WorldWideScience

Sample records for refining industry 1987-1988

  1. Annual report 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    For this thirtieth year of operation, the Institute's twenty constituent organisations were eighteen Australian universities, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Through 1987-88, AINSE's operations supported research and training in the nuclear field, assisted the application of nuclear techniques in science, engineering and industrial technology, and assisted the universities and similar organisations in using the reactors, accelerators and other special facilities within the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories

  2. Indian refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the history of the Indian refining industry and ongoing developments under the headings: the present state; refinery configuration; Indian capabilities for refinery projects; and reforms in the refining industry. Tables lists India's petroleum refineries giving location and capacity; new refinery projects together with location and capacity; and expansion projects of Indian petroleum refineries. The Indian refinery industry has undergone substantial expansion as well as technological changes over the past years. There has been progressive technology upgrading, energy efficiency, better environmental control and improved capacity utilisation. Major reform processes have been set in motion by the government of India: converting the refining industry from a centrally controlled public sector dominated industry to a delicensed regime in a competitive market economy with the introduction of a liberal exploration policy; dismantling the administered price mechanism; and a 25 year hydrocarbon vision. (UK)

  3. Progress report 1987-1988. Reactor Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Review of the activities performed by the Reactor Chemistry Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina during 1987-1988. This department provides services and assistance in all matters related to water chemistry and nuclear reactors chemistry, in all their phases: design, construction, commissioning and decommissioning. The appendix includes information on the Reactor Chemistry Department staff, its publications, services, seminars, courses and conferences performed during 1987-1988. (Author) [es

  4. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  5. Radioactivity of foodstuffs in Finland in 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    1991-06-01

    Radiocesium and radiostrontium in foodstuffs of agricultural origin were surveyed in Finland in 1987 - 1988. The nationwide survey was a continuation to an earlier foodstuff monitoring programme, which was extended both areally and by the types of foodstuffs after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The purpose of the programme was to give information for dose assessment and on temporal changes and regional differences in the contents of fallout radionuclides in foodstuffs

  6. Romanian refining industry assesses restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasescu, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Romanian crude oil refining industry, as all the other economic sectors, faces the problems accompanying the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. At present, all refineries have registered as joint-stock companies and all are coordinated and assisted by Rafirom S.A., from both a legal and a production point of view. Rafirom S.A. is a joint-stock company that holds shares in refineries and other stock companies with activities related to oil refining. Such activities include technological research, development, design, transportation, storage, and domestic and foreign marketing. This article outlines the market forces that are expected to: drive rationalization and restructuring of refining operations and define the targets toward which the reconfigured refineries should strive

  7. Main Ring bunch spreaders: Past, 1987/1988 fixed target run, and proposed future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    During the last 1987--1988 fixed target running period beam intensity was limited many times by coherent instabilities in both the Main Ring and in the Tevatron. The intensity thresholds for instabilities are generally inversely proportional to the proton bunch length. Since fixed target operations are insensitive to the longitudinal phase space emittance of the beam, bunch spreaders are employed to increase this emittance, and hence the bunch length. As a result, more beam intensity can be delivered to the fixed target experiments. This paper starts with a short history behind the old Main Ring bunch spreader. After discussing the physics of stimulated emittance growth, the design and performance of the 1987--1988 fixed target run Main Ring bunch spreader is discussed. Finally, designs of improved Main Ring and Tevatron bunch spreaders for the next fixed target run are proposed. 23 figs

  8. Russian refining - an industry in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E [CentreInvest, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    In the old Soviet Union (now called the CIS), the refining industry is undergoing much modernisation, although the process is far from complete. Eventually, the CIS is expected to have a market-responsive competitive refining business. The expected transformation is discussed according to a five-stage plan. The stages are (i) the change from horizontally integrated entity to vertically integrated global concerns, (ii) the change from over-manned dinosaurs to modern efficient businesses, (iii) the move towards smaller, more advanced market-orientated processes, (iv) improving the transport and storage infrastructures and (v) improving accountability and profitability. The predictions for 2005 onwards are for sustained profitability. (UK)

  9. Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre annual report 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre (SURRC) provides facilities for research in isotopic, nuclear and earth sciences and collaborates with Scottish University departments on a wide range of research topics. One of its main areas of work is the Isotope Geology Unit. This has worked with the Nuclear Medicine Unit on the application of enriched stable isotope tracers in the biological and clinical sciences. The measurement of radioactive isomers is applied to quaternary geology, archaeology, nuclear medicine, health physics, oceanography, atomospheric sciences, environmental chemistry, nuclear waste disposal and mathematical modelling of the environment. There are also radiocarbon dating facilities. The facilities and the research undertaken at the Centre in the year 1987-1988, the Centre's twenty-fifth year are summarized in this report. (U.K.)

  10. The European refining and distribution industry at the 2010 vista

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacour, J.J.; Tessmer, G.; Ward, I.

    1998-01-01

    Oil company chairmen belonging to the AFTP, DGMK and IP associations met together to debate about the future of the European refining industry. The following topics were discussed: is it the end of the refining crisis? Which uncertainties will have to be met? What is the situation of petroleum products supply and demand? What are the consumers' expectations? How to face the environmental constraints? Which future for the refining activities in Europe? Seven round-tables took place with the following themes: the factors of uncertainty in the future of refining activities, the petroleum products supply and demand (automotive fuels, fuel oils, lubricants), the refining activities and the supply of consumers (service stations and supermarkets), the situation of the European petroleum policy, the European refining industry and the public regulations (development of more efficient environmental approaches), the impact of environmental constraints and the technical solutions, and the future of the refining industry. (J.S.)

  11. Using atomic energy in the oil refining and petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigin, E.A.; Barashkov, R.Ia.; Raud, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    A short description of the basic large scale processes for oil refining and petrochemistry in which nuclear reactors can be used is given. The possible industrial plans for using nuclear reactors are examined together with the problems in using the advances in atomic technology in oil refining and petrochemical processes.

  12. State of European refining industry is less bleak than reported

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    It is difficult to pick up a trade publication without reading of the imminent demise of the European refining industry. Major oil companies are combining operations to minimize costs. Refineries are being shuttered, and analysts are calling for the immediate closure of many more plants. There is little doubt that European cracking margins have fallen since the early 1990s, in step with the rest of the world. However, the refining industry in Europe does not, in the opinion of Pace Consultants Inc., suffer from some overriding fundamental flaw that dooms it to low margins forever. The intent of this article is to put some of the industry's recent events in perspective, to discuss some of the fundamental differences between American and European operations, and to perhaps lay to rest the idea that refining is somehow dead in Europe

  13. Refining capacity in Quebec : the Quebec market, industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudelle, F.

    2004-01-01

    Canada's second largest oil refinery is operated by Ultramar Ltd. in Levis, Quebec. The refinery, which supplies 45 per cent of all Quebec's petroleum, distributes its products to Quebec, Ontario and the Maritime provinces. The refinery currently produces 215,000 barrels per day. Ultramar is a division of Valero, an American firm which has a total refining capacity of 2.4 million barrels per day. A summary of the company's petroleum energy distribution, consumption, and reserves was presented and compared with the national and global position. It was noted that world demand for petroleum products increases yearly by 1 to 1.5 per cent while the demand for automobile fuel in North America increases by 2.5 to 3.5 per cent. In the last 10 years, world demand has increased by more than 22 per cent but refining capacity has only increased by 12 per cent. The average profitability of the refining industry from 1992 to 2002 was approximately 5.5 per cent, which limited investments in new refinery installations. Much of the industry's profits have been utilized to modify installations in order to reduce the sulphur content in gasoline and diesel fuels. Furthermore, the obtention of permits to construct new refining installations has become a major obstacle and the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may signify a 30 per cent reduction in automotive fuel demand. Given this, there is currently some hesitation and uncertainty by the refining industry to proceed with new major installations. tabs., figs

  14. The future of the refining industry; L`avenir de l`industrie du raffinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favennec, J P; Guerard, P; Freund, E; Obe, P; O` Brien, D; Montanier, J C

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of the situation and of the future prospects of the refining industry in Europe is given and compared to the other world areas (USA, south-east Asian). Nowadays, the refining industry imposes to take into account of the environmental constraints, of the products qualities and of the refineries emissions. New possible technologies are described. (O.M.) 21 refs.

  15. The future of the refining industry; L`avenir de l`industrie du raffinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favennec, J.P.; Guerard, P.; Freund, E.; Obe, P.; O`Brien, D.; Montanier, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of the situation and of the future prospects of the refining industry in Europe is given and compared to the other world areas (USA, south-east Asian). Nowadays, the refining industry imposes to take into account of the environmental constraints, of the products qualities and of the refineries emissions. New possible technologies are described. (O.M.) 21 refs.

  16. Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry - bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, M.

    1995-03-01

    The Great Lakes Pollution Prevention Centre has compiled a list of references to assist the petroleum refining industry in adopting pollution prevention as an important environmental management strategy. Items included were divided into 14 categories of pollution types, such as air emissions, alternative fuels, chemical substitution, grounds keeping, leaks and spills, paints, waste management plan and others

  17. Estabilidade constitucional e acordos constitucionais: os processos constituintes de Brasil (1987-1988 e Espanha (1977-1978 Constitutional stability and constitutional agreements: the constituent process of Brazil (1987-1988 and Spain (1977-1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gomes Moreira Maués

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa os acordos que formaram as maiorias nas assembléias constituintes de Brasil (1987-1988 e Espanha (1977-1978, buscando indentificar sua contribuição para a estabilidade constitucional dos dois países. O estudo foi desenvolvido em três níveis: estudo das normas regimentais das assembléias constituintes; tabulação das votações que aprovaram dispositivos constitucionais; e análise dos debates constitucionais, na qual foram identificados três processos de formação de maiorias, concessões mútuas, não-decisão e maioria aritmética. O trabalho demonstra que o uso de concessões mútuas e da não-decisão na constituinte favorece o processo de construção do consenso em torno da constituição, contribuindo para sua estabilidade.The article analyses the agreements which formed the majorities in the constituent assemblies of Brazil (1987-1988 and Spain (1977-1978, trying to identify its contribution to the constitutional stability in both countries. This analysis is developed through three steps: study of the rules that governed the constituent assemblies; organization of data about the votings which approved constitutional provisions; and analysis of the constitutional debates, in which three process of majority formation have been identified, mutual concessions; no-decision and arithmetical majority. The work shows that the use of mutual concessions and no-decision in the constituent assembly promotes the process of consensus building regarding the constitution, contributing to its stability.

  18. Catalysts in petroleum refining and petrochemical industries 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absi-Halabi, M.; Beshara, J.; Qabazard, H.; Stanislaus, A. [eds.] [Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Materials Division, Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research, Kuwait (Kuwait)

    1996-07-01

    Catalysis plays an increasingly critical role in modern petroleum refining and basic petrochemical industries. The market demands for and specifications of petroleum and petrochemical products are continuously changing. They have impacted the industry significantly over the past twenty years. Numerous new refining processes have been developed and significant improvements were made on existing technologies. Catalysts have been instrumental in enabling the industry to meet the continuous challenges posed by the market. As we enter the 21st century, new challenges for catalysis science and technology are anticipated in almost every field. Particularly, better utilization of petroleum resources and demands for cleaner transportation fuels are major items on the agenda. It is against this background that the 2nd International Conference on Catalysts in Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries was organized. The papers from the conference were carefully selected from around 100 submissions. They were a mix of reviews providing an overview of selected areas, original fundamental research results, and industrial experiences. The papers in the proceedings were grouped in the following sections for quick reference: Plenary Papers; Hydroprocessing of Petroleum Residues and Distillates; Fluid Catalytic Cracking; Oxidation Catalysis; Aromatization and Polymerization Catalysis; Catalyst Characterization and Performance. The plenary papers were mostly reviews covering important topics related to the objectives of the conference. The remaining sections cover various topics of major impact on modern petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. A large number of papers dealt with hydroprocessing of petroleum distillates and residues which reflects the concern over meeting future sulfur-level specifications for diesel and fuel oils

  19. The future of refining industry is in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    The decision of Total Group to close down the refining activity of its Flandres' site at Dunkerque (France) is a testimony of the deep restructuring that is affecting this sector. The migration of the refining activity towards Middle-East and Asia has started several years ago. The World capacities are increasing: in 2009 4.36 billion tons of petroleum products were refined in the world, representing a 1.9% rise with respect to 2008. 661 refineries exist in the world, among which 6 were inaugurated in 2009, 115 are located in Europe and 12 in France. The bad health of the European refining activity is beneficial to Middle and Asia where investments in new production capacities follow on from one another. From now to 2030, these areas will benefit from 70% of the worldwide investments compared to 11% only for Europe and North America. The decline of the European refining industry is directly linked to decay of the automotive fuel consumption and to the increase of the diesel fuel share with respect to gasoline. On the other hand, Asia, and in particular China and India, follow the exactly opposite trend thanks to their population and economic growths. Therefore, European oil companies try to invest in Asia and are looking for new production capacities in China and India. (J.S.)

  20. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  1. Off-balance-sheet financing to the refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Off-balance-sheet lending, or project finance, is becoming an increasingly popular means of capital formation in the refining and petrochemical industries. However, these transactions are substantially different from traditional corporate lending, and the demands placed on the borrower to examine, substantiate, and support the project are far greater. The following paper examines ways in which international banks and other lenders evaluate off-balance-sheet refinery projects and suggests ways to better structure financial representations

  2. The petroleum refining industry and the implications for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraiva, Gerardo Jose de Pontes

    2000-01-01

    The petroleum refining industry is basically concerned with the production of oil, lubricants and intermediate petrochemical products, utilizing crude oil as its main raw material. Petroleum refining, a distillation process that breaks hydrocarbons into fractions, eliminating undesired impurities, generates irreducible residues. Until the industrial revolution, the residues were essentially organic, susceptible to the attack of agents of destruction and transformation (bacterium, fungi, etc). Suddenly, due to the intensification of human activities of modern man, nature scattered across the planet more resistant products, many of them with long life times, that produce a deeper impact in the environment. Almost entirely marine is the pollution that results from increasing quantity of hydrocarbons dumped into the sea, a problem that is aggravated by the development of manufacturing and transportation of petroleum products. The expansion of the petroleum commerce, using essentially maritime transportation, has increased considerably the probability of accidents increasing the risks of environment pollution. This work presents suggestions and possible solutions to minimize the problem of environment pollution, caused by refining and transportation of this combustible, essential to present time industry. (author)

  3. Biodiesel obtained from soapstock originated in a refining oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobio Pérez, Indira; Díaz Domínguez, Yosvany; Piloto-Rodríguez, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    In the vegetable oil chemical refining process is obtained a by-product commonly named as soapstock, due to its physical and aspect properties. The soapstock free fatty acid content can reach to 50%. The present work shows a survey of researches focused on biodiesel obtaining from this by-product. The biodiesel is obtained following different routes and catalyzers features. A variety of reports shown the effectivity of the use of this by-product derived from vegetable oil refining industry to produce biodiesel. Several studies are addressed to the acid oil recovering involving processes without soapstock acidulation, with the aim of lowering costs and finding more attractive yields closing to the concept of zero wastes. (author)

  4. Pushing the dinosaurs[Competition in the refining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, C B [Ernst and Young/Wright Killen (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The need for change in the business of oil refining is expressed. Since 1981, only three years have yielded high profit margins. The future is said to be in maximising performance from existing assets. In the past, the industry focused on the asset-based strategy of refining crude and getting it into the pipelines as early as possible but apparently the future lies in identifying customer needs and satisfying those needs as quickly as possible. In other words, selling the most product at the highest price. The strategy and tactics for achieving these goals are itemised and discussed. In short, it is essential that oil and gas companies make the transformation from asset focus to customer focus. (UK)

  5. Air Quality Impacts of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Ragothaman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential health impacts, it is important to implement proper air quality management by understanding the link between specific pollutant sources and resulting population exposures. These industries release pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds, greenhouse gases and particulate matter, from various parts of their operations. Air quality should be monitored and controlled more meticulously in developing nations where increased energy demands, industrialization and overpopulation has led to more emissions and lower air quality. This paper presents a review of findings and highlights from various studies on air quality impacts of petroleum refining and petrochemical plants in many regions in the world.

  6. Success in Asian refining -- Strategies for a growth industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    Asia offers some of the best growth opportunities to the global refining industry. Many of its nations are in the process of industrializing, with a rapid rise in living standards and associated energy use. Growth trends are firmly established, with petroleum use in particular increasing rapidly as modern transport infrastructures develop. Of perhaps greater importance is Asia's potential for continued growth based on population and GDP trends. While the expected growth offers a wide range of opportunities, succeeding in the unique Asian marketplace will be a challenge mastered by only a few new entrants. This paper will examine some of the critical issues that will drive success and shape the refining business in Asia. Industry fundamentals will be reviewed, with a focus on growth and profit drivers. With the fundamental framework established, the unique challenges posed by the Asian environment, including cultural issues, investment requirements, regulatory trends and issues in market development will be discussed. The ability to succeed in Asia by identifying factors that create local advantage within a very diverse region will be discussed. The need to merge corporate capabilities and objectives with regional opportunities is the key requirement to succeed in entering or expanding in the region

  7. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleille, S.

    2004-01-01

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  8. Bulletin of the Division of Electrical Engineering, 1987-1988, volume 3, number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    A report is provided on the activities of the Division of Electrical Engineering of the National Research Council of Canada. The Division engages in the development of standards and test procedures, and undertakes applied research in support of Canadian industry, government departments, and universities. Technology transfer and collaborative research continue to grow in importance as focuses of Division activities. The Division is comprised of three sections: the Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering, the Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Power Engineering, and the Laboratory for Intelligent Systems. An agreement has been reached to commercially exploit the realtime multiprocessor operating system Harmony. The dielectrics group has made contract research agreements with industry from both Canada and the United States. The possibility of employing a new advanced laser vision camera, which can be mounted on a robot arm in a variety of industrial applications is being explored. Potential short-term spinoffs related to intelligent wheelchairs are being sought as part of the new interlaboratory program which has as its long-term objective the development of a mobile robot for health care applications. A program in applied artificial intelligence has been established. Initiatives in collaboration with outside groups include proposals for major institutes in areas ranging from police and security research to rehabilitation research, programs to enhance Canadian industrial competence working with the Canadian Manufacturers' Association and other government departments, and approaches to the utilization of existing facilities which will make them more valuable without significant financial expenditures.

  9. The Canadian refining Industry : The circle of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    Examples of how the downstream petroleum industry is influenced by events in the upstream petroleum sector were presented. In order to survive, Canadian refiners (downstream petroleum) must remain competitive with their domestic counterparts, with the U.S. and with offshore refiners who can import products into key Eastern markets. The downstream sector has little choice but to focus on crude costs and flexibility to try to improve the profitability of its operations. In Canada, the supply of both conventional and bitumen crude oil has increased significantly. This change in the supply and demand balance has had a definite impact on prices. Ample Canadian heavy crude supply has caused refiners to adjust their operations to take advantage of lower-cost crude oil. The result has been the announcement of several large-scale projects, such as for example Shell Oil's construction of an upgrader at their Scotsford plant. The North American pipeline system is the link between the upstream supply and the downstream demand. New pipeline projects have allowed increased supplies of Canadian heavy crude to gain access to new markets. It was emphasized that the downstream sector provides feedback to the upstream sector that influences producers when they plan their exploration, development and production activities. The picture in light crude production is the reverse of heavy crude oil production, i.e. Canadian light crude supply declined 4 per cent in 1996 from the average of the previous three years. This decline has given synthetic crude oil facilities like Syncrude and GCOS the chance to expand their production to offset a portion of the inland crude supply shortfall. 5 figs

  10. Annual report 1987 - 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre (SURRC) is an inter-University research centre which seeks to provide, in its own right, a Scottish centre of excellence in key areas of the isotopic, nuclear and earth sciences and, as a shared equipment and resource centre, to offer collaborative research facilities and expertise for the benefit of the staff and students of a Consortium of Scottish Universities. In terms of its research interests, the Centre currently offers a wide range of facilities and expertise in subject areas including geology, medicine, biology, engineering, archaeology, environmental science, chemistry and physics. Foremost of the Centre's activities is the work of the Isotope Geology Unit (IGU). Particular in-house interests relate to the development and application of new techniques of measuring radiogenic and stable isotopes in the geological and geochemical contexts. Joint work of the Isotope Geology Unit and the Nuclear Medicine group has resulted in a growing interest and capability in the application of enriched stable isotope tracers in the biological and clinical sciences. The SURRC also has a range of facilities and expertise in areas involving measurements of radioactive, rather than stable, isotopes. The applications cross many subject boundaries, including Quaternary geology, archaeology, nuclear medicine, health physics, oceanography, atmospheric sciences, environmental chemistry/radioactivity, nuclear waste disposal and mathematical modelling of the environment. (author)

  11. Comparison of lab, pilot, and industrial scale low consistency mechanical refining for improvements in enzymatic digestibility of pretreated hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brandon W; Venditti, Richard; Park, Sunkyu; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical refining has been shown to improve biomass enzymatic digestibility. In this study industrial high-yield sodium carbonate hardwood pulp was subjected to lab, pilot and industrial refining to determine if the mechanical refining improves the enzymatic hydrolysis sugar conversion efficiency differently at different refining scales. Lab, pilot and industrial refining increased the biomass digestibility for lignocellulosic biomass relative to the unrefined material. The sugar conversion was increased from 36% to 65% at 5 FPU/g of biomass with industrial refining at 67.0 kWh/t, which was more energy efficient than lab and pilot scale refining. There is a maximum in the sugar conversion with respect to the amount of refining energy. Water retention value is a good predictor of improvements in sugar conversion for a given fiber source and composition. Improvements in biomass digestibility with refining due to lab, pilot plant and industrial refining were similar with respect to water retention value. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Cambios en la prevalencia de la caries dental en escolares de tres regiones de México: encuestas de 1987-1988 y de 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velázquez Monroy Oscar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar la prevalencia y la gravedad de la caries dental en dos estudios de vigilancia epidemiológica realizados en tres regiones de México en los años 1987-1988 y en 1997-1998. MÉTODOS: La encuesta de 1987-1988 se aplicó a una muestra representativa de escolares de 6 a 10 años de edad de los estados de Nuevo León, Tabasco y el Distrito Federal (D.F.; adicionalmente se incluyeron escolares de 12 años del D.F. El total de alumnos examinados en 1987-1988 fue de 7590. En la encuesta de 1997-1998 se incluyó a escolares de 6 a 10 y 12 años de edad de las tres regiones estudiadas. El total de alumnos incluidos en 1997-1998 fue de 8164. Se compararon las medias del índice de dientes cariados, perdidos u obturados (CPOD de cada grupo de edad en ambos períodos. RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron una disminución de la prevalencia y de la gravedad de la caries dental en los grupos de edad examinados (P < 0,05. En 1997-1998, tanto en el estado de Tabasco como en el de Nuevo León se logró la meta propuesta por la Organización Mundial de la Salud de reducir a no más de tres los dientes cariados, perdidos u obturados a los 12 años de edad, con índices de CPOD de 2,67 y 1,72, respectivamente, aunque el D.F. sobrepasó esa cifra tope (CPOD = 3,11. CONCLUSIÓN: La disminución observada en los índices CPOD podría deberse a varios factores, tales como el consumo de sal fluorada, el uso de dentífricos y enjuagues fluorados, y un mayor acceso a los servicios odontológicos.

  13. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, Joan [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Carole, Tracy [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Andres, Howard [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This 2007 report provides an overview of the U.S. petroleum refining industry, including new data on market trends and energy and material consumption, as well as information on environmental performance.

  14. Testing of indoor radon-reduction techniques in central Ohio houses: Phase 1 (Winter 1987-1988). Report for October 1987-August 1988 (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, W.O.; Robertson, A.; Scott, A.G.

    1989-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a program to demonstrate practical, cost-effective methods to reduce indoor radon concentrations in housing to 150 Bq/cu m (4 pCi/L) or less. The complete program will evaluate the full range of radon-reduction methods, i.e., house ventilation, sealing of entry routes, soil ventilation, radon removal from water, and air cleaning in the full range of housing substructure types and building styles, and geological conditions across the continental United States. The program described in the report demonstrated certain radon-reduction methods in housing and geology typical of southern Ohio in particular, and the central Great Plains States in general. The testing of radon-mitigation systems in Ohio houses is envisioned as taking place in two phases. The report describes Phase 1, which was carried out in 16 existing houses in the Dayton area during the 1987-1988 heating season

  15. Procurement planning in oil refining industries considering blending operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsdottir, Thordis Anna; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses procurement planning in oil refining, which has until now only had limited attention in the literature. We introduce a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model and develop a novel two-stage solution approach, which aims at computational efficiency while addressing...... parameters than in previous literature. The developed approach is tested using historical data from Statoil A/S as well as through a comprehensive numerical analysis. The approach generates a feasible procurement plan within acceptable computation time, is able to quickly adjust an existing plan to take...

  16. EL PESO DE LA MEMORIA EN LOS INICIOS DE LA TRANSICIÓN A LA DEMOCRACIA EN CHILE (1987-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA GARCÍA GONZÁLEZ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo que se presenta a continuación analiza los primeros años de la transición chilena (1987-1988 desde la perspectiva de la memoria histórica, considerando la forma en que los recuerdos de lo que habían sido los gobiernos de Frei y de la Unidad popular, así como los del golpe de Estado y la dictadura, marcaron el desarrollo político y social durante el periodo señalado, es decir, el proceso plebiscitario de 1988. Para ello, se consideran las instancias que hicieron posible dicho proceso electoral, las campañas oficialistas y opositoras que se desarrollaron, y las razones que permiten explicar su resultado y considerarlo el punto de origen del proceso que permitió el retorno a la democracia en Chile, tras diecisiete años de dictaduraThe article that is shown analyze the firsts years of Chilean transition (1987-1988 from the perspective of the historic memory, considering the shape in that the remembers of had been the Frei and Popular Unity government, thus like the military State Stroke and the Dictatorship, signed the politic and social development in that period, specially, in the voting process of 1988. For that, we consider the instances that made that voting process possible, the developed pro-government officials and opponents campaigns, and the reasons that explain the results to consider it the process origin point that it allowed the return to the democracy in Chile, after 17 years of dictatorship

  17. Energy conservation potential in China’s petroleum refining industry: Evidence and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Xie, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A long-term equilibrium relationship of energy demand in China’s petroleum refining industry is established. • The sectoral energy conservation potential is evaluated by using scenarios analysis. • Energy prices, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure affect electricity intensity. • Future policy for energy conservation in China’s petroleum refining industry is suggested. - Abstract: China is currently the second largest petroleum refining country in the world due to rapid growth in recent years. Because the petroleum refining industry is energy-intensive, the rapid growth in petroleum refining and development caused massive energy consumption. China’s urbanization process will guarantee sustained growth of the industry for a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to study the energy conservation potential of the petroleum industry. This paper estimates the energy conservation potential of the industry by applying a cointegration model to investigate the long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption and some factors such as energy price, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure. The results show that R and D investment has the greatest reduction impact on energy intensity, and the growth of market participants (i.e. the decline of the share of state-owned companies) can improve energy efficiency of this industry. Under the advanced energy-saving scenario, the accumulated energy conservation potential will reach 230.18 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Finally, we provide some targeted policy recommendations for industrial energy conservation

  18. Grasp Densities for Grasp Refinement in Industrial Bin Picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hupfauf, Benedikt; Hahn, Heiko; Bodenhagen, Leon

    in terms of object-relative gripper pose, can be learned from empirical experience, and allow the automatic choice of optimal grasps in a given scene context (object pose, workspace constraints, etc.). We will show grasp densities extracted from empirical data in a real industrial bin picking context...... generated in industrial bin-picking for grasp learning. This aim is achieved by using the novel concept of grasp densities (Detry et al., 2010). Grasp densities can describe the full variety of grasps that apply to specific objects using specific grippers. They represent the likelihood of grasp success...

  19. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Industrial automation management in the refining industry; Gestao da automacao industrial no refino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Antonio Carlos; Moro, Lincoln Fernando Lautenschlager [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    PETROBRAS started in 1986 the implementation of industrial automation in its refineries with the gradual replacement of analogical instrumentation by the digital technology, which demanded massive investments in hardware and allowed the adoption of real time optimization (RTO) systems . This process also required significant investments in learning and technology development. It is estimated that the set of systems already in operation generates results in the order of 1% of the Downstream operating profit, due to better product yields, lower energy consumption, higher reliability, etc. Currently the company focuses in guaranteeing the effectiveness of the results obtained with the optimization technology. This guarantee demands a plethora of actions, including the elaboration of an evaluation methodology and a rigorous and continuous results analysis , as well as actions to solve the problems that may be negatively impacting the performance. A specific evaluation methodology has been developed for the advanced control application, since this technology is the most mature among all that have already been implemented. This methodology considers that the economic results are directly related to the activation of process constraints that bound the operating window, and consist basically in the evaluation of an index, called PCAT (percentage of active controlled variables), which is transformed into an economical benefit by a procedure that takes into account the unit potential and the performance of the control system. The results clearly show that the overall performance has been improving since October, 2003. (author)

  1. Challenges and technological opportunities for the oil refining industry: A Brazilian refinery case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelo Branco, David A.; Gomes, Gabriel L.; Szklo, Alexandre S.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide oil refining industry currently faces strong challenges related to uncertainties about future feedstock and characteristics of oil products. These challenges favor two main strategies for the sector: the first strategy is increasing refinery complexity and versatility; the second is integrating the refining and petrochemical industries, adding value to the crude oil while guaranteeing market share to premium oil products. Both strategies aim at increasing production of highly specified oil products, simultaneously reducing the environmental impacts of the refining industry. This paper analyses the case of a Brazilian refinery, Gabriel Passos Refinery (REGAP), by proposing additional investments to alter and/or expand its current production scheme. All the proposed options present relatively low investment rates of return. However, investments in a hydrocracking based configuration with a gasification unit providing hydrogen and power can further improve the operational profitability, due to reduced natural gas consumption.

  2. Petroleum movements and investments in the refining industry: The impact of worldwide environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guariguata U., G.

    1995-01-01

    Since the enactment of the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the worldwide refining industry has aligned itself to become increasing attuned to the future well-being of the environment. Refiners must now develop strategies which address careful selection of crude slates, significant increases and changes in product movements, and upgrading of facilities to meet growing demand--in short, strategies which allow them to make substantial increases in capital investments. The objective of this paper is to determine the regional capital investments refiners must make in order to comply with environmental legislation. The methodology in making this determination was founded on a comprehensive analysis of worldwide petroleum supply/demand and distribution patterns for the coming five years, and included evaluation of a set of linear programming (LP) models based on forecasts for regional product demands and projections of regional specifications. The models considered two scenarios, in which either (1) refinery expansion occurs chiefly in the market consuming regions, or (2) crude producers take control of incremental crude volumes and further expand their planned refining projects and the marketing of refined products. The results of these models, coupled with an understanding of geopolitical situations and economic analyses, provided estimates for capital expenditures for the coming decade. In specific, the following issues were addressed, and are discussed in this paper: refined product trade outlook; crude supply; crude quality; shipping; and capital investments

  3. Recent developments in environmental regulations and their impact on the U.S. refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmassebi, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Public concern over the environment has heightened considerably since the hot, dry summer of 1988. Responding to these concerns, the administration and Congress have initiated a number of measures to address such issues as acid rain, ozone depletion, smog, and global climate change. Most of these measures are aimed at the oil industry or energy-producing companies. They cone on the heels of other costly environmental legislation, to phase out lead in gasoline and reduce gasoline volatility. Additional measures aimed at different segments of the oil industry (production, refining, and retailing) are expected. In analyzing the merits of these policies, one must address the following issues: the feasibility of reaching an optimum point for these regulatory measures, considering the potential costs and benefits; the ramifications of such measures on the U.S. oil industry, particularly on the U.S. refining industry; the costs to the final consumer and the economy; and the effects of the implementation of such regulations by other countries and our trading partners. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concerns raised above, particularly as they relate to the U.S. refining industry

  4. Oil industry consolidation and refined product prices. Evidence from US wholesale gasoline terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendix, Michael; Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective in this paper is to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on refined product prices, controlling for other important factors that could also impact prices. Our empirical analysis focuses on the US petroleum refining industry using data on industry consolidation and wholesale gasoline prices collected over the interval 2000-2008. We match refinery units to wholesale city-terminal gasoline markets, and then estimate pooled cross-section time-series regressions to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on wholesale gasoline prices at city-specific terminals. The results of the empirical analysis of mergers are mixed, showing that some petroleum industry mergers resulted in statistically significant increases in refined product prices; others resulted in statistically significant declines and still others had no statistical impact at all. Our analysis of the effects of measures of market concentration - one at the level of city-specific wholesale terminals and another at the level of regional spot markets - found evidence that less concentrated markets are associated with lower price levels. (author)

  5. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation's air quality. The aspects of the President's plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below

  6. Whether integrating refining and petrochemical business can provide opportunities for development of petrochemical industry in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zoran M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 90s of last century both the petroleum industry and petrochemical industry have operated in difficult circumstances. In particularly, margins of petroleum and petrochemical industry were exacerbated during global economic crisis in 2008-2009 years. At that time, as one option that could be the solution, the global analysts had started to more intense investigate the benefits of Refining-Petrochemical Integration. Shortly afterwards, more and more petroleum refineries and petrochemical manufacturers began to see the future in this kind of operational, managerial, marketing and commercial connection. This paper evaluates, in particular, the achieved level of integration of refinery and petrochemical businesses in Central and South-Eastern Europe. And specifically, the paper identifies current capabilities and future chances of linking this kind of integration between Serbian refining and petrochemical players. The viability of integration between possible actors and benefits of every single refining-petrochemical interface in Serbia depend on many factors, and therefore each integrated system is unique and requires prior serious Cost Benefit Analysis.

