosphere for 200 ms. The re-firing of these pyrolysed chars was performed in the same apparatus, at the same temperature, during 400 ms, in an atmosphere containing 5% of oxygen in nitrogen. The coal samples used in this study were characterised by standard tests along with a specially developed image analysis technique (grey-scale histogram). Data of intrinsic reactivity, morphology, and burnout of the chars were correlated with maceral content of the feed coal by mean of linear regressions. In most cases, the results showed a poor correlation. Subsequently, when the rank of the coals was included in the regressions, the correlations remarkably improved in all cases. When further regressions of char properties with the grey-scale histogram of the coals were carried out, much better correlations were achieved. Therefore, the results indicate that the grey-scale histogram analysis provides a simple and objective technique to predict the combustion behaviour of these coals. 17 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  3. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  4. Optimization of a lignite-fired open pulverizing system boiler process based on variations in the drying agent composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Youfu; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Yichao; Wang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates three lignite-fired OPSB (open pulverizing system boiler) processes, named OPSB-A, OPSB-B and OPSB-C, corresponding to three options of drying agents used for the pulverizing systems. OPSB-B is similar to our previous work [18] on drying agent composition. Performances of the three OPSBs were calculated and compared with a 600 MW lignite-fired boiler as the reference. The results showed that the coal savings of OPSB-A and OPSB-C were 5.41% and 4.06% in comparison with the reference boiler, whereas for OPSB-B, the savings was 2.57%. Accordingly, emissions of each OPSB could be reduced in proportion to the coal savings. Among the three OPSBs, OPSB-C showed the best performance of water recovery from mill-exhausts because it had the highest mill-exhaust water dew point of 73.2 °C, whereas the exhaust dew points of OPSB-A and OPSB-B were 63.9 °C and 70.9 °C, respectively. Both OPSB-C and OPSB-B are beneficial for achieving a high mill-exhaust humidity ratio, which facilitates water recovery from the mill-exhaust, and a low oxygen content in mill-exhaust, which improves the operating safety of the pulverizing systems, whereas OPSB-A is relatively inferior in these respects. The OPSB-C process is recommended for engineering applications because of its favorable overall performances. - Highlights: • Three lignite-fired OPSB processes are analyzed based on a conventional 600 MW boiler. • OPSB-A, OPSB-B and OPSB-C show coal savings of 5.41%, 2.57 and 4.06%, respectively. • All OPSBs have a great advantage of water recovery from the flue gas, especially OPSB-C. • OPSB-C process is recommended in view of its favorable overall performances

  5. Report on Seminar on Clean Coal Technology '93; Clean coal technology kokusai seminar hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The program of the above clean coal technology (CCT) event is composed of 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Research on CCT in America (study of coal structure under electron microscope), and 3) Research on CCT in Australia (high intensity combustion of ultrafine coal particles in a clean way). Remarks under item 1) are mentioned below. As for SO{sub 2} emissions base unit, Japan's is 1 at its coal-fired thermal power station while that of America is 7.8. As for the level of SO{sub 2}/NOx reduction attributable to coal utilization technologies, it rises in the order of flue gas desulfurizer-aided pulverized coal combustion, normal pressure fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation/fuel cell. As for the level of CO2 reduction attributable to power generation efficiency improvement, provided that Japan's average power generation efficiency is 39% and if China's efficiency which is now 28% is improved to be similar to that of Japan, there will be a 40% reduction in CO2 emissions. Under item 2) which involves America's CCT program, reference is made to efforts at eliminating unnecessary part from the catalytic process and at reducing surplus air, to the export of CCT technology, and so forth. Under item 3), it is stated that coal cleaning may govern reaction efficiency in a process of burning coal particles for gasification. (NEDO)

  6. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  7. Identification and quantification of priority species from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Zheng, L.; Hlavacek, T. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories

    1996-07-01

    The objective is to quantify and characterize emissions from pulverized coal combustion of seven coals and the circulating fluidized bed combustion of four coals. The species of particular interest are sulphur, nitrogen, chlorine, arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, potassium, and sodium. The Facility for Analysis of Chemical Thermodynamics (F{asterisk}A{asterisk}C{asterisk}T) method is used to predict type and amount of priority species. Prediction is made for combustion with and without the presence of limestone. The results show that the combustion technology used influences the amount of priority species emitted. 16 tabs., 3 apps.

  8. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  9. High pressure MHD coal combustors investigation, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, H.; Hamberg, R.

    1981-05-01

    A high pressure MHD coal combustor was investigated. The purpose was to acquire basic design and support engineering data through systematic combustion experiments at the 10 and 20 thermal megawatt size and to design a 50 MW/sub t/ combustor. This combustor is to produce an electrically conductive plasma generated by the direct combustion of pulverized coal with hot oxygen enriched vitiated air that is seeded with potassium carbonate. Vitiated air and oxygen are used as the oxidizer, however, preheated air will ultimately be used as the oxidizer in coal fired MHD combustors.

  10. Quality and environmental aspects in relation to the application of pulverized fuel ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.W. van den

    1991-01-01

    In the Netherlands pulverised coal from different parts of the world is used in 5 coalfired power stations which each have 1 to 3 boilers, which in turn are equipped with various types of burners. This causes a large variation in the composition of the pulverized fuel ash (PFA). The PFA is marketed in several areas, each of which has its own specific quality requirements. These requirements are partially dictated in standard specifications. In order to obtain insight into the quality of the PFA, samples are taken and analysed daily. Rules for certification, concerning the quality and the quality control of PFA for use in concrete in The Netherlands have been agreed upon. The environmental aspects in relation to the application of PFA concern the working conditions and health aspects during processing and the environmental impact when PFA is used as a building material. The Dutch legislation concerning the environmental consequences of the application of PFA and other secondary materials is currently under review. 3 tabs

  11. γ-ray activity in bituminous, subbituminous and lignite coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.E.; Giorgio, H.R.

    1977-01-01

    Specimens of three different types of coal from four different geographical locations (Montana, North Dakota, Illinois and Pennsylvania) were examined by γ-ray spectrometry. Some samples were ashed in a muffle furnace. Other samples included pulverized coal, slag and fly ash from an electric power generating station. Activity from the 232 Th and 238 U series was present in all samples. Activity varied widely depending upon the source of the coal. The results indicate a need for additional examination of activity in coal to: (1) establish more precisely the relative environmental impact of coal-fired power stations compared with nuclear ones, (2) indicate the degree of sophistication required in environmental surveillance programs involving areas where both nuclear and coal-fired power stations are operational, and (3) determine the occupational exposure risks in mining operations. (author)

  12. Technology for beneficiation of non-coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    This article outlines the need for efficient non-coking coal beneficiation plants in India to cope with mass production from opencast coal mines. The existing use of magnetite in heavy medium separation processes is expensive and not very efficient in respect to removing shales from opencast lump coals. Instead a new technique is proposed using a ROMJIG washing plant developed in the Federal Republic of Germany. This provides a very efficient, low cost washing system for the coals and allows the continued integration with the coal blending plants. This simplified technology allows for flexible working hours to meet demand and will allow new developments to continue including fuel slurry pipelines, automated testing of coals and new pulverized boiler fuels.

  13. Amphiphilic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks using pulverized rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Nima

    Scrap rubber materials provide a significant challenge to either reuse or safe disposal. Every year, millions of tires are discarded to landfills in the United States, consuming a staggering amount of land space, creating a high risk for large fires, breeding mosquitoes that spread diseases, and wasting the planet's natural resources. This situation cannot be sustained. The challenge of reusing scrap rubber materials is mainly due to the crosslinked structure of vulcanized rubber that prevent them from melting and further processing for reuse. The most feasible recycling approach is believed to be a process in which the vulcanized rubber is first pulverized into a fine powder and then incorporated into new products. The production of fine rubber particles is generally accomplished through the use of a cryogenic process that is costly. Therefore, development of a cost effective technology that utilizes a large quantity of the scrap rubber materials to produce high value added materials is an essential element in maintaining a sustainable solution to rubber recycling. In this research, a cost effective pulverization process, solid state shear extrusion (SSSE), was modified and used for continuous pulverization of the rubber into fine particles. In the modified SSSE process, pulverization takes place at high compressive shear forces and a controlled temperature. Furthermore, an innovative particle modification process was developed to enhance the chemical structure and surface properties of the rubber particles for manufacturing of high value added products. Modification of rubber particles was accomplished through the polymerization of a hydrophilic monomer mixture within the intermolecular structure of the hydrophobic rubber particles. The resulting composite particles are considered as amphiphilic particulate phase semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (PPSIPNs). The modified rubber particles are water dispersible and suitable for use in a variety of aqueous media

  14. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  15. Particle-based characterisation of pulverised coals and chars for carbon burnout studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbins, J.R.; Seitz, M.H.; Kennedy, S.M.; Beeley, T.J.; Riley, G.S. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Mechanical Engineering Department

    1999-07-01

    The study of individual particle properties, as opposed to averaged behaviour of differing particles, was carried out for the combustion of coals and chars using optical microscopy and digital image processing. Chars from entrained flow reactors and corresponding pulverized fuel samples were characterized to examine possible char particle origins for real heterogeneous particles. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Assessment of inhalation risk due to radioactivity released from coal-based thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    In India, the coal based thermal power plants have been the major source of power generation in the past and would continue for decades to come. As the coal contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides the burning of pulverized coal to produce energy for generation of electricity in thermal power plants will result in the emission of a variety of natural radioactive elements into the environment in the vicinity of thermal power plants. In this paper we have used two different methods for characterization of uncertainty in inhalation risk to the general public around 10 Kms radius in the neighborhood of a coal-fired thermal power plant. (author)

  17. Problem of formation of nitrogen oxides during coal combustion in power plant steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Kuvaev, Yu.V.

    1992-07-01

    Analyzes a study of physical and chemical processes of nitrogen oxide formation during coal combustion conducted at Stanford University (USA). Experimental installation, pulverized coal feeding as well as measuring techniques and equipment are described. Experiments were conducted with 55 micron particles of semibituminous coal. An equation for the percentage of coal carbon converted to gaseous products is given. Active formation of NO from nitrogen content in the fuel was observed when oxygen content was under 4%. Conversion of the fuel nitrogen to NO[sub x] in the 1,350-1,850 K temperature range did not depend on gas temperature but rather on oxygen content. 2 refs.

  18. Coking coal consumption of POSCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    Pohang Iron and Steel Company Limited (POSCO) was established in 1968. Molten iron was first produced in July 1973 after a 3 year construction period. The long awaited start up of Korea's first integrated steel works provided the momentum for the fast growth of our steel industry. In 1973, the first year of operation, POSCO purchased 770,000 tons of coal from the United States and Australia. The import tonnage was more than doubled in 1976 when we completed the second stage of Pohang Works and has continued to increase reaching 13.1 million tons last year. POSCO's coal consumption will increase one more time next year as the fourth stage of Kwangyang works starts to operate a new blast furnace with an annual molten iron production capacity of 2.8 million tons. Even though the new blast furnace will have the same capacity as the other 3 in Kwangyang, the additional coking coal requirement will be much smaller than the tonnages we needed for the other stages of the works. This paper reports that this is due to the increased use of pulverized coal

  19. Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This project will provide a full-scale demonstration of Micronized Coal Reburn (MCR) technology for the control of NO x on a wall-fired steam generator. This demonstration is expected to reduce NO x emissions by 50 to 60%. Micronized coal is coal that has been very finely pulverized (80% less than 325 mesh). This micronized coal, which may comprise up to 30% of the total fuel fired in the furnace, is fired high in the furnace in a fuel-rich reburn zone at a stoichiometry of 0.8. Above the reburn zone, overfire air is injected into the burnout zone at high velocity for good mixing to ensure complete combustion. Overall excess air is 15%. MCR technology reduces NO x emissions with minimal furnace modifications, and the improved burning characteristics of micronized coal enhance boiler performance

  20. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... and coal co-firing. Reasonable agreement in fly ash compositions regarding total K and fraction of water soluble K was obtained between co-firing in an entrained flow reactor and full-scale plants. Capture of potassium and subsequent release of HCl can be achieved by sulphation with SO2 and more...

  1. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z; Morikawa, M; Fujii, Y [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Coal-water fuels - a clean coal solution for Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubicic, B.; Willson, W.; Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Stajner, K.; Popovic, R.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Europe currently faces great economic and environmental problems. Among these problems is energy provision. Coal reserves are large but cause pollution while oil and gas need to be used for export. Formal 'clean coal technologies' are simply too expensive to be implemented on a large scale in the current economic crisis. The promised western investment and technological help has simply not taken place, western Europe must help eastern Europe with coal technology. The cheapest such technology is coal-water fuel slurry. It can substitute for oil, but research has not been carried out because of low oil prices. Coal-water fuel is one of the best methods of exploiting low rank coal. Many eastern European low rank coals have a low sulfur content, and thus make a good basis for a clean fuel. Italy and Russia are involved in such a venture, the slurry being transported in a pipeline. This technology would enable Russia to exploit Arctic coal reserves, thus freeing oil and gas for export. In Serbia the exploitation of sub-Danube lignite deposits with dredging mining produced a slurry. This led to the use and development of hot water drying, which enabled the removal of many of the salts which cause problems in pulverized fuel combustion. The system is economic, the fuel safer to transport then oil, either by rail or in pipelines. Many eastern European oil facilities could switch. 24 refs

  3. A FUEL-RICH PRECOMBUSTOR. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS - VOLUME IV. ALTERNATE CON- CEPTS FOR SOX, NOX, AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results a study of the use of precombustors for the simultaneous control of S02, NOx, and ash emissions from coal combustion. In Phase 1, exploratory testing was conducted on a small pilot scale--293 kW (million Btu/hr)-pulverized-coal-fired precombustor to ident...

  4. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  5. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Techno-Economic Analysis of a 600 MW Oxy-Enrich Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-fuel combustion is one of the most promising methods for CO2 capture and storage (CCS but the operating costs—mainly due to the need for oxygen production—usually lead to an obvious decrease in power generation efficiency. An “oxy-enrich combustion” process was proposed in this study to improve the efficiency of the oxy-fuel combustion process. The oxidizer for oxy-enrich combustion was composed of pure oxygen, air and recycled flue gas. Thus, the CO2 concentration in the flue gas decreased to 30–40%. The PSA (pressure swing adsorption, which has been widely used for CO2 removal from the shifting gases of ammonia synthesis in China, was applied to capture CO2 during oxy-enrich combustion. The technological economics of oxy-enrich combustion with PSA was calculated and compared to that of oxy-fuel combustion. The results indicated that, compared with oxy-fuel combustion: (1 the oxy-enrich combustion has fewer capital and operating costs for the ASU (air separation unit and the recycle fan; (2 there were fewer changes in the components of the flue gas in a furnace for oxy-enrich combustion between dry and wet flue gas circulation; and (3 as the volume ratio of air and oxygen was 2 or 3, the economics of oxy-enrich combustion with PSA were more advantageous.

  7. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C E

    1980-10-01

    Heaviest acitivity this quarter has been in the area of system design and specification and purchase of system components. Mechanical design is now complete. The design of electrical power, process control and data acquisition systems has begun. Combustor design meetings with General Electric Space Science Labs have resulted in an increasing awareness that analytical flow field modeling of the cyclonic combustor could not only enhance current understanding of the process but also broaden the future scope of implementation. A proposal to add specific additional modeling tasks was presented to the Department of Energy, and is included herein in Appendix B. Equipment procurement will continue and system construction will begin during the next quarter.

  8. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Diaz, R.; Niksa, S.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the present work is to introduce an experimental program that will eventually lead to time-resolved iron ash composition over the technological operating domain. The preceding literature survey suggests two important stipulations on any such experimental program. The first stipulation is that good control must be established over the operating conditions, to accurately quantify their effects. The other is that data must be obtained rapidly, to thoroughly cover the important operating domain. This work presents a series of studies that has characterized the desulfurization of pyrite during the early stages of combustion. An experimental system was established and used to monitor the effects of oxygen, temperature, and residence time on the evolution of condensed phase products of the combustion of pure pyrite. (VC)

  9. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Diaz, R.; Niksa, S.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the present work is to introduce an experimental program that will eventually lead to time-resolved iron ash composition over the technological operating domain. The preceding literature survey suggests two important stipulations on any such experimental program. The first stipulation is that good control must be established over the operating conditions, to accurately quantify their effects. The other is that data must be obtained rapidly, to thoroughly cover the important operating domain. This work presents a series of studies that has characterized the desulfurization of pyrite during the early stages of combustion. An experimental system was established and used to monitor the effects of oxygen, temperature, and residence time on the evolution of condensed phase products of the combustion of pure pyrite. (VC)

  10. Process to refine flyash captured from pulverized coal fired boilers and auxiliary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowy, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a separating and refining process for particulate that has been removed from the exhaust gases of an organic fuel combustion process. It includes determining relative sizes of carbon rich and carbon lean particles that are found in the exhaust gases for the combustion process; supplying the particulate matter from the exhaust of the combustion process; providing a means for conveying the particulate matter between the following steps; separating, by size, coarse and fine particles in the exhaust particulate so as to yield carbon rich and carbon lean fractions

  11. Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgarini, G; Giuli, M; Davide, A; Carlesi, C [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa [Italy; Deltasider, Piombino [Italy

    1989-03-01

    At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

  12. A STUDY ON THE GRINDABILITY OF SERBIAN COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslava D Stojiljković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants in the Republic of Serbia are making considerable efforts and even more considerable investments, not only to maintain electricity production at maximum design levels, but even to additionally increase the power output of existing generating units. Capacities of mills used in pulverized coal preparation are identified as one of the main constraints to achieving maximum mill plant capacity, while coal grindability is seen as one of the factors that directly affect capacities of the coal mills utilized in thermal power plants. The paper presents results of experimental investigation conducted for the purpose of determining Hardgrove grindability index of coal. The investigation was conducted in accordance with ISO 5074 and included analysis of approximately 70 coal samples taken from the open pit mine of Kolubara coal basin. Research results obtained indicate that coal rich in mineral matter and thus, of lower heating value is characterized by higher grindability index. Therefore, analyses presented in the paper suggest that characteristics of solid fuels analyzed in the research investigation conducted are such that the use coals less rich in mineral matter i. e. coals characterized by lower grindability index will cause coal mills to operate at reduced capacity. This fact should be taken into account when considering a potential for electricity production increase.

  13. Catalytic activity of pyrite for coal liquefaction reaction; Tennen pyrite no shokubai seino ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, K.; Kozu, M.; Okada, T.; Kobayashi, M. [Nippon Coal Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Since natural pyrite is easy to obtain and cheap as coal liquefaction catalyst, it is to be used for the 150 t/d scale NEDOL process bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. NEDO and NCOL have investigated the improvement of catalytic activity of pulverized natural pyrite for enhancing performance and economy of the NEDOL process. In this study, coal liquefaction tests were conducted using natural pyrite catalyst pulverized by dry-type bowl mill under nitrogen atmosphere. Mechanism of catalytic reaction of the natural pyrite was discussed from relations between properties of the catalyst and liquefaction product. The natural pyrite provided an activity to transfer gaseous hydrogen into the liquefaction product. It was considered that pulverized pyrite promotes the hydrogenation reaction of asphaltene because pulverization increases its contact rate with reactant and the amount of active points on its surface. It was inferred that catalytic activity of pyrite is affected greatly by the chemical state of Fe and S on its surface. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  15. Study of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, B.T.G.

