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Sample records for refining industry final

  1. Indian refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the history of the Indian refining industry and ongoing developments under the headings: the present state; refinery configuration; Indian capabilities for refinery projects; and reforms in the refining industry. Tables lists India's petroleum refineries giving location and capacity; new refinery projects together with location and capacity; and expansion projects of Indian petroleum refineries. The Indian refinery industry has undergone substantial expansion as well as technological changes over the past years. There has been progressive technology upgrading, energy efficiency, better environmental control and improved capacity utilisation. Major reform processes have been set in motion by the government of India: converting the refining industry from a centrally controlled public sector dominated industry to a delicensed regime in a competitive market economy with the introduction of a liberal exploration policy; dismantling the administered price mechanism; and a 25 year hydrocarbon vision. (UK)

  2. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  3. Romanian refining industry assesses restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasescu, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Romanian crude oil refining industry, as all the other economic sectors, faces the problems accompanying the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. At present, all refineries have registered as joint-stock companies and all are coordinated and assisted by Rafirom S.A., from both a legal and a production point of view. Rafirom S.A. is a joint-stock company that holds shares in refineries and other stock companies with activities related to oil refining. Such activities include technological research, development, design, transportation, storage, and domestic and foreign marketing. This article outlines the market forces that are expected to: drive rationalization and restructuring of refining operations and define the targets toward which the reconfigured refineries should strive

  4. Russian refining - an industry in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E [CentreInvest, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    In the old Soviet Union (now called the CIS), the refining industry is undergoing much modernisation, although the process is far from complete. Eventually, the CIS is expected to have a market-responsive competitive refining business. The expected transformation is discussed according to a five-stage plan. The stages are (i) the change from horizontally integrated entity to vertically integrated global concerns, (ii) the change from over-manned dinosaurs to modern efficient businesses, (iii) the move towards smaller, more advanced market-orientated processes, (iv) improving the transport and storage infrastructures and (v) improving accountability and profitability. The predictions for 2005 onwards are for sustained profitability. (UK)

  5. The European refining and distribution industry at the 2010 vista

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacour, J.J.; Tessmer, G.; Ward, I.

    1998-01-01

    Oil company chairmen belonging to the AFTP, DGMK and IP associations met together to debate about the future of the European refining industry. The following topics were discussed: is it the end of the refining crisis? Which uncertainties will have to be met? What is the situation of petroleum products supply and demand? What are the consumers' expectations? How to face the environmental constraints? Which future for the refining activities in Europe? Seven round-tables took place with the following themes: the factors of uncertainty in the future of refining activities, the petroleum products supply and demand (automotive fuels, fuel oils, lubricants), the refining activities and the supply of consumers (service stations and supermarkets), the situation of the European petroleum policy, the European refining industry and the public regulations (development of more efficient environmental approaches), the impact of environmental constraints and the technical solutions, and the future of the refining industry. (J.S.)

  6. Using atomic energy in the oil refining and petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigin, E.A.; Barashkov, R.Ia.; Raud, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    A short description of the basic large scale processes for oil refining and petrochemistry in which nuclear reactors can be used is given. The possible industrial plans for using nuclear reactors are examined together with the problems in using the advances in atomic technology in oil refining and petrochemical processes.

  7. State of European refining industry is less bleak than reported

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    It is difficult to pick up a trade publication without reading of the imminent demise of the European refining industry. Major oil companies are combining operations to minimize costs. Refineries are being shuttered, and analysts are calling for the immediate closure of many more plants. There is little doubt that European cracking margins have fallen since the early 1990s, in step with the rest of the world. However, the refining industry in Europe does not, in the opinion of Pace Consultants Inc., suffer from some overriding fundamental flaw that dooms it to low margins forever. The intent of this article is to put some of the industry's recent events in perspective, to discuss some of the fundamental differences between American and European operations, and to perhaps lay to rest the idea that refining is somehow dead in Europe

  8. Energy conservation potential in China’s petroleum refining industry: Evidence and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Xie, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A long-term equilibrium relationship of energy demand in China’s petroleum refining industry is established. • The sectoral energy conservation potential is evaluated by using scenarios analysis. • Energy prices, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure affect electricity intensity. • Future policy for energy conservation in China’s petroleum refining industry is suggested. - Abstract: China is currently the second largest petroleum refining country in the world due to rapid growth in recent years. Because the petroleum refining industry is energy-intensive, the rapid growth in petroleum refining and development caused massive energy consumption. China’s urbanization process will guarantee sustained growth of the industry for a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to study the energy conservation potential of the petroleum industry. This paper estimates the energy conservation potential of the industry by applying a cointegration model to investigate the long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption and some factors such as energy price, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure. The results show that R and D investment has the greatest reduction impact on energy intensity, and the growth of market participants (i.e. the decline of the share of state-owned companies) can improve energy efficiency of this industry. Under the advanced energy-saving scenario, the accumulated energy conservation potential will reach 230.18 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Finally, we provide some targeted policy recommendations for industrial energy conservation

  9. Refining capacity in Quebec : the Quebec market, industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudelle, F.

    2004-01-01

    Canada's second largest oil refinery is operated by Ultramar Ltd. in Levis, Quebec. The refinery, which supplies 45 per cent of all Quebec's petroleum, distributes its products to Quebec, Ontario and the Maritime provinces. The refinery currently produces 215,000 barrels per day. Ultramar is a division of Valero, an American firm which has a total refining capacity of 2.4 million barrels per day. A summary of the company's petroleum energy distribution, consumption, and reserves was presented and compared with the national and global position. It was noted that world demand for petroleum products increases yearly by 1 to 1.5 per cent while the demand for automobile fuel in North America increases by 2.5 to 3.5 per cent. In the last 10 years, world demand has increased by more than 22 per cent but refining capacity has only increased by 12 per cent. The average profitability of the refining industry from 1992 to 2002 was approximately 5.5 per cent, which limited investments in new refinery installations. Much of the industry's profits have been utilized to modify installations in order to reduce the sulphur content in gasoline and diesel fuels. Furthermore, the obtention of permits to construct new refining installations has become a major obstacle and the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may signify a 30 per cent reduction in automotive fuel demand. Given this, there is currently some hesitation and uncertainty by the refining industry to proceed with new major installations. tabs., figs

  10. The future of the refining industry; L`avenir de l`industrie du raffinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favennec, J P; Guerard, P; Freund, E; Obe, P; O` Brien, D; Montanier, J C

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of the situation and of the future prospects of the refining industry in Europe is given and compared to the other world areas (USA, south-east Asian). Nowadays, the refining industry imposes to take into account of the environmental constraints, of the products qualities and of the refineries emissions. New possible technologies are described. (O.M.) 21 refs.

  11. The future of the refining industry; L`avenir de l`industrie du raffinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favennec, J.P.; Guerard, P.; Freund, E.; Obe, P.; O`Brien, D.; Montanier, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of the situation and of the future prospects of the refining industry in Europe is given and compared to the other world areas (USA, south-east Asian). Nowadays, the refining industry imposes to take into account of the environmental constraints, of the products qualities and of the refineries emissions. New possible technologies are described. (O.M.) 21 refs.

  12. Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry - bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, M.

    1995-03-01

    The Great Lakes Pollution Prevention Centre has compiled a list of references to assist the petroleum refining industry in adopting pollution prevention as an important environmental management strategy. Items included were divided into 14 categories of pollution types, such as air emissions, alternative fuels, chemical substitution, grounds keeping, leaks and spills, paints, waste management plan and others

  13. Catalysts in petroleum refining and petrochemical industries 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absi-Halabi, M.; Beshara, J.; Qabazard, H.; Stanislaus, A. [eds.] [Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Materials Division, Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research, Kuwait (Kuwait)

    1996-07-01

    Catalysis plays an increasingly critical role in modern petroleum refining and basic petrochemical industries. The market demands for and specifications of petroleum and petrochemical products are continuously changing. They have impacted the industry significantly over the past twenty years. Numerous new refining processes have been developed and significant improvements were made on existing technologies. Catalysts have been instrumental in enabling the industry to meet the continuous challenges posed by the market. As we enter the 21st century, new challenges for catalysis science and technology are anticipated in almost every field. Particularly, better utilization of petroleum resources and demands for cleaner transportation fuels are major items on the agenda. It is against this background that the 2nd International Conference on Catalysts in Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries was organized. The papers from the conference were carefully selected from around 100 submissions. They were a mix of reviews providing an overview of selected areas, original fundamental research results, and industrial experiences. The papers in the proceedings were grouped in the following sections for quick reference: Plenary Papers; Hydroprocessing of Petroleum Residues and Distillates; Fluid Catalytic Cracking; Oxidation Catalysis; Aromatization and Polymerization Catalysis; Catalyst Characterization and Performance. The plenary papers were mostly reviews covering important topics related to the objectives of the conference. The remaining sections cover various topics of major impact on modern petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. A large number of papers dealt with hydroprocessing of petroleum distillates and residues which reflects the concern over meeting future sulfur-level specifications for diesel and fuel oils

  14. The future of refining industry is in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    The decision of Total Group to close down the refining activity of its Flandres' site at Dunkerque (France) is a testimony of the deep restructuring that is affecting this sector. The migration of the refining activity towards Middle-East and Asia has started several years ago. The World capacities are increasing: in 2009 4.36 billion tons of petroleum products were refined in the world, representing a 1.9% rise with respect to 2008. 661 refineries exist in the world, among which 6 were inaugurated in 2009, 115 are located in Europe and 12 in France. The bad health of the European refining activity is beneficial to Middle and Asia where investments in new production capacities follow on from one another. From now to 2030, these areas will benefit from 70% of the worldwide investments compared to 11% only for Europe and North America. The decline of the European refining industry is directly linked to decay of the automotive fuel consumption and to the increase of the diesel fuel share with respect to gasoline. On the other hand, Asia, and in particular China and India, follow the exactly opposite trend thanks to their population and economic growths. Therefore, European oil companies try to invest in Asia and are looking for new production capacities in China and India. (J.S.)

  15. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  16. Off-balance-sheet financing to the refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Off-balance-sheet lending, or project finance, is becoming an increasingly popular means of capital formation in the refining and petrochemical industries. However, these transactions are substantially different from traditional corporate lending, and the demands placed on the borrower to examine, substantiate, and support the project are far greater. The following paper examines ways in which international banks and other lenders evaluate off-balance-sheet refinery projects and suggests ways to better structure financial representations

  17. The petroleum refining industry and the implications for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraiva, Gerardo Jose de Pontes

    2000-01-01

    The petroleum refining industry is basically concerned with the production of oil, lubricants and intermediate petrochemical products, utilizing crude oil as its main raw material. Petroleum refining, a distillation process that breaks hydrocarbons into fractions, eliminating undesired impurities, generates irreducible residues. Until the industrial revolution, the residues were essentially organic, susceptible to the attack of agents of destruction and transformation (bacterium, fungi, etc). Suddenly, due to the intensification of human activities of modern man, nature scattered across the planet more resistant products, many of them with long life times, that produce a deeper impact in the environment. Almost entirely marine is the pollution that results from increasing quantity of hydrocarbons dumped into the sea, a problem that is aggravated by the development of manufacturing and transportation of petroleum products. The expansion of the petroleum commerce, using essentially maritime transportation, has increased considerably the probability of accidents increasing the risks of environment pollution. This work presents suggestions and possible solutions to minimize the problem of environment pollution, caused by refining and transportation of this combustible, essential to present time industry. (author)

  18. Biodiesel obtained from soapstock originated in a refining oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobio Pérez, Indira; Díaz Domínguez, Yosvany; Piloto-Rodríguez, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    In the vegetable oil chemical refining process is obtained a by-product commonly named as soapstock, due to its physical and aspect properties. The soapstock free fatty acid content can reach to 50%. The present work shows a survey of researches focused on biodiesel obtaining from this by-product. The biodiesel is obtained following different routes and catalyzers features. A variety of reports shown the effectivity of the use of this by-product derived from vegetable oil refining industry to produce biodiesel. Several studies are addressed to the acid oil recovering involving processes without soapstock acidulation, with the aim of lowering costs and finding more attractive yields closing to the concept of zero wastes. (author)

  19. Pushing the dinosaurs[Competition in the refining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, C B [Ernst and Young/Wright Killen (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The need for change in the business of oil refining is expressed. Since 1981, only three years have yielded high profit margins. The future is said to be in maximising performance from existing assets. In the past, the industry focused on the asset-based strategy of refining crude and getting it into the pipelines as early as possible but apparently the future lies in identifying customer needs and satisfying those needs as quickly as possible. In other words, selling the most product at the highest price. The strategy and tactics for achieving these goals are itemised and discussed. In short, it is essential that oil and gas companies make the transformation from asset focus to customer focus. (UK)

  20. Air Quality Impacts of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Ragothaman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential health impacts, it is important to implement proper air quality management by understanding the link between specific pollutant sources and resulting population exposures. These industries release pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds, greenhouse gases and particulate matter, from various parts of their operations. Air quality should be monitored and controlled more meticulously in developing nations where increased energy demands, industrialization and overpopulation has led to more emissions and lower air quality. This paper presents a review of findings and highlights from various studies on air quality impacts of petroleum refining and petrochemical plants in many regions in the world.

  1. Success in Asian refining -- Strategies for a growth industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    Asia offers some of the best growth opportunities to the global refining industry. Many of its nations are in the process of industrializing, with a rapid rise in living standards and associated energy use. Growth trends are firmly established, with petroleum use in particular increasing rapidly as modern transport infrastructures develop. Of perhaps greater importance is Asia's potential for continued growth based on population and GDP trends. While the expected growth offers a wide range of opportunities, succeeding in the unique Asian marketplace will be a challenge mastered by only a few new entrants. This paper will examine some of the critical issues that will drive success and shape the refining business in Asia. Industry fundamentals will be reviewed, with a focus on growth and profit drivers. With the fundamental framework established, the unique challenges posed by the Asian environment, including cultural issues, investment requirements, regulatory trends and issues in market development will be discussed. The ability to succeed in Asia by identifying factors that create local advantage within a very diverse region will be discussed. The need to merge corporate capabilities and objectives with regional opportunities is the key requirement to succeed in entering or expanding in the region

  2. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleille, S.

    2004-01-01

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  3. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  4. Recent developments in environmental regulations and their impact on the U.S. refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmassebi, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Public concern over the environment has heightened considerably since the hot, dry summer of 1988. Responding to these concerns, the administration and Congress have initiated a number of measures to address such issues as acid rain, ozone depletion, smog, and global climate change. Most of these measures are aimed at the oil industry or energy-producing companies. They cone on the heels of other costly environmental legislation, to phase out lead in gasoline and reduce gasoline volatility. Additional measures aimed at different segments of the oil industry (production, refining, and retailing) are expected. In analyzing the merits of these policies, one must address the following issues: the feasibility of reaching an optimum point for these regulatory measures, considering the potential costs and benefits; the ramifications of such measures on the U.S. oil industry, particularly on the U.S. refining industry; the costs to the final consumer and the economy; and the effects of the implementation of such regulations by other countries and our trading partners. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concerns raised above, particularly as they relate to the U.S. refining industry

  5. The Canadian refining Industry : The circle of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    Examples of how the downstream petroleum industry is influenced by events in the upstream petroleum sector were presented. In order to survive, Canadian refiners (downstream petroleum) must remain competitive with their domestic counterparts, with the U.S. and with offshore refiners who can import products into key Eastern markets. The downstream sector has little choice but to focus on crude costs and flexibility to try to improve the profitability of its operations. In Canada, the supply of both conventional and bitumen crude oil has increased significantly. This change in the supply and demand balance has had a definite impact on prices. Ample Canadian heavy crude supply has caused refiners to adjust their operations to take advantage of lower-cost crude oil. The result has been the announcement of several large-scale projects, such as for example Shell Oil's construction of an upgrader at their Scotsford plant. The North American pipeline system is the link between the upstream supply and the downstream demand. New pipeline projects have allowed increased supplies of Canadian heavy crude to gain access to new markets. It was emphasized that the downstream sector provides feedback to the upstream sector that influences producers when they plan their exploration, development and production activities. The picture in light crude production is the reverse of heavy crude oil production, i.e. Canadian light crude supply declined 4 per cent in 1996 from the average of the previous three years. This decline has given synthetic crude oil facilities like Syncrude and GCOS the chance to expand their production to offset a portion of the inland crude supply shortfall. 5 figs

  6. Dynamics of the European refining and petrochemical industry. Strategies, structure and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenbakkers, K.

    1997-01-01

    The changes in the market position of producers engaged in the oil refining and basic petrochemical industry on the Western European market are the central theme of this book. Analysis of this reshuffling process among these actors is conducted on three levels. First, research is carried out at the level of world regions. In order to understand the reorganization of oil refining and basic petrochemical production in Western Europe, it is necessary to explore the recent aggregate dynamics of these activities on a global scale. Second, the differences in strategic behaviour are exanuned at the level of groups of market participants, namely the major oil companies, the chemical companies, the state-owned companies from both consumer and producer countries, and the independents. Finally, the investment/disinvestment decisions in the Western European oil refining and basic petrochemical industry are investigated at the level of the individual firm. Particular emphasis is placed upon explaining why companies active in the sectors under study have followed different strategies, although they have been confronted with similar adverse market conditions in Western Europe during the last decades. 341 refs

  7. Industrial recovery capability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.

    1984-12-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the vulnerability - to a nuclear strike, terrorist attack, or natural disaster - of our national capacity to produce chlorine, beryllium, and a particular specialty alumina catalyst required for the production of sulfur. All of these industries are of critical importance to the United States economy. Other industries that were examined and found not to be particularly vulnerable are medicinal drugs and silicon wafers for electronics. Thus, only the three more vulnerable industries are addressed in this report

  8. Comparison of lab, pilot, and industrial scale low consistency mechanical refining for improvements in enzymatic digestibility of pretreated hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brandon W; Venditti, Richard; Park, Sunkyu; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical refining has been shown to improve biomass enzymatic digestibility. In this study industrial high-yield sodium carbonate hardwood pulp was subjected to lab, pilot and industrial refining to determine if the mechanical refining improves the enzymatic hydrolysis sugar conversion efficiency differently at different refining scales. Lab, pilot and industrial refining increased the biomass digestibility for lignocellulosic biomass relative to the unrefined material. The sugar conversion was increased from 36% to 65% at 5 FPU/g of biomass with industrial refining at 67.0 kWh/t, which was more energy efficient than lab and pilot scale refining. There is a maximum in the sugar conversion with respect to the amount of refining energy. Water retention value is a good predictor of improvements in sugar conversion for a given fiber source and composition. Improvements in biomass digestibility with refining due to lab, pilot plant and industrial refining were similar with respect to water retention value. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, Joan [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Carole, Tracy [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Andres, Howard [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This 2007 report provides an overview of the U.S. petroleum refining industry, including new data on market trends and energy and material consumption, as well as information on environmental performance.

  10. Procurement planning in oil refining industries considering blending operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsdottir, Thordis Anna; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses procurement planning in oil refining, which has until now only had limited attention in the literature. We introduce a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model and develop a novel two-stage solution approach, which aims at computational efficiency while addressing...... parameters than in previous literature. The developed approach is tested using historical data from Statoil A/S as well as through a comprehensive numerical analysis. The approach generates a feasible procurement plan within acceptable computation time, is able to quickly adjust an existing plan to take...

  11. Grasp Densities for Grasp Refinement in Industrial Bin Picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hupfauf, Benedikt; Hahn, Heiko; Bodenhagen, Leon

    in terms of object-relative gripper pose, can be learned from empirical experience, and allow the automatic choice of optimal grasps in a given scene context (object pose, workspace constraints, etc.). We will show grasp densities extracted from empirical data in a real industrial bin picking context...... generated in industrial bin-picking for grasp learning. This aim is achieved by using the novel concept of grasp densities (Detry et al., 2010). Grasp densities can describe the full variety of grasps that apply to specific objects using specific grippers. They represent the likelihood of grasp success...

  12. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Industrial automation management in the refining industry; Gestao da automacao industrial no refino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Antonio Carlos; Moro, Lincoln Fernando Lautenschlager [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    PETROBRAS started in 1986 the implementation of industrial automation in its refineries with the gradual replacement of analogical instrumentation by the digital technology, which demanded massive investments in hardware and allowed the adoption of real time optimization (RTO) systems . This process also required significant investments in learning and technology development. It is estimated that the set of systems already in operation generates results in the order of 1% of the Downstream operating profit, due to better product yields, lower energy consumption, higher reliability, etc. Currently the company focuses in guaranteeing the effectiveness of the results obtained with the optimization technology. This guarantee demands a plethora of actions, including the elaboration of an evaluation methodology and a rigorous and continuous results analysis , as well as actions to solve the problems that may be negatively impacting the performance. A specific evaluation methodology has been developed for the advanced control application, since this technology is the most mature among all that have already been implemented. This methodology considers that the economic results are directly related to the activation of process constraints that bound the operating window, and consist basically in the evaluation of an index, called PCAT (percentage of active controlled variables), which is transformed into an economical benefit by a procedure that takes into account the unit potential and the performance of the control system. The results clearly show that the overall performance has been improving since October, 2003. (author)

  14. Challenges and technological opportunities for the oil refining industry: A Brazilian refinery case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelo Branco, David A.; Gomes, Gabriel L.; Szklo, Alexandre S.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide oil refining industry currently faces strong challenges related to uncertainties about future feedstock and characteristics of oil products. These challenges favor two main strategies for the sector: the first strategy is increasing refinery complexity and versatility; the second is integrating the refining and petrochemical industries, adding value to the crude oil while guaranteeing market share to premium oil products. Both strategies aim at increasing production of highly specified oil products, simultaneously reducing the environmental impacts of the refining industry. This paper analyses the case of a Brazilian refinery, Gabriel Passos Refinery (REGAP), by proposing additional investments to alter and/or expand its current production scheme. All the proposed options present relatively low investment rates of return. However, investments in a hydrocracking based configuration with a gasification unit providing hydrogen and power can further improve the operational profitability, due to reduced natural gas consumption.

  15. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    Grain refinement behavior of copper alloys cast in permanent molds was investigated. This is one of the least studied subjects in copper alloy castings. Grain refinement is not widely practiced for leaded copper alloys cast in sand molds. Aluminum bronzes and high strength yellow brasses, cast in sand and permanent molds, were usually fine grained due to the presence of more than 2% iron. Grain refinement of the most common permanent mold casting alloys, leaded yellow brass and its lead-free replacement EnviroBrass III, is not universally accepted due to the perceived problem of hard spots in finished castings and for the same reason these alloys contain very low amounts of iron. The yellow brasses and Cu-Si alloys are gaining popularity in North America due to their low lead content and amenability for permanent mold casting. These alloys are prone to hot tearing in permanent mold casting. Grain refinement is one of the solutions for reducing this problem. However, to use this technique it is necessary to understand the mechanism of grain refinement and other issues involved in the process. The following issues were studied during this three year project funded by the US Department of Energy and the copper casting industry: (1) Effect of alloying additions on the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys and their interaction with grain refiners; (2) Effect of two grain refining elements, boron and zirconium, on the grain size of four copper alloys, yellow brass, EnviroBrass II, silicon brass and silicon bronze and the duration of their effect (fading); (3) Prediction of grain refinement using cooling curve analysis and use of this method as an on-line quality control tool; (4) Hard spot formation in yellow brass and EnviroBrass due to grain refinement; (5) Corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys; (6) Transfer the technology to permanent mold casting foundries; It was found that alloying elements such as tin and zinc do not change the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys

  16. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  17. Petroleum movements and investments in the refining industry: The impact of worldwide environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guariguata U., G.

    1995-01-01

    Since the enactment of the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the worldwide refining industry has aligned itself to become increasing attuned to the future well-being of the environment. Refiners must now develop strategies which address careful selection of crude slates, significant increases and changes in product movements, and upgrading of facilities to meet growing demand--in short, strategies which allow them to make substantial increases in capital investments. The objective of this paper is to determine the regional capital investments refiners must make in order to comply with environmental legislation. The methodology in making this determination was founded on a comprehensive analysis of worldwide petroleum supply/demand and distribution patterns for the coming five years, and included evaluation of a set of linear programming (LP) models based on forecasts for regional product demands and projections of regional specifications. The models considered two scenarios, in which either (1) refinery expansion occurs chiefly in the market consuming regions, or (2) crude producers take control of incremental crude volumes and further expand their planned refining projects and the marketing of refined products. The results of these models, coupled with an understanding of geopolitical situations and economic analyses, provided estimates for capital expenditures for the coming decade. In specific, the following issues were addressed, and are discussed in this paper: refined product trade outlook; crude supply; crude quality; shipping; and capital investments

  18. Oil industry consolidation and refined product prices. Evidence from US wholesale gasoline terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendix, Michael; Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective in this paper is to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on refined product prices, controlling for other important factors that could also impact prices. Our empirical analysis focuses on the US petroleum refining industry using data on industry consolidation and wholesale gasoline prices collected over the interval 2000-2008. We match refinery units to wholesale city-terminal gasoline markets, and then estimate pooled cross-section time-series regressions to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on wholesale gasoline prices at city-specific terminals. The results of the empirical analysis of mergers are mixed, showing that some petroleum industry mergers resulted in statistically significant increases in refined product prices; others resulted in statistically significant declines and still others had no statistical impact at all. Our analysis of the effects of measures of market concentration - one at the level of city-specific wholesale terminals and another at the level of regional spot markets - found evidence that less concentrated markets are associated with lower price levels. (author)

  19. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation's air quality. The aspects of the President's plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below

  20. Whether integrating refining and petrochemical business can provide opportunities for development of petrochemical industry in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zoran M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 90s of last century both the petroleum industry and petrochemical industry have operated in difficult circumstances. In particularly, margins of petroleum and petrochemical industry were exacerbated during global economic crisis in 2008-2009 years. At that time, as one option that could be the solution, the global analysts had started to more intense investigate the benefits of Refining-Petrochemical Integration. Shortly afterwards, more and more petroleum refineries and petrochemical manufacturers began to see the future in this kind of operational, managerial, marketing and commercial connection. This paper evaluates, in particular, the achieved level of integration of refinery and petrochemical businesses in Central and South-Eastern Europe. And specifically, the paper identifies current capabilities and future chances of linking this kind of integration between Serbian refining and petrochemical players. The viability of integration between possible actors and benefits of every single refining-petrochemical interface in Serbia depend on many factors, and therefore each integrated system is unique and requires prior serious Cost Benefit Analysis.

  1. An empirical analysis of lumpy investment. The case of US petroleum refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hirokatsu

    2002-01-01

    This paper employs five econometric models to examine lumpy investment and investigates the investment behavior of the US petroleum refining industry. Firms in the industry are classified into three groups by their size. All three groups show zero investment, disinvestment and investment in accordance with economic conditions. The analysis finds the minimum amount of investment and disinvestment for each group, which suggests that the size of fixed costs of investment is substantial, regardless of firm size. However, small firms adjust capital stock more slowly than medium or large firms. The analysis also suggests the existence of a convex adjustment cost

  2. The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80's when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries

  3. Panorama 2016 - Overview of the refining industry in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula; Jalard, Matthieu

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, emissions from the refining sector have fallen by more than 12%, reaching 128 MtCO 2 e in 2014. Germany was the largest emitter of CO 2 e for the 2005- 2014 period. With Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands, these six countries accounted for 71% of the industry's emissions in the EU ETS for 2014. During the 2008-2014 period, the European refining sector had a surplus of 74 MtCO 2 e, but since 2013 has had an annual deficit. Estimates show that the overall surplus of 74 MtCO 2 e should vanish by 2015. In the future, European demand for petroleum products will drop, and forecasts for crude processing are expected to decline. IFPEN estimates that, by 2035, this decline should reach 30%, leading to a 20% drop in the sector's emissions. Against this background, the amount of free allowances in the refining sector will fall, from 80% in 2014 to nearly 75% in 2020, leading to compliance costs for the European refining sector of approximately euro 600 million for 2020 alone, compared with the $6 billion needed for investment in Europe by 2035. Due to the great disparity in efficiency among European refineries (difference when compared with the benchmark), it is clear that it will be extremely costly for certain refineries to remain in operation. This will lead to the likely closure of refineries that are less efficient in terms of GHG emissions. (authors)

  4. Prospects for the U.S. energy and refining industries: Markets, profitability and key drivers for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    The US refining industry has experienced an extended period of change covering the past 20 years. Growing regulatory requirements, combined with shifting market characteristics, have resulted in massive investments and significant and ongoing structural change. Despite excellent capacity utilization, recent profitability has been poor. Industry psychology can be described as depressed, with honest concern about the long-term attractiveness of domestic refining as an area for continued participation and investment. This paper provides an overview of how the industry arrived at these levels of poor profitability, examines the current situation and future drivers, and presents Chem Systems' views on the outlook for domestic refining

  5. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  6. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  7. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  8. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  9. 75 FR 19991 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the UNEV Refined Liquid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ...-82385] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the UNEV Refined Liquid...) has prepared a Proposed Resource Management Plan Amendment (RMPA)/Final Environmental Impact Statement..., Tooele, Juab, Millard, Beaver, Iron, and Washington Counties in Utah; and Lincoln and Clark Counties in...

  10. Hierarchical prediction of industrial water demand based on refined Laspeyres decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yizi; Lu, Shibao; Gong, Jiaguo; Shang, Ling; Li, Xiaofei; Wei, Yongping; Shi, Hongwang

    2017-12-01

    A recent study decomposed the changes in industrial water use into three hierarchies (output, technology, and structure) using a refined Laspeyres decomposition model, and found monotonous and exclusive trends in the output and technology hierarchies. Based on that research, this study proposes a hierarchical prediction approach to forecast future industrial water demand. Three water demand scenarios (high, medium, and low) were then established based on potential future industrial structural adjustments, and used to predict water demand for the structural hierarchy. The predictive results of this approach were compared with results from a grey prediction model (GPM (1, 1)). The comparison shows that the results of the two approaches were basically identical, differing by less than 10%. Taking Tianjin, China, as a case, and using data from 2003-2012, this study predicts that industrial water demand will continuously increase, reaching 580 million m 3 , 776.4 million m 3 , and approximately 1.09 billion m 3 by the years 2015, 2020 and 2025 respectively. It is concluded that Tianjin will soon face another water crisis if no immediate measures are taken. This study recommends that Tianjin adjust its industrial structure with water savings as the main objective, and actively seek new sources of water to increase its supply.

  11. Options report for the mining, non-ferrous metal smelting and refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This plant level analysis involved the study of three Canadian mines from ore extraction to refining. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from each facility were examined, along with projects to reduce these emissions. Results showed variation in emissions between firms by orders of magnitude, and while GHG reducing projects do exist, many are not implemented for economic and business reasons. Nevertheless, a modelling analysis of the mining industry as a whole showed that the industry should be able to reduce its GH emissions to within range of the Kyoto target. Enhanced voluntary initiatives, already supported by the industry, are seen as the most cost effective means of achieving these emission reductions. Industry experts suggest more effort to be expended on identifying GHG reducing technologies and competing projects with higher returns on investment. There is incontrovertible evidence that energy efficiency measures are often not implemented by the industry because their return on investment are not as attractive as those associated with process improvement projects. With appropriate assistance from government, such as funding for comprehensive energy audits similar to the plant level analysis done for this report, funding for carrying out the detailed economic evaluation of these projects, help with specialized human resources to participate in enhanced voluntary activities (such as the energy audits and life cycle cost/benefit analysis), and financial incentives to create more attractive returns on investment for energy efficiency/GHG emission reduction projects, the Canadian mining industry will be, and can be, part of the solution towards reducing GHG emissions. Other avenues that could be helpful in this effort include exporting Canadian mining technology to aid in reaching a global solution to a global problem, recognition for the Canadian mining industry for its northern operations, credit for Canada for embodied energy in exports, and recycling to

  12. Photovoltaic industry manufacturing technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanecek, D.; Diver, M.; Fernandez, R. [Automation and Robotics Research Inst., Fort Worth, TX (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report contains the results of the Photovoltaic (PV) Industry Manufacturing Technology Assessment performed by the Automation and Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) of the University of Texas at Arlington for the National Renewable Energy laboratory. ARRI surveyed eleven companies to determine their state-of-manufacturing in the areas of engineering design, operations management, manufacturing technology, equipment maintenance, quality management, and plant conditions. Interviews with company personnel and plant tours at each of the facilities were conducted and the information compiled. The report is divided into two main segments. The first part of the report presents how the industry as a whole conforms to ``World Class`` manufacturing practices. Conclusions are drawn from the results of a survey as to the areas that the PV industry can improve on to become more competitive in the industry and World Class. Appendix A contains the questions asked in the survey, a brief description of the benefits to performing this task and the aggregate response to the questions. Each company participating in the assessment process received the results of their own facility to compare against the industry as a whole. The second part of the report outlines opportunities that exist on the shop floor for improving Process Equipment and Automation Strategies. Appendix B contains the survey that was used to assess each of the manufacturing processes.

  13. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  15. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents.

  16. Decision support in hierarchical planning systems: The case of procurement planning in oil refining industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Kasper Bislev; Lynge, Lasse Hadberg; Akkerman, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of decision support systems for hierarchically structured planning approaches, such as commercially available advanced planning systems. We develop a framework to show how such a decision support system can be designed with the existing organization in mind...... and from the perspective of the organizational aspects involved. To exemplify and develop our framework, we use a case study of crude oil procurement planning in the refining industry. The results of the case study indicate an improved organizational embedding of the DSS, leading to significant savings...... in terms of planning efforts and procurement costs. In general, our framework aims to support the continuous improvement of advanced planning systems, increasing planning quality in complex supply chain settings....

  17. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Final report, September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jerry; McWhinney, Jr., Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    This study program is part of the DOE Integrated Industry Cogeneration Program to optimize, evaluate, and demonstrate cogeneration systems, with direct participation of the industries most affected. One objective is to characterize five major energy-intensive industries with respect to their energy-use profiles. The industries are: petroleum refining and related industries, textile mill products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and food and kindred products. Another objective is to select optimum cogeneration systems for site-specific reference case plants in terms of maximum energy savings subject to given return on investment hurdle rates. Analyses were made that define the range of optimal cogeneration systems for each reference-case plant considering technology applicability, economic factors, and energy savings by type of fuel. This study also provides guidance to other parts of the program through information developed with regard to component development requirements, institutional and regulatory barriers, as well as fuel use and environmental considerations. (MCW)

  18. [Current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Yu, J N; He, C H; Mu, H X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C Y; Yu, S F; Li, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Methods: From August 2015 to March 2016, the investigation method of collecting the data of past occupational health examinations and measuring noise in working environment was used to enroll 8 672 male workers. Results: Of all workers, 11.6% were diagnosed with hearing loss. There were significant differences in the distribution of hearing impairment among workers exposed to noise at different ages, device types and types of work (χ(2)=17.80, 77.80 and 30.53, all P hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Conclusion: The level of noise exposure and working years with noise exposure are main influencing factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry.

  19. Final report, DOE/industry matching grant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind S.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Industry Matching Grant was used to help improve nuclear engineering and science education at the University of Missouri-Rolla. The funds helped in the areas of recruitment and retention. Funds allowed the department to give scholarships to over 100 students (names included). Funds were also used for equipment upgrade and research, including two computers with peripherals, two NaI detectors, and a thermoluminescent dosimeter

  20. Canadian retail petroleum markets study : a review of competitiveness in the Canadian refined petroleum marketing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada, as well as to provide a foundation for effective policy development. A model which illustrates the interrelationships between the many stakeholders who receive revenue from the sale of gasoline was presented. It was shown that although there has been an upward trend in world crude prices since 1991, both refiners and marketers have experienced a decline in margins due to price competition at the rack and at the retail pump. Government intervention into petroleum marketing was considered to be of questionable value and a poor alternative to market-based regulation. In this study, 19 markets representing a broad range of conditions, were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. Market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators were reviewed and discussed. Improving public understanding and awareness of competition in the petroleum marketing sector and developing cooperative industry research into marketing sector competitive issues were recommended. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 37 figs

  1. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement in the United States Petroleum Refining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, William R. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marano, John [JM Energy Consulting, Inc.; Sathaye, Jayant [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Adoption of efficient process technologies is an important approach to reducing CO2 emissions, in particular those associated with combustion. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among the most cost-effective approaches that any refiner can take, improving productivity while reducing emissions. Therefore, careful analysis of the options and costs associated with efficiency measures is required to establish sound carbon policies addressing global climate change, and is the primary focus of LBNL’s current petroleum refining sector analysis for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The analysis is aimed at identifying energy efficiency-related measures and developing energy abatement supply curves and CO2 emissions reduction potential for the U.S. refining industry. A refinery model has been developed for this purpose that is a notional aggregation of the U.S. petroleum refining sector. It consists of twelve processing units and account s for the additional energy requirements from steam generation, hydrogen production and water utilities required by each of the twelve processing units. The model is carbon and energy balanced such that crud e oil inputs and major refinery sector outputs (fuels) are benchmarked to 2010 data. Estimates of the current penetration for the identified energy efficiency measures benchmark the energy requirements to those reported in U.S. DOE 2010 data. The remaining energy efficiency potential for each of the measures is estimated and compared to U.S. DOE fuel prices resulting in estimates of cost- effective energy efficiency opportunities for each of the twelve major processes. A combined cost of conserved energy supply curve is also presented along with the CO2 emissions abatement opportunities that exist in the U.S. petroleum refinery sector. Roughly 1,200 PJ per year of primary fuels savings and close to 500 GWh per y ear of electricity savings are potentially cost

  2. Industrial assessment center program. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad R. Ganji, Ph.D., P.E., IAC DIrector

    2007-01-01

    The Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at San Francisco State University (SFSU) has served the cause of energy efficiency as a whole, and in particular for small and medium-sized manufacturing facilities in northern and central California, within a approximately 150 miles (radial) of San Francisco since 1992. In the current reporting period (September 1, 2002 through November 31, 2006) we have had major accomplishments, which include but are not limited to: Performing a total of 94 energy efficiency and waste minimization audit days of 87 industrial plants; Recommending and analysis of 809 energy efficiency measures; Training 22 energy engineers, most of whom have joined energy services companies in California; Disseminating energy efficiency information among local manufacturers; Acting as an information source for energy efficiency for local manufacturers and utilizes; Cooperating with local utilities and California Energy Commission in their energy efficiency projects; Performing various assignments by DOE such as dissemination of information on SEN initiative, conducting workshops on energy efficiency issues, contacting large energy user plants--Establishing a course on 'Energy: Resources, Alternatives and Conservation' as a general education course at SFSU; Bringing energy issues to the attention of students in classrooms

  3. Final Rule for Industrial Process Cooling Towers: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet concerning a final rule to reduce air toxics emissions from industrial process cooling towers. Air toxics are those pollutants known or suspected of causing cancer or other serious health effects.