  7. An empirical analysis of lumpy investment. The case of US petroleum refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hirokatsu

    2002-01-01

    This paper employs five econometric models to examine lumpy investment and investigates the investment behavior of the US petroleum refining industry. Firms in the industry are classified into three groups by their size. All three groups show zero investment, disinvestment and investment in accordance with economic conditions. The analysis finds the minimum amount of investment and disinvestment for each group, which suggests that the size of fixed costs of investment is substantial, regardless of firm size. However, small firms adjust capital stock more slowly than medium or large firms. The analysis also suggests the existence of a convex adjustment cost

  8. The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80's when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries

  9. Panorama 2016 - Overview of the refining industry in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula; Jalard, Matthieu

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, emissions from the refining sector have fallen by more than 12%, reaching 128 MtCO 2 e in 2014. Germany was the largest emitter of CO 2 e for the 2005- 2014 period. With Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands, these six countries accounted for 71% of the industry's emissions in the EU ETS for 2014. During the 2008-2014 period, the European refining sector had a surplus of 74 MtCO 2 e, but since 2013 has had an annual deficit. Estimates show that the overall surplus of 74 MtCO 2 e should vanish by 2015. In the future, European demand for petroleum products will drop, and forecasts for crude processing are expected to decline. IFPEN estimates that, by 2035, this decline should reach 30%, leading to a 20% drop in the sector's emissions. Against this background, the amount of free allowances in the refining sector will fall, from 80% in 2014 to nearly 75% in 2020, leading to compliance costs for the European refining sector of approximately euro 600 million for 2020 alone, compared with the $6 billion needed for investment in Europe by 2035. Due to the great disparity in efficiency among European refineries (difference when compared with the benchmark), it is clear that it will be extremely costly for certain refineries to remain in operation. This will lead to the likely closure of refineries that are less efficient in terms of GHG emissions. (authors)

  10. Annual report 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This First Annual Report of the Safety Review Committee describes the Committee's operations for the year ending 30 June 1988. The Committee was established on 27 April 1987 in accordance with Section 26 of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Act. The report provides an overview of ANSTO's Lucas Heights site, its facilities and resources and the potential of its operations for off-site consequences. The safety of the HIFAR and MOATA reactors, the HIFAR refurbishing program, the management of radioactive wastes, and occupational health and safety are discussed as well as the regulatory environment in which ANSTO operates

  11. Annual report 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents: the annual report 1987/8 of the University Research Reactor, Risley, United Kingdom. The report contains a description of the current research programme using reactor produced isotopes and other reactor facilities. A summary of the work carried out by the Activation Analysis Service during 1987/8 is also given, along with the Reactor Teaching Programme, and the reactor operation and site safety arrangements. (U.K.)

  12. AGS experiments---1987, 1988, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report contains: Experimental Areas Layout; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ''as run''; Experiment Long Range Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS experiments; and List of experimenters

  13. Dynamics of the European refining and petrochemical industry. Strategies, structure and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenbakkers, K.

    1997-01-01

    The changes in the market position of producers engaged in the oil refining and basic petrochemical industry on the Western European market are the central theme of this book. Analysis of this reshuffling process among these actors is conducted on three levels. First, research is carried out at the level of world regions. In order to understand the reorganization of oil refining and basic petrochemical production in Western Europe, it is necessary to explore the recent aggregate dynamics of these activities on a global scale. Second, the differences in strategic behaviour are exanuned at the level of groups of market participants, namely the major oil companies, the chemical companies, the state-owned companies from both consumer and producer countries, and the independents. Finally, the investment/disinvestment decisions in the Western European oil refining and basic petrochemical industry are investigated at the level of the individual firm. Particular emphasis is placed upon explaining why companies active in the sectors under study have followed different strategies, although they have been confronted with similar adverse market conditions in Western Europe during the last decades. 341 refs

  14. Prospects for the U.S. energy and refining industries: Markets, profitability and key drivers for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    The US refining industry has experienced an extended period of change covering the past 20 years. Growing regulatory requirements, combined with shifting market characteristics, have resulted in massive investments and significant and ongoing structural change. Despite excellent capacity utilization, recent profitability has been poor. Industry psychology can be described as depressed, with honest concern about the long-term attractiveness of domestic refining as an area for continued participation and investment. This paper provides an overview of how the industry arrived at these levels of poor profitability, examines the current situation and future drivers, and presents Chem Systems' views on the outlook for domestic refining

  15. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  16. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  17. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  18. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  19. Hierarchical prediction of industrial water demand based on refined Laspeyres decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yizi; Lu, Shibao; Gong, Jiaguo; Shang, Ling; Li, Xiaofei; Wei, Yongping; Shi, Hongwang

    2017-12-01

    A recent study decomposed the changes in industrial water use into three hierarchies (output, technology, and structure) using a refined Laspeyres decomposition model, and found monotonous and exclusive trends in the output and technology hierarchies. Based on that research, this study proposes a hierarchical prediction approach to forecast future industrial water demand. Three water demand scenarios (high, medium, and low) were then established based on potential future industrial structural adjustments, and used to predict water demand for the structural hierarchy. The predictive results of this approach were compared with results from a grey prediction model (GPM (1, 1)). The comparison shows that the results of the two approaches were basically identical, differing by less than 10%. Taking Tianjin, China, as a case, and using data from 2003-2012, this study predicts that industrial water demand will continuously increase, reaching 580 million m 3 , 776.4 million m 3 , and approximately 1.09 billion m 3 by the years 2015, 2020 and 2025 respectively. It is concluded that Tianjin will soon face another water crisis if no immediate measures are taken. This study recommends that Tianjin adjust its industrial structure with water savings as the main objective, and actively seek new sources of water to increase its supply.

  20. Options report for the mining, non-ferrous metal smelting and refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This plant level analysis involved the study of three Canadian mines from ore extraction to refining. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from each facility were examined, along with projects to reduce these emissions. Results showed variation in emissions between firms by orders of magnitude, and while GHG reducing projects do exist, many are not implemented for economic and business reasons. Nevertheless, a modelling analysis of the mining industry as a whole showed that the industry should be able to reduce its GH emissions to within range of the Kyoto target. Enhanced voluntary initiatives, already supported by the industry, are seen as the most cost effective means of achieving these emission reductions. Industry experts suggest more effort to be expended on identifying GHG reducing technologies and competing projects with higher returns on investment. There is incontrovertible evidence that energy efficiency measures are often not implemented by the industry because their return on investment are not as attractive as those associated with process improvement projects. With appropriate assistance from government, such as funding for comprehensive energy audits similar to the plant level analysis done for this report, funding for carrying out the detailed economic evaluation of these projects, help with specialized human resources to participate in enhanced voluntary activities (such as the energy audits and life cycle cost/benefit analysis), and financial incentives to create more attractive returns on investment for energy efficiency/GHG emission reduction projects, the Canadian mining industry will be, and can be, part of the solution towards reducing GHG emissions. Other avenues that could be helpful in this effort include exporting Canadian mining technology to aid in reaching a global solution to a global problem, recognition for the Canadian mining industry for its northern operations, credit for Canada for embodied energy in exports, and recycling to

  1. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  3. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents.

  4. Decision support in hierarchical planning systems: The case of procurement planning in oil refining industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Kasper Bislev; Lynge, Lasse Hadberg; Akkerman, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of decision support systems for hierarchically structured planning approaches, such as commercially available advanced planning systems. We develop a framework to show how such a decision support system can be designed with the existing organization in mind...... and from the perspective of the organizational aspects involved. To exemplify and develop our framework, we use a case study of crude oil procurement planning in the refining industry. The results of the case study indicate an improved organizational embedding of the DSS, leading to significant savings...... in terms of planning efforts and procurement costs. In general, our framework aims to support the continuous improvement of advanced planning systems, increasing planning quality in complex supply chain settings....

  5. [Current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Yu, J N; He, C H; Mu, H X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C Y; Yu, S F; Li, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Methods: From August 2015 to March 2016, the investigation method of collecting the data of past occupational health examinations and measuring noise in working environment was used to enroll 8 672 male workers. Results: Of all workers, 11.6% were diagnosed with hearing loss. There were significant differences in the distribution of hearing impairment among workers exposed to noise at different ages, device types and types of work (χ(2)=17.80, 77.80 and 30.53, all P hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Conclusion: The level of noise exposure and working years with noise exposure are main influencing factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry.

  6. Canadian retail petroleum markets study : a review of competitiveness in the Canadian refined petroleum marketing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada, as well as to provide a foundation for effective policy development. A model which illustrates the interrelationships between the many stakeholders who receive revenue from the sale of gasoline was presented. It was shown that although there has been an upward trend in world crude prices since 1991, both refiners and marketers have experienced a decline in margins due to price competition at the rack and at the retail pump. Government intervention into petroleum marketing was considered to be of questionable value and a poor alternative to market-based regulation. In this study, 19 markets representing a broad range of conditions, were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. Market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators were reviewed and discussed. Improving public understanding and awareness of competition in the petroleum marketing sector and developing cooperative industry research into marketing sector competitive issues were recommended. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 37 figs

  7. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement in the United States Petroleum Refining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, William R. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marano, John [JM Energy Consulting, Inc.; Sathaye, Jayant [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Adoption of efficient process technologies is an important approach to reducing CO2 emissions, in particular those associated with combustion. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among the most cost-effective approaches that any refiner can take, improving productivity while reducing emissions. Therefore, careful analysis of the options and costs associated with efficiency measures is required to establish sound carbon policies addressing global climate change, and is the primary focus of LBNL’s current petroleum refining sector analysis for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The analysis is aimed at identifying energy efficiency-related measures and developing energy abatement supply curves and CO2 emissions reduction potential for the U.S. refining industry. A refinery model has been developed for this purpose that is a notional aggregation of the U.S. petroleum refining sector. It consists of twelve processing units and account s for the additional energy requirements from steam generation, hydrogen production and water utilities required by each of the twelve processing units. The model is carbon and energy balanced such that crud e oil inputs and major refinery sector outputs (fuels) are benchmarked to 2010 data. Estimates of the current penetration for the identified energy efficiency measures benchmark the energy requirements to those reported in U.S. DOE 2010 data. The remaining energy efficiency potential for each of the measures is estimated and compared to U.S. DOE fuel prices resulting in estimates of cost- effective energy efficiency opportunities for each of the twelve major processes. A combined cost of conserved energy supply curve is also presented along with the CO2 emissions abatement opportunities that exist in the U.S. petroleum refinery sector. Roughly 1,200 PJ per year of primary fuels savings and close to 500 GWh per y ear of electricity savings are potentially cost

  8. Refining revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Isaak, D.

    1984-01-01

    A review of changes in the oil refining industry since 1973 examines the drop in capacity use and its effect on profits of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries compared to world refining. OPEC countries used their new oil revenues to expand Gulf refineries, which put additional pressure on OECD refiners. OPEC involvement in global marketing, however, could help to secure supplies. Scrapping some older OECD refineries could improve the percentage of capacity in use if new construction is kept to a minimum. Other issues facing refiners are the changes in oil demand patterns and government responses to the market. 2 tables.

  9. Application of the exergy concept in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Ricardo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Grupo de Exergia, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2002-08-01

    In this paper, the past, present and future applications of the exergy concept in applied process research, development and engineering projects in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industry, conducted at the Mexican Petroleum Institute (IMP), are described. These applications are the result of a clear recognition of the challenge represented by the reduction of energy degradation, i.e. the application of the second law of thermodynamics, through the exergy concept, which allows to simultaneously consider the three E's model: energy-economy-ecology. Applications can be grouped in two complementary directions: the first, methodological, direction consists in integrating within general simulation, analysis and optimization programs, the subroutines required to conduct exergy analyses, in order to get a quick and precise manner, all information required to integrally optimize chemical processes through detailed exergoeconomic and exergoecologic studies. The second direction refers to research and technological development of specific systems and processes, integrally optimum, of which the justification lies on the exergy analysis, i.e. on its capacity to simultaneously consider energy, economy and ecology aspects, such as diabatic distillation, absorption heat pumps, coking-gasification-combined cycle co- and tri-generation, fuel cells, etc. (Author)

  10. Satisfaction of the Automotive Fleet Fuel Demand and Its Impact on the Oil Refining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Because virtually all transportation fuels are based on petroleum, it is essential to include petroleum refining in any assessment of potential changes in the transportation system. A number of changes in the automotive fleet have been proposed to im...

  11. Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety.

  12. Egyptian And International Automotive Diesel. Fuels: Specifications Meeting Challenges To Refining Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, A.M.; EI Shamy, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a brief summary and comparison of Egyptian automotive diesel fuel to the international one. Recent legislation all over the world, requiring further reduction in sulfur, aromatics, T 90 and T 95 and increasing cetane value of the transportation diesel fuels, presents numerous technical and economic challenges to the refiners. While refiners grapple with these challenges, they will also face pressure from the increased demand of transportation diesel fuel and tighter capital restrictions. Overcome of these challenges makes a fair competition. A comparison of the Egyptian automotive diesel fuel and the international one will be a guide to locally and globally facing these challenges

  13. Application of neural networks to the petroleum refining industry; Aplicando redes neurais a industria de refino de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R M.C.F. da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chaves, C. [Fundacao Gorceix, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Neural Network technology is an approach for describing behavior from process data, using mathematical algorithms and statistical techniques. The use of Neural Network in industrial process modeling and property estimation of feedstocks or products, is increasing in several kinds of chemical industries. This paper comments about critical successful factors, advantages and disadvantages of this methodology. Moreover, it presents some applications in Hydrotreating Process of the petroleum refining industry. In Hydrotreating of feedstocks, knowledge about characteristics of process regarding product property estimation, hydrogen consumption and removal of contaminants (sulfur, nitrogen, aromatics), are very important to process optimization, product specification and environment protection. The Neural Network technique has been used to model the behaviour of the chemical hydrogen consumption, the conversions of the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrodesulfurization and hydro denitrogenation reactions and the physical properties of product with operational conditions and feedstock properties. In addition, Neural Networks have been built to predict the cetane number of feedstocks. (author)

  14. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States). ITT Research Institute; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G. [Bonner and Moore Management Science, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  15. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising.

  16. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils; L'industrie du raffinage et le devenir des fiouls lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S

    2004-01-15

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  17. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. 132 documents relevant to the topic were reviewed. TMD efforts were created to advertise cigarettes after advertising restrictions on direct advertising were imposed in 1982. To build public credibility the tobacco companies set up small companies and projected them as entities independent of tobacco. Each brand selected an activity or event such as music, travel, fashion, and sports that best suited its image. RJ Reynolds sponsored music events to advertise its Salem brand while Philip Morris used Marlboro World of Sports since advertising restrictions prevented the use of the Marlboro man in broadcast media. Despite a ban on tobacco advertisements in the mass media, tobacco companies were the top advertisers in the country throughout the 1980s and 1990s. The media's dependence on advertising revenue and support from the ruling elite played a part in delaying efforts to ban indirect advertising. Advertising is crucial for the tobacco industry. When faced with an advertising ban they created ways to circumvent it, such as TMDs.

  18. Anicteric hepatoxicity: a potential health risk of occupational exposures in Nigerian petroleum oil refining and distribution industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezejiofor, Tobias I Ndubuisi; Ezejiofor, Anthonet N; Orisakwe, Orish E; Nwigwe, Hariet C; Osuala, Ferdinand Ou; Iwuala, Moses Oe

    2014-01-22

    Literature abounds linking one's job to certain unpalatable health outcomes. Since exposures to hazardous conditions in industrial environments often results in sundry health effects among workers, we embarked on this study to investigate the hepatic health effects of occupational activities in the petroleum refining and distribution industry. Biochemical markers of liver functions were assayed in plasma, using Reflotron dry chemistry spectrophotometric system. The study was conducted on randomly selected workers of Port Harcourt Refining Company (PHRC) and Pipelines and Petroleum Product Marketing Company (PPMC) both in Alesa-Eleme near Port Harcourt, Nigeria, as well as non-oil work civil servants serving as control subjects. Results showed that, bilirubin ranged 0.3-1.6 mg/dl with a mean of 0.66±0.20mg/dl among the oil workers as against 0.5-1.00mg/dl with a mean of 0.58±0.13mg/dl in non-oil workers, Alkaline phosphatase ranged 50.00-296.00u/l (mean: 126.21±39.49u/l) in oil workers as against 40.20-111u/l (mean: 66.83±18.54u/l) for non-oil workers, Aspartic transaminases (AST) ranged 5.80-140.20u/l (mean: 21.81±11.49u/l) in oil workers against 18.00-44.00u/l (mean: 26.89±6.99u/l) for non-oil workers, while Alanine transaminases (ALT) ranged 4.90-86.00u/l (mean: 22.14±11.28u/l) in oil workers as against 10.00-86.60u/l (mean: 22.30±10.22u/l) for the non-oil workers. A close study of the results revealed that although the mean values for all the studied parameters were still within the parametric reference ranges, however, relative to the referents, there were significant increases (Pdifferentiation data showed that though the mean values for the parameters were higher in males than females, the increases were not significant in most cases (P>0.05), whereas data for age and exposure period classifications revealed that irrespective of the age of the worker, the effects are likely to start after the first five years, manifesting fully after the first decade

  19. Spent solid catalysts of chemical industry and petroleum refining; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillier, A; Briand, Y

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work is the analysis of the heterogeneous catalysis. In a first part are given the utilizing sectors. There are mainly the petroleum refining, the chemical industry and the environment. A catalyst is chosen according to its selectivity and velocity, its cost and the wastes it induces. Thus are found three main heterogeneous catalysts series: the bulky metals, the supported metals: precious or heavy or their compounds, the zeolites and other silico-aluminates. Their most frequent uses are given. The catalysts used in the main petroleum refining processes (distillation, catalytic hydro-treatment, desulfurization, catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrocracking, alkylation) are also detailed. The second part deals with the spent solid catalysts. The reasons of the deactivation (poisons or contaminants, structure modification) are given. The spent catalysts are either regenerated or eliminated. The regeneration methods are described. The solid catalysts cannot be stored without being stabilized (decrease of its water permeability and of its leachable fraction). The stabilization methods are reviewed. The regulations on the spent solid catalysts are given in the last part. (O.M.)

  20. Spent solid catalysts of chemical industry and petroleum refining; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillier, A.; Briand, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this work is the analysis of the heterogeneous catalysis. In a first part are given the utilizing sectors. There are mainly the petroleum refining, the chemical industry and the environment. A catalyst is chosen according to its selectivity and velocity, its cost and the wastes it induces. Thus are found three main heterogeneous catalysts series: the bulky metals, the supported metals: precious or heavy or their compounds, the zeolites and other silico-aluminates. Their most frequent uses are given. The catalysts used in the main petroleum refining processes (distillation, catalytic hydro-treatment, desulfurization, catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrocracking, alkylation) are also detailed. The second part deals with the spent solid catalysts. The reasons of the deactivation (poisons or contaminants, structure modification) are given. The spent catalysts are either regenerated or eliminated. The regeneration methods are described. The solid catalysts cannot be stored without being stabilized (decrease of its water permeability and of its leachable fraction). The stabilization methods are reviewed. The regulations on the spent solid catalysts are given in the last part. (O.M.)

  1. Creating value in refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on recent developments in the US refining industry and presents a model for improving the performance of refineries based on the analysis of the refining industry by Cap Gemini Ernst and Young. The identification of refineries in risk of failing, the construction of pipelines for refinery products from Gulf State refineries, mergers and acquisitions, and poor financial performance are discussed. Current challenges concerning the stagnant demand for refinery products, environmental regulations, and shareholder value are highlighted. The structure of the industry, the creation of value in refining, and the search for business models are examined. The top 25 US companies and US refining business groups are listed

  2. Demulsification of residual waters from refining industries of lubricant oil: case study; Desemulsificacao de aguas residuarias de industrias de refino de oleo lubrificante: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, Marcia Yumi; Morita, Dione Mari [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Sanitaria]. E-mail: dmmorita@usp.br

    1997-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the coagulation, flocculation with iron chloride (FeCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O), followed by phase separation, as alternative for treating residual waters from lubricant oil refining industries. Tests have been performed by using {sup j}ar test{sup ,} changing pH value and coagulants for various wastewater characteristics.

  3. North American refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  4. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  5. Increased value creation by industrial refining of natural gas in Norway?; Oekt verdiskaping gjennom industriell foredling av naturgass i Norge?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelvik, John Magne; Kjelland, Torunn; Bakke, Kathrine Stene; Pedersen, Kent Vincent; Roetnes, Rolf; Fjose, Sveinung

    2009-07-01

    The report assesses whether industrial exploitation of gas from possible new major discoveries outside Northern Norway could be profitable. Profits are uncertain and depend heavily on gas prices. Industrial exploitation depends on the development of large, capital-intensive plants. This increases the financial risk. In a situation where gas export through pipelines is not an alternative industrial exploitation could be an alternative to export via LNG. However, the pressing demand for natural gas increases the probability of the construction of a gas export pipeline as a realistic alternative. Carbon emissions from a land-based plant will be important, and the costs for trading of emission allowances will reduce profitability. The authorities should allow for industrial exploitation to be assessed on an equal basis with pipeline transport and LNG as alternatives for market solutions for major new discoveries. (EW)

  6. Oxidative stability of refined olive and sunflower oils supplemented with lycopene-rich oleoresin from tomato peels industrial by-product, during accelerated shelf-life storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Choura, Sirine; Zammel, Ayachi; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2018-04-25

    Tomato peels by-product from a Tunisian industry was used for the extraction of lycopene-rich oleoresin using hexane solvent maceration. Tomato peels oleoresin, TPO, exhibited competitive free radicals scavenging activity with synthetic antioxidants. The efficacy of TPO in stabilizing refined olive (ROO) and sunflower (RSO) oils was investigated for five months, under accelerated shelf-life, compared to the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). TPO was added to ROO and RSO at four different concentrations, namely 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/g and BHT standard at 200 µg/g. Lipid oxidation was tracked by measuring the peroxide value, acidity, conjugated dienes and trienes. Results suggested the highest efficiency of 250 µg/g and 2000 µg/g of TPO, referring to 5 µg/g and 40 µg/g of lycopene, for the oxidative stabilization of ROO and RSO, respectively. The protective effect of TPO against the primary oxidation of these refined oils was significantly correlated to their lycopene contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  8. Thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system for multi-strand waste heat sources in petroleum refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Li, Yan; Gu, Chun-wei; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade waste heat source accounts for a large part of the total industrial waste heat, which cannot be efficiently recovered. The ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system has been proved to be a promising solution for the utilization of low-grade heat sources. It is evident that there might be several waste heat sources distributing in different temperature levels in one industry unit, and the entire recovery system will be extremely large and complex if the different heat sources are utilized one by one through several independent ORC subsystems. This paper aims to design and optimize a comprehensive ORC system to recover multi-strand waste heat sources in Shijiazhuang Refining and Chemical Company in China, involving defining suitable working fluids and operating parameters. Thermal performance is a first priority criterion for the system, and system simplicity, technological feasibility and economic factors are considered during optimization. Four schemes of the recovery system are presented in continuous optimization progress. By comparison, the scheme of dual integrated subsystems with R141B as a working fluid is optimal. Further analysis is implemented from the view of economic factors and off-design conditions. The analytical method and optimization progress presented can be widely applied in similar multi-strand waste heat sources recovery. - Highlights: • This paper focuses on the recovery of multi-strand waste heat sources. • ORC technology is used as a promising solution for the recovery. • Thermal performance, system simplicity and economic factors are considered

  9. Refining - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable

  10. Outlook for Canadian refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boje, G.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum supply and demand balance was discussed and a comparison between Canadian and U.S. refineries was provided. The impact of changing product specifications on the petroleum industry was also discussed. The major changes include sulphur reductions in gasoline, benzene and MMT additives. These changes have been made in an effort to satisfy environmental needs. Geographic margin variations in refineries between east and west were reviewed. An overview of findings from the Solomon Refining Study of Canadian and American refineries, which has been very complimentary of the Canadian refining industry, was provided. From this writer's point of view refinery utilization has improved but there is a threat from increasing efficiency of US competitors. Environmental issues will continue to impact upon the industry and while the chances for making economic returns on investment are good for the years ahead, it will be a challenge to maintain profitability

  11. Spanish Refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lores, F.R.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of petroleum refining in Spain is presented (by Repsol YPF) and some views on future trends are discussed. Spain depends heavily on imports. Sub-headings in the article cover: sources of crude imports, investments and logistics and marketing, -detailed data for each are shown diagrammatically. Tables show: (1) economic indicators (e.g. total GDP, vehicle numbers and inflation) for 1998-200; (2) crude oil imports for 1995-2000; (3) oil products balance for 1995-2000; (4) commodities demand, by product; (5) refining in Spain in terms of capacity per region; (6) outlets in Spain and other European countries in 2002 and (7) sales distribution channel by product

  12. Panorama 2012 - Refining 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2011-11-01

    The major uncertainty characterizing the global energy landscape impacts particularly on transport, which remains the virtually-exclusive bastion of the oil industry. The industry must therefore respond to increasing demand for mobility against a background marked by the emergence of alternatives to oil-based fuels and the need to reduce emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). It is in this context that the 'Refining 2030' study conducted by IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) forecasts what the global supply and demand balance for oil products could be, and highlights the type and geographical location of the refinery investment required. Our study shows that the bulk of the refining investment will be concentrated in the emerging countries (mainly those in Asia), whilst the areas historically strong in refining (Europe and North America) face reductions in capacity. In this context, the drastic reduction in the sulphur specification of bunker oil emerges as a structural issue for European refining, in the same way as increasingly restrictive regulation of refinery CO 2 emissions (quotas/taxation) and the persistent imbalance between gasoline and diesel fuels. (authors)

  13. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  14. Summary of Research Academic Departments, 1987-1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    to British maritime suprcm- periods in English history. The general thesis is acy and naval hegemony . The Eighth Naval History Symposium: Select...leaders additionally described of good leadership for many years, the exact qual- charismatic leaders as rugged or masculine (e.g., ilit’s required for

  15. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute annual report 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Bechtold, W.E.; Sun, J.D.; Coons, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    The mission of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute is to investigate the magnitude of human health effects that result from the inhalation of airborne materials at home, in the work place, or in the general environment. Diseases of the respiratory tract are major causes of suffering and death, and many of these diseases are directly related to the materials that people breath. The Institute's research is directed toward obtaining a better understanding of the basic biology of the respiratory tract and the mechanisms by which inhaled materials produce respiratory disease. Special attention is focused on studying the airborne materials released by various energy technologies, as well as those associated with national defense activities. The research uses a wide-ranging, comprehensive array of investigative approaches that are directed toward characterizing the source of the airborne material, following the material through its potential transformation in the air, identifying the mechanisms that govern its inhalation and deposition in the respiratory tract, and determining the fate of these inhaled materials in the body and the health effects they produce. The ultimate objectives are to determine the roles played by inhaled materials in the development of disease processes adn to estimate the risk they pose by inhaled materials in the development of disease processes and to estimate the risk they pose to humans who may be exposed to them. This report contains brief research papers that reflect the scope and recent findings of the Institute's research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, principally through the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The papers are divided into topical sections. The first section, Characterization of Airborne Materials and Generation of Experimental Exposure Atmospheres, reflects the Institute's capabilities for fundamental aerosol research and the application of that expertise to toxicological studies. The second section, Deposition and Fate of Inhaled Toxicants, describes factors influencing the uptake of inhaled materials and their initial interactions in the body. The third and fourth sections, Health Effects of Inhaled Radionuclides and Health Effects of Inhaled Chemical Toxicants, describe recent progress in the fields of radiation and chemical toxicology, respectively. The fifth section, Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis, reflects progress in the understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation and chemicals induce cancer. Similarly, the sixth section, Mechanisms of Non-Carcinogenic Responses to Inhaled Toxicants describes research on the development of diseases other than cancer. The seventh section, The Application of Mathematical Modeling to Health Issues, describes efforts to predict health risks by using computer-based models and limited experimental or epidemiological data. The final section, Studies at the University of Utah, describes progress in studies conducted by University of Utah scientists funded by subcontract through this Institute

  16. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute annual report 1987-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauderly, J L; Mewhinney, J A; Bechtold, W E; Sun, J D; Coons, T A [eds.

    1988-12-01

    The mission of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute is to investigate the magnitude of human health effects that result from the inhalation of airborne materials at home, in the work place, or in the general environment. Diseases of the respiratory tract are major causes of suffering and death, and many of these diseases are directly related to the materials that people breath. The Institute's research is directed toward obtaining a better understanding of the basic biology of the respiratory tract and the mechanisms by which inhaled materials produce respiratory disease. Special attention is focused on studying the airborne materials released by various energy technologies, as well as those associated with national defense activities. The research uses a wide-ranging, comprehensive array of investigative approaches that are directed toward characterizing the source of the airborne material, following the material through its potential transformation in the air, identifying the mechanisms that govern its inhalation and deposition in the respiratory tract, and determining the fate of these inhaled materials in the body and the health effects they produce. The ultimate objectives are to determine the roles played by inhaled materials in the development of disease processes adn to estimate the risk they pose by inhaled materials in the development of disease processes and to estimate the risk they pose to humans who may be exposed to them. This report contains brief research papers that reflect the scope and recent findings of the Institute's research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, principally through the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The papers are divided into topical sections. The first section, Characterization of Airborne Materials and Generation of Experimental Exposure Atmospheres, reflects the Institute's capabilities for fundamental aerosol research and the application of that expertise to toxicological studies. The second section, Deposition and Fate of Inhaled Toxicants, describes factors influencing the uptake of inhaled materials and their initial interactions in the body. The third and fourth sections, Health Effects of Inhaled Radionuclides and Health Effects of Inhaled Chemical Toxicants, describe recent progress in the fields of radiation and chemical toxicology, respectively. The fifth section, Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis, reflects progress in the understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation and chemicals induce cancer. Similarly, the sixth section, Mechanisms of Non-Carcinogenic Responses to Inhaled Toxicants describes research on the development of diseases other than cancer. The seventh section, The Application of Mathematical Modeling to Health Issues, describes efforts to predict health risks by using computer-based models and limited experimental or epidemiological data. The final section, Studies at the University of Utah, describes progress in studies conducted by University of Utah scientists funded by subcontract through this Institute.

  17. Boston Community Information System 1987-1988 Experimental Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    magazines, and newspapers for casual and convenient reading." --1038 "Very true. Maybe by 2000 we’ll start to see major shifts to online reading...8217) --1126 academics researchers/journalists --1127 business education --1130 introverts iconoclasts --1134 computer enthusiasts financial professionals...in a background forum while other activities would take place, it would make this source invaluable. The availability of a two-way system is

  18. Occupational gender composition and wages in Canada, 1987-1988

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Baker; Nicole M. Fortin

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between occupational gender composition and wages is the basis of pay equity/comparable worth legislation. A number of previous studies have examined this relationship in US data, identifying some of the determinants of low wages in ``female jobs'' well as important limitations of public policy in this area. There is little evidence, however, from other jurisdictions. This omission is particularly disturbing in the case of Canada, which now has some of the most extensive pay ...

  19. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  20. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  1. Assessment of levels and 'health-effects' of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting, over the years, several coordinated research programmes (CRPs) on various research topics related to environmental issues impacting human health. The primary aim of these CRPs has been to help enhance the research and development capabilities in the Member States, particularly among developing countries; to identify the sources of various environmental contaminants and evaluate their fate; and to provide for the basis of improved health among human populations by the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques. The CRP on Assessment of Levels and Health-Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter in Mining, Metal Refining and Metal Working Industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques focused on improving the competence for research on workplace monitoring in a variety of industrial environments. The personal monitoring of the APM (airborne particulate matter) of the exposed workforce was carried out for the first time by many participants. Nuclear and related analytical techniques, including the application of proton micro-beam, were used to generate the trace element concentration profiles in various biomarkers tissues of the exposed workers. The quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) aspects related to the CRP were addressed through intercomparison analyses of APM on filter paper samples and freeze dried human urine samples to generate validated data. These data have helped to generate correlations between the occupational exposure measured and the magnitude of the biological response. Such new information is essential to evolve procedures to considerably reduce/eliminate the pollutants in the workplace environment and to make informed decisions on the evolution of standards in working environments aimed at preserving the health of workers. The purpose of this TECDOC is to provide an overview of the activities performed under the CRP by the participants. The overall achievements

  2. Vertical profile, source apportionment, and toxicity of PAHs in sediment cores of a wharf near the coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Ju, Yun-Ru; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-03-01

    Three sediment cores were collected from a wharf near a coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Analyses for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority list in the core sediment samples were conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The vertical profiles of PAHs in the core sediments were assessed, possible sources and apportionment were identified, and the toxicity risk of the core sediments was determined. The results from the sediment analyses showed that total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 11774 ± 4244 to 16755 ± 4593 ng/g dry weight (dw). Generally, the vertical profiles of the PAHs in the sediment cores exhibited a decreasing trend from the top to the lower levels of the S1 core and an increasing trend of PAHs from the top to the lower levels of the S2 and S3 cores. Among the core sediment samples, the five- and six-ring PAHs were predominantly in the S1 core, ranging from 42 to 54 %, whereas the composition of the PAHs in the S2 and S3 cores were distributed equally across three groups: two- and three-ring, four-ring, and five- and six-ring PAHs. The results indicated that PAH contamination at the site of the S1 core had a different source. The molecular indices and principal component analyses with multivariate linear regression were used to determine the source contributions, with the results showing that the contributions of coal, oil-related, and vehicle sources were 38.6, 35.9, and 25.5 %, respectively. A PAH toxicity assessment using the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q, 0.59-0.79), benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (TEQ(carc), 1466-1954 ng TEQ/g dw), and dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ(fish), 3036-4174 pg TEQ/g dw) identified the wharf as the most affected area. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the coal-based industries in this region for pollution reduction.