    1979-01-01

    Various types of coal contain high levels of a number of trace elements. Little is known of the fates of these trace elements during the conversion of coal to liquid and gaseous products. Studies were undertaken of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis, one of the major coal conversion processes. The bituminous coal was pyrolyzed to produce liquid and gaseous products. The pyrolysis products were collected in traps in an inert gas stream. In addition mildly hydrogenated coal was prepared by mixing with tetralin, a hydrogen donor solvent, at boiling temperature. In order to characterize each element specifically during pyrolysis, base samples of coal and mildly hydrogenated coal (H-coal) were spiked with heavy metal sulfides, trace metals bound to partially oxidized coal (coal humates), and halide salts prior to carrying out pyrolysis. Eight elements were investigated in this research. They are As, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, and V. Pre-spiked hydrogenated coal, i.e., pulverized coal spiked with halide salts and heavy metal sulfides then hydrogenated with tetralin, was prepared and studied for the fates of these elements during pyrolysis. Chlorinated and brominated coals were also prepared to compare the volatility differences between organically and inorganically bound halogens during the pyrolysis reaction. These products and the coal char residues were analyzed for the spiked elements mainly by neutron activation analysis for the spiked elements to determine their degree of volatility. Volatility and recovery (mass balance) will be discussed for those elements that appeared highly volatile during pyrolysis. In order to understand the halogenated compounds in the pyrolysis products, gas chromatograms were taken to the collected pyrolysis products of coal, hydrogenated coal, NaCl spiked coal, NaBr spiked coal, chlorinated coal, and brominated coal

  16. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  17. Physicochemical characterization of pulverized phyllite rocks to geopolymer resin synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, L.G.A. [Instituto Militar de Enegenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pires, E.F.C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, R.A.; Silva, F.J. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Raneiro (IFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Geopolymeric materials have common properties considered unique, such as: early-high compressive strength, durability, high chemical resistance to acids and sulfates attacks, ability to immobilize toxic and radioactive compounds, low porosity, low permeability, and resistance to high temperatures. Together with its environmental benefits, such as low energy consumption and low carbon dioxide emissions during production, these inorganic polymers are strategic materials for sustainable development and a good alternative to Portland cement. The main objective for introducing alternative materials is to lower the associated costs of its industrial process. Thus, the use of phyllite as the geopolymer precursor, is encouraged by its abundance, low cost, and the fact that it already is applied to the ceramic industries as kaolin substitute. This paper presents a physical characterization using TEM, SEM, XRD and XRF techniques of two pulverized phyllite rocks used as geopolymer precursors for refractory applications. It was found that both phyllite rocks studied have a high quartz content of approximately 50% that can be explored as 'filler' function in the microstructure, which stabilizes residual tensions after curing. Kaolinite and muscovite minerals are present up to 40% and are responsible for the high strengths in the geopolymer resins, as determined by compressive strength tests. (author)

  18. Result of design and test operation of a coal boiler at Hyogo Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yasuhiko; Sato, Noriyuki

    1987-05-01

    This boiler is the first coal boiler for the oil refineries in Japan (Installed in Oct., 1986 at Idemitsu Petrochemical Co.) Causes for using coal as a fuel are a conversion to less expensive fuel and offering a technical service to the users of coal through the combustion of coal and learning of a handling technique. The type of boiler is Babcock single barrel radiant type and has 150 t/d capacity with single fuel combustion of coal. Auxiliary equipments are a pulverizer, a transportation and storage unit, a denitration unit, a dust collector, a desulfurization unit, and an ash disposal unit. Main considerations in the design are measures for the security of finely pulverized coal, clogging prevention for coal and ash. A test operation revealed 7 % of combustible loss and 160 - 250 ppm of NOx content at a charge inlet of denitration unit. Actual operation exhibited no clogging at the denitration unit of troubles due to scaling. Design for raw materials is to blend 4 imported coals (from Australia and Canada, etc) and 3 Japanese ones. (7 figs, 2 tabs)

  19. Mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion and gasification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sable, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    Coal based power generation is a significant source of mercury emissions to the atmosphere and this has attracted huge attention in the past decade. Recently, the concerns regarding global warming and need for new energy resources introduced the concept of cofiring of biomass and waste as secondary

  20. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, J.J.; Hoskins, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors

  1. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, T.; Grens, E.A. II; Holten, R.R.

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl/sub 2/ catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S, or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl/sub 2/ and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  2. The use of mechanically activated micronized coal in thermal power engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukov Anatoliy P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal is one of the main energy resources and development of new promising technologies on its basis is certainly topical. This article discusses the use of new technology of gas and fuel oil replacement by mechanically activated micronized coal in power engineering: ignition and stabilization of pulverized coal flame combustion, as well as gasification of micronized coal in the flow. The new technology coal combustion with two stages of grinding is suggested. Optimization of the scheme of two-stage combustion is calculated. The first experimental data on the combustion process are obtained. The first demonstration tests on gas and heavy oil replacement by micronized coal during boiler ignition were carried out in the real power boiler with the capacity of 320 tons of steam per hour.

  3. Coal-fired power plants and the causes of high temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakey, J E; Simms, N J [British Coal Corporation, Coal Technology Development Div., Cheltenham, Glos (United Kingdom); Tomkings, A B [ERA Technology Ltd., Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The heat exchangers in all types of coal-fired power plant operate in aggressive, high temperature environments where high temperature corrosion can severely limit their service lives. The extent of this corrosion is governed by the combined effects of the operating conditions of the heat exchanger and the presence of corrosive species released from the coal during operation. This paper reviews the coal-related factors, such as ash deposition, which influence the operating environments of heat exchangers in three types of coal-fired power plant - conventional pulverized coal boilers, fluidized bed boilers and coal gasification systems. The effects on the performance of the materials used for these heat exchangers are then compared. (au) 35 refs.

  4. Coal reburning technology for cyclone boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagiela, A.S.; Maringo, G.J.; Newell, R.J.; Farzan, H.

    1990-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox has obtained encouraging results from engineering feasibility and pilot-scale proof-of-concept studies of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO x control. Accordingly, B and W completed negotiations for a clean coal cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to demonstrate coal reburning technology for cyclone boilers. The host site for the demonstration is the Wisconsin Power and Light (WP and L) Company's 100MWe Nelson Dewey Station. Reburning involves the injection of a supplemental fuel (natural gas, oil, or coal) into the main furnace to produce locally reducing stoichiometric conditions which convert the NO x produced therein to molecular nitrogen, thereby reducing overall NO x emissions. There are currently no commercially-demonstrated combustion modification techniques for cyclone boilers which reduce NO x emissions. The emerging reburning technology offers cyclone boiler operators a promising alternative to expensive flue gas cleanup techniques for NO x emission reduction. This paper reviews baseline testing results at the Nelson Dewey Station and pilot-scale results simulating Nelson Dewey operation using pulverized coal (PC) as the reburning fuel. Outcomes of the model studies as well as the full-scale demonstration preliminary design are discussed

  5. Environmental characteristics of clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is aimed at demonstrating the commercial readiness of advanced coal-based technologies. A major goal of the CCT program is to introduce into the US energy marketplace those coal-based power generation technologies that have superior economic and environmental performance over the current suite of commercial coal-based power generation technologies. The commercialization of CCTs will provide the electric utility industry with technology options for replacing aging power plants and meeting future growth in electricity demand. This paper discusses the environmental advantages of two CCTs used for electric power generation: pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC). These CCTs are suitable for repowering existing power plants or for grassroots construction. Due to their high efficiency and advanced environmental control systems, they emit less sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), particulate matter, and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than a state-of-the-art, pulverized coal power plant with flue gas desulfurization (PC/FGD)

  6. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles What determines their composition Whether or not particles deposit How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  7. Wireless vibration monitoring in a US coal-fired plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbur, G.L.; Wier, W.; Bark, T.

    2006-07-15

    Choosing a reliable wireless systems able to provide data on vibration magnitudes in a coal pulveriser was never going to be easy, so two systems were tested alongside each other. One was the Wireless MCT System produced by SKF Reliability Systems; the other was from an alternative vendor. A replacement wireless vibration monitor was required at the Baldwin Energy Complex near Decartar, Illinois, USA. A single CE-Raymond model 923.RP pulverizer equipped with eight Wilcox on 786A accelerometers was chosen for monitoring. Five days after installation, the pulverizer experienced a failure. The wireless system provided vibration magnitudes to Dynegy's OSI PI Historian software. Analysis of this data coupled with an unsuccessful attempt to adjust the grinding roll, revealed that the number two grinding roll bearing had failed. The SKF Reliability System proved to detect the fault earlier than the non-SKF system and was chosen for the plant. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butakov Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  9. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Evgenii; Burdukov, Anatoly; Chernetskiy, Mikhail; Kuznetsov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  10. Exergetic analysis of a steam power plant using coal and rice straw in a co-firing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Alvaro; Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mails: arestrep@labcet.ufsc.br, miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil). U.O. Usina Termeletrica Jorge Lacerda C.], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an exergetic analysis concerning an existing 50 M We steam power plant, which operates with pulverized coal from Santa Catarina- Brazil. In this power plant, a co-firing rice straw is proposed, replacing up to 10% of the pulverized coal in energy basis required for the boiler. Rice straw has been widely regarded as an important source for bio-ethanol, animal feedstock and organic chemicals. The use of rice straw as energy source for electricity generation in a co-firing process with low rank coal represents a new application as well as a new challenge to overcome. Considering both scenarios, the change in the second law efficiency, exergy destruction, influence of the auxiliary equipment and the greenhouse gases emissions such as CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} were considered for analysis. (author)

  11. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  12. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  13. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly-ash in coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Salvador Martinez, L.; Muniz Baum, B.; Cortes Galeano, V. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    A new catalytic process for flue gas conditioning in pulverized coal fired power plants is outlined. Vanadium and platinum catalysts specifically prepared on ceramic honeycomb monoliths to oxidize SO{sub 2} into SO{sub 3} have been tested and evaluated at pilot scale. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  15. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  16. Effect of pulverization of the bulk powder on the hydration of creatine anhydrate tablets and their pharmaceutical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yukoh; Shiraishi, Sumihiro; Otsuka, Makoto

    2005-12-10

    The hydration behavior and expansion properties of untreated and pulverized creatine anhydrate (CRA) tablets were studied under 60 and 75%RH at 25 degrees C by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The tablet hardness of untreated and pulverized CRA tablets was significantly decreased after hydration. There was a linear relationship between the degree of hydration and the tablet hardness of untreated CRA tablets compressed at 1000 kg/cm2. In contrast, the relationship between the degree of hydration and the tablet hardness of pulverized CRA tablets was nonlinear. These results suggest that the reduction in hardness of pulverized CRA tablets does not depend solely on the hydration level of crystal water. PXRD analysis indicated that the diffraction pattern of the pulverized CRA powder was similar to that of the untreated CRA powder. However, the diffraction intensity of the pulverized CRA powder was slightly lower than that of the untreated CRA powder at high angle. The micropore radius of both untreated and pulverized CRA tablets was significantly increased after hydration, but analysis of the relationship between micropore radius and fractional hydration of crystal water showed that untreated CRA tablets were more affected than pulverized CRA tablets. Therefore, the reduction in tablet hardness depends not only on the hydration behavior but also on the crystal orientation of the CRA powder.

  17. Influence of Process Parameters on Coal Combustion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der

    investigated experimentally in a 400 MWe corner fired boiler with over fire air, a 350 MWe opposed fired boiler, and in a 160 kWt pilot scale test rig. Three different coals were fired in each of the furnaces as part of the activities in group 3 of the European Union JOULE 2 Extension project "Atmospheric......The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of nitrogen oxide formation and carbon burnout during the combustion of pulverized coal, and to contribute to addressing the potential of chemical engineering models for the prediction of furnace temperatures, NO emissions and the amount...... of carbon in ash. To this purpose, the effect of coal quality on NO and burnout has been investigated experimentally, a radiation heat balance has been developed based on simple chemical engineering methodology, and a mixing study has been conducted in order to describe the near burner macro mixing in terms...

  18. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  19. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Coal utilization technologies in the production of electric energy; Technologie wykorzystania wegla do produkcji energii elektrycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golec, T.; Rakowski, J. [Power Institute, Warsaw (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents an assessment of the various technologies for power generation from coal and discusses the development prospects for each. The technologies are: pulverized fuel fired boilers for supercritical steam parameters; atmospheric fluidized bed boilers; pressurised fluidized-bed combustion boilers; gas and steam units integrated with gasification of solid fuels; and co-firing of solid fuels. It addresses, briefly, CO{sub 2} reduction technologies. 26 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Effects of bluff-body burner and coal particle size on NOx emissions and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.S.; Cheng, J.F.; Zeng, H.C. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Coal Combustion Lab.

    1999-12-01

    Investigations on air staging have been carried out using various coals with different degrees of fineness and a variety of burners with a 92.9 kw h{sup -1} tunnel furnace burning pulverized coal. It has been observed that using the bluff-body burner can reduce both the unburned carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions in the case of air staging. The experimental results show that air-staging combustion has a more remarkable effect on NOx reduction for higher-volatile coal than for lower-volatile coal. The results also show that there is a strong influence of coal particle size on NOx emissions and unburned carbon in the fly ash in the case of air staging. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Increasing coal-fired power generation efficiency to reduce electric cost and environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    New generating capacity required globally between 1993 and 2010 is estimated to be around 1500 GW, of which some two-thirds will be outside the OECD, and some 40 % in the Asian non-OECD countries. Coal is likely to account for a substantial fraction of this new generation. Today's state-of-the-art supercritical coal-fired power plant has a conversion efficiency of some 42-45 %. The capital cost increase associated with the supercritical or ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant compared to a conventional subcritical plant is small to negligible. The increased efficiency associated with the supercritical plant leads to an actual reduction in the total cost of electricity generated in cents/kWh, relative to a conventional plant. Despite this, the power sector continues to build subcritical plants and has no near term plans to increase the efficiency of power plants in the projects it is developing. Advanced clean coal technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion will be selected for independent power projects only in very specific circumstances. Advanced clean coal plants can be operated reliably and with superior performance, and specifically that their present estimated capital costs can be reduced substantially to a point where they are competitive with state-of-the-art pulverized coal technologies. (R.P.)

  3. Burnout synergic or inhibiting effects in combustion assays of coal/sawdust blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ximena Garcia; Ximena Matus; Claudia Ulloa; Alfredo L. Gordon [University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Characterization of chars and charcoal and combustion assays of coal/ pine sawdust blends were carried on to evaluate the burnout, under conditions similar to those found in pulverized coal combustion. A drop tube furnace (DTF) was used to generate chars from three coals of different rank (Bitsch, a lignite; Lemington, a bituminous HV coal; and LD, a semianthracite) and charcoal from sawdust (S). Burning profiles, as well as morphological and optical characterization of these chars were obtained and discussed. Pulverized samples of pure constituents and sawdust/coal blends (5, 10 and 20%wt of S) were burned in the DTF reactor. Samples of combustion residues were collected for characterization. Depending on blend composition and the rank of the coal being blended, positive and negative deviations with respect to the expected weighted average value of the burnout were measured. This behavior is related both, to the duration of the step by which simultaneous burning of char and charcoal take place, and to the sawdust content in the blend. The optical analysis of combustion residues supports this conclusion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology; Dai 6 kai sekitan riyo gijutsu kaigi koenshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The paper compiled the papers presented in the 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology held in September 1996. With relation to the fluidized bed boiler, reported were Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant and Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Regarding the coal reformation, Development of advanced coal cleaning process, Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process, etc. Concerning the combustion technology, Study of the O2/CO2 combustion technology, Development of pressurized coal partial combustor, etc. About the CWM, Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology, Technique of CWM distribution system, etc. Relating to the coal ash, Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash, Employment of fluidized bed ash as a basecourse material, On-site verification trials using fly ash for reclamation behind bulkheads, Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash, Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation, Practical use technology of coal ash (POZ-O-TEC), etc

  5. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  6. Influence of process parameters on coal combustion performance. Review, experiments and engineering modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lans, R.P. van der

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of nitrogen oxide formation and carbon burnout during the combustion of pulverized coal, and to contribute to addressing the potential of chemical engineering models for the prediction of furnace temperatures, NO emissions and the amount of carbon in ash. To this purpose, the effect of coal quality on NO and burnout has been investigated experimentally, a radiation heat balance has been developed based on a simple chemical engineering methodology, and a mixing study has been conducted in order to describe the near burner macro mixing in terms of a reactor configuration. The influence of coal type and process conditions on NO formation and carbon burnout has been investigated experimentally in a 400 MW{sub e} corner fired boiler with over fire air, a 350 MW{sub e} opposed fired boiler, and in a 160 kW{sub t} pilot scale test rig. Three different coals were fired in each of the furnaces as part of the activities in group 3 of the European Union JOULE 2 Extension project `Atmospheric Pressure Combustion of Pulverized Coal and Coal Based Blends for Power Generation`. On the pilot scale test both single stage and air staged tests were performed. A simple, one-dimensional combustion and radiation heat transfer model has been developed for the furnace of full scale boilers. The model has been applied to the two boilers mentioned above, and is validated against measured temperatures and carbon in ash concentrations. A mixing study has been performed in order to initiate an investigation of the potential of chemical engineering models to predict NO from pulverized fuel burners. (EG) 11 refs.

  7. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  8. CFD simulation of coal and straw co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Helle; Hvid, Søren L.; Larsen, Ejvind

    This paper presents the results of a major R&D program with the objective to develop CFD based tools to assess the impact of biomass co-firing in suspension fired pulverized coal power plants. The models have been developed through a series of Danish research projects with the overall objective...... to collect results from fundamental research and make it operational in boiler design through implementation in a Computational Fluid Dynamics based simulation tool. This paper summarizes the developments in modeling of; particle motion, particle conversion, ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces, and NOx...

  9. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Michael S.; Murtha, Marlyn J.

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  10. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, R; Menanteau, S

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>10(5) K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate.

  11. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, R., E-mail: romain.lemaire@mines-douai.fr; Menanteau, S. [Mines Douai, EI, F-59508 Douai (France)

    2016-01-15

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>10{sup 5} K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate.

  12. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  13. Field test corrosion experiences when co-firing straw and coal: 10 year status within Elsam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Berg; Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, Ole Hede

    2007-01-01

    and straw at the 150 MW pulverized coal fired boiler Studstrup unit 1. Two exposure series lasting 3000 hours each were performed for co-firing 10 and 20% of straw (% energy basis) with coal. Using built in test tubes in the hot end of the actual superheaters and air/water cooled corrosion probes...... to 575 degrees C and for the flue gas from 1025 to 1300 degrees C. All these test tubes have been removed during the last three years at one year intervals for corrosion studies. The corrosion studies performed on all investigated tubes included measurements of the corrosion attack, light optical...

  14. Research, development, demonstration, and early deployment policies for advanced-coal technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2007-01-01

    Advanced-coal technologies will increasingly play a significant role in addressing China's multiple energy challenges. This paper introduces the current status of energy in China, evaluates the research, development, and demonstration policies for advanced-coal technologies during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and gives policy prospects for advanced-coal technologies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Early deployment policies for advanced-coal technologies are discussed and some recommendations are put forward. China has made great progress in the development of advanced-coal technologies. In terms of research, development, and demonstration of advanced-coal technologies, China has achieved breakthroughs in developing and demonstrating advanced-coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, and key technologies of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and co-production systems. Progress on actual deployment of advanced-coal technologies has been more limited, in part due to insufficient supporting policies. Recently, industry chose Ultra Super Critical (USC) Pulverized Coal (PC) and Super Critical (SC) PC for new capacity coupled with pollution-control technology, and 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) as a supplement

  15. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  16. Effect of secondary fuels and combustor temperature on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff [Delft University Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Section Energy Technology, Department of Process and Energy

    2007-08-15

    The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion at 1000 and 1300{sup o}C. High volatile bituminous coal is used as a reference case and chicken manure, olive residue, and B quality (demolition) wood are used as secondary fuels with 10 and 20% thermal shares. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor with a fuel input of 7-8 kWth. Elemental and total gaseous mercury concentrations in the flue gas of the reactor are measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with other elemental and surface properties. Animal waste like chicken manure behaves very differently from plant waste. The higher chlorine contents of chicken manure cause higher ionic mercury concentrations whereas even with high unburnt carbon, particulate mercury reduces with increase in the chicken manure share. This might be a problem due to coarse fuel particles, low surface area, and iron contents. B-wood and olive residue cofiring reduces the emission of total gaseous mercury and increases particulate mercury capture due to unburnt carbon formed, fine particles, and iron contents of the ash. Calcium in chicken manure does not show any effect on particulate or gaseous mercury. It is probably due to a higher calcium sulfation rate in the presence of high sulfur and chlorine contents. However, in plant waste cofiring, calcium may have reacted with chlorine to reduce ionic mercury to its elemental form. According to thermodynamic predictions, almost 50% of the total ash is melted to form slag at 1300{sup o}C in cofiring because of high calcium, iron, and potassium and hence mercury and other remaining metals are concentrated in small amounts of ash and show an increase at higher temperatures. No slag formation was predicted at 1000{sup o}C. 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  18. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Laag, P.C. van der; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Ribberink, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R and D programmes on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO 2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency. (orig.)