  4. Refining revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Isaak, D.

    1984-01-01

    A review of changes in the oil refining industry since 1973 examines the drop in capacity use and its effect on profits of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries compared to world refining. OPEC countries used their new oil revenues to expand Gulf refineries, which put additional pressure on OECD refiners. OPEC involvement in global marketing, however, could help to secure supplies. Scrapping some older OECD refineries could improve the percentage of capacity in use if new construction is kept to a minimum. Other issues facing refiners are the changes in oil demand patterns and government responses to the market. 2 tables.

  5. Application of the exergy concept in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Ricardo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Grupo de Exergia, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2002-08-01

    In this paper, the past, present and future applications of the exergy concept in applied process research, development and engineering projects in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industry, conducted at the Mexican Petroleum Institute (IMP), are described. These applications are the result of a clear recognition of the challenge represented by the reduction of energy degradation, i.e. the application of the second law of thermodynamics, through the exergy concept, which allows to simultaneously consider the three E's model: energy-economy-ecology. Applications can be grouped in two complementary directions: the first, methodological, direction consists in integrating within general simulation, analysis and optimization programs, the subroutines required to conduct exergy analyses, in order to get a quick and precise manner, all information required to integrally optimize chemical processes through detailed exergoeconomic and exergoecologic studies. The second direction refers to research and technological development of specific systems and processes, integrally optimum, of which the justification lies on the exergy analysis, i.e. on its capacity to simultaneously consider energy, economy and ecology aspects, such as diabatic distillation, absorption heat pumps, coking-gasification-combined cycle co- and tri-generation, fuel cells, etc. (Author)

  6. Satisfaction of the Automotive Fleet Fuel Demand and Its Impact on the Oil Refining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Because virtually all transportation fuels are based on petroleum, it is essential to include petroleum refining in any assessment of potential changes in the transportation system. A number of changes in the automotive fleet have been proposed to im...

  7. Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety.

  8. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  9. 78 FR 35244 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... provided for convenience and customs purposes, the written product description, available in Amended Final... Analysis Comment 2: Date of Sale for Nacobre's ``Fixed Price'' Sales Comment 3: Nacobre's Indirect Selling...

  10. Egyptian And International Automotive Diesel. Fuels: Specifications Meeting Challenges To Refining Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, A.M.; EI Shamy, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a brief summary and comparison of Egyptian automotive diesel fuel to the international one. Recent legislation all over the world, requiring further reduction in sulfur, aromatics, T 90 and T 95 and increasing cetane value of the transportation diesel fuels, presents numerous technical and economic challenges to the refiners. While refiners grapple with these challenges, they will also face pressure from the increased demand of transportation diesel fuel and tighter capital restrictions. Overcome of these challenges makes a fair competition. A comparison of the Egyptian automotive diesel fuel and the international one will be a guide to locally and globally facing these challenges

  11. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  12. BioRefine. New biomass products programme 2007-2012. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makinen, T. (ed.) [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Alakangas, E.; Holviala, N. (eds.) [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    The focal areas of the BioRefine programme have been business development, raw materials, and product lines. The key issue in the programme has been the development of business opportunities. The other two programme areas - raw materials and product lines, including technologies and services - have always been viewed from the perspective of short, medium or long-term business activities.The programme has organised four calls for research projects. The focus of the first call was on biomass-based fuels for transport (in the autumn 2007), the second one focused on other biomass-based products like chemicals and materials (in the spring 2008), and the third one on new biomass sources and waste-based biomass, and research supporting the business development of SME companies (early in 2010). In the last call in the spring 2011, project proposals were expected to focus on the following areas: new innovative and multidisciplinary research initiatives related to biomass utilisation, small distributed biorefinery concepts, efficient and sustainable utilisation of biomass raw materials in new integrated solutions for biorefining, and new integrated solutions for the efficient utilisation of sidestreams in the biorefining value chain or in its parts. Unlike research organizations, companies have been able to apply for funding continuously from Tekes.

  13. Application of neural networks to the petroleum refining industry; Aplicando redes neurais a industria de refino de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R M.C.F. da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chaves, C. [Fundacao Gorceix, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Neural Network technology is an approach for describing behavior from process data, using mathematical algorithms and statistical techniques. The use of Neural Network in industrial process modeling and property estimation of feedstocks or products, is increasing in several kinds of chemical industries. This paper comments about critical successful factors, advantages and disadvantages of this methodology. Moreover, it presents some applications in Hydrotreating Process of the petroleum refining industry. In Hydrotreating of feedstocks, knowledge about characteristics of process regarding product property estimation, hydrogen consumption and removal of contaminants (sulfur, nitrogen, aromatics), are very important to process optimization, product specification and environment protection. The Neural Network technique has been used to model the behaviour of the chemical hydrogen consumption, the conversions of the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrodesulfurization and hydro denitrogenation reactions and the physical properties of product with operational conditions and feedstock properties. In addition, Neural Networks have been built to predict the cetane number of feedstocks. (author)

  14. Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid Metallurgical Grade (MG) Silicon: Final Report, 19 April 2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattack, C. P.; Joyce, D. B.; Schmid, F.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the developed technology for producing SoG silicon by upgrading MG silicon with a cost goal of$20/kg in large-scale production. A Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) furnace originally designed to produce multicrystalline ingots was modified to refine molten MG silicon feedstock prior to directional solidification. Based on theoretical calculations, simple processing techniques, such as gas blowing through the melt, reaction with moisture, and slagging have been used to remove B from molten MG silicon. The charge size was scaled up from 1 kg to 300 kg in incremental steps and effective refining was achieved. After the refining parameters were established, improvements to increase the impurity reduction rates were emphasized. With this approach, 50 kg of commercially available as-received MG silicon was processed for a refining time of about 13 hours. A half life of and lt;2 hours was achieved, and the B concentration was reduced to 0.3 ppma and P concentration to 10 ppma from the original values of 20 to 60 ppma, and all other impurities to and lt;0.1 ppma. Achieving and lt;1 ppma B by this simple refining technique is a breakthrough towards the goal of achieving low-cost SoG silicon for PV applications. While the P reduction process was being optimized, the successful B reduction process was applied to a category of electronics industry silicon scrap previously unacceptable for PV feedstock use because of its high B content (50-400 ppma). This material after refining showed that its B content was reduced by several orders of magnitude, to(approx)1 ppma (0.4 ohm-cm, or about 5x1016 cm-3). NREL's Silicon Materials Research team grew and wafered small and lt;100 and gt; dislocation-free Czochralski (Cz) crystals from the new feedstock material for diagnostic tests of electrical properties, C and O impurity levels, and PV performance relative to similar crystals grown from EG feedstock and commercial Cz wafers. The PV conversion

  15. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 6): Oklahoma Refining Company, Cyril, OK. (First remedial action), June 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 160-acre Oklahoma Refining site is a petroleum refinery located on the eastern edge of Cyril, Oklahoma, in Caddo County. The facility included refinery process areas, bulk storage tanks, waste pits, wastewater treatment ponds, and a land treatment area. During the mid-1980's, EPA investigations revealed large-scale organic and heavy metal contamination of onsite soil and ground water. In 1990, EPA conducted a removal action, which included characterization and removal of drums, plugging wells, and wildlife protection measures. The ROD addresses the remediation of onsite contaminated soil, sediment, surface water, and ground water as a final remedy. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, ground water, and surface water are VOCs, including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; other organics, including PAHs and phenols; and metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  16. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States). ITT Research Institute; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G. [Bonner and Moore Management Science, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  17. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising.

  18. Feasibility of industrial wind energy schemes - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gow, G.

    1998-04-01

    This document is the final report of an investigation into the feasibility of using wind turbines as on-site generation (i.e. on the customer's side of the meter) to meet a proportion of the electricity demand on industrial sites in the UK. It was thought that this could become a promising market for wind energy outside support mechanisms such as the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation and equivalents, for the following principal reasons: electricity which displaces purchases from a Public Electricity Supplier (PES) or Second Tier Support (STS) has a higher value than electricity sold direct to a PES or STS; there could be seasonal and diurnal correlation between the output of wind turbines and electricity prices; and due to existing infrastructure, realisation of such projects could be simpler and cheaper than for new wind farms. Six industrial sites participated in the project, covering a wide range of industries, locations, and wind regimes. For each site, a year of concurrent wind data and demand data was produced. Practical aspects of the implementation of such schemes, and the results of the time step analyses, were discussed with the participating sites and the host PESs for each site. (author)

  19. Feasibility of industrial wind energy schemes - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, G.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the final report of an investigation into the feasibility of using wind turbines as on-site generation (i.e. on the customer''s side of the meter) to meet a proportion of the electricity demand on industrial sites in the UK. It was thought that this could become a promising market for wind energy outside support mechanisms such as the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation and equivalents, for the following principal reasons: electricity which displaces purchases from a Public Electricity Supplier (PES) or Second Tier Support (STS) has a higher value than electricity sold direct to a PES or STS; there could be seasonal and diurnal correlation between the output of wind turbines and electricity prices; and due to existing infrastructure, realisation of such projects could be simpler and cheaper than for new wind farms. Six industrial sites participated in the project, covering a wide range of industries, locations, and wind regimes. For each site, a year of concurrent wind data and demand data was produced. Practical aspects of the implementation of such schemes, and the results of the time step analyses, were discussed with the participating sites and the host PESs for each site. (author)

  20. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils; L'industrie du raffinage et le devenir des fiouls lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S

    2004-01-15

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  1. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. 132 documents relevant to the topic were reviewed. TMD efforts were created to advertise cigarettes after advertising restrictions on direct advertising were imposed in 1982. To build public credibility the tobacco companies set up small companies and projected them as entities independent of tobacco. Each brand selected an activity or event such as music, travel, fashion, and sports that best suited its image. RJ Reynolds sponsored music events to advertise its Salem brand while Philip Morris used Marlboro World of Sports since advertising restrictions prevented the use of the Marlboro man in broadcast media. Despite a ban on tobacco advertisements in the mass media, tobacco companies were the top advertisers in the country throughout the 1980s and 1990s. The media's dependence on advertising revenue and support from the ruling elite played a part in delaying efforts to ban indirect advertising. Advertising is crucial for the tobacco industry. When faced with an advertising ban they created ways to circumvent it, such as TMDs.

  2. 78 FR 35251 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... of the order, the products covered are all seamless circular refined copper pipes and tubes.\\6\\ The..., 2011). The Department announced a refinement to its assessment practice in non-market economy cases.\\12... for the PRC- wide entity. \\12\\ See Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of...

  3. Anicteric hepatoxicity: a potential health risk of occupational exposures in Nigerian petroleum oil refining and distribution industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezejiofor, Tobias I Ndubuisi; Ezejiofor, Anthonet N; Orisakwe, Orish E; Nwigwe, Hariet C; Osuala, Ferdinand Ou; Iwuala, Moses Oe

    2014-01-22

    Literature abounds linking one's job to certain unpalatable health outcomes. Since exposures to hazardous conditions in industrial environments often results in sundry health effects among workers, we embarked on this study to investigate the hepatic health effects of occupational activities in the petroleum refining and distribution industry. Biochemical markers of liver functions were assayed in plasma, using Reflotron dry chemistry spectrophotometric system. The study was conducted on randomly selected workers of Port Harcourt Refining Company (PHRC) and Pipelines and Petroleum Product Marketing Company (PPMC) both in Alesa-Eleme near Port Harcourt, Nigeria, as well as non-oil work civil servants serving as control subjects. Results showed that, bilirubin ranged 0.3-1.6 mg/dl with a mean of 0.66±0.20mg/dl among the oil workers as against 0.5-1.00mg/dl with a mean of 0.58±0.13mg/dl in non-oil workers, Alkaline phosphatase ranged 50.00-296.00u/l (mean: 126.21±39.49u/l) in oil workers as against 40.20-111u/l (mean: 66.83±18.54u/l) for non-oil workers, Aspartic transaminases (AST) ranged 5.80-140.20u/l (mean: 21.81±11.49u/l) in oil workers against 18.00-44.00u/l (mean: 26.89±6.99u/l) for non-oil workers, while Alanine transaminases (ALT) ranged 4.90-86.00u/l (mean: 22.14±11.28u/l) in oil workers as against 10.00-86.60u/l (mean: 22.30±10.22u/l) for the non-oil workers. A close study of the results revealed that although the mean values for all the studied parameters were still within the parametric reference ranges, however, relative to the referents, there were significant increases (Pdifferentiation data showed that though the mean values for the parameters were higher in males than females, the increases were not significant in most cases (P>0.05), whereas data for age and exposure period classifications revealed that irrespective of the age of the worker, the effects are likely to start after the first five years, manifesting fully after the first decade

  4. Spent solid catalysts of chemical industry and petroleum refining; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillier, A; Briand, Y

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work is the analysis of the heterogeneous catalysis. In a first part are given the utilizing sectors. There are mainly the petroleum refining, the chemical industry and the environment. A catalyst is chosen according to its selectivity and velocity, its cost and the wastes it induces. Thus are found three main heterogeneous catalysts series: the bulky metals, the supported metals: precious or heavy or their compounds, the zeolites and other silico-aluminates. Their most frequent uses are given. The catalysts used in the main petroleum refining processes (distillation, catalytic hydro-treatment, desulfurization, catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrocracking, alkylation) are also detailed. The second part deals with the spent solid catalysts. The reasons of the deactivation (poisons or contaminants, structure modification) are given. The spent catalysts are either regenerated or eliminated. The regeneration methods are described. The solid catalysts cannot be stored without being stabilized (decrease of its water permeability and of its leachable fraction). The stabilization methods are reviewed. The regulations on the spent solid catalysts are given in the last part. (O.M.)

  5. Spent solid catalysts of chemical industry and petroleum refining; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillier, A.; Briand, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this work is the analysis of the heterogeneous catalysis. In a first part are given the utilizing sectors. There are mainly the petroleum refining, the chemical industry and the environment. A catalyst is chosen according to its selectivity and velocity, its cost and the wastes it induces. Thus are found three main heterogeneous catalysts series: the bulky metals, the supported metals: precious or heavy or their compounds, the zeolites and other silico-aluminates. Their most frequent uses are given. The catalysts used in the main petroleum refining processes (distillation, catalytic hydro-treatment, desulfurization, catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrocracking, alkylation) are also detailed. The second part deals with the spent solid catalysts. The reasons of the deactivation (poisons or contaminants, structure modification) are given. The spent catalysts are either regenerated or eliminated. The regeneration methods are described. The solid catalysts cannot be stored without being stabilized (decrease of its water permeability and of its leachable fraction). The stabilization methods are reviewed. The regulations on the spent solid catalysts are given in the last part. (O.M.)

  6. Creating value in refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on recent developments in the US refining industry and presents a model for improving the performance of refineries based on the analysis of the refining industry by Cap Gemini Ernst and Young. The identification of refineries in risk of failing, the construction of pipelines for refinery products from Gulf State refineries, mergers and acquisitions, and poor financial performance are discussed. Current challenges concerning the stagnant demand for refinery products, environmental regulations, and shareholder value are highlighted. The structure of the industry, the creation of value in refining, and the search for business models are examined. The top 25 US companies and US refining business groups are listed

  7. Demulsification of residual waters from refining industries of lubricant oil: case study; Desemulsificacao de aguas residuarias de industrias de refino de oleo lubrificante: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, Marcia Yumi; Morita, Dione Mari [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Sanitaria]. E-mail: dmmorita@usp.br

    1997-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the coagulation, flocculation with iron chloride (FeCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O), followed by phase separation, as alternative for treating residual waters from lubricant oil refining industries. Tests have been performed by using {sup j}ar test{sup ,} changing pH value and coagulants for various wastewater characteristics.

  8. 32nd European Study Group with Industry, Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ESGI (European Study Group with Industry) is Europe's leading workshop for interaction between mathematicians and industry. These workshops have taken place in Great Britain for a number of years, going back to 1968 when Prof. Alan Tayler initiated the so-called Oxford Study Group with Industry...

  9. Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees numerous sites on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other locations in the State of Nevada that have been impacted by activities related to the development and testing of nuclear devices and by other activities. NNSA/NSO is responsible for protecting members of the public, including site workers, from harmful exposure to both chemical and radiological contaminants at these sites as they remediate these sites. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) is the primary state agency responsible for protection of human health and the environment with respect to chemical and radiological wastes. In 1996 the DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada entered into an agreement known as the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Appendix VI to the FFACO describes the strategy employed to plan, implement, and complete environmental corrective action activities at NTS and other locations in the state of Nevada. One of the categories of corrective action units (CAUs) is Industrial Sites, which consists of approximately 1,150 locations that may require some level of investigation and corrective action. To evaluate the need for the extent of corrective action at a particular site, NNSA/NSO assesses the potential impacts to receptors by comparing measurements of contaminant concentrations to risk-based (chemical) and dose-based (radionuclide) standards (action levels). Preliminary action levels (PALs) are established as part of the data quality objective (DQO) process, and are presented in one or more FFACO documents generated as part of the corrective action process. This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process NNSA/NSO Industrial Sites Project uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process establishes final action levels (FALs) based on the risk

  10. Final Scientific Report - Wireless and Sensing Solutions Advancing Industrial Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budampati, Rama; McBrady, Adam; Nusseibeh, Fouad

    2009-09-28

    The project team's goal for the Wireless and Sensing Solution Advancing Industrial Efficiency award (DE-FC36-04GO14002) was to develop, demonstrate, and test a number of leading edge technologies that could enable the emergence of wireless sensor and sampling systems for the industrial market space. This effort combined initiatives in advanced sensor development, configurable sampling and deployment platforms, and robust wireless communications to address critical obstacles in enabling enhanced industrial efficiency.

  11. Alberta immigrant integration into the petroleum industry : final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    Alberta is in the midst of a labour shortage, especially in the petroleum industry. Traditionally, the petroleum industry has secured employees by hiring them away from competitors, service providers, other geographic locations, or other industries, mostly by escalating worker compensation. However, this is no longer seen to be a sustainable solution due to higher industry costs and inflation. A good opportunity exists for Alberta's oil and gas industry to address worker demand and minimize the negative impacts associated with current and future labour concerns by increasing the participation of workers who are under-represented in the workforce, such as Aboriginals, women, and internationally trained workers. This report presented the details of a project called the Alberta immigrant integration into the petroleum industry project in order to determine the tools, resources and support processes needed by petroleum industry employers to increase the employment and retention of internationally trained workers already living in Alberta into the upstream petroleum industry. The report outlined the gaps in information, tools, resources and services that were preventing the petroleum industry from taking advantage of the skills and experience offered by Alberta's labour pool of internationally trained workers in any significant way. The report also presented an overview of strategic priorities and recommended activities, duly endorsed by stakeholders, in order to improve the recruitment and integration of internationally trained workers into the petroleum industry workforce. It was concluded that employers who develop the skills and capability to effectively recruit and integrate internationally trained workers into their workforce will have a clear advantage in the competition for skilled employees. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  12. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation'' (the final rule). The...

  13. Hospitality Industry Technology Training (HITT). Final Performance Report, April 1, 1989-December 31, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount Hood Community Coll., Gresham, OR.

    This final performance report includes a third-party evaluation and a replication guide. The first section describes a project to develop and implement an articulated curriculum for grades 8-14 to prepare young people for entry into hospitality/tourism-related occupations. It discusses the refinement of existing models, pilot test, curriculum…

  14. Geothermal resource utilization: paper and cane sugar industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornburg, C.D.; Morin, O.J.

    1975-03-01

    This study was made as a specific contribution to an overall report by the United States in the area of industrial utilization of geothermal resources. This is part of an overall study in non-electrical uses of geothermal resources for a sub-committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This study was restricted to the geopressured zone along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Also, it was limited to utilizing the thermal energy of this ''geoenergy'' resource for process use in the Pulp and Paper Industry and Cane Sugar Industry. For the selected industries and resource area, this report sets forth energy requirements; identifies specific plant and sites; includes diagrams of main processes used; describes process and equipment modifications required; describes energy recovery systems; sets forth waste disposal schemes and problems; and establishes the economics involved. The scope of work included considerable data collection, analysis and documentation. Detailed technical work was done concerning existing processes and modifications to effectively utilize geothermal energy. A brief survey was made of other industries to determine which of these has a high potential for utilizing geothermal energy.

  15. Identifying Competencies in the Food Service Industry. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Linda M.

    This report documents a research project conducted to ascertain what specific occupational competencies are necessary for employees in the food service industry. Questionnaires were mailed to employers, in restaurants and hospitals and to graduates of high school and postsecondary food service programs. The respondents completed 316 position…

  16. Technician Training for the Semiconductor Microdevices Industry. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    The Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD) carried out four activities to foster semiconductor manufacturing technician (SMT) training: (1) collaboration with industry experts and educators while developing a curriculum to train SMTs; (2) implementation and testing of the curriculum at a technical college; (3) dissemination of…

  17. Spring 2004 Industry Study Final Report: Strategic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    decreasing processing costs. Processing costs can be reduced by using powder metallurgy technology to reduce waste and by seeking new markets to... market share is likely to remain fierce until the arrival of the next miniaturization technology , nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS). Smart...the transportation, medical, energy, information technology , and environmental industries will create the strongest economic pull for the

  18. Diffusion of energy-efficient technologies in industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S.Y.

    1979-01-01

    United States energy policies aim at cutting down dependence on foreign oil in two ways: by energy conservation and by finding new domestic supplies. The study investigates how the first goal can be achieved in the industrial sector (manufacturing) of the economy, which accounts for about 40% (about 7.3 million barrels per day) of the total energy consumption in the US. It is noted that industry is able to conserve as much as 25 to 30% of its energy consumption by adopting simple conservation measures and energy-efficient technologies. These technologies can be implemented without major alterations of the original equipment. The schools of thought on innovative processes are discussed; these will serve as the conceptual and methodological base of the project. (MCW)

  19. Circular economy opportunity in the wind industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, Robert

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to identify how the circular economy can be an opportunity for the French wind industry. A broad review of circular economy issues for the wind industry value chain has been conducted in order to be used as a decision making tool for ADEME and the wind industry stakeholders. First of all, a 'flow analysis' (including material, logistic and services related to wind power) has been carried out in order to highlight the specific challenges of circular economy for the wind sector. The strategic opportunities that meet these issues have then been identified. A selection of six opportunities has been further investigated to assess the benefits, to analyze the barriers and to identify actions that ADEME could initiate to foster these opportunities. These investigated opportunities are the following: - To structure a recycling chain for wind blades; - To promote the business model of the extension of wind turbine's lifetime; - To promote skills improvement of local providers for reconditioning and maintenance services; - To adapt the offshore hubs to integrate dismantling activity of onshore equipments; - To increase the manufacturing capacity of wind towers in France to increase local sourcing; - To encourage the creation of a leading French manufacturer to optimize the supply chain. In the light of this analysis, it can be concluded that circular economy represents a strategic opportunity for the French wind energy sector. The opportunities we focused on make up a consistent set of initiatives that improve the environmental, economic and social performance of the wind energy sector by strengthening industrial activities and services throughout all the life cycle: manufacturing stage (optimization of logistics flows and local manufacturing), use phase (maintenance, repair) and end-of-life phase of wind turbine (dismantling, recycling). While the sector has so far been focused on better solving technological challenges and

  20. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  1. North American refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  2. 75 FR 60723 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Comment 4: Model Matching Hierarchy Comment 5: Nacobre's U.S. Date of Sale Comment 6: Treatment of Nacobre... suspension-of- liquidation instructions will remain in effect until further notice. Final Determination The...

  3. BWR containments license renewal industry report; revision 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.; Gregor, F.

    1994-07-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry, through coordination by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), and sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has evaluated age-related degradation effects for a number of major plant systems, structures, and components, in the license renewal technical Industry Reports (IR's). License renewal applicants may choose to reference these IR's in support of their plant-specific license renewal applications as an equivalent to the integrated plant assessment provisions of the license renewal rule (IOCFR54). The scope of the IR provides the technical basis for license renewal for U.S. Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) containments. The scope of the report includes containments constructed of reinforced or prestressed concrete with steel liners and freestanding stell containments. Those domestic BWR containments designated as Mark I, Mark II or Mark III are covered, but no containments are addressed before these designs. The report includes those items within the jurisdictional boundaries for metal and concrete containments defined by Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Division 1, Subsection NE (Class MC) and Division 2 (Class CC) and their supports, but excluding snubbers

  4. Worldwide satellite communications for the energy utility industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Recent and future generations of low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are promising new possibilities for using space communications to achieve operational improvements and business expansion in energy supply and delivery industries. The ability to reach remote locations with relatively inexpensive devices and infrastructure is a unique property of satellites. Applications include remote monitoring and control of distributed resources and emergency and personal communication. Satellite systems are emerging as a significant opportunity for investment minded utilities. Over a dozen groups are planning to launch a total of 1200 LEOs in the period from 1996 to 2006, at a probable cost of over $20 Billion. This large number of systems can provide a worldwide mix of narrow band and wideband services including data, voice, video and Internet access. This paper examines the two primary factors which have limited applications in the energy industry: cost and propagation delay. The former has so far limited the technology to fixed communications with a few important sites such as remote substations. The latter has rendered the technology unsuitable for applications where critical protection mechanisms are involved. These constraints are effectively countered by the emerging LEO systems. Big LEOs will be used for voice service, little LEOs will be the systems of choice for most utility data applications. The author concludes that there are good technical and business reasons to reconsider future satellite communications as an option for meeting certain strategic business objectives in power system management and customer oriented information services

  5. Neutron activation analysis of final molasses from cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.; Gonzalez, E.; Rosenberg, R.J.; Diaz-Rizo, O.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal and epithermal non-destructive activation analyses have been performed on samples of final molasses from 14 different sugar factories , covering the most important regions in Cuba. From the first measurement after irradiation at the Triga Mark reactor (VTT), the concentration of more than 15 elements is reported. The almost constant elemental composition shows that they can be used equally for different purposes as animal foodstuff and for the manufacture of biotechnological products. This work is part of a research project developed in order to establish a complete characterization of Cuban sugar molasses. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Industrial assessment of nonbackfittable PWR design modifications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Daleas, R.S.; Miller, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Reactor Design Study, various nonbackfittable PWR design modifications were evaluated to determine their potential for improved uranium utilization and commercial viability. Combustion Engineering, Inc. contributed to this effort through participation in the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory industrial assessment of such design modifications. Seven modifications, including the use of higher primary system temperatures and pressures, rapid-frequent refueling, end-of-cycle stretchout, core periphery modifications, radial blankets, low power density cores, and small PWR assemblies, were evaluated with respect to uranium utilization, economics, technical and operational complexity, and several other subjective considerations. Rapid-frequent refueling was judged to have the highest potential although it would probably not be economical for the majority of reactors with the design assumptions used in this assessment

  7. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  8. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... 33030), we issued a final rule requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella...

  9. Sustainability Logistics Basing - Science and Technology Objective - Demonstration; Industry Assessment and Demonstration Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-17/019 SUSTAINABILITY ...LOGISTICS BASING – SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE – DEMONSTRATION; INDUSTRY ASSESSMENT AND DEMONSTRATION FINAL REPORT by Elizabeth D. Swisher and...Benjamin J. Campbell August 2017 Final Report December 2014 – February 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is

  10. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  11. Increased value creation by industrial refining of natural gas in Norway?; Oekt verdiskaping gjennom industriell foredling av naturgass i Norge?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelvik, John Magne; Kjelland, Torunn; Bakke, Kathrine Stene; Pedersen, Kent Vincent; Roetnes, Rolf; Fjose, Sveinung

    2009-07-01

    The report assesses whether industrial exploitation of gas from possible new major discoveries outside Northern Norway could be profitable. Profits are uncertain and depend heavily on gas prices. Industrial exploitation depends on the development of large, capital-intensive plants. This increases the financial risk. In a situation where gas export through pipelines is not an alternative industrial exploitation could be an alternative to export via LNG. However, the pressing demand for natural gas increases the probability of the construction of a gas export pipeline as a realistic alternative. Carbon emissions from a land-based plant will be important, and the costs for trading of emission allowances will reduce profitability. The authorities should allow for industrial exploitation to be assessed on an equal basis with pipeline transport and LNG as alternatives for market solutions for major new discoveries. (EW)

  12. Non-auditory effects of noise in industry. VI. A final field study in industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, F. J.; Souman, A. M.; de Vries, F. F.

    1987-01-01

    Non-auditory effects of noise were studied among 539 male workers from seven industries. The LAeq, assessed by personal noise dosimetry, has been used to study acute effects. Various indices of total noise exposure, involving level and duration, were developed for long-term effect studies. In the

  13. Panorama 2016 - Refining outlook for 2035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2015-12-01

    The rising influence of objectives intended to address the energy transition in global industry helps to perpetuate a high degree of uncertainty about changes in the transportation sector, currently a bastion of the oil industry. How can the growing need for individual mobility be met while reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in a world of open international competition? The refining sector is gaining strength in Asia and the Middle East to the detriment of Europe and North America, reflecting demand and the intrinsic competitiveness of various geographic regions. The 2025 worldwide roll-out (2020 in Europe) of a bunker fuel grade below 0.5 wt% (percentage by weight) in sulphur could experience delays, given the number of installations to be completed. Finally, the reversal of the 'all diesel' trend in the European transport market is a positive change for the European refining industry. (authors)

  14. Asian oil refining. Demand growth and deregulation - an uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameer Nawaz.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the report is to identify the most important features of the oil refining industry in Asia. Major developments in consumption patterns changes in regional importance of countries are discussed, highlighting potential future developments. The first chapter introduces the various refining processes and presents a simple model for the analysis of complex refineries. Chapter 2 examines the development of the Asian refining industry against a background of economic growth and analyses trends in consumption of all products in Asian countries. In Chapter 3, the key issues concerning the refining industry are examined, among them the forces driving consumption, including the importance of economic development, and electricity and transport demand. The importance of product imports and international trade is discussed, and the extent of government involvement and the effects of changing retail and market prices are analysed. Chapter 4 looks at the strategies that oil and gas companies are following in the Asian refining industry. Particular significance is attached to the vertical integration of the oil majors, Japanese and Middle Eastern oil companies. A brief overview of the importance of the petrochemical industry is presented. The countries of Asia that are involved in the refining industry are profiled in Chapter 5. The future trend in oil consumption is examined in Chapter 6. There follows a brief discussion of the plans to expand crude refining capacity in the various countries and a forecast of the state of overcapacity which will result. In the final chapter, brief profiles of some of the most important companies in the Asian refining industry are presented, discussing their major activities and future plans. (Author)

  15. Oxidative stability of refined olive and sunflower oils supplemented with lycopene-rich oleoresin from tomato peels industrial by-product, during accelerated shelf-life storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Choura, Sirine; Zammel, Ayachi; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2018-04-25

    Tomato peels by-product from a Tunisian industry was used for the extraction of lycopene-rich oleoresin using hexane solvent maceration. Tomato peels oleoresin, TPO, exhibited competitive free radicals scavenging activity with synthetic antioxidants. The efficacy of TPO in stabilizing refined olive (ROO) and sunflower (RSO) oils was investigated for five months, under accelerated shelf-life, compared to the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). TPO was added to ROO and RSO at four different concentrations, namely 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/g and BHT standard at 200 µg/g. Lipid oxidation was tracked by measuring the peroxide value, acidity, conjugated dienes and trienes. Results suggested the highest efficiency of 250 µg/g and 2000 µg/g of TPO, referring to 5 µg/g and 40 µg/g of lycopene, for the oxidative stabilization of ROO and RSO, respectively. The protective effect of TPO against the primary oxidation of these refined oils was significantly correlated to their lycopene contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ''A Parallel Adaptive Simulation Tool for Two Phase Steady State Reacting Flows in Industrial Boilers and Furnaces''; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael J. Bockelie

    2002-01-01

    This DOE SBIR Phase II final report summarizes research that has been performed to develop a parallel adaptive tool for modeling steady, two phase turbulent reacting flow. The target applications for the new tool are full scale, fossil-fuel fired boilers and furnaces such as those used in the electric utility industry, chemical process industry and mineral/metal process industry. The type of analyses to be performed on these systems are engineering calculations to evaluate the impact on overall furnace performance due to operational, process or equipment changes. To develop a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of an industrial scale furnace requires a carefully designed grid that will capture all of the large and small scale features of the flowfield. Industrial systems are quite large, usually measured in tens of feet, but contain numerous burners, air injection ports, flames and localized behavior with dimensions that are measured in inches or fractions of inches. To create an accurate computational model of such systems requires capturing length scales within the flow field that span several orders of magnitude. In addition, to create an industrially useful model, the grid can not contain too many grid points - the model must be able to execute on an inexpensive desktop PC in a matter of days. An adaptive mesh provides a convenient means to create a grid that can capture both fine flow field detail within a very large domain with a ''reasonable'' number of grid points. However, the use of an adaptive mesh requires the development of a new flow solver. To create the new simulation tool, we have combined existing reacting CFD modeling software with new software based on emerging block structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) technologies developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Specifically, we combined: -physical models, modeling expertise, and software from existing combustion simulation codes used by Reaction Engineering International

  17. 78 FR 9111 - Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units: Reconsideration and Final Amendments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... impacts? 2. What are the water and solid waste impacts? 3. What are the energy impacts? 4. What are the.... Pulp and Paper Sludge 4. Rulemaking Petition Process for Other Categorical Non-Waste Determinations (40... and 241 Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units: Reconsideration and Final Amendments...

  18. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods. phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An intuitive graphical user interface is available to guide novice users and to assist advanced users in managing refinement projects. X-ray or neutron diffraction data can be used separately or jointly in refinement. phenix.refine is tightly integrated into the PHENIX suite, where it serves as a critical component in automated model building, final structure refinement, structure validation and deposition to the wwPDB. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods.

  19. evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of quercetin derived of natural extract from red onion ocañera (allilium strain l and red apple (pyrus malus l var. red delicius in palm oil refined industrial type continuous warm conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golda Meyer Torres

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was based on the assessment of the quercetin antioxidant capacity existing in red apple (Pyrus malus L var. red delicious and ocañera red onion (Allilium cepa L. Then, antioxidant concentration was calculated by a standard curve of commercial quercetin (HPLC concentration ≥98% using spectrophotometry at 415 nm and dropped concentrations of 0.0955 mg/g in onion extract and 0.0144mg/g in apple extract. The antioxidant capacity of each extract was evaluated over industrial samples of industrial RDB (Refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil without antioxidant in order to observe the effect they had over peroxide creation. Actually, samples were treated in continuous heating for two, four and six hours and recording variables performance like acidity, iodine and peroxide index. Also, a sample of oil without antioxidant was evaluated adding pure commercial quercetin at 0.18 mg/g and a control sample of RBD palm oil added with commercial antioxidant (TBHQ, BHT. Finally, the outcome got by ANOVA analysis (Pvalue= 0.028, significance level of 5% on peroxide index formation calculated in mequivO2/kg highlighted the time of exposition than quercetin concentration in 0.0144 mg/g, hence a result alike the sample of oil added with commercial antioxidant.