  3. US refining reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the history, present position and future prospects of the petroleum industry in the USA. The main focus is on supply and demand, the high quality of the products, refinery capacity and product trade balances. Diagrams show historical trends in output, product demand, demand for transport fuels and oil, refinery capacity, refinery closures, and imports and exports. Some particularly salient points brought out were (i) production of US crude shows a marked downward trend but imports of crude will continue to increase, (ii) product demand will continue to grow even though the levels are already high, (iii) the demand is dominated by those products that typically yield the highest income for the refiner, (i.e. high quality transport fuels for environmental compliance), (iv) refinery capacity has decreased since 1980 and (v) refining will continue to have financial problems but will still be profitable. (UK)

  4. South Korea - oil refining overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the economic problems of the 1990s, the petroleum refining industry of South Korea underwent much involuntary restructuring in 1999 with respect to takeovers and mergers and these are discussed. The demand for petroleum has now pretty well recovered. The reasons for fluctuating prices in the 1990s, how the new structure should be cushioned against changes in the future, and the potential for South Korea to export refined petroleum, are all discussed

  5. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  6. The effects of carbon prices and anti-leakage policies on selected industrial sectors in Spain – Cement, steel and oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaría, Alberto; Linares, Pedro; Pintos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impacts on the cement, steel and oil refining sectors in Spain of the carbon prices derived from the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), and the potential effect on these sectors of the European Union anti-leakage policy measures. The assessment is carried out by means of three engineering models developed for this purpose. Our results show a high exposure to leakage of cement in coastal regions; a smaller risk in the steel sector, and non-negligible risk of leakage for the oil refining sector when carbon allowance prices reach high levels. We also find that the risk of leakage could be better handled with other anti-leakage policies than those currently in place in the EU. - Highlights: • We simulate the impact of carbon prices on the risk of leakage in the cement, steel and oil refining sectors. • We also assess the effectiveness of different anti-leakage policies in Europe. • Cement production in coastal areas is highly exposed. • The risk of leakage for steel and oil refining is smaller. • Anti-leakage policies should be modified to be efficient

  7. Technological innovation and environmental regulation at the petroleum refining industry: the Paulinia refinery case; Inovacao tecnologica e regulacao ambiental na industria de refino de petroleo: o caso da Refinaria de Paulinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Adalberto Mantovani Martiniano de; Pereira, Newton Mueller [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica]. E-mails: adalba@ige.unicamp.br; newpe@ige.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses the influence of environmental regulation on the adoption of new production techniques and on the improvement of existing techniques in the refining petroleum industry, namely at the Paulinia refinery (REPLAN). Describes the techniques adopted in order to fit refining processes into the regulation about environmental impacts (related to the protection of resources like water, air and soil), and also techniques adopted in order to produce less pollutant diesel and gasoline. This article has support on bibliographic research and data collected in REPLAN and CENPES, which permit characterize technologies adopted in REPLAN at the end of the 90s and the regulatory rules that drive them. The regulation is presented under an evolutionary approach, considering that technology develops along whit the socio-economic context, the environmental regulation is a related element which determines the search and selection of technologies able to comply with regulation ensuring economic viability. Regulation is also a determinant factor for the adoption of innovations in the refining industry. Specifically in REPLAN, the environmental regulation has required large investments in order to comply processes and products with the established standards. (author)

  8. The present state of refining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The european refining industry suffers from a production over-capacity and closures are inevitable; the situation is even worse in France due to the imbalance between gas oil and gasoline prices and the weak margin for distributors. The French refining industry is however an important and essential link for its strategic fuel and petroleum product supply, and represent 17000 jobs. Several measures are introduced by the French Industry department towards restructuring, capacity reduction and fuel price harmonization

  9. Tangible Asset Management In Real Sector Companies: A Parallel Between Industry Of Crude Oil Refining And Industry Of Refining Of Non Metallic Mineral In Colombia Gerenciamiento de activos tangibles en empresas del sector real: un paralelo entre industria de refinación de crudos e industria de refinación de minerales no metálicos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Forero Romero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises around of the world are striving to understand and ensure that risks in utilities they govern are effectively managed while they must satisfy all expectations of their stakeholders. For this purpose there are now organisms and standardized management systems to manage financial risks, environmental hazards, industrial safety and occupational health risk. However, operational and reliability risks in the business lack an equivalent oversight body or an organizing framework through which enterprises can asses such risks , or define standards to which can be held accountable.The emergent understanding of asset management across all industry sectors has triggered a subsequent need for a standardized approach. This article identifies the key elements of asset management process and explains the benefits of the application of its elements with reference to two specific cases: the Barrancabermeja Refinery of Ecopetrol S.A. and  Sumicol S.A.Las empresas de todo el mundo se esfuerzan por comprender y asegurar que los riesgosen sus activos tangibles estén regidos bajo una administración eficaz y, a su vez, debenencargarse de cumplir con todas las expectativas de sus grupos de interés. Con estepropósito hoy en día existen organismos y sistemas de gestión estandarizados paraadministrar los riesgos financieros, ambientales, de seguridad de industrial y saludocupacional. Sin embargo, los riesgos operativos y de confiabilidad en el negocio hasta elmomento carecen de un órgano de supervisión equivalente, o un marco de organización através del cual las empresas pueden evaluar estos riesgos o definir las normas a las quepueden ser considerados responsables.El entendimiento emergente de la gestión efectiva de activos en todos los sectoresde la industria ha provocado una necesidad de un enfoque estandarizado. Este artículoidentifica los elementos clave del proceso de gestión de activos y explica los beneficiosde la aplicación de

  10. Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2001-01-01

    Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys by the binary Al-Ti and Ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining to the cast industry and the parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the cast, parameters related to the grain refining alloy and parameters related to the process. The different mechanisms, suggested in the literature for the process of grain refining are presented and discussed, from which it is found that although the mechanism of refining by the binary Al-Ti is well established the mechanism of grain refining by the ternary Al-Ti-B is still a controversial matter and some research work is still needed in this area. The effect of the addition of other alloying elements in the presence of the grain refiner on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. It is found that some elements e.g. V, Mo, C improves the grain refining efficiency, whereas other elements e.g. Cr, Zr, Ta poisons the grain refinement. Based on the parameters affecting the grain refinement and its mechanism, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is forwarded and discussed. (author)

  11. Concerning problems of petroleum refining facilities. ; Promote international lateral work sharing, and strengthening of infrastructures in petroleum industry. Sekiyu seisei setsubi mondai ni tsuite. ; Kokusei suihei bungyo no suishin to sekiyu sangyo no kiban kyoka wo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-05

    This paper discusses how to promote international lateral work sharing and how to strengthen infrastructures in the petroleum industry, as a problem prevailing over the petroleum refining facilities in Japan. Excess distillation facilities have been applied with the disposition policy. However, in view of the supply and demand situation in petroleum products for medium to long term span in the world with the pan-Pacific region as the main concern, that applicable to Japan, and that experienced during the Persian Gulf crisis, the excess facility disposition policy was revised, particularly on white kerosene, of which supply and demand tightness is concerned about, so that production capacities may be increased as required. Japan, a large presence in the international economics, is required to work more positively on petroleum refining facilities located in the oil producing countries and intermediate locations to promote the international lateral work sharing. On the one hand, in order to strengthen the infrastructures in the Japanese petroleum industry, it is necessary to promote rationalization and use at higher efficiency of the oil supply system, and convergence of the the petroleum industry, including joint investments for projects exceeding capabilities of individual enterprises. 3 tabs.

  12. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  13. Taiwan: refined need for consuming population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the oil and gas industry in Taiwan. Topics covered include the possibility of privatization, refineries and refining contracts overseas, plans for a new petrochemical complex and an offshore submarine transmission pipeline. (UK)

  14. Price implications for Russia's oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, Eugene M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. This fully applies to the industry's downstream sector. Still unlike more dynamic E and C operations, the country's refining has turned out better fenced off competitive market forces and is less capable to respond to market imperatives. Consequently, jammed between depressed product prices and persistent feedstock costs, Russian refiners were badly hit by the world oil glut - which has made a radical modernization of the obsolete refining sector clearly a must. (author)

  15. On the refinement calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    On the Refinement Calculus gives one view of the development of the refinement calculus and its attempt to bring together - among other things - Z specifications and Dijkstra's programming language. It is an excellent source of reference material for all those seeking the background and mathematical underpinnings of the refinement calculus.

  16. European refining: evolution or revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthbert, N.

    1999-01-01

    A recent detailed analysis of the refining business in Europe (by Purvin and Gurtz) was used to highlight some key issues facing the industry. The article was written under five sub-sections: (i) economic environment (assessment of the economic prospects for Europe), (ii) energy efficiency and global warming (lists the four points of the EU car makers' voluntary agreement), (iii) fuel quality and refinery investment (iv) refinery capacity and utilisation and (v) industry structure and development. Diagrams show GDP per capita for East and West, European road fuel demand to 2015 and European net trade and European refinery ownership by crude capacity. It was concluded that the future of refining in Europe is 'exciting and challenging' and there are likely to be more large joint venture refineries. (UK)

  17. Repair and mechanical service of the Ministry of the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry of the USSR and the basic trends in its development. Remontno-mekhanicheskaya sluzhba ministerstva neftepererabatyvayushchey i neftekhimicheskoy promyshlennosti SSSR i osnovnyye napravleniya eye razvitiya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, V.S.; Tikhomirov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The review gives a characterization of the repair service in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, shows the achieved level of centralization and specialization in repair operations in conditions of intrafactory centralization, the creation of branch specialized contractor organizations, the improvements in the organization of planning for repair operations and the use of systems of low mechanization in repairs. The significance is shown of the system of technical reviews in the increase in the reliability of the operation of equipment, materials are correlated about corrosion and the problem of combatting it in the operation of equipment, the elimination of vibration of pipeline connections and modernization of piston compressors in order to shift them to operations without lubricants. The progressive role of the subbranch institutes in the issues of raising the effectiveness of repair and the directions in their operation and ways for further improving the repair service are examined.

  18. BioREFINE-2G project – Engineering of industrial yeast strains for production of dicarboxylic acids from side and waste streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovicek, Vratislav; Chen, Xiao; Borodina, Irina

    2014-01-01

    For our future we need to assure that fuels as well as chemicals will be produced environmentallyfriendly from renewable resources. There must be a major move away from the use of food biomasstowards the use of renewable non-food feed-stocks, such as wood, stover, straw etc. The existing 2nd...... compounds can be polymerised to biodegradable polymersthat can find application as plastics, coatings or adhesives. To reach the goals, the identification of relevant metabolic routes, strain engineering and the development of a toolbox for manipulation of industrial S. cerevisiae strains are required. Here...

  19. Assessment of levels and 'health-effects' of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting, over the years, several coordinated research programmes (CRPs) on various research topics related to environmental issues impacting human health. A variety of industrial environments such as: galvanisation, iron and steel production, steel construction, coal fired thermal power plants, mining and mineral beneficiation of monazite, zinc smelters, and phosphate fertilizer production plants were included in this CRP. Toxic elements specific for particular industries as potential pollutants were monitored within individual projects. The CRP focussed on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for studies of exposure to inorganic constituents and radionuclides from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs), in the workplaces and their impacts on the health of the workers. The objectives were to: develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of bio-markers (e.g. hair, blood, nails, teeth, urine, breath) of exposed and non-exposed individuals; develop reliable analytical procedures for the analysis of such samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; carry out workplace and personal monitoring surveys, and assess workers' exposure to toxic elements on the basis of measurements results. This document provides an overview of the activities performed under the CRP by the participants. The overall achievements are summarized and those aspects that require a further deeper look are also pointed out. The individual country reports include details on the progress made by the respective participants during the CRP period.

  20. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  1. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association

  2. Oil refining in South Asia and Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the oil markets of Southeast Asia and Australasia is presented focussing on oil refining. Key statistics of both areas are tabulated, and figures providing information on GDP/capita, crude production, comparison of demand barrels, and product demand are provided. Crude oil production and supply, oil product demand, and the refining industries are examined with details given of evolution of capacity and cracking to distillation ratios

  3. evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of quercetin derived of natural extract from red onion ocañera (allilium strain l and red apple (pyrus malus l var. red delicius in palm oil refined industrial type continuous warm conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golda Meyer Torres

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was based on the assessment of the quercetin antioxidant capacity existing in red apple (Pyrus malus L var. red delicious and ocañera red onion (Allilium cepa L. Then, antioxidant concentration was calculated by a standard curve of commercial quercetin (HPLC concentration ≥98% using spectrophotometry at 415 nm and dropped concentrations of 0.0955 mg/g in onion extract and 0.0144mg/g in apple extract. The antioxidant capacity of each extract was evaluated over industrial samples of industrial RDB (Refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil without antioxidant in order to observe the effect they had over peroxide creation. Actually, samples were treated in continuous heating for two, four and six hours and recording variables performance like acidity, iodine and peroxide index. Also, a sample of oil without antioxidant was evaluated adding pure commercial quercetin at 0.18 mg/g and a control sample of RBD palm oil added with commercial antioxidant (TBHQ, BHT. Finally, the outcome got by ANOVA analysis (Pvalue= 0.028, significance level of 5% on peroxide index formation calculated in mequivO2/kg highlighted the time of exposition than quercetin concentration in 0.0144 mg/g, hence a result alike the sample of oil added with commercial antioxidant.

  4. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Tchier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join (⊔fuz, fuzzy demonic meet (⊓fuz, and fuzzy demonic composition (□fuz. Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using mathematica software (fuzzy logic.

  5. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  6. Refining margins and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudouin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Refining margins throughout the world have remained low in 1996. In Europe, in spite of an improvement, particularly during the last few weeks, they are still not high enough to finance new investments. Although the demand for petroleum products is increasing, experts are still sceptical about any rapid recovery due to prevailing overcapacity and to continuing capacity growth. After a historical review of margins and an analysis of margins by regions, we analyse refining over-capacities in Europe and the unbalances between production and demand. Then we discuss the current situation concerning barriers to the rationalization, agreements between oil companies, and the consequences on the future of refining capacities and margins. (author)

  7. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  8. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  9. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Tchier, Fairouz

    2014-01-01

    We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join $({\\bigsqcup }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , fuzzy demonic meet $({\\sqcap }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , and fuzzy demonic composition $({\\square }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ . Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using ma...

  10. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  11. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  12. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  13. Refining margins: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia. Since the beginning of 1999, refining margins are weak and utilization rates of refining capacities have decreased. (authors)

  14. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  15. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  16. Refining - Panorama 2008; Raffinage - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable.

  17. Panorama 2016 - Refining outlook for 2035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2015-12-01

    The rising influence of objectives intended to address the energy transition in global industry helps to perpetuate a high degree of uncertainty about changes in the transportation sector, currently a bastion of the oil industry. How can the growing need for individual mobility be met while reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in a world of open international competition? The refining sector is gaining strength in Asia and the Middle East to the detriment of Europe and North America, reflecting demand and the intrinsic competitiveness of various geographic regions. The 2025 worldwide roll-out (2020 in Europe) of a bunker fuel grade below 0.5 wt% (percentage by weight) in sulphur could experience delays, given the number of installations to be completed. Finally, the reversal of the 'all diesel' trend in the European transport market is a positive change for the European refining industry. (authors)

  18. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  19. Panorama 2009 - refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For oil companies to invest in new refining and conversion capacity, favorable conditions over time are required. In other words, refining margins must remain high and demand sustained over a long period. That was the situation prevailing before the onset of the financial crisis in the second half of 2008. The economic conjuncture has taken a substantial turn for the worse since then and the forecasts for 2009 do not look bright. Oil demand is expected to decrease in the OECD countries and to grow much more slowly in the emerging countries. It is anticipated that refining margins will fall in 2009 - in 2008, they slipped significantly in the United States - as a result of increasingly sluggish demand, especially for light products. The next few months will probably be unfavorable to investment. In addition to a gloomy business outlook, there may also be a problem of access to sources of financing. As for investment projects, a mainstream trend has emerged in the last few years: a shift away from the regions that have historically been most active (the OECD countries) towards certain emerging countries, mostly in Asia or the Middle East. The new conjuncture will probably not change this trend

  20. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  1. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    OpenAIRE

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Zwart, Peter H.; Adams, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An i...

  2. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods. phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An intuitive graphical user interface is available to guide novice users and to assist advanced users in managing refinement projects. X-ray or neutron diffraction data can be used separately or jointly in refinement. phenix.refine is tightly integrated into the PHENIX suite, where it serves as a critical component in automated model building, final structure refinement, structure validation and deposition to the wwPDB. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods.

  3. The evolution of oil refining in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Back in 1963 when CONCAWE was founded, the world looked very different from what it is today, and so did the global and European refining industry. Oil product markets were expanding fast and new refineries were being built at a steady rate. The oil crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to this, heralding a long era of consolidation and stepwise adaptation. At the same time the nature of the global oil business shifted from fully integrated companies producing, transporting and refining their own oil to a much more diversified situation where oil production ('upstream') and refining/distribution ('downstream') gradually became two essentially separate businesses. From being purely a 'cost centre' in an integrated chain, refining has become a separate activity in its own right, operating as a 'profit centre' between two global markets - crude oil and products - which, although not entirely independent, have their own dynamics and influences. In addition demand gradually shifted towards lighter products while the quality requirements on all products were considerably tightened. This article explores the new challenges that these changes have imposed on EU refiners, and describes CONCAWE's contributions to understanding their impact on refinery production and investments.

  4. Fiscal 1997 report on the model project for the effective energy consumption in developing countries. Survey of changes of energy conservation technology and environmental protection technology in the oil refining industry in Japan; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo (Nippon sekiyu seiseigyo ni okeru sho energy gijutsu to kankyo taisaku gijutsu no hensen chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For global scale measures to be taken for environmental protection, it becomes more and more important in the future to positively transfer and spread energy conservation technologies of Japan to overseas countries. Especially, it is effective for both economic growth in the Asian region and global environmental protection to transfer technologies which the oil refining industry has been developing and accumulating. Energy conservation in the oil refining industry means the energy conservation by strengthening the operational control at the first and second oil crises in the first stage, the energy conservation in the second stage which was accompanied by small and medium scale plant/equipment investments during several years after the first stage, and the energy conservation in the third stage which was accompanied by large scale investments from the first half of the 1980s to the present, resulting in improvement of 40% over before the first oil crisis. As to environmental protection measures, measures to reduce waste from oil refinery against air pollution and water pollution were prepared by the first half of the 1970s, and technologies were established of waste water treatment, flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. A lot of facilities for improvement of product quality and for low pollution were installed. In addition to environmental technologies, also in other industries, there were seen the heightening of thermal efficiency of kiln and thermal efficiency of cooling technique of clinker cooler in the cement industry and the improvement of productivity in the paper/pulp industry. 360 figs., 62 tabs.

  5. Asian oil refining. Demand growth and deregulation - an uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameer Nawaz.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the report is to identify the most important features of the oil refining industry in Asia. Major developments in consumption patterns changes in regional importance of countries are discussed, highlighting potential future developments. The first chapter introduces the various refining processes and presents a simple model for the analysis of complex refineries. Chapter 2 examines the development of the Asian refining industry against a background of economic growth and analyses trends in consumption of all products in Asian countries. In Chapter 3, the key issues concerning the refining industry are examined, among them the forces driving consumption, including the importance of economic development, and electricity and transport demand. The importance of product imports and international trade is discussed, and the extent of government involvement and the effects of changing retail and market prices are analysed. Chapter 4 looks at the strategies that oil and gas companies are following in the Asian refining industry. Particular significance is attached to the vertical integration of the oil majors, Japanese and Middle Eastern oil companies. A brief overview of the importance of the petrochemical industry is presented. The countries of Asia that are involved in the refining industry are profiled in Chapter 5. The future trend in oil consumption is examined in Chapter 6. There follows a brief discussion of the plans to expand crude refining capacity in the various countries and a forecast of the state of overcapacity which will result. In the final chapter, brief profiles of some of the most important companies in the Asian refining industry are presented, discussing their major activities and future plans. (Author)

  6. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  7. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.

    2003-01-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  8. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  9. Japan's refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country's refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry

  10. Uranium refining process using ion exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    1977-01-01

    As for the method of refining uranium ore being carried out in Europe and America at present, uranium ore is roughly refined at the mine sites to yellow cake, then this is transported to refineries and refined by dry method. This method has the following faults, namely the number of processes is large, it requires expensive corrosion-resistant materials because of high temperature treatment, and the impurities in uranium tend to increase. On the other hand, in case of EXCER method, treatment is carried out at low temperature, and high purity uranium can be obtained, but the efficiency of electrolytic reduction process is extremely low, and economically infeasible. In the wet refining method called PNC process, uranium tetrafluoride is produced from uranium ore without making yellow cake, therefore the process is rationalized largely, and highly economical. The electrolytic reduction process in this method was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. by constructing the pilot plant in Ningyotoge Mine. The ion exchange membrane, the electrodes, and the problems concerning the process and the engineering for commercial plants were investigated. The electrolytic reduction process, the pilot plant, the development of the elements of electrolytic cells, the establishment of analytical process, the measurement of the electrolytic characteristics, the demonstration operation, and the life time of the electrolytic diaphragm are reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. Technology of niobium and molybdenum refining by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, R.A.; Pinatti, D.G.; Sandim, H.R.Z.

    1988-01-01

    The uses of metals and alloys in superconductors (Nb46%Ti), aerospatial industry (Ti6Al4V), electroeletronic industry (Nb, Mo, W) and in surgical implants (Ti, Nb) are increasing nowadays. A refining process of niobium and molybdenum by electron beam technique, since the oxides reduction till the obtention of a high purity ingot is presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  12. Refining in the 90s - a green burden?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The refining industry has been faced with many technical and economic challenges in recent years. Most of these changes have been a result of long-term strategic planning by governments, resulting in more stringent environmental legislation. This article discusses whether the industry can cope with the new rules. (author)

  13. Comprehensive Data Collected from the Petroleum Refining Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 1, 2011 EPA sent a comprehensive industry-wide information collection request (ICR) to all facilities in the U.S. petroleum refining industry. EPA has received this ICR data and compiled these data into databases and spreadsheets for the web

  14. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  15. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  16. Basic effects of pulp refining on fiber properties--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehkhani, Samira; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman; Badarudin, Ahmad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd

    2015-01-22

    The requirement for high quality pulps which are widely used in paper industries has increased the demand for pulp refining (beating) process. Pulp refining is a promising approach to improve the pulp quality by changing the fiber characteristics. The diversity of research on the effect of refining on fiber properties which is due to the different pulp sources, pulp consistency and refining equipment has interested us to provide a review on the studies over the last decade. In this article, the influence of pulp refining on structural properties i.e., fibrillations, fine formation, fiber length, fiber curl, crystallinity and distribution of surface chemical compositions is reviewed. The effect of pulp refining on electrokinetic properties of fiber e.g., surface and total charges of pulps is discussed. In addition, an overview of different refining theories, refiners as well as some tests for assessing the pulp refining is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The 1987-1988 progress report of the CEA-Euratom Association Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The progress report of the CEA-Euratom Association Research Group, concerning 1987 and 1988 activities, is presented. The report involves the work carried out for assembling the Tore Supra system. The different components and the operating modes are described. The report includes: the Tore Supra construction and running, theoretical work, numerical calculations and results, the tritium technology, safety studies, supraconductors and bobbins. The Tore Supra contributions to the JET program are given [fr

  18. Nuevos Horizontes, James Monroe High School, 1987-1988. Evaluation Section Report. OREA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Tomi D.; Lista, Carlos

    Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes (Project New Horizons) at James Monroe High School (New York City) served 328 students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in grades 9-12 during the final year of a 3-year funding cycle. The project's purpose was to build on the strengths of the school's extensive computer-assisted instructional program in order to…

  19. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center 1987--1988 report to the President

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    During the past year, technical progress has been made in all Plasma Fusion Center (PFC) research programs. The Plasma Fusion Center is recognized as one of the leading university research laboratories in the physics and engineering aspects of magnetic confinement fusion. Its research programs have produced significant results on several fronts: the basic physics of high-temperature plasmas (plasmas theory, RF heating, free electron lasers, development of advanced diagnostics, and intermediate-scale experiments on the Versator tokamak and Constance mirror devices), major confinement results on the Alcator C tokamak, including pioneering investigations of the stability, heating, and confinement properties of plasmas at high densities, temperatures and magnetic fields, experiments on the medium-scale TARA tandem mirror, including the development of novel MHD stabilization techniques in axisymmetric geometry, and a broad program of fusion technology and engineering development that addresses problems in several critical subsystem areas (e.g., magnet systems, superconducting materials development, environmental and safety studies, advanced millimeter-wave source development, and system studies of fusion reactor design, operation, and technology requirements

  20. Advanced engineering design program at the University of Illinois for the 1987-1988 academic year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivier, Kenneth R.; Lembeck, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    The participation of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the NASA/USRA Universities Advanced Engineering Design Program (Space) is reviewed for the 1987 to 88 academic year. The University's design project was the Manned Marsplane and Delivery System. In the spring of 1988 semester, 107 students were enrolled in the Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering Departments' undergraduate Aerospace Vehicle Design course. These students were divided into an aircraft section (responsible for the Marsplane design), and a spacecraft section (responsible for the Delivery System Design). The design results are presented in Final Design Reports, copies of which are attached. In addition, five students presented a summary of the design results at the Program's Summer Conference.

  1. ABORTION ATTITUDES, 1984-1987-1988 - EFFECTS OF ITEM ORDER AND DIMENSIONALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENVERGERT, E; GILLESPIE, MW; KINGMA, J; KLASEN, H

    The comparability of surveys is often hampered by differences in the item order of presentation. The major focus of the present study was to investigate whether a general item or a specific item at the beginning of the questionnaire would affect the endorsement as well as the scalability of a set of

  2. Triennial technical report - 1986, 1987, 1988 - Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN) -Dept. of Reactors (DERE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The research activities developed during the period 1986, 1987 and 1988 by the Reactor Department of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN-DERE) are summarized. The principal aim of the Department of Reactors is concerned to the study and development of fast reactors and research thermal reactors. The DERE also assists the CNEN in the areas related to analysis of power reactor structure; to teach Reactor Physics and Engineering at the University, and professional training to the Nuclear Engineering Institute. To develop its research activity the DERE has three big facilities: Argonauta reactor, CTS-1 sodium circuit, and water circuit. (M.I.)

  3. Ends Versus Means: A Critical Analysis of the Persian Gulf Crisis (1987- 1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    readily apparent that a 12 gjunX ýjM 1Q§ (Washington: National Archives and Records Service, uFo , 1981), p. 197. 13 Snyder, p. 81. 18 whole host of...the consequences of an Iranian victory in the Gulf War. . . . However, the Soviets also seek to avoid alienating Iran and, if possible, hope to improve

  4. Evaluation of the 1987-1988 EIA Remedial and Compensatory Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Research.

    Evaluation of South Carolina's 1987-88 Remedial and Compensatory Program, funded by the state's Education Improvement Act of 1984 (EIA), shows that the program was successful in raising the participants' achievement. The programs include basic skills learning in reading and mathematics in all grades, and writing in grades 6-12, but not all grades…

  5. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea 1987-1988, SDLS CD-ROM vol 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from six lines recorded during 1988 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the Bundesanstalt fur...

  6. Contested Narratives: South African and Cuban military action in Angola (1987-1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    possible. The SADF formed Task Force Zulu under the command of Colonel Mieg Delport consisting of the 32 Battalion, 61 Mechanized Battalion, three...the SADF reinforced and reorganized its forces along the border. 10 Division established three task forces.138 Task Force Zulu consisted of 51, 52

  7. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...

  8. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  9. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  10. Oil price scenarios and refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.

    1993-01-01

    Currently refining profitability is low because there has been an overbuilding of conversion capacity in Western Europe in the last round. Oil marketing, the chemicals business and the fundamental economy itself are at low points in their cycles which have not coincided, at least in the UK, since 1975. Against that gloomy background, it is predicted that downstream profitability will recover in the mid-1990s. Crude oil prices will remain low until the call on OPEC crude increases again and takes up the capacity which has been brought on stream in response to the Gulf War. When this happens, it is likely to trigger another price spike and another round of investment in production capacity. Environmentally driven investments in desulphurisation or emissions reduction will be poorly remunerated all the way through the value chain. Refining margins will recover when white oil demand growth tightens up the need for conversion capacity. Marketing will need to reduce the retail network overcapacity in the mature markets if it is to improve its profitability. In this period of low profitability, even with the light at the end of the tunnel for refiners in the middle of the decade, the industry structure is under threat. There is a strong argument for new modes of competitive behaviour which are backed by strong elements of cooperation. (author)

  11. Strategic issues and implications for the refining and marketing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffe, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Refiners have faced a challenging business environment for the past decade. During this period, the industry has made approximately $25 billion of capital expenditures primarily to comply with increased governmental mandates, faced highly volatile petroleum product prices and garnered a return to equity of only 5%. While worldwide and US refining capacity has been flat in recent years, demand for refined petroleum products has been on the upswing and domestic supplies have also increased due to improved US capacity utilization rates (76% in 1984 and 93% in 1994) and increased imports (gasoline sales up 11% since 1984). The result has been highly volatile and generally weak refining margins (net Gulf Coast crack spread ranging from ($.95)/bbl in 1984 to $1.84/bbl in 1990 and averaging $.81/bbl since 1984). In response to the sustained difficulties in the marketplace, one has recently witnessed some strategic realignment in the industry. Several of the integrated companies, frustrated with the required capital expenditures and meager returns, have decided to shed non-core, non-strategic refining assets. For the most part, these assets have been bought by independents at, by historical measures, very attractive terms. This paper will provide an overview of the economics of the refining business, discuss the recent trends in refinery M and A activity and summarize possible implications of the recent strategic realignment

  12. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems

  13. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  14. China's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Fridley, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article assesses the future for China's oil industry as the country makes the transition from a command economy to an international market. China has one of the world's biggest oil industries and recent years have seen much growth in exploration and development, refining capacity and trade. China is more and more dependent on oil imports and is now a major international player; it has attracted much outside investment. Diagrams show (i) how coal dominates other sources of energy in China; (ii) crude production 1977-1998; (iii) how Middle East crudes now dominate Chinese crude imports; (iv) the growth of petroleum demand in China; (v) the Chinese demand for petroleum products; (vi) the growth in transport fuels; (vii) Chinese product imports: import ban targeted diesel; (viii) crude imports favoured over product imports and (ix) refinery capacity and throughput. The changes are expected to result in further integration into international markets, increased transparency and a healthier oil business

  15. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Overall objectives: To demonstrate the applicability of nuclear and related techniques in studies that may impact on human health, giving emphasis to the solution of problems that have been identified to be of high priority in national and international programmes for sustainable development. Specific objectives: To develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) of exposed and non-exposed persons; To development suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; To carry out workplace and personal monitoring of APM and characterise the health effects of such exposure in terms of the observed elemental concentration; To carry out tissue analyses of the workers so exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. Achievements: a) Specific industries not previously monitored in individual countries have been targeted in respect of pollution assessment. Some examples are: Stainless steel processing and construction; Galvanising industry; Zinc smelting operations; Mineral fertiliser industry. b) Validation of analytical techniques through quality control exercises: NAT-3 Interlaboratory comparison for the determination of trace and minor elements in urban dust artificially loaded on air filters; NAT-4 Proficiency test on selected trace elements in lyophilised urine and air filters. c) Capacity building through the establishment of new multidisciplinary teams, personnel training and laboratory expertise. d) The sampling procedures have been harmonised through: The application of the ''Gent'' sampler for APM collection, IAEA procedures and IUPAC guidelines for sampling and sample handling of hair, blood and urine. e) All participants performed surveys on targeted industries and selected pollutants. f) The scientific output of the CRP is materialised in various national and international

  16. Refinement of Parallel and Reactive Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Back, R. J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We show how to apply the refinement calculus to stepwise refinement of parallel and reactive programs. We use action systems as our basic program model. Action systems are sequential programs which can be implemented in a parallel fashion. Hence refinement calculus methods, originally developed for sequential programs, carry over to the derivation of parallel programs. Refinement of reactive programs is handled by data refinement techniques originally developed for the sequential refinement c...

  17. European oil refining: strategies for a competitive future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, James.

    1997-07-01

    European Oil Refining investigates how the industry came to be in crisis and what the future holds. As well as an extensive analysis of past and present market shifts, the report predicts likely future developments and their consequences for investors. The report reviews the European oil sector in a global context, calculates the cost to refiners of key environmental legislation, assesses the problems caused by changing product demand and crude supply, examines possible solutions to the problems of low margins and overcapacity, evaluates the key players' main strategies to increase their competitiveness, analyses the western European oil refining industry by country, details the refinery operations of the major countries of central and eastern Europe, profiles 15 of the major oil companies and estimates the increase in investment required as a result of legislative and demand changes. (author)

  18. The changing face of U.S. refining: Ominous notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    As environmental protection comes of age in the US, a complex series of structural changes is also expected - in enforcement bureaucracy, manufacturing, and in energy consumption. It is already quite obvious in the petroleum refining industry. A side effect may be the export of jobs. Buyouts and closures are expected, as is increased refined product import dependency. This issue updates expected changes in gasoline and distillate product requirements in the US, and reports some ominous statements from some of the oil industry's affected parties. This issue also presented the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Jan. 24, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Jan. 1992 edition

  19. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  20. Data refinement for true concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Dongol

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of modern systems exhibit sophisticated concurrent behaviour, where several system components modify and observe the system state with fine-grained atomicity. Many systems (e.g., multi-core processors, real-time controllers also exhibit truly concurrent behaviour, where multiple events can occur simultaneously. This paper presents data refinement defined in terms of an interval-based framework, which includes high-level operators that capture non-deterministic expression evaluation. By modifying the type of an interval, our theory may be specialised to cover data refinement of both discrete and continuous systems. We present an interval-based encoding of forward simulation, then prove that our forward simulation rule is sound with respect to our data refinement definition. A number of rules for decomposing forward simulation proofs over both sequential and parallel composition are developed.

  1. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  2. Review of Grain Refinement of Cast Metals Through Inoculation: Theories and Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhilin

    2017-10-01

    The inoculation method of grain refinement is widely used in research and industry. Because of its commercial and engineering importance, extensive research on the mechanisms/theories of grain refinement and development of effective grain refiners for diverse cast metals/alloys has been conducted. In 1999, Easton and St. John reviewed the mechanisms of grain refinement of cast Al alloys. Since then, grain refinement in alloys of Al, Mg, Fe, Ti, Cu, and Zn has evolved a lot. However, there is still no full consensus on the mechanisms/theories of grain refinement. Moreover, some new grain refiners developed based on the theories do not ensure efficient grain refinement. Thus, the factors that contribute to grain refinement are still not fully understood. Clarification of the prerequisite issues that occur in grain refinement is required using recent theories. This review covers multiple metals/alloys and developments in grain refinement from the last twenty years. The characteristics of effective grain refiners are considered from four perspectives: effective particle/matrix wetting configuration, sufficiently powerful segregating elements, preferential crystallographic matching, and geometrical features of effective nucleants. Then, recent mechanisms/theories on the grain refinement of cast metals/alloys are reviewed, including the peritectic-related, hypernucleation, inert nucleant, and constitutional supercooling-driven theories. Further, developments of deterministic and probabilistic modeling and nucleation crystallography in the grain refinement of cast metals are reviewed. Finally, the latest progress in the grain refinement of cast Zn and its alloys is described, and future work on grain refinement is summarized.

  3. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin

    2011-01-01

    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple conventions...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  4. Process for refining shale bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauson, H

    1920-09-19

    A process is disclosed for refining shale bitumen for use as heavy mineral oil, characterized by mixtures of blown hard shale pitch and heavy mineral oil being blown with hot air at temperatures of 120 to 150/sup 0/ with 1 to 3 percent sulfur, and if necessary with 0.5 to 3 percent of an aldehyde.

  5. Panorama 2007: Refining and Petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2007-01-01

    The year 2005 saw a new improvement in refining margins that continued during the first three quarters of 2006. The restoration of margins in the last three years has allowed the refining sector to regain its profitability. In this context, the oil companies reported earnings for fiscal year 2005 that were up significantly compared to 2004, and the figures for the first half-year 2006 confirm this trend. Despite this favorable business environment, investments only saw a minimal increase in 2005 and the improvement expected for 2006 should remain fairly limited. Looking to 2010-2015, it would appear that the planned investment projects with the highest probability of reaching completion will be barely adequate to cover the increase in demand. Refining sector should continue to find itself under pressure. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady up-trend in the naphtha price, the restoration of margins consolidated a comeback that started in 2005. All in all, capital expenditure remained fairly low in both the refining and petrochemicals sectors, but many projects are planned for the next ten years. (author)

  6. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  7. National oil companies' presence to hike US refining competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the downstream segment of the U.S. petroleum business is virtually certain to become more competitive because of the growing presence of national oil companies in the country's refining industry. That's a forecast by New York investment firm Kidder Peabody. It cites a plan by Mexico's Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) to form a joint venture with Shell Oil Co. covering Shell's 225,000 b/d Deer Park, Tex., refinery as the latest example of national oil companies' movement into U.S. refining

  8. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassel, B. van

    1995-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage

  9. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassel, B. van [McKinsey and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage.