  19. A model of the enhancement of coal combustion using high intensity acoustic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuzkurt, S.; Ha, M.Y.; Koopmann, G.H.; Scaroni, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a model for the enhancement of coal combustion in the presence of high intensity acoustics is developed. A high intensity acoustic field induces an oscillating velocity over pulverized coal particles otherwise entrained in the main gas stream, resulting in increased heat and mass transfer. The augmented heat and mass transfer coefficients, expressed as space- and time-averaged Nusselt and Sherwood numbers for the oscillating flow, were implemented in an existing computer code (PCGC-2) capable of predicting various aspects of pulverized coal combustion and gasification. Increases in the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers of about 45, 60 and 82.5% at sound pressure levels of 160, 165, and 170 dB for 100 μm coal particles were obtained due to increases in the acoustic slop velocity associated with the increased sound pressure levels. The main effect of the acoustic field was observed during the char combustion phase in a diffusionally controlled situation. A decrease in the char burnout length (time) of 15.7% at 160 dB and 30.2% at 170 dB was obtained compared to the case with no sound for the 100 μm coal particles

  20. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  1. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  2. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, D.K. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States); Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  3. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  4. Coal as a source of energy to alleviate the crisis facing the cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinert, N

    1979-01-01

    After recalling the importance of coal in the cement industry up until the end of the 1950s, and the regeneration of interest in this fuel, the author presents some views on the stocking of coal, on its preparation and on its application for firing. The advantages of linear stocking and of de-stocking by the 'front slice' method to ensure good homogenization are described. The precautions to be taken during the fine-grinding process and the transport of the pulverized coal in order to prevent coal-dust explosions are discussed. The main firing systems (direct, semi-direct and indirect) are discussed and their respective advantages and drawbacks examined. (In French)

  5. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust. Part 1: binder and briquetting-parameters evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Taulbee; D.P. Patil; Rick Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2009-01-15

    Various technical and economic aspects relating to the briquetting of fine coal with sawdust have been evaluated with the results for two segments of that study presented here: binder and briquetting-parameter evaluations. Approximately 50 potential binder formulations were subjected to a series of screening evaluations to identify three formulations that were the most cost effective for briquetting fine coal with sawdust. Two of the binders, guar gum and wheat starch, were selected as most suitable for the pulverized coal market while the third formulation, lignosulfonate/lime, was targeted for the stoker market. Following binder selection, a number of briquetting parameters including binder and sawdust concentration, sawdust type, briquetting pressure and dwell time, coal and sawdust particle size, clay content, moisture content, and cure temperature and cure time were evaluated. Briquetting pressure and dwell time have the least impact while binder and sawdust concentrations, sawdust type, and curing conditions exerted the greatest influence on briquette quality. 7 refs.

  6. Coal Combustion Behavior in New Ironmaking Process of Top Gas Recycling Oxygen Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenfeng; Xue, Qingguo; Tang, Huiqing; Wang, Guang; Wang, Jingsong

    2017-10-01

    The top gas recycling oxygen blast furnace (TGR-OBF) is a new ironmaking process which can significantly reduce the coke ratio and emissions of carbon dioxide. To better understand the coal combustion characteristics in the TGR-OBF, a three dimensional model was developed to simulate the lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway of a TGR-OBF. The combustion characteristics of pulverized coal in TGR-OBF were investigated. Furthermore, the effects of oxygen concentration and temperature were also analyzed. The simulation results show that the coal burnout increased by 16.23% compared to that of the TBF. The oxygen content has an obvious effect on the burnout. At 70% oxygen content, the coal burnout is only 21.64%, with a decrease of 50.14% compared to that of TBF. Moreover, the effect of oxygen temperature is also very obvious.

  7. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  8. Research program for an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility studies are conducted on the introduction of an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system into the Filipino electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector. The studies cover the current status of economy and energy in that country, supply and demand of coal, environmental protection and Government's policy, study of the above-said system relative to its application to the fields of electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector, and a study about the effective utilization of Filipino domestic coal by the use of the system. Imported coal is used in the electric power industry because of its cost and quality. It is learned after research, however, that domestic coal will be able to compete against imported coal when some technologies are resorted to, such as those pertinent to denitrification in the furnace, novel low-NOx burner, coal pulverization, and combustion diagnosis. As for the treatment of flue gas, it is concluded that the simplified wet lime/gypsum process will be suitable. It is inferred that the CWM (coal-water mixture) process technology will be effective for the utilization of domestic low-grade coal. (NEDO)

  9. Research program for an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility studies are conducted on the introduction of an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system into the Filipino electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector. The studies cover the current status of economy and energy in that country, supply and demand of coal, environmental protection and Government's policy, study of the above-said system relative to its application to the fields of electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector, and a study about the effective utilization of Filipino domestic coal by the use of the system. Imported coal is used in the electric power industry because of its cost and quality. It is learned after research, however, that domestic coal will be able to compete against imported coal when some technologies are resorted to, such as those pertinent to denitrification in the furnace, novel low-NOx burner, coal pulverization, and combustion diagnosis. As for the treatment of flue gas, it is concluded that the simplified wet lime/gypsum process will be suitable. It is inferred that the CWM (coal-water mixture) process technology will be effective for the utilization of domestic low-grade coal. (NEDO)

  10. An investigation into fuel pulverization with specific reference to high burn-up LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, Suresh; Turnbull, James; Noirot, Jean; Walker, Clive; Hallstadius, Lars; Waeckel, N.; Blanpain, P.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the phenomenon of high burn-up fuel pellet material potentially disintegrating into powder under a rapid temperature transient, such as in a LOCA-type accident scenario, two independent scoping studies were commissioned. The first was to investigate the effect of hydrostatic restraint pressure on Fission Gas Release (FGR) from small samples of highly irradiated fuel (71 MWd/kgU) during a series of rapid temperature ramps. Experimentally, when the FGR increased rapidly during the temperature transients, the fuel was assumed to be 'pulverized', i.e., fragmented into powder. In the second series of experiments, laser heating of small samples was used to investigate the temperature at which fuel pulverization was initiated. Subsequent to fuel disintegration, there was always a spectrum of particle sizes present. The significance of this observation was recognized in the context of extended burn-up operation in commercial reactors. Based on the observation from these investigations, a fuel fragmentation threshold has been discussed and developed. We conclude that fuel disintegration could be of potential importance in limiting the performance and productive lifetime of nuclear fuel. However, since only fuel closely adjacent to ballooned or ruptured cladding would be released in a LOCA-type transient, expulsion of pulverized fuel from the ruptured fuel rod is not considered a safety issue; cooling of the defected assembly remains possible and there is no issue with respect to local criticality. (author)

  11. ASPEN Plus simulation of coal integrated gasification combined blast furnace slag waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wenjun; Yu, Qingbo; Wang, Kun; Qin, Qin; Hou, Limin; Yao, Xin; Wu, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated system of coal gasification with slag waste heat recovery was proposed. • The goal of BF slag heat saving and emission reduction was achieved by this system. • The optimal parameters were obtained and the waste heat recovery rate reached 83.08%. • About 6.64 kmol/min syngas was produced when using one ton BF slag to provide energy. - Abstract: This article presented a model for the system of coal gasification with steam and blast furnace slag waste heat recovery by using the ASPEN Plus as the simulating and modeling tool. Constrained by mass and energy balance for the entire system, the model included the gasifier used to product syngas at the chemical equilibrium based on the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and the boiler used to recover the heat of the blast furnace slag (BF slag) and syngas. Two parameters of temperature and steam to coal ratio (S/C) were considered to account for their impacts on the Datong coal (DT coal) gasification process. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), cold gasification efficiency (CGE), syngas product efficiency (PE) and the heating value of syngas produced by 1 kg pulverized coal (HV) were adopted as the indicators to examine the gasification performance. The optimal operating temperature and S/C were 800 °C and 1.5, respectively. At this condition, CE reached above 90% and the maximum values of the CGE, PE and HV were all obtained. Under the optimal operating conditions, 1000 kg/min BF slag, about 40.41 kg/min DT pulverized coal and 77.94 kg/min steam were fed into the gasifier and approximate 6.64 kmol/min syngas could be generated. Overall, the coal was converted to clean syngas by gasification reaction and the BF slag waste heat was also recovered effectively (reached up to 83.08%) in this system, achieving the objective of energy saving and emission reduction

  12. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  13. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  14. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Izquierdo, Maria [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Shifeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); Wagner, Nicola J. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Taffarel, Silvio R.; Bizani, Delmar [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); and others

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO{sub 3} versus Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. - Highlights: • Coal waste geochemisty can provide increased environmental information in coal-mining areas. • Oxidation is the major process for mineral transformation in coal ashes. • The electron bean methodology has been applied to investigate neoformed minerals.

  15. Staged fluidized-bed coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmat, A.; Dorfman, L.; Shibayama, G.; Waibel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Staged Fluidized-Bed Coal Combustion System (ASC) is a novel clean coal technology for either coal-fired repowering of existing boilers or for incremental power generation using combined-cycle gas turbines. This new technology combines staged combustion for gaseous emission control, in-situ sulfur capture, and an ash agglomeration/vitrification process for the agglomeration/vitrification of ash and spent sorbent, thus rendering solid waste environmentally benign. The market for ASC is expected to be for clean coal-fired repowering of generating units up to 250 MW, especially for units where space is limited. The expected tightening of the environmental requirements on leachable solids residue by-products could considerably increase the marketability for ASC. ASC consists of modular low-pressure vessels in which coal is partially combusted and gasified using stacked fluidized-bed processes to produce low-to-medium-Btu, high-temperature gas. This relatively clean fuel gas is used to repower/refuel existing pulverized-coal, natural gas, or oil-fired boilers using bottom firing and reburning techniques. The benefits of ASC coal-fired repowering include the ability to repower boilers without obtaining additional space while meeting the more stringent environmental requirements of the future. Low NO x , SO x , and particulate levels are expected while a nonleachable solid residue with trace metal encapsulation is produced. ASC also minimizes boiler modification and life-extension expenditures. Repowered efficiencies can be restored to the initial operating plant efficiency, and the existing boiler capacity can be increased by 10%. Preliminary cost estimates indicate that ASC will have up to a $250/kW capital cost advantage over existing coal-fired repowering options. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 1, sections 1--5: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. [ed.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles? What determines their composition? Whether or not particles deposit? How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes? remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  17. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  18. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  19. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  20. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  1. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  2. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  3. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  4. Relevance of Clean Coal Technology for India’s Energy Security: A Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Tiwari, Vineet; Vishwanathan, Saritha

    2017-07-01

    Climate change mitigation regimes are expected to impose constraints on the future use of fossil fuels in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2015, 41% of total final energy consumption and 64% of power generation in India came from coal. Although almost a sixth of the total coal based thermal power generation is now super critical pulverized coal technology, the average CO2 emissions from the Indian power sector are 0.82 kg-CO2/kWh, mainly driven by coal. India has large domestic coal reserves which give it adequate energy security. There is a need to find options that allow the continued use of coal while considering the need for GHG mitigation. This paper explores options of linking GHG emission mitigation and energy security from 2000 to 2050 using the AIM/Enduse model under Business-as-Usual scenario. Our simulation analysis suggests that advanced clean coal technologies options could provide promising solutions for reducing CO2 emissions by improving energy efficiencies. This paper concludes that integrating climate change security and energy security for India is possible with a large scale deployment of advanced coal combustion technologies in Indian energy systems along with other measures.

  5. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Grasping the present situation of coal utilization technology in the Philippines, the paper proposed a feasibility study of introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system which seems to be needed in the future. (1) Introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the electric power generation sector: there are only four full-scale running coal thermal power plants in the Philippines. In the future, several coal thermal plants are planned to be constructed by 2005, but for the new installation, it is desirable to adopt fluidized bed boilers with wide application to coal kinds. In case of 0.3-1.0 million MW class plants, it is planned to adopt high grade import coals, and it will be natural to fire pulverized coal. For the processing of flue gas, it is a must to install desulfurization facilities and smoke/soot removal devices. (2) Utilization/development of domestic low grade coals: at the mine-mouth generating plant, it is necessary to investigate the economically minable amount of coal, confirm productivity, survey coal quality, etc., and select boiler. As to coal briquetting technology, it is necessary to examine coal quality for tests and make a thorough study of what technology is most suitable. 50 figs., 78 tabs.

  6. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  7. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the coal combustion in a boiler of a thermal power plant using different kinds of the manufactured coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da; Lazzari, Luis Carlos; Ziemniczak, Aline; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: cristiano@uricer.edu.br, arthur@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The state of the art in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of commercial codes encourage numerical studies of combustion processes. In the present work the commercial software CFX Ansys Europe Ltd. has been used to study the combustion of pulverized coal into the boiler of a thermal power plant. The objective of this work is to obtain new information for process optimization. Different kinds of manufactured coals were numerically tested in a thermal power plant installed at the southeast region of Brazil. The simulations were made using the actual burning conditions of the boiler. Results include the residence time of the fuel into the combustion chamber, temperature fields, flow fluid mechanics, heat transfer and pollutant formation, as well as the CO and NOx concentrations, aiming to determinate the best conditions to burn the investigated coals. The numerical investigation of the phenomena involved on the coal combustion processes are used to complete the experimental information obtained in operational tests. Considering the characteristics of different kinds of manufactured coals used, with this study is possible to achieve the most efficient boiler operation parameters, with decreasing costs of electricity production and reduction of environmentally harmful emissions. It was verified that the different kinds of manufactured coals demand different operation conditions, and the kind of manufactured coal used on the combustion process has a significant effect on the pollutant formation, mainly in rel action with ash concentration. (author)

  8. Coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals to solve problems of air pollution by coal thermal power stations and boiler plants: An introductory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    This introductory study presents the analysis of the environmental, economic and energy performance indicators of burning high-potential coal water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP) instead of coal, fuel oil, and natural gas at typical thermal power stations (TPS) and a boiler plant. We focus on the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions of coal power industry: sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The research findings show that these emissions may be several times lower if coal and oil processing wastes are mixed with water as compared to the combustion of traditional pulverized coal, even of high grades. The study focuses on wastes, such as filter cakes, oil sludge, waste industrial oils, heavy coal-tar products, resins, etc., that are produced and stored in abundance. Their deep conversion is very rare due to low economic benefit. Effective ways are necessary to recover such industrial wastes. We present the cost assessment of the changes to the heat and power generation technologies that are required from typical power plants for switching from coal, fuel oil and natural gas to CWSPs based on coal and oil processing wastes. The corresponding technological changes pay off after a short time, ranging from several months to several years. The most promising components for CWSP production have been identified, which provide payback within a year. Among these are filter cakes (coal processing wastes), which are produced as a ready-made coal-water slurry fuel (a mixture of flocculants, water, and fine coal dust). These fuels have the least impact on the environment in terms of the emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as fly ash. An important conclusion of the study is that using CWSPs based on filter cakes is worthwhile both as the main fuel for thermal power stations and boiler plants and as starting fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinctive features of high-ash bituminuos coals combution with low milling fineness in furnace chambers with bottom blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zroychikov, N. A.; Kaverin, A. A.; Biryukov, Ya A.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays the problem of improvement of pulverized coal combustion schemes is an actual one for national power engineering, especially for combustion of coals with low milling fineness with significant portion of moisture or mineral impurities. In this case a big portion of inert material in the fuel may cause impairment of its ignition and combustion. In addition there are a lot of boiler installations on which nitrogen oxides emission exceeds standard values significantly. Decreasing of milling fineness is not without interest as a way of lowering an electric energy consumption for pulverization, which can reach 30% of power plant’s auxiliary consumption of electricity. Development of a combustion scheme meeting the requirements both for effective coal burning and environmental measures (related to NOx emission) is a complex task and demands compromising between these two factors, because implementation of NOx control by combustion very often leads to rising of carbon-in-ash loss. However widespread occurrence of such modern research technique as computer modeling allows to conduct big amount of variants calculations of combustion schemes with low cost and find an optimum. This paper presents results of numerical research of combined schemes of coal combustion with high portion of inert material based on straight-flow burners and nozzles. Several distinctive features of furnace aerodynamics, heat transfer and combustion has been found. The combined scheme of high-ash bituminouos coals combustion with low milling fineness, which allows effective combustion of pointed type of fuels with nitrogen oxides emission reduction has been proposed.

  10. pulver: an R package for parallel ultra-rapid p-value computation for linear regression interaction terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnos, Sophie; Baumbach, Clemens; Wahl, Simone; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Strauch, Konstantin; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Waldenberger, Melanie; Meitinger, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Suhre, Karsten; Peters, Annette; Grallert, Harald; Theis, Fabian J; Gieger, Christian

    2017-09-29

    Genome-wide association studies allow us to understand the genetics of complex diseases. Human metabolism provides information about the disease-causing mechanisms, so it is usual to investigate the associations between genetic variants and metabolite levels. However, only considering genetic variants and their effects on one trait ignores the possible interplay between different "omics" layers. Existing tools only consider single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-SNP interactions, and no practical tool is available for large-scale investigations of the interactions between pairs of arbitrary quantitative variables. We developed an R package called pulver to compute p-values for the interaction term in a very large number of linear regression models. Comparisons based on simulated data showed that pulver is much faster than the existing tools. This is achieved by using the correlation coefficient to test the null-hypothesis, which avoids the costly computation of inversions. Additional tricks are a rearrangement of the order, when iterating through the different "omics" layers, and implementing this algorithm in the fast programming language C++. Furthermore, we applied our algorithm to data from the German KORA study to investigate a real-world problem involving the interplay among DNA methylation, genetic variants, and metabolite levels. The pulver package is a convenient and rapid tool for screening huge numbers of linear regression models for significant interaction terms in arbitrary pairs of quantitative variables. pulver is written in R and C++, and can be downloaded freely from CRAN at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/pulver/ .

  11. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  12. Coal statistics 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statistical Office of the European Communities

    1978-01-01

    Presents tables of data relating to the coal market in the European Community in 1977. The tables cover hard coal production, supply and trade; briquettes; cokes; lignite, brown coal briquettes and peat; and mines and coke ovens.