  20. US refineries lament lack of final CAA rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Bush administration spokesman appeared unconvinced about the extent of the U.S. refining industry's problems at a Senate energy committee hearing. This paper reports that the oversight hearing examined various challenges facing refiners. Roger Beach, president of Unocal Refining and Marketing Division, testified for the National Petroleum Refiners Association, of which he is chairman. Beach the refineries still do not know what final Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments regulations will be, and state rules are changing, too

  1. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  2. Thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system for multi-strand waste heat sources in petroleum refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Li, Yan; Gu, Chun-wei; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade waste heat source accounts for a large part of the total industrial waste heat, which cannot be efficiently recovered. The ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system has been proved to be a promising solution for the utilization of low-grade heat sources. It is evident that there might be several waste heat sources distributing in different temperature levels in one industry unit, and the entire recovery system will be extremely large and complex if the different heat sources are utilized one by one through several independent ORC subsystems. This paper aims to design and optimize a comprehensive ORC system to recover multi-strand waste heat sources in Shijiazhuang Refining and Chemical Company in China, involving defining suitable working fluids and operating parameters. Thermal performance is a first priority criterion for the system, and system simplicity, technological feasibility and economic factors are considered during optimization. Four schemes of the recovery system are presented in continuous optimization progress. By comparison, the scheme of dual integrated subsystems with R141B as a working fluid is optimal. Further analysis is implemented from the view of economic factors and off-design conditions. The analytical method and optimization progress presented can be widely applied in similar multi-strand waste heat sources recovery. - Highlights: • This paper focuses on the recovery of multi-strand waste heat sources. • ORC technology is used as a promising solution for the recovery. • Thermal performance, system simplicity and economic factors are considered

  3. Refining - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable

  4. Outlook for Canadian refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boje, G.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum supply and demand balance was discussed and a comparison between Canadian and U.S. refineries was provided. The impact of changing product specifications on the petroleum industry was also discussed. The major changes include sulphur reductions in gasoline, benzene and MMT additives. These changes have been made in an effort to satisfy environmental needs. Geographic margin variations in refineries between east and west were reviewed. An overview of findings from the Solomon Refining Study of Canadian and American refineries, which has been very complimentary of the Canadian refining industry, was provided. From this writer's point of view refinery utilization has improved but there is a threat from increasing efficiency of US competitors. Environmental issues will continue to impact upon the industry and while the chances for making economic returns on investment are good for the years ahead, it will be a challenge to maintain profitability

  5. Regulatory impact analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For all major rulemaking actions, Executive Order 12291 requires a Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), in which benefits of the regulation are compared to costs imposed by the regulation. The report presents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA, or the Agency) RIA of the final rule on the effluent limitations guidelines for the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry. The principal requirement of the Executive Order is that the Agency perform an analysis comparing the benefits of the regulation to the costs that the regulation imposes. Three types of benefits are analyzed in this RIA: quantified and monetized benefits; quantified and non-monetized benefits; and non-quantified and non-monetized benefits

  6. Evaluation of select trade-offs between ground-water remediation and waste minimization for petroleum refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, C.D.; McTernan, W.F.; Willett, K.K.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation comparing environmental remediation alternatives and attendant costs for a hypothetical refinery site located in the Arkansas River alluvium was completed. Transport from the land's surface to and through the ground water of three spill sizes was simulated, representing a base case and two possible levels of waste minimization. Remediation costs were calculated for five alternative remediation options, for three possible regulatory levels and alternative site locations, for four levels of technology improvement, and for eight different years. It is appropriate from environmental and economic perspectives to initiate significant efforts and expenditures that are necessary to minimize the amount and type of waste produced and disposed during refinery operations; or conversely, given expected improvements in technology, is it better to wait until remediation technologies improve, allowing greater environmental compliance at lower costs? The present work used deterministic models to track a light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) spill through the unsaturated zone to the top of the water table. Benzene leaching from LNAPL to the ground water was further routed through the alluvial aquifer. Contaminant plumes were simulated over 50 yr of transport and remediation costs assigned for each of the five treatment options for each of these years. The results of these efforts show that active remediation is most cost effective after a set point or geochemical quasi-equilibrium is reached, where long-term improvements in technology greatly tilt the recommended option toward remediation. Finally, the impacts associated with increasingly rigorous regulatory levels present potentially significant penalties for the remediation option, but their likelihood of occurrence is difficult to define

  7. Spanish Refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lores, F.R.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of petroleum refining in Spain is presented (by Repsol YPF) and some views on future trends are discussed. Spain depends heavily on imports. Sub-headings in the article cover: sources of crude imports, investments and logistics and marketing, -detailed data for each are shown diagrammatically. Tables show: (1) economic indicators (e.g. total GDP, vehicle numbers and inflation) for 1998-200; (2) crude oil imports for 1995-2000; (3) oil products balance for 1995-2000; (4) commodities demand, by product; (5) refining in Spain in terms of capacity per region; (6) outlets in Spain and other European countries in 2002 and (7) sales distribution channel by product

  8. Panorama 2012 - Refining 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2011-11-01

    The major uncertainty characterizing the global energy landscape impacts particularly on transport, which remains the virtually-exclusive bastion of the oil industry. The industry must therefore respond to increasing demand for mobility against a background marked by the emergence of alternatives to oil-based fuels and the need to reduce emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). It is in this context that the 'Refining 2030' study conducted by IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) forecasts what the global supply and demand balance for oil products could be, and highlights the type and geographical location of the refinery investment required. Our study shows that the bulk of the refining investment will be concentrated in the emerging countries (mainly those in Asia), whilst the areas historically strong in refining (Europe and North America) face reductions in capacity. In this context, the drastic reduction in the sulphur specification of bunker oil emerges as a structural issue for European refining, in the same way as increasingly restrictive regulation of refinery CO 2 emissions (quotas/taxation) and the persistent imbalance between gasoline and diesel fuels. (authors)

  9. Gassmaks. Study of requirement for national focus on research for increased value-added industrial process of natural gas. Final report; Gassmaks. Utredning av behov for nasjonal satsing paa forskning for oekt verdiskaping fra naturgass gjennom industriell foredling. Endelig rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-15

    Final report concludes the importance of establishing the Research and Development program called 'Gassmaks'. The target of this program is increased value added to the natural gas loop. Strengthened know-how, industrial development and international competition force shall contribute to higher value added to community through industrial refining of natural gas. Gassmaks will by research based foundation exploit Norwegian natural gas resources environmental friendly. Highly prioritised are converting and use of natural gas to plastic raw materials, synthesis gas, synthetical fuel, energy processes, carbon materials, metallurgical processes and nutrients as proteins and fat. (AG). 28 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Review of Grain Refinement of Cast Metals Through Inoculation: Theories and Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhilin

    2017-10-01

    The inoculation method of grain refinement is widely used in research and industry. Because of its commercial and engineering importance, extensive research on the mechanisms/theories of grain refinement and development of effective grain refiners for diverse cast metals/alloys has been conducted. In 1999, Easton and St. John reviewed the mechanisms of grain refinement of cast Al alloys. Since then, grain refinement in alloys of Al, Mg, Fe, Ti, Cu, and Zn has evolved a lot. However, there is still no full consensus on the mechanisms/theories of grain refinement. Moreover, some new grain refiners developed based on the theories do not ensure efficient grain refinement. Thus, the factors that contribute to grain refinement are still not fully understood. Clarification of the prerequisite issues that occur in grain refinement is required using recent theories. This review covers multiple metals/alloys and developments in grain refinement from the last twenty years. The characteristics of effective grain refiners are considered from four perspectives: effective particle/matrix wetting configuration, sufficiently powerful segregating elements, preferential crystallographic matching, and geometrical features of effective nucleants. Then, recent mechanisms/theories on the grain refinement of cast metals/alloys are reviewed, including the peritectic-related, hypernucleation, inert nucleant, and constitutional supercooling-driven theories. Further, developments of deterministic and probabilistic modeling and nucleation crystallography in the grain refinement of cast metals are reviewed. Finally, the latest progress in the grain refinement of cast Zn and its alloys is described, and future work on grain refinement is summarized.

  11. Process integration and waste heat recovery in Lithuanian and Danish industry. Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The present document forms the Final Report for the first phase of the project `Process Integration and Waste Heat Recovery in Lithuanian and Danish Industry`. The project is carried out in the period 1995-1998 in a co-operation between the COWI offices in Lyngby and Vilnius, The Technical University of Denmark (Institute for Energetics), Kaunas University of Technology (CIPAI) and Vilnius Technical University, financed by The Danish Ministry of Energy`s EFP-95-programme, Lithuanian Energy Agency as well as the participants. The first phase of the project has comprised the establishment of the CIPAI centre (Centre for Industrial Process Analysis and Integration) at Kaunas University of Technology, training and knowledge transfer as well as elaboration of 6 industrial case-studies within the area of `Process Integration and waste Heat Recovery`. The second phase of the project has comprised R and D activities in this area in order to present general conclusions from the project as well as to present new and improved methods and tools for PI-analysis. The aim of the Final Report for the first phase of the project is to summarise project activities and the achieved results from case-studies and from the operation of the CIPAI-centre in general. (au)

  12. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  13. Nuclear techniques in the coal industry. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    With the aim of promoting advanced research and facilitating a more extensive application of nuclear techniques for environmental protection in the exploration and exploitation of coal, the IAEA established the present co-ordinated research programme (CRP) in 1989. This report includes an assessment of the current status and trends in nuclear techniques in the coal industry and the results obtained by the participants at the CRP. Proceedings of the final CRP on ``Nuclear Techniques in Exploration and Exploitation of Coal: On-line and Bulk Analysis and Evaluation of Potential Environmental Pollutants in Coal and Coke``, was held in Krakow, Poland, from 9 to 12 May 1994. Refs, figs, tabs.

  14. Geopressure industrial forums, newsletter and lease support. Final report, April 7, 1981-December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, C.F.

    1983-12-01

    In the course of this contract C. K. GeoEnergy: (1) planned, organized, conducted, and reported on six DOE/Industry Forum meetings where the progress of DOE's resource development program was outlined and discussed (these six forum meetings included three meetings of the Drilling and Testing Subgroup and three meetings of the Overview Group), (2) prepared and distributed 15 newsletters, and (3) prepared three reports for DOE lease support. This final report includes summaries of each of the forum meetings as well as the three lease support meetings and the newsletter program.

  15. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  16. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  17. Assessment of levels and 'health-effects' of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting, over the years, several coordinated research programmes (CRPs) on various research topics related to environmental issues impacting human health. The primary aim of these CRPs has been to help enhance the research and development capabilities in the Member States, particularly among developing countries; to identify the sources of various environmental contaminants and evaluate their fate; and to provide for the basis of improved health among human populations by the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques. The CRP on Assessment of Levels and Health-Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter in Mining, Metal Refining and Metal Working Industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques focused on improving the competence for research on workplace monitoring in a variety of industrial environments. The personal monitoring of the APM (airborne particulate matter) of the exposed workforce was carried out for the first time by many participants. Nuclear and related analytical techniques, including the application of proton micro-beam, were used to generate the trace element concentration profiles in various biomarkers tissues of the exposed workers. The quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) aspects related to the CRP were addressed through intercomparison analyses of APM on filter paper samples and freeze dried human urine samples to generate validated data. These data have helped to generate correlations between the occupational exposure measured and the magnitude of the biological response. Such new information is essential to evolve procedures to considerably reduce/eliminate the pollutants in the workplace environment and to make informed decisions on the evolution of standards in working environments aimed at preserving the health of workers. The purpose of this TECDOC is to provide an overview of the activities performed under the CRP by the participants. The overall achievements

  18. Vertical profile, source apportionment, and toxicity of PAHs in sediment cores of a wharf near the coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Ju, Yun-Ru; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-03-01

    Three sediment cores were collected from a wharf near a coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Analyses for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority list in the core sediment samples were conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The vertical profiles of PAHs in the core sediments were assessed, possible sources and apportionment were identified, and the toxicity risk of the core sediments was determined. The results from the sediment analyses showed that total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 11774 ± 4244 to 16755 ± 4593 ng/g dry weight (dw). Generally, the vertical profiles of the PAHs in the sediment cores exhibited a decreasing trend from the top to the lower levels of the S1 core and an increasing trend of PAHs from the top to the lower levels of the S2 and S3 cores. Among the core sediment samples, the five- and six-ring PAHs were predominantly in the S1 core, ranging from 42 to 54 %, whereas the composition of the PAHs in the S2 and S3 cores were distributed equally across three groups: two- and three-ring, four-ring, and five- and six-ring PAHs. The results indicated that PAH contamination at the site of the S1 core had a different source. The molecular indices and principal component analyses with multivariate linear regression were used to determine the source contributions, with the results showing that the contributions of coal, oil-related, and vehicle sources were 38.6, 35.9, and 25.5 %, respectively. A PAH toxicity assessment using the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q, 0.59-0.79), benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (TEQ(carc), 1466-1954 ng TEQ/g dw), and dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ(fish), 3036-4174 pg TEQ/g dw) identified the wharf as the most affected area. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the coal-based industries in this region for pollution reduction.

  19. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 1. Primary model documentation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Roger E.; Herod, J. Steven; Andrews, Gwen L.; Budzik, Philip M.; Eissenstat, Richard S.; Grossmann, John R.; Reiner, Gary M.; Roschke, Thomas E.; Shulman, Michael J.; Toppen, Timothy R.; Veno, William R.; Violette, Daniel M.; Smolinski, Michael D.; Habel, Deborah; Cook, Alvin E.

    1979-10-01

    ISTUM is designed to predict the commercial market penetration of various energy technologies in the industrial sector out to the year 2000. It is a refinement and further development of Market Oriented Program Planning Study task force in 1977. ISTUM assesses the comparative economic competitiveness of each technology and competes over 100 energy technologies - conventionals, fossil/energy, conservation, cogeneration, solar, and geothermal. A broad overview of the model, the solution of the model, and an in-depth discussion of strength and limitations of the model are provided in Volume I. (MCW)

  20. US refining reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the history, present position and future prospects of the petroleum industry in the USA. The main focus is on supply and demand, the high quality of the products, refinery capacity and product trade balances. Diagrams show historical trends in output, product demand, demand for transport fuels and oil, refinery capacity, refinery closures, and imports and exports. Some particularly salient points brought out were (i) production of US crude shows a marked downward trend but imports of crude will continue to increase, (ii) product demand will continue to grow even though the levels are already high, (iii) the demand is dominated by those products that typically yield the highest income for the refiner, (i.e. high quality transport fuels for environmental compliance), (iv) refinery capacity has decreased since 1980 and (v) refining will continue to have financial problems but will still be profitable. (UK)

  1. South Korea - oil refining overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the economic problems of the 1990s, the petroleum refining industry of South Korea underwent much involuntary restructuring in 1999 with respect to takeovers and mergers and these are discussed. The demand for petroleum has now pretty well recovered. The reasons for fluctuating prices in the 1990s, how the new structure should be cushioned against changes in the future, and the potential for South Korea to export refined petroleum, are all discussed

  2. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  3. High-temperature process-steam application at the Southern Union Refining Company, Hobbs, New Mexico (solar energy in the oil patch). Phase I design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-31

    Southern Union Refining Company's Famariss Energy Refinery has worked diligently with Monument Solar Corporation in the conceptual and detail design for this unique application of solar generated steam. An area closely adjacent to the refinery and fronting New Mexico State Highway No. 18 has been designated for the solar collector array. Space planned for the demonstration parabolic trough array is sufficiently large to handle an array of 25,200 square feet in size - an array more than twice the size of the 10,080 square feet proposed originally. The conceptual design, performance, safety, environmental impact, and economic analysis are described. Engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  4. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  5. The effects of carbon prices and anti-leakage policies on selected industrial sectors in Spain – Cement, steel and oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaría, Alberto; Linares, Pedro; Pintos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impacts on the cement, steel and oil refining sectors in Spain of the carbon prices derived from the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), and the potential effect on these sectors of the European Union anti-leakage policy measures. The assessment is carried out by means of three engineering models developed for this purpose. Our results show a high exposure to leakage of cement in coastal regions; a smaller risk in the steel sector, and non-negligible risk of leakage for the oil refining sector when carbon allowance prices reach high levels. We also find that the risk of leakage could be better handled with other anti-leakage policies than those currently in place in the EU. - Highlights: • We simulate the impact of carbon prices on the risk of leakage in the cement, steel and oil refining sectors. • We also assess the effectiveness of different anti-leakage policies in Europe. • Cement production in coastal areas is highly exposed. • The risk of leakage for steel and oil refining is smaller. • Anti-leakage policies should be modified to be efficient

  6. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management: A Comprehensive Information System (ASSET 2). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Randy C. [Shell Global Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Young, Arthur L. [Humberside Solutions, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pelton, Arthur D. [CRCT, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Thompson, William T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Wright, Ian G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-10-10

    The research sponsored by this project has greatly expanded the ASSET corrosion prediction software system to produce a world-class technology to assess and predict engineering corrosion of metals and alloys corroding by exposure to hot gases. The effort included corrosion data compilation from numerous industrial sources and data generation at Shell Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several other companies for selected conditions. These data were organized into groupings representing various combinations of commercially available alloys and corrosion by various mechanisms after acceptance via a critical screening process to ensure the data were for alloys and conditions, which were adequately well defined, and of sufficient repeatability. ASSET is the largest and most capable, publicly-available technology in the field of corrosion assessment and prediction for alloys corroding by high temperature processes in chemical plants, hydrogen production, energy conversion processes, petroleum refining, power generation, fuels production and pulp/paper processes. The problems addressed by ASSET are: determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism based upon information available to the chemical engineers designing and/or operating various processes and prediction of engineering metal losses and lifetimes of commercial alloys used to build structural components. These assessments consider exposure conditions (metal temperatures, gas compositions and pressures), alloy compositions and exposure times. Results of the assessments are determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism and prediction of the loss of metal/alloy thickness as a function of time, temperature, gas composition and gas pressure. The uses of these corrosion mechanism assessments and metal loss predictions are that the degradation of processing equipment can be managed for the first time in a way which supports efforts to reduce energy consumption, ensure structural integrity of equipment

  7. Technological innovation and environmental regulation at the petroleum refining industry: the Paulinia refinery case; Inovacao tecnologica e regulacao ambiental na industria de refino de petroleo: o caso da Refinaria de Paulinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Adalberto Mantovani Martiniano de; Pereira, Newton Mueller [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica]. E-mails: adalba@ige.unicamp.br; newpe@ige.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses the influence of environmental regulation on the adoption of new production techniques and on the improvement of existing techniques in the refining petroleum industry, namely at the Paulinia refinery (REPLAN). Describes the techniques adopted in order to fit refining processes into the regulation about environmental impacts (related to the protection of resources like water, air and soil), and also techniques adopted in order to produce less pollutant diesel and gasoline. This article has support on bibliographic research and data collected in REPLAN and CENPES, which permit characterize technologies adopted in REPLAN at the end of the 90s and the regulatory rules that drive them. The regulation is presented under an evolutionary approach, considering that technology develops along whit the socio-economic context, the environmental regulation is a related element which determines the search and selection of technologies able to comply with regulation ensuring economic viability. Regulation is also a determinant factor for the adoption of innovations in the refining industry. Specifically in REPLAN, the environmental regulation has required large investments in order to comply processes and products with the established standards. (author)

  8. Using LMDI method to analyze the change of China's industrial CO2 emissions from final fuel use: An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lancui; Fan Ying; Wu Gang; Wei Yiming

    2007-01-01

    Based on time series decomposition of the Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI), this paper analyzes the change of industrial carbon emissions from 36 industrial sectors in China over the period 1998-2005. The changes of industrial CO 2 emission are decomposed into carbon emissions coefficients of heat and electricity, energy intensity, industrial structural shift, industrial activity and final fuel shift. Our results clearly show that raw chemical materials and chemical products, nonmetal mineral products and smelting and pressing of ferrous metals account for 59.31% of total increased industrial CO 2 emissions. The overwhelming contributors to the change of China's industrial sectors' carbon emissions in the period 1998-2005 were the industrial activity and energy intensity; the impact of emission coefficients of heat and electricity, fuel shift and structural shift was relatively small. Over the year 1998-2002, the energy intensity change in some energy-intensive sectors decreased industrial emissions, but increased emissions over the period 2002-2005. The impact of structural shift on emissions have varied considerably over the years without showing any clear trend, and the final fuel shift increased industrial emissions because of the increase of electricity share and higher emissions coefficient. Therefore, raw chemical materials and chemical products, nonmetal mineral products and smelting and pressing of ferrous metals should be among the top priorities for enhancing energy efficiency and driving their energy intensity close to the international advanced level. To some degree, we should reduce the products waste of these sectors, mitigate the growth of demand for their products through avoiding the excessive investment highly related to these sectors, increasing imports or decreasing the export in order to avoid expanding their share in total industrial value added. However, all these should integrate economic growth to harmonize industrial development and CO 2

  9. The present state of refining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The european refining industry suffers from a production over-capacity and closures are inevitable; the situation is even worse in France due to the imbalance between gas oil and gasoline prices and the weak margin for distributors. The French refining industry is however an important and essential link for its strategic fuel and petroleum product supply, and represent 17000 jobs. Several measures are introduced by the French Industry department towards restructuring, capacity reduction and fuel price harmonization

  10. Tangible Asset Management In Real Sector Companies: A Parallel Between Industry Of Crude Oil Refining And Industry Of Refining Of Non Metallic Mineral In Colombia Gerenciamiento de activos tangibles en empresas del sector real: un paralelo entre industria de refinación de crudos e industria de refinación de minerales no metálicos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Forero Romero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises around of the world are striving to understand and ensure that risks in utilities they govern are effectively managed while they must satisfy all expectations of their stakeholders. For this purpose there are now organisms and standardized management systems to manage financial risks, environmental hazards, industrial safety and occupational health risk. However, operational and reliability risks in the business lack an equivalent oversight body or an organizing framework through which enterprises can asses such risks , or define standards to which can be held accountable.The emergent understanding of asset management across all industry sectors has triggered a subsequent need for a standardized approach. This article identifies the key elements of asset management process and explains the benefits of the application of its elements with reference to two specific cases: the Barrancabermeja Refinery of Ecopetrol S.A. and  Sumicol S.A.Las empresas de todo el mundo se esfuerzan por comprender y asegurar que los riesgosen sus activos tangibles estén regidos bajo una administración eficaz y, a su vez, debenencargarse de cumplir con todas las expectativas de sus grupos de interés. Con estepropósito hoy en día existen organismos y sistemas de gestión estandarizados paraadministrar los riesgos financieros, ambientales, de seguridad de industrial y saludocupacional. Sin embargo, los riesgos operativos y de confiabilidad en el negocio hasta elmomento carecen de un órgano de supervisión equivalente, o un marco de organización através del cual las empresas pueden evaluar estos riesgos o definir las normas a las quepueden ser considerados responsables.El entendimiento emergente de la gestión efectiva de activos en todos los sectoresde la industria ha provocado una necesidad de un enfoque estandarizado. Este artículoidentifica los elementos clave del proceso de gestión de activos y explica los beneficiosde la aplicación de

  11. Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2001-01-01

    Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys by the binary Al-Ti and Ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining to the cast industry and the parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the cast, parameters related to the grain refining alloy and parameters related to the process. The different mechanisms, suggested in the literature for the process of grain refining are presented and discussed, from which it is found that although the mechanism of refining by the binary Al-Ti is well established the mechanism of grain refining by the ternary Al-Ti-B is still a controversial matter and some research work is still needed in this area. The effect of the addition of other alloying elements in the presence of the grain refiner on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. It is found that some elements e.g. V, Mo, C improves the grain refining efficiency, whereas other elements e.g. Cr, Zr, Ta poisons the grain refinement. Based on the parameters affecting the grain refinement and its mechanism, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is forwarded and discussed. (author)

  12. Concerning problems of petroleum refining facilities. ; Promote international lateral work sharing, and strengthening of infrastructures in petroleum industry. Sekiyu seisei setsubi mondai ni tsuite. ; Kokusei suihei bungyo no suishin to sekiyu sangyo no kiban kyoka wo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-05

    This paper discusses how to promote international lateral work sharing and how to strengthen infrastructures in the petroleum industry, as a problem prevailing over the petroleum refining facilities in Japan. Excess distillation facilities have been applied with the disposition policy. However, in view of the supply and demand situation in petroleum products for medium to long term span in the world with the pan-Pacific region as the main concern, that applicable to Japan, and that experienced during the Persian Gulf crisis, the excess facility disposition policy was revised, particularly on white kerosene, of which supply and demand tightness is concerned about, so that production capacities may be increased as required. Japan, a large presence in the international economics, is required to work more positively on petroleum refining facilities located in the oil producing countries and intermediate locations to promote the international lateral work sharing. On the one hand, in order to strengthen the infrastructures in the Japanese petroleum industry, it is necessary to promote rationalization and use at higher efficiency of the oil supply system, and convergence of the the petroleum industry, including joint investments for projects exceeding capabilities of individual enterprises. 3 tabs.

  13. A Method to Increase Current Density in a Mono Element Internal Tin Processed Superconductor Utilizing Zr Oxide to Refine Grain Size; Final Report Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitlin, Bruce A.; Gregory, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Oxygen on (Nb1Zr)3Sn multifilament conductors manufactured by the Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) process was explored to improve the current density by refining the grain size. This followed work first done by General Electric on the Nb3Sn tape process. Techniques to fabricate the more difficult Nb1Zr composites are described and allowed fabrication of long lengths of .254 mm diameter wire from an 88.9 mm diameter billet. Oxygen was incorporated through the use of SnO2 mixed with tin powder and incorporated into the core. These were compared to samples with Ti+Sn and Cu+Sn cores. Heat treatments covered the range of 700 C to 1000 C. Current density vs. H, grain size, and reaction percentages are provided for the materials tested. The Oxygen gave superior results in the temperature range of 815-1000 C. It also stabilized the filament geometry of the array in comparison to the other additions at the higher temperatures. At 815 C a peak in layer Jc yielded values of 2537 A/mm2 at 12 T and 1353 A/mm2 at 15T, 8-22% and 30-73% greater respectively than 700 C values. Results with Oxygen at high temperature show the possibility of high speed continuous reaction of the composite versus the current batch or react in place methods. In general the Ti additions gave superior results at the lower reaction temperature. Future work is suggested to determine if the 815 C reaction temperature can lead to higher current density in high tin (Nb1Zr+Ox)3Sn conductors. A second technique incorporated oxygen directly into the Nb1Zr rods through heat treatment with Nb2O5 at 1100 C for 100 hours in vacuum prior to extrusion. The majority of the filaments reduced properly in the composite but some local variations in hardness led to breakage at smaller diameters.

  14. 77 FR 40893 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Final Stakeholder Assessment and Multi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR [Docket No. ONRR-2012-0003] U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency... of the U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (USEITI) implementation process. On July 11... United States' commitment to participate in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. EITI is a...

  15. A Secondary-Level Curriculum in Industrial Electronics and Robotics. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besancon, Francis E.

    A curriculum was developed to provide the electromechanical skills necessary to operate and repair industrial robots to students at the secondary and adult vocational levels. To determine requirements for entry-level positions in the robotics industry, manufacturers and employers of industrial robots were contacted. No particular entry-level…

  16. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  17. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  18. Taiwan: refined need for consuming population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the oil and gas industry in Taiwan. Topics covered include the possibility of privatization, refineries and refining contracts overseas, plans for a new petrochemical complex and an offshore submarine transmission pipeline. (UK)

  19. Assessment of the Incentives, Disincentives, and Alternatives for Steel Industry CO2 Reduction; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul T. Leuchte; DR. John Stubbles; Professor Fruehan

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the third element of a trilogy of studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies on the consumption of energy and the emissions of carbon dioxide in the U.S. steel industry

  20. Emission factors of Austrian industry production and international comparison. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turi, K.

    1997-05-01

    During the last few years a number of measures have been implemented in the Austrian industries to reduce air pollution and energy use. Therefore specific emissions in the various sectors were changed considerably during this period. The aim of this research project was to better characterize air pollutant emissions of the Austrian industry. Emission data as measured by the Austrian industry was compared with published emission factors from international literature. The results show that the emission factors of the Austrian industry are generally lower than literature emission factors. This is because on the one hand many older data from the literature do not reflect current state of the knowledge, and on the other hand because emission reduction measures and new technologies were introduced in the Austrian industry. (author)

  1. Industrial applications study. Volume V. Bibliography of relevant literature. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence W.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1976-12-01

    This five-volume report represents an initial Phase O evaluation of waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector. The scope of this initial phase was limited to the two-digit SIC level and addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, a successful methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment are established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. The first section of the bibliography lists extensive citations for all industries. The next section is composed of an extensive literature search with abstracts for industrial energy conservation. EPA publications on specific industries and general references conclude the publication. (MCW)

  2. Price implications for Russia's oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, Eugene M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. This fully applies to the industry's downstream sector. Still unlike more dynamic E and C operations, the country's refining has turned out better fenced off competitive market forces and is less capable to respond to market imperatives. Consequently, jammed between depressed product prices and persistent feedstock costs, Russian refiners were badly hit by the world oil glut - which has made a radical modernization of the obsolete refining sector clearly a must. (author)

  3. Priority listing of industrial processes by total energy consumption and potential for savings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streb, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of eight of the most energy-intensive segments of the U.S. industry is made to quantify the energy consumed in the principal process units, to identify areas in which significant improvement appear possible, and to rank the process units in terms of total energy consumption and the potential for improvement. Data on the steel, paper, aluminum, textile, cement, and glass industries, petroleum refineries, and olefins and derivative products industries were compiled to help plan the development of new energy sources and to provide targets for energy conservation activities. (MCW)

  4. Final Rule: NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry: Alternative Monitoring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is extending its approval for the use of an alternative method to show compliance with hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions limits in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry

  5. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacaster, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Industrial process gamma tomography. Final report of a coordinated research project 2003-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    Gamma computed tomography (CT) is complementary to radiotracer and gamma sealed source techniques largely used for analyzing industrial process units. Relevant target areas for gamma CT applications are generally known. Although the methodology is generic and applicable across broad industrial specimen and facilities, a number of specific items have been identified as the most appropriate target beneficiaries of these applications: distillation columns; packed beds; risers; fluidized beds and other multiphase processing units. These industrial process units present significant technical challenges to CT investigations in terms of the complexity of the multiphase flows that occur in them. In order to address these needs, the IAEA implemented a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Industrial Process Gamma Tomography with the overall objective of testing and validating CT techniques for diagnosing industrial multiphase processes. CT laboratories from Argentina, Brazil, Czech Republic, France, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Norway, Poland, United Kingdom and the United States of America have participated. The specific objectives of the CRP were assessment of the tomographic methods, evaluation of them for investigation of multiphase engineering processes, and design of prototypes of simple CT systems for industrial processing, which can be transferred to other developing countries. The CRP has generated an active network, which also included other groups engaged in the CT field. The round robin test has played an important role in validation of techniques and software. This TECDOC is prepared based on the findings and achievements of the CRP. It is a comprehensive technical report containing valuable information, not readily available in any single publication elsewhere. The participants' reports and software developed by them are compiled in a CD-ROM and attached to the back cover. The guidelines and software packages described in this report can be used as an

  7. On the refinement calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    On the Refinement Calculus gives one view of the development of the refinement calculus and its attempt to bring together - among other things - Z specifications and Dijkstra's programming language. It is an excellent source of reference material for all those seeking the background and mathematical underpinnings of the refinement calculus.

  8. European refining: evolution or revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthbert, N.

    1999-01-01

    A recent detailed analysis of the refining business in Europe (by Purvin and Gurtz) was used to highlight some key issues facing the industry. The article was written under five sub-sections: (i) economic environment (assessment of the economic prospects for Europe), (ii) energy efficiency and global warming (lists the four points of the EU car makers' voluntary agreement), (iii) fuel quality and refinery investment (iv) refinery capacity and utilisation and (v) industry structure and development. Diagrams show GDP per capita for East and West, European road fuel demand to 2015 and European net trade and European refinery ownership by crude capacity. It was concluded that the future of refining in Europe is 'exciting and challenging' and there are likely to be more large joint venture refineries. (UK)

  9. Analysis of the economic potential of solar thermal energy to provide industrial process heat. Final report, Volume I. [In-depth analysis of 78 industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-02-07

    The process heat data base assembled as the result of this survey includes specific process applications from 78 four-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. These applications account for the consumption of 9.81 quadrillion Btu in 1974, about 59 percent of the 16.6 quadrillion Btu estimated to have been used for all process heat in 1974. About 7/sup 1///sub 2/ percent of industrial process heat is used below 212/sup 0/F (100/sup 0/C), and 28 percent below 550/sup 0/F (288/sup 0/C). In this study, the quantitative assessment of the potential of solar thermal energy systems to provide industrial process heat indicates that solar energy has a maximum potential to provide 0.6 quadrillion Btu per year in 1985, and 7.3 quadrillion Btu per year in 2000, in economic competition with the projected costs of conventional fossil fuels for applications having a maximum required temperature of 550/sup 0/ (288/sup 0/C). A wide variety of collector types were compared for performance and cost characteristics. Performance calculations were carried out for a baseline solar system providing hot water in representative cities in six geographical regions within the U.S. Specific industries that should have significant potential for solar process heat for a variety of reasons include food, textiles, chemicals, and primary metals. Lumber and wood products, and paper and allied products also appear to have significant potential. However, good potential applications for solar process heat can be found across the board throughout industry. Finally, an assessment of nontechnical issues that may influence the use of solar process heat in industry showed that the most important issues are the establishment of solar rights, standardization and certification for solar components and systems, and resolution of certain labor-related issues. (Volume 1 of 3 volumes.)

  10. Contemporary practice education: Exploring student perceptions of an industrial radiography placement for final year diagnostic radiography students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareing, A.K.; Henderson, I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is a paucity of evidence in diagnostic radiography evaluating a career path into industrial imaging despite several higher education institutes stating this route as a career option on graduation. The link between a career in industrial radiography and diagnostic routes is unknown although there are anecdotal examples of individuals transferring between the two. Successfully obtaining a first post job following graduation in diagnostic radiography can be challenging in the current financial climate. A partnership was formed with an energy sector company that offered non-destructive testing/non-destructive evaluation (NDT/NDE) employing industrial radiographic technicians. Method: As an initial pilot, 5 (n = 5) final year diagnostic radiography students visited an industrial radiography site and underwent theoretical and practical training. Following this placement they engaged in a focus group and the student perceptions/responses were explored and recorded. Results: Common themes were identified and categorised via a thematic analysis. These were; radiation safety, physics and technology, widening access, graduate attributes/transferable skill sets and working conditions. Conclusion: Student discussion focussed around the benefits of working conditions in healthcare, the value of technology, safety and physics education in alternative placements and the transferability of skills into other/industrial sectors (e.g. NDT/NDE). Contemporary practice placements are a useful pedagogical approach to develop complex conceptual theoretical constructs, such as radiation physics. An in depth evaluation between the two industries skill sets is postulated. Additionally, this could offer alternative/emerging roles to interested diagnostic radiographers potentially meeting the skill shortage in industrial radiography. - Highlights: • Research in this area is novel. No evidence could be found to evaluate the links. • Students had theoretical

  11. End-use matching for solar industrial process heat. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.C.; Hooker, D.W.; Rabl, A.; Stadjuhar, S.A.; West, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the large energy demand of industry (37% of US demand) and the wide spectrum of temperatures at which heat is required, the industrial sector appears to be very suitable for the matching of solar thermal technology with industrial process heat (IPH) requirements. A methodology for end-use matching has been devised, complete with required data bases and an evaluation program PROSYS/ECONMAT. Six cities in the United States were selected for an analysis of solar applications to IPH. Typical process heat requirements for 70% of the industrial plants in each city were identified and evaluated in conjunction with meteorological and economic data for each site to determine lowest-cost solar systems for each application. The flexibility and scope of PROSYS/ECONMAT is shown in a variety of sensitivity studies that expand the results of the six-city analysis. Case studies of two industrial plants were performed to evaluate the end-use matching procedure; these results are reported.

  12. The status of nuclear industry Cost Beneficial Licensing Actions (CBLA) activities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, A.M.; Sokolsky, D.

    1995-05-01

    The project addressed in this report investigated the status of nuclear utility industry Cost Beneficial Licensing Action (CBLA) and Commitment Reduction (CR) activities. The CBLA program was a recent NRC initiative to enable utilities to revise regulatory commitments that have minimal safety impact and have but have been costly to implement. The project determined that approximately half of the utilities in the industry have formal programs to address this issue and that the programs implemented to date have had mixed results: some utilities benefited greatly and others only achieved minimal rewards. The project also determined that there are some significant factors that impact the potential for success of such programs. These factors include the level of management involvement and support, the level of resources dedicated to CBLA/CR activities, and the willingness of the utility to pursue issues that previously had not been considered. In addition, the overall success of the industry efforts will be highly dependent upon the effectiveness of the respective assigned NRR Project Manager, NRC's newly formed CBLA Task Group, and the NRC's ability to effect a mechanism to provide real value added for those submittals made to the Commission that are designated as CBLA submittals. It is anticipated that the next 12 months will be critical to the success or failure of industry CBLA/CR efforts as the industry begins to use an NEI process designed to facilitate the evaluation of CBLA/CR issues and the NRC CBLA Task Group begins to function in a routine manner

  13. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This study was initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  14. Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Weidian

    2013-09-27

    This project, “Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan” was carried out in two phases: (1) the 2009 – 2012 renovation of space in the new EMU Science Complex, which included the Surface Science Laboratory (SSL), a very vigorous research lab at EMU that carries on a variety of research projects to serve the auto and other industries in Michigan; and (2) the 2013 purchase of several pieces of equipment to further enhance the research capability of the SSL. The funding granted by the DoE was proposed to “renovate the space in the Science Complex to include SSL and purchase equipment for tribological and electrochemical impedance measurements in the lab, thus SSL will serve the auto and other industries in Michigan better.” We believe we have fully accomplished the mission.

  15. Project to demonstrate potential energy savings from industrial customers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The full potential for electric load management was determined with respect to the industrial sector by adopting direct load management techniques. Certain options available to regulatory authorities and individual utilities to conserve energy are highlighted. By conducting a demonstration project on a representative sample of primary industrial customers, information could be obtained on the potential impact of direct load management methods and other end-use conservation programs on a system-wide basis or multi-system-wide basis. The study was conducted by the Michigan Public Service Commission in cooperation with the Detroit Edison Company.

  16. Development of Career Progression Systems for Employees in the Foodservice Industry. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Restaurant Association, Chicago, IL.

    Firms representing four segments of the foodservice industry (institutional foodservice (9 jobs), commercial restaurants (19 jobs), hotel foodservice (100 jobs), and airline foodservice (10 jobs), participated in a career and training study to test the feasibility of designing and implementing career progression (c.p.) systems within these…

  17. Applied Math & Science Levels Utilized in Selected Trade & Industrial Vocational Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James R.