  10. Japan's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The present economic situation in Japan is discussed. In particular, the focus is on fluctuations in oil product demand, imports of crude oil, and the refining industry. Throughout the 1990s, Japan was plagued by a volatile economy and the new millennium has shown no improvement. A prolonged recession means that the country now has little confidence in its leaders and its institutions, consumer confidence is low and asset values have deflated. Due to a low birth rate and long life expectancy, the population is aging and this means lower savings rates. The contrast between the present situation and the so-called economic miracle once enjoyed by the Japanese is hard to accept, but despite all this, the Japanese lifestyle and economy are to be envied

  11. Panorama 2011: Refining: varying conditions by region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis has further weakened a sector that was already facing difficulties, if we look beyond the flush period (2005-2008) when, buoyed by strong demand, margins remained high and refiners could generate profits while maintaining a healthy level of activity. Falling demand and increased over-capacity in some regions - the immediate consequences of the deteriorating economic conditions over the past two years - have led to declining margins and to financial accounts being in the red. The adoption of increasingly stringent emissions standards and product specifications, burdensome regulatory requirements for refineries (for combating local pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emissions), stiffer competition from new fuels: all of these structural factors are weakening the sector, especially in industrialized nations with their more rigorous regulatory compliance. In this generally gloomy climate, numerous new projects are still being envisaged - although many have recently been postponed and tend to be concentrated in developing countries. (author)

  12. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil

  13. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.

    1996-01-01

    The yellow cake refining was studied in both laboratory and semi-pilot scales. The process units mainly consist of dissolution and filtration, solvent extraction, and precipitation and filtration. Effect of flow ratio (organic flow rate/ aqueous flow rate) on working efficiencies of solvent extraction process was studied. Detailed studies were carried out on extraction, scrubbing and stripping processes. Purity of yellow cake product obtained is high as 90.32% U 3 O 8

  14. Process for refining naphthalene, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, G

    1922-05-13

    A process is described for the refining of naphthalene, its distillates, and mineral oils by the use of dilute sulfuric acid, characterized in that the oils are oxidized with oxygen of the air and thereafter are treated with 65 to 75 percent sulfuric acid to separate the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the form of polymerized products whereby, if necessary, heating and application of usual or higher pressure can take place.

  15. Preparation of refined oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-02-03

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of refined sulfur-containing oils from sulfur-containing crude oils obtained by distillation of bituminous limestone, characterized by this crude oil being first subjected to a purification by distillation with steam in the known way, then treated with lime and chloride of lime and distilled preferably in the presence of zinc powder, whereby in this purification a rectification can be added for the purpose of recovering definite fractions.

  16. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, A. Michael; Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust,...

  17. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  18. A Macdonald refined topological vertex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Omar; Wu, Jian-Feng

    2017-07-01

    We consider the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al (2009 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP10(2009)069), as a function of two parameters ≤ft\\lgroup x, y \\right\\rgroup , and deform it by introducing the Macdonald parameters ≤ft\\lgroup q, t \\right\\rgroup , as in the work of Vuletić on plane partitions (Vuletić M 2009 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361 2789-804), to obtain ‘a Macdonald refined topological vertex’. In the limit q → t , we recover the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al and in the limit x → y , we obtain a qt-deformation of the original topological vertex of Aganagic et al (2005 Commun. Math. Phys. 25 425-78). Copies of the vertex can be glued to obtain qt-deformed 5D instanton partition functions that have well-defined 4D limits and, for generic values of ≤ft\\lgroup q, t\\right\\rgroup , contain infinite-towers of poles for every pole present in the limit q → t .

  19. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  20. Latin American oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Obadia, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the oil markets and refining in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, and examines the production of crude oil in these countries. Details are given of Latin American refiners highlighting trends in crude distillation unit capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and refining in the different countries. Latin American oil trade is discussed, and charts are presented illustrating crude production, oil consumption, crude refining capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and oil imports and exports

  1. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement is...

  2. Modeling and optimization of the european oil refining capacities and structures on the horizons 1995, 2000 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khebri, S.

    1993-04-01

    This thesis is a study on petroleum refining. In a first part, the author describes the existing refining processes and the structure of refining units, the structure of petroleum consumption and the interfaces with petroleum chemistry industry and gives a retrospect on world and european petroleum refining. In a second part, the author describes the models used to realize the simulation of supplies, market and refining scheme. Four scenarios are developed (conventional wisdom, driving into tensions, sustaining a high economic growth, high prices) and a forecasting on the horizons 1995, 2000 and 2010 is given. 54 refs

  3. Oil refining and product market developments in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.

    1991-01-01

    One political development in Europe that will affect the petroleum refining industry is the opening of a single market among the European Commission countries. Although the single market officially opens on January 1, 1993, a single market for energy will not happen at that time. Most European countries feel that refining is a strategic industry and adopt some form of protectionism in this sector. Environmental policy in Europe tends to be separate from energy policy, making conflicts in setting standards for emissions and fuel composition somewhat inevitable. For example, both environmental and energy policies favor a carbon tax on fuels; the EC environmental commission does not want to be seen as favoring nuclear power, so it favors penalizing all fuels about the same amount, while the energy commission says the carbon tax should be related to the fuel carbon content. A measure affecting the refining industry is the proposal for reducing sulfur in diesel fuel. By 1994 EC countries will have a common 0.2% standard and by 1996 a 0.05% standard for automotive diesel. To meet the latter standard, refineries will need upgrading at an estimated cost of US$4 billion. Another political consideration for the refining industry is whether eastern Europe should be part of the EC energy community. However, if there is a reluctance in the western European countries for a single western market, there is even less enthusiasm for an energy market that includes eastern Europe as well. In addition, there is a reluctance to accept that there should be a free flow of petroleum products from east to west

  4. Niobium-base grain refiner for aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pontes, P. da; Robert, M.H.; Cupini, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    A new chemical grain refiner for aluminium has been developed, using inoculation of a niobium-base compound. When a bath of molten aluminium is inoculated whith this refiner, an intermetallic aluminium-niobium compound is formed which acts as a powerful nucleant, producing extremely fine structure comparable to those obtained by means of the traditional grain refiner based on titanium and boron. It was found that the refinement of the structure depends upon the weight percentage of the new refiner inoculated as well as the time of holding the bath after inoculation and before pouring, but mainly on the inoculating temperature. (Author) [pt

  5. Refining in the 1990's: Restructuring and resurgence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    After two years of uncertainty in dealing with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments coupled with the shutdown of 5% of total US refining capacity, the industry is now positioning itself for continued operations throughout the remainder of the decade. However, refineries are experiencing a shift in the mode of operations to a period of more restructuring (closings, ventures, alliances, etc.) followed by a resurgence in financial performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current industry and highlight the reasons for industry's current plans. The authors also speculate about the strategies companies will choose to better their financial performance. Fundamentally, the characteristics of a mature domestic business remain the driving force that shape decision making. In responding to the maturing of refining, the authors suggest that refiners will change the way they conduct business over the next few years. Building on the theme of the 1993 NPRA paper, strategies will target the domestic side of the business while simultaneously shifting to a global perspective

  6. Rising costs call for new European refining strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.N.C.

    1993-01-01

    The outlook for the global refining industry is for increased spending and reduced margins, largely because of efforts to improve the environment. A look at these trends through the end of the decade is thus in order. Three major industry thrusts are proposed to see refiners through this uncertain period. Three main thrusts are necessary: fixed costs must be reduced by re-engineering business processes and reexamining noncore business units against total and marginal costs. In this respect the best refiners are well ahead of the good ones. New cooperative ways of meeting regulations must be sought, to avoid wasteful over capacity. Joint ventures and alliances with competitors will be needed. The cooperative principle upstream must be extended and new strategies must be sought to meet product demand changes and reduce feedstock costs. The picture that is presented is tough, largely because of the wish to improve the environment. The question that must be continually reviewed is ''Have governments got the right balance in these regulations between the environment and the downstream industry?''

  7. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting (RCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    The objectives of the CRP are to: (1) improve competence for research on workplace monitoring in terms of proper sampling and analytical procedures, (2) obtain relevant and reliable data on sources and levels of workplace pollution in various countries, (3) promote a better understanding of methods for the interpretation of such data including occupational heath studies, and (4) encourage closer collaboration between analytical scientists and researchers in the field of occupational health in the countries concerned. The CRP focuses on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for the following kinds of studies: (1) strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) sampling of exposed and non-exposed persons; (2) development of suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples; (3) workplace and personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter in the mining, refining and metal working industries, and the health effects of such exposure; and (4) tissue analysis of the workers exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. This report includes the core and supplementary programme of the CRP; technical aspects of sampling, analysis, data processing, and quality assurance; and organizational aspects. The report includes also 10 papers contributed by the participants. Each individual contribution was indexed and provided with an abstract. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting (RCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the CRP are to: (1) improve competence for research on workplace monitoring in terms of proper sampling and analytical procedures, (2) obtain relevant and reliable data on sources and levels of workplace pollution in various countries, (3) promote a better understanding of methods for the interpretation of such data including occupational heath studies, and (4) encourage closer collaboration between analytical scientists and researchers in the field of occupational health in the countries concerned. The CRP focuses on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for the following kinds of studies: (1) strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) sampling of exposed and non-exposed persons; (2) development of suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples; (3) workplace and personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter in the mining, refining and metal working industries, and the health effects of such exposure; and (4) tissue analysis of the workers exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. This report includes the core and supplementary programme of the CRP; technical aspects of sampling, analysis, data processing, and quality assurance; and organizational aspects. The report includes also 10 papers contributed by the participants. Each individual contribution was indexed and provided with an abstract

  9. World petroleum refining capacity: Present and forecasted situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabarelli, D.

    1991-01-01

    World petroleum demand is expected to increase from about 15 million barrels to 80 million after the year 2000. The resulting necessity to increase the currently over-extended global refining capacity will put a significant burden on financial resources within the industry. This article examines the developments, after a decade of restructuring, which have led to the present situation of the petroleum industry described as having greatly improved operational conditions but beset by worrisome problems with regard not only to capacity, but also to the costly constraints being imposed by new air pollution regulations, especially those relevant to desulfurization in refinery processes

  10. Minerals industry survey 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh Minerals Industry Survey produced by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents an invaluable time series on the minerals industry's financial performance, as well as an up to date description of the industry for the latest financial year. The survey has been conceived as a supplement to and expansion of the various Australian Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics publications which describe the exploration, mining and smelting and refining industries in Australia. The tables in this survey have been prepared by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies.

  11. Materials refining on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2007-05-01

    Oxygen, metals, silicon, and glass are raw materials that will be required for long-term habitation and production of structural materials and solar arrays on the Moon. A process sequence is proposed for refining these materials from lunar regolith, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. The fluorine is brought to the Moon in the form of potassium fluoride, and is liberated from the salt by electrolysis in a eutectic salt melt. Tetrafluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon by a plasma reduction stage; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O.

  12. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  13. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  14. Singapore refiners in midst of huge construction campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Singapore's downstream capacity continues to mushroom. Singapore refiners, upbeat about long term prospects for petroleum products demand in the Asia-Pacific region, and are pressing plans to boost processing capacity. Their plans go beyond capacity expansions. They are proceeding with projects to upgrade refineries to emphasize production of higher value products and to further integrate refining capabilities wit the region's petrochemical industry. Planned expansion and upgrading projects at Singapore refineries call for outlays of more than $1 billion to boost total capacity to about 1.1 million b/d in 1993 and 1.27 million b/d by 1995. That would be the highest level since the mid-1980s, when refiners such as Shell Singapore cut capacity amid an oil glut. Singapore refineries currently are running at effective full capacity of 1.04 million b/d. Meanwhile, Singapore refiners are aggressively courting customers in the Indochina subcontinent, where long isolated centrally planned economies are turning gradually to free markets

  15. Oil Production, Refining and Transportation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbal A. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with fuel and energy complex of Canada as one of the largest manufacturers of primary energy in the world, which provides up to 6 percent of the world energy supply. Only the Russian Federation, PRC, the United States of America and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have larger production volumes. However, oil plays the most significant role in Canada's energy exports. It is estimated that its proven reserves are sufficient to meet the demand for 140 years at current production rate. The relevance of the study, including the analysis of fuel and energy complex of Canada, is due to the fact that such comparison and synthesis of data on the amount of recoverable oil reserves, the volume of its production, imports, exports and transit of oil and oil products, the distribution of oil for transportation (via pipelines, rail, sea, road, strategic oil field, refining and transportation of oil and oil products development projects, as well as implementation of Canada's best practices in the Russian Federation, is being developed for the first time. In addition, the data given in previously published articles on the subject, due to the dynamic development of the industry, are obsolete and do not reflect the real situation.

  16. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  17. Investment trends and perspectives for world refining; Tendencias de investimento e perspectivas para o refino mundial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinelli, Marcelo Santos; Pertusier, Rafael Resende [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This article tackles the refining industry in an economical view. The authors analyze structural and conjectural characteristics of activities related to refining sector, looking at recent market statistics and projections that illustrate their arguments. Thus, they aim to identify the refining evolution trends and investments patterns in the main international markets, paying some attention to the assets swaps between the refining majors. The conclusion points that there should be expected a convergence of consumption patterns and production profiles, together with new investments in reforming and treating units, desinvestments in simple plants in the changing strategic positioning scenario. There should not be expected a increase in supply flexibility; rather, a greater profile match. With a recovery in economic growth, the balance between supply and demand will permit refining agents to have better conditions to take advantage from conjectural market opportunities. (author)

  18. Refined geometric transition and qq-characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Mori, Hironori; Sugimoto, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    We show the refinement of the prescription for the geometric transition in the refined topological string theory and, as its application, discuss a possibility to describe qq-characters from the string theory point of view. Though the suggested way to operate the refined geometric transition has passed through several checks, it is additionally found in this paper that the presence of the preferred direction brings a nontrivial effect. We provide the modified formula involving this point. We then apply our prescription of the refined geometric transition to proposing the stringy description of doubly quantized Seiberg-Witten curves called qq-characters in certain cases.

  19. The brain of the refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Ordonez, Marbel

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows the kindness that in Colombia like in other refineries of the world, the decisions that take about the process that continues in a refinery to decide that products and under that condition they should be produced, they are based on a model of denominated programming PIMS process industry modeling system

  20. Automated knowledge-base refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, we have developed several systems for automatically refining incomplete and incorrect knowledge bases. These systems are given an imperfect rule base and a set of training examples and minimally modify the knowledge base to make it consistent with the examples. One of our most recent systems, FORTE, revises first-order Horn-clause knowledge bases. This system can be viewed as automatically debugging Prolog programs based on examples of correct and incorrect I/O pairs. In fact, we have already used the system to debug simple Prolog programs written by students in a programming language course. FORTE has also been used to automatically induce and revise qualitative models of several continuous dynamic devices from qualitative behavior traces. For example, it has been used to induce and revise a qualitative model of a portion of the Reaction Control System (RCS) of the NASA Space Shuttle. By fitting a correct model of this portion of the RCS to simulated qualitative data from a faulty system, FORTE was also able to correctly diagnose simple faults in this system.

  1. A method for refining oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruskin, Yu.A.; Gorokhov, V.V.; Kotler, L.D.; Kovalenko, N.F.; Spasskiy, Yu.B.; Titov, A.M.; Vlasenko, V.Ye.; Vytnov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for refining oil through its distillation with the isolation of directly distilled gases and a benzine fraction (BS) with the use of a benzine fraction pyrolysis, in order to increase the output of the lower olefines and to reduce the energy expenditures, the distillation is conducted with the isolation of 10 to 40 percent of the benzine fraction from its potential content along with the directly distilled gases. The obtained mixture of the remaining part of the benzine fraction is absorbed at a pressure of 1.5 to 6 atmospheres with the feeding of the obtained saturated absorbent to pyrolysis and subsequent mixing of the obtained pyrolysis gas with the unabsorbed product and their joint gas division. As compared to the known method, the proposed method makes it possible to reduce the energy expenditures which is achieved through a reduction in the volume of irrigation in the tower, and to increase the output of the olefines through processing of the steam and gas mixture of the benzine and the directly distilled gases.

  2. Nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Due to a great combination of physical and mechanical properties, beta titanium alloys have become promising candidates in the field of chemical industry, aerospace and biomedical materials. The microstructure of beta titanium alloys is the governing factor that determines their properties and performances, especially the size scale, distribution and volume fraction of precipitate phase in parent phase matrix. Therefore in order to enhance the performance of beta titanium alloys, it is critical to obtain a thorough understanding of microstructural evolution in beta titanium alloys upon various thermal and/or mechanical processes. The present work is focusing on the study of nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure and super-refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys in order to study the influence of instabilities within parent phase matrix on precipitates nucleation, including compositional instabilities and/or structural instabilities. The current study is primarily conducted in Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (wt%, Ti-5553), a commercial material for aerospace application. Refined and super-refined precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553 are obtained under specific accurate temperature controlled heat treatments. The characteristics of either microstructure are investigated in details using various characterization techniques, such as SEM, TEM, STEM, HRSTEM and 3D atom probe to describe the features of microstructure in the aspect of morphology, distribution, structure and composition. Nucleation mechanisms of refined and super-refined precipitates are proposed in order to fully explain the features of different precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553. The necessary thermodynamic conditions and detailed process of phase transformations are introduced. In order to verify the reliability of proposed nucleation mechanisms, thermodynamic calculation and phase field modeling simulation are accomplished using the database of simple binary Ti-Mo system

  3. Refining clean fuels for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courty, P.; Gruson, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    To which extent transportation fuels will reasonably be changed in the coming years? LPG and natural gas are expected to challenge conventional fuels, hydrogen and methanol are bounded to possible fuel cells development. Among others, security of supply, competitive economics and environmental protection issues will be the key to the changes in the coming years. But taking into account expected transportation development, liquid fuels from oil should prevail as the reference energy. Though most of technologies and catalysts needed for the future are still existing or under marketing plans, the industry has to cope with the growing share of middle distillates. Indeed future zero heavy fuel-oil refineries are technically feasible through many existing and recent technologies. However their potential profitability is weighed down deeply by the very high investments and operating costs which are tied up. Tomorrow's main gasoline challenges deal with sulfur in FCC gasoline, aromatics and olefins contents together with a possible ban of ethers, hampering future octane demand and its technical feasibility. In a similar way diesel oil issues for the future imply a very deep desulfurization with possible aromatics hydrogenation and rings opening in order to comply with cetane and poly-aromatics ratings. Natural gas upgrading via syngas chemistry is still expected to open the way to clean fuels for the future via improved and integrated FT's GTL technologies which could as a matter provide most of future increases in clean fuels demand without decreasing the related fatal carbon losses as CO 2 . As an overall view, clean fuels production for the future is technically feasible. Advanced hydro-refining and hydro-conversion technologies open the way to clean fuels and allow the best flexibility in the gasoline/middle distillates ratio. However cost reduction remains a key issue since the huge investments needed are faced with low and volatile refining margins. In addition, CO 2

  4. Italian refiners' environmental spending to soar in 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Industry estimates are that Italian refiners' capital outlays will total almost 12 trillion lire ($7.2 billion), in 1990 currencies, in the 1990's. Most spending will be earmarked to develop cleaner fuels and plant-specific environmental mitigation measures related to new European Community regulations. Italian refiners generally have lagged some of their counterparts in Europe and North America on environmental spending. That's because they have faced a continuing margin squeeze as a result of product prices remaining under tight government controls. Last year, the government began to implement price deregulation in line with EC directives. At the same time, the government is enforcing stiffer emissions rules to improve air quality in urban areas. The paper describes spending plans; demand for oxygenates; demand for low sulfur fuel oil for power plants; and price regulations

  5. Zeolites as Catalysts for Fuels Refining after Indirect Liquefaction Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno de Klerk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of zeolite catalysts for the refining of products from methanol synthesis and Fisher–Tropsch synthesis was reviewed. The focus was on fuels refining processes and differences in the application to indirect liquefaction products was compared to petroleum, which is often a case of managing different molecules. Processes covered were skeletal isomerisation of n-butenes, hydroisomerisation of n-butane, aliphatic alkylation, alkene oligomerisation, methanol to hydrocarbons, ethanol and heavier alcohols to hydrocarbons, carbonyls to hydrocarbons, etherification of alkenes with alcohols, light naphtha hydroisomerisation, catalytic naphtha reforming, hydroisomerisation of distillate, hydrocracking and fluid catalytic cracking. The zeolite types that are already industrially used were pointed out, as well as zeolite types that have future promise for specific conversion processes.

  6. Former Soviet Union's refining sector faces big shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The crisis gripping the refining sector in the former Soviet Union (FSU) is deepening as that industry faces massive rationalization and restructuring. Refinery runs in FSU republics have been on the decline for a number of years. Peak throughput occurred in 1987 at 9.69 million b/d. In Russia, however, the peak came in 1980 at 6.5 million b/d. Given current operable refining capacity in the FSU, now down to about 9.27 million b/d distributed among 48 refineries, capacity utilization will average only about 65% this year. The paper discusses worsening conditions, a comparison of the FSU declines, the financial crisis, energy consumption, and the focus of FSU refineries on secondary capacity to upgrade the product mix

  7. Management of wastes from the refining and conversion of uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is the outcome of an IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on ''Waste Management Aspects in Relation to the Refining of Uranium Ore Concentrates and their Conversion to Uranium Hexafluoride'', which was held in Vienna from 17 to 21 December 1979. The report summarizes the main topics discussed at the meeting and gives an overview of uranium refining processes, being used in nuclear industry. The meeting was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Radioactive Waste Management Section

  8. Pengaruh Degasser Dan Grain Refiner Terhadap Sifat Mekanik Paduan Al-Si Produk Cor

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanes, Glenn; Djamil, Sofyan

    2008-01-01

    Paduan aluminium banyak digunakan pada industri otomotif, seperti pada pembuatan velg dan komponen-komponen mesin. Studi pengaruh degasser dan grain refiner terhadap kekuatan tarik, kekuatan luluh, elongasi dan kekerasan, pada proses peleburan dibandingkan dengan atau tanpa menggunakan degasser dan grain refiner. Benda uji didapat dengan melebur blok mesin Mitsubishi L.300, menggunakan tungku listrik dan proses cor sistem cetakan terbuka. Hasil penelitian, meliputi kekuatan tarik, luluh, elon...

  9. Pengaruh Degasser dan Grain Refiner terhadap Sifat Mekanik Paduan Al-Si Produk Cor

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanes, Glenn; Djamil, Sofyan

    2009-01-01

    Paduan aluminium banyak digunakan pada industri otomotif, seperti pada pembuatan velg dan komponen-komponen mesin. Studi pengaruh degasser dan grain refiner terhadap kekuatan tarik, kekuatan luluh, elongasi dan kekerasan, pada proses peleburan dibandingkan dengan atau tanpa menggunakan degasser dan grain refiner. Benda uji didapat dengan melebur blok mesin Mitsubishi L.300, menggunakan tungku listrik dan proses cor sistem cetakan terbuka. Hasil penelitian, meliputi kekuatan tarik, luluh, elon...

  10. The new French uranium refining plant at Narbonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, J.

    1961-01-01

    In 1957 the Commissariat l'Energie Atomique in collaboration with two French industrial firms, the Compagnie de Saint-Gobain and the Societe Potasse et Engrais chimique, undertook the construction of a plant for the production of refined uranium on an industrial scale. This plant, which forms part of the French nuclear equipment programme and which works at a capacity of 1000 tons/year, was put into operation in July 1959. First of all the principles on which this under-taking is based are outlined. This is followed by a more detailed account of the construction, including the improvements brought to the process developed at the C.E.A. plant at le Bouchet when it was carried over to the industrial stage by the uranium branch of the Societe d'Etudes et de Travaux. (author) [fr

  11. Recent developments, new trends in seed crushing and oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kővári Katalin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil processing was considered as slowly changing “traditional” industry but the recent decades’ developments and trends resulted in a lot of changes initiated by market, industry, environment protection and consumer needs. Driving force of the developments were centralization of the industry, more and more concerns on environmental impact, increased importance of food-feed safety, and last but not least research and development activity together with improved analytical capabilities. The presentation gives an overview on the results achieved on the field of the following areas: the criteria of applicability of physical refining of seed oils, solutions for proper degumming, the effect of seed pretreatment and crushing conditions on the crude oil quality, the importance and role of bleaching and active carbon treatment, the proper practice of deacidification/deodorization.

  12. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  13. Comparing Syntactic and Semantics Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled configuration structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. The comparison is done by studying a process algebra equipped with

  14. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagiya, M.; Goltz, U.; Mitchell, J.C.; Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend

    1994-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  15. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert, E-mail: gerrit.vriend@radboudumc.nl [Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 26-28, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved.

  16. Refined large N duality for knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kameyama, Masaya; Nawata, Satoshi

    We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...

  17. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert

    2014-01-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ 1 and χ 2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ 1 and χ 2 values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved

  18. Grain refinement of zinc-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2006-01-01

    It is now well-established that the structure of the zinc-aluminum die casting alloys can be modified by the binary Al-Ti or the ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys. in this paper, grain refinement of zinc-aluminum alloys by rare earth materials is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining of these alloys and parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the Zn-Al alloys cast, parameters related to the grain refining elements or alloys and parameters related to the process. The effect of addition of other alloying elements e.g. Zr either alone or in the presence of the main grain refiners Ti or Ti + B on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, based on the grain refinement and the parameters affecting it, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is suggested. Finally, the recent research work on the effect of grain refiners on the mechanical behaviour, impact strength, wear resistance, and fatigue life of these alloys are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Refined Phenotyping of Modic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juhani H.; Karppinen, Jaro; Paananen, Markus; Bow, Cora; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) is the world's most disabling condition. Modic changes (MC) are vertebral bone marrow changes adjacent to the endplates as noted on magnetic resonance imaging. The associations of specific MC types and patterns with prolonged, severe LBP and disability remain speculative. This study assessed the relationship of prolonged, severe LBP and back-related disability, with the presence and morphology of lumbar MC in a large cross-sectional population-based study of Southern Chinese. We addressed the topographical and morphological dimensions of MC along with other magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes (eg, disc degeneration and displacement) on the basis of axial T1 and sagittal T2-weighted imaging of L1-S1. Prolonged severe LBP was defined as LBP lasting ≥30 days during the past year, and a visual analog scale severest pain intensity of at least 6/10. An Oswestry Disability Index score of 15% was regarded as significant disability. We also assessed subject demographics, occupation, and lifestyle factors. In total, 1142 subjects (63% females, mean age 53 years) were assessed. Of these, 282 (24.7%) had MC (7.1% type I, 17.6% type II). MC subjects were older (P = 0.003), had more frequent disc displacements (P disability. The strength of the associations increased with the number of MC. This large-scale study is the first to definitively note MC types and specific morphologies to be independently associated with prolonged severe LBP and back-related disability. This proposed refined MC phenotype may have direct implications in clinical decision-making as to the development and management of LBP. Understanding of these imaging biomarkers can lead to new preventative and personalized therapeutics related to LBP. PMID:27258491

  20. Refinement of boards' role required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbdenstock, R J

    1987-01-01

    The governing board's role in health care is not changing, but new competitive forces necessitate a refinement of the board's approach to fulfilling its role. In a free-standing, community, not-for-profit hospital, the board functions as though it were the "owner." Although it does not truly own the facility in the legal sense, the board does have legal, fiduciary, and financial responsibilities conferred on it by the state. In a religious-sponsored facility, the board fulfills these same obligations on behalf of the sponsoring institute, subject to the institute's reserved powers. In multi-institutional systems, the hospital board's power and authority depend on the role granted it by the system. Boards in all types of facilities are currently faced with the following challenges: Fulfilling their basic responsibilities, such as legal requirements, financial duties, and obligations for the quality of care. Encouraging management and the board itself to "think strategically" in attacking new competitive market forces while protecting the organization's traditional mission and values. Assessing recommended strategies in light of consequences if constituencies think the organization is abandoning its commitments. Boards can take several steps to match their mode of operation with the challenges of the new environment. Boards must rededicate themselves to the hospital's mission. Trustees must expand their understanding of health care trends and issues and their effect on the organization. Boards must evaluate and help strengthen management's performance, rather than acting as a "watchdog" in an adversarial position. Boards must think strategically, rather than focusing solely on operational details. Boards must evaluate the methods they use for conducting business.

  1. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Srinuttrakul, W.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process to produce higher purity uranium from yellowcake was studied in laboratory scale. Yellowcake, which the uranium purity is around 70% and the main impurity is thorium, was obtained from monazite processing pilot plant of Rare Earth Research and Development Center in Thailand. For uranium re-extraction process, the extractant chosen was Tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. It was found that the optimum concentration of TBP was 10% in kerosene and the optimum nitric acid concentration in uranyl nitrate feed solution was 4 N. An increase in concentrations of uranium and thorium in feed solution resulted in a decrease in the distribution of both components in the extractant. However, the distribution of uranium into the extractant was found to be more than that of thorium. The equilibration study of the extraction system, UO_2(NO_3)/4N HNO_3 – 10%TBP/Kerosene, was also investigated. Two extraction stages were calculated graphically from 100,000 ppm uranium concentration in feed solution input with 90% extraction efficiency and the flow ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase was adjusted to 1.0. For thorium impurity scrubbing process, 10% TBP in kerosene was loaded with uranium and minor thorium from uranyl nitrate solution prepared from yellowcake and was scrubbed with different low concentration nitric acid. The results showed that at nitric acid normality was lower than 1 N, uranium distributed well to aqueous phase. As conclusion, optimum nitric acid concentration for scrubbing process should not less than 1 N and diluted nitric acid or de-ionized water should be applied to strip uranium from organic phase in the final refining process. (author)

  2. The oil and petroleum industry. 20. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This financial survey is a compilation of financial and marketing data on oil and petroleum industry companies in the United Kingdom. It includes quoted companies in the production and distribution industry, unquoted companies in the exploration and production industry, unquoted companies in the refining and distribution industry, a geographical index and an alphabetical index. (UK)

  3. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  4. Petroleum industry in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  5. 75 FR 54002 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1987-1988 Leyland Motors Olympian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Systems, 104 Windshield Wiping and Washing Systems, 105 Vehicle Identification Number--Basic Requirements... elements of the braking system comply with the applicable FMVSS No. 121 requirements. The petitioner further explains that the subject vehicle's brake system is similar to that installed on the 1972 to 1977...

  6. [Application of two-dimensional imaging to very high energy gamma ray astronomy]: Progress report, 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The major accomplishment of this project was the development of a gamma camera for detection of very weak flux from the Crab Nebula. In addition, the detection of a pulsed flux from Hercules X-1 and the installation of a new high resolution camera are reported. 6 figs

  7. Research and development in the field of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Japan during 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper was provided for the 12th IAEA/IWG-NPPCI Meeting and aims to introduce an outline of recent R and D activities in Japan in the field of Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation. In the area of sensors, equipment and systems, various kinds of micro-processor based digital instrumentation and control components/systems have been developed for the distributed C and I systems for the Advanced LWR Plants under planning. Remarkable progress has been also obtained in the development of advanced sensors such as a Four Section Ex-core Neutron Chamber for PWR, some kinds of High-Temperature (600 - 800 deg. C) and Wide Range Neutron Counter Chambers for HTGR, and High-Temperature (1200 deg. C)/High-stability In-Core Thermocouples. Method of verification and validation of the micro-processor based protection and safety systems was studied and a proving test of the systems has been undertaken to use the systems for the Advanced LWR plants. Extensive studies have also been made in the field of Human Factors, Man-Machine Interface and Operator Support System. Operators' behaviour, performance and cognitive process were investigated and cognitive model and crew performance model have been provided for the advanced MMI design and evaluation. Development programme of the Advanced Man-Machine System was continued for the further improvement of the MMI of NPPs. The AI technology has been introduced widely into the operator support systems, and the performance and flexibility of the systems have been improved remarkably. As for the training equipment, high-performance on-site compact simulators have been developed and installed in plant sites. Various kinds of maintenance support systems have been also developed by the united efforts of utilities and manufacturers. A list of 131 references is provided in this paper for the convenience of readers. (author). 131 refs, 1 tab

  8. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  9. Petroleum industry 1996; L`industrie petroliere 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector`s companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  10. Petroleum industry 1996; L`industrie petroliere 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector`s companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  11. Panorama 2011: Water in fuel production Oil production and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabzar, L.

    2011-01-01

    Water plays a vital role in the production of fuels. Against a background of extremely high pressure to do with the need to protect the environment, better manage energy use and operate in a socially responsible manner - as well as the need to protect water as a resource and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water management has become a major issue for the oil industry. These issues have all more or less been factored into the integrated water management programmes which have been introduced both in oil production and oil refining. These programmes have been designed to keep waste and emissions to a minimum, and to reduce the quantities of water required. (author)

  12. Colombia defines innovative plans for refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    Ecopetrol plans to increase capacity at its Cartagena refinery to 140,000 barrels per day until 2002. The new production will be for basic streams to supply and stimulate new industries in the petrochemical sector. Investment has concentrated on exploration and production and far less on the rest of the oil sector, but now Ecopetrol will be new financing plans to develop refining in keeping with government guidelines. The Ecopetrol Board approved the development plan for the Cartagena Refinery, this consist of increasing capacity

  13. Petroleum refining. 5, refinery operation and management; Le raffinage du petrole. 5. Exploitation et gestion de la raffinerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favennec, J.P. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    In this volume, the reader will find: an analysis of the refining industry's current environment and economics, including the importance of crude oil, the demand for petroleum products, markets and price setting mechanisms for crude oil and oil products, refining costs and margins, the evolution of the refining capacity and of constraints on the industry; a review of the tools available for optimising and controlling operations; an explanation of material balance management and a description of refinery management and organisation. Contents: I. Background to refining. 1. Oil and Energy. 2. Petroleum products applications, characteristics, markets. 3. International oil markets. 4. Refining: a technical summary investments, margins, costs probable future developments. II. Refining tools. 5. Introduction to linear programming as used in the refining industry. 6. Application of linear programming to refining. 7. Automation, process control and information technology. 8. Applications and their implementation. III. Management and organisation. 9. Management and optimisation of refinery operations. 10. Logistics: transport and dispatch. 11. Functional and organisational analysis. 12. Managerial aspects. Glossary. Index. (author)

  14. Protein Structure Refinement by Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Martin

    on whether the three-dimensional structure of a homologous sequence is known. Whether or not a protein model can be used for industrial purposes depends on the quality of the predicted structure. A model can be used to design a drug when the quality is high. The overall goal of this project is to assess...... that correlates maximally to a native-decoy distance. The main contribution of this thesis is methods developed for analyzing the performance of metrically trained knowledge-based potentials and for optimizing their performance while making them less dependent on the decoy set used to define them. We focus...... being at-least a local minimum of the potential. To address how far the current functional form of the potential is from an ideal potential we present two methods for finding the optimal metrically trained potential that simultaneous has a number of native structures as a local minimum. Our results...