  13. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  14. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  15. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  16. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  17. Liquid carbon dioxide/pulverized limestone globulsion delivery system for deep ocean storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swett, P.; Golomb, D.; Barry, E.; Ryan, D.; Lawton, C. [Massachusetts Univ., Lowell, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Ocean storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) raises serious environmental, technical and economic problems because a massive point injection of pure liquid CO{sub 2} at depth would create a plume of carbonic acid with a pH lower than 7. Acidified seawater is considered to be harmful to aquatic organisms. Laboratory studies have shown that injecting a globulsion consisting of CO{sub 2}, water (H{sub 2}O) and calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) instead of pure liquid CO{sub 2} results in an alkaline reaction rather than an acidic reaction. Because calcium carbonate and bicarbonate are natural ingredients of seawater, there is no expected harm due to the additive limestone. This paper presented a practical delivery system for the underwater creation of globulsion. When liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2} is mixed with a slurry of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) in pure or seawater, a macro-emulsion is formed consisting of CO{sub 2} droplets coated with CaCO{sub 3} particles dispersed in water. In this study, liquid CO{sub 2} was piped to approximately 500 m depth, which is below the flash point of liquid CO{sub 2} into vapor. A slurry of pulverized limestone in seawater was also separately piped to this depth. A static mixer was mounted at the end of the pipes. Liquid CO{sub 2}, along with a slurry of pulverized limestone and ambient seawater were pumped into the mixer by a turbine. The globulsion exited from the other end of the mixer and sank like a dense plume to greater depths while entraining ambient seawater. The CaCO{sub 3}-coated globules precipitated from the neutrally buoyant plume toward the ocean bottom following equilibration. As such, the ocean was not be acidified with this method of CO{sub 2} discharging. It was concluded that even inland seas, such as the Mediterranean and Black Seas, could be considered for sequestration of a CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/CaCO{sub 3} globulsion. Although adding pulverized limestone to liquid CO{sub 2} and the mixing

  18. Baseload coal investment decisions under uncertain carbon legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerson, Joule A; Lave, Lester B

    2007-05-15

    More than 50% of electricity in the U.S. is generated by coal. The U.S. has large coal resources, the cheapest fuel in most areas. Coal fired power plants are likely to continue to provide much of U.S. electricity. However, the type of power plant that should be built is unclear. Technology can reduce pollutant discharges and capture and sequester the CO2 from coal-fired generation. The U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides incentives for large scale commercial deployment of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems (e.g., loan guarantees and project tax credits). This analysis examines whether a new coal plant should be Pulverized Coal (PC) or IGCC. Do stricter emissions standards (PM, SO2, NOx, Hg) justify the higher costs of IGCC over PC? How does potential future carbon legislation affect the decision to add carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology? Finally, can the impact of uncertain carbon legislation be minimized? We find that SO2, NOx, PM, and Hg emission standards would have to be far more stringent than twice current standards to justify the increased costs of the IGCC system. A C02 tax less than $29/ton would lead companies to continuing to choose PC, paying the tax for emitted CO2. The earlier a decision-maker believes the carbon tax will be imposed and the higher the tax, the more likely companies will choose IGCC w/CCS. Having government announce the date and level of a carbon tax would promote more sensible decisions, but government would have to use a tax or subsidy to induce companies to choose the technology that is best for society.

  19. Numerical simulations of a large scale oxy-coal burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Taeyoung [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of). Energy System R and D Group; Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering; Park, Sanghyun; Ryu, Changkook [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering; Yang, Won [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of). Energy System R and D Group

    2013-07-01

    Oxy-coal combustion is one of promising carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies that uses oxygen and recirculated CO{sub 2} as an oxidizer instead of air. Due to difference in physical properties between CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, the oxy-coal combustion requires development of burner and boiler based on fundamental understanding of the flame shape, temperature, radiation and heat flux. For design of a new oxy-coal combustion system, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an essential tool to evaluate detailed combustion characteristics and supplement experimental results. In this study, CFD analysis was performed to understand the combustion characteristics inside a tangential vane swirl type 30 MW coal burner for air-mode and oxy-mode operations. In oxy-mode operations, various compositions of primary and secondary oxidizers were assessed which depended on the recirculation ratio of flue gas. For the simulations, devolatilization of coal and char burnout by O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O were predicted with a Lagrangian particle tracking method considering size distribution of pulverized coal and turbulent dispersion. The radiative heat transfer was solved by employing the discrete ordinate method with the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGGM) optimized for oxy-coal combustion. In the simulation results for oxy-model operation, the reduced swirl strength of secondary oxidizer increased the flame length due to lower specific volume of CO{sub 2} than N{sub 2}. The flame length was also sensitive to the flow rate of primary oxidizer. The oxidizer without N{sub 2} that reduces thermal NO{sub x} formation makes the NO{sub x} lower in oxy-mode than air-mode. The predicted results showed similar trends with measured temperature profiles for various oxidizer compositions. Further numerical investigations are required to improve the burner design combined with more detailed experimental results.

  20. 1982 Australian coal conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  1. Properties of palm oil fuel ash cement sand brick containing pulverized cockle shell as partial sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Aris, S.; Muthusamy, K.; Uzer, A.; Ahmad, S. Wan

    2018-04-01

    Environmental pollution caused by the disposal of solid wastes generated from both palm oil industry and cockle shell trade has motivated researches to explore the potential of these wastes. Integrating these wastes in production of construction material is one of the ways to reduce amount of waste thrown at dumping area. Thus, the present investigation investigates the performance of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) cement sand brick containing pulverized cockle shell as partial fine aggregate replacement. All mixes used contain 20% of POFA as partial cement replacement. Total of six mixes were prepared by adding a range of pulverized cockle shell that is 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% as partial sand replacement. The mixes were prepared in form of brick. All the water cured samples were tested for compressive strength and flexural strength until 28 days. Findings show that brick produced using 20% pulverized cockle shell exhibit the highest compressive strength and flexural strength also the lowest water absorption value.

  2. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Development of a coal liquefaction technology (Liquefaction performance test on Chinese coals); 1988 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu, Chugokutan ekika seino shiken seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    Development has been carried out on a Chinese coal liquefaction technology jointly by Japan and China. The Japanese side fabricated and built a small continuous testing equipment. Shenbei coal produced in Liaoning Province, Tienju coal produced in Gansu Province and Shenmu coal produced in Shaanxi Province were used as test sample coals. These coals were crushed, washed with water, sorted, dried, pulverized below 100 mesh, and used as the test samples. For catalysts, a reagent Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and S as an auxiliary catalyst made in China were used. Anthracene oil freed from crystal was used as a starting solvent when making one-through operation and recycling operation. Hydrogen used had purity of 99.5% or higher. The current fiscal year has performed smoothly to the end either of the one-through operation or the solvent circulating operation on RUN-2200, 2300 (Chenbei coal) and 2,400, 2500 (Tienju coal). Operation of 2600, 2700 (Shenmu coal) experienced noise in the stirrer of the reactor, and leakage of the circulating gas from the recycled gas compressor. In addition, the differential pressure during operating the last run has increased to 50 k, when the temperature and pressure were reduced, and substances clogging the reactor inlet line were removed. Three kinds of the liquefied oils were brought back to Japan for detailed analyses. (NEDO)

  3. Characteristic Study of Some Different Kinds of Coal Particles Combustion with Online TG-MS-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guanfu

    2018-01-01

    Four kinds of pulverized coal samples from China and Indonesia were studied by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-MS-FTIR). The thermal behaviors and gaseous emissions of these coals were analyzed in this work. The results indicate that the relative lower values of H/C ratios, which normally represent the degree of aromatization and ring condensation in coal samples, could lead to the relative more intense thermal reaction. The time-evolved profiles of some typical gas products (i.e., CO, SO2, CH4, NO, NO2, NH3 and etc.) were provided by TG-MS-FTIR, and their variations are different. For all the samples, the releases of SO2 and COS can be found at lower temperature than those of NO and CO. As the temperature increases, the possible conversion of NO2 and NH3 to NO is deduced in this work.

  4. A study on the compressive and tensile strength of foamed concrete containing pulverized bone as a partial replacement of cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falade, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, structural properties of foamed aerated concrete with and without pulverized bone were investigated. These properties are workability, plastic and testing densities, compressive strength, and tensile strength at the design density of 1600kg/m/sub 3/. The tensile strength was evaluated by subjecting 150 x 150 x750mm unreinforced foamed concrete beams to flexural test and 150x300mm cylinder specimens were subjected to splitting test. 150mm cube specimens were used for the determination of both the compressive strength and the testing density of the foamed aerated concrete. The plastic density was investigated using a container of known volume, and its workability determined using the slump test. The pulverized bone content was varied from 0 to 20% at interval of 5%. The specimens without the pulverized bone served as the control. At the designed density of 1600 kg/m/sub 3/, the results for the control specimens at 28-day curing age are 15.43 and 13.89N/mm/sub 2/ for air-and water-cured specimens respectively. The modulus of rupture and splitting tensile strength are 2.53 and 1.63N/mm/sub 2/ respectively. The results for specimens with pulverized bone did not differ significantly from the specimens without pulverized bone. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that foamed aerated concrete used for this study has potential for structural applications. Also pulverized bone can be used to reduce (partially replace) the quantity of cement used in aerated concrete production; thus ridding our environment of potentially harmful wastes, as well as reduce the consumption of non-renewable resources. (author)

  5. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  6. Utilization of brown coal in FRG power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1985-07-01

    FRG methods are studied for utilizing brown coal in view of the development of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal deposits. The use of brown coal in FRG power plants has increased from 15% in 1950- 1960 to 85% (total output) in 1982, providing 79.4 TWh of electrical energy. The remainder was used for briquetting, pulverization and breeze coke. In 1982 nearly 100 million tons of brown coal were burned by six large power stations (rated capacity 11,400 MW) to produce nearly 80 billion kWh of energy. Measures are discussed taken to reduce slagging and to remove excessive moisture content. Problems are analyzed associated with increased contamination of the atmosphere in areas with high population density (412/km/sup 2/) and cost of suppression is reviewed. According to available data, the cost of preventive measures taken by FRG, USA, Japan and the Netherlands is equal to 30% of the total cost of the energy. The most critical problem is suppression of sulfur dioxide, either by dry or wet scrubbers or by the addition of dry dolomite or lime to the furnace (75% of all SO/sub 2/ emissions in FRG comes from power stations). A method is described developed by RWE based on a series of distribution headers in the upper part of combustion chambers. At best, 70-80% reduction can be achieved. 14 references.

  7. Ultravitrinite coals from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapo, A.V.; Letushova, I.A.

    1979-03-01

    Chemical and petrographic analysis was conducted on coals from the Anadyrya and Bukhti Ugol'noi deposits. Characteristics of the most prevalent type of vitrinite coals in both regions are presented here. Anadyrya coals belong to a transitional phase between brown coal and long flame. Ultravitrinite coals predominate. Gas coals from Bukti Ugol'noi have a higher carbon content than Anadyrya coals. They also have a higher hydrogen content and yield of initial resin. In several cases there was also a higher yield of volatile substances. Chukotka coals are characterized by a 10 percent higher initial resin yield than equally coalified Donetsk coals, other indicators were equal to those of Donetsk coals. Because of this, Chukotka coals are suitable for fuel in power plants and as raw materials in the chemical industry. (15 refs.) (In Russian)

  8. SYSTEM OF PRECISE DOSING OF COAGULANT IN THE PULVERIZING AERATOR POWERED BY WIND USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Osuch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods used to support land restoration lakes is the method of pulverizing aeration. Use of aerators powered exclusively by wind improves the condition of reservoirs, while not compromising the environment. The pulverizing aeration process drive is windy on the water aeration zone near bottom, while removing harmful gases anaerobic metabolism. Aerators of this type due to the unique method of operation also enable dosing of inactivation coagulants with oxygenated water to the depths of the lake. Mileage coagulant dosing can be made dependent on the speed of the wind, which has an impact on the performance of his work, because with the increase of wind speed dispensing valve coagulants should be stronger open. One of the methods for assessing the state of lakes is to measure water transparency. The softer visibility, the most likely state of the water is better. Dosage of coagulant so you can make the transparency of the water. Similarly, with increasing transparency water dispensing valve should be more covered up. Control of the drain valve dispenser coagulant can be simultaneously dependent on two factors. The study was designed method of control drain valve dispenser coagulant using fuzzy inference.

  9. Raw mix designing for coal as a fuel in cement kiln as a major fuel and its impact on clinker parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor-ul-Amin; Ali, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the use of coal, found at Jabba Taar and Jabba Khushk Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa, in cement manufacturing as a major fuel and its impacts on the raw mix and clinker parameters has been discussed. The maximum amount of coal for pulverizing with raw mix was found to be 10% of the raw mix as calculated from the calorific value and the heat of clinkerization of coal. The coal residue left after burning was utilized in the cement raw material, for which a new raw mix was designed. The new raw mix was converted in to clinker. The resulting clinker was studied for all parameters as per British specification. It was found that the clinker obtained from the newly designed raw mix with coal ash, was in accordance to the British standard specifications. (author)

  10. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both the ash and sulfur contents of run-of-mine coals. The extent of cleaning depends on the liberation characteristics of the coal, which generally improve with reducing particle size. however, since most of the advanced technologies are wet processes, the clean coal product must be dewatered before it can be transported and burned in conventional boilers. This additional treatment step significantly increases the processing cost and makes the industrial applicability of these advanced technologies much less attractive. In order to avoid problems associated with fine coal dewatering, researchers at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a novel triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process that can remove mineral matter from dry coal. In this technique, finely pulverized coal is brought into contact with a material (such as copper) having a work function intermediate to that of the carbonaceous material and associated mineral matter. Carbonaceous particles having a relatively low work function become positively charged, while particles of mineral matter having significantly higher work functions become negatively charged. once the particles become selectively charged, a separation can be achieved by passing the particle stream through an electrically charged field. Details related to the triboelectrostatic charging phenomenon have been discussed elsewhere (Inculet, 1984).

  11. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  12. Characteristic Study of Shenmu Bituminous Coal Combustion with Online TG-MS-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guanfu

    2018-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of Shenmu bituminous pulverized coal (SBC) were comprehensively investigated with a combined TG-MS-FTIR system by considering the effect of particle size, heating rate and total flowrate. The combustion products were accurately quantified by normalization and numerical analysis of MS results. The results indicate that the decrease of the particle size, heating rate and total flowrate result in lower ignition and burnout temperatures. The activation energy tends to be lower with smaller particle size, lower heating rate and total flowrate. The MS and FTIR results demonstrate that lower concentrations of different products, such as NO, NO2, HCN, CH4 and SO2 were produced with smaller particle size, slower heating rate and lower total flowrate. The decrease of particle size would lead to more contact area with oxygen and slower heating rate could provide more sufficient time for the diffusion. High total flowrate would reduce the oxygen adsorbability on the coal particle surface and shorten the residence time of oxygen, which makes the ignition difficult to occur. This work will guide to understand the combustion kinetics of pulverized coals and be beneficial to control the formation of pollutants.

  13. Utilizing Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel for industrial steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie B. Maglaya [De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-01-01

    The fast depletion of fuel oil and the continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. In the Philippines, the demand for diesel oil is expected to increase significantly in a 20-year period as projected by the Department of Energy. In line with the Philippine Government's thrust to lessen the dependence on imported energy, the agenda for the search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus, this paper presents the results of the study on performance analysis and efficiency test of a diesel oil fired industrial steam generator using Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel. A computer program was developed in HyperText Markup Language (HTML{copyright}) and JavaScript{copyright} to aid the computation of the adiabatic flame temperature from the governing system of equations based on the heat interaction between CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion to determine the most desirable alternative fuel. Actual experimentation for the determination of CDOM fuel properties was also conducted to verify the alternative fuel selected through theoretical calculations. Results showed that the CDOM fuel with a particle size passing 75 {mu}m (-200 mesh) sieve having a proportion of 5% pulverized coal-95% diesel oil and 10% pulverized coal-90% diesel oil could be handled throughout the test with no degradation of the industrial steam generator. The steam generator efficiency using diesel oil is close to the steam generator efficiency using both CDOM fuels. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Record coking coal settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  15. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  16. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  17. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  18. Coal information 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive reference book on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects to 2010. It contains an in-depth analysis of the 1995 international coal market covering prices, demand, trade, supply and production capacity as well as over 450 pages of country specific statistics on OECD and key non-OECD coal producing and consuming countries. The book also includes a summary of environmental policies on climate change and on coal-related air quality issues as well as essential facts on coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions, on coal ports world-wide and on emission standards for coal-fired boilers in OECD countries. Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Oil and Gas Information and Electricity Information. Coal Information 1995 is published in July 1996. (author)

  19. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  20. Next-generation coal utilization technology development study. Environmentally-friendly coal combustion technology; O2/CO2 combustion technology; Sekitan riyo jisedai gijutsu kaihatsu chosa. Kankyo chowagata sekitan nensho gijutsu (sanso nensho gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    For the purpose of developing combustion systems in which environmental pollutants are less emitted from coal-fired boilers, conducted in fiscal 1994 were a study of load followability of oxygen producing equipment, and element and basic tests on oxygen combustion systems. Dynamic simulations were made to confirm load followability of low-purity oxygen producing equipment. Further, a test was made on starting time of oxygen producing equipment. As a result of the simulation, favorable load followability was confirmed except for some of the process. The width of variation of the product oxygen purity was {plus_minus} 0.7% at maximum. In the element test on oxygen combustion systems, an experiment on the oxygen combustion using pulverized coal was conducted to study heat collection characteristics of furnace and response to multi-kind of coal. A study of balance of S content, experiments on characteristics of crushing/transporting pulverized coal, etc. were added. There were seen no peculiar differences in CO2 transport and air transport. 216 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Cost and performance of coal-based energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temchin, J.; DeLallo, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) efforts to establish the strategic benefits of Clean Coal Technologies (CCT), there is a need to evaluate the specific market potential where coal is a viable option. One such market is Brazil, where significant growth in economic development requires innovative and reliable technologies to support the use of domestic coal. While coal is Brazil's most abundant and economic fossil energy resource, it is presently under utilized in the production of electrical power. This report presents conceptual design for pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) options with resulting capital, operating and financial parameters based on Brazil application conditions. Recent PC and CFBC plant capital costs have dropped with competition in the generation market and have established a competitive position in power generation. Key issues addressed in this study include: Application of market based design approach for FBC and PC, which is competitive within the current domestic, and international power generation markets. Design, fabrication, purchase, and construction methods which reduce capital investment while maintaining equipment quality and plant availability. Impact on coast and performance from application of Brazilian coals, foreign trade and tax policies, construction logistics, and labor requirements. Nominal production values of 200 MWe and 400 MWe were selected for the CFBC power plant and 400 MWe for the PC. The 400 MWe size was chosen to be consistent with the two largest Brazilian PC units. Fluidized bed technology, with limited experience in single units over 200 MW, would consist of two 200 MWe circulating fluidized bed boilers supplying steam to one steam turbine for the 400 MWe capacity. A 200 MWe capacity unit was also developed for CFBC option to support opportunities in re-powering and where specific site or other infrastructure constraints limit production

  2. Numerical study of aerodynamics and brown coal combustion in the vortex furnace with air excess variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasinsky Denis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerical modelling of 3D turbulent two-phase reacting flow with account for all the principal heat and mass transfer processes during the pulverized brown coal combustion in the vortex furnace of a power plant boiler unit have been presented. For two computational cases where air excess coefficient α was varied (set to 1.15 and 1.25, the detailed aerothermochemical 3D structure of reacting flow in the furnace volume has been revealed. The comparison of integral heat engineering parameters and NOx emissions obtained in the two cases has shown a slightly improved vortex furnace performance in the case α=1.25.

  3. ACR coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference document on production, exports, prices and demand of coal in world markets. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is provided. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, Canada, Indonesia, China, C.I.S. and Colombia. A very comprehensive coal quality specification for nearly all the coal brands exported from Australia, as well as leading non-Australian coal brands, is included.