    Research identified and evaluated the level of applied mathematics and science used in selected trade and industrial (T&I) subjects taught in the Kentucky Vocational Education System. The random sample was composed of 52 programs: 21 carpentry, 20 electricity/electronics, and 11 machine shop. The 96 math content items that were identified as…

  18. Microwave Sintering of Ceramic Materials for Industrial Application Final Report CRADA No. TC-1116-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tandon, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Callis, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The goal of this project was to develop the commercial capability in the US to sinter alumina oxide ceramic parts for the semiconductor manufacturing equipment industry. We planned to use the millimeter microwave (30 GHz) sintering system first developed by IAP in Russia.

  19. Repair and mechanical service of the Ministry of the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry of the USSR and the basic trends in its development. Remontno-mekhanicheskaya sluzhba ministerstva neftepererabatyvayushchey i neftekhimicheskoy promyshlennosti SSSR i osnovnyye napravleniya eye razvitiya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, V.S.; Tikhomirov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The review gives a characterization of the repair service in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, shows the achieved level of centralization and specialization in repair operations in conditions of intrafactory centralization, the creation of branch specialized contractor organizations, the improvements in the organization of planning for repair operations and the use of systems of low mechanization in repairs. The significance is shown of the system of technical reviews in the increase in the reliability of the operation of equipment, materials are correlated about corrosion and the problem of combatting it in the operation of equipment, the elimination of vibration of pipeline connections and modernization of piston compressors in order to shift them to operations without lubricants. The progressive role of the subbranch institutes in the issues of raising the effectiveness of repair and the directions in their operation and ways for further improving the repair service are examined.

  20. BioREFINE-2G project – Engineering of industrial yeast strains for production of dicarboxylic acids from side and waste streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovicek, Vratislav; Chen, Xiao; Borodina, Irina

    2014-01-01

    For our future we need to assure that fuels as well as chemicals will be produced environmentallyfriendly from renewable resources. There must be a major move away from the use of food biomasstowards the use of renewable non-food feed-stocks, such as wood, stover, straw etc. The existing 2nd...... compounds can be polymerised to biodegradable polymersthat can find application as plastics, coatings or adhesives. To reach the goals, the identification of relevant metabolic routes, strain engineering and the development of a toolbox for manipulation of industrial S. cerevisiae strains are required. Here...

  1. Assessment of levels and 'health-effects' of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting, over the years, several coordinated research programmes (CRPs) on various research topics related to environmental issues impacting human health. A variety of industrial environments such as: galvanisation, iron and steel production, steel construction, coal fired thermal power plants, mining and mineral beneficiation of monazite, zinc smelters, and phosphate fertilizer production plants were included in this CRP. Toxic elements specific for particular industries as potential pollutants were monitored within individual projects. The CRP focussed on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for studies of exposure to inorganic constituents and radionuclides from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs), in the workplaces and their impacts on the health of the workers. The objectives were to: develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of bio-markers (e.g. hair, blood, nails, teeth, urine, breath) of exposed and non-exposed individuals; develop reliable analytical procedures for the analysis of such samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; carry out workplace and personal monitoring surveys, and assess workers' exposure to toxic elements on the basis of measurements results. This document provides an overview of the activities performed under the CRP by the participants. The overall achievements are summarized and those aspects that require a further deeper look are also pointed out. The individual country reports include details on the progress made by the respective participants during the CRP period.

  2. Class I structures license renewal industry report; revision 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, D.; Renfro, J.; Statton, J.

    1994-07-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry, through coordination by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), and sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has evaluated age-related degradation effects for a number of major plant systems, structures, and components, in the license renewal technical Industry Reports (IRs). License renewal applicants may choose to reference these IRs in support of their plant-specific license renewal applications, as an equivalent to the integrated plant assessment provisions of the license renewal rule (10 CFR Part 54). This IR provides the technical basis for license renewal for U.S. nuclear power plant Class I structures, with the IR evaluating which structures are Class I. Seventeen structures are explicitly described and evaluated in this IR. These structures are not necessarily classified as Class I at all plants, therefore the license renewal applicant should consult this IR for correct identification

  3. The final fifteen feet of hose : the Canadian gasoline industry in the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperber, M.; Beckman, K.; Clavet, F.; Bernard, M.-C.; Bussiere, L.; Frank, J.; Lefebvre, M.

    2001-01-01

    An up-to-date profile of the Canadian gasoline industry was presented with an effort to address some of the preoccupations of industry stakeholders and the perceptions of Canadian motorists. This study provides new insights into the workings of the industry by providing a balanced perspective on the many contentious issues that affect the industry, particularly retail pricing. The Conference Board's empirical analysis makes use of a new approach which provides a better understanding of how retail prices react to changes in wholesale prices. Competition is the reason why a retail market outcome margin exists in each city based on local conditions. This margin is the basis for price changes in that market and reflects a margin at which most competitors are able to sustain themselves. When changes occur in the wholesale price of crude, the retail price is adjusted depending on whether the actual margin in place is higher or lower than the market outcome margin. Crude oil and taxes make up about 84 per cent of the average price of a litre of regulated unleaded gasoline. The main reason for rising Canadian gasoline prices is the rapid increase in world crude oil prices. The volatility in gasoline prices is a direct result of the competitive nature of the business at the street level and the uniformity of prices reflects the rapid response of individual dealers to the actions of their competitors. Each outlet has fixed costs to cover, therefore average sales volumes per outlet have an important impact on retail margins and prices. It was also emphasized that there is no empirical proof that gasoline prices increase before long weekends, nor is there any proof of asymmetry in price adjustment in the retail market. It was noted that the price of gasoline in Canada and the United States, excluding taxes, is very similar. 15 tabs., 59 figs

  4. PWR reactor pressure vessel internals license renewal industry report; revision 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirian, R.; Robison, G.

    1994-07-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry, through coordination by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), and sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has evaluated age-related degradation effects for a number of major plant systems, structures and components, in the license renewal technical Industry Reports (IRs). License renewal applicants may choose to reference these IRs in support of their plant-specific license renewal applications, as an equivalent to the integrated plant assessment provisions of the license renewal rule (10 CFR Part 54). Pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessel (RPV) internals designed by all three U.S. PWR nuclear steam supply system vendors have been evaluated relative to the effects of age-related degradation mechanisms; the capability of current design limits; inservice examination, testing, repair, refurbishment, and other programs to manage these effects; and the assurance that these internals can continue to perform their intended safety functions in the license renewal term. This industry report (IR), one of a series of ten, provides a generic technical basis for evaluation of PWR reactor pressure vessel internals for license renewal

  5. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  6. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association

  7. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  8. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  9. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  10. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  11. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  12. Neutrosophic Refined Similarity Measure Based on Cosine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined (multi- sets is proposed and its properties are studied. The concept of this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of improved cosine similarity measure of single valued neutrosophic. Finally, using this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined set, the application of medical diagnosis is presented.

  13. Impact of Industrial Grade Modified PVA to Vinyl Acetate Semi-continuous Emulsion Polymerization and Properties of Final Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas DUBININKAS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful vinyl acetate radical emulsion polymerization in water with different type of industrial grade poly(vinyl alcohol were produced by semi continuous way. The poly(vinyl alcohol type has crucial impact on dispersion rheological as well on films and bonding strength properties. It should be stated that the films containing modified poly (vinyl alcohol has better water resistance and mechanical properties. Poly(vinyl alcohol with higher ethylene moieties content and high hydrolization degree determines extremely low viscosity of final dispersion.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3823

  14. Oil refining in South Asia and Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the oil markets of Southeast Asia and Australasia is presented focussing on oil refining. Key statistics of both areas are tabulated, and figures providing information on GDP/capita, crude production, comparison of demand barrels, and product demand are provided. Crude oil production and supply, oil product demand, and the refining industries are examined with details given of evolution of capacity and cracking to distillation ratios

  15. Final qualification of an industrial wide range neutron instrumentation in the Osiris MTR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbot, L.; Normand, S. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteur et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Pasdeloup, P. [AREVA TA, Controle Commande and Mesures, F-13762 Les Milles (France); Lescop, B. [CEA, INSTN, UEIN, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    This work deals with the final qualification of the IRINA in-core neutron flux measurement system in the MTR Osiris reactor. A specific irradiation device has been set up to validate the last changes in the complete system (electronic, transmitting cable and monitor). Experimental results show the IRINA measurement system meet entirely the in-core reactor conditions requirements: a thermal neutron flux from 10{sup 7} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} up to 10{sup 14} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} and a temperature of 300 C degrees during a minimum operating time of 1000 hours. (authors)

  16. Fuze Experimentation Facility and Fuze Industrial Facility (FEF/FIF) Construction. Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    1-9. R esources N ot C arried Forw ard for D etailed A nalysis Legend Environmental Justice Concerns c:::J Proposed Project Area No Concerns...11 FEF/FIF C onstruction Environm ental A ssessm ent Page 3-6 Eglin A ir Force B ase, FL Final Figure 3-1. W ater R esources A t or N...Ecological A ssociations and Biological R esources A t or N ear the Proposed A ction Location Ecological Association Flatwoods Landscaped!Urban c:J

  17. Impact of OSHA Final Rule—Recording Hearing Loss: An Analysis of an Industrial Audiometric Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Slade, Martin; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Sircar, Kanta; Cullen, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Final Rule changed the definition of recordable work-related hearing loss. We performed a study of the Alcoa Inc. audiometric database to evaluate the impact of this new rule. The 2003 rule increased the rate of potentially recordable hearing loss events from 0.2% to 1.6% per year. A total of 68.6% of potentially recordable cases had American Academy of Audiology/American Medi...

  18. Greenhouse gas options, policy and measures for the Canadian Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report summarizes and analyses the work that have been carried out by the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Sector (TEMS) Working Group of the National Climate Change Industry Table over the last 14 months, and presents the Group's view of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Canada. To develop its approach, the Working Group conducted five separate studies which are included in this report as annexes. Annex A is a Foundation Paper, which provides an overview of the sector's performance vis-a-vis energy use and greenhouse gas production. Annex B analyzes the competitive position of the industry by reviewing growth trends in each of the industry sub-sectors and the key factors in maintaining and enhancing the sector's international competitive position. Annex C is a technology assessment. It provides an overview of the uptake of energy saving technology in the sector. Annex D provides a facility level analysis focusing on energy use in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. Annex E is a review of American policies on climate change, summarizing the approach currently being taken towards greenhouse gas emission reduction in the United States. Some of the key findings of this report are: (1) business-as-usual emissions will greatly exceed the implicit Kyoto target of six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, (2) relatively few opportunities exist for major emissions reductions through the use of existing technology, (3) sector-specific policies appear to be ill-advised, but cross-cutting policies provide good opportunities for the transportation equipment manufacturing sector to do its part in helping Canada meeting its Kyoto commitment. The report recommends investigation of barriers to adoption of new technologies and examination of market imperfections, promotion of cogeneration where it makes economic sense, and consideration of the use of flexible instruments such as carbon taxes and tradable emission permits. Overall, the

  19. Survey of active solar thermal collectors, industry and markets in Canada : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    A survey of the solar thermal industry in Canada was presented. The aim of the survey was to determine the size of the Canadian solar thermal industry and market. Data were used to derive thermal energy output as well as avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from solar thermal systems. The questionnaire was distributed to 268 representatives. Results revealed annual sales of 24.2, 26.4 and 37.5 MW TH in 2002, 2003, and 2004 respectively, which represented over 50 per cent growth in the operating base during the 3 year survey period. Sales of all collector types grew substantially during the 3 year period, and survey respondents anticipated 20 per cent growth in both 2005 and 2006. Approximately 10 per cent of all sales were exported during 2002-2004. Unglazed liquid collectors constituted the majority of collector types sold in Canada, almost all of which were sold into the residential sector for swimming pool heating. The majority of air collectors were sold into the industrial/commercial and institutional (I/CI) sectors for use in space heating. Sales of liquid glazed and evacuated tube collectors were split between the residential and I/CI sectors. Residential sales were primarily for domestic water heating. In 2004, 23 per cent of sales in the residential sector were for combination domestic hot water and space heating applications, an indication of strong growth. Results of the survey indicated that the solar thermal market in Quebec differed from other regions, with more than double the annual per capita revenue of any other region as a result of greater market penetration of unglazed air collectors. Calculations of the GHG emissions avoided due to active solar thermal systems were made based on historical estimates of solar thermal installations. A model was developed to calculate an operating base by collector type from 1979 to the present. The model showed that many of the systems installed during the 1980s were decommissioned during the 1990s, and that

  20. Survey of active solar thermal collectors, industry and markets in Canada : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    A survey of the solar thermal industry in Canada was presented. The aim of the survey was to determine the size of the Canadian solar thermal industry and market. Data were used to derive thermal energy output as well as avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from solar thermal systems. The questionnaire was distributed to 268 representatives. Results revealed annual sales of 24.2, 26.4 and 37.5 MW{sub TH} in 2002, 2003, and 2004 respectively, which represented over 50 per cent growth in the operating base during the 3 year survey period. Sales of all collector types grew substantially during the 3 year period, and survey respondents anticipated 20 per cent growth in both 2005 and 2006. Approximately 10 per cent of all sales were exported during 2002-2004. Unglazed liquid collectors constituted the majority of collector types sold in Canada, almost all of which were sold into the residential sector for swimming pool heating. The majority of air collectors were sold into the industrial/commercial and institutional (I/CI) sectors for use in space heating. Sales of liquid glazed and evacuated tube collectors were split between the residential and I/CI sectors. Residential sales were primarily for domestic water heating. In 2004, 23 per cent of sales in the residential sector were for combination domestic hot water and space heating applications, an indication of strong growth. Results of the survey indicated that the solar thermal market in Quebec differed from other regions, with more than double the annual per capita revenue of any other region as a result of greater market penetration of unglazed air collectors. Calculations of the GHG emissions avoided due to active solar thermal systems were made based on historical estimates of solar thermal installations. A model was developed to calculate an operating base by collector type from 1979 to the present. The model showed that many of the systems installed during the 1980s were decommissioned during the 1990s, and

  1. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Tchier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join (⊔fuz, fuzzy demonic meet (⊓fuz, and fuzzy demonic composition (□fuz. Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using mathematica software (fuzzy logic.

  2. Export support of renewable energy industries, grant number 1, deliverable number 3. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-14

    The United States Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), a consortium of six industry associations, promotes the interests of the renewable energy and energy efficiency member companies which provide goods and services in biomass, geothermal, hydropower, passive solar, photovoltaics, solar thermal, wind, wood energy, and energy efficiency technologies. US/ECRE`s mission is to catalyze export markets for renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies worldwide. Under this grant, US/ECRE has conducted a number of in-house activities, as well as to manage activities by member trade associations, affiliate organizations and non-member contractors and consultants. The purpose of this document is to report on grant coordination and effectiveness.

  3. Export support of renewable energy industries. Task number 1, deliverable number 3. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-14

    The United States Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), a consortium of six industry associations, promotes the interests of the renewable energy and energy efficiency member companies which provide goods and services in biomass, geothermal, hydropower, passive solar, photovoltaics, solar thermal, wind, wood energy, and energy efficiency technologies. US/ECRE`s mission is to catalyze export markets for renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies worldwide. Under this grant, US/ECRE has conducted a number of in-house activities, as well as to manage activities by member trade associations, affiliate organizations and non-member contractors and consultants. The purpose of this document is to report on task coordination and effectiveness.

  4. Knowledge Boosting Curriculum for New Wind Industry Professionals Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, Ruth H; Rogers, Anthony L

    2012-12-18

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV KEMA) received a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the curriculum for a series of short courses intended to address Topic Area 5 Workforce Development, one of the focus areas to achieve the goals outlined in 20% Wind by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to Electricity Supply. The aim of the curriculum development project was to provide material for instructors to use in a training program to help professionals transition into careers in wind energy. Under this grant DNV KEMA established a knowledge boosting program for the wind energy industry with the following objectives: 1. Develop technical training curricula and teaching materials for six key topic areas that can be implemented in a flexible format by a knowledgeable instructor. The topic areas form a foundation that can be leveraged for subsequent, more detailed learning modules (not developed in this program). 2. Develop an implementation guidance document to accompany the curricula outlining key learning objectives, implementation methods, and guidance for utilizing the curricula. This curriculum is intended to provide experienced trainers course material that can be used to provide course participants with a basic background in wind energy and wind project development. The curriculum addresses all aspects of developing a wind project, that when implemented can be put to use immediately, making the participant an asset to U.S. wind industry employers. The curriculum is comprised of six short modules, together equivalent in level of content to a one-semester college-level course. The student who completes all six modules should be able to understand on a basic level what is required to develop a wind project, speak with a reasonable level of confidence about such topics as wind resource assessment, energy assessment, turbine technology and project economics, and contribute to the analysis and review of project information. The content of

  5. Development of the new energy technology industry in Finland 1986-1995. Final report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, E.; Syrjaenen, V.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of the active firms in the industry was conducted on the basis of contact data received from the NEMO programme, the Finnish Wind Energy Association and the Finnish Solar Energy Association. The survey frame included 44 commercial manufacturing and engineering firms. Out of the 55 major organizations active in the field in Finland, state research institutions, owners and operators of wind parks were not included in the survey. The survey was conducted as a telephone interview. Data was received from 86% of the companies. The gathered data included sales, exports, number of personnel and development of R and D investments. Also, qualitative data on the causes of the observed development was gathered using open ended questions. The survey covers the years 1986-1995. The data was analysed using a database application

  6. Impact of OSHA Final Rule—Recording Hearing Loss: An Analysis of an Industrial Audiometric Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Slade, Martin; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Sircar, Kanta; Cullen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The 2003 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Final Rule changed the definition of recordable work-related hearing loss. We performed a study of the Alcoa Inc. audiometric database to evaluate the impact of this new rule. The 2003 rule increased the rate of potentially recordable hearing loss events from 0.2% to 1.6% per year. A total of 68.6% of potentially recordable cases had American Academy of Audiology/American Medical Association (AAO/AMA) hearing impairment at the time of recordability. On average, recordable loss occurred after onset of impairment, whereas the non-age-corrected 10-dB standard threshold shift (STS) usually preceded impairment. The OSHA Final Rule will significantly increase recordable cases of occupational hearing loss. The new case definition is usually accompanied by AAO/AMA hearing impairment. Other, more sensitive metrics should therefore be used for early detection and prevention of hearing loss. PMID:14665813

  7. Final Technical Report: Intensive Quenching Technology for Heat Treating and Forging Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, Michael A.

    2005-12-21

    Intensive quenching (IQ) process is an alternative way of hardening (quenching) steel parts through the use of highly agitated water and then still air. It was developed by IQ Technologies, Inc. (IQT) of Akron, Ohio. While conventional quenching is usually performed in environmentally unfriendly oil or water/polymer solutions, the IQ process uses highly agitated environmentally friendly water or low concentration water/mineral salt solutions. The IQ method is characterized by extremely high cooling rates of steel parts. In contrast to conventional quenching, where parts cool down to the quenchant temperature and usually have tensile or neutral residual surface stresses at the end of quenching. The IQ process is interrupted when the part core is still hot and when there are maximum compressive stresses deep into the parts, thereby providing hard, ductile, better wear resistant parts. The project goal was to advance the patented IQ process from feasibility to commercialization in the heat-treating and forging industries to reduce significantly energy consumption and environmental impact, to increase productivity and to enhance economic competitiveness of these industries as well as Steel, Metal Casting and Mining industries. To introduce successfully the IQ technology in the U.S. metal working industry, the project team has completed the following work over the course of this project: A total of 33 manufacturers of steel products provided steel parts for IQ trails. IQT conducted IQ demonstrations for 34 different steel parts. Our customers tested intensively quenched parts in actual field conditions to evaluate the product service life and performance improvement. The data obtained from the field showed the following: Service life (number of holes punched) of cold-work punches (provided by EHT customer and made of S5 shock-resisting steel) was improved by two to eight times. Aluminum extrusion dies provided by GAM and made of hot work H-13 steel outperformed the

  8. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  9. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  10. California Food Processing Industry Wastewater Demonstration Project: Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Glen; Atkinson, Barbara; Rhyne, Ivin

    2009-09-09

    Wastewater treatment is an energy-intensive process and electricity demand is especially high during the utilities summer peak electricity demand periods. This makes wastewater treatment facilities prime candidates for demand response programs. However, wastewater treatment is often peripheral to food processing operations and its demand response opportunities have often been overlooked. Phase I of this wastewater demonstration project monitored wastewater energy and environmental data at Bell-Carter Foods, Inc., California's largest olive processing plant. For this monitoring activity the project team used Green Energy Management System (GEMS) automated enterprise energy management (EEM) technologies. This report presents results from data collected by GEMS from September 15, 2008 through November 30, 2008, during the olive harvest season. This project established and tested a methodology for (1) gathering baseline energy and environmental data at an industrial food-processing plant and (2) using the data to analyze energy efficiency, demand response, daily peak load management, and environmental management opportunities at the plant. The Phase I goals were to demonstrate the measurement and interrelationship of electricity demand, electricity usage, and water quality metrics and to estimate the associated CO{sub 2} emissions.

  11. Grain refinement of zinc-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2006-01-01

    It is now well-established that the structure of the zinc-aluminum die casting alloys can be modified by the binary Al-Ti or the ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys. in this paper, grain refinement of zinc-aluminum alloys by rare earth materials is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining of these alloys and parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the Zn-Al alloys cast, parameters related to the grain refining elements or alloys and parameters related to the process. The effect of addition of other alloying elements e.g. Zr either alone or in the presence of the main grain refiners Ti or Ti + B on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, based on the grain refinement and the parameters affecting it, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is suggested. Finally, the recent research work on the effect of grain refiners on the mechanical behaviour, impact strength, wear resistance, and fatigue life of these alloys are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Refinement Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Vekris, Panagiotis; Cosman, Benjamin; Jhala, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    We present Refined TypeScript (RSC), a lightweight refinement type system for TypeScript, that enables static verification of higher-order, imperative programs. We develop a formal core of RSC that delineates the interaction between refinement types and mutability. Next, we extend the core to account for the imperative and dynamic features of TypeScript. Finally, we evaluate RSC on a set of real world benchmarks, including parts of the Octane benchmarks, D3, Transducers, and the TypeScript co...

  13. Industrial scale straw-to-biomethane conversion. A new bioenergy and business opportunity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonde, T.A. [BioFuel Technology ApS, Randers (Denmark); Sangaraju Raju, C.; Moeller, H.B. [Aarhus Univ., Forskningscenter Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Slot Knudsen, M. [C.F. Nielsen A/S, Baelum (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    The project resulted in the development, design, engineering, construction, and demonstration of a plant for industrial scale use of cereal straw for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The technology is based on the C. F. Nielsen A/S mechanical presses and adapted to the new purpose, to pre-treat and feed straw into a digester in one single step. A number of laboratory measurements as a function of variations of the pre-treatment showed, that under practical circumstances it is possible to achieve a biogas yield of 400 m{sup 3} per tons straw (corresponding to 300 m{sup 3} methane per tons volatile solids). The most significant effect was achieved by impregnating the straw with 1 % acetic acid before mechanical treatment. It was additionally shown that an extended incubation, after the mechanical treatment at 90 deg. C, resulted in a more pronounced effect than incubation at 140 deg. C. The maximum gas yield was 360 l methane per kg vs (volatile solids). This is equivalent to 290 l methane per kg straw (at 85 % dry matter, 95 % vs) or 450 l biogas per kg straw (at 65 % methane). A typical annual quantity of straw for anaerobic digestion would be 10.000 tons and more. A biogas plant digesting e.g. 100.000 tons liquid manure and 10.000 tons straw will produce a total of app. 6.5 mio. m{sup 3} biogas, of which 2.5 mio. m{sup 3} stems from the slurry and 4 mio. m{sup 3} from the straw. The result is a sustainable and robust biogas production and an equally sustainable economic performance of the biogas plant. (Author)

  14. Geothermal absorption refrigeration for food processing industries. Final report, December 13, 1976--November 13, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.L.; Olson, G.K.; Mah, C.S.; Bujalski, J.H.

    1977-11-01

    The first step in the economic analysis of the integration of geothermally powered absorption refrigeration into a food processing plant was an evaluation of the potential geothermal sites in the Western United States. The evaluation covered availability of raw materials, transportation, adequate geothermal source, labor, and other requirements for food processing plants. Several attractive geothermal sites were identified--Raft River, Idaho; Sespe Hot Springs, California; Vale Hot Springs, Oregon; Weisler-Crane Creek, Idaho; Cosco Hot Springs, California; and the Imperial Valley, California. The most economically attractive food processing industry was then matched to the site based on its particular energy, raw material, and transportation requirements. The more promising food processors identified were for frozen potato or vegetable products, freeze-dried products, and meat processing. For the refrigeration temperature range of +32/sup 0/F to -40/sup 0/F and geothermal temperature range of 212/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F, an absorption refrigeration system had to be identified, designed, and evaluated. Both the conventional ammonia/water and an organic absorption refrigeration system using monochlorodifluoromethane (R-22) as the refrigerant and dimethyl formamide (DMF) as the absorbent were studied. In general, only a 60/sup 0/F to 100/sup 0/F temperature drop would be effectively used for refrigeration leaving the remainder of the allowable temperature drop available for other use. The economic evaluation of the geothermal system installed in a food processing plant required the comparison of several principal alternatives. These alternatives were evaluated for three different food processing plants located at their optimum geothermal site: a forzen potato product processing plant located at Raft River, Idaho; a freeze-dried product plant located at Sespe Hot Springs, California; a beef slaughter operation located in the Imperial Valley of California. (JGB)

  15. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr. (; .)

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  16. Refining margins and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudouin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Refining margins throughout the world have remained low in 1996. In Europe, in spite of an improvement, particularly during the last few weeks, they are still not high enough to finance new investments. Although the demand for petroleum products is increasing, experts are still sceptical about any rapid recovery due to prevailing overcapacity and to continuing capacity growth. After a historical review of margins and an analysis of margins by regions, we analyse refining over-capacities in Europe and the unbalances between production and demand. Then we discuss the current situation concerning barriers to the rationalization, agreements between oil companies, and the consequences on the future of refining capacities and margins. (author)

  17. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  18. Industrializing Offshore Wind Power with Serial Assembly and Lower-cost Deployment - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Willett [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2017-12-11

    . That design is, in brief: a conventional turbine and tubular tower is mounted on a tripod jacket, in turn atop three suction buckets. Blades are mounted on the tower, not on the hub. The entire structure is built in port, from the bottom up, then assembled structures are queued in the port for deployment. During weather windows, the fully-assembled structures are lifted off the quay, lashed to the vessel, and transported to the deployment site. The vessel analyzed is a shear leg crane vessel with dynamic positioning like the existing Gulliver, or it could be a US-built crane barge. On site, the entire structure is lowered to the bottom by the crane vessel, then pumping of the suction buckets is managed by smaller service vessels. Blades are lifted into place by small winches operated by workers in the nacelle without lift vessel support. Advantages of the selected design include: cost and time at sea of the expensive lift vessel are significantly reduced; no jack up vessel is required; the weather window required for each installation is shorter; turbine structure construction is continuous with a queue feeding the weather-dependent installation process; pre-installation geotechnical work is faster and less expensive; there are no sound impacts on marine mammals, thus minimal spotting and no work stoppage Industrializing Offshore Wind Power 6 of 96 9 for mammal passage; the entire structure can be removed for decommissioning or major repairs; the method has been validated for current turbines up to 10 MW, and a calculation using simple scaling shows it usable up to 20 MW turbines.

  19. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  20. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Tchier, Fairouz

    2014-01-01

    We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join $({\\bigsqcup }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , fuzzy demonic meet $({\\sqcap }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , and fuzzy demonic composition $({\\square }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ . Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using ma...

  1. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  2. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  3. ALINET: a model for assessing energy conservation opportunities in the food processing industry. Final technical report, September 1977-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levis, A H; Ducot, E R; Levis, I S; Webster, T F

    1979-12-01

    ALINET is a network model designed for the analysis of energy use in the food processing and distribution sector and for the evaluation of the potential effectiveness of energy conserving technologies. The conceptual framework of the model, as well as the design and implementation of the computer software are described. The wheat system at the national, state, and facility-specific level is used to illustrate the model's operation and use. A pilot project, carried out in cooperation with industry, is described in which energy use in (a) hard wheat milling, and (b) durum milling and pasta manufacture is analyzed. Finally, the introduction of an alternative technology for pasta drying is assessed in terms of energy conservation and cost. Recommendation for further applications and institutionalization of the model are made.

  4. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  5. Preparation of Al-Ti-B grain refiner by SHS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, V.I.; Wanqi, J.I.E.; Kandalova, E.G.; Makarenko, A.G.; Yong, L.

    2000-01-01

    Since the discovery of the grain refinement effect of aluminum by titanium, especially with the existence of B or C in 1950, grain refiners are widely accepted in industry for microstructure control of aluminum alloys. Research on this topic is to obtain the highest grain refinement efficiency with the lowest possible addition of master alloy. It is widely accepted that the morphology and size of TiAl 3 particles, which are known as heterogeneous nucleation centers, are important factors deterring the grain refinement efficiency. Fine TiAl 3 particles are favorable. The grain refinement process shows a heredity phenomenon, which means that structural information from initial materials transfers through a melt to the final product. It is important to find the connection between microstructural parameters of the master alloy and the final product. To improve the quality of Al-Ti-B master alloys for the use as a grain refiner, a new method based on SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) technology has been developed in Samara State Technical University to produce the master alloys. SHS, as a new method for preparation of materials, was first utilized by Merzhanov in 1967. This method uses the energy from highly exothermic reactions to sustain the chemical reaction in a combustion wave. The advantages of SHS include simplicity, low energy requirement, and higher product purity. Because SHS reactions can take place between elemental reactants, it is easy to control product composition. The purposes of this investigation were to fabricate an SHS Al-5%Ti-1%B master alloy, to analyze its structure and to test its grain refining performance

  6. Refining margins: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia. Since the beginning of 1999, refining margins are weak and utilization rates of refining capacities have decreased. (authors)

  7. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  8. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  9. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  10. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  11. New process modeling[sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-01-01

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice

  12. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  13. Refining - Panorama 2008; Raffinage - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable.

  14. Final construction quality assurance report for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V, Area 2, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessom, W.H.

    1996-11-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) has finished construction of Area 2 of the Y-12 Plant Industrial Landfill (ILF-V), classified as a Class 2 Landfill. This final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report provides documentation that Area 2 was constructed in substantial compliance with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved design, as indicated and specified in the permit drawings, approved changes, and specifications. This report applies specifically to the Area 2 excavation, compacted clay soil liner, geomembrane liner, granular leachate collection layer, protective soil cover, and the leachate collection system. An ''As-Built'' survey was performed and is included. The drawings provide horizontal and vertical information for Area 2, the anchor trench, the leachate collection pipe, the temporary access road, and cross-sections of Area 2. This report provides documentation of the following items: the excavation activities of Area 2; the maximum recompacted coefficient of hydraulic conductivity or permeability of the soil is less than 1 x 10 -7 centimeters per second (cm/sec); the total thickness of the compacted clay soil liner equals a minimum of 2 feet; a 40 mil impermeable geomembrane (polypropylene) flexible membrane liner (FML) and 16 oz. geotextile fabric was placed in direct contact with the compacted clay soil liner; a 12 inch granular leachate collection layer was installed and covered with a 8 oz. geotextile separation fabric; the installation of the leachate collection piping; and the two foot protective clay soil cover

  15. Refinement, testing, and application of an Integrated Data Assimilation/Sounding System (IDASS) for the DOE/ARM Experimental Program. Final report for period September 20, 1990 - May 8, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, David B.

    2002-04-09

    This report describes work done by NCAR under the ''Refinement, Testing, and Application of an Integrated Data Assimilation/Sounding System (IDASS) for the DOE/ARM Experimental Program''. It includes a discussion of the goals, findings and a list of 27 journal articles, 92 non-refereed papers and 30 other presentations not associated with a formal publication.

  16. Utilization of used oil. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascetti, G.J.; White, H.M.

    1978-08-01

    This report assesses the potential impact of re-refining used automotive and industrial lubricating oils on the national petroleum consumption. The technical base for this assessment is derived from a comprehensive review of the processes utilized in re-refining used oil and those processes used to produce lube oil from crude. Both existing and recently proposed processes are considered. Additionally, an extensive review of processes described in the patent literature is provided. Re-refining processes are surveyed and evaluated. Process descriptions are provided; hardware is identified; and process energy and economic requirements are calculated. Factors affecting the profitability of a re-refining operation are discussed. Economic projections of the demand for lube oil and the ability to satisfy this demand from crude oil are made and the value of lube oil as a vital resource and the need for conservation are addressed. Other factors related to re-refining are discussed, including lube oil characteristics, degradation, lube oil quality and engine sequence testing, and legislative and institutional barriers. Finally, an energy assessment of used oil utilization is made. Two options are considered in this assessment: (1) all used oil is re-refined and recycled back to lube oil; (2) all used oil is burned to recover its heat content.

  17. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  18. Panorama 2009 - refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For oil companies to invest in new refining and conversion capacity, favorable conditions over time are required. In other words, refining margins must remain high and demand sustained over a long period. That was the situation prevailing before the onset of the financial crisis in the second half of 2008. The economic conjuncture has taken a substantial turn for the worse since then and the forecasts for 2009 do not look bright. Oil demand is expected to decrease in the OECD countries and to grow much more slowly in the emerging countries. It is anticipated that refining margins will fall in 2009 - in 2008, they slipped significantly in the United States - as a result of increasingly sluggish demand, especially for light products. The next few months will probably be unfavorable to investment. In addition to a gloomy business outlook, there may also be a problem of access to sources of financing. As for investment projects, a mainstream trend has emerged in the last few years: a shift away from the regions that have historically been most active (the OECD countries) towards certain emerging countries, mostly in Asia or the Middle East. The new conjuncture will probably not change this trend

  19. Assessment of the industrial energy-conservation program. Final report of the Committee on Assessment of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Industrial operations in the United States account for some 37% of the nation's consumptions of energy. It has been estimated that this figure will increase to 50% by 1990 unless appropriate industrial energy conservation measures are adopted. However, such measures are difficult to implement in spite of the potential of various existing, emerging, and advanced technologies that can be applied to the problem. Specifically, the application of many industrial energy conservation measures entails high economic, technological, and institutional risks and uncertainties that constrain industries from adopting such measures. Accordingly, in 1975 the federal government started a program designed to mitigate these risks and uncertainties via government-industry partnership arrangements in the interests of national energy conservation. An important element of this program is the Industrial Energy Conservation Program in the Federal Department of Energy (DOE). In June 1980, DOE asked the National Materials Advisory Board, a unit of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, to form a study committee to assess the effectiveness of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The committee concluded that federal support embodied in the DOE program, present and planned, is important to conserving additional industrial energy. However, the committee also concluded that the program needs various improvements in project selection and management and in transfer of results to industry. The committee's findings and recommendations and the results of the deliberation of the committee's three panels, a special report on heat and power, and a report on the visit by four members of the committee to Japan are presented.

  20. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    OpenAIRE

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Zwart, Peter H.; Adams, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An i...

  1. The evolution of oil refining in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Back in 1963 when CONCAWE was founded, the world looked very different from what it is today, and so did the global and European refining industry. Oil product markets were expanding fast and new refineries were being built at a steady rate. The oil crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to this, heralding a long era of consolidation and stepwise adaptation. At the same time the nature of the global oil business shifted from fully integrated companies producing, transporting and refining their own oil to a much more diversified situation where oil production ('upstream') and refining/distribution ('downstream') gradually became two essentially separate businesses. From being purely a 'cost centre' in an integrated chain, refining has become a separate activity in its own right, operating as a 'profit centre' between two global markets - crude oil and products - which, although not entirely independent, have their own dynamics and influences. In addition demand gradually shifted towards lighter products while the quality requirements on all products were considerably tightened. This article explores the new challenges that these changes have imposed on EU refiners, and describes CONCAWE's contributions to understanding their impact on refinery production and investments.

  2. Fuel demand and fuel efficiency in the US commercial-airline industry and the trucking industry: an analysis of trends and implications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-31

    A study of trends in fuel use and efficiency in the US commercial airlines industry is extended back to 1967 in order to compare the relative contributions of the factors influencing efficiency during a period of stable fuel prices (1967 to 1972) versus a period of fuel price growth (1973 to 1980). A similar analysis disaggregates the components of truck efficiency and evaluates their relative impact on fuel consumption in the trucking industry. (LEW)

  3. Fiscal 1997 report on the model project for the effective energy consumption in developing countries. Survey of changes of energy conservation technology and environmental protection technology in the oil refining industry in Japan; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo (Nippon sekiyu seiseigyo ni okeru sho energy gijutsu to kankyo taisaku gijutsu no hensen chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For global scale measures to be taken for environmental protection, it becomes more and more important in the future to positively transfer and spread energy conservation technologies of Japan to overseas countries. Especially, it is effective for both economic growth in the Asian region and global environmental protection to transfer technologies which the oil refining industry has been developing and accumulating. Energy conservation in the oil refining industry means the energy conservation by strengthening the operational control at the first and second oil crises in the first stage, the energy conservation in the second stage which was accompanied by small and medium scale plant/equipment investments during several years after the first stage, and the energy conservation in the third stage which was accompanied by large scale investments from the first half of the 1980s to the present, resulting in improvement of 40% over before the first oil crisis. As to environmental protection measures, measures to reduce waste from oil refinery against air pollution and water pollution were prepared by the first half of the 1970s, and technologies were established of waste water treatment, flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. A lot of facilities for improvement of product quality and for low pollution were installed. In addition to environmental technologies, also in other industries, there were seen the heightening of thermal efficiency of kiln and thermal efficiency of cooling technique of clinker cooler in the cement industry and the improvement of productivity in the paper/pulp industry. 360 figs., 62 tabs.

  4. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  5. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.