  15. Optimizing refiner operation with statistical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Research Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)

    1997-02-01

    The impact of refining conditions on the energy efficiency of the process and on the handsheet quality of a chemi-mechanical pulp was studied as part of a series of pilot scale refining trials. Statistical models of refiner performance were constructed from these results and non-linear optimization of process conditions were conducted. Optimization results indicated that increasing the ratio of specific energy applied in the first stage led to a reduction of some 15 per cent in the total energy requirement. The strategy can also be used to obtain significant increases in pulp quality for a given energy input. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Refinement Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Vekris, Panagiotis; Cosman, Benjamin; Jhala, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    We present Refined TypeScript (RSC), a lightweight refinement type system for TypeScript, that enables static verification of higher-order, imperative programs. We develop a formal core of RSC that delineates the interaction between refinement types and mutability. Next, we extend the core to account for the imperative and dynamic features of TypeScript. Finally, we evaluate RSC on a set of real world benchmarks, including parts of the Octane benchmarks, D3, Transducers, and the TypeScript co...

  17. Russian refining shows signs of revival, needs investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.S.; Avgerinos, G.F.; Dvorets, N.L.; Tyukov, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Russian refining industry appears ready for a comeback but needs investment from abroad. After 7 years of annual decline, output of petroleum products in the former Soviet Union (FSU), most of it from Russian refineries, is estimated to have dropped marginally last year. And an increase is possible this year. In 1994, Russia's refineries, which account for two thirds of total FSU distillation capacity, yielded 176.2 million metric tons of oil products, compared with 214.1 million tons in 1993. Despite the precipitous decline in refinery production, net FSU exports oil refined products were down only 5% in 1994 at about 51.3 million tons. This occurred despite the decline in refinery production because of sizable contraction in oil consumption in Russian and the other republics. Russia, like the rest of the FSU, needs more than loans to produce oil or restore wells. According to the Ministries of Economics and Fuels and Energy, 90% of Russian enterprises need foreign capital. Investments to rebuild refining, gas processing, and petrochemicals are necessary, as are funds for modern technologies and equipment. Capital also is needed for extraction of resources that are remotely located or difficult to produce. In addition to providing a legal structure that provides a solid basis for investment, Russian must promote competition, change its tax system to raise revenue but allow companies to retain profits, and remove disincentives to investment for domestic and foreign enterprises

  18. Investment in exploration-production and refining 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Serbutoviez, Sylvain; Silva, Constancio; Maisonnier, Guy

    2014-11-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2014 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: 1 - Changes in oil and gas prices: General background: weak economy and global disorder, Oil prices: fundamentals that could help to relax oil prices?, Gas prices: fall in Europe, stability in Japan, increase in the US; 2 - Exploration and production - Slowdown in growth: moderate rise in investment in 2014, exploration - Discoveries in 2014, Russia: sanctions will have limited short term impact, implications of the reforms to the Mexican energy sector; 3 - Drilling activity and market throughout the world: onshore and offshore drilling (Number of wells drilled throughout the world, Number of onshore wells, Number of offshore wells, Drilling, equipment and well services markets, Onshore drilling market, Offshore drilling market, Fracking market), Geophysical activity and the geophysical market, Offshore construction activity and the offshore construction market (Offshore construction activities, Rig construction activity, Floating Platform Systems (FPS), Sub-sea constructions, Offshore construction market); 4 - Refining - Significant increase in spending: increase in industrial costs, a slowdown in the increase in excess capacity in the future?, A bleak future for the european refining sector

  19. Refinement for Transition Systems with Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the response pattern for property specifications and applications within flexible workflow management systems, we report upon an initial study of modal and mixed transition systems in which the must transitions are interpreted as must eventually, and in which implementations can contain may behaviors that are resolved at run-time. We propose Transition Systems with Responses (TSRs as a suitable model for this study. We prove that TSRs correspond to a restricted class of mixed transition systems, which we refer to as the action-deterministic mixed transition systems. We show that TSRs allow for a natural definition of deadlocked and accepting states. We then transfer the standard definition of refinement for mixed transition systems to TSRs and prove that refinement does not preserve deadlock freedom. This leads to the proposal of safe refinements, which are those that preserve deadlock freedom. We exemplify the use of TSRs and (safe refinements on a small medication workflow.

  20. Development of a Refined Staff Group Trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quensel, Susan

    1999-01-01

    .... As a follow-on effort to the previous SGT project, the goal was to refine a brigade-level staff training program to more effectively and efficiently coordinate the activities within and between the...

  1. China's refiners face massive overhaul, expansion to meet demand growth, new crude slate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    China's refining industry has embarked on a massive overhaul and expansion to accommodate soaring domestic growth in refined products demand. Currently that growth in demand is being met by increasing imports of refined products, in recent years attaining triple digit growth rates and squeezing direly needed foreign exchange. The focus is on adding refining capacity of about 1.4 million b/d to the current capacity of about 3.2 million b/d by 2000. Priority for increasing capacity is being given to expanding existing refineries and participating in foreign joint venture grassroots refineries along China's booming coastal regions as well as hiking output. A major challenge for China's refineries is that country's reentry into the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), recently signed in Morocco by more than 100 nations. The accompanying reduction of tariffs on imported refined products will make it more difficult for China's marginal refineries to compete in the domestic market. The paper discusses imports and exports, LPG outlook, refining capacity, revamps needed, third party processing, China's first joint venture refinery, industry plans, and GATT challenges

  2. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are provided for under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning refining business in the enforcement order for the law. The basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose, accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area and employee. Refining facilities listed in the application for designation shall be classified into clushing and leaching, thickning, refining facilities, storage facilities of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, disposal facilities of contaminated substances and building for refining, etc. Business program attached to the application shall include expected time of beginning of refining, estimated production amount of nuclear source materials or nuclear fuel materials for the first three years and funds necessary for construction, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods on delivery and storage of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, control of radiation, maintenance and accidents of refining facilities. Safety securing, application of internationally regulated substances and measures in dangerous situations are stipulated respectively. Exposure dose of employees and other specified matters shall be reported by the refiner yearly to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  3. Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronche, A.; Greer, A. L.

    The efficiency of a grain refiner can be quantified as the number of grains per nucleant particle in the solidified product. Even for effective refiners in aluminium, such as Al-5Ti-1B, it is known from experiments that efficiencies are very low, at best 10-3 to 102. It is of interest to explore the reasons for such low values, and to assess the prospects for increased efficiency though design of refiners. Recently it has been shown [1] that a simple recalescence-based model can make quantitative predictions of grain size as a function of refiner addition level, cooling rate and solute content. In the model, the initiation of grains is limited by the free growth from nucleant particles, the size distribution of which is very important. The present work uses this model as the basis for discussing the effect of particle size distribution on grain refiner performance. Larger particles (of TiB2 in the case of present interest) promote greater efficiency, as do narrower size distributions. It is shown that even if the size distribution could be exactly specified, compromises would have to be made to balance efficiency (defined as above) with other desirable characteristics of a refiner.

  4. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  5. The hydrogen market in refining and petrochemicals in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, P.; Borel, P.

    1991-11-01

    The french hydrogen market on industrial sites can be divided into three main parts. Captive hydrogen is produced by thermofor catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking and hydrotreating of vacuum distillates, and is consumed in hydrotreating of petrol, hydrodesulfurization of gasoil and domestic fuel oil, hydrocracking and hydrofining of lubricants. By-product hydrogen is burnt in boilers and flare stacks. Merchant hydrogen is sold to users on the open market. Currently, thirteen refineries belonging to six companies produce 73 million tonnes of petroleum products each year in France and release annually a surplus of some 100,000 tonnes of hydrogen. The future of refining industry in France depends on the quality of the crude oil, the specific characteristics of the end products, and the developments in user markets. The refining process is likely to become more complex by 2005 with an increase in hydrogen requirements. Refineries could then undergo an annual deficit between 140,000 and 230,000 tonnes of hydrogen. The choice of the appropriate process to cover this shortfall depends mostly on oil companies strategy. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 diagrams

  6. Chinese refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed China's refining capacity in relation to exports of Canadian heavy oil. Demand for oil is increasing throughout the world, and China is expected to consume 25 per cent of the projected yearly oil supplies. Alberta currently has an estimated 174 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, and produces 1.06 million barrels per day. Production is expected to increase to 4.5 million barrels per day by the year 2020. Currently bitumen blends are refined and diluted with naphtha and sweet synthetic crude oil. Bitumen is a challenging feedstock for refineries, and requires thermal production methods or gasification processes. Primary conversion into sour synthetic crude is typically followed by hydrocracking and further refining into finished petroleum products. There are currently 50 refineries in China with a 7.4 million barrel per day capacity. Coastal refineries using imported crude oil have a 4 million barrel per day capacity. New facilities are being constructed and existing plants are being upgraded in order to process heavier and more sour crude oils. However, current refining capabilities in Chinese refineries have a limited ability for resid conversion. It was concluded that while China has a refining infrastructure, only refineries on the coast will use oil sands-derived feedstocks. However, there are currently opportunities to design refineries to match future feedstocks. tabs., figs

  7. Grain refinement mechanism in A3003 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hoon; Shin, Je-Sik; Lee, Byoung-Soo; Jo, Hyung-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, in order to find out an grain refinement mechanism, 0.1wt.% Al-10wt.%Ti master alloy was added into A3003 alloy melt contained in graphite crucible and in alumina crucible, and then the melt holding time at 750 deg. C was systematically changed from 1 min up to 120 min. It is interesting to note that the grain refinement and fading phenomena remarkably depend on the crucible material. The fading effect in the specimens using alumina crucible can be explained as the result of TiAl 3 phase dissolution into molten aluminium matrix. In the specimens using graphite crucible, the grain refinement was occurred gradually with increasing holding time. It was suggest that the continuous grain refinement is due to transition of refinement mechanism from TiAl 3 phase to TiC phase. It can be mentioned that the TiC formed from titanium and carbon solute in the aluminium melt, which came from the Al-10Ti alloy and the graphite crucible.

  8. 75 FR 33330 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... imports of seamless refined copper pipe and tube from China and Mexico are being sold in the United States... industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of less-than-fair-value imports from China...

  9. Petroleum refining. Separation processes; Le raffinage du petrole. Procedes de separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauquier, J.P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Bonfils, P. [AB Industries (France); Company, J.P. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France); Deschamps, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Gourlia, J.P. [Elf Aquitaine (France); Gouzien, L. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France); Hombourger, T. [Mobil (France); Jullian, S. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Marty, C. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France); Mikitenko, P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Ptak, C. [Technip, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Rojey, A.; Streicher, C.; Vidal, J. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1998-12-01

    After having given into details the conventional separation processes used in petroleum refining, the author describes the development future prospects: improvement of the existing technologies, introduction of new techniques or separation processes still not used today in this industry. This book is particularly devoted to students and to engineers and technical men who work in refineries. (O.M.) 308 refs.

  10. India's refining prospects linked to economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.

    1996-01-01

    International investors assess refining ventures in India the same way they do comparable projects elsewhere in the world: according to their expectations about investment returns. By that standard, India's appeal is mixed, although its need for some measure of additional refining capacity seems certain. The success of future refinery investments will depend heavily on the government's commitment to policies allowing the economy to grow faster than the population. Unless accompanied by economic growth, expected increases in the population will not automatically raise demand for petroleum products. Decisions about investments in India's refining sector, therefore, must carefully weigh market fundamentals, the business environment, and likely investment performance. This paper reviews the market for the various products and predicts new economic trends

  11. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  12. Zone refining high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10 10 cm -3 ) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations

  13. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.; Dawson, Clint N.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. India beckons participants in burgeoning refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that India has opened its refining sector to full private investment for the first time in more than 2 decades. The government again gave a green light to construction of three 120,000 b/d grassroots refineries in East, West, and Central India. The projects had won various governmental approvals in the past few years, but never moved off high center for a variety of economic and regulatory reasons. The difference this time is that the government is offering interests in the projects to private foreign and domestic investors. It's part of India's push to boost overall refining capacity by more than 80% this century

  15. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.

    2014-03-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  17. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-09-16

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  18. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  19. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns

  20. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  1. Refining the Eye: Dermatology and Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Corinne; Huang, Jennifer T.; Buzney, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Harvard Medical School began a partnership focused on building visual literacy skills for dermatology residents in the Harvard Combined Dermatology Residency Program. "Refining the Eye: Art and Dermatology", a four session workshop, took place in the museum's galleries and utilized the Visual…

  2. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structur...

  3. Structure refinement of polycrystalline orthorhombic yttrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The perovskite ceramic phases with composition Ca1−YTiO3+ (where = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3; hereafter CYT-10, CYT-20 and CYT-30) have been synthesized by solid state reaction at 1050°C. The structure refinement using general structure analysis system (GSAS) software converges to satisfactory profile indicators ...

  4. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, M.E.E.; Szklo, A.S.; Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.; Mariano, J.B.; Sala, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  5. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani Vitoria; Schaeffer, Roberto; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Sala, Janaina Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks

  6. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    1992-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution,which can be used as another notion of action refiment in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  7. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsen, K.R.M.; Vriend, G.

    2014-01-01

    A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles chi1 and chi2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers

  8. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  9. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of the presented refinement approach is that it links formalisms from a top level requirements notation down to programs together in a mathematically coherent development trajectory. The approach uses Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, to specifyrequirements...

  10. Robust Refinement as Implemented in TOPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, K.; Stephens, P

    2010-01-01

    A robust refinement procedure is implemented in the program TOPAS through an iterative reweighting of the data. Examples are given of the procedure as applied to fitting partially overlapped peaks by full and partial models and also of the structures of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the presence of unmodeled impurity contributions

  11. Refinement of the concept of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, J

    2001-04-01

    To analyse the conceptual maturity of uncertainty; to develop an expanded theoretical definition of uncertainty; to advance the concept using methods of concept refinement; and to analyse congruency with the conceptualization of uncertainty presented in the theory of hope, enduring, and suffering. Uncertainty is of concern in nursing as people experience complex life events surrounding health. In an earlier nursing study that linked the concepts of hope, enduring, and suffering into a single theoretical scheme, a state best described as 'uncertainty' arose. This study was undertaken to explore how this conceptualization fit with the scientific literature on uncertainty and to refine the concept. Initially, a concept analysis using advanced methods described by Morse, Hupcey, Mitcham and colleagues was completed. The concept was determined to be partially mature. A theoretical definition was derived and techniques of concept refinement using the literature as data were applied. The refined concept was found to be congruent with the concept of uncertainty that had emerged in the model of hope, enduring and suffering. Further investigation is needed to explore the extent of probabilistic reasoning and the effects of confidence and control on feelings of uncertainty and certainty.

  12. Quantum Geometry of Refined Topological Strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aganagic, M.; Cheng, M.C.N.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Kreft, D.; Vafa, C.

    2012-01-01

    We consider branes in refined topological strings. We argue that their wavefunctions satisfy a Schrödinger equation depending on multiple times and prove this in the case where the topological string has a dual matrix model description. Furthermore, in the limit where one of the equivariant

  13. Red refinements of simplices into congruent subsimplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2014), s. 2199-2204 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sommerville tetrahedron * red refinement * higher-dimensional simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122114000662

  14. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species

  15. Construction and Application of a Refined Hospital Management Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lihua; Hao, Aimin; Hu, Minmin; Huang, Pei; Yuan, Huikang; Xing, Ming

    2015-05-01

    Gaining large scale success was quite common in the later period of industrialization for hospitals in China. Today, Chinese hospital management face such problems as service inefficiency, high human resources cost, and low rate of capital use. This study analyzes the refined management chain of the Wuxi No. 2 People's Hospital. This consists of six gears namely "organizational structure, clinical practice, outpatient service, medical technology, and nursing care and logistics" used to achieve maximum scale and benefits. The gears are based on "flat management system targets, chief of medical staff, centralized outpatient service, intensified medical examinations, vertical nursing management and socialized logistics". The hospital took innovative measures. The "one doctor-one patient-one clinic" was well accepted; "one dispensary" shorten the waiting time by 20 min. The 168 rear service hot line "made patients' lives easier; and a red wrist ribbon" for seriously ill patient was implemented to prioritize medical treatment. The core concepts of refined hospital management are optimizing flow process, reducing waste, improving efficiency, saving costs, and taking good care of patients as most important.

  16. The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum by Al-Ti-B refiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lina [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2006-11-30

    The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum with the addition of Al-Ti-B master alloy was studied in this paper. The experimental results show that when the grain size of solidified sample is finer the viscosity of the melt is higher after the addition of different Al-Ti-B master alloys. This indicates that viscosity can be used to approximately estimate the refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-B refiners in production to a certain extent. The main reason was also discussed in this paper by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiment.

  17. Middle East oil refining in the World context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Gilbert

    1998-01-01

    The building of new refining capacity in the Middle East which will operate in the early part of the next century will be the decision of just a few men. They will include the heads of the state petroleum agencies in Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia and the CEOs of BP, Exxon and Shell. They will not want for advice from their corporate planners and external consultants, but the key decisions will be in the hands of just a few people. There is nothing new in this decision-making process. The oil consuming countries will react in a similar way to their common environment. In a paper such as this, it is possible to examine the present environment and to extrapolate that environment into the next decade. This is what planners and forecasters are doing everywhere in the petroleum industry. (author)

  18. Automatic mesh refinement and local multigrid methods for contact problems: application to the Pellet-Cladding mechanical Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This Ph.D. work takes place within the framework of studies on Pellet-Cladding mechanical Interaction (PCI) which occurs in the fuel rods of pressurized water reactor. This manuscript focuses on automatic mesh refinement to simulate more accurately this phenomena while maintaining acceptable computational time and memory space for industrial calculations. An automatic mesh refinement strategy based on the combination of the Local Defect Correction multigrid method (LDC) with the Zienkiewicz and Zhu a posteriori error estimator is proposed. The estimated error is used to detect the zones to be refined, where the local sub-grids of the LDC method are generated. Several stopping criteria are studied to end the refinement process when the solution is accurate enough or when the refinement does not improve the global solution accuracy anymore. Numerical results for elastic 2D test cases with pressure discontinuity show the efficiency of the proposed strategy. The automatic mesh refinement in case of unilateral contact problems is then considered. The strategy previously introduced can be easily adapted to the multi-body refinement by estimating solution error on each body separately. Post-processing is often necessary to ensure the conformity of the refined areas regarding the contact boundaries. A variety of numerical experiments with elastic contact (with or without friction, with or without an initial gap) confirms the efficiency and adaptability of the proposed strategy. (author) [fr

  19. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment from NEDO. Report on the results of the R and D of technologies to invent original high-functional materials (development of precise structure control materials for enhancement of oil refining); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Dokusoteki kokino zairyo sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (sekiyu seisei kodoka seimitsu kozo seigyo zairyo kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the R and D of technologies for creating original high-functional materials under the R and D system of industrial scientific technology. Japan chemical Innovation Institute (JCII) is conducting intensive joint researches under consignment from NEDO with private companies, universities and national research institutes. Among those, the paper reported the fiscal 1997 results of the following two researches conducted as development of precise structure control materials for enhancement of oil refining: precision catalytic polymerization and multi-dimensional space polymer. As to the precision catalytic polymerization, the paper is aimed at developing base technologies for the molecular weight and stereoregularity by which remarkable improvement in performance of addition polymerization type polymer can be expected, and on the development of a polymerization catalyst which arbitarily controls the primary structure such as end group structure and of a precision addition polymerization process. Subthemes are addition polymerization with limit and oriented catalytic polymerization. In relation to multi-dimensional space polymer, the paper is aimed at developing highly selective polymerization technology of aromatic compounds using enzyme related catalysts and synthesis technology of regular structure polymer, and synthesis technology of new polymer group having a new chain pattern except covalent bond/new polymer group having characteristics in three-dimensional space geometric structure. 244 refs,, 160 figs., 94 tabs.

  20. Automata Learning through Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, Fides; Heidarian, Faranak; Kuppens, Harco

    2012-01-01

    to a small set of abstract events that can be handled by automata learning tools. In this article, we show how such abstractions can be constructed fully automatically for a restricted class of extended finite state machines in which one can test for equality of data parameters, but no operations on data...... are allowed. Our approach uses counterexample-guided abstraction refinement: whenever the current abstraction is too coarse and induces nondeterministic behavior, the abstraction is refined automatically. Using Tomte, a prototype tool implementing our algorithm, we have succeeded to learn – fully......Abstraction is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems. Hence, in most practical applications where automata learning is used to construct models of software components, researchers manually define abstractions which, depending on the history, map a large set of concrete events...

  1. Multivariate refined composite multiscale entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify signals complexity. MSE relies on sample entropy. However, MSE may yield imprecise complexity estimation at large scales, because sample entropy does not give precise estimation of entropy when short signals are processed. A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. Nevertheless, RCMSE is for univariate signals only. The simultaneous analysis of multi-channel (multivariate) data often over-performs studies based on univariate signals. We therefore introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. Applications of multivariate RCMSE to simulated processes reveal its better performances over the standard multivariate MSE. - Highlights: • Multiscale entropy quantifies data complexity but may be inaccurate at large scale. • A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. • Nevertheless, RCMSE is adapted to univariate time series only. • We herein introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. • It shows better performances than the standard multivariate multiscale entropy.

  2. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  3. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth van Hooland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank cells, duplicates, spelling inconsistencies, etc. OpenRefine not only allows you to quickly diagnose the accuracy of your data, but also to act upon certain errors in an automated manner.

  4. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  5. Government will shape China's refining boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.

    1995-01-01

    China's refining system is undergoing a major overhaul. New refineries are being built as existing ones are upgraded and expanded. The success of refineries funded completely or partially by non-chinese companies will depend in part on Chinese government policy. There will be demand for products from third-party processing facilities, but hard current is necessary for the investors to repatriate profits and for china Petrochemical Corp. (Sinopec) to bid on the products from such facilities. The limited convertibility of chinese current constitutes a major central control over the country's entire economy. This control can be affected by limiting product exchange participants and the volumes to be traded. Such a limitation, however, will reduce access of non-Chinese companies to China's markets, and is not likely to occur in the next 10 years. The paper discusses the current situation in capacity and in refining, capacity, expansion, refinery planning, construction projects, third-party processing, and the prospects for change

  6. Computing Refined Buneman Trees in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Östlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolutionary tree for a set of n species based on pairwise distances between the species is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. Neighbor joining is a popular distance based tree reconstruction method. It always proposes fully resolved binary trees despite missing evidence...... in the underlying distance data. Distance based methods based on the theory of Buneman trees and refined Buneman trees avoid this problem by only proposing evolutionary trees whose edges satisfy a number of constraints. These trees might not be fully resolved but there is strong combinatorial evidence for each...... proposed edge. The currently best algorithm for computing the refined Buneman tree from a given distance measure has a running time of O(n 5) and a space consumption of O(n 4). In this paper, we present an algorithm with running time O(n 3) and space consumption O(n 2). The improved complexity of our...

  7. The big shedding of the European refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.

    2007-01-01

    Everywhere in Europe the oil companies are selling their refineries. Even if they work at full capacity, the interest of the European market is far below the one of Asia where demand is in full expansion and Middle-East where the raw matter is abundant. The world refining capacity is of 86 million barrel per day and should reach 106 million barrel per day in 2020. (J.S.)

  8. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S.; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality i...

  9. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    OpenAIRE

    Seth van Hooland; Ruben Verborgh; Max De Wilde

    2013-01-01

    Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank...

  10. Rare earths refining by vacuum sublimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytus, N.N.

    1983-01-01

    The process of rare earths refining by the sUblimation; method in high and superhigh oil-free vacuum, is investigated. The method is effective for rare earths obtaining and permits to prepare metal samples with a high value of electric resistance ratio γ=RsUb(298 K)/Rsub(4.2 K). The estimation of general purity is performed for Sm, Eu, Yb, Tm, Dy, Ho, Er and Se

  11. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2002: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. A second part is devoted to the fuel quality and air quality: the constant improvement of the fuels and the investments refining/distribution. (A.L.B.)

  12. Ways of Light Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ "The planning of the right industry restructuring and revitalization" was officially released on May 18th this year. This planning mainly includes food, cereals, oil, batteries, leather, paper, fermentation, brewing, sugar refining and home electrical appliances. As a response to a comprehensive action plan, the planning period is from 2009 to 2011.

  13. The petroleum industry in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum industry for the year 2005. It discusses the world gas and petroleum markets, the world and french petroleum exploration and production, the petroleum and byproducts industry in France, the hydrocarbons supplying, the refining in France, the evolution of the products and fuels substitution quality, the internal transports of petroleum products, the storage consumption and taxes of petroleum products, the prices and distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  14. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  15. The petroleum industry in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  16. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  17. Refining of biodiesel by ceramic membrane separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Yanlai; Tang, Shuze [Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Xingguo; Liu, Yuanfa [School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214112 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A ceramic membrane separation process for biodiesel refining was developed to reduce the considerable usage of water needed in the conventional water washing process. Crude biodiesel produced by refined palm oil was micro-filtered by ceramic membranes of the pore size of 0.6, 0.2 and 0.1 {mu}m to remove the residual soap and free glycerol, at the transmembrane pressure of 0.15 MPa and temperature of 60 C. The flux through membrane maintained at 300 L m{sup -} {sup 2} h{sup -} {sup 1} when the volumetric concentrated ratio reached 4. The content of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in the whole permeate was 1.40, 1.78, 0.81 and 0.20 mg/kg respectively, as determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. These values are lower than the EN 14538 specifications. The residual free glycerol in the permeate was estimated by water extraction, its value was 0.0108 wt.%. This ceramic membrane technology was a potential environmental process for the refining of biodiesel. (author)

  18. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  19. Problems persist for French refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that France's refiners face a continuing shortfall of middle distillate capacity and a persistent surplus of heavy fuel oil. That's the main conclusion of the official Hydrocarbon Directorate's report on how France's refining sector performed in 1991. Imports up---The directorate noted that although net production of refined products in French refineries rose to 1.534 million b/d in 1991 from 1.48 million b/d in 1990, products imports jumped 9.7% to 602,000 b/d in the period. The glut of heavy fuel oil eased to some extent last year because French nuclear power capacity, heavily dependent on ample water supplies, was crimped by drought. That spawned fuel switching. The most note worthy increase in imports was for motor diesel, climbing to 176,000 b/d from 148,000 b/d in 1990. Tax credits are spurring French consumption of that fuel. For the first time, consumption of motor diesel in 1991 outstripped that of gasoline at 374,000 b/d and 356,000 b/d respectively

  20. Refining glass structure in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Bhattarai, Bishal; Drabold, D. A.; Thorpe, M. F.; Wilson, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Recently determined atomistic scale structures of near-two dimensional bilayers of vitreous silica (using scanning probe and electron microscopy) allow us to refine the experimentally determined coordinates to incorporate the known local chemistry more precisely. Further refinement is achieved by using classical potentials of varying complexity: one using harmonic potentials and the second employing an electrostatic description incorporating polarization effects. These are benchmarked against density functional calculations. Our main findings are that (a) there is a symmetry plane between the two disordered layers, a nice example of an emergent phenomena, (b) the layers are slightly tilted so that the Si-O-Si angle between the two layers is not 180∘ as originally thought but rather 175 ±2∘ , and (c) while interior areas that are not completely imagined can be reliably reconstructed, surface areas are more problematic. It is shown that small crystallites that appear are just as expected statistically in a continuous random network. This provides a good example of the value that can be added to disordered structures imaged at the atomic level by implementing computer refinement.

  1. Formal refinement of extended state machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fayolle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional formal development process, e.g. using the B method, the informal user requirements are (manually translated into a global abstract formal specification. This translation is especially difficult to achieve. The Event-B method was developed to incrementally and formally construct such a specification using stepwise refinement. Each increment takes into account new properties and system aspects. In this paper, we propose to couple a graphical notation called Algebraic State-Transition Diagrams (ASTD with an Event-B specification in order to provide a better understanding of the software behaviour. The dynamic behaviour is captured by the ASTD, which is based on automata and process algebra operators, while the data model is described by means of an Event-B specification. We propose a methodology to incrementally refine such specification couplings, taking into account new refinement relations and consistency conditions between the control specification and the data specification. We compare the specifications obtained using each approach for readability and proof complexity. The advantages and drawbacks of the traditional approach and of our methodology are discussed. The whole process is illustrated by a railway CBTC-like case study. Our approach is supported by tools for translating ASTD's into B and Event-B into B.

  2. Petroleum refining and the national priorities list: The preemption of CERCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The petroleum refining industry has preempted aspects of the implementation of CERCLA through a clause in the original legislation that makes the listing of petroleum refining sites on the NPL more difficult than it would be otherwise. The NPL, which was mandated in CERCLA, is a list of sites open-quotes where a hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, placed, or otherwise come to be located. The petroleum exclusion clause, Section 101(14)(F) of CERCLA, states that the term hazardous substance open-quotes does not include petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically listed or designated as a hazardous substance.close quotes This clause has been interpreted to mean that a site where petroleum products are found may not be listed on the NPL on the basis of the petroleum products; a hazardous substance that is not a normal constituent of petroleum products also must be found at the site. Regression analysis shows that the petroleum refining industry is significantly positively correlated with discovered sites (where a possibility exists that hazardous substances may be present) and significantly negatively correlated with sites that are proposed to the NPL. These, findings suggest that sites that meet the technical criteria for NPL listing are not proposed because of the petroleum exclusion clause. Although the chemical industry also produces substances that are considered hazardous, it is significantly correlated only with proposed sites, and that correlation is positive. The purpose of this paper is to present evidence suggesting that this clause was a response by Congress to an organized interest-the petroleum refining industry, which possessed a political power not available to the less-focused chemical industry

  3. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys solidify in large grains columnar structure which tends to reduce their mechanical behaviour and surface quality. Therefore, they are industrially grain refined by titanium or titanium + boron. Furthermore, aluminum oxidizes in ordinary atmosphere which makes its weldability difficult and weak. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight percentages of 0.1% (which proved to be an effective grain refiner on the weldability of aluminum grain refined by Ti) is worthwhile investigating. This formed the objective of this research work. In this paper, the effect of zirconium addition at a weight percentage of 0.1%, which corresponds to the peritctic limit on the aluminum-zirconium phase diagram, on the weldability of aluminum grain refined by Ti is investigated. Rolled sheets of commercially pure aluminum, Al grain refined Ti of 3 mm thickness were welded together using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding method (GTAW), formerly known as TIG. A constant air gap was maintained at a constant current level, 30 ampere AC, was used because it removes the oxides of the welding process under the same process parameters. Metallographic examination of weldments of the different combinations of aluminum and its microalloys at the heat affected zone, HAZ, and base metal was carried out and examined for width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining of commercially pure aluminum by Ti resulted in enhancement of its weldability. Similarly, addition of zirconium to Al grain refined by Ti resulted in further enhancement of the weldment. Photomicrographs of the HAZ regions are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Preparation of Al-Ti-B grain refiner by SHS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, V.I.; Wanqi, J.I.E.; Kandalova, E.G.; Makarenko, A.G.; Yong, L.

    2000-01-01

    Since the discovery of the grain refinement effect of aluminum by titanium, especially with the existence of B or C in 1950, grain refiners are widely accepted in industry for microstructure control of aluminum alloys. Research on this topic is to obtain the highest grain refinement efficiency with the lowest possible addition of master alloy. It is widely accepted that the morphology and size of TiAl 3 particles, which are known as heterogeneous nucleation centers, are important factors deterring the grain refinement efficiency. Fine TiAl 3 particles are favorable. The grain refinement process shows a heredity phenomenon, which means that structural information from initial materials transfers through a melt to the final product. It is important to find the connection between microstructural parameters of the master alloy and the final product. To improve the quality of Al-Ti-B master alloys for the use as a grain refiner, a new method based on SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) technology has been developed in Samara State Technical University to produce the master alloys. SHS, as a new method for preparation of materials, was first utilized by Merzhanov in 1967. This method uses the energy from highly exothermic reactions to sustain the chemical reaction in a combustion wave. The advantages of SHS include simplicity, low energy requirement, and higher product purity. Because SHS reactions can take place between elemental reactants, it is easy to control product composition. The purposes of this investigation were to fabricate an SHS Al-5%Ti-1%B master alloy, to analyze its structure and to test its grain refining performance

  5. Law proposal aiming at imposing the domestic consumption tax to the natural gas used for hydrogen generation for petroleum refining purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    In France, natural gas benefits from tax exemptions in several situations and in particular when used as raw material for hydrogen generation, which in turn, is used for crude oil refining and fuels generation. However, crude oil is cheaper when it is heavier but more hydrogen, and thus more natural gas, is needed to refine it and more CO 2 is released in the atmosphere. Therefore, refining cheap crude oil increases the refining margins of oil companies but their environmental impact as well. The aim of this law proposal is to impose the domestic consumption tax to natural gas when used in oil refining processes in order to finance the development of the renewable hydrogen industry through the creation of a High Council of Hydrogen Industry. This High Council would be in charge of promoting the development of renewable hydrogen production facilities and distribution circuits, of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, and of fuel cells. (J.S.)