  4. Co-firing straw with coal in a swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner: modelling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling study of co-firing wheat straw with coal in a 150 kW swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner flow reactor, in which the pulverized straw particles (mean diameter of 451μm) and coal particles (mean diameter of 110.4μm...... conversion. It is found that for pulverized biomass particles of a few hundred microns in diameter the intra-particle heat and mass transfer is a secondary issue at most in their conversion, and the global four-step mechanism of Jones and Lindstedt may be better used in modelling volatiles combustion......-lean core zone; whilst the coal particles are significantly affected by secondary air jet and swirled into the oxygen-rich outer radius with increased residence time (in average, 8.1s for coal particles vs. 5.2s for straw particles in the 3m high reactor). Therefore, a remarkable difference in the overall...

  5. Impact of coal fly ash addition on ash transformation and deposition in a full-scale wood suspension-firing boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Ash transformation and deposition during pulverized wood combustion in a full-scale power plant boiler of 800 MWth were studied with and without the addition of coal fly ash. The transient ash deposition behavior was characterized by using an advanced deposit probe system at two boiler locations...... constant after a few hours. The formed deposits, especially those at the location with low flue gas temperatures, contained a considerable amount of K2SO4, KCl, and KOH/K2CO3. With the addition of a large amount (about 4 times of the mass flow of wood ash) of coal fly ash to the boiler, these alkali...

  6. Study on the influence of electromagnetic field on the property of coal combustion burnout in circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Y. [Ruiping Coal and Electric Power Ltd. Co., Ruzhou (China)

    2008-08-15

    To study the influences of electromagnetism field pretreatment of pulverized Coal (EFPPC) on the properties of its combustion, thermogravimetric analysis, a Muffle furnace experiment and an X-ray diffraction experiment were carried out for three Coal banks. It was shown that EFPPC will induce the molecular structure of Coal to change into amorphous carbon, which causes an increase in the rate of oxygen absorption during the initial stages of Coal burning and reaction activity. It is also shown that the residual carbon of bituminous Coal would be increased by about 0.33% - 0.41%, i.e, the loss of standard Coal is about 3,000 t/a for double 480 t/h boilers, when applying EFPPC for 1 min at a temperature of 800 - 1,000 {sup o}C. When the temperature increases 200 {sup o}C, the residual carbon increases by about 2.07% but the effect of EFPPC is less than 0.21% for bituminous Coal and residual carbon is about 1.47% and the effect of EFPPC is less than 0.05% for lean Coal. Therefore the effect of increasing the temperature of EFPPC on residual carbon is less than that of increasing the time of EFPPC. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Report for fiscal 1994 by gasification technology subcommittee, Coal Gasification Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    As the result of a RUN-9 operation in the research on technologies for hydrogen production from coal and for pilot plants, it is found that the Muswellbrook, Datong, and Blair Athol coals are all suitable for gasification in pilot plants. Their handlability is considerably improved when the grain sizes after crushing are allowed to remain coarse (with the Blair Athol coal still retaining some disadvantage). A concept design is prepared for a HYCOL (hydrogen from coal) process demonstration plant. The reference coal is an imported coal similar to the Taiheiyo coal, and the hydrogen production target is set at 1-million m{sup 3}N/d (590t/d in terms of Taiheiyo coal) and hydrogen purity at 95% or higher. The whole process consists of coal gasification (with oxygen serving as gasification agent), dedusting, conversion to CO, desulfurization and decarboxylation (recovery of sulfur), and methanation. The gasification furnace is a 1-chamber entrained bed type with a 2-stage gyration flow. Dried and pulverized coal is conveyed aboard an air flow into the gasification furnace, where it is thrown into partial combustion reaction with the gasification agent for gasification in a high-temperature zone (1,500-1,600 degrees C), and the ash is taken out as slag. The generated gas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler, dedusted in a cyclone dust filter, and then forwarded to the washing unit. (NEDO)

  8. Numerical investigation of influence thermal preparation coal on nitric oxides formation in combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernetskaya, N. [Siberian Federal Univ., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Chernetsky, M.; Dekterev, A. [Siberian Federal Univ., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides from coal combustion are a major environmental problem because they have been shown to contribute to the formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. Coal thermalpreparation before furnace delivery is effective method to reduce NOx emissions, shown by experiments in small-scale facilities (Babiy VI, Alaverdov PI, Influence of thermal preparation pulverized coal on nitric oxides outlet for combustion different metamorphized coal. ATI, 1983). This paper presents the mathematical model of burning thermal preparation coal. Validation of the model was carried out on laboratory-scale plant of All-Russia thermal engineering institute. Modeling of low-emissive burner with preliminary heating coal dust is made for the purpose of search of burner optimal constructions which provides low concentration of nitric oxides in the boiler. For modeling are used in-house CFD code ''{sigma}Flow'' (Dekterev AA, Gavrilov AA, Harlamov EB, Litvintcev KY, J Comput Technol 8(Part 1):250-255, 2003).

  9. Fuel characterization requirements for cofiring biomass in coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinzing, D.E.; Tillman, D.A.; Harding, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    The cofiring of biofuels with coal in existing boilers, or the cofiring of biofuels in combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) systems presents significant potential benefits to utilities, including reductions in SO 2 and NO x emissions as a function of reducing the mass flow of sulfur and nitrogen to the boiler, reducing CO 2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels; potentially reducing fuel costs both by the availability of wood residues and by the fact that biofuels are exempt from the proposed BTU tax; and providing support to industrial customers from the forest products industry. At the same time, cofiring requires careful attention to the characterization of the wood and coal, both singly and in combination. This paper reviews characterization requirements associated with cofiring biofuels and fossil fuels in boilers and CCCT installations with particular attention not only to such concerns as sulfur, nitrogen, moisture, and Btu content, but also to such issues as total ash content, base/acid ratio of the wood ash and the coal ash, alkali metal content in the wood ash and wood fuel (including converted fuels such as low Btu gas or pyrolytic oil), slagging and fouling indices, ash fusion temperature, and trace metal contents in the wood and coal. The importance of each parameter is reviewed, along with potential consequences of a failure to adequately characterize these parameters. The consequences of these parameters are reviewed with attention to firing biofuels with coal in pulverized coal (PC) and cyclone boilers, and firing biofuels with natural gas in CCCT installations

  10. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  11. Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of coal-water slurries. Final project report, 1 September 1989--28 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.; Metghalchi, H.; Cumper, J.; Atal, A.; Estrada, K.R.; Murphy, B.; Steciak, J.; Hottel, H.C.; Simons, G.

    1993-07-01

    To conduct studies on the combustion of coal water fuels (CWFs) an appropriate facility was designed and constructed. The main components were (1) a high-temperature isothermal laminar flow furnace that facilitates observation of combustion events in its interior. The design of this system and its characterization are described in Chapter 1. (2) Apparatus for slurry droplet/agglomerate particle generation and introduction in the furnace. These devices are described in Chapters 1 and 3 and other attached publications. (3) An electronic optical pyrometer whose design, construction theory of operation, calibration and performance are presented in Chapter 2. (4) A multitude of other accessories, such as particle fluidization devices, a suction thermometer, a velocimeter, high speed photographic equipment, calibration devices for the pyrometer, etc., are described throughout this report. Results on the combustion of CWF droplets and CWF agglomerates made from micronized coal are described in Chapter 3. In the same chapter the combustion of CWF containing dissolved calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) axe described. The combustion behavior of pre-dried CWF agglomerates of pulverized grain coal is contrasted to that of agglomerates of micronized coal in Chapter 4. In the same chapter the combustion of agglomerates of carbon black and diesel soot is discussed as well. The effect of CMA on the combustion of the above materials is also discussed. Finally, the sulfur capture capability of CMA impregnated micronized and pulverized bituminous coals is examined in Chapter 5.

  12. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  13. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin, including Indonesia, Thailand, and the Republic of China (ROC-Taiwan). The US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies that can be applied domestically and abroad. These innovative US CCTs are expected to satisfy increasingly stringent environmental requirements while substantially improving power generation efficiencies. They should also provide distinct advantages over conventional pulverized coal-fired combustors. Finally, they are expected to be competitive with other energy options currently being considered in the region. This paper presents potential technology scenarios for Indonesia, Thailand, and the ROC-Taiwan and considers an environmental cost-benefit approach employing a newly developed method of applying environmental externalities. Results suggest that the economic benefits from increased emission control can indeed be quantified and used in cost-benefit comparisons, and that US CCTs can be very cost effective in reducing emissions

  14. Trends in Japanese coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, S

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses 1) the latest forecast for coal demand in Japan; 2) trends in Japanese steam coal demand, with breakdown by industry; 3) the organization of steam coal supply, with details of the distribution network and of the new coal cartridge system; 4) the demand for metallurgical coal. Other topics outlined include the current status of Japanese coal production, Japanese coal trade, and the development of overseas coal resources. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  15. Soot, unburned carbon and ultrafine particle emissions from air- and oxy-coal flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, W.J.; Yu, Dunxi; Wendt, J.O.L.

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-coal combustion is one possible solution for the mitigation of greenhouse gases. In this process coal is burned in oxygen, rather than air, and the temperatures in the boiler are mitigated by recycling flue gases, so that the inlet mixture may contain either 27 % O 2 to match adiabatic flame temperatures, or 32 % O 2 to match gaseous radiation heat fluxes in the combustion chamber. However, a major issue for heat transfer from coal combustion is the radiative heat transmission from soot. For this research, air and oxy coal firing were compared regarding the emission of soot. A 100 kW down-fired laboratory combustor was used to determine effects of switching from air to oxy-firing on soot, unburned carbon and ultrafine particle emissions from practical pulverized coal flames. Of interest here were potential chemical effects of substitution of the N 2 in air by CO 2 in practical pulverized coal flames. The oxy-coal configuration investigated used once-through CO 2 , simulating cleaned flue gas recycle with all contaminants and water removed. Three coals were each burned in: a) air, b) 27 % O 2 / 73 % CO 2 , c) 32 % O 2 / 68 % CO 2 . Tests were conducted at (nominally) 3 %, 2 %, 1 % and 0 % O 2 in the exhaust (dry basis). For each condition, particulate samples were iso kinetically withdrawn far from the radiant zone, and analyzed using a photoacoustic analyzer (PA) for black carbon, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for ultrafine particles, and a total sample loss on ignition (LOI) method for unburned carbon in ash. Data suggest that at low stoichiometric ratios, ultrafine particles consist primarily of black carbon, which, for the bituminous coal, is produced in lesser amounts under oxy-fired conditions than under the air-fired condition, even when adiabatic flame temperatures are matched. However, significant changes in mineral matter vaporization were not observed unless the flames were hotter. These and other results are interpreted in the light of

  16. Mineral conversion and microstructure change in the melting process of Shenmu coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianguo; Deng Furong; Zhao Hong; Cen Kefa [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2007-05-15

    China has rich reserves of Shenmu coal, which has the typical characteristic of low-melting-point ash. If used in the pulverized-coal boiler of a power plant, Shenmu coal would cause serious slagging. In order to solve the slagging problem of Shenmu coal, the melting mechanism of Shenmu coal ash was studied. One of the Shenmu coals - Wenjialiang coal - was selected for the study. Using thermogravimetry-differential scanning colorimetry (TG-DSC) methods, the change of the coal ash's physicochemistry with temperature was studied. The typical temperature points in the melting process were obtained. Ash samples of the different temperature points were prepared in a high-temperature furnace with parameters similar to those used in the TG-DSC test, and were then cooled quickly in water. Later, the ash samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) methods in detail. Wenjialiang coal ash started to melt at 980{sup o}C. The ash was found to melt to a great extent at 1200{sup o}C and formed a multiform microstructure. At 1260{sup o}C, it was found to melt into a dense body with many pores, and formed a piece of vitreous body at 1340{sup o}C. Anorthite and gehlenite are the intermediate products that exist between 980 and 1340{sup o}C. They may be the main cause of the ash having low melting points, so that they could convert into a eutectic at low temperatures.

  17. Fouling deposition characteristic by variation of coal particle size and deposition temperature in DTF (Drop Tube Furnace)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkung, Hueon; Jeon, Youngshin; Kim, Hyungtaek [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Energy Systems Research; Xu, Li-hua [IAE, Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center

    2013-07-01

    One of the major operation obstacles in gasification process is ash deposition phenomenon. In this investigation, experiment was carried out to examine coal fouling characteristics using a laminar DTF (Drop Tube Furnace) with variation of operating condition such as different coal size, and probe surface temperature. Four different samples of pulverized coal were injected into DTF under various conditions. The ash particles are deposited on probe by impacting and agglomerating action. Fouling grains are made of eutectic compound, which is made by reacting with acid minerals and alkali minerals, in EPMA (Electron Probe Micro-Analysis). And agglomeration area of fouling at top layer is wide more than it of middle and bottom layer. The major mineral factors of fouling phenomenon are Fe, Ca, and Mg. The deposition quantity of fouling increases with increasing particle size, high alkali mineral (Fe, Ca, and Mg) contents, and ash deposition temperature.

  18. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Coal marketing manual 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  20. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  1. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Coal. [1987 and 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    Despite increases in recently negotiated coal prices in US dollar terms, unit export returns for Australian coal are expected to rise only marginally in 1988-89 due to the anticipated appreciation of the Australian dollar. Australian coal production is expected to recover in 1988-89, after falling in 1987-88. A table summarising coal statistics in 1985-87 is presented. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Review biodepyritisation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, C.; Sukla, L.B.; Misra, V.N. [Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a detailed summary of the recent and past research activities in the area of biodesulfurisation of coal. It provides information about microorganisms important for biodesulfurisation of coal, with the emphasis on Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The review presents an insight into various methods of desulfurisation of coal combining physical and biological methods. Also, there are discussions on coal structure, distribution, mechanism and kinetics of pyrite oxidation and jarosite precipitation. Finally, areas requiring further research are identified.

  4. Coal dust symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This paper gives a report of the paper presented at the symposium held in Hanover on 9 and 10 February 1981. The topics include: the behaviour of dust and coal dust on combustion and explosion; a report on the accidents which occurred at the Laegerdorf cement works' coal crushing and drying plant; current safety requirements at coal crushing and drying plant; and coal crushing and drying. Four papers are individually abstracted. (In German)

  5. Coal world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  6. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program. Basic research on coal type and gasification characteristics; 1984 nendo tanshu to gas ka tokusei no kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    The study of pressurized fluidized gasification of coal chars started in fiscal 1975, and a 0.2t/d unit was in operation until fiscal 1979. Since fiscal 1980, a 1t/d unit has been in operation. In fiscal 1984, an entrained bed gasification furnace was constructed, capable of high-temperature gasification of various coals, and it is now undergoing a test operation. This report consists of pressurized gasification tests for coal char, the result of a study on the effect of coal type on the char gasification reaction rate, and the result of experiments on the treatment of coal liquefaction residue, all accomplished in the 1t/d gasification unit. For the investigation of the effect of coal type, chars of 13 types of coals are subjected to reaction tests in the carbon dioxide gas, and weight reduction rates and changes in residue surface areas are determined while reaction is under way. The results are analyzed and parameters are made clear that enable a quantitative assessment of the effect of coal type on gasification reaction rates. Pulverized grains and coal liquefaction residue are blended and gasified in the fluidized bed in the presence of oxygen and steam. As the result, a gas capable of 2,000kcal/Nm{sup 3} containing 30% hydrogen and 25% carbon monoxide is acquired, when catalyst grains in the residue are segregated. (NEDO)

  8. Properties and Developments of Combustion and Gasification of Coal and Char in a CO2-Rich and Recycled Flue Gases Atmosphere by Rapid Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char have been investigated experimentally under the conditions of high temperature gradient of order 200°C·s−1 by a CO2 gas laser beam and CO2-rich atmospheres with 5% and 10% O2. The laser heating makes a more ideal experimental condition compared with previous studies with a TG-DTA, because it is able to minimize effects of coal oxidation and combustion by rapid heating process like radiative heat transfer condition. The experimental results indicated that coal weight reduction ratio to gases followed the Arrhenius equation with increasing coal temperature; further which were increased around 5% with adding H2O in CO2-rich atmosphere. In addition, coal-water mixtures with different water/coal mass ratio were used in order to investigate roles of water vapor in the process of coal gasification and combustion. Furthermore, char-water mixtures with different water/char mass ratio were also measured in order to discuss the generation ratio of CO/CO2, and specified that the source of Hydrocarbons is volatile matter from coal. Moreover, it was confirmed that generations of CO and Hydrocarbons gases are mainly dependent on coal temperature and O2 concentration, and they are stimulated at temperature over 1000°C in the CO2-rich atmosphere.

  9. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  10. Coal economics and taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain opening remarks, the luncheon and dinner addresses, list of delegates and the papers presented at the four sessions on Coal Mines cost money - for what.; Coal mines cost money - Where the money comes from; taxation and royalty policies; and the coal industry view on operating costs. Sixteen papers are abstracted separately.

  11. Relation between the petrographic composition of coal and the morphology of pyrolysis char produced in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Valentim; M.J. Lemos de Sousa; P. Abelha; D. Boavida; I. Gulyurtlu [Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2004-06-01

    Several previous studies have already established, for pulverized coal combustion conditions, global correlations between petrographic composition of the coal and those of char produced from the same coal. However, for fluidized bed combustion, there has not been much new work since the eighties. The results presented in this paper include the petrographic characterization of seven different coals from several origins and also of their respective chars produced at 700, 800, 900, and 1000{sup o}C in a laboratory fluidized bed reactor. The results show a marked predominance of tenuispheres as the trial temperatures increase. While vitrinite-rich coals essentially produced highly porous chars, the inertinite-rich coals produced large amounts of medium- and low-porous chars. Semi-anthracite vitrinite produced high-porous chars and thermal affected coal particles originated low-porous and angular char morphotypes. The analysis of the data obtained revealed that vitrinite + liptinite related well with the high-porous char (sum of cenospheres and tenuinetworks), classified as Group 1. The same trend, but with a weaker relation, was also observed between vitrinite and liptinite rich microlithotypes and Group 1. 32 refs., 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-08-15

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO2 control, NOx control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research has yielded data on trace metal partitioning for MSS by itself, with natural gas assist, for coal plus MSS combustion together, and for coal alone. We have re-evaluated the inhalation health effects of ash aerosol from combustion of MSS both by itself and also together with coal. We have concluded that ash from the co-combustion of MSS and coal is very much worse from an inhalation health point of view, than ash from either MSS by itself or coal by itself. The reason is that ZnO is not the ''bad actor'' as had been suspected before, but the culprit is, rather, sulfated Zn. The MSS supplies the Zn and the coal supplies the sulfur, and so it is the combination of coal and MSS that makes that process environmentally bad. If MSS is to be burned, it should be burned without coal, in the absence of sulfur.

  13. Lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals to achieve high-efficient and clean combustion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes full lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals launched to support selection an appropriate combustion technology and to support optimization of the boiler design. Tested mix of Middle-Bosnia brown coals is projected coal for new co-generation power plant Kakanj Unit 8 (300-450 MWe, EP B&H electricity utility. The basic coal blend consisting of the coals Kakanj: Breza: Zenica at approximate mass ratio of 70:20:10 is low grade brown coal with very high percentage of ash - over 40%. Testing that coal in circulated fluidized bed combustion technique, performed at Ruhr-University Bohum and Doosan Lentjes GmbH, has shown its inconveniency for fluidized bed combustion technology, primarily due to the agglomeration problems. Tests of these coals in PFC (pulverized fuel combustion technology have been performed in referent laboratory at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Sarajevo University, on a lab-scale PFC furnace, to provide reliable data for further analysis. The PFC tests results are fitted well with previously obtained results of the burning similar Bosnian coal blends in the PFC dry bottom furnace technique. Combination of the coals shares, the process temperature and the air combustion distribution for the lowest NOx and SO2 emissions was found in this work, provided that combustion efficiency and CO emissions are within very strict criteria, considering specific settlement of lab-scale furnace. Sustainability assessment based on calculation economic and environmental indicators, in combination with Low Cost Planning method, is used for optimization the power plant design. The results of the full lab-scale investigation will help in selection optimal Boiler design, to achieve sustainable energy system with high-efficient and clean combustion technology applied for given coals.