    2003-01-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  6. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  7. Industry in the 5th Environmental Outlook. Background information and final conclusions on the future development of environmental pressure (emissions) due to industrial production in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesselink, L.G.; Elzenga, H.E.; Booij, H.; Peek, K.; Thomas, R.; Duvoort, G.L.; Van Schijndel, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    The present and future development of environmental pressure (here emissions) due to industrial production in the Netherlands are discussed. Results were - strongly aggregated - also presented in the 5th Environmental Outlook. We studied developments in production levels, energy use and emissions of Dutch industry and the effect of environmental policy measures, in the period 1980-2020. We used monitoring data for the period 1980-1998 en two scenarios (Global Competition and European Coordination) for the subsequent 1998-2020 period. It is concluded, that future CO2 emissions due to industrial production will continue to increase, that emissions of fluorinated (Kyoto) gasses will strongly decrease and that emissions of NOx, SO2, VOS en fine particles will continue to decrease. Yet, current environmental policy is insufficient to meet national Dutch emission targets of NOx, SO2, VOS in 2010

  8. Japan's refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country's refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry

  9. Utilization of forest biomass for energy production and industrial purposes. Final report. Utilizzazione della biomassa dei boschi cedui per energia e per usi industriali. Rapporto finale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaramuzzi, G

    1985-01-01

    The project is part of a larger one promoted by the Italian Agency for Cellulose and Paper (E.N.C.C.) for an enhanced utilization of coppice forests in Italy. It concerns a Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) stand in Calabria. Stand characteristics and results of harvesting trials, first after-felling observations and technological investigations are reported. Results of an estimate of coppice forests biomass availability and of possibilities of expanding its use for energy are also given. Machinery damage to stumps was greatly reduced (1.7% of high-damaged stumps) by sprouts concentration by skyline. Sprouts weight appeared as a major factor affecting harvesting yield, Harvesting costs varied with different stand and terrain characteristics from 28,000 to 39,500 It. liras/t. Because of the high transport costs, the use of current coppice forests biomass is restricted within a short distance from the harvesting area. Industrial trials for fiberboard and paper pulp production from coppice whole-tree chipped biomass proved the possibility of its use in mixture with current raw material up to 75% for fiberboard production and up to 35-50% for corrugated paper pulp production. Relative expansion possibilities of coppice forest biomass consumption for energy were estimated, mainly localized in the central-northern Appennine and the Alpine areas. Given the permanence of a high convenience for its home consumption, wide development programs for coppice biomass industrial use for energy appear to be inconvenient. On the other hand, its use by local communities (schools, hospital, etc.) might be incentived in particular areas with high coppice production potential far from wood industries.

  10. Impact of the Mexican Alien Commuter on the Apparel Industry of El Paso, Texas--A Case Study. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungeling, Brian Scott

    This study analyzed what effect commuters had on wage levels, employment, and industrial locations, and the relative importance of the commuter as part of the work force. A questionnaire was administered to 190 workers and to their 20 employers in the apparel industry of El Paso, Texas. The questionnaires revealed that the commuters were paid the…

  11. Instructional Materials in Manufacturing for Junior High School Industrial Arts. Final Report and Parts I-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus.

    This Title XI Institute was designed and conducted to introduce the participants to inquiry and invention taking place in industrial arts curriculum across the United States. The institute participated in the inquiry stage through advanced study of manufacturing technology and industrial arts curriculum, and in the invention stage through the…

  12. Skills Today for Tomorrow. A Workplace Literacy Consortium for the Printing Industry, March 1991-November 1992. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catonsville Community Coll., MD.

    A cooperative project received a federal education grant to provide workplace literacy education in communications, mathematics, and problem-solving skills for the printing/graphic arts industry. Partners in the 18-month program were Catonsville Community College in Baltimore (Maryland), the printing industries of Maryland and Southern…

  13. Regulator and industry Co-operation on safety research: challenges and opportunities. Final report and answers to questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    A Group has been set up by the CSNI to identify and review the issues which hinder closer co-operation on research between regulators and industry, and to propose possible ways for resolving such issues while maintaining regulatory independence in decision-making. The Group has analyzed the potential advantages and disadvantages of regulator-industry collaboration in safety research and has also provided indications on how to overcome possible difficulties that can arise from such collaboration. The Group focused in particular on the issue of regulator independence, on means to preserve it and ways to demonstrate it to the public while undertaking collaboration with industry

  14. Development of Advanced Sensor Technologies for the United States Glass Industry - Final Report - 07/20/1995 - 08/19/1999; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, B. L.; Cannon, C.

    1999-01-01

    The glass industry, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), undertook a project to significantly improve temperature measurement in glass melters, thereby reducing energy usage through improved process control. AccuTru International determined that a new kind of protective sheath would improve the life and range of applications of the temperature measuring thermocouples. In cooperation with Corning, Inc., the University of Missouri-Rolla ceramics department conducted tests on a proprietary alumina sheath technology, which shows significant promise. In addition, AccuTru obtained DOE funding to develop a self-verifying sensor. The new sensor, with alumina sheath, was tested at a Corning facility, and the results exceeded expectations. Areas for additional development efforts were identified

  15. Preparation of Al-Ti-B grain refiner by SHS technology[Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, V.I.; Wanqi, J.I.E.; Kandalova, E.G.; Makarenko, A.G.; Yong, L.

    2000-02-01

    Since the discovery of the grain refinement effect of aluminum by titanium, especially with the existence of B or C in 1950, grain refiners are widely accepted in industry for microstructure control of aluminum alloys. Research on this topic is to obtain the highest grain refinement efficiency with the lowest possible addition of master alloy. It is widely accepted that the morphology and size of TiAl{sub 3} particles, which are known as heterogeneous nucleation centers, are important factors deterring the grain refinement efficiency. Fine TiAl{sub 3} particles are favorable. The grain refinement process shows a heredity phenomenon, which means that structural information from initial materials transfers through a melt to the final product. It is important to find the connection between microstructural parameters of the master alloy and the final product. To improve the quality of Al-Ti-B master alloys for the use as a grain refiner, a new method based on SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) technology has been developed in Samara State Technical University to produce the master alloys. SHS, as a new method for preparation of materials, was first utilized by Merzhanov in 1967. This method uses the energy from highly exothermic reactions to sustain the chemical reaction in a combustion wave. The advantages of SHS include simplicity, low energy requirement, and higher product purity. Because SHS reactions can take place between elemental reactants, it is easy to control product composition. The purposes of this investigation were to fabricate an SHS Al-5%Ti-1%B master alloy, to analyze its structure and to test its grain refining performance.

  16. Personnel supply and demand issues in the nuclear power industry. Final report of the Nuclear Manpower Study Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The anticipated personnel needs of the nuclear power industry have varied widely in recent years, in response to both increasing regulatory requirements and declining orders for new plants. Recent employment patterns in the nuclear energy field, with their fluctuations, resemble those of defense industries more than those traditionally associated with electric utilities. Reactions to the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 by industry and regulators have increased the demand for trained and experienced personnel, causing salaries to rise. Industry, for example, has established several advisory organizations like the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). At the same time, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed many new construction and operating requirements in an effort to take advantage of lessons learned from the Three Mile Island incident and to respond to the perceived public interest in better regulation of nuclear power. Thus, at present, utilities, architect-engineer firms, reactor vendors, and organizations in the nuclear development community have heavy workloads

  17. Federal income taxation of the U. S. petroleum industry and the depletion of domestic reserves. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, S. J.; Mount, T. D.

    1978-10-01

    This paper models in a dynamic framework the production activities of the United States petroleum industry in an attempt to measure the effects of the federal income tax on reserve depletion. This model incorporates general corporate taxes, including the capital subsidies, excess depreciation and the investment tax credit, and taxes unique to the industry: drilling subsidies and percentage depletion. Because corporate response to tax incentives depends on market power and behavior, three behavioral assumptions are tested for consistency with the 1960 to 1974 data period before the tax policies are simulated. These assumptions are perfect competition, profit monopoly, and sales monopoly. The tax policies simulated at the end of this paper present six possible alternatives for future petroleum industry taxation. Sales monopoly is selected as the behavioral assumption that best describes petroleum industry behavior. Tax simulations under sales monopoly reveal that historical income tax policies have kept oil prices artificially low, stimulating (subsidizing) reserve depletion.

  18. Industry participation in DOE-sponsored geopressured geothermal resource development. Final report, 1 September 1977-30 April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffer, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    A series of DOE/Industry forums were carried out to keep industry advised of the DOE program to develop the geopressured geothermal resources of the Gulf Coast. A total of eighteen meetings were held with registered attendance of 621 representing a good cross section of industry, state, and federal agencies. An Overview Group and four working subgroups - site selection, drilling and testing, environmental/laboratory research, and legal institutional were established to subdivide the DOE programs into areas of interest and expertise. During the contract period three overview, four site selection, three drilling and testing, five environmental/laboratory research and three legal/institutional meetings have been conducted. Interest in and attendance at the meetings continue to grow reflecting increased industry contact with the DOE Geopressured Geothermal Resource Development Program. Two other studies were carried out for DOE under this contract; a Salt Water Disposal Study and an Industry Survey to evaluate the DOE Resource Development Program. The Salt Water Disposal Study reviewed subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast. This preliminary study concluded that subsurface brine disposal should be possible in the areas of interest with adequate evaluation of the geology of each area and a well designed and constructed surface and subsurface facility. The industry survey indicated general satisfaction with the technical design of the resource evaluation program but felt the program should be moving faster.

  19. Radiotracer technology as applied to industry. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Radiotracer Technology for Engineering Unit Operation Studies and Unit Process Optimization was carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from December 1997 until December 2000. The project developed and validated procedures and protocols for investigation of major industrial processes, including fluidized beds, sugar crystallizers, trickle bed reactors, cement rotary kilns, flotation cells, grinding mills, incinerators, wastewater treatment units and interwell communications in oil fields. This publication is the output of the above mentioned CRP. It provides the principles and state of the art of radiotracer methodology and technology as applied to industry and environment. It is expected to provide wider interest for further development of skills and confidence prior to carrying out field work. It facilitates transfer of technology from developed to developing countries and from nuclear research institutions to industrial end users. The publication could be a suitable guide for radiotracer applications in almost all types of process investigations. The case studies described in this publication deal with typical problems in industry and environment common to all countries. It is intended for radiotracer groups as well as for end engineers and managers from chemical and petrochemical industries, mineral ore and raw material processing, wastewater treatment plants, and other industrial sectors

  20. THE QUESTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF OIL REFINING IN RUSSIA: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov A. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relations between the financial statements’ figures of the complex of refining companies - the core of Russian refining industry from 2006 to 2013 - were analyzed using component and regression analysis from the standpoint of the effectiveness of their activities during the modernization period. Through the component analysis the main factors that influenced the final financial results of the enterprises during the given period were determined. Regression models of panel data with fixed and random effects were made for 19 enterprises. Regression analysis revealed no statistically significant dependencies of the efficiency (profitability on the production scale (enterprise revenue. The dynamics of certain types of expenses were analyzed in order to explain the differences in the profitability dynamics. It revealed virtually no difference in the values of the individual effects of enterprises in different areas of specialization (profile.

  1. Uranium refining process using ion exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    1977-01-01

    As for the method of refining uranium ore being carried out in Europe and America at present, uranium ore is roughly refined at the mine sites to yellow cake, then this is transported to refineries and refined by dry method. This method has the following faults, namely the number of processes is large, it requires expensive corrosion-resistant materials because of high temperature treatment, and the impurities in uranium tend to increase. On the other hand, in case of EXCER method, treatment is carried out at low temperature, and high purity uranium can be obtained, but the efficiency of electrolytic reduction process is extremely low, and economically infeasible. In the wet refining method called PNC process, uranium tetrafluoride is produced from uranium ore without making yellow cake, therefore the process is rationalized largely, and highly economical. The electrolytic reduction process in this method was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. by constructing the pilot plant in Ningyotoge Mine. The ion exchange membrane, the electrodes, and the problems concerning the process and the engineering for commercial plants were investigated. The electrolytic reduction process, the pilot plant, the development of the elements of electrolytic cells, the establishment of analytical process, the measurement of the electrolytic characteristics, the demonstration operation, and the life time of the electrolytic diaphragm are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Riskgov European Project. Comparative analysis of risk governance for radiological and chemical discharges of industrial installations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Vaillant, L.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Oudiz, A.; Bourgoignon, F.; Milochevitch, A.; PATERSON, J.; Brownless, G.; Bandle, T.; Hansson, S.O.; Hayenhjelm, M.

    2004-11-01

    The objective of the RISKGOV Project is to analyse and identify quality criteria for the governance of industrial activities giving rise to risks to people and the environment from radioactive and chemical discharges during normal operations. For this purpose, RISKGOV aims at: 1) analysing and comparing the elements contributing to the quality of governance systems associated with environmental discharges from nuclear and chemical installations; 2) providing a series of criteria to assess the quality of the governance of risk activities. In total, 8 case studies were conducted, covering radioactive and chemical releases related to local and international contexts and referring to innovative risk governance processes in France, Sweden and the United Kingdom: - The role of local liaison committees with regard to the management of discharges of installations: - France: Local liaison committee of the Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant, - Sweden: Local liaison committees of the Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant and the Rohm and Hass Chemical installation, - The dialogue process during the preparation of re-authorisation of radioactive discharges: - France: COGEMA-La Hague facility, - United-Kingdom: Devonport Royal Dockyard, - The dialogue process in a regional context: - France: Management of air quality around the industrial site of Etang de Berre, - The dialogue process in an international context: - Implementation of the OSPAR Convention for chemical and radioactive releases, - The abandonment of the Brent Spar offshore platform. The analysis was performed by a multidisciplinary research team and based notably on interviews with key stakeholders directly involved in these innovative risk governance processes. The following dimensions were addressed: a) The guiding principles of the decision-making process; b) The role of expertise; c) The stakeholders involvement process; d) The factors integrated into the decision-framing and decision-taking processes; e) The

  3. Continuous method for refining sodium. [for use in LMFBR type reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batoux, B; Laurent-Atthalin, A; Salmon, M

    1973-11-16

    The invention relates to a refining method according to which commercial sodium provides a high purity sodium with, in particular, a very small calcium content. The method consists in continuously feeding a predetermined amount of sodium peroxide into a sodium stream, mixing and causing said sodium peroxide to reach with sodium at an appropriate temperature, and, finally, separating the reaction products from sodium by decanting and filtering same. The thus obtained high purity sodium meets the requirements of atomic industries in particular, in view of its possible use as coolant in nuclear reactors of the ''breeder'' type.

  4. Technology of niobium and molybdenum refining by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, R.A.; Pinatti, D.G.; Sandim, H.R.Z.

    1988-01-01

    The uses of metals and alloys in superconductors (Nb46%Ti), aerospatial industry (Ti6Al4V), electroeletronic industry (Nb, Mo, W) and in surgical implants (Ti, Nb) are increasing nowadays. A refining process of niobium and molybdenum by electron beam technique, since the oxides reduction till the obtention of a high purity ingot is presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  5. Refining in the 90s - a green burden?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The refining industry has been faced with many technical and economic challenges in recent years. Most of these changes have been a result of long-term strategic planning by governments, resulting in more stringent environmental legislation. This article discusses whether the industry can cope with the new rules. (author)

  6. Comprehensive Data Collected from the Petroleum Refining Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 1, 2011 EPA sent a comprehensive industry-wide information collection request (ICR) to all facilities in the U.S. petroleum refining industry. EPA has received this ICR data and compiled these data into databases and spreadsheets for the web

  7. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  8. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  9. Basic effects of pulp refining on fiber properties--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehkhani, Samira; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman; Badarudin, Ahmad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd

    2015-01-22

    The requirement for high quality pulps which are widely used in paper industries has increased the demand for pulp refining (beating) process. Pulp refining is a promising approach to improve the pulp quality by changing the fiber characteristics. The diversity of research on the effect of refining on fiber properties which is due to the different pulp sources, pulp consistency and refining equipment has interested us to provide a review on the studies over the last decade. In this article, the influence of pulp refining on structural properties i.e., fibrillations, fine formation, fiber length, fiber curl, crystallinity and distribution of surface chemical compositions is reviewed. The effect of pulp refining on electrokinetic properties of fiber e.g., surface and total charges of pulps is discussed. In addition, an overview of different refining theories, refiners as well as some tests for assessing the pulp refining is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a partnership with government and industry to accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen. Final report, 9/30/1995--10/31/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This Final Technical Report provides a summary of the activities performed by the NHA in accordance with the Cooperative Agreement. Activities are broken down by task area, and include the following: (1) Information exchange within the NHA, which includes the two NHA newsletters, the NHA Advocate, and the H{sub 2} Digest, as well as directory information. (2) Information exchange within the hydrogen industry, which includes conferences and meeting attendance, presentations of papers, and HTAP activities. (3) Information exchange with other critical industries and the public, which includes press conferences, and public awareness activities. (4) Annual US hydrogen meeting, NHA`s signature event. The 7th Annual US Hydrogen Meeting was held April 2--4, 1996 in Alexandria, Virginia in conjunction with the US DOE`s Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel Meeting and the SAE`s Fuel Cell TOPTEC. (5) Industry perspective and needs, which covers activities related to the Hydrogen Industrialization Plan. (6) Codes and standards, which includes workshop and workgroup activities, as well as other safety-related activities. The objective of the codes and standards activities is to establish expert working groups to develop industry consensus on safety issues, and develop compatible standards and formats, and product certification protocols.

  11. Development of a partnership with government and industry to accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen. Final report, November 1, 1996--October 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Hydrogen Association (NHA) was born out of a Hydrogen Workshop, November 16 and 17, 1988, held at the Electric Power Research Institute in Palo Alto, California. The following mission statement was adopted and remains the statement of the organization: to foster the development of hydrogen technologies and their utilization in industrial and commercial applications and to promote the transition role of hydrogen in the energy field. This final technical report provides a summary of the activities performed by the NHA. Activities are broken down by task area, and include the following: Information exchange within the NHA; Information exchange within the hydrogen industry; Information exchange with other critical industries and the public; Annual US hydrogen meeting; Codes and standards which includes establishing industry consensus on safety issues; Industry perspective and needs; and Administrative. Appendices to this report include the following: Role of the NHA in strategic planning for the hydrogen economy--An international initiative; Hydrogen safety report; and Implementation plan workshop II, whose purpose was to seek commercialization scenarios and strategies to introduce hydrogen in near-term transportation and power markets.

  12. Skills Today for Tomorrow: Advancing a Workplace Literacy Consortium for the Printing Industry. May 1993-April 1995 Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catonsville Community Coll., MD.

    A 2-year project was conducted to improve the productivity of the work force through improvement of literacy skills in the workplace by providing instruction to employees in the printing industry in the Baltimore (Maryland) metropolitan area; Carroll County and Charles County, Maryland; and York, Pennsylvania. The project was organized with input…

  13. Market development study for active solar thermal systems in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Promising market opportunities for the sale of Active Solar Thermal Systems (ASTS) in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors of the Canadian economy were examined in an effort to identify the main factors for success and the barriers to development of the ASTS market. This report described some of the action plans which could help Natural Resources Canada and the industry to develop these markets. It was noted that a promising ASTS application should have a substantial market. Some of the promising applications for ASTS include air heating applications such as: (1) make-up air to an industrial facility, particularly one that requires a high rate of air flow or air layer destratification, such as in welding operations, paint shops or vehicle maintenance facilities, (2) ventilation to a high-walled commercial or institutional building that requires high air flow such as in schools, recreational facilities, multi-residential or retail buildings, and (3) slow drying applications for crops, lumber or other materials. Promising water heating applications include: (1) high volume low temperature rise applications such as in swimming pools, (2) domestic hot water to high density accommodations such as in hotels, multi-unit dwellings, college residences and military barracks, (3) domestic hot water to an isolated location such as campgrounds or lodges, and (4) process hot water used for water washing in industry, restaurants, farms and car washes. This study concluded that there are many opportunities for sales of ASTS to the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors, but combined efforts are needed by committed members of the community to take advantage of these opportunities. 15 refs., 11 tabs., 2 figs., 4 append.

  14. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2018 Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update and CY 2019 Case-Mix Adjustment Methodology Refinements; Home Health Value-Based Purchasing Model; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-07

    This final rule updates the home health prospective payment system (HH PPS) payment rates, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates, the national per-visit rates, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor, effective for home health episodes of care ending on or after January 1, 2018. This rule also: Updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking; implements the third year of a 3-year phase-in of a reduction to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (that is, nominal case-mix growth) between calendar year (CY) 2012 and CY 2014; and discusses our efforts to monitor the potential impacts of the rebasing adjustments that were implemented in CY 2014 through CY 2017. In addition, this rule finalizes changes to the Home Health Value-Based Purchasing (HHVBP) Model and to the Home Health Quality Reporting Program (HH QRP). We are not finalizing the implementation of the Home Health Groupings Model (HHGM) in this final rule.

  15. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...

  16. Petroleum industry. 1997 activity report; L`industrie Petroliere. Rapport d`activite 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This activity report from the direction of hydrocarbons of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (ministry of economy, finances and industry) presents an economic analysis of the activities of the French petroleum industry for 1997. After a recall of the missions of the direction of hydrocarbons, the report analyses successively: 1- the evolution of the petroleum market: the international petroleum market in 1997, the hydrocarbon supplies and external trade (natural gas, crude oil, condensates), the French petroleum market (primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, French petroleum consumption, the petroleum logistics in overseas departments and territories), the prices, margins and fiscal policy in France and Europe (crude oil and refined product prices in the international market, retail prices in France and Europe, the French petroleum fiscal policy, statistics of petroleum prices in France and Europe; 2- the petroleum industry activities: exploration and production in France and worldwide, the maritime and domestic transports and the storage (French commercial fleet, domestic transports, storage facilities, strategic stocks), the refining activity and the quality of products and fuel substitutes (refining, automotive fuels quality, bio-fuels), the distribution of petroleum products (automotive and diesel fuels, LPG, aircraft fuels, lubricants); 3- the environmental and safety aspects of refining, transportation (pipelines, tanker-ships) and exploration-production; 4- the economic situation of the companies: petroleum groups, French para-petroleum industry, scientific and technical research. (J.S.)

  17. Assessment of the energy requirements and selected options facing major consumers within the Egyptian industrial and agricultural sectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-31

    The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)

  18. Solar repowering/industrial retrofit systems study: Gulf Mt. Taylor Uranium Mill solar retrofit. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This report covers the efforts in a nine month study to develop a site-specific conceptual design for solar industrial process heat retrofit of the Gulf Mt. Taylor Uranium Mill. This has resulted in preparation of a System Requirements Specification, conduct of trade studies leading to selection of a system concept, and conceptual design, performance, cost estimating and economic analysis of the selected concept. A baseline system with no storage and an alternative system with extended storage were evaluated. The baseline system with no storage was selected because it provides the best overall opportunity for fuel displacement, operating experience in industrial application and successful demonstration in the near term for both DOE and the user

  19. Price-elastic electricity consumption and electricity production in industry. Final report; Priselastisk elforbrug og elproduktion i industrien. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Weel, M. (Weel and Sandvig ApS, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2010-10-15

    The project has shown that there is potential for particularly demand response energy consumption within the industry. If businesses offer this potential on markets it is required that the payment is good. This has according to corporate perception only been the case on the reserve market and not on the regulating market and the spot market. To realize the potential it is also required that the responsible balance controller takes on the task to form some robust pools in order that the 10 MW requirement can be met. A study of frequency controlled reserves shows that the technical requirements can be met by the waste incinerator plants and by the industry's gas turbines and gas engines, but not by small steam turbines. (ln)

  20. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage application to the brick/ceramic industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, D.R.

    1976-10-01

    An initial project to study the technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in the three major consumer markets, namely, the residential, commercial and industrial sectors is described. A major objective of the study was to identify viable TES applications from which a more concise study could be launched, leading to a conceptual design and in-depth validation of the TES energy impacts. This report documents one such program. The brick/ceramic industries commonly use periodic kilns which by their operating cycle require time-variant energy supply and consequently variable heat rejection. This application was one of the numerous TES opportunities that emerged from the first study, now available from the ERDA Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identified as Report No. COO-2558-1.

  1. Survey of radiation protection, radiation transport, and shielding information needs of the nuclear power industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Trubey, D.K.; Roussin, R.W.; McGill, B.L.

    1976-04-01

    The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) is engaged in a program to seek out, organize, and disseminate information in the area of radiation transport, shielding, and radiation protection. This information consists of published literature, nuclear data, and computer codes and advanced analytical techniques required by ERDA, its contractors, and the nuclear power industry to improve radiation analysis and computing capability. Information generated in this effort becomes a part of the RSIC collection and/or data base. The purpose of this report on project 219-1 is to document the results of the survey of information and computer code needs of the nuclear power industry in the area of radiation analysis and protection

  2. Survey of radiation protection, radiation transport, and shielding information needs of the nuclear power industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Trubey, D.K.; Roussin, R.W.; McGill, B.L.

    1976-04-01

    The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) is engaged in a program to seek out, organize, and disseminate information in the area of radiation transport, shielding, and radiation protection. This information consists of published literature, nuclear data, and computer codes and advanced analytical techniques required by ERDA, its contractors, and the nuclear power industry to improve radiation analysis and computing capability. Information generated in this effort becomes a part of the RSIC collection and/or data base. The purpose of this report on project 219-1 is to document the results of the survey of information and computer code needs of the nuclear power industry in the area of radiation analysis and protection.

  3. Fact Sheets and Questions and Answers for the Final Air Toxics Rules for the Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the July 1995 final rule fact sheet and the January 2015 proposed rule fact sheet that contains information on the National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities, as well as a 2001 Q&A document on the rule

  4. Socioeconomic impacts of natural gas curtailments: a study of the textile industry in the southeastern United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify the effects of fuel curtailments in the textile industry in North and South Carolina. Regional economic and social structures were affected with natural gas curtailments in 1976 and 1977. This document presents results of the effects of production shutdown resulting from the curtailments. Chapter II presents background information on the pipelines that service the region. Chapters III and IV describe the affected communities and the observed increase in government expenditures to counteract the impacts. Chapter V contains a complete list of textile plants in the study area that had to either work under abbreviated schedules or close entirely during the winter of 1976-1977. Attention was given to economic impacts at the industrial level that may have been attributable to the curtailment. Chapter VI covers these topics. In some instances, textile mills have relocated their plant facilities because they could not be guaranteed continuous fuel service at their original site. These data are the main concern of Chapter VII. Chapter VIII concentrates on social impacts; many facilities which provide services essential to human needs were subjected to gas curtailments so that the critical energy supplies could be diverted to industry. Chapter VIII also discusses an interesting geographic separation between social and economic impacts.

  5. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 3. Appendix on service and fuel demands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This book is the third volume of the ISTUM report. The first volume of the report describes the primary model logic and the model's data inputs. The second volume lists and evaluates the results of one model run. This and the fourth volume give supplementary information in two sets of model data - the energy consumption base and technology descriptions. Chapter III of Vol. I, Book 1 describes the ISTUM demand base and explains how that demand base was developed. This volume serves as a set of appendices to that chapter. The chapter on demands in Vol. I describes the assumptions and methodology used in constructing the ISTUM demand base; this volume simply lists tables of data from that demand base. This book divides the demand tables into two appendices. Appendix III-1 contains detailed tables on ISTUM fuel-consumption estimates, service-demand forecasts, and size and load-factor distributions. Appendix III-2 contains tables detailing ISTUM allocations of each industry's fuel consumption to service sectors. The tables show how the ECDB was used to develop the ISTUM demand base.

  6. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  7. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  8. Comprehensive analysis and positioning of the energy and environmental industry in the GTA : final report and executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This report presented an outline of the energy and environment sectors in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The objective of the report was to present the GTA as an ideal relocation option for businesses in the environment and energy sectors. Details of the energy sector in Ontario were outlined, and an overview of the electricity market was provided. A regional distribution of the environment industry was presented, including details of hydrogen, renewable energy technologies, waste management, engineering and consulting companies and water and waste water. It was noted that 40 per cent of the Ontario environment industry is located in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), and generates revenues of $4 billion per year. GTA issues and drivers include environmental issues such as air quality and climate change; finance and economics such as alternative financing mechanisms and infrastructure issues; resource adequacy and policy and regulation issues. New and emerging opportunities in the GTA were examined, including details of key enablers and an accompanying timeline. Competitive advantages of the GTA include strong technology innovation; skilled workforce; and world-wide recognition. An outline of facilities in the GTA was provided. The value of niche companies was assessed. The geographical proximity of the GTA to various large centres was assessed. It was concluded that the GTA value proposition includes a strong market demand; consistent policies and regulations; a business support framework; good quality of life; and many strong, well-positioned niche companies

  9. Oil price scenarios and refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.

    1993-01-01

    Currently refining profitability is low because there has been an overbuilding of conversion capacity in Western Europe in the last round. Oil marketing, the chemicals business and the fundamental economy itself are at low points in their cycles which have not coincided, at least in the UK, since 1975. Against that gloomy background, it is predicted that downstream profitability will recover in the mid-1990s. Crude oil prices will remain low until the call on OPEC crude increases again and takes up the capacity which has been brought on stream in response to the Gulf War. When this happens, it is likely to trigger another price spike and another round of investment in production capacity. Environmentally driven investments in desulphurisation or emissions reduction will be poorly remunerated all the way through the value chain. Refining margins will recover when white oil demand growth tightens up the need for conversion capacity. Marketing will need to reduce the retail network overcapacity in the mature markets if it is to improve its profitability. In this period of low profitability, even with the light at the end of the tunnel for refiners in the middle of the decade, the industry structure is under threat. There is a strong argument for new modes of competitive behaviour which are backed by strong elements of cooperation. (author)

  10. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Srinuttrakul, W.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process to produce higher purity uranium from yellowcake was studied in laboratory scale. Yellowcake, which the uranium purity is around 70% and the main impurity is thorium, was obtained from monazite processing pilot plant of Rare Earth Research and Development Center in Thailand. For uranium re-extraction process, the extractant chosen was Tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. It was found that the optimum concentration of TBP was 10% in kerosene and the optimum nitric acid concentration in uranyl nitrate feed solution was 4 N. An increase in concentrations of uranium and thorium in feed solution resulted in a decrease in the distribution of both components in the extractant. However, the distribution of uranium into the extractant was found to be more than that of thorium. The equilibration study of the extraction system, UO_2(NO_3)/4N HNO_3 – 10%TBP/Kerosene, was also investigated. Two extraction stages were calculated graphically from 100,000 ppm uranium concentration in feed solution input with 90% extraction efficiency and the flow ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase was adjusted to 1.0. For thorium impurity scrubbing process, 10% TBP in kerosene was loaded with uranium and minor thorium from uranyl nitrate solution prepared from yellowcake and was scrubbed with different low concentration nitric acid. The results showed that at nitric acid normality was lower than 1 N, uranium distributed well to aqueous phase. As conclusion, optimum nitric acid concentration for scrubbing process should not less than 1 N and diluted nitric acid or de-ionized water should be applied to strip uranium from organic phase in the final refining process. (author)

  11. Abnormal condition and events analysis for instrumentation and control systems. Volume 2: Survey and evaluation of industry practices. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKemy, S.; Marcelli, M.; Boehmer, N.; Crandall, D.

    1996-01-01

    The ACES Project was initiated to identify a cost-effective methodology for addressing abnormal conditions and events (ACES) in digital upgrades to nuclear power plant systems, as introduced by IEEE Standard 7-4.3.2-1993. Several methodologies and techniques currently in use in the defense, aerospace, and other communities for the assurance of digital safety systems were surveyed, and although several were shown to possess desirable qualities, none sufficiently met the needs of the nuclear power industry. This report describes a tailorable methodology for performing ACES analysis that is based on the more desirable aspects of the reviewed methodologies and techniques. The methodology is applicable to both safety- and non-safety-grade systems, addresses hardware, software, and system-level concerns, and can be applied in either a lifecycle or post-design timeframe. Employing this methodology for safety systems should facilitate the digital upgrade licensing process

  12. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    An assessment was conducted of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle-related areas, focusing on the nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. As a result of the study, a list of subject areas has been compiled as best representing the current content of an educational program. In addition to identifying subject areas, a set of course descriptions and reference materials has been developed around each subject. Each course description contains information regarding objectives, anticipated audience, and prerequisites and offers a suggested course outline. An initial modest program of implementation is recommended which would continue to concentrate on the Southeast as a target area

  13. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, the College of Engineering at the University of South Carolina has conducted an assessment of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle related areas. The study was initiated as a regional effort focusing on the concentration of nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. The project was envisioned as providing base line information for the eventual implementation of a program in line with the needs of the Southeast's nuclear community. Specific objectives were to establish the content of such a program and to determine those specialized features which would make the program most attractive and useful.

  14. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    An assessment was conducted of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle-related areas, focusing on the nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. As a result of the study, a list of subject areas has been compiled as best representing the current content of an educational program. In addition to identifying subject areas, a set of course descriptions and reference materials has been developed around each subject. Each course description contains information regarding objectives, anticipated audience, and prerequisites and offers a suggested course outline. An initial modest program of implementation is recommended which would continue to concentrate on the Southeast as a target area.

  15. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, the College of Engineering at the University of South Carolina has conducted an assessment of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle related areas. The study was initiated as a regional effort focusing on the concentration of nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. The project was envisioned as providing base line information for the eventual implementation of a program in line with the needs of the Southeast's nuclear community. Specific objectives were to establish the content of such a program and to determine those specialized features which would make the program most attractive and useful

  16. Safe China final report. Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of environmental protection and industrial safety in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, A.; Guntrum, R.; Liu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This document presents the results of the international technology transfer and cooperation project SafeChina (''Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of Environmental Protection and Industrial Safety in China'', www.safechina.risk-technologies.com). The purpose of the project was to build an education, training and certification infrastructure and to offer to Chinese engineers and other professionals the possibility to learn about the EU HSE practices and regulation and qualify as Environmental- and Safety engineers according to the EU criteria, guidelines and practice. The main partners in the project have been Steinbeis University Berlin/Steinbeis Transfer Institute Advanced Risk Technologies, and the OEG mbH (Deutsche lnvestitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH), subsidiary of KfW Banking Group, Germany. Main Chinese partners were Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection and Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing.

  17. Safe China final report. Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of environmental protection and industrial safety in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A.; Guntrum, R.; Liu, Y. (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    This document presents the results of the international technology transfer and cooperation project SafeChina (''Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of Environmental Protection and Industrial Safety in China'', www.safechina.risk-technologies.com). The purpose of the project was to build an education, training and certification infrastructure and to offer to Chinese engineers and other professionals the possibility to learn about the EU HSE practices and regulation and qualify as Environmental- and Safety engineers according to the EU criteria, guidelines and practice. The main partners in the project have been Steinbeis University Berlin/Steinbeis Transfer Institute Advanced Risk Technologies, and the OEG mbH (Deutsche lnvestitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH), subsidiary of KfW Banking Group, Germany. Main Chinese partners were Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection and Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing.

  18. Strategic issues and implications for the refining and marketing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffe, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Refiners have faced a challenging business environment for the past decade. During this period, the industry has made approximately $25 billion of capital expenditures primarily to comply with increased governmental mandates, faced highly volatile petroleum product prices and garnered a return to equity of only 5%. While worldwide and US refining capacity has been flat in recent years, demand for refined petroleum products has been on the upswing and domestic supplies have also increased due to improved US capacity utilization rates (76% in 1984 and 93% in 1994) and increased imports (gasoline sales up 11% since 1984). The result has been highly volatile and generally weak refining margins (net Gulf Coast crack spread ranging from ($.95)/bbl in 1984 to $1.84/bbl in 1990 and averaging $.81/bbl since 1984). In response to the sustained difficulties in the marketplace, one has recently witnessed some strategic realignment in the industry. Several of the integrated companies, frustrated with the required capital expenditures and meager returns, have decided to shed non-core, non-strategic refining assets. For the most part, these assets have been bought by independents at, by historical measures, very attractive terms. This paper will provide an overview of the economics of the refining business, discuss the recent trends in refinery M and A activity and summarize possible implications of the recent strategic realignment

  19. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems

  20. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  1. Mejora de la calidad en el servicio de atención al cliente final en una empresa industrial.

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcon Galarza, Patricia Roxana; Alarcon Galarza, Patricia Roxana

    2012-01-01

    El tema de este informe es “Mejora de la Calidad en el Servicio de Atención al Cliente Final en una Empresa Industrial” y utiliza para su desarrollo la matriz QFD (Quality Function Diployment). Se espera sea implementada con éxito en el Área de Atención al Cliente, de la empresa. El objetivo de esta investigación es la de conocer en principio la percepción actual de los clientes acerca del servicio recibido y la situación actual del área encargada de esta función y su relación con los clie...

  2. Potential radiological doses associated with the disposal of petroleum industry NORM via landspreading. Final report, September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Arnish, J.J.