  6. US refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil : current overview and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paget, S.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of the Canadian oil sands industry and investigated the potential heavy oil refining capacity of the United States. An outline of the first commercial developments of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) in Alberta's oil sands was provided. Canada's reserves were compared with oil shale and heavy oil reserves in the United States and Venezuela. Influences of Canadian developments from western Canadian conventional crude oil were reviewed, and an oil sands production forecast was provided. Recent refining developments in the United States include delayed coking; catalytic cracking; fluid coking; flexicoking; and LC-fining. However, many oil sand producers are now choosing to upgrade oil, and producers are currently saturating United States markets with heavy crude oil. Canadian crude prices reached $90 per barrel in 2006. Heavy oil pipelines are now being constructed and existing heavy oil pipelines are being expanded. ConocoPhillips is planning to invest $1 billion for a new heavy oil coker, while BP is investing $3 billion for a heavy oil refinery in Indiana which plans to refine Canadian crude oil supplies. However, bitumens from Alberta are volatile in price, and excess Canadian production must be exported. Less than 10 per cent of western Canadian crude has tidewater access, and capital providers are concerned about cost over-runs. In order for the Canadian oil sands industry to succeed, refining capacity in the United States must be expanded, and open access must be provided to the Gulf coast as well as to the Pacific Ocean. tabs., figs

  7. Identification of key oil refining technologies for China National Petroleum Co. (CNPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haiyan; Yu Jianning; Xu Jian; Fan Yu; Bao Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the project 'Vision of the Key Petroleum Refining Technologies for China National Petroleum Co. (CNPC) in the Early 21st Century' undertaken by the Department of R and D Administration, CNPC, and its affiliate key laboratory, The Key Laboratory of Catalysis operated by China University of Petroleum, Beijing. The objective of the project was to identify the challenges and opportunities of CNPC's petroleum refining business given increasing economy globalization and stricter environmental regulations. Using the modified Delphi method, four key technologies for CNPC's oil refining industry were identified. They are: integrated fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydroprocessing, residue hydrocracking, and high-grade lubricant production. The most significant technology will be the integrated FCC technology that can economically increase the yield of light fractions as well as upgrade transportation fuels. In China, FCC units produce about 80% and 30% commercial gasoline and diesel, respectively. To ensure compliance with future environmental legislation, hydroprocessing technologies, including those related to petroleum product hydrorefining and distillate hydrocracking, should be developed. By combining residue hydrocracking and FCC technologies, poorer quality residua can be processed. Supplying high-grade lube oils is one of the main tasks for CNPC's oil refining industry. Development of hydrodewaxing technologies to manufacture API group II/III base oil is the main direction for CNPC's lubricant production business

  8. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel; Kuester, Falko

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual

  9. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  10. The downstream industry compared to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2010-01-01

    J.L. Schilansky introduces here the difficult question of the downstream industry compared to market in recalling the recent structural changes (behaviour of customers, behaviour of the USA- and China-governments), the increase of the European and French regulations, the climatic change and the conjectural impact of the crisis on the refining industry. (O.M.)

  11. Optimal algebraic multilevel preconditioning for local refinement along a line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margenov, S.D.; Maubach, J.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The application of some recently proposed algebraic multilevel methods for the solution of two-dimensional finite element problems on nonuniform meshes is studied. The locally refined meshes are created by the newest vertex mesh refinement method. After the introduction of this refinement technique

  12. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-frequency electromagnetic field; AZ31 magnesium alloy; Al4C3; grain refinement. Abstract. The effects of electromagnetic stirring and Al4C3 grain refiner on the grain refinement of semicontinuously cast AZ31 magnesium alloy were discussed in this investigation. The results indicate that electromagnetic stirring has an ...

  13. Neutrosophic Refined Similarity Measure Based on Cosine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined (multi- sets is proposed and its properties are studied. The concept of this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of improved cosine similarity measure of single valued neutrosophic. Finally, using this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined set, the application of medical diagnosis is presented.

  14. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  15. Local adaptive mesh refinement for shock hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.J.; Colella, P.; Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, 94550 California)

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of an automatic, adaptive mesh refinement strategy for solving hyperbolic conservation laws in two dimensions. There are two main difficulties in doing this. The first problem is due to the presence of discontinuities in the solution and the effect on them of discontinuities in the mesh. The second problem is how to organize the algorithm to minimize memory and CPU overhead. This is an important consideration and will continue to be important as more sophisticated algorithms that use data structures other than arrays are developed for use on vector and parallel computers. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  16. Gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and the produced silver nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is, along with gold and the platinum-group metals, one of the so called precious metals. Because of its comparative scarcity, brilliant white color, malleability and resistance to atmospheric oxidation, silver has been used in the manufacture of coins and jewelry for a long time. Silver has the highest known electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals and is used in fabricating printed electrical circuits, and also as a coating for electronic conductors. It is also alloyed with other elements such as nickel or palladium for use in electrical contacts. The most useful silver salt is silver nitrate, a caustic chemical reagent, significant as an antiseptic and as a reagent in analytical chemistry. Pure silver nitrate is an intermediate in the industrial preparation of other silver salts, including the colloidal silver compounds used in medicine and the silver halides incorporated into photographic emulsions. Silver halides become increasingly insoluble in the series: AgCl, AgBr, AgI. All silver salts are sensitive to light and are used in photographic coatings on film and paper. The ZORKA-PHARMA company (Sabac, Serbia specializes in the production of pharmaceutical remedies and lab chemicals. One of its products is chemical silver nitrate (argentum-nitricum (l. Silver nitrate is generally produced by dissolving pure electrolytically refined silver in hot 48% nitric acid. Since the purity of silver nitrate, produced in 2002, was not in compliance with the p.a. level of purity, there was doubt that the electrolytically refined silver was pure. The aim of this research was the gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and silver nitrate, produced industrially and in a laboratory. The purity determination was carried out gravimetrically, by the sedimentation of silver(I ions in the form of insoluble silver salts: AgCl, AgBr and Agi, and volumetrically, according to Mohr and Volhardt. The

  17. New technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining. Preprints of the conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Jess, A.; Lercher, J.A.; Lichtscheidl, J.; Marchionna, M. (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    This international conference paper provides a forum for chemists and engineers from refinery, petrochemistry and the chemical industry as well as from academia to discuss new technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining with the special topic ''Shale Gas, Heavy Oils and Coal''. 23 Lectures and 18 Posters are presented. All papers are analyzed for the ENERGY database.

  18. Processes subject to integrated pollution control. Petroleum processes: oil refining and associated processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document, part of a series offering guidance on pollution control regulations issued by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, (HMIP) focuses on petroleum processes such as oil refining and other associated processes. The various industrial processes used, their associated pollution release routes into the environment and techniques for controlling these releases are all discussed. Environmental quality standards are related to national and international agreements on pollution control and abatement. HMIP's work on air, water and land pollution monitoring is also reported. (UK)

  19. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    Grain refinement behavior of copper alloys cast in permanent molds was investigated. This is one of the least studied subjects in copper alloy castings. Grain refinement is not widely practiced for leaded copper alloys cast in sand molds. Aluminum bronzes and high strength yellow brasses, cast in sand and permanent molds, were usually fine grained due to the presence of more than 2% iron. Grain refinement of the most common permanent mold casting alloys, leaded yellow brass and its lead-free replacement EnviroBrass III, is not universally accepted due to the perceived problem of hard spots in finished castings and for the same reason these alloys contain very low amounts of iron. The yellow brasses and Cu-Si alloys are gaining popularity in North America due to their low lead content and amenability for permanent mold casting. These alloys are prone to hot tearing in permanent mold casting. Grain refinement is one of the solutions for reducing this problem. However, to use this technique it is necessary to understand the mechanism of grain refinement and other issues involved in the process. The following issues were studied during this three year project funded by the US Department of Energy and the copper casting industry: (1) Effect of alloying additions on the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys and their interaction with grain refiners; (2) Effect of two grain refining elements, boron and zirconium, on the grain size of four copper alloys, yellow brass, EnviroBrass II, silicon brass and silicon bronze and the duration of their effect (fading); (3) Prediction of grain refinement using cooling curve analysis and use of this method as an on-line quality control tool; (4) Hard spot formation in yellow brass and EnviroBrass due to grain refinement; (5) Corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys; (6) Transfer the technology to permanent mold casting foundries; It was found that alloying elements such as tin and zinc do not change the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys

  20. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  1. Adaptive temporal refinement in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyofylli, Violeta; Schmitz, Mauritius; Hopmann, Christian; Behr, Marek

    2018-05-01

    Mold filling is an injection molding stage of great significance, because many defects of the plastic components (e.g. weld lines, burrs or insufficient filling) can occur during this process step. Therefore, it plays an important role in determining the quality of the produced parts. Our goal is the temporal refinement in the vicinity of the evolving melt front, in the context of 4D simplex-type space-time grids [1, 2]. This novel discretization method has an inherent flexibility to employ completely unstructured meshes with varying levels of resolution both in spatial dimensions and in the time dimension, thus allowing the use of local time-stepping during the simulations. This can lead to a higher simulation precision, while preserving calculation efficiency. A 3D benchmark case, which concerns the filling of a plate-shaped geometry, is used for verifying our numerical approach [3]. The simulation results obtained with the fully unstructured space-time discretization are compared to those obtained with the standard space-time method and to Moldflow simulation results. This example also serves for providing reliable timing measurements and the efficiency aspects of the filling simulation of complex 3D molds while applying adaptive temporal refinement.

  2. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  3. Adaptive hybrid mesh refinement for multiphysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamayseh, Ahmed; Almeida, Valmor de

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy and convergence of computational solutions of mesh-based methods is strongly dependent on the quality of the mesh used. We have developed methods for optimizing meshes that are comprised of elements of arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral type. We present in this research the development of r-h hybrid adaptive meshing technology tailored to application areas relevant to multi-physics modeling and simulation. Solution-based adaptation methods are used to reposition mesh nodes (r-adaptation) or to refine the mesh cells (h-adaptation) to minimize solution error. The numerical methods perform either the r-adaptive mesh optimization or the h-adaptive mesh refinement method on the initial isotropic or anisotropic meshes to equidistribute weighted geometric and/or solution error function. We have successfully introduced r-h adaptivity to a least-squares method with spherical harmonics basis functions for the solution of the spherical shallow atmosphere model used in climate modeling. In addition, application of this technology also covers a wide range of disciplines in computational sciences, most notably, time-dependent multi-physics, multi-scale modeling and simulation

  4. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States today is Canada’s largest customer for oil and refined oil products. However, this relationship may be strained due to physical, economic and political influences. Pipeline capacity is approaching its limits; Canadian oil is selling at substantive discounts to world market prices; and U.S. demand for crude oil and finished products (such as gasoline, has begun to flatten significantly relative to historical rates. Lower demand, combined with increased shale oil production, means U.S. demand for Canadian oil is expected to continue to decline. Under these circumstances, gaining access to new markets such as those in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming more and more important for the Canadian economy. However, expanding pipeline capacity to the Pacific via the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline and the planned Trans Mountain pipeline expansion is only feasible when there is sufficient demand and processing capacity to support Canadian crude blends. Canadian heavy oil requires more refining and produces less valuable end products than other lighter and sweeter blends. Canadian producers must compete with lighter, sweeter oils from the Middle East, and elsewhere, for a place in the Pacific Basin refineries built to handle heavy crude blends. Canadian oil sands producers are currently expanding production capacity. Once complete, the Northern Gateway pipeline and the Trans Mountain expansion are expected to deliver an additional 500,000 to 1.1 million barrels a day to tankers on the Pacific coast. Through this survey of the capacity of Pacific Basin refineries, including existing and proposed facilities, we have concluded that there is sufficient technical capacity in the Pacific Basin to refine the additional Canadian volume; however, there may be some modifications required to certain refineries to allow them to process Western Canadian crude. Any additional capacity for Canadian oil would require refinery modifications or

  5. Recovery of condensates from the thermal wood refinement extraction of biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roschitz, C.; Martini, S.; Kleinhappl, M. (Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Area Gasification, Graz (Austria)); Jenny, M.; Wrulicit, O.A.; Wondrak, A.; Ueberall, E. (Innsbruck University of Medicine, Biocenter, Division of Medical Biochemistry, Innsbruck (Austria)); Fillafer, F.; Steiner, F. (Mafi Holzverarbeitung GmbH, Schneegattern (Austria)); Draxler, J. (Leoben University of Mining and Materials, Institute for Process technology and Industrial Environment Protection, Leoben (Austria))

    2007-07-01

    Generally the utilisation of woody biomass is dominated by the pulp and paper industry, its use for energy production by combustion or gasification and as a construction material. A large potential of substances could be gained directly and indirectly from biomass. During industrial processes like the thermal wood refinement or the digestion from wood to pulp a large spectrum of substances could be recovered. This paper gives an idea of how to obtain and use those special substances contained in woody biomass. Therefore this project was launched to investigate exhaust vapours originating from industrial wood refining processes. The exhaust vapour of a thermal wood refinement chamber, which works at 150 - 220 deg C, was sampled and its constituents of low amount were investigated. Substance classes like organic acids, aldehydes, esters alcohols, lignin fractions and resin like compounds were identified. The bioactivity of the samples was investigated in biological test procedures, to identify the characteristic pattern of impression (toxicity, antioxidants, gene expression). The technological step of recovery in small ale during the refinery process is under construction and will perform the staged recovery of valuable fractions. The pilot scale plant will give the chance to gain test fractions in sufficient amount to generate materials for application as chemicals, additives for detergents and cleaning agents. (orig.)

  6. The chemical industry of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.N.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the chemical industry of Ukraine and more particularly with the restructuring proposed by the Ministry of Industry. After having presented some generalities the author focuses on the restructuring programme which includes the improvement of the fertilizers supply for agriculture, the development of facilities for basic organic synthesis, the increase of petroleum based chemicals production, the increase of consumer products production and the reorientation of the chemical industry to more accessible and alternative sources of raw materials such as black and brown coal, oil shale, coke, oil-refining gases, plant raw materials... (O.L.)

  7. Technological studies on uranium refining at nuclear materials authority, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 nuclear materials authority (NMA) took a decision to establish yellow cake refining. Unit so as to study refining of El-Atshan yellow cake which recently produced by ion-exchange pilot plant, production sector. The research studies followed the conventional refining rout to produce nuclear grade UO 3 . This implies investigations on some common solvents to refine the cake viz. tri alkyl phosphates, tri alkyl phosphine oxides, dialkyl phosphoric acid as well as high-molecular weight long-chain tertiary amines. Moreover, non-conventional refining process has also been presented depending on the selectivity of uranyl ion to be dissolved by carbonate and to be precipitated by hydrogen peroxide. Most of the proposed processes were found feasible to refine El-Atshan yellow cake. however, the non- conventional refining process appears to be the most promising, owing to its superior performance and economy

  8. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  9. Dynamic modeling of uncertainty in the planned values of investments in petrochemical and refining projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianello, Juliano Melquiades; Costa, Leticia; Teixeira, José Paulo

    2014-01-01

    There is a large gap between the planned value of investment in a project and its financial implementation. This fact creates a mismatch between the planned and effectively achieved net present value (NPV) of the project. Considering the project portfolio of a company, this could even threaten your solvency in the future. Therefore, a quantitative-risk analysis that takes into account different possible scenarios for these values of investment is extremely important to measure statistically the real value of a project. The aim of this paper is to present the reasons for this mismatch between planned and executed investments and, from this study, obtain a suitable stochastic process to generate different scenarios for these investments in the oil industry. Although the results are valid for projects in the petrochemical and refining sector, also called in the oil industry as downstream, the methodology can be applied to the upstream or even other branches of industry. - Highlights: • We measure statistically the real value of an investment project. • We present the reasons for the mismatch between planned and executed investments. • We obtain a stochastic process to generate scenarios for oil industry investments. • Results are valid for projects in the petrochemical and refining sector, downstream. • The methodology can be applied to the upstream or even other branches of industry

  10. Effect of strontium on the grain refining efficiency of Mg-3Al alloy refined by carbon inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jun; Yang Jian; Kuwabara, Mamoru; Li Wenfang; Peng Jihua

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Sr on the grain refining efficiency of the Mg-3Al alloy refined by carbon inoculation has been investigated in the present study. A significant grain refinement was obtained for the Mg-3Al alloy treated with either 0.2% C or 0.2% Sr. The Al-C-O particles were found in the sample refined by 0.2% C, and the element O should come from reaction between Al 4 C 3 nuclei of Mg grains and water during the process of sample preparation. The grain size of the sample refined by carbon inoculation was further decreased after the combined addition of Sr. The grain size decreased with increasing Sr content. Much higher refining efficiency was obtained when the Sr addition was increased to 0.5%. Sr is an effective element to improve the grain refining efficiency for the Mg-Al alloys refined by carbon inoculation. The number of Al 4 C 3 particles in the sample refined by the combination of carbon and Sr was more than that in the sample refined by only carbon. No Al-C-O-Sr-rich particles were obviously found in the sample refined by the combination of carbon and a little (<0.5%) Sr addition

  11. Refining the ideas of "ethnic" skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vicente; Herane, Maria Isabel; Costa, Adilson; Martin, Jaime Piquero; Troielli, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Skin disease occur worldwide, affecting people of all nationalities and all skin types. These diseases may have a genetic component and may manifest differently in specific population groups; however, there has been little study on this aspect. If population-based differences exist, it is reasonable to assume that understanding these differences may optimize treatment. While there is a relative paucity of information about similarities and differences in skin diseases around the world, the knowledge-base is expanding. One challenge in understanding population-based variations is posed by terminology used in the literature: including ethnic skin, Hispanic skin, Asian skin, and skin of color. As will be discussed in this article, we recommend that the first three descriptors are no longer used in dermatology because they refer to nonspecific groups of people. In contrast, "skin of color" may be used - perhaps with further refinements in the future - as a term that relates to skin biology and provides relevant information to dermatologists.

  12. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  13. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...... with a visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle...... is bootstrapped with a grasp density formed from visual cues. We show that the robot effectively applies its experience by downweighting poor grasp solutions, which results in increased success rates at subsequent learning cycles. We also present success rates in a practical scenario where a robot needs...

  14. Biomaterials Evaluation: Conceptual Refinements and Practical Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaeli, Reza; Zandsalimi, Kavosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2018-01-01

    Regarding the widespread and ever-increasing applications of biomaterials in different medical fields, their accurate assessment is of great importance. Hence the safety and efficacy of biomaterials is confirmed only through the evaluation process, the way it is done has direct effects on public health. Although every biomaterial undergoes rigorous premarket evaluation, the regulatory agencies receive a considerable number of complications and adverse event reports annually. The main factors that challenge the process of biomaterials evaluation are dissimilar regulations, asynchrony of biomaterials evaluation and biomaterials development, inherent biases of postmarketing data, and cost and timing issues. Several pieces of evidence indicate that current medical device regulations need to be improved so that they can be used more effectively in the evaluation of biomaterials. This article provides suggested conceptual refinements and practical reforms to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the existing regulations. The main focus of the article is on strategies for evaluating biomaterials in US, and then in EU.

  15. The evolution and refinements of varicocele surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel L Marmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicoceles had been recognized in clinical practice for over a century. Originally, these procedures were utilized for the management of pain but, since 1952, the repairs had been mostly for the treatment of male infertility. However, the diagnosis and treatment of varicoceles were controversial, because the pathophysiology was not clear, the entry criteria of the studies varied among centers, and there were few randomized clinical trials. Nevertheless, clinicians continued developing techniques for the correction of varicoceles, basic scientists continued investigations on the pathophysiology of varicoceles, and new outcome data from prospective randomized trials have appeared in the world′s literature. Therefore, this special edition of the Asian Journal of Andrology was proposed to report much of the new information related to varicoceles and, as a specific part of this project, the present article was developed as a comprehensive review of the evolution and refinements of the corrective procedures.

  16. COSMOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH ENZO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, David C.; Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Li Hui; Li Shengtai

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzo to include the effects of magnetic fields through the ideal magnetohydrodynamics approximation. We use a higher order Godunov method for the computation of interface fluxes. We use two constrained transport methods to compute the electric field from those interface fluxes, which simultaneously advances the induction equation and maintains the divergence of the magnetic field. A second-order divergence-free reconstruction technique is used to interpolate the magnetic fields in the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement framework already extant in Enzo. This reconstruction also preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non-cosmological test problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.

  17. Refining prices and margins in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.P.; Baudoin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia

  18. The future role of aromatics in refining and petrochemistry. Proceedings of the DGMK-Conference (Authors' manuscripts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emig, G.; Rupp, M.; Weitkamp, J. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    Topic of this conference has been the furure role of aromatics in the refinign industry. The articles deal with the following topics: Refining; legal aspects in the aromatics market; transportation fuels; dearomatization; catalytic reforming and aromatics; separation processes for aromatics; oxidation and ammoxidation of aromatics; electrophilic substitution of aromatics; hydrogenation of benzene; zeolites. (orig./sr)

  19. The petroleum industry in 2001; L'industrie petroliere en 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This economic analysis presents the 2001 highlights and key-data of the world petroleum industry: evolution of crude prices, exploration and production worldwide, petroleum exploration and production in France, para-petroleum industry, hydrocarbon supplies, refining activity, evolution of quality of products and fuel substitutes, domestic transports, storage, consumption, fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  20. Realization of the Zone Length Measurement during Zone Refining Process via Implementation of an Infrared Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo C. Curtolo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zone refining, as the currently most common industrial process to attain ultrapure metals, is influenced by a variety of factors. One of these parameters, the so-called “zone length”, affects not only the ultimate concentration distribution of impurities, but also the rate at which this distribution is approached. This important parameter has however neither been investigated experimentally, nor ever varied for the purpose of optimization. This lack of detections may be due to the difficult temperature measurement of a moving molten area in a vacuum system, of which the zone refining methodology is comprised. Up to now, numerical simulation as a combination of complex mathematical calculations, as well as many assumptions has been the only way to reveal it. This paper aims to propose an experimental method to accurately measure the molten zone length and to extract helpful information on the thermal gradient, temperature profile and real growth rate in the zone refining of an exemplary metal, in this case aluminum. This thermographic method is based on the measurement of the molten surface temperature via an infrared camera, as well as further data analysis through the mathematical software MATLAB. The obtained results show great correlation with the visual observations of zone length and provide helpful information to determine the thermal gradient and real growth rate during the whole process. The investigations in this paper approved the application of an infrared camera for this purpose as a promising technique to automatically control the zone length during a zone refining process.

  1. Electron microscopy investigation of the TiBAl and TiCAl grain refiner master alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizek, P

    2006-01-01

    The present work brings a detailed statistical analysis of the microstructural characteristics and chemistry of the second phase particles present in the Al-5Ti-1B and Al- 3Ti-0.15C (wt.%) commercial grain refiner rods used in the Al casting industry. The investigation was performed using the TEM, EDS, STEM and HREM techniques. Both refiner rods contained large, blocky Al 3 Ti DO 22 particles. Borides present in the TiBAl rod, known to be main α-Al nucleation substrates, exhibited a facetted, hexagonal platelet morphology and largely represented a mixed (Ti,Al)B 2 phase, with Ti and Al contents changing continuously across the particle dimensions. There were two distinct families of small particles observed in the TiCAl rod. The coarser, facetted particles corresponded to cubic TiC crystal structure and these are believed to be major α-Al nucleation sites. The family of finer, round particles appeared to correspond to orthorhombic Al 6 Fe phase and their role in the nucleation process remains to be clarified. The results obtained may be used in optimising the grain refiner rod microstructures that would ensure improved refining performance during casting

  2. Electron microscopy investigation of the TiBAl and TiCAl grain refiner master alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cizek, P [IMMPETUS, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-22

    The present work brings a detailed statistical analysis of the microstructural characteristics and chemistry of the second phase particles present in the Al-5Ti-1B and Al- 3Ti-0.15C (wt.%) commercial grain refiner rods used in the Al casting industry. The investigation was performed using the TEM, EDS, STEM and HREM techniques. Both refiner rods contained large, blocky Al{sub 3}Ti DO{sub 22} particles. Borides present in the TiBAl rod, known to be main {alpha}-Al nucleation substrates, exhibited a facetted, hexagonal platelet morphology and largely represented a mixed (Ti,Al)B{sub 2} phase, with Ti and Al contents changing continuously across the particle dimensions. There were two distinct families of small particles observed in the TiCAl rod. The coarser, facetted particles corresponded to cubic TiC crystal structure and these are believed to be major {alpha}-Al nucleation sites. The family of finer, round particles appeared to correspond to orthorhombic Al{sub 6}Fe phase and their role in the nucleation process remains to be clarified. The results obtained may be used in optimising the grain refiner rod microstructures that would ensure improved refining performance during casting.

  3. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; reduce environmental pollution by bioconversion of huge organic wastes into mushrooms; recycle huge quantity of organic wastes to mushroom crops, biofertilizers, and biogas; restore damaged environment by mushroom mycelia through mycoforestry, mycoremediation, mycofiltration and mycopesticides in a zero emission fashion. They can be used to degrade radioactive industrial biocide wastes in an eco-friendly fashion. Since mushroom cultivation is an indoor agribusiness, it could have great economic impact by generating employment, income and functional food requirements for rural people especially in developing countries. How far mushroom cultivation can meet the functional food requirements; address the domestic food challenges, rising food prices and crisis vis a vis environmental sustainability will be thrust areas of this communication.

  4. Asia-Pacific region's oil demand growth strains refining capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly industrializing Asia-Pacific region has become a stand-alone economic force and the world's growth market for oil. Japan remains the region's premier economic powerhouse but no longer its only one. And Asia-Pacific economic fortunes have decoupled from the more-mature economies of Europe and the U.S. The East-West Center, Honolulu, in January projected Asia-Pacific average oil demand growth of 3.6%/year through 1999, nearly double what most economists expect for oil demand growth worldwide. Demand reached 14.5 million b/d in 1992, up 862,000 b/d from 1991. East-West Center analysts project demand of 16.4 million b/d in 1995 and 19.1 million b/d by 2000. Not all analysts expect such rapid growth for the region. Edward N. Krapels, president of Energy Security Analysis Inc., Washington, D.C., told a seminar in Houston during March that demand in Southeast Asia will grow at an average of 500,000 b/d/year. The paper discusses economic strength; regional demand; the pressure on refining; the shortfall seen; an opposing view from the Energy Security Analysis; and construction activity

  5. Neoplastic changes in freshwater fishes: Correlation with oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrander, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, oil pollution has been viewed as single event, large scale disasters such as the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that by products and anthropogenic contaminants resulting from oil exploration, extraction, recovery, refining, and the manufacture and use of oil and oil-based products are negatively impacting the environment. Potential problems of freshwater pollution by oil contaminants are increasing in many parts of the world from both active and abandoned oil production facilities. In the USA many ''Superfund'' sites have been designated for cleanup under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980; primarily because of waste discharged on to the sites by the oil industry. Pollution of surface and groundwater from these sites has already occurred and in some cases has led to deleterious effects on the complex aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems on and near these sites. The effect of oil and oil related products on aquatic organisms will be reviewed. Specifically, the discussion will focus on preneoplastic and neoplastic changes in fishes with a primary endpoint of cancer. Finally, a summary of current studies of feral fishes residing on and near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma will be presented

  6. Refinement of the microstructure of steel by cross rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Kira; Arbuz, Alexandr; Gusseynov, Nazim; Nemkaeva, Renata; Ospanov, Nurlan; Krupen'kin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    One of the most effective ways for refinement of metal microstructure is a severe plastic deformation. The cross rolling is the one of most perspective methods of severe plastic deformation, because it allows to get the long billets, unlike equal angular pressing and other popular methods. This fact provides some industrial expectation for this method. However, deformation and motion path of the metal is very heterogeneous across the section of the rolled piece. This paper presents the finite element modeling of hot cross rolling of steel in the software package DEFORM-3D features implemented and studied the stress-strain state. An experimental study of the effect of the cross rolling on a three-roll mill on the microstructure of structural alloy steel and stainless steel AISI321 in different zones of the bar. Analysis of microsections made after rolling with high total stretch and the final pass temperature 700°C, shows the formation of equiaxial ultrafinegrain structure on the periphery of an elongated rod and “rolling” texture in the central zone. The resulting microstructure corresponds to that obtained in models of stress-strain state. Keywords: cross rolling, ultra-fine grain structure, steel.

  7. Mirror of the refined topological vertex from a matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B

    2011-01-01

    We find an explicit matrix model computing the refined topological vertex, starting from its representation in terms of plane partitions. We then find the spectral curve of that matrix model, and thus the mirror symmetry of the refined vertex. With the same method we also find a matrix model for the strip geometry, and we find its mirror curve. The fact that there is a matrix model shows that the refined topological string amplitudes also satisfy the remodeling the B-model construction.

  8. A refinement methodology for object-oriented programs

    OpenAIRE

    Tafat , Asma; Boulmé , Sylvain; Marché , Claude

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Refinement is a well-known approach for developing correct-byconstruction software. It has been very successful for producing high quality code e.g., as implemented in the B tool. Yet, such refinement techniques are restricted in the sense that they forbid aliasing (and more generally sharing of data-structures), which often happens in usual programming languages. We propose a sound approach for refinement in presence of aliases. Suitable abstractions of programs are d...

  9. Solving the Sophistication-Population Paradox of Game Refinement Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong , Shuo; Tiwary , Parth ,; Iida , Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; A mathematical model of game refinement was proposed based on uncertainty of game outcome. This model has been shown to be useful in measuring the entertainment element in the domains such as boardgames and sport games. However, game refinement theory has not been able to explain the correlation between the popularity of a game and the game refinement value. This paper introduces another aspect in the study of game entertainment, the concept of “a...

  10. Refining of raw materials, lignite present economic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, G.

    1985-06-01

    East Germany seeks an economic intensification program that involves refining raw materials to a higher level. Lignite briquetting prior to liquefaction and gasification illustrates both the theoretical and practical aspects of that goal and also introduces questions of secure supplies. The author describes the special labor processes, use of technology, recycling of waste materials, and other new problems that the approach entails as the refined raw materials become new materials or energy sources. Economics based on the value of the refined product and the cost of the materials determine the degree of refinement. The concept also involves the relationship of producer and user as profits increase.

  11. Method of optimization of the natural gas refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykh-Zade, E.S.; Bagirov, A.A.; Mardakhayev, I.M.; Razamat, M.S.; Tagiyev, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    The SATUM (automatic control system of technical operations) system introduced at the Shatlyk field should assure good quality of gas refining. In order to optimize the natural gas refining processes and experimental-analytical method is used in compiling the mathematical descriptions. The program, compiled in Fortran language, in addition to parameters of optimal conditions gives information on the yield of concentrate and water, concentration and consumption of DEG, composition and characteristics of the gas and condensate. The algorithm for calculating optimum engineering conditions of gas refining is proposed to be used in ''advice'' mode, and also for monitoring progress of the gas refining process.

  12. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  13. Architectural Refinement for the Design of Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellison, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a process for systematically refining an enterprise system architecture to resist recognize and recover from deliberate, malicious attacks by applying reusable design primitives...

  14. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  15. How isotopes benefit industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The life of bus engines and the time taken to make beer are not at first sight connected with atomic energy. Yet the first has been considerably lengthened and the second even more considerably shortened in different countries as a result of using nuclear techniques and materials. They are only two examples; there are many others which have improved efficiency in factories, oilfields, chemical plants and other industries. They indicate not only the results of ingenuity but the rewards possible from more widespread use of the new methods. At a symposium on radioisotope tracers in industry and geophysics organized by the Agency and held in Prague during November many reports showed not only what is possible but what is actually being accomplished in a number of industries as a matter of daily routine. The economic benefits were also demonstrated, and although the developments have been mainly in countries already highly industrialized, the potential for new industries in developing countries was clear. Research to improve performance of motorcar, aircraft and tractor engines has been directed at establishing the causes of friction, corrosion and wear. In brewing beer it has been possible to accelerate fermentation. Pollution both of water and air can be reduced and methods of waste disposal improved. Many economies have been effected in oil production. Better quality and lower costs have resulted from work in chemical plants and processes such as glass making, metal refining, plastics and many others. Dams and railways were also mentioned among the great variety of subjects suitable for radioisotope techniques

  16. How isotopes benefit industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-02-15

    The life of bus engines and the time taken to make beer are not at first sight connected with atomic energy. Yet the first has been considerably lengthened and the second even more considerably shortened in different countries as a result of using nuclear techniques and materials. They are only two examples; there are many others which have improved efficiency in factories, oilfields, chemical plants and other industries. They indicate not only the results of ingenuity but the rewards possible from more widespread use of the new methods. At a symposium on radioisotope tracers in industry and geophysics organized by the Agency and held in Prague during November many reports showed not only what is possible but what is actually being accomplished in a number of industries as a matter of daily routine. The economic benefits were also demonstrated, and although the developments have been mainly in countries already highly industrialized, the potential for new industries in developing countries was clear. Research to improve performance of motorcar, aircraft and tractor engines has been directed at establishing the causes of friction, corrosion and wear. In brewing beer it has been possible to accelerate fermentation. Pollution both of water and air can be reduced and methods of waste disposal improved. Many economies have been effected in oil production. Better quality and lower costs have resulted from work in chemical plants and processes such as glass making, metal refining, plastics and many others. Dams and railways were also mentioned among the great variety of subjects suitable for radioisotope techniques

  17. Challenges of the refining and bio-refining integration: a future view; O desafio da integracao refino-bio-refino: uma visao do futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Claudia Alvarenga; Oliveira, Sandra Lima de [PETROBRAS S. A., Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Suely Coutinho da [Hope Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the world economy growths, it is expected an increase in the fuels demand. In the other hand, there is a public denounce against the harmful of gas emissions from the mineral fuels, especial the emission of greenhouse gases. Based on this scenario, there is a growing search for renewable fuels as an alternative for the present world energetic matrix. Therefore the biofuel has conquered more and more participation in the economy as a clean grow-your-own fuel. It is not only a renewable fuel but also a way to reduces Co2 emission. The use of this kind of fuel can bring environmental, social and economic advantages. So, a feasible proposal for the near future could be the performance of a binomial and dynamic model that takes place in the integration between biorefining and conventional refining. Biorefining is similar in concept to the petroleum refining industry, except that renewable biomass materials or vegetable oil are the feedstocks rather than crude oil. An important incentive to the integration of these two concepts is the alternative to process the majority of the conventional refining residue or by products in the biorefining. It is possible to produce high quality low emission fuel from co-conversion of biomass and petroleum residue. There are important processes that can be used to carry out this object, such as gasification coupled with Fischer-Tropsch. Besides the production of PREMIUM quality fuel, the energy and the hydrogen obtained in the gasification process can be used in the conventional refining. Biomass can also be turned into alcohol fuel by enzymatic hydrolysis and can be mixed in the refinery gasoline pool for emissions reduction. Another possibility is to process vegetable oil together with middle distillate in the conventional hydrotreating unity. Although the optimized integration involves technical and economic challenges, it is known that this is an important opportunity to mitigate the environmental problems and to allow the world

  18. Refining the ischemic penumbra with topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanachandran, Tharani; Ma, Henry; Singhal, Shaloo; Slater, Lee-Anne; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Phan, Thanh

    2018-04-01

    It has been 40 years since the ischemic penumbra was first conceptualized through work on animal models. The topography of penumbra has been portrayed as an infarcted core surrounded by penumbral tissue and an extreme rim of oligemic tissue. This picture has been used in many review articles and textbooks before the advent of modern imaging. In this paper, we review our understanding of the topography of the ischemic penumbra from the initial experimental animal models to current developments with neuroimaging which have helped to further define the temporal and spatial evolution of the penumbra and refine our knowledge. The concept of the penumbra has been successfully applied in clinical trials of endovascular therapies with a time window as long as 24 h from onset. Further, there are reports of "good" outcome even in patients with a large ischemic core. This latter observation of good outcome despite having a large core requires an understanding of the topography of the penumbra and the function of the infarcted regions. It is proposed that future research in this area takes departure from a time-dependent approach to a more individualized tissue and location-based approach.