  14. Collaborative Studies for Mercury Characterization in Coal and Coal Combustion Products, Republic of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Constance L.; van Alphen, Chris

    2014-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) analyses were obtained for 42 samples of feed coal provided by Eskom, the national electric utility of South Africa, representing all 13 coal-fired power stations operated by Eskom in South Africa. This sampling includes results for three older power stations returned to service starting in the late 2000s. These stations were not sampled in the most recent previous study. Mercury concentrations determined in the present study are similar to or slightly lower than those previously reported, and input Hg for the three stations returned to service is comparable to that for the other 10 power stations. Determination of halogen contents of the 42 feed coals confirms that chlorine contents are generally low, and as such, the extent of Hg self-capture by particulate control devices (PCDs) is rather limited. Eight density separates of a South African Highveld (#4) coal were also provided by Eskom, and these show a strong mineralogical association of Hg (and arsenic) with pyrite. The density separates were used to predict Hg and ash contents of coal products used in South Africa or exported. A suite of 48 paired samples of pulverization-mill feed coal and fly ash collected in a previous (2010) United Nations Environment Programme-sponsored study of emissions from the Duvha and Kendal power stations was obtained for further investigation in the present study. These samples show that in each station, Hg capture varies by boiler unit and confirms that units equipped with fabric filters for air pollution control are much more effective in capturing Hg than those equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Apart from tracking the performance of PCDs individually, changes resulting in improved mercury capture of the Eskom fleet are discussed. These include Hg reduction through coal selection and washing, as well as through optimization of equipment and operational parameters. Operational changes leading to increased mercury capture include increasing mercury

  15. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  16. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Pulverized Granitic Rock Adjacent to the San Andreas, Garlock and San Jacinto Faults: Implications for Earthquake Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, T. K.; Sisk, M.; Stillings, M.; Girty, G.; Dor, O.; Wechsler, N.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We present new detailed analyses of pulverized granitic rocks from sections adjacent to the San Andreas, Garlock and San Jacinto faults in southern California. Along the San Andreas and Garlock faults, the Tejon Lookout Granite is pulverized in all exposures within about 100 m of both faults. Along the Clark strand of the San Jacinto fault in Horse Canyon, the pulverization of granitic rocks is highly asymmetric, with a much broader zone of pulverization along the southwest side of the Clark fault. In areas where the granite is injected as dyke rock into schist, only the granitic rock shows pulverization, demonstrating the control of rock type on the pulverization process. Chemical analyses indicate little or no weathering in the bulk of the rock, although XRD analysis shows the presence of smectite, illite, and minor kaolinite in the clay-sized fraction. Weathering products may dominate in the less than 1 micron fraction. The average grain size in all samples of pulverized granitic rock range between about 20 and 200 microns (silt to fine sand), with the size distribution in part a function of proximity to the primary slip zone. The San Andreas fault samples are generally finer than those collected from along the Garlock or San Jacinto faults. The particle size distribution for all samples is non-fractal, with a distinct slope break in the 60-100 micron range, which suggests that pulverization is not a consequence of direct shear. This average particle size is quite coarser than previous reports, which we attribute to possible measurement errors in the prior work. Our data and observations suggest that dynamic fracturing in the wall rock of these three major faults only accounts for 1% or less of the earthquake energy budget.

  17. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  18. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  19. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination of soil, coal ash and zeolitic materials from Figueira thermoelectric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungaro, Denise Alves; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da; Campello, Felipe Arrelaro; Miranda, Caio da Silva; Izidoro, Juliana de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th and 40 K contents in feed pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash from cyclone and baghouse filters, zeolites synthesized from the ashes and two different soil samples. All the samples used in the study was collected at Figueira thermoelectric power plant, located in the city of Figueira, Paraná State, which coal presents a significant amount of uranium concentration. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverized coal were 4216 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 180 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 27 Bq kg -1 for 228 Ra, 28 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 192 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. The ashes fraction presented concentrations ranging from 683.5 to 1479 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, from 484 to 1086 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 291 to 1891 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb, from 67 to 111 Bq kg -1 for 228 Ra, from 80 to 87 Bq -1 for 232 Th and from 489 to 718 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Similar ranges were observed for zeolites. The activity concentration of 238 U was higher than worldwide average concentration for all samples. The concentration of the uranium series found in the ashes were lower than the values observed in similar studies carried out 10 years ago and under the limit adopted by the Brazilian guideline (CNEN-NN-4.01). Nevertheless, the concentrations of this specific area are higher than others coal mines and thermoelectric power plants in and out of Brazil, so it is advisable to evaluate the environmental impact of the installation. (author).

  20. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination of soil, coal ash and zeolitic materials from Figueira thermoelectric power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fungaro, Denise Alves; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da; Campello, Felipe Arrelaro; Miranda, Caio da Silva; Izidoro, Juliana de Carvalho, E-mail: dfungaro@ipen.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis and gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K contents in feed pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash from cyclone and baghouse filters, zeolites synthesized from the ashes and two different soil samples. All the samples used in the study was collected at Figueira thermoelectric power plant, located in the city of Figueira, Paraná State, which coal presents a significant amount of uranium concentration. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverized coal were 4216 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, 180 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 27 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 28 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 192 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The ashes fraction presented concentrations ranging from 683.5 to 1479 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, from 484 to 1086 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 291 to 1891 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, from 67 to 111 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, from 80 to 87 Bq{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 489 to 718 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Similar ranges were observed for zeolites. The activity concentration of {sup 238}U was higher than worldwide average concentration for all samples. The concentration of the uranium series found in the ashes were lower than the values observed in similar studies carried out 10 years ago and under the limit adopted by the Brazilian guideline (CNEN-NN-4.01). Nevertheless, the concentrations of this specific area are higher than others coal mines and thermoelectric power plants in and out of Brazil, so it is advisable to evaluate the environmental impact of the installation. (author).

  1. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  2. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  4. Washability of Australian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, R L

    1979-06-01

    Australian coals tend to be young in geological age and high in ash by world standards; preparation of the coal before marketing is almost universal. On the basis of float and sink data from 39 locations in the eastern Australian coalfields, the coals are place in four categories representing increasing difficulty in their washability characteristics. These seem to be related neither to the geological age nor the geographical position of the deposit and Hunter Valley coals, for example, span all categories. The influence of crushing on the washability of Australian coals is briefly considered and from limited data it is concluded to be appreciably smaller than for British or North American coals. A strategy for the float and sink analysis of Australian coals is proposed and the influence of washability characteristics on current trends in the selection of separating processes for coking and steaming products is discussed.

  5. Analysis of the market penetration of clean coal technologies and its impacts in China's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Nakata, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses policy instruments for promoting the market penetration of clean coal technologies (CCTs) into China's electricity sector and the evaluation of corresponding effects. Based on the reality that coal will remain the predominant fuel to generate electricity and conventional pulverized coal boiler power plants have serious impacts on environment degradation, development of clean coal technologies could be one alternative to meet China's fast growing demand of electricity as well as protect the already fragile environment. A multi-period market equilibrium model is applied and an electricity model of China is established to forecast changes in the electricity system up to 2030s. Three policy instruments: SO 2 emission charge, CO 2 emission charge and implementing subsidies are considered in this research. The results show that all instruments cause a significant shift in China's electricity structure, promote CCTs' competitiveness and lead China to gain great benefit in both resource saving and environment improvement. Since resource security and environment degradation are becoming primary concerns in China, policies that could help to gain generations' market share of advanced coal-based technologies such as CCTs' is suitable for the current situation of China's electricity sector. (author)

  6. Computational fluid dynamic simulations of coal-fired utility boilers: An engineering tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efim Korytnyi; Roman Saveliev; Miron Perelman; Boris Chudnovsky; Ezra Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study was to develop an engineering tool by which the combustion behavior of coals in coal-fired utility boilers can be predicted. We presented in this paper that computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes can successfully predict performance of - and emission from - full-scale pulverized-coal utility boilers of various types, provided that the model parameters required for the simulation are properly chosen and validated. For that purpose we developed a methodology combining measurements in a 50 kW pilot-scale test facility with CFD simulations using the same CFD code configured for both test and full-scale furnaces. In this method model parameters of the coal processes are extracted and validated. This paper presents the importance of the validation of the model parameters which are used in CFD codes. Our results show very good fit of CFD simulations with various parameters measured in a test furnace and several types of utility boilers. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of the present methodology as an effective tool for optimization coal burning in full-scale utility boilers. 41 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Some environmental aspects related to sulphur emissions during combustion of Bulgarian coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, C.; Vassilev, S.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of S emissions and their capture during combustion of some Bulgarian coals (Maritza East, Maritza West, Sofia, Pernik, Bobov Dol, Balkan) was studied based on the phase-mineral transformations in the inorganic matter during gradual heating of these coals. It was found that: 1) the organic, elemental and sulphide S is released from coal at 200-700 0 C; 2) the volatile S is initially captured by intermediate Ca-, Mg-, K-, Na-, Fc-, and Ba-oxides (mainly from decomposed organic matter and carbonates) with formation of their sulphates at 200-1000 0 C; 3) the decomposition of original and newly-formed sulphates occurs at 800-1300 0 C and they are the major source of volatile SO 2 from stack emissions of thermoelectric power stations (TPSs). The described mechanism of S emissions and their capture indicates that the traditional pulverized combustion (1200-1600 0 C) of the high-sulphur Bulgarian coals in TPSs is inadequate from an environmental point of view and other alternatives should be applied. Some of them such as fluidized-bed combustion and selective blending of the coals are proposed

  8. Technical, environmental, and economic assessment of deploying advanced coal power technologies in the Chinese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Xiao Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Wang Bo; Xu Xiang

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the technical, environmental, and economic dimensions of deploying advanced coal-fired power technologies in China. In particular, we estimate the differences in capital cost and overall cost of electricity (COE) for a variety of advanced coal-power technologies based on the technological and economic levels in 2006 in China. This paper explores the economic gaps between Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and other advanced coal power technologies, and compares 12 different power plant configurations using advanced coal power technologies. Super critical (SC) and ultra super critical (USC) pulverized coal (PC) power generation technologies coupled with pollution control technologies can meet the emission requirements. These technologies are highly efficient, technically mature, and cost-effective. From the point of view of efficiency, SC and USC units are good choices for power industry. The net plant efficiency for IGCC has reached 45%, and it has the best environmental performance overall. The cost of IGCC is much higher, however, than that of other power generation technologies, so the development of IGCC is slow throughout the world. Incentive policies are needed if IGCC is to be deployed in China

  9. Tribocharging in electrostatic beneficiation of coal: Effects of surface composition on work function as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigwell, S.; Mazumder, M.K.; Pellissier, R.

    2001-01-01

    The cleaning of coal by electrostatic beneficiation is based on tribocharging characteristics of pulverized coal particles with diameter smaller than 120 μm. The tribocharging process should be such that the organic coal particles must charge with a polarity opposite to that of the sulfur and the mineral containing particles so that coal can be separated from minerals by using a charge separator. However, the charge distribution of electrostatically separated coal particles indicates that coal exhibits bipolar charging. A significant fraction of the coal particles charges negatively which appears to be in conflict with expectations in that the organic coal particles should charge positively, and the mineral particles, present as impurities such as pyrite, charge negatively when tribocharged against copper. The relative work functions of the particles (coal and mineral) and that of the metal surface (copper or stainless steel) used for tribocharging predict these expected results. However, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurements in air on specimens of three different coal species, showed the work function to be approximately 5.4 eV, which is higher than a reported measured work function of 3.93 eV. Studies by UPS and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on copper, stainless steel, aluminum, and other commonly used tribocharging materials such as nylon and polytetrafluorethylene, as well as pure pyrite, showed that the work function varied considerably as a function of surface composition. Therefore, the reason for the bipolar charging of the coal particles may be the too small differences in work functions between coal powder and copper used as the charging material. The choice of a material for impaction triboelectric charging for coal or mineral separation should therefore depend upon the actual work function as modified by the ambient conditions such as moisture content and the oxidation of the surface

  10. Ignition et oxydation des particules de combustible solide pulvérisé Ignition and Oxidation of Pulverized Solid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    élais d'ignition ont été déterminés pour un grand nombre de combustibles solides de rang inférieur et supérieur (charbons, cokes, asphaltènes, suies, bois, graphite. L'étude de la vitesse expérimentale de la combustion hétérogène, notamment l'étude de la température apparente d'activation, et sa dépendance par rapport à la taille des particules et à la concentration d'oxygène, montre que, dans les conditions des essais, cette combustion est contrôlée par la désorption du CO et se déroule principalement en régime cinético-diffusionnel mixte. L'étude de la dépendance des délais d'ignition par rapport à la température, la taille des particules et la pression partielle d'oxygène, suggère que, pendant ces délais, les réactions se déroulent en régime cinétique pur et que le produit des réactions de désorption est principalement le CO. The heated-grid method is used to investigate the competition between (1 the devolatilization and subsequent oxidation of pyrolysis products and (2 the ignition of the solid matrix and its rapid combustion. A comparison between the instant of ignition and the start of pyrolysis is used to determine the range in which ignition of a pyrolyzable solid fuel of the whole coal ignitiontype (i. e. when ignition occurs before pyrolysis becomes measurable occurs as a function of temperature, particle size and oxygen concentration. The results suggest that this type of ignition might occur, as a general rule, under conditions involving pulverized solid fuels in industrial flames. In the case of whole coalignition, the rate of combustion of the solid matrix is inhibited during the period following ignition. This inhibition is due partly to the difficulty oxygen has of spreading through the pores during the discharge of pyrolysis products and partly to preferential oxygen consumption during the oxidation of pyrolysis products, mainly when this oxidation develops in the form of flames. t is only when pyrolysis ends that

  11. Soil and fertilizer amendments and edge effects on the floral succession of pulverized fuel ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P. [Roehampton University, London (United Kingdom). Whitelands College

    2009-01-15

    Plots of fresh pulverized fuel ash (PFA, an industrial waste) were inoculated with soils from existing PFA sites and fertilizers in a factorial design, then left unmanaged for 12 years during which time the floral development and soil chemistry were monitored annually. For the first 3 years, the site supported a sparse mix of chenopods (including the scarce Chenopodium glaucum) and halophytes. As salinity declined, ruderals, legumes, and grasses plus the fire-site moss Funaria hygrometrica colonized, followed by Festuca arundinacea grassland (NVC community MG12) and Hippophae rhamnoides scrub. Dactylorhiza incarnata (orchidacea) appeared after 7 years, but only in plots that had received soil from existing orchid colonies. Four years later, a larger second generation of Dactylorhiza appeared, but only in the central zone of the site where vegetation was thinnest. By year 12, the site was dominated by coarse grasses and scrub, with early successional species persisting only in the sparsely vegetated center, where nitrate levels were lowest. This edge effect is interpreted as centripetal encroachment, a process of potentially wider concern for the conservation of low-fertility habitat patches. Overall, seed bank inoculation seems to have introduced few but desirable species (D. incarnata, Pyrola rotundifolia, some halophytes, and annuals), whereas initial application of organic fertilizer had long-lasting ({ge} 10 years) effects on cover and soil composition.

  12. Wicking of light hydrophobic liquid phase from water by pulverized rubber: Theoretical and experimental analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boglaienko, Daria; Tansel, Berrin

    2017-03-05

    Pulverized rubber (PR) can be utilized for capturing floating oils to prevent spreading and volatilization of hydrocarbons. Experiments were conducted using PR with four different particle sizes (ranging from 0.075 to 0.600mm) and South Louisiana crude oil. The oil capture performance of the PR particles was compared with that of powdered activated carbon (AC). Oil-particle interactions were analyzed using capillary theories for lateral aggregation and wicking processes, as well as sorption capacity in relation to particle size. The sorption capacity (as oil to sorbent ratio) for PR with particle size 0.115mm (4.41g/g) was comparable to that of AC with particle size 0.187mm (5.00g/g). Sorption efficiency (oil:powder ratio, g/g) of the PR increased with decreasing particle size. Sorption of oil by PR occurred rapidly (in less than 10min) which indicated strong capillary action. No additional sorption occurred after 30min. For the PR sample with larger particle size (0.600-0.400mm), lateral aggregation was clearly noticeable. The PR-oil aggregates could be easily removed from the water surface without breaking. The cost, availability and recycling potential of PR make it a feasible alternative material for oil spill response and industrial applications which require removal of floating oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation on the ignition, thermal acceleration and characteristic temperatures of coal char combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin; Fu, Peifang; Liu, Yang; Yue, Fang; Chen, Jing; Zhou, Huaichun; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new thermal model and measuring method for the ignition temperature are proposed. • Ignition occurs in a region but not a point with ambient conditions changing. • Ignition region is measured from the minimum to maximum ignition temperature. • T_i_g_,_m_a_x of coal char in TG-DSC is in line with the ignition temperature of EFR. - Abstract: Through using a new thermal analysis model and a method of coal/char combustion, the minimum ignition temperature and minimum ignition heat of three different ranks of pulverized coal char were measured by simultaneous Thermogravimetry and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC) experiments. The results show that the ignition of coal char occurs in the range between the minimum ignition temperature and the inflection-point temperature. The thermal acceleration and its gradient G_T increase with increasing heating rate and decrease with increasing coal char rank. The higher the G_T of the coal char, the more easily the ignition occurs and more rapidly the burning and burnout occur. The data show that the G_T of coal char of SLH lignite is 1.6 times more than that of coal char of ZCY bituminous and JWY anthracite in ignition zone, and 3.4 times in burning zone. The characteristic temperatures increase with increasing temperature of prepared char, heating rate and char rank. Moreover, the T_i_g_,_m_a_x calculated in DSC experiment is approximately in line with the ignition temperature obtained in the entrained flow reactor, which demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed theory.

  14. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  15. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  16. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  17. Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash; Bifuntan sekitanbai no tosui tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Nagataki, S [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Hosoda, N [Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Utsuki, T [The Coal Mining Research Center, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kubo, H [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    It is intended to establish a technology to utilize coal ash in bulk to deal with its increasing production. In order to expand its use into earth engineering materials, two kinds of combustion ashes produced from dust coal burning power plants were used for studies using different kinds of tests. The tests were carried out on strength properties, water permeability, and characteristics of dissolving trace amounts of chemical constituents, with regard to addition effects of cement into compacted and slurry-state dust coal burned ashes. The derived findings may be summarized as follows: as the strength properties, the strength for both of the compacted and slurry-state ashes increases as the cement addition ratio is increased; growth of the strength due to the cement addition ratio and material age varies depending on the kinds of dust coal burned ash; comparison of strengths of the compacted and the slurry-state ashes indicates the strength of the latter ash is about one-third to quarter of that of the former ash; water permeability of the ashes decreases both in the compacted and slurry- state ashes as the cement addition ratio is increased; and the cement addition ratio gives greater impact to the water permeability than the density of the ashes. 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Towards a better understanding of biomass suspension co-firing impacts via investigating a coal flame and a biomass flame in a swirl-stabilized burner flow reactor under same conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    increases the residence time of coal particles. Both the factors favor a complete burnout of the coal particles. The higher volatile yields of the straw produce more off-gas, requiring more O2 for the fast gas phase combustion and causing the off-gas to proceed to a much larger volume in the reactor prior...... to mixing with oxidizer. For the pulverized straw particles of a few hundred microns in diameters, the intra-particle conversion is found to be a secondary issue at most in their combustion. The simulations also show that a simple switch of the straw injection mode can not improve the burnout of the straw...