    1998-12-01

    As a result of oil and gas production and processing operations, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate at elevated concentrations in by-product waste streams. The primary radionuclides of concern in NORM wastes are radium-226 of the uranium-238 decay series, and radium-228, of the thorium-232 decay series. The production waste streams most likely to be contaminated by elevated radium concentrations include produced water, scale, and sludge. Scales and sludges removed from production equipment often are disposed of by landspreading, a method in which wastes are spread over the soil surface to allow the hydrocarbon component of the wastes to degrade. In this study, the disposal of NORM-contaminated wastes by landspreading was modeled to evaluate potential radiological doses and resultant health risks to workers and the general public. A variety of future land use scenarios--including residential, industrial, recreational, and agricultural scenarios--were considered. The waste streams considered included scales and sludges containing NORM above background levels. The objectives of this study were to (1) estimate potential radiological doses to workers and the general public resulting from the disposal of NORM wastes by noncommercial landspreading activities and (2) analyze the effect of different land use scenarios on potential doses

  3. China's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Fridley, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article assesses the future for China's oil industry as the country makes the transition from a command economy to an international market. China has one of the world's biggest oil industries and recent years have seen much growth in exploration and development, refining capacity and trade. China is more and more dependent on oil imports and is now a major international player; it has attracted much outside investment. Diagrams show (i) how coal dominates other sources of energy in China; (ii) crude production 1977-1998; (iii) how Middle East crudes now dominate Chinese crude imports; (iv) the growth of petroleum demand in China; (v) the Chinese demand for petroleum products; (vi) the growth in transport fuels; (vii) Chinese product imports: import ban targeted diesel; (viii) crude imports favoured over product imports and (ix) refinery capacity and throughput. The changes are expected to result in further integration into international markets, increased transparency and a healthier oil business

  4. A note on public policy and innovation in the biomass-based industrial sector: lessons from the sugarcane industry in Brazil and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audinet, Pierre

    1995-01-01

    Several developing countries are implementing long-term, biomass-based industrialization policies. Sugarcane refining has come to represent over 1 per cent of GDP in Brazil and India. In the context of low international energy and raw material prices, and scarce investment funds, the viability of biomass-based industry cannot depend on one final product such as ethanol or sugar. There is an urgent need for diversification. Technology diffusion must be improved, and the impact of public policies thoroughly analysed. (author)

  5. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Overall objectives: To demonstrate the applicability of nuclear and related techniques in studies that may impact on human health, giving emphasis to the solution of problems that have been identified to be of high priority in national and international programmes for sustainable development. Specific objectives: To develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) of exposed and non-exposed persons; To development suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; To carry out workplace and personal monitoring of APM and characterise the health effects of such exposure in terms of the observed elemental concentration; To carry out tissue analyses of the workers so exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. Achievements: a) Specific industries not previously monitored in individual countries have been targeted in respect of pollution assessment. Some examples are: Stainless steel processing and construction; Galvanising industry; Zinc smelting operations; Mineral fertiliser industry. b) Validation of analytical techniques through quality control exercises: NAT-3 Interlaboratory comparison for the determination of trace and minor elements in urban dust artificially loaded on air filters; NAT-4 Proficiency test on selected trace elements in lyophilised urine and air filters. c) Capacity building through the establishment of new multidisciplinary teams, personnel training and laboratory expertise. d) The sampling procedures have been harmonised through: The application of the ''Gent'' sampler for APM collection, IAEA procedures and IUPAC guidelines for sampling and sample handling of hair, blood and urine. e) All participants performed surveys on targeted industries and selected pollutants. f) The scientific output of the CRP is materialised in various national and international

  6. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, M.; Rahola, T.; Bergman, R.; Bunzl, K.; Jaakkola, T.

    1999-08-01

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg -1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg -1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239+240 Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137 Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240 Pu and least for 90 Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239+240 Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90

  7. Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKimpson, Marvin G.

    2006-04-06

    This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion

  8. Refinement of Parallel and Reactive Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Back, R. J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We show how to apply the refinement calculus to stepwise refinement of parallel and reactive programs. We use action systems as our basic program model. Action systems are sequential programs which can be implemented in a parallel fashion. Hence refinement calculus methods, originally developed for sequential programs, carry over to the derivation of parallel programs. Refinement of reactive programs is handled by data refinement techniques originally developed for the sequential refinement c...

  9. Recovery of Spent Bleaching Earth From Palm Oil Refining Using Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman; Tuan Amran Tuan Abdullah; Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman; Nor Azwin Shukri; Selambakkanu, S.; Siti Fatahiyah Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Acid activated calcium montmorillonite clay or commonly referred to as bleaching clays is one type of clay used in physical refining of palm oil and it is prioritized in removing a variety of undesirable impurities which would otherwise impart colour, odour and taste to the refined product. Used-up bleaching clays or known as Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE) is considered as industrial waste and commonly dispose without any pretreatment. SBE usually contains considerable quantities of entrained oil that is quantified approximately to 30 to 40 %. The residual oil in these principal solid waste products can rapidly oxidize to the point of spontaneous ignition as a result of clay-catalyzed auto-oxidation reactions. Due to this fact, the disposal of SBE has become an environmental problem and pretreatment of SBE is very important. There are several studies on the residual oil removal from the SBE using heat treatment. Radiation generated from electron beam accelerator can supply high energy to break the C-C and C-H bond. It is expected that the removal of hydrocarbon will occurs at high rate compared to conventional heating. This research proposes the use of radiation on the recovery of SBE from palm oil refining waste. Evaluation of radiation effect on properties of SBE will be conducted to study the effectiveness of using radiation in the purification process. Finally, the material produced will be evaluated and characterized for regeneration and reuse purpose. (author)

  10. European oil refining: strategies for a competitive future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, James.

    1997-07-01

    European Oil Refining investigates how the industry came to be in crisis and what the future holds. As well as an extensive analysis of past and present market shifts, the report predicts likely future developments and their consequences for investors. The report reviews the European oil sector in a global context, calculates the cost to refiners of key environmental legislation, assesses the problems caused by changing product demand and crude supply, examines possible solutions to the problems of low margins and overcapacity, evaluates the key players' main strategies to increase their competitiveness, analyses the western European oil refining industry by country, details the refinery operations of the major countries of central and eastern Europe, profiles 15 of the major oil companies and estimates the increase in investment required as a result of legislative and demand changes. (author)

  11. The changing face of U.S. refining: Ominous notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    As environmental protection comes of age in the US, a complex series of structural changes is also expected - in enforcement bureaucracy, manufacturing, and in energy consumption. It is already quite obvious in the petroleum refining industry. A side effect may be the export of jobs. Buyouts and closures are expected, as is increased refined product import dependency. This issue updates expected changes in gasoline and distillate product requirements in the US, and reports some ominous statements from some of the oil industry's affected parties. This issue also presented the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Jan. 24, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Jan. 1992 edition

  12. Grain size refinement of inconel 718 thermomechanical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okimoto, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Inconel 718 is a Ni-Fe precipitation treated superalloy. It presents good thermal fatigue properties when the material has small grain size. The aim of this work is to study the grain size refinement by thermomechanical processing, through observations of the microstructural evolution and the influence of some of the process variables in the final grain size. The results have shown that this refinement occured by static recrystallization. The presence of precipitates have influenced the final grain size if the deformations are below 60%. For greater deformations the grain size is independent of the precipitate distribution in the matrix and tends to a limit size of 5 μm. (author)

  13. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  14. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

    1999-08-01

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution

  15. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Task 1 Improved Materials and Operation of Recuperators for Aluminum Melting Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Thekdi, Arvind; Meisner Roberta A.; Phelps, Tony; Willoughby, Adam W.; Gorog, J. Peter; Zeh, John; Ningileri, Shridas; Liu, Yansheng; Xiao, Chenghe

    2007-09-30

    Production of aluminum is a very energy intensive process which is increasingly more important in the USA. This project concentrated on the materials issues associated with recovery of energy from the flue gas stream in the secondary industry where scrap and recycled metal are melted in large furnaces using gas fired burners. Recuperators are one method used to transfer heat from the flue gas to the air intended for use in the gas burners. By preheating this combustion air, less fuel has to be used to raise the gas temperature to the desired level. Recuperators have been successfully used to preheat the air, however, in many cases the metallic recuperator tubes have a relatively limited lifetime – 6 to 9 months. The intent of this project was to determine the cause of the rapid tube degradation and then to recommend alternative materials or operating conditions to prolong life of the recuperator tubes. The first step to understanding degradation of the tubes was to examine exposed tubes to identify the corrosion products. Analyses of the surface scales showed primarily iron oxides rather than chromium oxide suggesting the tubes were probably cycled to relatively high temperatures to the extent that cycling and subsequent oxide spalling reduced the surface concentration of chromium below a critical level. To characterize the temperatures reached by the tubes, thermocouples were mounted on selected tubes and the temperatures measured. During the several hour furnace cycle, tube temperatures well above 1000°C were regularly recorded and, on some occasions, temperatures of more than 1100°C were measured. Further temperature characterization was done with an infrared camera, and this camera clearly showed the variations in temperature across the first row of tubes in the four recuperator modules. Computational fluid dynamics was used to model the flow of combustion air in the tubes and the flue gas around the outside of the tubes. This modeling showed the

  16. Data refinement for true concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Dongol

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of modern systems exhibit sophisticated concurrent behaviour, where several system components modify and observe the system state with fine-grained atomicity. Many systems (e.g., multi-core processors, real-time controllers also exhibit truly concurrent behaviour, where multiple events can occur simultaneously. This paper presents data refinement defined in terms of an interval-based framework, which includes high-level operators that capture non-deterministic expression evaluation. By modifying the type of an interval, our theory may be specialised to cover data refinement of both discrete and continuous systems. We present an interval-based encoding of forward simulation, then prove that our forward simulation rule is sound with respect to our data refinement definition. A number of rules for decomposing forward simulation proofs over both sequential and parallel composition are developed.

  17. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  18. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

    2007-12-31

    The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel

  19. Neoplastic changes in freshwater fishes: Correlation with oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrander, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, oil pollution has been viewed as single event, large scale disasters such as the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that by products and anthropogenic contaminants resulting from oil exploration, extraction, recovery, refining, and the manufacture and use of oil and oil-based products are negatively impacting the environment. Potential problems of freshwater pollution by oil contaminants are increasing in many parts of the world from both active and abandoned oil production facilities. In the USA many ''Superfund'' sites have been designated for cleanup under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980; primarily because of waste discharged on to the sites by the oil industry. Pollution of surface and groundwater from these sites has already occurred and in some cases has led to deleterious effects on the complex aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems on and near these sites. The effect of oil and oil related products on aquatic organisms will be reviewed. Specifically, the discussion will focus on preneoplastic and neoplastic changes in fishes with a primary endpoint of cancer. Finally, a summary of current studies of feral fishes residing on and near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma will be presented

  20. Refinement of the microstructure of steel by cross rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Kira; Arbuz, Alexandr; Gusseynov, Nazim; Nemkaeva, Renata; Ospanov, Nurlan; Krupen'kin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    One of the most effective ways for refinement of metal microstructure is a severe plastic deformation. The cross rolling is the one of most perspective methods of severe plastic deformation, because it allows to get the long billets, unlike equal angular pressing and other popular methods. This fact provides some industrial expectation for this method. However, deformation and motion path of the metal is very heterogeneous across the section of the rolled piece. This paper presents the finite element modeling of hot cross rolling of steel in the software package DEFORM-3D features implemented and studied the stress-strain state. An experimental study of the effect of the cross rolling on a three-roll mill on the microstructure of structural alloy steel and stainless steel AISI321 in different zones of the bar. Analysis of microsections made after rolling with high total stretch and the final pass temperature 700°C, shows the formation of equiaxial ultrafinegrain structure on the periphery of an elongated rod and “rolling” texture in the central zone. The resulting microstructure corresponds to that obtained in models of stress-strain state. Keywords: cross rolling, ultra-fine grain structure, steel.

  1. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin

    2011-01-01

    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple conventions...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  2. Process for refining shale bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauson, H

    1920-09-19

    A process is disclosed for refining shale bitumen for use as heavy mineral oil, characterized by mixtures of blown hard shale pitch and heavy mineral oil being blown with hot air at temperatures of 120 to 150/sup 0/ with 1 to 3 percent sulfur, and if necessary with 0.5 to 3 percent of an aldehyde.

  3. Panorama 2007: Refining and Petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2007-01-01

    The year 2005 saw a new improvement in refining margins that continued during the first three quarters of 2006. The restoration of margins in the last three years has allowed the refining sector to regain its profitability. In this context, the oil companies reported earnings for fiscal year 2005 that were up significantly compared to 2004, and the figures for the first half-year 2006 confirm this trend. Despite this favorable business environment, investments only saw a minimal increase in 2005 and the improvement expected for 2006 should remain fairly limited. Looking to 2010-2015, it would appear that the planned investment projects with the highest probability of reaching completion will be barely adequate to cover the increase in demand. Refining sector should continue to find itself under pressure. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady up-trend in the naphtha price, the restoration of margins consolidated a comeback that started in 2005. All in all, capital expenditure remained fairly low in both the refining and petrochemicals sectors, but many projects are planned for the next ten years. (author)

  4. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  5. National oil companies' presence to hike US refining competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the downstream segment of the U.S. petroleum business is virtually certain to become more competitive because of the growing presence of national oil companies in the country's refining industry. That's a forecast by New York investment firm Kidder Peabody. It cites a plan by Mexico's Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) to form a joint venture with Shell Oil Co. covering Shell's 225,000 b/d Deer Park, Tex., refinery as the latest example of national oil companies' movement into U.S. refining

  6. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassel, B. van

    1995-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage

  7. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassel, B. van [McKinsey and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage.

  8. Agribusiness Industry Study Final Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ascunce, Jorge; Burcham, Margaret; Couch, Kevin; Evans, Jason; Frisk, Amy; Graube, Raimonds; Halmrast-Sanchez, Tamra; Hoying, Donald; Kuchta, Michael; Lethin, Clarke

    2005-01-01

    .... The forces that are shaping this competition include: the integration of world agricultural markets, world-wide adoption of cutting edge technologies, and aggressive foreign government agricultural policies...

  9. Japan's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The present economic situation in Japan is discussed. In particular, the focus is on fluctuations in oil product demand, imports of crude oil, and the refining industry. Throughout the 1990s, Japan was plagued by a volatile economy and the new millennium has shown no improvement. A prolonged recession means that the country now has little confidence in its leaders and its institutions, consumer confidence is low and asset values have deflated. Due to a low birth rate and long life expectancy, the population is aging and this means lower savings rates. The contrast between the present situation and the so-called economic miracle once enjoyed by the Japanese is hard to accept, but despite all this, the Japanese lifestyle and economy are to be envied

  10. Panorama 2011: Refining: varying conditions by region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis has further weakened a sector that was already facing difficulties, if we look beyond the flush period (2005-2008) when, buoyed by strong demand, margins remained high and refiners could generate profits while maintaining a healthy level of activity. Falling demand and increased over-capacity in some regions - the immediate consequences of the deteriorating economic conditions over the past two years - have led to declining margins and to financial accounts being in the red. The adoption of increasingly stringent emissions standards and product specifications, burdensome regulatory requirements for refineries (for combating local pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emissions), stiffer competition from new fuels: all of these structural factors are weakening the sector, especially in industrialized nations with their more rigorous regulatory compliance. In this generally gloomy climate, numerous new projects are still being envisaged - although many have recently been postponed and tend to be concentrated in developing countries. (author)

  11. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil

  12. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.

    1996-01-01

    The yellow cake refining was studied in both laboratory and semi-pilot scales. The process units mainly consist of dissolution and filtration, solvent extraction, and precipitation and filtration. Effect of flow ratio (organic flow rate/ aqueous flow rate) on working efficiencies of solvent extraction process was studied. Detailed studies were carried out on extraction, scrubbing and stripping processes. Purity of yellow cake product obtained is high as 90.32% U 3 O 8

  13. Process for refining naphthalene, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, G

    1922-05-13

    A process is described for the refining of naphthalene, its distillates, and mineral oils by the use of dilute sulfuric acid, characterized in that the oils are oxidized with oxygen of the air and thereafter are treated with 65 to 75 percent sulfuric acid to separate the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the form of polymerized products whereby, if necessary, heating and application of usual or higher pressure can take place.

  14. Preparation of refined oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-02-03

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of refined sulfur-containing oils from sulfur-containing crude oils obtained by distillation of bituminous limestone, characterized by this crude oil being first subjected to a purification by distillation with steam in the known way, then treated with lime and chloride of lime and distilled preferably in the presence of zinc powder, whereby in this purification a rectification can be added for the purpose of recovering definite fractions.

  15. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, A. Michael; Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust,...

  16. Final Report for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects: 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join in this collaborative research. The

  17. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  18. A Macdonald refined topological vertex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Omar; Wu, Jian-Feng

    2017-07-01

    We consider the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al (2009 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP10(2009)069), as a function of two parameters ≤ft\\lgroup x, y \\right\\rgroup , and deform it by introducing the Macdonald parameters ≤ft\\lgroup q, t \\right\\rgroup , as in the work of Vuletić on plane partitions (Vuletić M 2009 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361 2789-804), to obtain ‘a Macdonald refined topological vertex’. In the limit q → t , we recover the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al and in the limit x → y , we obtain a qt-deformation of the original topological vertex of Aganagic et al (2005 Commun. Math. Phys. 25 425-78). Copies of the vertex can be glued to obtain qt-deformed 5D instanton partition functions that have well-defined 4D limits and, for generic values of ≤ft\\lgroup q, t\\right\\rgroup , contain infinite-towers of poles for every pole present in the limit q → t .

  19. Economic and industrial development. EID - EMPLOY. Final report. Task 1. Review of approaches for employment impact assessment of renewable energy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Nathani, Carsten; Resch, Gustav

    2011-11-15

    full picture of the impacts of RE deployment on the total economy - covering all economic activities like production, service and consumption (industries, households). To get the number of additional jobs caused by RE deployment, they compare a situation without RE (baseline or counterfactual) to a situation under a strong RE deployment. In a second step, we characterize the studies inter alia by their scope, activities and impacts and show the relevant positive and negative effects that are included in gross or net impact assessment studies. The effects are briefly described in Table 0-1. While gross studies mainly include the positive effects listed here, net studies in general include positive and negative effects. Third, we distinguish between methodological approaches assessing impacts. We observe that the more effects are incorporated in the approach, the more data are needed, the more complex and demanding the methodological approach becomes and the more the impacts capture effects of and in the whole economy - representing net impacts. A simple approach requires a few data and allows answering simple questions concerning the impact on the RE-industry - representing gross impacts. We identify six main approaches, three for gross and three for net impacts. They are depicted in Figure 0-2. The methodological approaches are characterized by their effects captured, the complexity of model and additional data requirement (besides data on RE investments, capacities and generation) as well as by their depicted impacts reflecting the economic comprehensiveness. A detailed overview of the diverse studies in table form is given in the Annex to this report. Finally, we suggest to elaborate guidelines for the simple EF-approach, the gross IO-modelling and net IO-modelling approach. The first approach enables policy makers to do a quick assessment on gross effects, while the second is a more sophisticated approach for gross effects. The third approach builds on the gross IO

  20. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  1. Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from soycake meal production in Ghana. ... yield of 83.3 per cent was recorded. Results of quality assessment of the final laboratory refined oil compared favourably with Ghana Standards Board's specification for edible soybean oil. Ghana Journal of Science Vol.

  2. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  3. Latin American oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Obadia, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the oil markets and refining in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, and examines the production of crude oil in these countries. Details are given of Latin American refiners highlighting trends in crude distillation unit capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and refining in the different countries. Latin American oil trade is discussed, and charts are presented illustrating crude production, oil consumption, crude refining capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and oil imports and exports

  4. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement is...

  5. Geographical and Occupational Mobility of Workers in the Aircraft and Electronics Industries, Regional Trade Union Seminar (Paris, 21st-22nd September, 1966). Final Report and Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Social Affairs Div.

    The trade unions in the European aerospace and electronics industries have become concerned with the sweeping and rapid economic and technical changes taking place in the industries. This seminar enabled trade union representatives from Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom aerospace industry and the electronics sector working…

  6. National Skills Standards Development Program: Organization and Operation of Technical Committees To Develop National Skill Standards for Competency in the Electronics Industry. The Third Party Summative Evaluation of the Electronic Industries Foundation Project. Phase I & II. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Charles

    The Electronics Industries Foundation was awarded a project to develop national entry-level standards and a certification system. Ten specialties were included: automotive electronics, avionics, biomedical electronics, business machines, consumer products electronics, general electronics, industrial electronics, instrumentation, microcomputer, and…

  7. Modeling and optimization of the european oil refining capacities and structures on the horizons 1995, 2000 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khebri, S.

    1993-04-01

    This thesis is a study on petroleum refining. In a first part, the author describes the existing refining processes and the structure of refining units, the structure of petroleum consumption and the interfaces with petroleum chemistry industry and gives a retrospect on world and european petroleum refining. In a second part, the author describes the models used to realize the simulation of supplies, market and refining scheme. Four scenarios are developed (conventional wisdom, driving into tensions, sustaining a high economic growth, high prices) and a forecasting on the horizons 1995, 2000 and 2010 is given. 54 refs

  8. Oil refining and product market developments in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.

    1991-01-01

    One political development in Europe that will affect the petroleum refining industry is the opening of a single market among the European Commission countries. Although the single market officially opens on January 1, 1993, a single market for energy will not happen at that time. Most European countries feel that refining is a strategic industry and adopt some form of protectionism in this sector. Environmental policy in Europe tends to be separate from energy policy, making conflicts in setting standards for emissions and fuel composition somewhat inevitable. For example, both environmental and energy policies favor a carbon tax on fuels; the EC environmental commission does not want to be seen as favoring nuclear power, so it favors penalizing all fuels about the same amount, while the energy commission says the carbon tax should be related to the fuel carbon content. A measure affecting the refining industry is the proposal for reducing sulfur in diesel fuel. By 1994 EC countries will have a common 0.2% standard and by 1996 a 0.05% standard for automotive diesel. To meet the latter standard, refineries will need upgrading at an estimated cost of US$4 billion. Another political consideration for the refining industry is whether eastern Europe should be part of the EC energy community. However, if there is a reluctance in the western European countries for a single western market, there is even less enthusiasm for an energy market that includes eastern Europe as well. In addition, there is a reluctance to accept that there should be a free flow of petroleum products from east to west

  9. FinalReport for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects:"High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Ian

    2009-09-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join

  10. Niobium-base grain refiner for aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pontes, P. da; Robert, M.H.; Cupini, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    A new chemical grain refiner for aluminium has been developed, using inoculation of a niobium-base compound. When a bath of molten aluminium is inoculated whith this refiner, an intermetallic aluminium-niobium compound is formed which acts as a powerful nucleant, producing extremely fine structure comparable to those obtained by means of the traditional grain refiner based on titanium and boron. It was found that the refinement of the structure depends upon the weight percentage of the new refiner inoculated as well as the time of holding the bath after inoculation and before pouring, but mainly on the inoculating temperature. (Author) [pt

  11. Refining in the 1990's: Restructuring and resurgence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    After two years of uncertainty in dealing with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments coupled with the shutdown of 5% of total US refining capacity, the industry is now positioning itself for continued operations throughout the remainder of the decade. However, refineries are experiencing a shift in the mode of operations to a period of more restructuring (closings, ventures, alliances, etc.) followed by a resurgence in financial performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current industry and highlight the reasons for industry's current plans. The authors also speculate about the strategies companies will choose to better their financial performance. Fundamentally, the characteristics of a mature domestic business remain the driving force that shape decision making. In responding to the maturing of refining, the authors suggest that refiners will change the way they conduct business over the next few years. Building on the theme of the 1993 NPRA paper, strategies will target the domestic side of the business while simultaneously shifting to a global perspective

  12. Rising costs call for new European refining strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.N.C.

    1993-01-01

    The outlook for the global refining industry is for increased spending and reduced margins, largely because of efforts to improve the environment. A look at these trends through the end of the decade is thus in order. Three major industry thrusts are proposed to see refiners through this uncertain period. Three main thrusts are necessary: fixed costs must be reduced by re-engineering business processes and reexamining noncore business units against total and marginal costs. In this respect the best refiners are well ahead of the good ones. New cooperative ways of meeting regulations must be sought, to avoid wasteful over capacity. Joint ventures and alliances with competitors will be needed. The cooperative principle upstream must be extended and new strategies must be sought to meet product demand changes and reduce feedstock costs. The picture that is presented is tough, largely because of the wish to improve the environment. The question that must be continually reviewed is ''Have governments got the right balance in these regulations between the environment and the downstream industry?''

  13. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting (RCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    The objectives of the CRP are to: (1) improve competence for research on workplace monitoring in terms of proper sampling and analytical procedures, (2) obtain relevant and reliable data on sources and levels of workplace pollution in various countries, (3) promote a better understanding of methods for the interpretation of such data including occupational heath studies, and (4) encourage closer collaboration between analytical scientists and researchers in the field of occupational health in the countries concerned. The CRP focuses on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for the following kinds of studies: (1) strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) sampling of exposed and non-exposed persons; (2) development of suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples; (3) workplace and personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter in the mining, refining and metal working industries, and the health effects of such exposure; and (4) tissue analysis of the workers exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. This report includes the core and supplementary programme of the CRP; technical aspects of sampling, analysis, data processing, and quality assurance; and organizational aspects. The report includes also 10 papers contributed by the participants. Each individual contribution was indexed and provided with an abstract. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting (RCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the CRP are to: (1) improve competence for research on workplace monitoring in terms of proper sampling and analytical procedures, (2) obtain relevant and reliable data on sources and levels of workplace pollution in various countries, (3) promote a better understanding of methods for the interpretation of such data including occupational heath studies, and (4) encourage closer collaboration between analytical scientists and researchers in the field of occupational health in the countries concerned. The CRP focuses on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for the following kinds of studies: (1) strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) sampling of exposed and non-exposed persons; (2) development of suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples; (3) workplace and personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter in the mining, refining and metal working industries, and the health effects of such exposure; and (4) tissue analysis of the workers exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. This report includes the core and supplementary programme of the CRP; technical aspects of sampling, analysis, data processing, and quality assurance; and organizational aspects. The report includes also 10 papers contributed by the participants. Each individual contribution was indexed and provided with an abstract

  15. Removal of C and SiC from Si and FeSi during ladle refining and solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klevan, Ole Svein

    1997-12-31

    The utilization of solar energy by means of solar cells requires the Si to be very pure. The purity of Si is important for other applications as well. This thesis mainly studies the total removal of carbon from silicon and ferrosilicon. The decarburization includes removal of SiC particles by stirring and during casting in addition to reduction of dissolved carbon by gas purging. It was found that for three commercial qualities of FeSi75, Refined, Gransil, and Standard lumpy, the refined quality is lowest in carbon, followed by Gransil and Standard. A decarburization model was developed that shows the carbon removal by oxidation of dissolved carbon to be a slow process at atmospheric pressure. Gas stirring experiments have shown that silicon carbide particles are removed by transfer to the ladle wall. The casting method of ferrosilicon has a strong influence on the final total carbon content in the commercial alloy. Shipped refined FeSi contains about 100 ppm total carbon, while the molten alloy contains roughly 200 ppm. The total carbon out of the FeSi-furnace is about 1000 ppm. It is suggested that low values of carbon could be obtained on an industrial scale by injection of silica combined with the use of vacuum. Also, the casting system could be designed to give low carbon in part of the product. 122 refs., 50 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. World petroleum refining capacity: Present and forecasted situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabarelli, D.

    1991-01-01

    World petroleum demand is expected to increase from about 15 million barrels to 80 million after the year 2000. The resulting necessity to increase the currently over-extended global refining capacity will put a significant burden on financial resources within the industry. This article examines the developments, after a decade of restructuring, which have led to the present situation of the petroleum industry described as having greatly improved operational conditions but beset by worrisome problems with regard not only to capacity, but also to the costly constraints being imposed by new air pollution regulations, especially those relevant to desulfurization in refinery processes

  17. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean (NatureWorks); Tom Schechinger (IronHorse Farms, Mat); Stuart Birrell (Iowa State); Jill Euken (Wallace Foundation & Iowa State)

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  18. Minerals industry survey 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh Minerals Industry Survey produced by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents an invaluable time series on the minerals industry's financial performance, as well as an up to date description of the industry for the latest financial year. The survey has been conceived as a supplement to and expansion of the various Australian Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics publications which describe the exploration, mining and smelting and refining industries in Australia. The tables in this survey have been prepared by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies.

  19. Structural change of the mining components supplying industry, and innovative employment and qualification policies. A special study prepared on behalf of IKS. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, B.

    1992-01-01

    The potentials and deficiencies of the mining components supplying industry are assessed by means of an industry study. Development prospects are derived for the mining sector. While individual solutions are neglected, methods which support the mining companies' efforts at diversifying and at opening up new markets are discussed placing emphasis on a sociocompatible implementation of the inevitable structural change and on the maintenance of a qualified industrial basis in communities dominated by the mining components supplying industry. The possibilities of cooperation between the companies are discussed, and conceivable future prospects are derived for the mining sector. (HS) [de

  20. Materials refining on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2007-05-01

    Oxygen, metals, silicon, and glass are raw materials that will be required for long-term habitation and production of structural materials and solar arrays on the Moon. A process sequence is proposed for refining these materials from lunar regolith, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. The fluorine is brought to the Moon in the form of potassium fluoride, and is liberated from the salt by electrolysis in a eutectic salt melt. Tetrafluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon by a plasma reduction stage; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O.

  1. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  2. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  3. Numerical analysis of impurity separation from waste salt by investigating the change of concentration at the interface during zone refining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ho-Gil; Shim, Moonsoo; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Yi, Kyung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    The waste salt treatment process is required for the reuse of purified salts, and for the disposal of the fission products contained in waste salt during pyroprocessing. As an alternative to existing fission product separation methods, the horizontal zone refining process is used in this study for the purification of waste salt. In order to evaluate the purification ability of the process, three-dimensional simulation is conducted, considering heat transfer, melt flow, and mass transfer. Impurity distributions and decontamination factors are calculated as a function of the heater traverse rate, by applying a subroutine and the equilibrium segregation coefficient derived from the effective segregation coefficients. For multipass cases, 1d solutions and the effective segregation coefficient obtained from three-dimensional simulation are used. In the present study, the topic is not dealing with crystal growth, but the numerical technique used is nearly the same since the zone refining technique was just introduced in the treatment of waste salt from nuclear power industry because of its merit of simplicity and refining ability. So this study can show a new application of single crystal growth techniques to other fields, by taking advantage of the zone refining multipass possibility. The final goal is to achieve the same high degree of decontamination in the waste salt as in zone freezing (or reverse Bridgman) method.

  4. A Study of the Aquaculture Industry in Texas to Assist in Establishing Aquaculture as a Course Offering in Agricultural Science and Technology. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, John; And Others

    A 1989-90 project determined the knowledge and skills necessary for employment in the aquaculture industry. The study identified technical materials and other resources available in private industry and higher education institutions. Two surveys determined the status of aquaculture in Texas school districts and identified tasks performed by…

  5. Singapore refiners in midst of huge construction campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Singapore's downstream capacity continues to mushroom. Singapore refiners, upbeat about long term prospects for petroleum products demand in the Asia-Pacific region, and are pressing plans to boost processing capacity. Their plans go beyond capacity expansions. They are proceeding with projects to upgrade refineries to emphasize production of higher value products and to further integrate refining capabilities wit the region's petrochemical industry. Planned expansion and upgrading projects at Singapore refineries call for outlays of more than $1 billion to boost total capacity to about 1.1 million b/d in 1993 and 1.27 million b/d by 1995. That would be the highest level since the mid-1980s, when refiners such as Shell Singapore cut capacity amid an oil glut. Singapore refineries currently are running at effective full capacity of 1.04 million b/d. Meanwhile, Singapore refiners are aggressively courting customers in the Indochina subcontinent, where long isolated centrally planned economies are turning gradually to free markets

  6. Oil Production, Refining and Transportation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbal A. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with fuel and energy complex of Canada as one of the largest manufacturers of primary energy in the world, which provides up to 6 percent of the world energy supply. Only the Russian Federation, PRC, the United States of America and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have larger production volumes. However, oil plays the most significant role in Canada's energy exports. It is estimated that its proven reserves are sufficient to meet the demand for 140 years at current production rate. The relevance of the study, including the analysis of fuel and energy complex of Canada, is due to the fact that such comparison and synthesis of data on the amount of recoverable oil reserves, the volume of its production, imports, exports and transit of oil and oil products, the distribution of oil for transportation (via pipelines, rail, sea, road, strategic oil field, refining and transportation of oil and oil products development projects, as well as implementation of Canada's best practices in the Russian Federation, is being developed for the first time. In addition, the data given in previously published articles on the subject, due to the dynamic development of the industry, are obsolete and do not reflect the real situation.

  7. Investment trends and perspectives for world refining; Tendencias de investimento e perspectivas para o refino mundial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinelli, Marcelo Santos; Pertusier, Rafael Resende [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This article tackles the refining industry in an economical view. The authors analyze structural and conjectural characteristics of activities related to refining sector, looking at recent market statistics and projections that illustrate their arguments. Thus, they aim to identify the refining evolution trends and investments patterns in the main international markets, paying some attention to the assets swaps between the refining majors. The conclusion points that there should be expected a convergence of consumption patterns and production profiles, together with new investments in reforming and treating units, desinvestments in simple plants in the changing strategic positioning scenario. There should not be expected a increase in supply flexibility; rather, a greater profile match. With a recovery in economic growth, the balance between supply and demand will permit refining agents to have better conditions to take advantage from conjectural market opportunities. (author)

  8. Refined geometric transition and qq-characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Mori, Hironori; Sugimoto, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    We show the refinement of the prescription for the geometric transition in the refined topological string theory and, as its application, discuss a possibility to describe qq-characters from the string theory point of view. Though the suggested way to operate the refined geometric transition has passed through several checks, it is additionally found in this paper that the presence of the preferred direction brings a nontrivial effect. We provide the modified formula involving this point. We then apply our prescription of the refined geometric transition to proposing the stringy description of doubly quantized Seiberg-Witten curves called qq-characters in certain cases.

  9. The brain of the refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Ordonez, Marbel

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows the kindness that in Colombia like in other refineries of the world, the decisions that take about the process that continues in a refinery to decide that products and under that condition they should be produced, they are based on a model of denominated programming PIMS process industry modeling system

  10. Automated knowledge-base refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, we have developed several systems for automatically refining incomplete and incorrect knowledge bases. These systems are given an imperfect rule base and a set of training examples and minimally modify the knowledge base to make it consistent with the examples. One of our most recent systems, FORTE, revises first-order Horn-clause knowledge bases. This system can be viewed as automatically debugging Prolog programs based on examples of correct and incorrect I/O pairs. In fact, we have already used the system to debug simple Prolog programs written by students in a programming language course. FORTE has also been used to automatically induce and revise qualitative models of several continuous dynamic devices from qualitative behavior traces. For example, it has been used to induce and revise a qualitative model of a portion of the Reaction Control System (RCS) of the NASA Space Shuttle. By fitting a correct model of this portion of the RCS to simulated qualitative data from a faulty system, FORTE was also able to correctly diagnose simple faults in this system.

  11. A method for refining oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruskin, Yu.A.; Gorokhov, V.V.; Kotler, L.D.; Kovalenko, N.F.; Spasskiy, Yu.B.; Titov, A.M.; Vlasenko, V.Ye.; Vytnov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for refining oil through its distillation with the isolation of directly distilled gases and a benzine fraction (BS) with the use of a benzine fraction pyrolysis, in order to increase the output of the lower olefines and to reduce the energy expenditures, the distillation is conducted with the isolation of 10 to 40 percent of the benzine fraction from its potential content along with the directly distilled gases. The obtained mixture of the remaining part of the benzine fraction is absorbed at a pressure of 1.5 to 6 atmospheres with the feeding of the obtained saturated absorbent to pyrolysis and subsequent mixing of the obtained pyrolysis gas with the unabsorbed product and their joint gas division. As compared to the known method, the proposed method makes it possible to reduce the energy expenditures which is achieved through a reduction in the volume of irrigation in the tower, and to increase the output of the olefines through processing of the steam and gas mixture of the benzine and the directly distilled gases.

  12. Nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Due to a great combination of physical and mechanical properties, beta titanium alloys have become promising candidates in the field of chemical industry, aerospace and biomedical materials. The microstructure of beta titanium alloys is the governing factor that determines their properties and performances, especially the size scale, distribution and volume fraction of precipitate phase in parent phase matrix. Therefore in order to enhance the performance of beta titanium alloys, it is critical to obtain a thorough understanding of microstructural evolution in beta titanium alloys upon various thermal and/or mechanical processes. The present work is focusing on the study of nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure and super-refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys in order to study the influence of instabilities within parent phase matrix on precipitates nucleation, including compositional instabilities and/or structural instabilities. The current study is primarily conducted in Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (wt%, Ti-5553), a commercial material for aerospace application. Refined and super-refined precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553 are obtained under specific accurate temperature controlled heat treatments. The characteristics of either microstructure are investigated in details using various characterization techniques, such as SEM, TEM, STEM, HRSTEM and 3D atom probe to describe the features of microstructure in the aspect of morphology, distribution, structure and composition. Nucleation mechanisms of refined and super-refined precipitates are proposed in order to fully explain the features of different precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553. The necessary thermodynamic conditions and detailed process of phase transformations are introduced. In order to verify the reliability of proposed nucleation mechanisms, thermodynamic calculation and phase field modeling simulation are accomplished using the database of simple binary Ti-Mo system

  13. Refining clean fuels for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courty, P.; Gruson, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    To which extent transportation fuels will reasonably be changed in the coming years? LPG and natural gas are expected to challenge conventional fuels, hydrogen and methanol are bounded to possible fuel cells development. Among others, security of supply, competitive economics and environmental protection issues will be the key to the changes in the coming years. But taking into account expected transportation development, liquid fuels from oil should prevail as the reference energy. Though most of technologies and catalysts needed for the future are still existing or under marketing plans, the industry has to cope with the growing share of middle distillates. Indeed future zero heavy fuel-oil refineries are technically feasible through many existing and recent technologies. However their potential profitability is weighed down deeply by the very high investments and operating costs which are tied up. Tomorrow's main gasoline challenges deal with sulfur in FCC gasoline, aromatics and olefins contents together with a possible ban of ethers, hampering future octane demand and its technical feasibility. In a similar way diesel oil issues for the future imply a very deep desulfurization with possible aromatics hydrogenation and rings opening in order to comply with cetane and poly-aromatics ratings. Natural gas upgrading via syngas chemistry is still expected to open the way to clean fuels for the future via improved and integrated FT's GTL technologies which could as a matter provide most of future increases in clean fuels demand without decreasing the related fatal carbon losses as CO 2 . As an overall view, clean fuels production for the future is technically feasible. Advanced hydro-refining and hydro-conversion technologies open the way to clean fuels and allow the best flexibility in the gasoline/middle distillates ratio. However cost reduction remains a key issue since the huge investments needed are faced with low and volatile refining margins. In addition, CO 2

  14. Italian refiners' environmental spending to soar in 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Industry estimates are that Italian refiners' capital outlays will total almost 12 trillion lire ($7.2 billion), in 1990 currencies, in the 1990's. Most spending will be earmarked to develop cleaner fuels and plant-specific environmental mitigation measures related to new European Community regulations. Italian refiners generally have lagged some of their counterparts in Europe and North America on environmental spending. That's because they have faced a continuing margin squeeze as a result of product prices remaining under tight government controls. Last year, the government began to implement price deregulation in line with EC directives. At the same time, the government is enforcing stiffer emissions rules to improve air quality in urban areas. The paper describes spending plans; demand for oxygenates; demand for low sulfur fuel oil for power plants; and price regulations

  15. Zeolites as Catalysts for Fuels Refining after Indirect Liquefaction Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno de Klerk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of zeolite catalysts for the refining of products from methanol synthesis and Fisher–Tropsch synthesis was reviewed. The focus was on fuels refining processes and differences in the application to indirect liquefaction products was compared to petroleum, which is often a case of managing different molecules. Processes covered were skeletal isomerisation of n-butenes, hydroisomerisation of n-butane, aliphatic alkylation, alkene oligomerisation, methanol to hydrocarbons, ethanol and heavier alcohols to hydrocarbons, carbonyls to hydrocarbons, etherification of alkenes with alcohols, light naphtha hydroisomerisation, catalytic naphtha reforming, hydroisomerisation of distillate, hydrocracking and fluid catalytic cracking. The zeolite types that are already industrially used were pointed out, as well as zeolite types that have future promise for specific conversion processes.