  19. Linear Prediction Using Refined Autocorrelation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahidur Rahman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new technique for improving the performance of linear prediction analysis by utilizing a refined version of the autocorrelation function. Problems in analyzing voiced speech using linear prediction occur often due to the harmonic structure of the excitation source, which causes the autocorrelation function to be an aliased version of that of the vocal tract impulse response. To estimate the vocal tract characteristics accurately, however, the effect of aliasing must be eliminated. In this paper, we employ homomorphic deconvolution technique in the autocorrelation domain to eliminate the aliasing effect occurred due to periodicity. The resulted autocorrelation function of the vocal tract impulse response is found to produce significant improvement in estimating formant frequencies. The accuracy of formant estimation is verified on synthetic vowels for a wide range of pitch frequencies typical for male and female speakers. The validity of the proposed method is also illustrated by inspecting the spectral envelopes of natural speech spoken by high-pitched female speaker. The synthesis filter obtained by the current method is guaranteed to be stable, which makes the method superior to many of its alternatives.

  20. Refined phase diagram of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solozhenko, V.; Turkevich, V.Z.

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium phase diagram of boron nitride thermodynamically calculated by Solozhenko in 1988 has been now refined on the basis of new experimental data on BN melting and extrapolation of heat capacities of BN polymorphs into high-temperature region using the adapted pseudo-Debye model. As compared with the above diagram, the hBN left-reversible cBN equilibrium line is displaced by 60 K toward higher temperatures. The hBN-cBN-L triple point has been calculated to be at 3480 ± 10 K and 5.9 ± 0.1 GPa, while the hBN-L-V triple point is at T = 3400 ± 20 K and p = 400 ± 20 Pa, which indicates that the region of thermodynamic stability of vapor in the BN phase diagram is extremely small. It has been found that the slope of the cBN melting curve is positive whereas the slope of hBN melting curve varies from positive between ambient pressure and 3.4 GPa to negative at higher pressures

  1. Structural refinement of vitreous silica bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Wilson, Mark; Thorpe, M. F.

    The importance of glasses resides not only in their applications but in fundamental questions that they put forth. The continuous random network model can successfully describe the glass structure, but determining details, like ring statistics, has always been difficult using only diffraction data. But recent atomic images of 2D vitreous silica bilayers can offer valuable new insights which are hard to be observed directly in 3D silica models/experiments (for references see). However, the experimental results are prone to uncertainty in atomic positions, systematic errors, and being finite. We employ special boundary conditions developed for such networks to refine the experimental structures. We show the best structure can be found by using various potentials to maximize information gained from the experimental samples. We find a range of densities, the so-called flexibility window, in which tetrahedra are perfect. We compare results from simulations using harmonic potentials, MD with atomic polarizabilities included and DFT. We should thank David Drabold and Bishal Bhattarai for useful discussions. Support through NSF Grant # DMS 1564468 is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. FPGA Congestion-Driven Placement Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente de, J.

    2005-07-01

    The routing congestion usually limits the complete proficiency of the FPGA logic resources. A key question can be formulated regarding the benefits of estimating the congestion at placement stage. In the last years, it is gaining acceptance the idea of a detailed placement taking into account congestion. In this paper, we resort to the Thermodynamic Simulated Annealing (TSA) algorithm to perform a congestion-driven placement refinement on the top of the common Bounding-Box pre optimized solution. The adaptive properties of TSA allow the search to preserve the solution quality of the pre optimized solution while improving other fine-grain objectives. Regarding the cost function two approaches have been considered. In the first one Expected Occupation (EO), a detailed probabilistic model to account for channel congestion is evaluated. We show that in spite of the minute detail of EO, the inherent uncertainty of this probabilistic model impedes to relieve congestion beyond the sole application of the Bounding-Box cost function. In the second approach we resort to the fast Rectilinear Steiner Regions algorithm to perform not an estimation but a measurement of the global routing congestion. This second strategy allows us to successfully reduce the requested channel width for a set of benchmark circuits with respect to the widespread Versatile Place and Route (VPR) tool. (Author) 31 refs.

  3. ANALYSIS OF COMPETITION INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Egorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed and systematized the definition of "competition" proposed by domestic and foreign scholars in the field of strategic management, based on these discovered and refined essence of the concept of "competition". We consider the price and non-price competition. Examples are given of the methods of competition used in the practice of industrial activities. Substantiated that the forms and methods of competition must be constantly improved through the search for new competitive advantages.

  4. 1991 Canadian oil industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides a complete listing of oil companies operating in Canada. Each company is presented to show its entire range of activity in the petroleum industry. Included are exploration and production companies, drilling contractors, service, supply and manufacturing companies, pipeline-operators, refiners and gas processors, petrochemical plants, engineering and construction firms, associations and government agencies. Listings also include a complete description of company activity, address, phone, fax, telex and cable numbers as well as key personnel

  5. THE QUESTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF OIL REFINING IN RUSSIA: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov A. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relations between the financial statements’ figures of the complex of refining companies - the core of Russian refining industry from 2006 to 2013 - were analyzed using component and regression analysis from the standpoint of the effectiveness of their activities during the modernization period. Through the component analysis the main factors that influenced the final financial results of the enterprises during the given period were determined. Regression models of panel data with fixed and random effects were made for 19 enterprises. Regression analysis revealed no statistically significant dependencies of the efficiency (profitability on the production scale (enterprise revenue. The dynamics of certain types of expenses were analyzed in order to explain the differences in the profitability dynamics. It revealed virtually no difference in the values of the individual effects of enterprises in different areas of specialization (profile.

  6. Production and characterization of refined oils obtained from Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu

    2015-01-28

    Crude Sardinella longiceps oil was refined in different stages such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated on the basis of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (pAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) values, Lovibond CIE-L*a*b* color analyses, and (1)H NMR or GC-MS experiments. The utilities of NMR-based proton signal characteristics as new analytical tools to understand the signature peaks and relative abundance of different fatty acids and monitoring the refining process of fish oil have been demonstrated. Phosphoric acid (1%) was found to be an effective degumming reagent to obtain oil with the lowest FFA, PV, pAV, TOTOX, and TBARS values and highest color reduction. Significant reduction in the contents of hydrocarbon functionalities as shown by the decrease in proton integral in the characteristic (1)H NMR region was demonstrated by using 1% H3PO4 during the course of the degumming process. A combination (1.25:3.75%) of activated charcoal and Fuller's earth at 3% concentration for a stirring time of 40 min was found to be effective in bleaching the sardine oil. This study demonstrated that unfavorable odor-causing components, particularly low molecular weight carbonyl compounds, could successfully be removed by the refining process. The alkane-dienals/alkanes, which cause unfavorable fishy odors, were successfully removed by distillation (100 °C) under vacuum with aqueous acetic acid solution (0.25 N) to obtain greater quality of refined sardine oil, a rich source of essential fatty acids and improved oxidative stability. The present study demonstrated that the four-stage refinement process of sardine oil resulted in a significant improvement in quality characteristics and nutritional values, particularly n-3 PUFAs, with improved fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

  7. The great jump of the refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The paper it refers to the Cartagena refinery; that with the government endorsement, start the master development plan that will increase the capacity of the Cartagena refinery from 75.000 to 140.000 barrels per day with a projected investment of US $628 millions with the government's guarantee and it will become one of the main leaders of the industrial activity and exporter of the country, besides to increase the conversion of valuable products and to complete the high environmental standard

  8. Refined analysis results for multimedia network costs and profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahkokorpi, M.; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik

    This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations......This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations...

  9. Investment in exploration-production and refining 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.; Hureau, G.; Serbutoviez, S.; Silva, C.

    2016-01-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2015 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: - Changes in oil and gas prices; - Investment in Exploration/Production: the end of an upward cycle; - Drilling and the global drilling market, upstream activities and markets; - 2015, a breath of fresh air for refining

  10. Effect of Chemical Refining on Citrullus Colocynthis and Pongamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil from the both plant seeds was evaluated (both before and after refining) for different physico-chemical parameters like free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. Oil yield (30-35 %) in both plants was found average. After refining, per cent reduction ...

  11. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  12. The Analysis of the Refined Financial Management of Modern Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduces the concept of the refined financial management, elaborates on its characteristics and puts forward some main points about it. It also comes up with some personal suggestions for reference on effective ways of refining financial management.

  13. Local grid refinement for free-surface flow simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The principal goal of the current study is to explore and investigate the potential of local grid refinement for increasing the numerical efficiency of free-surface flow simulations in a practical context. In this thesis we propose a method for local grid refinement in the free-surface flow model

  14. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the

  15. RBT—A Tool for Building Refined Buneman Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, Søren; Mailund; Westh-Nielsen, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a tool implementing an efficient algorithm for refined Buneman tree reconstruction. The algorithm—which has the same complexity as the neighbour-joining method and the (plain) Buneman tree construction—enables refined Buneman tree reconstruction on large taxa sets....

  16. Grain refining efficiency of Al-Ti-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birol, Yuecel

    2006-01-01

    The problems associated with boride agglomeration and the poisoning effect of Zr in Zr-bearing alloys have created a big demand for boron-free grain refiners. The potential benefits of TiC as a direct nucleant for aluminium grains have thus generated a great deal of interest in TiC-bearing alloys in recent years. In Al-Ti-C grain refiners commercially available today, Al 3 Ti particles are introduced into the melt along with the TiC particles. Since the latter are claimed to nucleate α-Al directly, it is of great technological interest to see if reducing the Ti:C ratio further, i.e., increasing the C content of the grain refiner, will produce an increase in the grain refining efficiency of these alloys. A series of grain refiner samples with the Ti concentration fixed at 3% and a range of C contents between 0 and 0.75 were obtained by appropriately mixing an experimental Al-3Ti-0.75C alloy with Al-10Ti alloy and commercial purity aluminium. The grain refining efficiency of these grain refiners was assessed to investigate the role of the insoluble TiC and the soluble Al 3 Ti particles. The optimum chemistry for the Al-Ti-C grain refiners was also identified

  17. Grain refining efficiency of Al-Ti-C alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birol, Yuecel [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)]. E-mail: yucel.birol@mam.gov.tr

    2006-09-28

    The problems associated with boride agglomeration and the poisoning effect of Zr in Zr-bearing alloys have created a big demand for boron-free grain refiners. The potential benefits of TiC as a direct nucleant for aluminium grains have thus generated a great deal of interest in TiC-bearing alloys in recent years. In Al-Ti-C grain refiners commercially available today, Al{sub 3}Ti particles are introduced into the melt along with the TiC particles. Since the latter are claimed to nucleate {alpha}-Al directly, it is of great technological interest to see if reducing the Ti:C ratio further, i.e., increasing the C content of the grain refiner, will produce an increase in the grain refining efficiency of these alloys. A series of grain refiner samples with the Ti concentration fixed at 3% and a range of C contents between 0 and 0.75 were obtained by appropriately mixing an experimental Al-3Ti-0.75C alloy with Al-10Ti alloy and commercial purity aluminium. The grain refining efficiency of these grain refiners was assessed to investigate the role of the insoluble TiC and the soluble Al{sub 3}Ti particles. The optimum chemistry for the Al-Ti-C grain refiners was also identified.

  18. Integration with U.S. refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslett, T.

    2007-01-01

    The production of crude in western Canada is expected to increase significantly in the next 10 to 15 years as the development of oil sands leases continues. In particular, large-scale investments by major oil sands producers have focused on upgrading bitumen to light synthetic crude oil. Major refinery projects in the United States will take advantage of substantially lower capital costs to increase bitumen processing capabilities. In addition, by 2008, new pipeline projects will provide western Canada with more export capacity. The BP Energy Company is investing US$3 billion to increase the refining capacity of Canadian heavy crude at its refinery in Whiting, Indiana, which already has pipeline connectivity and long-term product placement capabilities. The project, which is scheduled to begin in 2011, will increase heavy blend processing capability to 260 thousand barrels per day and produce more than 1.7 million gallons of motor fuel per day. BP's investment has focused on the hydrogen unit, gas oil hydrotreater, hydrotreater revamps, a coker, a modular sulfur recovery unit, a sour water stripper complex, and 62 miles of piping. The refinery in Indiana has an experienced workforce and a greater availability of labor than in western Canada. Production forecasts indicate varying levels of heavy and light production, depending on the amount of condensate imports available. The project team will ensure that the refinery can handle the various levels of total acid number (TAN), sulfur and solids contained in Canadian heavy oils. The project risks are associated with uncertainties regarding production growth and quality; inflation risk as developments costs continue to rise for projects in Alberta; and regulatory risk that can impact bitumen cost. tabs., figs

  19. A practical approach towards energy conversion through bio-refining of mixed kraft pulps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharm, D.; Upadhyaya, J.S.; Tyagi, C.H.; Ahamad, S. (Dept. of Paper Technology, Indian Inst. of Technology Roorkee, Saharanpur (India))

    2007-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry is an energy intensive process industry where energy contributes about 16-20% of the manufacturing cost. Due to shortage in energy availability and increase in energy cost, energy conservation has become a necessity in the paper industry. A laboratory study on bleached and unbleached kraft pulps having 15% bamboo, eucalyptus 15%, poplar waste 20% and veneer waste 50% was conducted using two distinct commercial enzymes i.e. cellulases and xylanase and its effect on slowness, drainage time, beating time, mechanical strength properties and power consumption were studied. Enzymatic pretreatment of chemical pulp in laboratory improves degSR by 5 and 4 points in case of bleached and unbleached pulps respectively at the same beating time. Breaking length improves up to 4.0% at the constant beating level. The application of cellulase during refining saves energy 18.5% at constant refining level i.e. 28 degSR. The enzymatic treatment shows a power saving per 100 metric tone of paper by 1390 kWh which costs power saving in euro 160.70/ 100 metric tone of paper. In this way, net cost saving by deducting the cost of enzyme per 100 metric tone of paper is euro 157.90. (orig.)

  20. Force field refinement from NMR scalar couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jing [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Meuwly, Markus, E-mail: m.meuwly@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-03-02

    Graphical abstract: We show that two classes of H-bonds are sufficient to quantitatively describe scalar NMR coupling constants in small proteins. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present force field refinements based on explicit MD simulations using scalar couplings across hydrogen bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This leads to {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings to within 0.03 Hz at best compared to experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A classification of H-bonds according to secondary structure is not sufficiently robust. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grouping H-bonds into two classes and reparametrization yields an RMSD of 0.07 Hz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is an improvement of 50. - Abstract: NMR observables contain valuable information about the protein dynamics sampling a high-dimensional potential energy surface. Depending on the observable, the dynamics is sensitive to different time-windows. Scalar coupling constants {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} reflect the pico- to nanosecond motions associated with the intermolecular hydrogen bond network. Including an explicit H-bond in the molecular mechanics with proton transfer (MMPT) potential allows us to reproduce experimentally determined {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings to within 0.02 Hz at best for ubiquitin and protein G. This is based on taking account of the chemically changing environment by grouping the H-bonds into up to seven classes. However, grouping them into two classes already reduces the RMSD between computed and observed {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings by almost 50%. Thus, using ensemble-averaged data with two classes of H-bonds leads to substantially improved scalar couplings from simulations with accurate force fields.

  1. View from the market : the refiners' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earnest, N.K.

    2003-01-01

    The western Canadian crude market area is vast, ranging from Puget Sound to Oklahoma to western Pennsylvania. The three main challenges facing western Canadian crude oil producers are high crude production volumes of heavy sour grades, strong competition for market share from the United States and offshore crudes, and the inability to access offshore global crude markets in meaningful volumes. The paper includes a map depicting core markets which have historically processed most of the crude produced in western Canada. The map also includes extended market areas where western Canadian crude sales are expected to increase as production increases. These regions will become the price setting areas for Canadian crude. Currently more than 40 per cent of the total crude produced in western Canada flows into the upper Midwest market. This paper summarized Canadian crude pricing mechanisms, noting that more than half of the oil consumed in North America is imported, linking North America with the pricing dynamics and supply/demand considerations of the global crude markets. The two key points that have to be considered in the Canadian crude pricing mechanisms is the economics of refining and parity point location. Crude grades such as light sweet or medium sour, are priced relative to one another depending on their differing values as a feedstock. The greatest determinant of relative crude grade value is the proportion produced of high value, light transportation fuels compared to low value, heavy products such as asphalt and heavy fuel oil. The value of crude oil is also influenced by the level of sulphur and metal content. A section of the paper was devoted to the pricing of heavy sour conventional and bitumen blend crudes, which is different than for lighter crude grades because of the near lack of competition from similar imported crude grades. A market optimization model used to analyze the future price relationships for Canadian crudes showed that the Canadian crude

  2. Nuclear structure studies using the high resolution spectrometer at the Los Alamos Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility: Annual progress report, [1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This document constitutes the (1987 to 1988) progress report for the ongoing medium energy nuclear physics research program supported by the US Department of Energy with the University of Texas at Austin. A major part of the work has been and will continue to be associated with research done at the Los Alamos Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS), the External Proton Beam (EPB), and the new Neutron Time of Flight Facility (NTOF). Other research is done at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The research focuses on (1) providing proton + nucleus data which test nonrelativistic and relativistic models of the medium energy proton + nucleus interaction, (2) providing (p,p) and (p,n) data which are to be analyzed to provide new nuclear structure information (both ground state and excited state), (3) providing nucleon + nucleon data to aid in the systematic study of the fundamental nucleon-nucleon interaction, (4) developing and improving the proton + nucleus theoretical models themselves, and (5) initiating new experimental programs whose goals are to search for new phenomena in nuclear physics. 182 refs., 71 figs., 5 tabs

  3. The Dental Health of Army Family Members: 1987-1988. Volume 1. Introduction and Methods/Characteristics of Study Sample/Dental Treatment Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-07

    Patient 4.1.3 Complete Denture Needs by Demographics and Source of Patient 4.1.4 Prevalence of Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis by Demographics...presence of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) was noted on both adults and children. For adults only, examiners used a modified NIDR...prevalence and intensity of tobacco use. Teen -agers completed a lengthier questionnaire probing their attitudes toward smokeless tobacco and their

  4. Directions in refining and upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, B.; Parker, R. J.; Flint, L.

    1997-01-01

    The expansion of heavy oil transportation, marketing and refining facilities over the past two decades have been reviewed to show the strides that several Canadian refiners have taken to build up the facilities required to process synthetic crude oil (SCO). Key points made at a conference, convened by the National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT), held in Edmonton during September 1997 to discuss current and future directions in the refining and marketing of heavy oil, bitumen and SCO, were summarized. Among the key points mentioned were: (1) the high entry barriers faced by centralized upgraders, (2) the advantages of integrating SCO or heavy oil production with downstream refining, (3) the stiff competition from Venezuela and Mexico that both SCO and heavy oil will face in the U.S. PADD II market, (4) the differences between Canadian refiners who have profited from hydrocracking and are better able to handle coker-based SCO, and American refiners who rely chiefly on catalytic cracking and are less able to process the highly aromatic SCO, and (5) the disproportionate cost in the upgrading process represented by the conversion of asphaltenes. Challenges and opportunities for key stakeholders, i.e. producers, refiners, marketers and technology licensors also received much attention at the Edmonton conference

  5. Proceedings of the 3. NCUT meeting on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen and synthetic crude oil and the 2. symposium on stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference highlights new developments in refining processes for heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crudes. The oil sands/heavy oil industry in Canada has grown significantly in the last decade and could triple by 2012 to reach 2.6 million barrels per day. Experts from the petroleum industry, government organizations and technology providers attended this conference which identified technology gaps and areas where improvements are needed. The presentations demonstrated that many new technologies associated with heavy oil bitumen upgrading and refining have posed compatibility and stability challenges for pipeliners, upgraders and refiners. One of the issues addressed at the conference was the effect of upgrading technologies on market price due to the expected increase in production. Another important issue is how production of bitumen can be increased without significantly increasing greenhouse gas emissions from the refineries and upgrading facilities. The sessions of the conference were entitled: new technology developments in bitumen upgrading; secondary upgrading developments and expanded product opportunities; environmental issues and expanded oil sands development; and, stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum. Twenty six presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  6. Continuous method for refining sodium. [for use in LMFBR type reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batoux, B; Laurent-Atthalin, A; Salmon, M

    1973-11-16

    The invention relates to a refining method according to which commercial sodium provides a high purity sodium with, in particular, a very small calcium content. The method consists in continuously feeding a predetermined amount of sodium peroxide into a sodium stream, mixing and causing said sodium peroxide to reach with sodium at an appropriate temperature, and, finally, separating the reaction products from sodium by decanting and filtering same. The thus obtained high purity sodium meets the requirements of atomic industries in particular, in view of its possible use as coolant in nuclear reactors of the ''breeder'' type.

  7. Preparation of Al-Ti-B grain refiner by SHS technology[Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, V.I.; Wanqi, J.I.E.; Kandalova, E.G.; Makarenko, A.G.; Yong, L.

    2000-02-01

    Since the discovery of the grain refinement effect of aluminum by titanium, especially with the existence of B or C in 1950, grain refiners are widely accepted in industry for microstructure control of aluminum alloys. Research on this topic is to obtain the highest grain refinement efficiency with the lowest possible addition of master alloy. It is widely accepted that the morphology and size of TiAl{sub 3} particles, which are known as heterogeneous nucleation centers, are important factors deterring the grain refinement efficiency. Fine TiAl{sub 3} particles are favorable. The grain refinement process shows a heredity phenomenon, which means that structural information from initial materials transfers through a melt to the final product. It is important to find the connection between microstructural parameters of the master alloy and the final product. To improve the quality of Al-Ti-B master alloys for the use as a grain refiner, a new method based on SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) technology has been developed in Samara State Technical University to produce the master alloys. SHS, as a new method for preparation of materials, was first utilized by Merzhanov in 1967. This method uses the energy from highly exothermic reactions to sustain the chemical reaction in a combustion wave. The advantages of SHS include simplicity, low energy requirement, and higher product purity. Because SHS reactions can take place between elemental reactants, it is easy to control product composition. The purposes of this investigation were to fabricate an SHS Al-5%Ti-1%B master alloy, to analyze its structure and to test its grain refining performance.

  8. Romanian knowledge transfer network in nuclear physics and engineering - REFIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitescu, Petre; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2007-01-01

    According to the requirements of the Romanian Nuclear Programme regarding the education and training of the skilled personnel for the nuclear facilities, a knowledge transfer network named REFIN (in Romanian: Retea Educationala in Fizica si Ingineria Nucleara) was developed since 2005. The knowledge target field is nuclear physics and engineering. The main objective of this network is to develop an effective, flexible and modern educational system in the nuclear physics and engineering area which could meet the requirements of all known types of nuclear facilities and therewith be redundant with the perspectives of the European Research Area (FP7, EURATOM). A global strategy was proposed in order to harmonize the curricula between the network facilities to implement pilot modern teaching programs (courses/modules), to introduce advanced learning methods (as Systematic Approach to Training, e-learning and distance-learning), to strengthen and better use the existing research infrastructures of the research institutes in network. The education and training strategy is divided into several topics: university engineering , master, post-graduate, Ph.D. degree, post-doctoral activity, training for industry, improvement. For the first time in our country, a modular scheme is used allowing staff with different technical background to participate at different levels. In this respect, the European system with transferable credits (ECTS) is used. Based on this strategy, courses in 'Radioactive Waste Management' and 'Numerical and Experimental Methods in Reactor Physics' for both MS students and for industry. This way the training activity which a student attends will allow him or her to be involved, depending on specific professional needs, into a flexible educational scheme. This scheme will ensure competence and enhancement and also the possibility of qualification development and a better mobility on labour market. This kind of activity is already in progress in the

  9. Refining of Macedonian lignite through briquets production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin; Kachurkov, Gjorgji; Popovski, Kiril; Armenski, Slave

    1998-01-01

    In 1997 for the first time the scientific institutes from Republic of Macedonia got the opportunity to take part in competition to realize the scientific-research activity, financed by European Union. In the area of energy it could be applied for programs TERMI and COPERNICUS. A research project is applied for the program INCO COPERNICUS 97, with participation of the following research institutes: Koppern Aufbereitungstechnik GMbH and Co.KG - Germany; ENTEGRO - Greek Company for Energy Technology - Greece; Mining Institute Skopje - Macedonia; Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skopje - Macedonia; Faculty of Technical Sciences, Bitola - Macedonia; Central Institute for work protection, Skopje - Macedonia; Faculty for Industrial Chemistry and Metallurgy - Bulgaria. This paper presents the aim of the research, expected results, methodology and distribution of work among the research institutes

  10. The Common Sense Initiative: Petroleum refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Common Sense Initiative is trying to answer three questions: (1) ''How does one leverage the change in corporate attitudes for more efficient compliance with pollution prevention and greater use of innovative technologies?'' (2) ''How does one incorporate new approaches into the traditional menu of EPA compliance tools?'' (3) ''How can one accomplish cleaner, cheaper, smarter results?'' One answer is to create a process that includes all stakeholders that have to either implement or live with EPA decisions. This is being done by creating stake-holder groups representing labor, communities, national and grassroots environmental organization, industries and States. The focus is on realizing improvements in: pollution prevention; innovative technologies; permitting; regulations; compliance; and reporting and recordkeeping

  11. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.; Brown, Jed; Knepley, Matt; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a domain decomposed multigrid technique, termed segmental refinement, for solving general nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems. We extend the method first proposed in 1994 by analytically and experimentally investigating its complexity. We confirm that communication of traditional parallel multigrid is eliminated on fine grids, with modest amounts of extra work and storage, while maintaining the asymptotic exactness of full multigrid. We observe an accuracy dependence on the segmental refinement subdomain size, which was not considered in the original analysis. We present a communication complexity analysis that quantifies the communication costs ameliorated by segmental refinement and report performance results with up to 64K cores on a Cray XC30.

  12. Oil refining and product marketing developments in southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)

  13. Oil refining in U.S. foreign-trade zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, S.J.; Potter, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    With the crude-oil import supply being as inexpensive as it is today, relative to domestic supply, many independents have been sourcing their crude-oil needs from abroad and have found it an opportune time to step up their level of refining activity. To further enhance their competitive position with respect to foreign refineries, certain domestic refiners have discovered the operational benefits and savings that result from having a refinery designated as a foreign-trade zone (FTZ) under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of 1934, as amended. This paper examines the history and use of foreign-trade subzones for refining activities

  14. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.

    2016-08-04

    We investigate a domain decomposed multigrid technique, termed segmental refinement, for solving general nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems. We extend the method first proposed in 1994 by analytically and experimentally investigating its complexity. We confirm that communication of traditional parallel multigrid is eliminated on fine grids, with modest amounts of extra work and storage, while maintaining the asymptotic exactness of full multigrid. We observe an accuracy dependence on the segmental refinement subdomain size, which was not considered in the original analysis. We present a communication complexity analysis that quantifies the communication costs ameliorated by segmental refinement and report performance results with up to 64K cores on a Cray XC30.

  15. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  16. Farmaceutische industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros JPM; van der Poel P; Etman EJ; Montfoort JA; LAE

    1995-01-01

    Dit rapport over de farmaceutische industrie is gepubliceerd binnen het Samenwerkingsproject Procesbeschrijvingen Industrie Nederland (SPIN). In het kader van dit project is informatie verzameld over industriele bedrijven of industriele processen ter ondersteuning van het overheidsbeleid op het

  17. Recovery of Spent Bleaching Earth From Palm Oil Refining Using Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman; Tuan Amran Tuan Abdullah; Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman; Nor Azwin Shukri; Selambakkanu, S.; Siti Fatahiyah Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Acid activated calcium montmorillonite clay or commonly referred to as bleaching clays is one type of clay used in physical refining of palm oil and it is prioritized in removing a variety of undesirable impurities which would otherwise impart colour, odour and taste to the refined product. Used-up bleaching clays or known as Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE) is considered as industrial waste and commonly dispose without any pretreatment. SBE usually contains considerable quantities of entrained oil that is quantified approximately to 30 to 40 %. The residual oil in these principal solid waste products can rapidly oxidize to the point of spontaneous ignition as a result of clay-catalyzed auto-oxidation reactions. Due to this fact, the disposal of SBE has become an environmental problem and pretreatment of SBE is very important. There are several studies on the residual oil removal from the SBE using heat treatment. Radiation generated from electron beam accelerator can supply high energy to break the C-C and C-H bond. It is expected that the removal of hydrocarbon will occurs at high rate compared to conventional heating. This research proposes the use of radiation on the recovery of SBE from palm oil refining waste. Evaluation of radiation effect on properties of SBE will be conducted to study the effectiveness of using radiation in the purification process. Finally, the material produced will be evaluated and characterized for regeneration and reuse purpose. (author)

  18. Extent of Microbial Contamination of Refined and Unrefined Vegetable oils sold in South-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Flora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oils constitute a major source of plant-based protein. A major limitation to optimal oil consumption in sub-tropical region is fungal infestation and consequent mycotoxin contamination. Ten refined and eight unrefined vegetable oils were randomly purchase from open markets and screened for microbial contamination using standard microbial procedures. Twenty six fungi isolates were obtained from the vegetable oil samples, the isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus (43.0%, Mucor (17.9%, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7%, Aspergillus niger (7.1%, Aspergillus flavus (7.1%, Penicillium spp (7.1%, Aspergillus oryzae (3.6%, Mucor (17.9% and Rhizopus spp (3.6%. Five out of the ten refined vegetable oil samples had no fungal contamination. A. flavus and A. oryzae were absent in all the refined oil samples while A. niger was absent in all the unrefined oil samples. Isolation of mycotoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus spp. is of vital importance in the food industry. Education and training of processors and consumers is recommended.

  19. Industrial use of coal and clean coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibson, I; Plante, J J.M.

    1990-06-01

    This report builds upon two reports published in 1988, namely {ital The use of Coal in the Industrial, Commercial, Residential and Transportation Sectors} and {ital Innovative Clean Coal Technology Deployment}, and provides more specific recommendations pertaining to coal use in the US industrial sector. The first chapter addresses industrial boilers which are common to many industrial users. The subsequent nine chapters cover the following: coke, iron and steel industries; aluminium and other metals; glass, brick, ceramic, and gypsum industries; cement and lime industries; pulp and paper industry; food and kindred products; durable goods industry; textile industry; refining and chemical industry. In addition, appendices supporting the contents of the study are provided. Each chapter covers the following topics as applicable: energy overview of the industry sector being discussed; basic processes; foreign experience; impediments to coal use; incentives that could make coal a fuel of choice; current and projected use of clean coal technology; identification of coal technology needs; conclusions; recommendations.

  20. A new process of electron beam refining of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A review of thermodynamic equilibrium, the kinetic theory and experimental results of the metal-gas interaction in refractory metals is presented. N 2 , H 2 and CO absorption and desorption take place by a reversible process while O 2 takes place by a irreversible process with atom absorption and metal oxide desorption. A new technology of electron beam refining of Niobium is proposed based on four points: 1) preparation of the aluminothermic reduced electrode, 2) zone refining in the first melt, 3) kinetic theory of refining in the following melts and 4) design of a compact furnace. Experimental results in a pilot plant of 300 KW have shown complete agreement with the proposed technology yielding a productivity 2.4 times larger than the value predicted by the conventional technology of electron beam refining of Niobium. (Author) [pt

  1. Modified process for refining niobium by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Takano, C.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental results, thermodynamic equilibrium and kinetic theory of the metal/gas interaction in refractory metals are reviewed. The adsorption and desorption of nitrogen, hydrogen and CO are reversible, whereas those of oxygen are irreversible, with adsorption of an oxygen atom and volatilisation of the metal oxide. Based upon this fact, a new electron beam refining technology is proposed for niobium, consisting of four points: preparation of an electrode by aluminothermic reduction; zone refining in the first melt; kinetic refining in subsequent melts and compact design of the refining plant. Experimental results from a 300 kW pilot plant were in complete agreement with the technology proposed, giving 2.4 times the productivity predicted by the conventional technology. (Author) [pt

  2. Pakistan stepping up expansion of refining, transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pakistan is taking steps to speed expansion of its refining and oil transportation infrastructure. While the country has made significant progress toward energy self-efficiency by boosting oil and gas production it still must modernize and expand an aging, inadequate refining sector to meet rapidly growing demand for refined products. Pakistan's government has disclosed plans to build two refineries in the country, one at Rawalpindi near a string of recent oil discoveries, the other somewhere in the southern part of the country, likely Karachi. At the same time, efforts are proceeding to upgrade Pakistan's refineries. In addition, Pakistani state companies continue to press joint ventures in refining and marketing with foreign companies and expand downstream ties with neighbors that are key oil and gas exporters

  3. Biomolecular structure refinement using the GROMOS simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Nathan; Allison, Jane R.; Dolenc, Jožica; Eichenberger, Andreas P.; Kunz, Anna-Pitschna E.; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van

    2011-01-01

    For the understanding of cellular processes the molecular structure of biomolecules has to be accurately determined. Initial models can be significantly improved by structure refinement techniques. Here, we present the refinement methods and analysis techniques implemented in the GROMOS software for biomolecular simulation. The methodology and some implementation details of the computation of NMR NOE data, 3 J-couplings and residual dipolar couplings, X-ray scattering intensities from crystals and solutions and neutron scattering intensities used in GROMOS is described and refinement strategies and concepts are discussed using example applications. The GROMOS software allows structure refinement combining different types of experimental data with different types of restraining functions, while using a variety of methods to enhance conformational searching and sampling and the thermodynamically calibrated GROMOS force field for biomolecular simulation.

  4. Biomolecular structure refinement using the GROMOS simulation software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Nathan; Allison, Jane R.; Dolenc, Jozica; Eichenberger, Andreas P.; Kunz, Anna-Pitschna E.; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van, E-mail: wfvgn@igc.phys.chem.ethz.ch [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    For the understanding of cellular processes the molecular structure of biomolecules has to be accurately determined. Initial models can be significantly improved by structure refinement techniques. Here, we present the refinement methods and analysis techniques implemented in the GROMOS software for biomolecular simulation. The methodology and some implementation details of the computation of NMR NOE data, {sup 3}J-couplings and residual dipolar couplings, X-ray scattering intensities from crystals and solutions and neutron scattering intensities used in GROMOS is described and refinement strategies and concepts are discussed using example applications. The GROMOS software allows structure refinement combining different types of experimental data with different types of restraining functions, while using a variety of methods to enhance conformational searching and sampling and the thermodynamically calibrated GROMOS force field for biomolecular simulation.

  5. Refined isogeometric analysis for a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia, Daniel; Pardo, D.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Calo, Victor M.

    2018-01-01

    Starting from a highly continuous Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) discretization, refined Isogeometric Analysis (rIGA) introduces C0 hyperplanes that act as separators for the direct LU factorization solver. As a result, the total computational cost

  6. Mathematical aspects of Rietveld refinement and crystal structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The core mathematics, goodness-of-fit parameters of Rietveld refinement technique is introduced for structural ... transducers in medical and solar applications (Obmann ..... Prince 1985 in Structure and statistics in crystallography (ed.).