  19. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  20. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  1. Estimation for origin of coals on biomaker analysis; Jinko sekitan oyobi tennen sekitan no biomaker bunseki ni yoru sekitan kigen busshitsu no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sugimoto, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to study coal production processes, an estimation study was carried out on coal originating materials by using biomaker analysis. Test samples are original coals collected directly from a mine in Hokkaido (not having been subjected cleaning). Mixing and solvent extraction were performed after pulverization, and then tests were given on saturated hydrocarbon components divided by using a silicagel column chromatograph for the present study. It can be known from n-alkane distribution in the coal that low molecular alkane increases with increasing degree of coalification. Artificial coal made by wet-heating Metasequoia leaves contains only little n-alkane. Diterpenoid compound exists in the Taiheiyo and Akabira coals. Tetra-cyclic diterpernoid is contained abundantly in subtropical coniferous trees, serving as a parameter for warm environment. The compound is contained also in the Fushun coal, but not in Indonesian coals. Hopanoid constitution shows very high similarity, but H/C atomic ratio may vary largely even if the coalification is at the same degree. This is likely to be caused from difference in originating materials. Hopanoids are bacteria attributed substances, whose activities are not affected by the originating materials. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  3. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  4. Studies on reactivity of coal surfaces at low temperature; Teion ni okeru sekitan hyomen no hannosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn reactivity of coal at its surface, surfaces of oxidized coal samples were investigated. Miike coal was oxidized by using {sup 18}O2 in a closed loop system. As the reaction progresses, proportion of CO2 including isotopes increased rapidly as a result of oxidation of CO sites existing in the coal and the newly generated C{sup 18}O sites. The oxidizing reaction progressed via oxygen adsorbing sites generated near the surface, and oxygen containing groups. An FT-IR analysis estimated the depth of the oxidized layer to be 10{mu}m or less from particle surface. The oxidized coal was pulverized to see its surface condition. Functional groups introduced by the oxidation enter into the vicinity of the surface in a form to desorb as CO. CO2 is trapped in inner pores. The coal surface was observed by using an atomic force microscope. No observable openings in the pore structure were discerned on the surface before the oxidation, and the structure agrees with a closed pore model. Surface image oxidized in-situ by oxygen for one hour had slight roundness, which led to a supposition of structural change, and changes in the functional group and adsorption species. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Measurements of Gasification Characteristics of Coal and Char in CO2-Rich Gas Flow by TG-DTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char in CO2-rich gas flow were investigated by using gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA with changing O2%, heating temperature gradient, and flow rate of CO2-rich gases provided. Together with TG-DTA, flue gas generated from the heated coal, such as CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons (HCs, was analyzed simultaneously on the heating process. The optimum O2% in CO2-rich gas for combustion and gasification of coal or char was discussed by analyzing flue gas with changing O2 from 0 to 5%. The experimental results indicate that O2% has an especially large effect on carbon oxidation at temperature less than 1100°C, and lower O2 concentration promotes gasification reaction by producing CO gas over 1100°C in temperature. The TG-DTA results with gas analyses have presented basic reference data that show the effects of O2 concentration and heating rate on coal physical and chemical behaviors for the expected technologies on coal gasification in CO2-rich gas and oxygen combustion and underground coal gasification.

  6. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  7. Cuttability of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1978-01-01

    The process of cutting dull M, dull bright MB, bright dull BM, and bright B coal under various compressive stress conditions was studied in laboratory tests. The efficiency of ploughs depends much more on the natural mining conditions than does that of shearer-loaders. For seams of medium workability, it is difficult to forecast whether ploughs will be successful. Cuttability tests are a good way of determining whether ploughs can be used. The effort necessary to cut coal in a stressed condition depends not only on such properties as the workability defined by the Protodyakonov index or compressive strength, but also, and mainly, on the petrographic structure and elastic properties of the coal. In bright coals with high elastic strain, and with BM and MB coals, a much greater increment of effort is necessary with increase in compressive stresses. The cuttability of dull coals from difficult mines was not very different.

  8. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  9. Coal-to-liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  10. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  11. Non-slag co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Yoshinori; Suami, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobusuke

    2018-02-01

    Gasification is a promising candidate of processes to upgrade biomass and to yield clean gaseous fuel for utilization of renewable energy resources. However, a sufficient amount of biomass is not always available to operate a large scale of the plant. Co-gasification of biomass with coal is proposed as a solution of the problem. Tar emission is another subject during operation in shaft or kiln type of gasifiers employed conventionally for biomass. The present authors proposed co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace, which is a representative process without tar emission under high temperature, but operated so to collect dust as flyash without molten slag formation. This paper presents the works performed on co-gasification performance of biomass and pulverized coal to apply to entrained-bed type of furnaces. At first, co-gasification of woody powder and pulverized coal examined using the lab-scale test furnace of the down-flow entrained bed showed that the maximum temperatures in the furnace was over 1500 K and the carbon conversion to gas achieved at higher efficiency than 80-90 percent although the residence time in the furnace was as short as a few seconds. Non-slag co-gasification was carried out successfully without slag formation in the furnace if coal containing ash with high fusion temperature was employed. The trend suggesting the effect of reaction rate enhancement of co-gasification was also observed. Secondary, an innovative sewage sludge upgrading system consisting of self-energy recovery processes was proposed to yield bio-dried sludge and to sequentially produce char without adding auxiliary fuel. Carbonization behavior of bio-dried sludge was evaluated through pyrolysis examination in a lab-scale quartz tube reactor. The thermal treatment of pyrolysis of sludge contributed to decomposition and removal of contaminant components such as nitrogen and sulfur. The gasification kinetics of sludge and coal was also determined by a

  12. Large eddy simulations of coal jet flame ignition using the direct quadrature method of moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedel, Julien

    The Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) was implemented in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tool ARCHES to model coal particles. LES coupled with DQMOM was first applied to nonreacting particle-laden turbulent jets. Simulation results were compared to experimental data and accurately modeled a wide range of particle behaviors, such as particle jet waviness, spreading, break up, particle clustering and segregation, in different configurations. Simulations also accurately predicted the mean axial velocity along the centerline for both the gas phase and the solid phase, thus demonstrating the validity of the approach to model particles in turbulent flows. LES was then applied to the prediction of pulverized coal flame ignition. The stability of an oxy-coal flame as a function of changing primary gas composition (CO2 and O2) was first investigated. Flame stability was measured using optical measurements of the flame standoff distance in a 40 kW pilot facility. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the facility provided valuable insight into the experimentally observed data and the importance of factors such as heterogeneous reactions, radiation or wall temperature. The effects of three parameters on the flame stand-off distance were studied and simulation predictions were compared to experimental data using the data collaboration method. An additional validation study of the ARCHES LES tool was then performed on an air-fired pulverized coal jet flame ignited by a preheated gas flow. The simulation results were compared qualitatively and quantitatively to experimental observations for different inlet stoichiometric ratios. LES simulations were able to capture the various combustion regimes observed during flame ignition and to accurately model the flame stand-off distance sensitivity to the stoichiometric ratio. Gas temperature and coal burnout predictions were also examined and showed good agreement with experimental data. Overall, this research shows that high

  13. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  14. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourillon, C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  15. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  16. Effect of Ultrafine Pulverization of Senecio Scandens on Growth, Immune System and Faecal Microorganisms in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Yue1, CQ Lu1, HY Lin1, XN Wang, JQ Zheng1, JJ Chen1* and R Gooneratne2*

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is increased interest in using naturally occurring compounds subjected to new technologies for enhancing pig nutrition to replace antibiotic usage in swine production. The effects of ultrafine pulverization on the size distribution, morphology of Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham., and the growth performance, serum immunity parameters and faecal microorganisms of piglets fed this powder were investigated. The size distribution and morphology of S. scandens were characterized by using a laser diffraction analyser and scanning electron microscopy respectively. Ninety Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire piglets (average body weight of 10.43kg were randomly assigned to six treatments with three pens of five pigs per treatment. Group 1 (Control piglets were fed the basal diet only. Groups 2 to 5 were fed with the basal diet supplemented with ultrafine powder (median diameter [d0.5] of 8.89μm of S. scandens at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2% of the basal diet, respectively, for 30 days. For group 6, 1.2% of ordinary S. scandens powder (d0.5=88.59μm was added to the basal diet. Both S. scandens ordinary and ultrafine powder increased piglet body weight and reduced the feed to gain ratio, but the performance of piglets fed the ultrafine powder was better. In groups 4 to 6, the number of Escherechia coli in faeces and the diarrhoeal incidence were significantly lower (P<0.05 and the serum IgA, IgG, IgM contents significantly higher (P<0.05. Feeding S. scandens ultrafine powder in the diet improved piglet performance and the diet supplemented with 0.9% of the ultrafine powder was the most effective.

  17. The pulverization and handling of soft plastics for energy recovery; Soenderdelning och hantering av mjuka plaster foer energiutvinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Sven-Erik

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the project has primarily been to investigate suitable equipment (mills, crushers, shredders) for the pulverization of different types of soft plastics from the agricultural sector (large sacks and silage plastic) and the peat extraction industry (plastic covers) with the aim of being able to use the plastic material as fuel in conventional solid waste-fired plants. Many of the mills that are used for pulverizing different types of biofuel have proved not to be particularly suitable for soft plastics. The project has comprised the following: * Contact with a number of plant owners with different types of plants (grate, CFB and BFB boilers) for a review of existing fuel handling and fuel feed equipment as well as the demands they make on the fuel that is to be fired. * Contact with Trio Plast concerning previous tests carried out in connection with the collection, baling, handling, pulverization and combustion of plastics from the agricultural sector. * Contact with mill suppliers for participation in the tests and for feedback on experience gained in connection with the pulverization of soft plastics. * Choice of a suitable plant for practical trials based on contact with the above plant owners as a reference group. * Practical trials in 5 mills with the pulverization of soft plastics from agriculture (silage plastic and large sacks) as well as plastic from peat extraction (plastic covers) and * Evaluation of technical, economic, energy-related and environmental preconditions. Following contact with several owners of solid waste-fired combustion plants, and after hearing their opinions, it became clear that many of them were doubtful about the combustion of plastic. They are primarily afraid of tripping superheaters, etc. Consequently, two plants without superheaters, one in Oestersund and the other in Malmoe, were chosen for the tests. The mills that were tested were: * A SIM mill from WahIkvist, Oedeshoeg Plant - a mobile slow-action pulverizer for

  18. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  19. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Shih, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  20. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  1. Australian coal year book 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This yearbook presents a review of the Australian coal industry during the 1984-85 financial year. Included are details on mines, future prospects, coal export facilities and ports, annual cost statistics and a index of coal mine owners.

  2. Australian black coal statistics 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  3. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  4. Scenario-Based Analysis on Water Resources Implication of Coal Power in Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahai Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 58% of coal-fired power generation capacity is located in eastern China, where the demand for electricity is strong. Serious air pollution in China, in eastern regions in particular, has compelled the Chinese government to impose a ban on the new construction of pulverized coal power plants in eastern regions. Meanwhile, rapid economic growth is thirsty for electric power supply. As a response, China planned to build large-scale coal power bases in six western provinces, including Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu. In this paper, the water resource implication of the coal power base planning is addressed. We find that, in a business-as-usual (BAU scenario, water consumption for coal power generation in these six provinces will increase from 1130 million m3 in 2012 to 2085 million m3 in 2020, experiencing nearly a double growth. Such a surge will exert great pressure on water supply and lead to serious water crisis in these already water-starved regions. A strong implication is that the Chinese Government must add water resource constraint as a critical point in its overall sustainable development plan, in addition to energy supply and environment protection. An integrated energy-water resource plan with regionalized environmental carrying capacity as constraints should be developed to settle this puzzle. Several measures are proposed to cope with it, including downsizing coal power in western regions, raising the technical threshold of new coal power plants and implementing retrofitting to the inefficient cooling system, and reengineering the generation process to waterless or recycled means.

  5. Cofiring of biofuels in coal fired boilers: Results of case study analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, D.A. [Ebasco Environmental, Sacramento, CA (United States); Hughes, E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gold, B.A. [TVA, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Ebasco Environmental and Reaction Engineering, under contract to EPRI, performed a case study analysis of cofiring biomass in coal-fired boilers of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The study was also sponsored by DOE. This analysis included evaluating wood fuel receiving, preparation, and combustion in pulverized coal (PC) boilers and cyclone furnaces and an assessment of converting wood into pyrolysis oil or low Btu gas for use in a new combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) installation. Cofiring wood in existing coal-fired boilers has the most immediate potential for increasing the utilization of biofuels in electricity generation. Cofiring biofuels with coal can potentially generate significant benefits for utilities including: (1) reducing emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}; (2) reducing the net emissions of CO{sub 2}; (3) potentially reducing the fuel cost to the utility depending upon local conditions and considering biomass is potentially exempt from the proposed Btu tax and may get a 1.5 cent/kWh credit for energy generated by wood combustion; (4) supporting local industrial forest industry; and (5) providing a long term market for the development of a biofuel supply and delivery industry. Potential benefits are reviewed in the context of cofiring biofuel at a rate of 15% heat input to the boiler, and compares this cofiring strategy and others previously tested or developed by other utilities. Other issues discussed include: (1) wood fuel specifications as a function of firing method; (2) wood fuel receiving and preparation system requirements; (3) combustion system requirements for cofiring biofuels with coal; (4) combustion impacts of firing biofuels with coal; (5) system engineering issues; (6) the economics of cofiring biofuel with coal. The Allen, TN 330 MW(e) cyclone boiler and Kingston, TN 135 MW(e) Boiler {number_sign}1, a tangentially fired PC unit, case studies are then summarized in the paper, highlighting the cofiring opportunities.

  6. Burnout of pulverized biomass particles in large scale boiler – Single particle model approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saastamoinen, Jaakko; Aho, Martti; Moilanen, Antero

    2010-01-01

    the particle combustion model is coupled with one-dimensional equation of motion of the particle, is applied for the calculation of the burnout in the boiler. The particle size of biomass can be much larger than that of coal to reach complete burnout due to lower density and greater reactivity. The burner...... location and the trajectories of the particles might be optimised to maximise the residence time and burnout....

  7. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  8. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly ash in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Martinez, L.S.; Baum, B.M.; Galeano, V.C. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The design and operation of pulverized-coal-fired power plants (PCFPP) are usually regarded as fuel range in terms of sulphur and ash contents. These units may give severe environmental problems of fly ash emissions as a result of lower SO{sub 3} contents in the flue gas (FG) because the electrical resistivity of the solid particles is correspondingly lower, with consequent adverse effects on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) efficiency. More stringent air pollution laws cause many power companies to burn lower sulphur coal under boilers in plants that formerly burned higher S coal or ran with abnormal operational conditions (only remediable by shutdown and repairs). This presentation of the GASOX process is a contribution to the improvement of existing technology for flue gas conditioning (FGC), which is defined as a control system for (ESP) efficiency in PCFPP.

  9. The influence of selected parameters on the efficiency and economic charactersistics of the oxy-type coal unit with a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a 600 MW oxy-type coal unit with a pulverized bed boiler and a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator and carbon capture installation was analyzed. A membrane-cryogenic oxygen separation installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. In this system oxygen is produced with the purity equal to 95%. Installation of carbon capture was based on the physical separation method and allows to reduce the CO2 emission by 90%. In this work the influence of the main parameter of the membrane process – the selectivity coefficient, on the efficiency of the coal unit was presented. The economic analysis with the use of the break-even point method was carried out. The economic calculations were realized in view of the break-even price of electricity depending on a coal unit availability.

  10. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would

  11. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, I.M. [Shell Coal International, London (United Kingdom); Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  12. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  13. Trace elements in co-combustion of solid recovered fuel and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Trace element partitioning in co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was studied in an entrained flow reactor. The experiments were carried out at conditions similar to pulverized coal combustion, with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.% (wet basis), 14.8 wt.% and 25.0 wt.......%. In addition, the effect of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite on trace element partitioning was investigated. The trace elements studied were As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn, since these elements were significantly enriched in SRF as compared to coal. During the experiments, bottom ash...... was collected in a chamber, large fly ash particles were collected by a cyclone with a cut-off diameter of ~2.5 μm, and the remaining fly ash particles were gathered in a filter. It was found that when coal was co-fired with SRF, the As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn content in filter ash/cyclone ash increased almost...

  14. Dry piston coal feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  15. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  16. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  17. Black coal. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R

    1973-01-01

    Statistics are given for the Australian black coal industry for 1970-3 (production, value, employment, wages and salaries, productivity, trade, stocks, consumption, export contracts, exploration, etc.). In less detail, world coal trade is reviewed and coke production is mentioned briefly. (LTN )

  18. Combustion and gasification of coal and straw under pressurized conditions. Task 2: Determination of kinetic parameters in PTGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, O; Hald, P; Bak, J; Boll Illerup, J; Gjernes, E; Fjellerup, J; Olsen, A

    1995-10-01

    The reactivities of pulverized coal and straw fuels were investigated regarding pyrolysis, combustion and gasification with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O by thermogravimetric analysis under pressurized conditions. The fuels were a Colombian coal, pulverized to 45-90 {mu}m particles, and wheat straw pulverized to 0-200 {mu}m particles. The pyrolysis studies were performed at 150-1000 deg. C in pure N{sub 2} at 1.5 to 40 bar. The combustion studies were performed at 300-550 deg. C, 1.5-40 bar total pressure with 0.08-0.8 bar of O{sub 2} partial pressure. The CO{sub 2} gasification studies were performed at 850-1200 deg. C, 4-40 bar of total pressure with 0.7-4 bar of CO{sub 2} partial pressure, also including studies with CO in combination with CO{sub 2}. A minor H{sub 2}O gasification study with straw was performed at 900-1050 deg. C at 1.5-2.0 bar of total pressure in an atmosphere containing partial pressures up to 0.32 bar of H{sub 2}O, o.2 bar of CO{sub 2}, 0.28 bar of CO and 0.12 bar of H{sub 2}. For combustion and CO{sub 2} gasification the results were analyzed with regard to reaction kinetics, and kinetic parameters that represent the experimental results were found. (AU) 11 tabs., 26 ills., 10 refs.

  19. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  20. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernikau, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  1. Methane of the coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the transformation process of the vegetable material to the coal (Carbonization), the products that are generated include CH 4, CO2, N2 and H2. The methane is generated by two mechanisms: below 50 centigrade degree, as product of microbial decomposition, the methanogenic is generated; and above 50 centigrade degree, due to the effects of the buried and increase of the range of the coal, the thermogenic methane is detachment, as a result of the catagenic. The generated methane is stored in the internal surfaces of the coal, macro and micro pores and in the natural fractures. The presence of accumulations of gas of the coal has been known in the entire world by many years, but only as something undesirable for its danger in the mining exploitation of the coal

  2. China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  3. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  4. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  5. Coal in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sore, J.C.; Coiffard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Mediterranean countries are not traditionally coal producers. In France, the main mines were located in the North and East, and belonged to the great coal fields of northern Europe. Spain is a modest producer (ten million tonnes), as is Turkey with its three million tonnes. The only way most of these mines can stand up to international competition is by an array of protectionistic measures and subsidies. This state of affairs has marked events of quite another nature, as it relates to energy economics. That is, coal has taken on increasing importance in the energy supplies of all the countries of the Mediterranean zone over the past twenty years. In this article, we set out by describing coke supply for the Mediterranean ensemble, and then go on to analyze the development aspects of coal for electrical production, the future of Mediterranean lignite, and the supply of imported coal. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  7. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  8. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-01-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11–12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO 2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the 238 U ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and 232 Th ( 232 Th, 228 Ra) family radionuclides as well as 40 K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides in

  9. SVM-based multisensor data fusion for phase concentration measurement in biomass-coal co-combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxin; Hu, Hongli; Jia, Huiqin; Tang, Kaihao

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the electrical method combines the electrostatic sensor and capacitance sensor to measure the phase concentration of pulverized coal/biomass/air three-phase flow through data fusion technology. In order to eliminate the effects of flow regimes and improve the accuracy of the phase concentration measurement, the mel frequency cepstrum coefficient features extracted from electrostatic signals are used to train the Continuous Gaussian Mixture Hidden Markov Model (CGHMM) for flow regime identification. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is introduced to establish the concentration information fusion model under identified flow regimes. The CGHMM models and SVM models are transplanted on digital signal processing (DSP) to realize on-line accurate measurement. The DSP flow regime identification time is 1.4 ms, and the concentration predict time is 164 μs, which can fully meet the real-time requirement. The average absolute value of the relative error of the pulverized coal is about 1.5% and that of the biomass is about 2.2%.