  16. Former Soviet Union's refining sector faces big shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The crisis gripping the refining sector in the former Soviet Union (FSU) is deepening as that industry faces massive rationalization and restructuring. Refinery runs in FSU republics have been on the decline for a number of years. Peak throughput occurred in 1987 at 9.69 million b/d. In Russia, however, the peak came in 1980 at 6.5 million b/d. Given current operable refining capacity in the FSU, now down to about 9.27 million b/d distributed among 48 refineries, capacity utilization will average only about 65% this year. The paper discusses worsening conditions, a comparison of the FSU declines, the financial crisis, energy consumption, and the focus of FSU refineries on secondary capacity to upgrade the product mix

  17. Management of wastes from the refining and conversion of uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is the outcome of an IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on ''Waste Management Aspects in Relation to the Refining of Uranium Ore Concentrates and their Conversion to Uranium Hexafluoride'', which was held in Vienna from 17 to 21 December 1979. The report summarizes the main topics discussed at the meeting and gives an overview of uranium refining processes, being used in nuclear industry. The meeting was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Radioactive Waste Management Section

  18. Pengaruh Degasser Dan Grain Refiner Terhadap Sifat Mekanik Paduan Al-Si Produk Cor

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanes, Glenn; Djamil, Sofyan

    2008-01-01

    Paduan aluminium banyak digunakan pada industri otomotif, seperti pada pembuatan velg dan komponen-komponen mesin. Studi pengaruh degasser dan grain refiner terhadap kekuatan tarik, kekuatan luluh, elongasi dan kekerasan, pada proses peleburan dibandingkan dengan atau tanpa menggunakan degasser dan grain refiner. Benda uji didapat dengan melebur blok mesin Mitsubishi L.300, menggunakan tungku listrik dan proses cor sistem cetakan terbuka. Hasil penelitian, meliputi kekuatan tarik, luluh, elon...

  19. Pengaruh Degasser dan Grain Refiner terhadap Sifat Mekanik Paduan Al-Si Produk Cor

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanes, Glenn; Djamil, Sofyan

    2009-01-01

    Paduan aluminium banyak digunakan pada industri otomotif, seperti pada pembuatan velg dan komponen-komponen mesin. Studi pengaruh degasser dan grain refiner terhadap kekuatan tarik, kekuatan luluh, elongasi dan kekerasan, pada proses peleburan dibandingkan dengan atau tanpa menggunakan degasser dan grain refiner. Benda uji didapat dengan melebur blok mesin Mitsubishi L.300, menggunakan tungku listrik dan proses cor sistem cetakan terbuka. Hasil penelitian, meliputi kekuatan tarik, luluh, elon...

  20. Discontinuous Galerkin discretization and hp-refinement for the resolution of the neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Damien; Le-Tellier, Romain; Herbin, Raphaele

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an hp-refinement method for a first order scalar transport reaction equation discretized by a discontinuous Galerkin method. First, the theoretical rates of convergence of h- and p-refinement are recalled and numerically tested. Then, in order to design some meshes, we propose two different estimators of the local error on the spatial domain. These quantities are analyzed and compared depending on the regularity of the solution so as to find the best way to lead the refinement process and the best strategy to choose between h- and p-refinement. Finally, the different possible refinement strategies are compared first on analytical examples and then on realistic applications for neutron transport in a nuclear reactor core. (authors)

  1. The new French uranium refining plant at Narbonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, J.

    1961-01-01

    In 1957 the Commissariat l'Energie Atomique in collaboration with two French industrial firms, the Compagnie de Saint-Gobain and the Societe Potasse et Engrais chimique, undertook the construction of a plant for the production of refined uranium on an industrial scale. This plant, which forms part of the French nuclear equipment programme and which works at a capacity of 1000 tons/year, was put into operation in July 1959. First of all the principles on which this under-taking is based are outlined. This is followed by a more detailed account of the construction, including the improvements brought to the process developed at the C.E.A. plant at le Bouchet when it was carried over to the industrial stage by the uranium branch of the Societe d'Etudes et de Travaux. (author) [fr

  2. Recent developments, new trends in seed crushing and oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kővári Katalin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil processing was considered as slowly changing “traditional” industry but the recent decades’ developments and trends resulted in a lot of changes initiated by market, industry, environment protection and consumer needs. Driving force of the developments were centralization of the industry, more and more concerns on environmental impact, increased importance of food-feed safety, and last but not least research and development activity together with improved analytical capabilities. The presentation gives an overview on the results achieved on the field of the following areas: the criteria of applicability of physical refining of seed oils, solutions for proper degumming, the effect of seed pretreatment and crushing conditions on the crude oil quality, the importance and role of bleaching and active carbon treatment, the proper practice of deacidification/deodorization.

  3. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  4. Comparing Syntactic and Semantics Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled configuration structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. The comparison is done by studying a process algebra equipped with

  5. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagiya, M.; Goltz, U.; Mitchell, J.C.; Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend

    1994-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  6. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert, E-mail: gerrit.vriend@radboudumc.nl [Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 26-28, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved.

  7. Refined large N duality for knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kameyama, Masaya; Nawata, Satoshi

    We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...

  8. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert

    2014-01-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ 1 and χ 2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ 1 and χ 2 values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved

  9. Refined Phenotyping of Modic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juhani H.; Karppinen, Jaro; Paananen, Markus; Bow, Cora; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) is the world's most disabling condition. Modic changes (MC) are vertebral bone marrow changes adjacent to the endplates as noted on magnetic resonance imaging. The associations of specific MC types and patterns with prolonged, severe LBP and disability remain speculative. This study assessed the relationship of prolonged, severe LBP and back-related disability, with the presence and morphology of lumbar MC in a large cross-sectional population-based study of Southern Chinese. We addressed the topographical and morphological dimensions of MC along with other magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes (eg, disc degeneration and displacement) on the basis of axial T1 and sagittal T2-weighted imaging of L1-S1. Prolonged severe LBP was defined as LBP lasting ≥30 days during the past year, and a visual analog scale severest pain intensity of at least 6/10. An Oswestry Disability Index score of 15% was regarded as significant disability. We also assessed subject demographics, occupation, and lifestyle factors. In total, 1142 subjects (63% females, mean age 53 years) were assessed. Of these, 282 (24.7%) had MC (7.1% type I, 17.6% type II). MC subjects were older (P = 0.003), had more frequent disc displacements (P disability. The strength of the associations increased with the number of MC. This large-scale study is the first to definitively note MC types and specific morphologies to be independently associated with prolonged severe LBP and back-related disability. This proposed refined MC phenotype may have direct implications in clinical decision-making as to the development and management of LBP. Understanding of these imaging biomarkers can lead to new preventative and personalized therapeutics related to LBP. PMID:27258491

  10. Refinement of boards' role required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbdenstock, R J

    1987-01-01

    The governing board's role in health care is not changing, but new competitive forces necessitate a refinement of the board's approach to fulfilling its role. In a free-standing, community, not-for-profit hospital, the board functions as though it were the "owner." Although it does not truly own the facility in the legal sense, the board does have legal, fiduciary, and financial responsibilities conferred on it by the state. In a religious-sponsored facility, the board fulfills these same obligations on behalf of the sponsoring institute, subject to the institute's reserved powers. In multi-institutional systems, the hospital board's power and authority depend on the role granted it by the system. Boards in all types of facilities are currently faced with the following challenges: Fulfilling their basic responsibilities, such as legal requirements, financial duties, and obligations for the quality of care. Encouraging management and the board itself to "think strategically" in attacking new competitive market forces while protecting the organization's traditional mission and values. Assessing recommended strategies in light of consequences if constituencies think the organization is abandoning its commitments. Boards can take several steps to match their mode of operation with the challenges of the new environment. Boards must rededicate themselves to the hospital's mission. Trustees must expand their understanding of health care trends and issues and their effect on the organization. Boards must evaluate and help strengthen management's performance, rather than acting as a "watchdog" in an adversarial position. Boards must think strategically, rather than focusing solely on operational details. Boards must evaluate the methods they use for conducting business.

  11. The oil and petroleum industry. 20. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This financial survey is a compilation of financial and marketing data on oil and petroleum industry companies in the United Kingdom. It includes quoted companies in the production and distribution industry, unquoted companies in the exploration and production industry, unquoted companies in the refining and distribution industry, a geographical index and an alphabetical index. (UK)

  12. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  13. Petroleum industry in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  14. Investigation of freeze concentration as a process for industrial energy conservation in black liquor, acetic acid, and citrus juice applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    One of the largest consumers of energy in industrial processing is the equipment that concentrates weak aqueous solutions to stronger more sellable or reusable concentrations. The technical and economic feasibility of applying freeze concentration (that is, crystallization and removal from solution of pure solvent - water) as an alternative to heat evaporation (or distillation) to three industrial applications is established. For each of the applications - pulp mill black liquor concentration, acetic acid recovery and orange juice concentration - the economic analyses indicate that the energy savings achievable by freezing justify the respective capital investments with pay out periods of generally one to three years. Past freeze concentration operations have been in the 10,000 to 100,000 gallons per day range for sea water desalination. Research and development work will be required to adapt this work to the three industrial applications.

  15. A National Assistance Extension Program for Metal Casting: a foundation industry. Final report for the period February 16, 1994 through May 15, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The TRP award was proposed as an umbrella project to build infrastructure and extract lessons about providing extension-enabling services to the metal casting industry through the national network of Manufacturing Technology Center`s (MTC`s). It targeted four discrete task areas required for the MCC to service the contemplated needs of industry, and in which the MCC had secured substantial involvement of partner organizations. Task areas identified included Counter-Gravitational Casting, Synchronous Manufacturing, Technology Deployment, and Facility and Laboratory Improvements. Each of the task areas includes specific subtasks which are described.

  16. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  17. Education Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    themes: No Child Left Behind Act reauthorization, international competitiveness, and recruiting and retention of quality teachers. The US education ...industry stakeholders and require difficult choices. A more centralized education system has many advantages , and the US should move in that direction...between math and science skills, innovation and creativity, and international education , as all these areas are integral to future success. Finally

  18. Petroleum industry 1996; L`industrie petroliere 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector`s companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  19. Petroleum industry 1996; L`industrie petroliere 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector`s companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  20. Career Progression Systems in the Internal Labor Market of the Foodservice Industry and the Role of the National Restaurant Association. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leonard; Pezzullo, Caroline

    The lack of visible career paths was universally recognized as a major factor leading to the extraordinarily high rate of turnover and absenteeism in the foodservice industry. The report evaluates the potential of a National Trade Association as a vehicle for improvements in this area and focuses on National Restaurant Association (NRA) efforts in…

  1. Application of solar energy to the supply of industrial process hot water. Aerotherm final report, 77-235. [Can washing in Campbell Soup plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the Solar Industrial Process Hot Water Program are to design, test, and evaluate the application of solar energy to the generation and supply of industrial process hot water, and to provide an assessment of the economic and resource benefits to be gained. Other objectives are to stimulate and give impetus to the use of solar energy for supplying significant amounts of industrial process heat requirements. The plant selected for the design of a solar industrial process hot water system was the Campbell Soup facility in Sacramento, California. The total hot water demand for this plant varies between 500 and 800 gpm during regular production shifts, and hits a peak of over 1,000 gpm for approximately one hour during the cleanup shift. Most of the hot water is heated in the boiler room by a combination of waste heat recovery and low pressure (5 psi) steam-water heat exchangers. The hot water emerges from the boiler room at a temperature between 160/sup 0/F and 180/sup 0/F and is transported to the various process areas. Booster heaters in the process areas then use low pressure (5 psi) or medium pressure (20 psi) steam to raise the temperature of the water to the level required for each process. Hot water is used in several processes at the Campbell Soup plant, but the can washing process was selected to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar hot water system. A detailed design and economic analysis of the system is given. (WHK)

  2. Adaptation of Rural and Foreign Workers to Industry, International Joint Seminar (Wiesbaden, December 10-13, 1963). Final Report. International Seminars 1963-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Social Affairs Div.

    The major purpose of a seminar held in Wiesbaden, Germany, was to exchange experiences and views on the methods of expediating adjustment of rural and foreign workers to industry. Major presentations for discussion were "Internal Migration" by Magda Talamo, and "International Migration" by Elie Dimitras. Some conclusions were:…

  3. Development and evaluation of dosimeters from locally available perspex for high dose measurement in industrial radiation processing. Final report for the period December 1985 - December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, R.

    1989-11-01

    The objective of the study was to find, develop and evaluate suitable low cost perspex materials to be used as routine dosemeters for high dose measurements, particularly in industrial radiation processing. Red, amber and white perspex materials of local origin were investigated for their dosimetric properties and evaluated against Harwell red perspex, Fricke and ethanol-monochlorobenzene dosemeters. 5 refs, 13 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Development and evaluation of dosimeters from locally available perspex for high dose measurement in industrial radiation processing. Final report for the period December 1985 - December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, R [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Food and Radiation Biology

    1989-11-01

    The objective of the study was to find, develop and evaluate suitable low cost perspex materials to be used as routine dosemeters for high dose measurements, particularly in industrial radiation processing. Red, amber and white perspex materials of local origin were investigated for their dosimetric properties and evaluated against Harwell red perspex, Fricke and ethanol-monochlorobenzene dosemeters. 5 refs, 13 figs, 5 tabs.

  5. Nanotechnology in the environment industry : opportunities and trends[Final report and bibliography for the nano-environmental cross-sector initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, K. [DK3 Scientific Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Backs, S.; Janzen, K. [SynchroComm Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Theriault, Y. [CHI 3 Consulting Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-03-04

    Extensive oil and gas production in Alberta has resulted in contaminated soil at several thousand well sites. The petrochemical infrastructure and industrial development has also contributed to other site contamination challenges. Alberta's Nano-Environmental Cross Sector Initiative was launched to help remediate existing environmental pollutants and to reduce or prevent future pollution problems, particular in areas of immediate interest to Alberta industry such as soil remediation, water purification, desalination, and high-sensitivity chemical sensors for field use. This presentation discussed the potential for nanotechnology to provide enabling technologies for wastewater and hazardous waste management, resource recovery, pollution prevention, green manufacturing and energy efficiency. A search of the United States patent database was conducted for relevant nanotechnologies and a review was conducted of primary scientific literature. Members of the Environmental Services Association of Alberta (ESAA) were surveyed to determine the current status of nanotechnology awareness and implementation within the Alberta environmental industry. Current products and precommercialization of nanotechnology for the environmental industry were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. The Effects of Television Advertising on Children. Report No. 4: Attitudes of Industry Executives, Government Officials and Consumer Critics Toward Children's Advertising. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Charles K.; Culley, James

    This report, the fourth in a series of six reports on television advertising and children, describes attitudes toward children's television advertising held by industry executives, government officials, and consumer critics. The accuracy with which each group perceives the positions of the other parties involved is also assessed. Data were…

  7. NDEA Institute for Advanced Study in Industrial Arts. (Detroit, June 24-August 2, 1968). Final Report. Integration of Fluid Power Instruction into Energy and Propulsion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Leslie H.; Wolansky, William D.

    The institute was designed to provide industrial arts teachers with updating experiences in fluid power education. It had four educational phases: technical instruction, directed field experiences, teaching strategies, and professional development. The latter involved meeting with participants in two other institutes. Twenty-one participants were…

  8. Panorama 2011: Water in fuel production Oil production and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabzar, L.

    2011-01-01

    Water plays a vital role in the production of fuels. Against a background of extremely high pressure to do with the need to protect the environment, better manage energy use and operate in a socially responsible manner - as well as the need to protect water as a resource and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water management has become a major issue for the oil industry. These issues have all more or less been factored into the integrated water management programmes which have been introduced both in oil production and oil refining. These programmes have been designed to keep waste and emissions to a minimum, and to reduce the quantities of water required. (author)

  9. Colombia defines innovative plans for refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    Ecopetrol plans to increase capacity at its Cartagena refinery to 140,000 barrels per day until 2002. The new production will be for basic streams to supply and stimulate new industries in the petrochemical sector. Investment has concentrated on exploration and production and far less on the rest of the oil sector, but now Ecopetrol will be new financing plans to develop refining in keeping with government guidelines. The Ecopetrol Board approved the development plan for the Cartagena Refinery, this consist of increasing capacity

  10. Petroleum refining. 5, refinery operation and management; Le raffinage du petrole. 5. Exploitation et gestion de la raffinerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favennec, J.P. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    In this volume, the reader will find: an analysis of the refining industry's current environment and economics, including the importance of crude oil, the demand for petroleum products, markets and price setting mechanisms for crude oil and oil products, refining costs and margins, the evolution of the refining capacity and of constraints on the industry; a review of the tools available for optimising and controlling operations; an explanation of material balance management and a description of refinery management and organisation. Contents: I. Background to refining. 1. Oil and Energy. 2. Petroleum products applications, characteristics, markets. 3. International oil markets. 4. Refining: a technical summary investments, margins, costs probable future developments. II. Refining tools. 5. Introduction to linear programming as used in the refining industry. 6. Application of linear programming to refining. 7. Automation, process control and information technology. 8. Applications and their implementation. III. Management and organisation. 9. Management and optimisation of refinery operations. 10. Logistics: transport and dispatch. 11. Functional and organisational analysis. 12. Managerial aspects. Glossary. Index. (author)

  11. Protein Structure Refinement by Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Martin

    on whether the three-dimensional structure of a homologous sequence is known. Whether or not a protein model can be used for industrial purposes depends on the quality of the predicted structure. A model can be used to design a drug when the quality is high. The overall goal of this project is to assess...... that correlates maximally to a native-decoy distance. The main contribution of this thesis is methods developed for analyzing the performance of metrically trained knowledge-based potentials and for optimizing their performance while making them less dependent on the decoy set used to define them. We focus...... being at-least a local minimum of the potential. To address how far the current functional form of the potential is from an ideal potential we present two methods for finding the optimal metrically trained potential that simultaneous has a number of native structures as a local minimum. Our results...

  12. Optimizing refiner operation with statistical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Research Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)

    1997-02-01

    The impact of refining conditions on the energy efficiency of the process and on the handsheet quality of a chemi-mechanical pulp was studied as part of a series of pilot scale refining trials. Statistical models of refiner performance were constructed from these results and non-linear optimization of process conditions were conducted. Optimization results indicated that increasing the ratio of specific energy applied in the first stage led to a reduction of some 15 per cent in the total energy requirement. The strategy can also be used to obtain significant increases in pulp quality for a given energy input. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Russian refining shows signs of revival, needs investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.S.; Avgerinos, G.F.; Dvorets, N.L.; Tyukov, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Russian refining industry appears ready for a comeback but needs investment from abroad. After 7 years of annual decline, output of petroleum products in the former Soviet Union (FSU), most of it from Russian refineries, is estimated to have dropped marginally last year. And an increase is possible this year. In 1994, Russia's refineries, which account for two thirds of total FSU distillation capacity, yielded 176.2 million metric tons of oil products, compared with 214.1 million tons in 1993. Despite the precipitous decline in refinery production, net FSU exports oil refined products were down only 5% in 1994 at about 51.3 million tons. This occurred despite the decline in refinery production because of sizable contraction in oil consumption in Russian and the other republics. Russia, like the rest of the FSU, needs more than loans to produce oil or restore wells. According to the Ministries of Economics and Fuels and Energy, 90% of Russian enterprises need foreign capital. Investments to rebuild refining, gas processing, and petrochemicals are necessary, as are funds for modern technologies and equipment. Capital also is needed for extraction of resources that are remotely located or difficult to produce. In addition to providing a legal structure that provides a solid basis for investment, Russian must promote competition, change its tax system to raise revenue but allow companies to retain profits, and remove disincentives to investment for domestic and foreign enterprises

  14. Investment in exploration-production and refining 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Serbutoviez, Sylvain; Silva, Constancio; Maisonnier, Guy

    2014-11-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2014 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: 1 - Changes in oil and gas prices: General background: weak economy and global disorder, Oil prices: fundamentals that could help to relax oil prices?, Gas prices: fall in Europe, stability in Japan, increase in the US; 2 - Exploration and production - Slowdown in growth: moderate rise in investment in 2014, exploration - Discoveries in 2014, Russia: sanctions will have limited short term impact, implications of the reforms to the Mexican energy sector; 3 - Drilling activity and market throughout the world: onshore and offshore drilling (Number of wells drilled throughout the world, Number of onshore wells, Number of offshore wells, Drilling, equipment and well services markets, Onshore drilling market, Offshore drilling market, Fracking market), Geophysical activity and the geophysical market, Offshore construction activity and the offshore construction market (Offshore construction activities, Rig construction activity, Floating Platform Systems (FPS), Sub-sea constructions, Offshore construction market); 4 - Refining - Significant increase in spending: increase in industrial costs, a slowdown in the increase in excess capacity in the future?, A bleak future for the european refining sector

  15. Assessment for development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low-grade fuels. Final report, October 18, 1989--February 28, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundback, C.

    1995-05-01

    The ultimate goal of this program was to demonstrate safe, reliable, and effective operation of the supercritical water oxidation process (SCWO) at a pilot plant-level throughput. This program was a three phase program. Phase 1 of the program preceded MODEC's participation in the program. MODEC did participate in Phases 2 and 3 of the program. In Phase 2, the target waste and industry were pulp mill sludges from the pulp and paper industry. In Phase 3, the target was modified to be DOE-generated mixed low level waste; wastes containing RCRA hazardous constituents and radionuclide surrogates were used as model wastes. The paper describes the research unit planning and design; bench-scale development of SCWO; research and development of wet oxidation of fuels; and the design of a super-critical water pilot plant

  16. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A

  17. LDRD final report for improving human effectiveness for extreme-scale problem solving : assessing the effectiveness of electronic brainstorming in an industrial setting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2008-09-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming in order to address difficult, real world challenges. While industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term, laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The present experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges over the course of four days. Employees and contractors at a national security laboratory participated, either in a group setting or individually, in an electronic brainstorm to pose solutions to a 'wickedly' difficult problem. The data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p<0.05) out-performed the group working together. When idea quality is used as the benchmark of success, these data indicate that work-relevant challenges are better solved by aggregating electronic individual responses, rather than electronically convening a group. This research suggests that industrial reliance upon electronic problem solving groups should be tempered, and large nominal groups might be the more appropriate vehicle for solving wicked corporate issues.

  18. Evaluation of energy efficient techniques in the wood working and wood processing industry. Final report THERMIE - Action no. DIS-0059-95-DE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Digutsch, O.; Frey, G. v. [and others

    1997-05-01

    With the entrance of Austria, Finland and Sweden in the European Union beginning of 1995 the pattern of industrial energy consumption has changed considerably in some branches which are large energy consumers in the Northern countries. The wood working and wood processing industry is one of those branches. It comprises the preparation of wood from primary processing in sawmills up to the production of finished products, and is highly energy-intensive although to a somewhat smaller extent than the large energy consumers such as the iron and steel production or glass manufacturing. It can further be assumed that official statistics underestimate the real importance of the energy consumption in the wood sector because most official statistics do not indicate waste wood as a fuel. Waste wood is a renewable fuel and has as such not the same impact in terms of CO{sub 2}-emissions as fossil fuels. Nevertheless, renewable energy sources should be also used efficiently because they can replace fossil fuels for other purposes. The objective of this study on the wood sector were to analyse and summarise the present status of energy consumption in the fifteen countries of the EU and the two EFTA countries Norway and Switzerland, to evaluate present day energy technology in the wood industry, and to investigate existing application barriers to these techniques in order to inform, support and to motivate small and medium-sized companies in particular, thus simulating the wide spread use of such techniques. (orig./SR)

  19. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A.

  20. Investigations of biofilms in the sewerage system of a highly contaminated industrial and mining area for the localization of heavy metal sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichos, C.; Singliar, U.

    1993-02-01

    The high heavy metal loading of the river Freiberger Mulde is largely caused by contaminations arising from the drainage area of the town of Freiberg. The diffuse input from the dewatering surface likely makes an important contribution to this pollution. The elimination of the reasons for the pollutant input into the sewerage and, thus, for the extremely high contamination of the sewage sludges requires a localization of sources and transport ways. For this purpose the method of investigation of biofilms on the sewer surface can be applied as a reliable method. For the industrial and mining area of Freiberg besides the different branches of industry especially the secondary emissions from deposits of old mining and metallurgical plants as well as from the extremely loaded surface of soil play an important role. The investigation of sewerage biofilms in the area considered have shown that the input of nickel and tin into the sewer is mainly caused by industry. Sources of zinc and copper above all are domestic wastewaters, whereas lead is originated from the surface run-off. Especially high pollutions of arsen and cadmium were found obviously arising from mining and production scraps. The results obtained should be the basis of activities for definite interruption of the pollutant input into the sewer system. They are a contribution to the restoration of the hydrographical network of Mulde/Elbe. (orig.) [de

  1. Final report of phase 2 'Mini-cogeneration in the flower bulb industry'; Eindrapportage Fase 2 'Mini-WKK in de bloembollensector'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolwijk, E. [Cogen Projects, Driebergen-Rijsenburg (Netherlands); Smailbegovic, N. [SenterNovem, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    Phase 2 of the project 'mini-cogeneration in the flower bulb industry' is the sequel to the report 'mini-cogeneration in the flower bulb industry. Use of cogeneration in the cultivation and hot bed of tulip and hyacinth', Addressing the incentivisation of the use of cogeneration in the sector and working toward realizing a number of demonstration projects. To this end it is necessary that potential investors are given insight in the feasibility of cogeneration at their business and that their enthusiasm is kindled for the use of cogeneration. This was done by disseminating information in the flower bulb industry about the opportunities of cogeneration and by informing growers about technique, economy and points of interest. [Dutch] Fase 2 van het project 'Mini- WKK in de bloembollensector' is een vervolg op het rapport 'Mini-wkk in de bloembollensector. Toepassing van wkk bij teelt en broei van tulp en hyacint' en richt zich op het stimuleren van de toepassing van WKK in de sector en toewerken naar realisatie van een aantal demonstratieprojecten. Daartoe is het noodzakelijk dat potentiele investeerders inzicht krijgen over de haalbaarheid van WKK op hun bedrijf en geenthousiasmeerd worden voor het gebruik van WKK. Dit is gedaan door informatie in de bollensector te verspreiden over de mogelijkheden van WKK en telers te informeren over techniek, economie en aandachtspunten.

  2. Refinement for Transition Systems with Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the response pattern for property specifications and applications within flexible workflow management systems, we report upon an initial study of modal and mixed transition systems in which the must transitions are interpreted as must eventually, and in which implementations can contain may behaviors that are resolved at run-time. We propose Transition Systems with Responses (TSRs as a suitable model for this study. We prove that TSRs correspond to a restricted class of mixed transition systems, which we refer to as the action-deterministic mixed transition systems. We show that TSRs allow for a natural definition of deadlocked and accepting states. We then transfer the standard definition of refinement for mixed transition systems to TSRs and prove that refinement does not preserve deadlock freedom. This leads to the proposal of safe refinements, which are those that preserve deadlock freedom. We exemplify the use of TSRs and (safe refinements on a small medication workflow.

  3. Development of a Refined Staff Group Trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quensel, Susan

    1999-01-01

    .... As a follow-on effort to the previous SGT project, the goal was to refine a brigade-level staff training program to more effectively and efficiently coordinate the activities within and between the...

  4. China's refiners face massive overhaul, expansion to meet demand growth, new crude slate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    China's refining industry has embarked on a massive overhaul and expansion to accommodate soaring domestic growth in refined products demand. Currently that growth in demand is being met by increasing imports of refined products, in recent years attaining triple digit growth rates and squeezing direly needed foreign exchange. The focus is on adding refining capacity of about 1.4 million b/d to the current capacity of about 3.2 million b/d by 2000. Priority for increasing capacity is being given to expanding existing refineries and participating in foreign joint venture grassroots refineries along China's booming coastal regions as well as hiking output. A major challenge for China's refineries is that country's reentry into the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), recently signed in Morocco by more than 100 nations. The accompanying reduction of tariffs on imported refined products will make it more difficult for China's marginal refineries to compete in the domestic market. The paper discusses imports and exports, LPG outlook, refining capacity, revamps needed, third party processing, China's first joint venture refinery, industry plans, and GATT challenges

  5. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report proposes an overview of facts, events and data concerning the world oil and gas markets, the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, the challenges of gas European supplies, the exploration and production in France, the oil and oil-related industry, hydrocarbons imports, the refining activity in France, fuel quality, alternative fuels, the domestic transportation of oil products, gas infrastructures, the storage of oil products, the consumption of oil and gas products, taxes on hydrocarbons, prices for the final consumer, and the prices of oil products

  6. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are provided for under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning refining business in the enforcement order for the law. The basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose, accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area and employee. Refining facilities listed in the application for designation shall be classified into clushing and leaching, thickning, refining facilities, storage facilities of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, disposal facilities of contaminated substances and building for refining, etc. Business program attached to the application shall include expected time of beginning of refining, estimated production amount of nuclear source materials or nuclear fuel materials for the first three years and funds necessary for construction, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods on delivery and storage of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, control of radiation, maintenance and accidents of refining facilities. Safety securing, application of internationally regulated substances and measures in dangerous situations are stipulated respectively. Exposure dose of employees and other specified matters shall be reported by the refiner yearly to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  7. Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronche, A.; Greer, A. L.

    The efficiency of a grain refiner can be quantified as the number of grains per nucleant particle in the solidified product. Even for effective refiners in aluminium, such as Al-5Ti-1B, it is known from experiments that efficiencies are very low, at best 10-3 to 102. It is of interest to explore the reasons for such low values, and to assess the prospects for increased efficiency though design of refiners. Recently it has been shown [1] that a simple recalescence-based model can make quantitative predictions of grain size as a function of refiner addition level, cooling rate and solute content. In the model, the initiation of grains is limited by the free growth from nucleant particles, the size distribution of which is very important. The present work uses this model as the basis for discussing the effect of particle size distribution on grain refiner performance. Larger particles (of TiB2 in the case of present interest) promote greater efficiency, as do narrower size distributions. It is shown that even if the size distribution could be exactly specified, compromises would have to be made to balance efficiency (defined as above) with other desirable characteristics of a refiner.

  8. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  9. Morse Set Classification and Hierarchical Refinement Using Conley Index

    KAUST Repository

    Guoning Chen,; Qingqing Deng,; Szymczak, A.; Laramee, R. S.; Zhang, E.

    2012-01-01

    Morse decomposition provides a numerically stable topological representation of vector fields that is crucial for their rigorous interpretation. However, Morse decomposition is not unique, and its granularity directly impacts its computational cost. In this paper, we propose an automatic refinement scheme to construct the Morse Connection Graph (MCG) of a given vector field in a hierarchical fashion. Our framework allows a Morse set to be refined through a local update of the flow combinatorialization graph, as well as the connection regions between Morse sets. The computation is fast because the most expensive computation is concentrated on a small portion of the domain. Furthermore, the present work allows the generation of a topologically consistent hierarchy of MCGs, which cannot be obtained using a global method. The classification of the extracted Morse sets is a crucial step for the construction of the MCG, for which the Poincar index is inadequate. We make use of an upper bound for the Conley index, provided by the Betti numbers of an index pair for a translation along the flow, to classify the Morse sets. This upper bound is sufficiently accurate for Morse set classification and provides supportive information for the automatic refinement process. An improved visualization technique for MCG is developed to incorporate the Conley indices. Finally, we apply the proposed techniques to a number of synthetic and real-world simulation data to demonstrate their utility. © 2006 IEEE.

  10. Morse Set Classification and Hierarchical Refinement Using Conley Index

    KAUST Repository

    Guoning Chen,

    2012-05-01

    Morse decomposition provides a numerically stable topological representation of vector fields that is crucial for their rigorous interpretation. However, Morse decomposition is not unique, and its granularity directly impacts its computational cost. In this paper, we propose an automatic refinement scheme to construct the Morse Connection Graph (MCG) of a given vector field in a hierarchical fashion. Our framework allows a Morse set to be refined through a local update of the flow combinatorialization graph, as well as the connection regions between Morse sets. The computation is fast because the most expensive computation is concentrated on a small portion of the domain. Furthermore, the present work allows the generation of a topologically consistent hierarchy of MCGs, which cannot be obtained using a global method. The classification of the extracted Morse sets is a crucial step for the construction of the MCG, for which the Poincar index is inadequate. We make use of an upper bound for the Conley index, provided by the Betti numbers of an index pair for a translation along the flow, to classify the Morse sets. This upper bound is sufficiently accurate for Morse set classification and provides supportive information for the automatic refinement process. An improved visualization technique for MCG is developed to incorporate the Conley indices. Finally, we apply the proposed techniques to a number of synthetic and real-world simulation data to demonstrate their utility. © 2006 IEEE.

  11. Surface modification of materials by ion implantations for industrial and medical applications. Final report of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of the Co-ordinated Research Project on Modification of Materials by Ion Treatment for Industrial Applications were to develop economically acceptable surface modification techniques leading to thick treated layers, to predict ion beam mixing and impurity atom migration during and after implantation, and to evaluate the tribological post-implantation properties and performance of treated components. This TECDOC summarises the current status and prospects in surface modification by ion implantation methodology and technology, providing new information in basic and applied research

  12. Surface modification of materials by ion implantations for industrial and medical applications. Final report of a co-ordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of the Co-ordinated Research Project on Modification of Materials by Ion Treatment for Industrial Applications were to develop economically acceptable surface modification techniques leading to thick treated layers, to predict ion beam mixing and impurity atom migration during and after implantation, and to evaluate the tribological post-implantation properties and performance of treated components. This TECDOC summarises the current status and prospects in surface modification by ion implantation methodology and technology, providing new information in basic and applied research.

  13. The hydrogen market in refining and petrochemicals in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, P.; Borel, P.

    1991-11-01

    The french hydrogen market on industrial sites can be divided into three main parts. Captive hydrogen is produced by thermofor catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking and hydrotreating of vacuum distillates, and is consumed in hydrotreating of petrol, hydrodesulfurization of gasoil and domestic fuel oil, hydrocracking and hydrofining of lubricants. By-product hydrogen is burnt in boilers and flare stacks. Merchant hydrogen is sold to users on the open market. Currently, thirteen refineries belonging to six companies produce 73 million tonnes of petroleum products each year in France and release annually a surplus of some 100,000 tonnes of hydrogen. The future of refining industry in France depends on the quality of the crude oil, the specific characteristics of the end products, and the developments in user markets. The refining process is likely to become more complex by 2005 with an increase in hydrogen requirements. Refineries could then undergo an annual deficit between 140,000 and 230,000 tonnes of hydrogen. The choice of the appropriate process to cover this shortfall depends mostly on oil companies strategy. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 diagrams

  14. Evaluation of the use of advanced information technology (expert systems) for data-base system development and emergency management in non-nuclear industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J; Pedersen, O M; Groenberg, C D

    1987-04-01

    During recent years, a number of large industrial accidents have resulted in a widespread concern with organization of emergency services and means for effective support of the distributed organizations involved in emergency management. With the aim of presenting a discussion of the potential of modern information technology for decision support during accidents, the report brings a brief review of approaches to design of decision-support systems and expert systems. From the review it is concluded that models of decision support systems based on a control theoretic point of view, together with a cognitive approach to decision task analysis offer a suitable framework. In addition, it is concluded that Advanced Information-tools for data base design and for communication support in distributed decision-making should be considered for further development. A number of recent Danish industrial accidents are reviewed and key persons interviewed in order to give a preliminary basis for judging the feasibility of the theoretical discussion. The report includes a number of recommendations for further studies to support the development of a distributed data base system for emergency management.

  15. Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat storage and recovery in the paper and pulp industry. Final report, September 1977--May 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, J.H.; Hurley, P.J.; Martin, P.J.

    1978-09-01

    Applications of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a paper and pulp mill power house were studied as one approach to the transfer of steam production from fossil fuel boilers to waste fuel (hog fuel) boilers. Data from specific mills were analyzed, and various TES concepts evaluated for application in the process steam supply system. Constant pressure and variable pressure steam accumulators were found to be the most attractive storage concepts for this application. Performance analyses based on the operation of a math model of the process steam supply system indicate potential substitution of waste wood fuel for 100,000 bbl oil per year per installation with the accumulator TES system. Based on an industry survey of potential TES application, which requires excess base steaming capability, the results from the individual installation were extrapolated to a near-term (1980's) fossil fuel savings in the paper and pulp industry of 3.2 x 10/sup 6/ bbl oil/year. Conceptual designs of mechanical equipment and control systems indicate installed cost estimates of about $560,000 per installation, indicating an after tax return on investment of over 30%.

  16. Industrial application of fluidized bed combustion. Phase I, task 4: sub-scale unit testing and data analysis. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodstine, S.L.; Accortt, J.I.; Harris, R.D.; Kantersaria, P.P.; Matthews, F.T.; Jones, B.C.; Jukkola, G.D.

    1979-12-01

    Combustion Engineering, under contract with the Department of Energy, has developed, designed, and is constructing a 50,000 lbs steam/hr Industrial FBC Demonstration Plant. The plant will provide steam for space heating at the Great Lakes Naval Base in North Chicago, Illinois. Its operation will enable industry to objectively appraise the performance, reliability, and economics of FBC technology. A hot sub-scale unit (SSU), simulating the operating conditions of the demonstration plant, has been constructed and operated at Combustion Engineering's Kreisinger Development Laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. The SSU facility has served as a valuable developmental tool in establishing the performance characteristics of the FBC process and equipment as used in the larger Demonstration Plant. Experience gained during more than 2000 hours of operation, including the analytical results derived from an extensive test program of 1500 hours operation, has defined problems and identified solutions in engineering the larger FBC Demonstration Plant. This report presents documentation of the results of the SSU test program.

  17. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  18. Creativity: a refinement of the concept for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasnacht, Patsy H

    2003-01-01

    This paper seeks to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of creativity using techniques of concept refinement to advance the concept. Creativity is an essential component of nursing practice that occurs daily in nurse's interactions with clients, families and other nurses. Failure to acknowledge and encourage creativity in beginning nurses may hinder future development and innovations in nursing practice and in nursing science. In order to promote the development of creativity it is first necessary to clarify and refine the concept as it applies to nursing. A comprehensive review of a variety of computer and online databases resulted in thousands of articles on creativity between the years 1966 and 1999. The final sample (n = 48) was obtained using both stratified random and purposive sampling techniques. A content analysis of the literature was conducted using methods identified by Morse and illustrated in the work of Hupcey et al. Having determined the concept to be partially mature, the concept was advanced using techniques of concept refinement. Content analysis of the literature yielded three differing definitions for creativity: revelation, birth and reincarnation. Creativity occurs in the presence of intrinsic motivation and a nurturing environment. While value is often used to identify whether a product is creative, the value of the product cannot determine whether the process has occurred. The product produced determines evidence of the process of creativity. Limitations of this investigation are the use of secondary sources and the relatively small sample size (n = 48). Refinement of the concept of creativity indicates that it is a process that may be developed and influenced by the environment and is recognized by the product produced. Further investigation is needed to explore methods and techniques for developing creativity in nursing.

  19. Effect of vanadium of mechanical behavior, machinability and wear resistance of aluminium grain refined by Ti+B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.; Hamid, A.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    It is well established that aluminum and its alloys are industrially grain refined by adding either Ti or Ti-B to improve their mechanical behavior and surface finish. In a previous paper, it was found that the grain refining efficiency of aluminum master alloys containing Ti or Ti+B was enhanced by addition of small amounts of other elements including vanadium. V. Therefore, it is anticipated that such an element will improve mechanical behavior, machinability and wear resistance of aluminum and its alloys. In this paper, the effect of vanadium addition, up to 0.3% on mechanical behavior is investigated. Machinability was assessed under different cutting conditions: speed, feed and depth of cut and finally the wear resistance was determined at different loads and speeds. The results indicated that improvement in hardness and mechanical strength were achieved by the addition of V that addition of more than 0.2%V resulted in little or no improvement. Similarly, addition of V resulted in improvement of surface quality under the different cutting conditions of speed, feed and depth of cut, and resistance to wear. However addition of more than 0.2% V resulted in increase of wear rate and change of wear mechanisms. (author)

  20. Public health assessment for Geneva Industries/Fuhrmann Energy, Houston, Harris County, Texas, Region 6. CERCLIS No. TXD980748453. Addendum. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Geneva Industries Site is an abandoned refinery in Houston, Texas, that manufactured polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Although there is evidence of past exposure to site contaminants, the site currently poses no apparent public health hazard. The contaminants to which persons may have been exposed in the past include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The lack of historical ambient air data from the time when the site was active prevents us from evaluating the potential for adverse health effects from inhalation exposure. Although fish and crawfish taken from the local drainageways were contaminated with PCBs, it is unlikely that humans would have been exposed to these species through the food chain. The groundwater under the site is contaminated. Although the contaminated water is not currently being used for human consumption, there is a potential for exposure to contaminated groundwater in the future. Planned groundwater remedial actions should eliminate this threat

  1. Final Assessment: U.S. Virgin Islands Industrial Development Park and Adjacent Facilities Energy-Efficiency and Micro-Grid Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Joseph M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boyd, Paul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dahowski, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Graham B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of this assessment was to undertake an assessment and analysis of cost-effective options for energy-efficiency improvements and the deployment of a micro-grid to increase the energy resilience at the U.S. Virgin Islands Industrial Development Park (IDP) and adjacent facilities in St. Croix, Virgin Islands. The Economic Development Authority sought assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy to undertake this assessment undertaken by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The assessment included 18 buildings plus the perimeter security lighting at the Virgin Islands Bureau of Correctional Facility, four buildings plus exterior lighting at the IDP, and five buildings (one of which is to be constructed) at the Virgin Islands Police Department for a total of 27 buildings with a total of nearly 323,000 square feet.

  2. Refinement of finite element model of a power plant by Ambient Vibration Test using system identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murnal, Pranesh; Kotalwar, Sandip; Ramarao, A.; Sinha, S.K.; Singh, U.P.

    2008-01-01

    Finite Element Modeling is one of the efficient analytical tools for analysis of complicated structures subjected to variety of loads. However the reliability of the analyses is always questionable due to idealizations and assumptions made in the design. The model can be more realistic if it is refined based on experimental support. This paper presents refinement of finite-element model of Koyna Dam-foot Power House (KDPH) building, which is structurally complicated and asymmetrical. The dynamic properties of the building have been identified experimentally through Ambient Vibration Tests (AVT). The building has also been elaborately modeled analytically. The finite-element model is further refined so as to minimize the differences between analytical and the measured natural frequency of the building. The final refined finite-element model of KDPH building is able to produce natural frequency in good agreement with the measured natural frequency of the building. (author)

  3. Industrial process heat market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve

  4. Industrial process heat market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve.

  5. Chinese refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed China's refining capacity in relation to exports of Canadian heavy oil. Demand for oil is increasing throughout the world, and China is expected to consume 25 per cent of the projected yearly oil supplies. Alberta currently has an estimated 174 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, and produces 1.06 million barrels per day. Production is expected to increase to 4.5 million barrels per day by the year 2020. Currently bitumen blends are refined and diluted with naphtha and sweet synthetic crude oil. Bitumen is a challenging feedstock for refineries, and requires thermal production methods or gasification processes. Primary conversion into sour synthetic crude is typically followed by hydrocracking and further refining into finished petroleum products. There are currently 50 refineries in China with a 7.4 million barrel per day capacity. Coastal refineries using imported crude oil have a 4 million barrel per day capacity. New facilities are being constructed and existing plants are being upgraded in order to process heavier and more sour crude oils. However, current refining capabilities in Chinese refineries have a limited ability for resid conversion. It was concluded that while China has a refining infrastructure, only refineries on the coast will use oil sands-derived feedstocks. However, there are currently opportunities to design refineries to match future feedstocks. tabs., figs

  6. Grain refinement mechanism in A3003 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hoon; Shin, Je-Sik; Lee, Byoung-Soo; Jo, Hyung-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, in order to find out an grain refinement mechanism, 0.1wt.% Al-10wt.%Ti master alloy was added into A3003 alloy melt contained in graphite crucible and in alumina crucible, and then the melt holding time at 750 deg. C was systematically changed from 1 min up to 120 min. It is interesting to note that the grain refinement and fading phenomena remarkably depend on the crucible material. The fading effect in the specimens using alumina crucible can be explained as the result of TiAl 3 phase dissolution into molten aluminium matrix. In the specimens using graphite crucible, the grain refinement was occurred gradually with increasing holding time. It was suggest that the continuous grain refinement is due to transition of refinement mechanism from TiAl 3 phase to TiC phase. It can be mentioned that the TiC formed from titanium and carbon solute in the aluminium melt, which came from the Al-10Ti alloy and the graphite crucible.

  7. 75 FR 33330 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... imports of seamless refined copper pipe and tube from China and Mexico are being sold in the United States... industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of less-than-fair-value imports from China...

  8. Petroleum refining. Separation processes; Le raffinage du petrole. Procedes de separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauquier, J.P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Bonfils, P. [AB Industries (France); Company, J.P. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France); Deschamps, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Gourlia, J.P. [Elf Aquitaine (France); Gouzien, L. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France); Hombourger, T. [Mobil (France); Jullian, S. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Marty, C. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France); Mikitenko, P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Ptak, C. [Technip, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Rojey, A.; Streicher, C.; Vidal, J. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1998-12-01

    After having given into details the conventional separation processes used in petroleum refining, the author describes the development future prospects: improvement of the existing technologies, introduction of new techniques or separation processes still not used today in this industry. This book is particularly devoted to students and to engineers and technical men who work in refineries. (O.M.) 308 refs.

  9. India's refining prospects linked to economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.

    1996-01-01

    International investors assess refining ventures in India the same way they do comparable projects elsewhere in the world: according to their expectations about investment returns. By that standard, India's appeal is mixed, although its need for some measure of additional refining capacity seems certain. The success of future refinery investments will depend heavily on the government's commitment to policies allowing the economy to grow faster than the population. Unless accompanied by economic growth, expected increases in the population will not automatically raise demand for petroleum products. Decisions about investments in India's refining sector, therefore, must carefully weigh market fundamentals, the business environment, and likely investment performance. This paper reviews the market for the various products and predicts new economic trends

  10. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  11. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Removal of a contaminated industrial waste line, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, T.C.; Ahlquist, A.J.

    1979-04-01

    In 1977 parts of an abandoned industrial waste line (IWL) that carried laboratory or process chemical and radiochemical wastes were removed from Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory property and from the townsite of Los Alamos in north-central New Mexico. Most of the IWL was removed between 1964 and 1967. Some IWL segments in the townsite, which at that time were buried under newly paved roads, were left for removal during future construction projects involving these roads to minimize traffic problems and road damage, and because they posed no public health hazard. In 1977, prior to impending major road construction in several areas, 400 m (1300 ft) of IWL and two IWL manhole structures were removed from Laboratory and Los Alamos County property. Associated soil contamination was removed to levels considered to be as low as practicable. Contaminated or potentially contaminated material was removed to an approved radioactive waste disposal site on Department of Energy property. Full details of the methods, findings, and as-left conditions are documented in this report

  12. Photovoltaic industry in France in 2013. French version of the report written for the photovoltaic program of the International Energy Agency. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick

    2014-06-01

    This document is the French National Survey Report on photovoltaic energy for the year 2013. This report provides a comprehensive review of photovoltaic activities in France in 2013. It describes the current state of the PV market, including French authorities' support measures and economic aspects. It gives an account of PV industry with key manufacturers and operators as well as R and D programmes. The data contained in the report concern the year 2013. The main sources of information used for the report are the following: data produced by the French Observation and statistics office (SOeS, Service de l'observation et des statistiques), ADEME's reports and studies, reports and studies produced by the Syndicat des energies renouvelables (SER) and by ENERPLAN union, publications Systemes solaires, reports by Observatoire des energies renouvelables (Observer), Plein Soleil magazine, web sites (institutional, photovoltaic.info, L'echo du solaire, etc.), data from equipment suppliers, company publications and press releases, corporate strategy flyers and contacts with professionals in the sector

  13. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the Seaway Industrial Park, Tonawanda, New York. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Cottrell, W.D.; Dickson, H.W.

    1978-05-01

    The results of a radiological survey of the Seaway Industrial Park, Tonawanda, New York, are presented in this report. The site is adjacent to the former Haist property, which was used to receive residues from uranium processing during the period 1944--46. In 1974 approximately 6000 yd 3 of this residue was transported to Seaway, where it was used as landfill. The survey was undertaken to determine radiation levels and the extent of radioactive materials on the Seaway property, as well as the extent of movement of radioactive residues by natural means such as surface run-off. The survey included measurement of: external gamma radiation on and near the site; beta-gamma radiation at the surface in the most contaminated areas; radium and uranium concentrations in the soil; concentrations of radium, uranium, and thorium in water samples collected from the drainage areas; and radium concentrations in mud samples taken from the drainage areas. The results indicate that the residues on the site do not pose any immediate health hazards. However, potential health hazards could result from some uses of the site. In particular, if buildings were to be built in certain areas on the site, significant concentrations of radon daughters could develop in these structures. 16 figs, 3 tables

  14. Zone refining high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10 10 cm -3 ) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations

  15. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.; Dawson, Clint N.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. India beckons participants in burgeoning refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that India has opened its refining sector to full private investment for the first time in more than 2 decades. The government again gave a green light to construction of three 120,000 b/d grassroots refineries in East, West, and Central India. The projects had won various governmental approvals in the past few years, but never moved off high center for a variety of economic and regulatory reasons. The difference this time is that the government is offering interests in the projects to private foreign and domestic investors. It's part of India's push to boost overall refining capacity by more than 80% this century

  17. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.

    2014-03-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  19. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-09-16

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  20. Cadmium isotope fractionation of materials derived from various industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinková, Eva, E-mail: eva.cadkova@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Chrastný, Vladislav, E-mail: chrastny@fzp.czu.cz [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Francová, Michaela, E-mail: michaela.francova@fzp.czu.cz [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Šípková, Adéla, E-mail: adela.sipkova@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Čuřík, Jan, E-mail: jan.curik@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Myška, Oldřich, E-mail: oldrich.myska@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Mižič, Lukáš, E-mail: lukas.mizic@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • All studied industrial processes were accompanied by Cd isotope fractionation. • ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd values of the waste materials were discernible from primary sources. • Technology in use plays an important role in Cd isotope fractionation. - Abstract: Our study represents ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd {sub NIST3108} values of materials resulting from anthropogenic activities such as coal burning, smelting, refining, metal coating, and the glass industry. Additionally, primary sources (ore samples, pigment, coal) processed in the industrial premises were studied. Two sphalerites, galena, coal and pigment samples exhibited ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd{sub NIST3108} values of 1.0 ± 0.2, 0.2 ± 0.2, 1.3 ± 0.1, −2.3 ± 0.2 and −0.1 ± 0.3, respectively. In general, all studied industrial processes were accompanied by Cd isotope fractionation. Most of the industrial materials studied were clearly distinguishable from the samples used as a primary source based on ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd {sub NIST3108} values. The heaviest ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd{sub NIST3108} value of 58.6 ± 0.9 was found for slag resulting from coal combustion, and the lightest ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd{sub NIST3108} value of −23 ± 2.5 was observed for waste material after Pb refinement. It is evident that ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd {sub NIST3108} values depend on technological processes, and in case of incomplete Cd transfer from source to final waste material, every industrial activity creates differences in Cd isotope composition. Our results show that Cd isotope analysis is a promising tool to track the origins of industrial waste products.

  1. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  2. Preliminary safety assessments in construction of the pilot industrial facility for final disposal of low and intermediate radioactive waste in the archipelago Novaya Zemlya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatin, V.V.; Lobanov, N.F.; Mankin, V.I.; Karamushka, V.P.; Ostroborodov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses a preliminary safety evaluation of radioactive waste burial at the experimental plant located on Novaya Zemlya. The issues considered are (1) the main provisions on radioactive waste burial in permafrost rock, (2) mining, geological and geocryological conditions at the experimental works' operating site, (3) the main properties of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, (4) the main parameters of the experimental works, (5) preliminary evaluation of safety. The evaluation includes the main requirements to geocryologic characteristics of the permafrost rock intended for waste burial and analyses the seasonal mining-geological and geocryological conditions in the area of the experimental works. The area is situated within the limits of the southern Novozemelsky anticlinorium composed of the Silurian, Devonian and carboniferous rocks of the Paleozoic group. It is mainly limestone and dolomite, showing in rock sequence the layers, benches and horizons of clay shales, aleurolites, conglomerates and magmatic rocks covered with a thin Quaternary sedimentary mantle on the surface. The area is characterised by a confluent continuous layer no less than 300 m thick, seasonal thawing depth 0.5-2.0 m, annual zero temperature variations 10-15 m by the depth, and mean annual rock temperature of -4.5 - 5.0 C. The plant is an independent enterprise supplied with all the required services for industrial and communal/living purposes. The evaluation studies two possible scenarios for accidents during transport of waste to Novaya Zemlya, and the consequences of damage to the plant caused by the impact of a celestial body/flying object, by a catastrophic earthquake, and the effect of global climate warming in the Arctic area

  3. Economic and Industrial Development: EID - EMPLOY. Final Report, task 1. Review of approaches for employment impact assessment of renewable energy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara; Nathani, Carsten; Resch, Gustav

    2011-11-15

    economic and industrial impacts of renewable energy technology deployment and providing reliable methodological approaches for employment -- similar to those available for the incumbent energy technologies.

  4. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure

  5. Economic and Industrial Development: EID - EMPLOY. Final Report, task 1. Review of approaches for employment impact assessment of renewable energy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara; Nathani, Carsten; Resch, Gustav

    2011-11-15

    The importance of renewable energy in energy systems is increasing at an impressive rate, and the expectation is that this tendency will continue in the longer term. As a consequence, there is a strong need for reliable insight into the employment benefits from renewable energy. The current knowledge on the economic impacts of large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies is more or less derived on an ad hoc basis and consists of a variety of different methodologies with different objectives. This is why the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) would like to facilitate a more structural approach, which will contribute to reliable and consistent insights of employment effects from deployment of renewable energy technologies. The objectives of the EMPLOY-EID project are to: Provide guidelines based on a thorough review of best practices, which are able to contribute to a consistent, reliable framework in which to measure employment effects from renewable energy deployment and which can be replicated from one country to another; Identify data sources and/or inputs required in application of such guidelines; Provide better understanding of key parameters and mechanisms that determine contribution of renewable energy employment; Assess availability of sources for employment benefit data for all RETD member countries as well as other interesting countries; Provide concrete gross employment benefit data to countries where data is available through application of the guidelines and best practices; and, Document the economic effects of renewable energy deployment through a publishable brochure of the main project results, presentations, the guidelines and background report. This project will help achieve the IEA-RETD's objective to ''empowering policy makers and energy market actors through the provision of information, tools and resources'' by underlining the economic and industrial impacts of

  6. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  7. Impact of Crude Oil Quality on the Refining Conditions and Composition of Nutraceuticals in Refined Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Klicia A; Ayala, Jose Vila; Van Hoed, Vera; Monteiro, Simone; Ceriani, Roberta; Verhé, Roland; Meirelles, Antonio J A

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil is the major vegetable oil used worldwide due to its unique properties. The effect of crude palm oil acidity on the final free fatty acids (FFA) content, neutral oil loss (NOL), and nutraceutical compounds, such as carotenes, total tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), squalene, and phytosterols was investigated. A central composite design was employed to study the influence of the refining conditions: temperature (200 to 260 °C), steam percentage (0.5% to 3.5%), and initial FFA content (2.2% to 6.0%) on the quality of the refined product. The results revealed that initial palm oil acidity is a statistically important parameter to obtain commercially acceptable values for final FFA content. The increase of temperature presented the most important effect on the reduction of all nutraceutical compounds. The highest tocopherols (88%), phytosterols (98%), and squalene retention (84%) was obtained when applying the mildest temperature (200 °C). From the experimental results, 3 equations were generated enabling the prediction of the free fatty acids content, the tocols content, and the losses of neutral oil. Therefore, this work contributes to the understanding and optimization of the process for the production of palm oil with high nutraceutical quality and low free fatty acid contents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns

  9. Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Krishnan, R.P.; Parsly, L.F.

    1980-12-01

    A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).

  10. Value added product recovery from sludge generated during gum arabic refining process by vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Veena; Satyanarayan, Sanjeev; Satyanarayan, Shanta

    2016-09-01

    Gum arabic is multifunctional and used in food products, pharmaceutical, confectionery, cosmetic, printing and textile industry. Gum arabic has an excellent market and its production is being increased to meet the market demand. In the process, huge quantity of solid waste is generated during its refining process. An attempt has been made to vermicompost this organic waste using Eudrilus eugeniae. This research work is first of its kind. Literature on this substrate has not been reported anywhere else for vermicomposting. Results were excellent with volatile solid reduction of 51.34 %; C/N ratio reduced to 16.31 % indicating efficient loss of carbon as carbon dioxide during vermicomposting period. Manurial value, i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the range, required for the plants also increased. Porosity of 67.74 % and water holding capacity of 65.75 % were observed. The maturity of the vermicompost was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy wherein the complete conversion of large raw material particles into finer particles forming a uniform matrix with more surface area was observed indicating its efficient conversion. Microbial quality of vermicompost was also studied. The final vermicompost is free of fungal cells and pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  12. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz R, O.; Griffith M, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. Biogas from organic municipal and industrial wastes and wastes harvested on public grounds. Final report. Volume A: report; Vergaerung biogener Abfaelle aus Haushalt, Industrie und Landschaftspflege. Schlussbericht. Band A: Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie, Maschwanden (CH); Pfirter, A [PROBAG Umwelttechnik AG, Dietikon (CH)

    1992-12-31

    The mass and biogas potentials of organic municipal and industrial solid wastes, as well as of wastes harvested on public grounds, have been determined. The mass potential was found to be around 285`000 tons of digestible organic matter per year. By digesting all this matter, about 130`000`000 m{sup 3} of biogas or 3 PJ of energy could be generated yearly. The practical realizable potential is estimated to be nearly 2 PJ/a, including the savings by substituting the energy needed nowadays for the importation of peat and for the production of artificial fertilizers. Considering the fact, that the incineration of organic wastes costs more than biological treatment, the potential is relatively easy to realize. More than 50% of the humus losses of Swiss soils could be compensated by the application of digestion and composting technology. The different technologies for anaerobic digestion of solid organic wastes are compared: the thermophilic, one-stage digestion seems to be further advanced in development than mesophilic two-stage digestion. Co-digestion of sludges of municipal waste water treatment plants and solid organic wastes may be advantageous for rural areas. An appropriate marketing strategy for the application of the solid product, however, has to be looked at. Because the two-stage process seems to have some advantages regarding rate of organic matter breakdown, product quality and hygienic conditions, a mesophilic two-stage experimental plant has been constructed. The results of the first experiment of a simple combination of a percolated hydrolytic step with a pulsating, dynamic anaerobic filter ar presented. Data on the quality of the solid product from anaerobic digestion of biogenic solid wastes and an economic comparison of composting vs. digestion are given. (author) 9 figs., 11 tabs., 75 refs.

  14. Refining the Eye: Dermatology and Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Corinne; Huang, Jennifer T.; Buzney, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Harvard Medical School began a partnership focused on building visual literacy skills for dermatology residents in the Harvard Combined Dermatology Residency Program. "Refining the Eye: Art and Dermatology", a four session workshop, took place in the museum's galleries and utilized the Visual…

  15. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structur...

  16. Structure refinement of polycrystalline orthorhombic yttrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The perovskite ceramic phases with composition Ca1−YTiO3+ (where = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3; hereafter CYT-10, CYT-20 and CYT-30) have been synthesized by solid state reaction at 1050°C. The structure refinement using general structure analysis system (GSAS) software converges to satisfactory profile indicators ...

  17. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, M.E.E.; Szklo, A.S.; Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.; Mariano, J.B.; Sala, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  18. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani Vitoria; Schaeffer, Roberto; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Sala, Janaina Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks

  19. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    1992-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution,which can be used as another notion of action refiment in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  20. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsen, K.R.M.; Vriend, G.

    2014-01-01

    A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles chi1 and chi2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers

  1. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of the presented refinement approach is that it links formalisms from a top level requirements notation down to programs together in a mathematically coherent development trajectory. The approach uses Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, to specifyrequirements...

  2. Robust Refinement as Implemented in TOPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, K.; Stephens, P

    2010-01-01

    A robust refinement procedure is implemented in the program TOPAS through an iterative reweighting of the data. Examples are given of the procedure as applied to fitting partially overlapped peaks by full and partial models and also of the structures of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the presence of unmodeled impurity contributions

  3. Refinement of the concept of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, J

    2001-04-01

    To analyse the conceptual maturity of uncertainty; to develop an expanded theoretical definition of uncertainty; to advance the concept using methods of concept refinement; and to analyse congruency with the conceptualization of uncertainty presented in the theory of hope, enduring, and suffering. Uncertainty is of concern in nursing as people experience complex life events surrounding health. In an earlier nursing study that linked the concepts of hope, enduring, and suffering into a single theoretical scheme, a state best described as 'uncertainty' arose. This study was undertaken to explore how this conceptualization fit with the scientific literature on uncertainty and to refine the concept. Initially, a concept analysis using advanced methods described by Morse, Hupcey, Mitcham and colleagues was completed. The concept was determined to be partially mature. A theoretical definition was derived and techniques of concept refinement using the literature as data were applied. The refined concept was found to be congruent with the concept of uncertainty that had emerged in the model of hope, enduring and suffering. Further investigation is needed to explore the extent of probabilistic reasoning and the effects of confidence and control on feelings of uncertainty and certainty.

  4. Quantum Geometry of Refined Topological Strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aganagic, M.; Cheng, M.C.N.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Kreft, D.; Vafa, C.

    2012-01-01

    We consider branes in refined topological strings. We argue that their wavefunctions satisfy a Schrödinger equation depending on multiple times and prove this in the case where the topological string has a dual matrix model description. Furthermore, in the limit where one of the equivariant

  5. Red refinements of simplices into congruent subsimplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2014), s. 2199-2204 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sommerville tetrahedron * red refinement * higher-dimensional simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122114000662

  6. Simulation of thin-film deodorizers in palm oil refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceriani, Roberta; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    As the need for healthier fats and oils (natural vitamin and trans fat contents) and interest in biofuels are growing, many changes in the world's vegetable oil market are driving the oil industry to developing new technologies and recycling traditional ones. Computational simulation is widely used...... in the chemical and petrochemical industries as a tool for optimization and design of (new) processes, but that is not the case for the edible oil industry. Thin-film deodorizers are novel equipment developed for steam deacidification of vegetable oils, and no work on the simulation of this type of equipment...... could be found in the open literature. This paper tries to fill this gap by presenting results from the study of the effect of processing variables, such as temperature, pressure and percentage of stripping steam, in the final quality of product (deacidified palm oil) in terms of final oil acidity...

  7. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species

  8. Construction and Application of a Refined Hospital Management Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lihua; Hao, Aimin; Hu, Minmin; Huang, Pei; Yuan, Huikang; Xing, Ming

    2015-05-01

    Gaining large scale success was quite common in the later period of industrialization for hospitals in China. Today, Chinese hospital management face such problems as service inefficiency, high human resources cost, and low rate of capital use. This study analyzes the refined management chain of the Wuxi No. 2 People's Hospital. This consists of six gears namely "organizational structure, clinical practice, outpatient service, medical technology, and nursing care and logistics" used to achieve maximum scale and benefits. The gears are based on "flat management system targets, chief of medical staff, centralized outpatient service, intensified medical examinations, vertical nursing management and socialized logistics". The hospital took innovative measures. The "one doctor-one patient-one clinic" was well accepted; "one dispensary" shorten the waiting time by 20 min. The 168 rear service hot line "made patients' lives easier; and a red wrist ribbon" for seriously ill patient was implemented to prioritize medical treatment. The core concepts of refined hospital management are optimizing flow process, reducing waste, improving efficiency, saving costs, and taking good care of patients as most important.

  9. The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum by Al-Ti-B refiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lina [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2006-11-30

    The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum with the addition of Al-Ti-B master alloy was studied in this paper. The experimental results show that when the grain size of solidified sample is finer the viscosity of the melt is higher after the addition of different Al-Ti-B master alloys. This indicates that viscosity can be used to approximately estimate the refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-B refiners in production to a certain extent. The main reason was also discussed in this paper by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiment.

  10. Addition of iron for the removal of the {beta}-AlFeSi intermetallic by refining of {alpha}-AlFeSi phase in an Al-7.5Si-3.6Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmares-Perales, S. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Zaldivar-Cadena, A.A., E-mail: azaldiva70@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Instituto de Ingenieria Civil, Av. Fidel Velasquez and Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. 66450 (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Addition of iron into the molten metal for the removal of the {beta}-AlFeSi intermetallic by refining of {alpha}-AlFeSi phase has been studied. Solidification conditions and composition determine the final microstructure and mechanical properties of a casting piece. It is known that increasing the iron content will produce an increasing of the {alpha}-AlFeSi and {beta}-AlFeSi phases. This phenomenon was confirmed with calculations made by Thermo-Calc{sup TM} software and validated with experimental results, however, the technique of iron addition in this study plays an important role on the solidification kinetics of these iron phases because the refining of {alpha}-AlFeSi and removal of {beta}-AlFeSi phases can be improved. Final results showed an improvement in mechanical properties by removal and refining of {beta}-AlFeSi and {alpha}-AlFeSi phases, respectively. This study shows a new method of removal of {beta}-AlFeSi that could be adopted in the aluminum smelting industry in aluminum alloys with a low cooling rate with a secondary dendritic spacing of about 37 {mu}m.

  11. Addition of iron for the removal of the β-AlFeSi intermetallic by refining of α-AlFeSi phase in an Al-7.5Si-3.6Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmares-Perales, S.; Zaldivar-Cadena, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Addition of iron into the molten metal for the removal of the β-AlFeSi intermetallic by refining of α-AlFeSi phase has been studied. Solidification conditions and composition determine the final microstructure and mechanical properties of a casting piece. It is known that increasing the iron content will produce an increasing of the α-AlFeSi and β-AlFeSi phases. This phenomenon was confirmed with calculations made by Thermo-Calc TM software and validated with experimental results, however, the technique of iron addition in this study plays an important role on the solidification kinetics of these iron phases because the refining of α-AlFeSi and removal of β-AlFeSi phases can be improved. Final results showed an improvement in mechanical properties by removal and refining of β-AlFeSi and α-AlFeSi phases, respectively. This study shows a new method of removal of β-AlFeSi that could be adopted in the aluminum smelting industry in aluminum alloys with a low cooling rate with a secondary dendritic spacing of about 37 μm.

  12. Studies on the impact, detection, and control of microbiology influenced corrosion related to pitting failures in the Russian oil and gas industry. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, D.

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the Project are: (1) to design effective anti-corrosion preparations (biocides, inhibitors, penetrants and their combinations) for gas- and oil-exploration industries; (2) to study a possibility of development of environmentally beneficial ('green') biocides and inhibitors of the new generation; (3) to develop chemical and microbiological methods of monitoring of sites at risk of corrosion; and (4) to evaluate potentialities in terms of technology, raw materials and material and technical basis to set up a production of effective anti-corrosion preparations of new generation in Russia. During the four years of the project 228 compounds and formulations were synthesized and studied in respect to their corrosion inhibiting activity. A series of compounds which were according to the Bubble tests more efficient (by a factor of 10-100) than the reference inhibitor SXT-1102, some possessing the similar activity or slightly better activity than new inhibitor ??-1154? (company ONDEO/Nalco). Two synthetic routes for the synthesis of mercaptopyrimidines as perspective corrosion inhibitors were developed. Mercaptopyrimidine derivatives can be obtained in one or two steps from cheap and easily available precursors. The cost for their synthesis is not high and can be further reduced after the optimization of the production processes. A new approach for lignin utilization was proposed. Water-soluble derivative of lignin can by transformed to corrosion protective layer by its electropolymerization on a steel surface. Varying lignosulfonates from different sources, as well as conditions of electrooxidation we proved, that drop in current at high anodic potentials is due to electropolymerization of lignin derivative at steel electrode surface. The electropolymerization potential can be sufficiently decreased by an increase in ionic strength of the growing solution. The lignosulfonate electropolymerization led to the considerable corrosion protection

  13. Middle East oil refining in the World context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Gilbert

    1998-01-01

    The building of new refining capacity in the Middle East which will operate in the early part of the next century will be the decision of just a few men. They will include the heads of the state petroleum agencies in Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia and the CEOs of BP, Exxon and Shell. They will not want for advice from their corporate planners and external consultants, but the key decisions will be in the hands of just a few people. There is nothing new in this decision-making process. The oil consuming countries will react in a similar way to their common environment. In a paper such as this, it is possible to examine the present environment and to extrapolate that environment into the next decade. This is what planners and forecasters are doing everywhere in the petroleum industry. (author)

  14. Automatic mesh refinement and local multigrid methods for contact problems: application to the Pellet-Cladding mechanical Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This Ph.D. work takes place within the framework of studies on Pellet-Cladding mechanical Interaction (PCI) which occurs in the fuel rods of pressurized water reactor. This manuscript focuses on automatic mesh refinement to simulate more accurately this phenomena while maintaining acceptable computational time and memory space for industrial calculations. An automatic mesh refinement strategy based on the combination of the Local Defect Correction multigrid method (LDC) with the Zienkiewicz and Zhu a posteriori error estimator is proposed. The estimated error is used to detect the zones to be refined, where the local sub-grids of the LDC method are generated. Several stopping criteria are studied to end the refinement process when the solution is accurate enough or when the refinement does not improve the global solution accuracy anymore. Numerical results for elastic 2D test cases with pressure discontinuity show the efficiency of the proposed strategy. The automatic mesh refinement in case of unilateral contact problems is then considered. The strategy previously introduced can be easily adapted to the multi-body refinement by estimating solution error on each body separately. Post-processing is often necessary to ensure the conformity of the refined areas regarding the contact boundaries. A variety of numerical experiments with elastic contact (with or without friction, with or without an initial gap) confirms the efficiency and adaptability of the proposed strategy. (author) [fr

  15. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment from NEDO. Report on the results of the R and D of technologies to invent original high-functional materials (development of precise structure control materials for enhancement of oil refining); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Dokusoteki kokino zairyo sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (sekiyu seisei kodoka seimitsu kozo seigyo zairyo kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the R and D of technologies for creating original high-functional materials under the R and D system of industrial scientific technology. Japan chemical Innovation Institute (JCII) is conducting intensive joint researches under consignment from NEDO with private companies, universities and national research institutes. Among those, the paper reported the fiscal 1997 results of the following two researches conducted as development of precise structure control materials for enhancement of oil refining: precision catalytic polymerization and multi-dimensional space polymer. As to the precision catalytic polymerization, the paper is aimed at developing base technologies for the molecular weight and stereoregularity by which remarkable improvement in performance of addition polymerization type polymer can be expected, and on the development of a polymerization catalyst which arbitarily controls the primary structure such as end group structure and of a precision addition polymerization process. Subthemes are addition polymerization with limit and oriented catalytic polymerization. In relation to multi-dimensional space polymer, the paper is aimed at developing highly selective polymerization technology of aromatic compounds using enzyme related catalysts and synthesis technology of regular structure polymer, and synthesis technology of new polymer group having a new chain pattern except covalent bond/new polymer group having characteristics in three-dimensional space geometric structure. 244 refs,, 160 figs., 94 tabs.

  16. Automata Learning through Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, Fides; Heidarian, Faranak; Kuppens, Harco

    2012-01-01

    to a small set of abstract events that can be handled by automata learning tools. In this article, we show how such abstractions can be constructed fully automatically for a restricted class of extended finite state machines in which one can test for equality of data parameters, but no operations on data...... are allowed. Our approach uses counterexample-guided abstraction refinement: whenever the current abstraction is too coarse and induces nondeterministic behavior, the abstraction is refined automatically. Using Tomte, a prototype tool implementing our algorithm, we have succeeded to learn – fully......Abstraction is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems. Hence, in most practical applications where automata learning is used to construct models of software components, researchers manually define abstractions which, depending on the history, map a large set of concrete events...

  17. Multivariate refined composite multiscale entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify signals complexity. MSE relies on sample entropy. However, MSE may yield imprecise complexity estimation at large scales, because sample entropy does not give precise estimation of entropy when short signals are processed. A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. Nevertheless, RCMSE is for univariate signals only. The simultaneous analysis of multi-channel (multivariate) data often over-performs studies based on univariate signals. We therefore introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. Applications of multivariate RCMSE to simulated processes reveal its better performances over the standard multivariate MSE. - Highlights: • Multiscale entropy quantifies data complexity but may be inaccurate at large scale. • A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. • Nevertheless, RCMSE is adapted to univariate time series only. • We herein introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. • It shows better performances than the standard multivariate multiscale entropy.

  18. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  19. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth van Hooland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank cells, duplicates, spelling inconsistencies, etc. OpenRefine not only allows you to quickly diagnose the accuracy of your data, but also to act upon certain errors in an automated manner.

  20. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.