  10. Impact of co-combustion of petroleum coke and coal on fly ash quality: Case study of a Western Kentucky power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hower, James C.; Thomas, Gerald A.; Mardon, Sarah M.; Trimble, Alan S.

    2005-01-01

    Petroleum coke has been used as a supplement or replacement for coal in pulverized-fuel combustion. At a 444-MW western Kentucky power station, the combustion of nearly 60% petroleum coke with moderate- to high-sulfur Illinois Basin coal produces fly ash with nearly 50% uncombusted petroleum coke and large amounts of V and Ni when compared to fly ash from strictly pulverized coal burns. Partitioning of the V and Ni, known from other studies to be concentrated in petroleum coke, was noted. However, the distribution of V and Ni does not directly correspond to the amount of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash. Vanadium and Ni are preferentially associated with the finer, higher surface area fly ash fractions captured at lower flue gas temperatures. The presence of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash doubles the amount of ash to be disposed, makes the fly ash unmarketable because of the high C content, and would lead to higher than typical (compared to other fly ashes in the region) concentrations of V and Ni in the fly ash even if the petroleum coke C could be beneficiated from the fly ash. Further studies of co-combustion ashes are necessary in order to understand their behavior in disposal

  11. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  12. Combustion of pulverized fuel under oxycoal conditions at low oxygen concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toporov D.; Foerster M.; Kneer R. [RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer

    2007-07-01

    Oxycoal combustion followed by post-combustion CO{sub 2} sequestration has gained justified interest as an option for significant and relatively quick reduction of emissions from fossil fuel power generation, while taking advantage of the existing power plant infrastructure. Burning pulverised coal in a mixture of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} instead of air, however, will lead to modified distributions of temperature, species, and radiation fluxes inside the combustion chamber causing a retroaction on the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Utilizing a burner design, which was optimised for coal combustion in air, for oxycoal combustion will lead to flame instability and poor burnout. Stabilisation of the combustion process can be obtained by: i) an increased oxygen concentration (more than 21% vol.) in the oxidiser mixture, thus achieving similar reaction rates and temperature levels to a pulverised fuel-air flame without significant changes to the flame aerodynamics. ii) modifications to the burner aerodynamics, as presented here. The results in this study are obtained in the frame of OXYCOAL-AC, the research project, having the aim to burn a pulverised coal in a CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-atmosphere with oxygen, produced from high-temperature ceramic membrane thus leading to higher efficiency of the whole oxycoal process. Numerical and experimental investigations of a stable oxycoal flame, obtained with {le} 21% oxygen concentration in the burning mixture at the RWTH test facility are reported. Two different burner designs are considered, conclusions concerning the achievement of a stable oxycoal flame at O{sub 2} volume concentrations equal and less to the one of oxygen in air are derived. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The future development of the British coal topping cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.S.; Dawes, S.G.; Minchener, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), at present most of the electricity produced from coal is generated using large pulverized fuel boilers with a conventional steam cycle. This technology has been developed over many years and has culminated in a 6 x 660 MWe station at Drax. The design cycle efficiency of such a station is some 40%, lower heating value basis, this limit being due to the nature of the Rankin cycle appropriate for steam turbines without utilization of the lower grade heat as in a combined heat and power (CHP) system. This paper reports that there is an increasing concern regarding the potential environmental impact of fossil-fuel fired systems. In particular, emissions limits are being tightened for particulates, NO x SO 2 . There is also concern over the greenhouse gases such as CO 2 . For existing conventional plant, this has resulted in the retrofitting of low NO x burners coupled in some instances with the introduction of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) equipment. Such modifications lead to significant increases in the capital and operating costs, with loss in cycle efficiency when FGD is fitted. Thus at Drax the efficiency will fall by some 1% to below 39%. These adverse effects have increased the need for alternative coal-fired generation systems which will have higher efficiencies while at the same time improving the environmental impact of the power stations. The environmental debate over the use of fossil fuels for power generation will continue, with continuing public uncertainty especially over the extent and causes of enhanced global warming. The debate will continue against a background of rising power generation demand worldwide, particularly in developing countries. What is clear is that in the absence of long-term, cost effective and technologically proven alternatives to fossil fuels, coal will remain the prime fuel for power generation

  14. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems

  15. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  16. Pulverizing processes affect the chemical quality and thermal property of black, white, and green pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Pengzhan; Zeng, Fankui

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effects of different pulverizing methods on the chemical attributes and thermal properties of black, white and green pepper were evaluated. Cryogenic grinding minimally damaged the lipid, moisture, crude protein, starch, non-volatile ether extract, piperine, essential oil and the typical pepper essential oil compounds of the spices. The pulverizing methods and storage significantly affected the compositions of the fatty acid in the peppers, except for palmitic acid and lignoceric acid. The amino acid contents and the thermo-gravimetric analysis curve were hardly influenced by the grinding techniques. The use of cryogenic grinding to prepare pepper ensured the highest quality of pepper products. Regardless of grinding technique, the values of moisture, piperine, unsaturated fatty acids, essential oil, monoterpenes, and the absolute concentrations of typical pepper essential oil constituents (except caryophyllene oxide) decreased, whereas the amino acid, lipid, protein, starch, and non-volatile ether extract content as well as the thermal properties were insignificantly changed after storage at 4 °C for 6 months.

  17. Low-Pressure and Low-Temperature Hydriding-Pulverization-Dehydriding Method for Producing Shape Memory Alloy Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguia, Silvia Briseño; Clauser, Arielle; Dunn, Heather; Fisher, Wendy; Snir, Yoav; Brennan, Raymond E.; Young, Marcus L.

    2018-04-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are of high interest as active, adaptive "smart" materials for applications such as sensors and actuators due to their unique properties, including the shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity. Binary NiTi SMAs have shown the most desirable properties, and consequently have generated the most commercial success. A major challenge for SMAs, in particular, is their well-known compositional sensitivity. Therefore, it is critical to control the powder composition and morphology. In this study, a low-pressure, low-temperature hydriding-pulverization-dehydriding method for preparing well-controlled compositions, size, and size distributions of SMA powders from wires is presented. Starting with three different diameters of as-drawn martensitic NiTi SMA wires, pre-alloyed NiTi powders of various well-controlled sizes are produced by hydrogen charging the wires in a heated H3PO4 solution. After hydrogen charging for different charging times, the wires are pulverized and subsequently dehydrided. The wires and the resulting powders are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. The relationship between the wire diameter and powder size is investigated as a function of hydrogen charging time. The rate of diameter reduction after hydrogen charging of wire is also examined. Finally, the recovery behavior due to the shape memory effect is investigated after dehydriding.

  18. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  19. Coal: Less than lackluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  20. Coal in competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manners, G

    1985-06-01

    During the past decade world coal consumption has expanded by about 26% whilst energy demands overall have grown by only 17%. This is because of the increased price of oil products, plus a period during which the costs of mining coal in many parts of the world have been moderately well contained. Over-ambitious forecasts of coal demand have encouraged the considerable over-investment in coalmining capacity that exists today. Costs of winning coal and transporting it are low, but sales depend on the rate of growth of a country's demand for energy. Some countries are more successful at marketing coal than others. Amongst the major factors that influence the rate of substitution of one source of energy for another is the nature and age of the boiler stock. The outcome of the developing environmental debate and calls for reduction in SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions from coal-fired boilers is going to affect coal's fortunes in the 1990's.

  1. A coal combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlachovsky, I; Bartos, J

    1980-02-15

    A design is presented for a coal combine, equipped with two drum operational units, on whose both ends of the upper surface of the body, two coal saws are mounted with the help of a lever system. These saws, found in an operational position, form a gap in the block of the coal block, which is not embraced by the drum operational unit. The coal block, found between the gap and the support, falls down onto the longwall scraper conveyor. The lever system of each coal saw is controlled by two hydraulic jacks. One of the jacks is mounted vertically on the facial wall of the body of the combine and is used for the hoisting for the required height of the horizontal arm of the lever, reinforced by one end in the hinge on the body of the combine. On the ''free'' end of that lever, a coal saw is mounted in a hinge-like fashion and which is connected by the hydraulic jack to the horizontal arm of the lever system. This hydraulic jack is used for the clamping of the coal saw to the face.

  2. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  3. Utilization of HSC-ROSE residue as coking aid for the production of high quality coke from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlmann, D.; Limmer, H.; Naundorf, W.; Hood, R.L.; Washimi, K. (VEB Petrolchemisches Kombinat, Schwedt (German Democratic Republic))

    1989-04-01

    Evaluates suitability of HSC-ROSE petroleum pitch as binder for production of brown coal coke. This pitch has been available in the GDR since installation in 1988 of a 750 kt/a HSC (high conversion soaker cracking) plant, which processes 360 C visbreaker residue from Soviet crude oil, and the building of a ROSE (residue oil supercritical reaction) plant. Laboratory as well as semi-industrial experiments were carried out at the Freiberg Academy, GDR on pulverizing, briquetting and coking various brown coal types with HSC-ROSE pitch. Briquetting and coking results are shown in tables. Experiments showed that the resulting coke has 124% higher compression strength and 100% higher abrasion strength than regular brown coal coke without HSC-ROSE binder. The high quality coke is adequate for use as metallurgical blast furnace coke. An economic assessment of modifying an existing brown coal coking plant to process 2 Mt/a brown coal with 10% pitch binder is made. Required investment amounts to 54 million US dollars, estimated annual profits based on 1987 prices are 19.5 million US dollars. 4 refs.

  4. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  5. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  6. Economic outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis Casey.

    1997-01-01

    Coal still a fundamental component of two major industries in New South Wales- electricity production and steel making. Its future will be shaped by its ability to meet expected international increases in demand for thermal coal, and by profitability and possible impact of greenhouse strategy decisions. By 2002 the demand for the State's coal is estimated at a total of 116 million tons and it expected to play an increased role in the fuel mix for electricity generation because of its competitive price, established technologies and abundant supply

  7. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  8. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  10. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  11. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. X. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, electrostatic precipitators (ESP, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM. The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92–27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66–94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  12. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  13. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  14. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  15. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  16. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  17. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  18. Coal industry - memoranda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains 41 memoranda submitted to the UK House of Commons Energy Committee containing views on the UK coal industry and responses to questions from the Select Committee. The following organizations are represented: Department of Energy; National Coal Board; APEX; BACM; NACODS; NUM; UDM; TUC; CEGB; Electricity Council; Northern Ireland Electricity Service; SSEB; British Gas Corporation; BP; Conoco (UK) Ltd.; Costain Mining Ltd.; Shell UK Ltd.; BSC; ICI; Boots; CBI; PSA; Solid Fuel Advisory Service; Domestic Coal Consumers Council; Associated Heat Services; Association of Shell Boilermakers; Babcock Power Ltd.; GEC; Foster Wheeler Power Products; ABMEC; British Longwall Mining Association; Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors; Federation of Small Mines of Great Britain; Chamber of Coal Traders; Coalfield Communities Campaign; Nottinghamshire County Council; Federation of Self-Employed and Small Businesses; the Colombian, Belgian and Netherlands Embassies; and Plaid Cymru.

  19. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  20. Nanometre-sized pores in coal: Variations between coal basins and coal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurovs, Richard; Koval, Lukas; Grigore, Mihaela; Sokolava, Anna; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2018-01-01

    We have used small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate the differences in methane and hexane penetration in pores in bituminous coal samples from the U.S., Canada, South Africa, and China, and maceral concentrates from Australian coals. This work is an extension of previous work that showed consistent differences between the extent of penetration by methane into 10–20 nm size pores in inertinite in bituminous coals from Australia, North America and Poland.In this study we have confirmed that there are differences in the response of inertinite to methane and hexane penetration in coals sourced from different coal basins. Inertinite in Permian Australian coals generally has relatively high numbers of pores in the 2.5–250 nm size range and the pores are highly penetrable by methane and hexane; coals sourced from Western Canada had similar penetrability to these Australian coals. However, the penetrability of methane and hexane into inertinite from the Australian Illawarra Coal Measures (also Permian) is substantially less than that of the other Australian coals; there are about 80% fewer 12 nm pores in Illawarra inertinite compared to the other Australian coals examined. The inertinite in coals sourced from South Africa and China had accessibility intermediate between the Illawarra coals and the other Australian coals.The extent of hexane penetration was 10–20% less than CD4 penetration into the same coal and this difference was most pronounced in the 5–50 nm pore size range. Hexane and methane penetrability into the coals showed similar trends with inertinite content.The observed variations in inertinite porosity between coals from different coal regions and coal basins may explain why previous studies differ in their observations of the relationships between gas sorption behavior, permeability, porosity, and maceral composition. These variations are not simply a demarcation between Northern and Southern Hemisphere coals.

  1. Coal flotation technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, N. [C. Clarkson & Associates Pty. Ltd., Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    The Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) recently commissioned a study into the status of flotation in coal preparation, in order to direct limited funds to areas of maximum benefit. The primary purpose of the study was the assessment of new flotation technologies, including those commercially available and those still under development. Technologies examined included: the Jameson Cell, Microcel, and Ekof cell. Problems and advantages are discussed, with suggestions for future areas of research. 3 figs.

  2. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  3. Coal mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, L J

    1981-12-01

    In 1959 black coal production in Australia totalled some 21.9 million tonnes per annum, 70% of this being produced from underground mines in the coalfields of New South Wales. By 1980 output levels had increased by nearly 350% to 75.4 million tonnes per annum (54% of which was exported) compared with 5% some 20 years earlier. Because it is blessed with large reserves of coal and other forms of energy, it is inevitable that the Australian coal mining industry will be required to play a major role in the development of the international coal market through to the end of the present century. Experts now predict a need for the black coal output in Australia to be developed from its present level to a minimum of 293 million tonnes per annum by the year 2000. This paper examines the present circumstances in the Australian coal industry and attempts to outline the development which has to be undertaken in order to meet the needs of an energy hungry world.

  4. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  5. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  6. Workability of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Fels, M; Soltysik, K

    1978-04-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation on workability of coal seams of stratigraphic groups from 100 to 700 in the: Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Analyzed are 2900 petrographic logs taken in the longwall workings and in narrow openings as well as about 9000 individual samples. Workability of coal seams, floors and partings is determined. Workability is described by the indicator f, (according to the Protodyakonov shatter method) and the indicator U, (compression strength of the unshaped test samples). The mean percentage content of indivi dual petrographic groups of coal as well as the mean workability indicator, f, of coals in the stratigraphic groups of coal seams in Upper Silesia are also determined.

  7. Coal development potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M N; Pelofsky, A H [eds.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented, and covered the following topics: the current situation in Pakistan with respect to development and utilization of coal resources; the policies that have been responsible for the development and utilization of coal resources in Pakistan; coal development and utilization in other developing nations e.g. Indonesia, Greece, Philippines, China, Thailand and Haiti; and technological developments in coal exploration; extraction, handling, transport and utilization which could accelerate future development of Pakistan's coal resources. Specific subjects covered include the use of coal in the cement industry of Pakistan; the production of briquettes for domestic use, development and training of personnel for the coal industry; and sources of finance for coal development projects. Particular emphasis is given throughout the conference to the Lakhra coal mine/power plant project which aims to develop and effectively utilize the lignite reserves of Sind Province. 47 papers have been abstracted separately.

  8. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  9. Release and sorption of alkali metals in coal fired combined cycle power systems; Freisetzung und Einbindung von Alkalimetallverbindungen in kohlebefeuerten Kombikraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Coal fired combined cycle power systems will be a sufficient way to increase the efficiency of coal combustion. However, combined cycle power systems require a reliable hot gas cleanup. Especially alkali metals, such as sodium and potassium, can lead to hot corrosion of the gas turbine blading if they condensate as sulphates. The actual work deals with the release and sorption of alkali metals in coal fired combined cycle power systems. The influence of coal composition, temperature and pressure on the release of alkali species in coal combustion was investigated and the relevant release mechanisms identified. Alumosilicate sorbents have been found that reduce the alkali concentration in the hot flue gas of the Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion 2{sup nd} Generation (CPFBC 2{sup nd} Gen.) at 750 C to values sufficient for use in a gas turbine. Accordingly, alumosilicate sorbents working at 1400 C have been found for the Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion (PPCC). The sorption mechanisms have been identified. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to upscale the results of the laboratory experiments to conditions prevailing in power systems. According to these calculations, there is no risk of hot corrosion in both processes. Furthermore, thermodynamic calculations were performed to investigate the behaviour of alkali metals in an IGCC with integrated hot gas cleanup and H{sub 2} membrane for CO{sub 2} sequestration. (orig.)

  10. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  11. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  12. Measurement of O2 in the Combustion Chamber of Apulverized Coal Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Janeba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational measurements of the O2 concentration in the combustion chamber of a pulverized coal boiler are not yet common practice. Operators are generally satisfied with measuring the O2 concentration in the second pass of the boiler, usually behind the economizer, where a flue gas sample is extracted for analysis in a classical analyzer. A disadvantage of this approach is that there is a very weak relation between the measured value and the condition in specific locations in the fireplace, e.g. the function of the individual burners and the combustion process as a whole. A new extractionline was developed for measuring the O2 concentration in the combustion chamber. A planar lambda probe is used in this approach. The extraction line is designed to get outputs that can be used directly for diagnosis or management of the combustion in the boiler.

  13. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingshi; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Binbin; Li Shehong; Wu Daishe; Hu Jun

    2006-01-01

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  14. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  15. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  16. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  17. Coal 95; Kol - 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    1996-12-31

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO{sub 2} removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO{sub x} cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO{sub x} burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs.

  18. Variability of Mercury Content in Coal Matter From Coal Seams of The Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchowski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław; Pyka, Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    The process of identifying and documenting the quality parameters of coal, as well as the conditions of coal deposition in the seam, is multi-stage and extremely expensive. The taking and analyzing of seam samples is the method of assessment of the quality and quantity parameters of coals in deep mines. Depending on the method of sampling, it offers quite precise assessment of the quality parameters of potential commercial coals. The main kind of seam samples under consideration are so-called "documentary seam samples", which exclude dirt bands and other seam contaminants. Mercury content in coal matter from the currently accessible and exploited coal seams of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) was assessed. It was noted that the mercury content in coal seams decreases with the age of the seam and, to a lesser extent, seam deposition depth. Maps of the variation of mercury content in selected lithostratigraphic units (layers) of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been created.

  19. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  20. Pressing device for producing compacts from source material in powder form in particular pulverized nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, G.; Adelmann, M.; Konigs, W.; Wendorf, W.

    1984-01-01

    Pressing device for producing compacts from source material in powder form, in particular pulverized nuclear reactor fuel having a die-plate contained in platen and a bore associated with a ram, for receiving source material powder, a filling shoe, and a reservoir for powder connected by a hose to the filling shoe. The device is characterized by a passing wheel in the filling shoe as filling aid means; a tube containing a feedscrew disposed between the reservoir and hose as metering means; the reservoir having a bottom part with a can type place-on part with an opening eccentric to the axis; a coupling part and a cover part are placed on the open part of the can, these parts are also provided with a passageway to the feedscrew eccentric to the longitudinal axis