  7. P-Refinement and P-Threads (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Steven; Karniadakis, George E

    2002-01-01

    ...]) in d dimensions, which is higher than lower-order methods. In this paper, we demonstrate that by employing multi-threading within MPI processes we manage to counter- balance the cost increase associated with P-refinement...

  8. Optimization bitumen-based upgrading and refining schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, M.; Chen, J. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study in which the entire refining scheme for Canadian bitumen as feedstocks was modelled and simulated under different process configurations, operating conditions and product structures. The aim of the study was to optimize the economic benefits, product quality and energy use under a range of operational scenarios. Optimal refining schemes were proposed along with process conditions for existing refinery configurations and objectives. The goal was to provide guidelines and information for upgrading and refining process design and retrofitting. Critical steps were identified with regards to the upgrading process. It was concluded that the information obtained from this study would lead to significant improvement in process performance and operations, and in reducing the capital cost for building new upgraders and refineries. The simulation results provided valuable information for increasing the marketability of bitumen, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts associated with bitumen upgrading and refining. tabs., figs.

  9. Architectural Refinement for the Design of Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellison, Robert

    2001-01-01

    ...; that is, have no central administration and no unified security policy. The survivable architecture refinement is an iterative risk-driven process which adopts the structure of Boehm's Spiral Model Boehm 88...

  10. Flanking region sequence information to refine microRNA target ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    (SVM)-based target prediction refinement approach has been introduced through .... are kernel-based statistical learning machines, where a discriminant ...... Cox T and Cuff J 2002 The Ensembl genome database project;. Nucleic Acids Res.

  11. Significance of Kaduna River to Kaduna Refining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    River through the Kaduna Refining and Petrochemicals Company (KRPC) plants and .... Other less-common process involves filtering heated crude using diatomaceous earth ..... Water is polluted by the fallout from air pollution and by refinery.

  12. CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC (collectively, CITGO) have agreed to pay a $1,955,000 civil penalty, perform environmental projects totaling more than $2 million, and spend an estimated $42 million in injunctive relief to resolve.

  13. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1983-03-01

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  14. Grid refinement for aeroacoustics in the lattice Boltzmann method: A directional splitting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendre, Félix; Ricot, Denis; Fritz, Guillaume; Sagaut, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    This study focuses on grid refinement techniques for the direct simulation of aeroacoustics, when using weakly compressible lattice Boltzmann models, such as the D3Q19 athermal velocity set. When it comes to direct noise computation, very small errors on the density or pressure field may have great negative consequences. Even strong acoustic density fluctuations have indeed a clearly lower amplitude than the hydrodynamic ones. This work deals with such very weak spurious fluctuations that emerge when a vortical structure crosses a refinement interface, which may contaminate the resulting aeroacoustic field. We show through an extensive literature review that, within the framework described above, this issue has never been addressed before. To tackle this problem, we develop an alternative algorithm and compare its behavior to a classical one, which fits our in-house vertex-centered data structure. Our main idea relies on a directional splitting of the continuous discrete velocity Boltzmann equation, followed by an integration over specific characteristics. This method can be seen as a specific coupling between finite difference and lattice Boltzmann, locally on the interface between the two grids. The method is assessed considering two cases: an acoustic pulse and a convected vortex. We show how very small errors on the density field arise and propagate throughout the domain when a vortical flow crosses the refinement interface. We also show that an increased free stream Mach number (but still within the weakly compressible regime) strongly deteriorates the situation, although the magnitude of the errors may remain negligible for purely aerodynamic studies. A drastically reduced level of error for the near-field spurious noise is obtained with our approach, especially for under-resolved simulations, a situation that is crucial for industrial applications. Thus, the vortex case is proved useful for aeroacoustic validations of any grid refinement algorithm.

  15. Melt refining of uranium contaminated copper, nickel, and mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xinwen; Liu Wencang; Zhang Yuan

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the experiment results on melt refining of uranium contaminated metallic discards such as copper, nickel, and mild steel. Based on recommended processes, uranium contents in ingots shall decrease below 1 ppm; metal recovery is higher than 96%; and slag production is below 5% in weight of the metal to be refined. The uranium in the slag is homogeneously distributed. The slag seems to be hard ceramics, insoluble in water, and can be directly disposed of after proper packaging

  16. Refined Fuchs inequalities for systems of linear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontsov, R R

    2004-01-01

    We refine the Fuchs inequalities obtained by Corel for systems of linear meromorphic differential equations given on the Riemann sphere. Fuchs inequalities enable one to estimate the sum of exponents of the system over all its singular points. We refine these well-known inequalities by considering the Jordan structure of the leading coefficient of the Laurent series for the matrix of the right-hand side of the system in the neighbourhood of a singular point

  17. English-Chinese oil refining dictionary. [English-Chinese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, P; Zing, Z [eds.

    1979-01-01

    The dictionary is a collection of many disciplines but specialized in the terminology related to petroleum refining. It contains terms in areas such as refining, factory equipment and installation, petroleum products and test analysis, and instrument automation. It also contains terms in areas of petrochemistry, oil storage and transport, computer technology, and environmental protection. The total number of terms collected was approximately 53,000.

  18. A State Space Model for the Wood Chip Refining Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Di Ruscio

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed dynamic model of the fibre size distribution between the refiner discs, distributed along the refiner radius, is presented. Both one- and two-dimensional descriptions for the fibre or shive geometry are given. It is shown that this model may be simplified and that analytic solutions exist under non-restrictive assumptions. A direct method for the recursive estimation of unknown parameters is presented. This method is applicable to linear or linearized systems which have a triangular structure.

  19. Reverse mechanical after effect during hydrogenation of zone refined iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, L.V.; Skryabina, N.E.; Kurmaeva, L.D.; Smirnov, L.V. (Permskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR); AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)

    1984-12-01

    The relationship between the process of hydrogenation and the reverse mechanical after effect (RMA) microplastic deformation in the zone refined iron has been studied. Metallographic investigations and mechanical testing of the samples hydrogenated under torsional strain have been performed. It is shown that in the zone refined iron the formation of voids responsible for irreversible hydrogen embrittlement does not occur, but the hydrogen-initiated RMA strain is conserved, i. e. the RMA effects are independent of the presence of discontinuities.

  20. Investment in Exploration-Production and Refining - 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, Guy; Hureau, Geoffroy; Serbutoviez, Sylvain; Silva, Constancio

    2017-03-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2016 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: - Trends in oil and gas prices; - Investment in exploration/production: in sharp decline for the second consecutive year - the first time this has happened since 1986; - The global drilling market; - Geophysical: global activity and markets; - Offshore construction: market and business; - A significant reduction in refining projects (atmospheric distillation and conversion)

  1. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Annual petroleum report. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The comprehensive appraisal of the Mexican Petroleum industry was completed in July 1991. Some of the topics concerning the Mexican petroleum industry covered in the Annual Petroleum Report include: exploration efforts, oil reserves, pipelines, refining, finances, transportation, alternative energy sources, and others. The report also contains lists of petrochemicals produced in Mexico and extensive statistics on oil production and export prices

  2. Grain refinement in a AlZnMgCuTi alloy by intensive melt shearing: A multi-step nucleation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. T.; Xia, M.; Jarry, Ph.; Scamans, G. M.; Fan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Direct chill (DC) cast ingots of wrought Al alloys conventionally require the deliberate addition of a grain refiner to provide a uniform as-cast microstructure for the optimisation of both mechanical properties and processability. Grain refiner additions have been in widespread industrial use for more than half a century. Intensive melt shearing can provide grain refinement without the need for a specific grain refiner addition for both magnesium and aluminium based alloys. In this paper we present experimental evidence of the grain refinement in an experimental wrought aluminium alloy achieved by intensive melt shearing in the liquid state prior to solidification. The mechanisms for high shear induced grain refinement are correlated with the evolution of oxides in alloys. The oxides present in liquid aluminium alloys, normally as oxide films and clusters, can be effectively dispersed by intensive shearing and then provide effective sites for the heterogeneous nucleation of Al 3Ti phase. As a result, Al 3Ti particles with a narrower size distribution and hence improved efficiency as active nucleation sites of α-aluminium grains are responsible for the achieved significant grain refinement. This is termed a multi-step nucleation mechanism.

  3. On macromolecular refinement at subatomic resolution with interatomic scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lunin, Vladimir Y. [Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290 (Russian Federation); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [IGMBC, 1 Rue L. Fries, 67404 Illkirch and IBMC, 15 Rue R. Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Faculty of Sciences, Nancy University, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Modelling deformation electron density using interatomic scatters is simpler than multipolar methods, produces comparable results at subatomic resolution and can easily be applied to macromolecules. A study of the accurate electron-density distribution in molecular crystals at subatomic resolution (better than ∼1.0 Å) requires more detailed models than those based on independent spherical atoms. A tool that is conventionally used in small-molecule crystallography is the multipolar model. Even at upper resolution limits of 0.8–1.0 Å, the number of experimental data is insufficient for full multipolar model refinement. As an alternative, a simpler model composed of conventional independent spherical atoms augmented by additional scatterers to model bonding effects has been proposed. Refinement of these mixed models for several benchmark data sets gave results that were comparable in quality with the results of multipolar refinement and superior to those for conventional models. Applications to several data sets of both small molecules and macromolecules are shown. These refinements were performed using the general-purpose macromolecular refinement module phenix.refine of the PHENIX package.

  4. The refined of waste oil as sustainable solution: Ecoroil project; El re-refinamiento como solucion sostenible para el aceite usado: proyecto Ecoril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torras, J. M.

    1999-11-01

    Waste oil must be re-refined at all? Or simply burn it all and forget about it? Today`s waste oil is burnt and dumped, thus causing serious and unnecessary pollution of the environment, contamination of the rivers, seas, water sources, soil and atmosphere. Industry and government, both, have fundamental responsibility to use every option to them to reduce pollution and to re-use and recycle before producing more. One of the most effective recycling possibilities is the re-refining. The lubricating oil business is large, profitable and complex. The new technologies in re-refining produce base oils of highest quality which can equal the performance of virgin oil. The ECOROIL Project carried forward by three companies from different sectors, F. L. Iberia - Infineum -Cator, S. A. - has demonstrated it. The paper also provides some light aspects about waste oil and re-refined oils in the last years in Spain. (Author) 4 refs.

  5. The refining of secondary lead for use in advanced lead-acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Mirza, Abbas H.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary lead, i.e. material produced by the recycling of lead-acid batteries has become the primary source of lead in much of the world. This has been important to the secondary lead industry as other uses have dwindled, e.g. lead based pigments, chemicals, fuel additives, solders and CRT glasses. Presently, battery manufacturing accounts for greater than 80% of lead consumption while recycled lead accounts for approximately the same market share of lead supply. These two facts strongly demonstrate the battery manufacturing and recycled lead are intimately coupled in everyday life. In this paper we will explore how recycled lead has become the material of choice for battery construction through the development of a recovery and refining process that exceeds the industries requirements. Particular focus will be on addressing the results presented by Prengaman on the effects of contaminant or tramp elements on gassing in lead-acid batteries. (author)

  6. Odor management in petroleum refining units; Gerenciamento de odores em refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierres, Ricardo; Evangelho, Mauro Rocha; Moreira, Andrea Cristina de Castro Araujo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). P e D de Energia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel (PDEDS)

    2004-07-01

    Odor emissions can cause serious annoyance in the neighbourhood of the emissions sources related to industrial processes and effluent and wastewater treatments. Jointly with the industrial control for reducing the odor, the emissions monitoring becomes convenient for identification and quantification of compounds responsible for the odors. To reach this objective, they are proposed analytical and olfactometric methodologies. The analytical procedures are based on the application of methods of sampling and analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, accepted for environmental agencies. The olfactometric methodology is based on the use of procedures that consider the subjective manner with that the odors are felt and evaluated by the people. This work describes as these methodologies can be applied in petroleum refining units. (author)

  7. Investment in Exploration-Production and Refining - 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, Guy; Hureau, Geoffroy; Serbutoviez, Sylvain; Silva, Constancio

    2018-01-01

    more accessible multi-client surveys. This environment forced a reconfiguration of the sector through mergers and acquisitions. Will refining projects start to increase, and halt the declines seen over the past four years? This is a question worth asking. Factors that favor investment in new projects include (1) the growing demand for oil products, whose center of gravity has shifted in recent years from industrialized countries to emerging markets, (2) margins that remain solid, (3) low industrial costs, and lastly (4) a reviving global economy. Tightening fuel standards, various rehabilitation programs, modernization and growth within the sector also create opportunities for investment, especially in regions with high demand. Despite the uncertainties - changing demand for oil products, margin volatility, rising industrial costs - the investment outlook remains intriguing

  8. Direct Reduction of Waste through Refining of DOE Metal Assets - 13632

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargett, Michael C.; Terekhov, Dimitri; Khozan, Kamran M.

    2013-01-01

    CVMR R presents a technology for refining nickel from the enrichment barrier materials of the DOE that is proven through 100 years of use by the metals industry. CVMR R applies modern controls, instrumentation for process and monitoring of the system, and innovative production methods to produce a wide spectrum of products that generate new technology applications and improvements to our society and economy. CVMR R will receive barrier materials as a secure operation and size reduce the metal to a shred that is fed to a carbonylation reactor where nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide and generate nickel carbonyl. The carbonyl will be filtered and decomposed with heat to form a variety of products that include high value nano powders, coated substrates, net shapes and pure nickel. The residue from the reactor will retain radionuclides from enrichment activities. The carbon monoxide will only react and extract nickel under the operating conditions to leave volumetric contamination in the unreacted residue. A demonstration plant was designed and built by CVMR R and operated by BWXT, to demonstrate the systems capabilities to DOE in 2006. A pilot plant operation precedes the detailed design of the nickel refinery and provides essential data for design, safe work practices, waste characterizations and system kinetics and confirms the project feasibility. CVMR R produces nickel products that are cleaner than the nickel in U.S. commerce and used by industry today. The CVMR R process and systems for nickel refining is well suited for DOE materials and will provide value through environmental stewardship, recovery of high value assets, and support of the DOE environmental remediation programs as the refined nickel generates additional long term benefits to local communities. (authors)

  9. Refinement of RAIM via Implementation of Implicit Euler Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Han-Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear and Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The first approach is a mechanistic approach which is used in LIRIC in which more than 200 reactions are modeled in detail. This approach enables to perform the detailed analysis. However, it requires huge computation burden. The other approach is a simplified model approach which is used in the IMOD, ASTEC/IODE, and etc. Recently, KINS has developed RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) based on the simplified model approach. Since the numerical analysis module in RAIM is based on the explicit Euler method, there are major issues on the stability of the module. Therefore, implementation of a stable numerical method becomes essential. In this study, RAIM is refined via implementation of implicit Euler method in which the Newton method is used to find the solutions at each time step. The refined RAIM is tested by comparing to RAIM based on the explicit Euler method. In this paper, RAIM was refined by implementing the implicit Euler method. At each time step of the method in the refined RAIM, the reaction kinetics equations are solved by the Newton method in which elements of the Jacobian matrix are expressed analytically. With the results of OECD-BIP P10T2 test, the refined RAIM was compared to RAIM with the explicit Euler method. The refined RAIM shows better agreement with the experimental data than those from the explicit Euler method. For the rapid change of pH during the experiment, the refined RAIM gives more realistic changes in the concentrations of chemical species than those from the explicit Euler method. In addition, in terms of computing time, the refined RAIM shows comparable computing time to that with explicit Euler method. These comparisons are attributed to ⁓10 times larger time step size used in the implicit Euler method, even though computation burden at each time step in the refined RAIM is much higher than that of the explicit Euler method. Compared to the experimental data, the refined RAIM still shows discrepancy, which are attributed

  10. Refinement of RAIM via Implementation of Implicit Euler Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Han-Chul

    2016-01-01

    The first approach is a mechanistic approach which is used in LIRIC in which more than 200 reactions are modeled in detail. This approach enables to perform the detailed analysis. However, it requires huge computation burden. The other approach is a simplified model approach which is used in the IMOD, ASTEC/IODE, and etc. Recently, KINS has developed RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) based on the simplified model approach. Since the numerical analysis module in RAIM is based on the explicit Euler method, there are major issues on the stability of the module. Therefore, implementation of a stable numerical method becomes essential. In this study, RAIM is refined via implementation of implicit Euler method in which the Newton method is used to find the solutions at each time step. The refined RAIM is tested by comparing to RAIM based on the explicit Euler method. In this paper, RAIM was refined by implementing the implicit Euler method. At each time step of the method in the refined RAIM, the reaction kinetics equations are solved by the Newton method in which elements of the Jacobian matrix are expressed analytically. With the results of OECD-BIP P10T2 test, the refined RAIM was compared to RAIM with the explicit Euler method. The refined RAIM shows better agreement with the experimental data than those from the explicit Euler method. For the rapid change of pH during the experiment, the refined RAIM gives more realistic changes in the concentrations of chemical species than those from the explicit Euler method. In addition, in terms of computing time, the refined RAIM shows comparable computing time to that with explicit Euler method. These comparisons are attributed to ⁓10 times larger time step size used in the implicit Euler method, even though computation burden at each time step in the refined RAIM is much higher than that of the explicit Euler method. Compared to the experimental data, the refined RAIM still shows discrepancy, which are attributed

  11. European refining trends to 2030: The advent of multi-area linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Antonin, V.; Marion, P.

    2011-01-01

    The current high degree of uncertainty that pervades the global energy landscape is directly impacting on the oil industry, which is having to integrate growing mobility requirements in the context of energy transition due to the emergence of alternatives to petroleum fuels and restrictions on pollutant emissions. In this context, the study 'Raffinage 2030' (Refining 2030), carried out by IFPEN (the French Institute of Petroleum and New Energy Sources), is a prospective exercise for a better understanding of the balance between global supply and demand of petroleum products in order to shed light on the type and geographical location of necessary investments in refineries, as well as to assess the impact on these of the introduction of new fuels and more and more restrictions, such as environmental regulations. To this end, the refinery model used is one of linear programming, breaking the world down into nine geographical areas. This article introduces the programming model and its basic assumptions, before presenting the main lessons drawn om this study regarding the potential evolutions of the refining industry, in particular the European one, to face the market's long term trends. (authors)

  12. γ-Oryzanol and tocopherol contents in residues of rice bran oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana-Bauer, Vanessa Ribeiro; Zambiazi, Rui C; Mendonça, Carla R B; Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2012-10-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) contains significant amounts of the natural antioxidants γ-oryzanol and tocopherols, which are lost to a large degree during oil refining. This results in a number of industrial residues with high contents of these phytochemicals. With the aim of supporting the development of profitable industrial procedures for γ-oryzanol and tocopherol recovery, the contents of these phytochemicals in all the residues produced during RBO refining were evaluated. The samples included residues from the degumming, soap precipitation, bleaching earth filtering, dewaxing and deodorisation distillation steps. The highest phytochemical concentrations were found in the precipitated soap for γ-oryzanol (14.2 mg g(-1), representing 95.3% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO), and in the deodorisation distillate for tocopherols (576 mg 100 g(-1), representing 6.7% of total tocopherols in crude RBO). Therefore, among the residues of RBO processing, the deodorisation distillate was the best source of tocopherols. As the soap is further processed for the recovery of fatty acids, samples taken from every step of this secondary process, including hydrosoluble fraction, hydrolysed soap, distillation residue and purified fatty acid fraction, were also analyzed. The distillation residue left after fatty acid recovery from soap was found to be the best source of γ-oryzanol (43.1 mg g(-1), representing 11.5% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sugar concentration in nectar: a quantitative metric of crop attractiveness for refined pollinator risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Dan, Tereza; Reisig, Dominic D; Johnson, Josephine D; Bowers, Lisa M

    2016-10-01

    Those involved with pollinator risk assessment know that agricultural crops vary in attractiveness to bees. Intuitively, this means that exposure to agricultural pesticides is likely greatest for attractive plants and lowest for unattractive plants. While crop attractiveness in the risk assessment process has been qualitatively remarked on by some authorities, absent is direction on how to refine the process with quantitative metrics of attractiveness. At a high level, attractiveness of crops to bees appears to depend on several key variables, including but not limited to: floral, olfactory, visual and tactile cues; seasonal availability; physical and behavioral characteristics of the bee; plant and nectar rewards. Notwithstanding the complexities and interactions among these variables, sugar content in nectar stands out as a suitable quantitative metric by which to refine pollinator risk assessments for attractiveness. Provided herein is a proposed way to use sugar nectar concentration to adjust the exposure parameter (with what is called a crop attractiveness factor) in the calculation of risk quotients in order to derive crop-specific tier I assessments. This Perspective is meant to invite discussion on incorporating such changes in the risk assessment process. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Energy analysis of 108 industrial processes. Phase 1, industrial applications study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, B. B.; Brown, H. L.

    1979-06-01

    Extensive data are compiled for energy balances in 108 industrial processes. Specific information on unit operation, material, temperature, unrecoverable losses, along with the process flow diagram is given for each of the industries. The following industries are included: meak packing; milk; canned fruits and vegetables; baked goods; sugar refining; soybean; textiles; wood products; building materials; alkalies and chlorine; inorganic gases; pigments, chemicals; plastic materials and resins; synthetic rubbers; organic fibers; pharmaceutical preparations; organic chemicals; petroleum products; fertilizers; rubber products; glass; blast furnaces and steel mills; metals; farm machinery; motor vehicles; and photographic materials. The SIC's for each industry are identified.

  15. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (sugar had a higher FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g). Dark and blackstrap molasses had the highest FRAP (4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100 g), while maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  16. Electromyogram refinement using muscle synergy based regulation of uncertain information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyuengbo; Shin, Duk; Lee, Jongho; Kakei, Shinji

    2018-04-27

    Electromyogram signal (EMG) measurement frequently experiences uncertainty attributed to issues caused by technical constraints such as cross talk and maximum voluntary contraction. Due to these problems, individual EMGs exhibit uncertainty in representing their corresponding muscle activations. To regulate this uncertainty, we proposed an EMG refinement, which refines EMGs with regulating the contribution redundancy of the signals from EMGs to approximating torques through EMG-driven torque estimation (EDTE) using the muscular skeletal forward dynamic model. To regulate this redundancy, we must consider the synergistic contribution redundancy of muscles, including "unmeasured" muscles, to approximating torques, which primarily causes redundancy of EDTE. To suppress this redundancy, we used the concept of muscle synergy, which is a key concept of analyzing the neurophysiological regulation of contribution redundancy of muscles to exerting torques. Based on this concept, we designed a muscle-synergy-based EDTE as a framework for EMG refinement, which regulates the abovementioned uncertainty of individual EMGs in consideration of unmeasured muscles. In achieving the proposed EMG refinement, the most considerable point is to suppress a large change such as overestimation attributed to enhancement of the contribution of particular muscles to estimating torques. Therefore it is reasonable to refine EMGs by minimizing the change in EMGs. To evaluate this model, we used a Bland-Altman plot, which quantitatively evaluates the proportional bias of refined signals to EMGs. Through this evaluation, we showed that the proposed EDTE minimizes the bias while approximating torques. Therefore this minimization optimally regulates the uncertainty of EMGs and thereby leads to optimal EMG refinement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Refining in front of the 2005 date-line; Le raffinage face a l'echeance de 2005 (extrait du rapport annuel de la DGEMP pour 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The French refining activity has reached a crucial point for its future with the important decision of abatement of the sulfur content of gasoline and automotive gas oil that will be enforced since January 1, 2005. A second and more constraining step will have to be jumped in 2008-2010 in order to reach the 10 ppm threshold. Thus, the refining industry has to take now important decisions for its future in terms of heavy investments in order to adapt the production tool to these new specifications. On the other hand, the difference between the market demand and the refineries offer is still increasing with an excess of gasolines and heavy fuels and a deficit of gas oil. On this point too, the investment needs are enormous. In this evolutive and competitive context, it is important that the different fiscal measures taken by the different member states do not penalize the French refining industry. (J.S.)

  18. Process industry properties in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing

    2005-01-01

    In this article the writer has described the definition of process industry, expounded the fact classifying nuclear industry as process industry, compared the differences between process industry and discrete industry, analysed process industry properties in nuclear industry and their important impact, and proposed enhancing research work on regularity of process industry in nuclear industry. (authors)

  19. Panorama of the petroleum industry; Panorama de l'industrie petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-15

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2002: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. A second part is devoted to the fuel quality and air quality: the constant improvement of the fuels and the investments refining/distribution. (A.L.B.)

  20. Petroleum industry. 1997 activity report; L`industrie Petroliere. Rapport d`activite 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This activity report from the direction of hydrocarbons of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (ministry of economy, finances and industry) presents an economic analysis of the activities of the French petroleum industry for 1997. After a recall of the missions of the direction of hydrocarbons, the report analyses successively: 1- the evolution of the petroleum market: the international petroleum market in 1997, the hydrocarbon supplies and external trade (natural gas, crude oil, condensates), the French petroleum market (primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, French petroleum consumption, the petroleum logistics in overseas departments and territories), the prices, margins and fiscal policy in France and Europe (crude oil and refined product prices in the international market, retail prices in France and Europe, the French petroleum fiscal policy, statistics of petroleum prices in France and Europe; 2- the petroleum industry activities: exploration and production in France and worldwide, the maritime and domestic transports and the storage (French commercial fleet, domestic transports, storage facilities, strategic stocks), the refining activity and the quality of products and fuel substitutes (refining, automotive fuels quality, bio-fuels), the distribution of petroleum products (automotive and diesel fuels, LPG, aircraft fuels, lubricants); 3- the environmental and safety aspects of refining, transportation (pipelines, tanker-ships) and exploration-production; 4- the economic situation of the companies: petroleum groups, French para-petroleum industry, scientific and technical research. (J.S.)

  1. The petroleum industry in 2003; L'industrie petroliere en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  2. The petroleum industry in 2005; L'industrie petroliere en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum industry for the year 2005. It discusses the world gas and petroleum markets, the world and french petroleum exploration and production, the petroleum and byproducts industry in France, the hydrocarbons supplying, the refining in France, the evolution of the products and fuels substitution quality, the internal transports of petroleum products, the storage consumption and taxes of petroleum products, the prices and distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  3. Petroleum industry in 2004; L'industrie petroliere en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  4. Metallurgical engineering and inspection practices in the chemical process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The process industries, in particular the petroleum refining industry, adopted materials engineering and inspection (ME and I) practices years ago and regularly updated them because they were faced with the handling and refining of flammable, toxic, and corrosive feed stocks. These industries have a number of nonproprietary techniques and procedures, some of which may be applicable in the nuclear power generation field. Some specific inspection and engineering techniques used by the process industries within the framework of the guidelines for inspections and worthy of detailed description include the following: (1) sentry drilling or safety drilling of piping subject to relatively uniform corrosion, such as feedwater heater piping, steam piping, and extraction steam piping; (2) on-stream radiography for thickness measurement and detection of unusual conditions - damaged equipment such as valve blockage; (3) critical analysis of the chemical and refining processes for the relative probability of corrosion; (4) communication of valuable experience within the industry; (5) on-stream ultrasonic thickness testing; and (6) on-stream and off-stream crack and flaw detection. The author, trained in the petroleum refining industry but versed in electric utilities, pulp and paper, chemical process, marine, mining, water handling, waste treatment, and geothermal processes, discusses individual practices of these various industries in the paper

  5. Bayesian ensemble refinement by replica simulations and reweighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Gerhard; Köfinger, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    We describe different Bayesian ensemble refinement methods, examine their interrelation, and discuss their practical application. With ensemble refinement, the properties of dynamic and partially disordered (bio)molecular structures can be characterized by integrating a wide range of experimental data, including measurements of ensemble-averaged observables. We start from a Bayesian formulation in which the posterior is a functional that ranks different configuration space distributions. By maximizing this posterior, we derive an optimal Bayesian ensemble distribution. For discrete configurations, this optimal distribution is identical to that obtained by the maximum entropy "ensemble refinement of SAXS" (EROS) formulation. Bayesian replica ensemble refinement enhances the sampling of relevant configurations by imposing restraints on averages of observables in coupled replica molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the strength of the restraints should scale linearly with the number of replicas to ensure convergence to the optimal Bayesian result in the limit of infinitely many replicas. In the "Bayesian inference of ensembles" method, we combine the replica and EROS approaches to accelerate the convergence. An adaptive algorithm can be used to sample directly from the optimal ensemble, without replicas. We discuss the incorporation of single-molecule measurements and dynamic observables such as relaxation parameters. The theoretical analysis of different Bayesian ensemble refinement approaches provides a basis for practical applications and a starting point for further investigations.

  6. Adaptive mesh refinement for shocks and material interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There are three kinds of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in structured meshes. Block-based AMR sometimes over refines meshes. Cell-based AMR treats cells cell by cell and thus loses the advantage of the nature of structured meshes. Patch-based AMR is intended to combine advantages of block- and cell-based AMR, i.e., the nature of structured meshes and sharp regions of refinement. But, patch-based AMR has its own difficulties. For example, patch-based AMR typically cannot preserve symmetries of physics problems. In this paper, we will present an approach for a patch-based AMR for hydrodynamics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, management of patches, and load balance. The special features of this patch-based AMR include symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement across shock fronts and material interfaces, special implementation of flux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, we will show both two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement.

  7. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  8. Management of waste generation in the oil refining industry. The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lage Refinery experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J.I.; Machado, J.B.; Linhares, C.A.; Mazarino, P.R. [PETROBRAS, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). REVAP. Refinaria Henrique Lage

    1993-12-31

    The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lages Refinery - located in Sao Paulo State (Southeast Brazil), has been developing for many years a systematic program for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generation reduction. The waste minimization management program success has been built due to the structure behavioural modifications due to the new environment protection and quality politics; the training and equipment investments, and operational procedures changes. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. 77 FR 22226 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    .... Electronic Access. You may access this Federal Register document electronically through the EPA Internet... Smoke. 10 Reasons Why Gasification, Pyrolysis and Plasma Incineration are Not Green Solutions. Global...

  10. 76 FR 5107 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... CONTACT: Alan Carpien, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of General Counsel, Mail Code 2366A... and the Louisiana Environmental Action Network (LEAN). Sierra Club and LEAN request that EPA... state whether the Sierra Club and LEAN are requesting whether EPA amend or repeal the Gasification Rule...

  11. Management of waste generation in the oil refining industry. The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lage Refinery experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J I; Machado, J B; Linhares, C A; Mazarino, P R [PETROBRAS, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). REVAP. Refinaria Henrique Lage

    1994-12-31

    The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lages Refinery - located in Sao Paulo State (Southeast Brazil), has been developing for many years a systematic program for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generation reduction. The waste minimization management program success has been built due to the structure behavioural modifications due to the new environment protection and quality politics; the training and equipment investments, and operational procedures changes. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  13. Industrial symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the development of industrial symbiosis through a practical model for physical, organizational, and social interactions in six different cases from around the world. The results provide a framework that can be used by industrial symbiosis practitioners to facilitate the creation...

  14. 2001 Industry Studies: Services Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cervone, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... has maintained its economic strength in traditional services industries such as transportation, tourism, public utilities, finance and insurance, accounting, engineering, architecture, medical, legal...

  15. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  16. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  17. A new concept for product refining in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Bauder, U.; Marquardt, R.

    1986-01-01

    In actual Purex plants the products are refined in additional solvent extraction cycles. Crystallization of uranyl and plutonyl nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solution is proposed as a potentially simpler product refining concept. Suitable crystallization conditions are being investigated in the laboratory using simulated and actual process solutions. A thorough removal of mother liquor is an essential purification step and well washed crystals usually contain less than 1% of an individual impurity. Crystallization simultaneously comprises a product concentration step. Hexavalent uranium can be separated from lower-valent plutonium. An outline of an integrated processing concept is given. Product refining by crystallization is compact; recycling of mother liquor plus wash acid prevents product loss and the generation of additional waste streams. (orig.) [de

  18. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  19. Zone refining of sintered, microwave-derived YBCO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, K.G.K.; Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Balachandran, U.

    1993-07-01

    Post-sintering treatments such as zone melting under thermal gradient has been conducted on sintered YBCO tape cast films. YBCO precursor powder was derived through decomposition of a mixture of nitrates of cations in a microwave oven for ∼4 min. The resulting powder was characterized and made into thin sheets by tape casting and then sintered at 945 C for 5 h. The sintered tapes were subjected to repeated zone refining operations at relatively high speeds of ∼30 mm/h. A microstructure having uniformly oriented grains in the a-b plane throughout the bulk of the sample was obtained by three repeated zone refining operations. Details of precursor preparation, microwave processing and its advantages, zone refining conditions, and microstructural features are presented in this paper

  20. Grain refinement through severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izairi, N.; Vevecka - Priftaj, A.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable current interest in processing metallic samples through procedures involving the imposition of severe plastic deformation (SPD). These procedures lead to very significant grain refinement to the submicrometer or even the nanometer level, resulting in advanced physical properties. Among various SPD processes, Equal Channel Angular Pressing, High pressure Torsion and Accumulated Roll Bonding have been widely used for many metals and alloys. In the present work, we present an overview of the most used methods of SPD for grain refinement and the production of bulk nano structured materials with enhancement in their mechanical and functional properties. In order to examine the potential for using ECAP to refine the grain size and improve the mechanical properties, two commercial 5754 Al alloy and AA 3004 , were selected for study. Processing by ECAP gives a reduction in the grain size and an increase in the microhardness. (Author)

  1. Error sensitivity to refinement: a criterion for optimal grid adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Paolo; Giannetti, Flavio; Citro, Vincenzo

    2017-12-01

    Most indicators used for automatic grid refinement are suboptimal, in the sense that they do not really minimize the global solution error. This paper concerns with a new indicator, related to the sensitivity map of global stability problems, suitable for an optimal grid refinement that minimizes the global solution error. The new criterion is derived from the properties of the adjoint operator and provides a map of the sensitivity of the global error (or its estimate) to a local mesh refinement. Examples are presented for both a scalar partial differential equation and for the system of Navier-Stokes equations. In the last case, we also present a grid-adaptation algorithm based on the new estimator and on the FreeFem++ software that improves the accuracy of the solution of almost two order of magnitude by redistributing the nodes of the initial computational mesh.

  2. Numerical solution of plasma fluid equations using locally refined grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colella, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical method for the solution of plasma fluid equations on block-structured, locally refined grids. The plasma under consideration is typical of those used for the processing of semiconductors. The governing equations consist of a drift-diffusion model of the electrons and an isothermal model of the ions coupled by Poisson's equation. A discretization of the equations is given for a uniform spatial grid, and a time-split integration scheme is developed. The algorithm is then extended to accommodate locally refined grids. This extension involves the advancement of the discrete system on a hierarchy of levels, each of which represents a degree of refinement, together with synchronization steps to ensure consistency across levels. A brief discussion of a software implementation is followed by a presentation of numerical results

  3. Stability studies on refined soybean oil stored in various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arawande, J.O.; Amoo, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 12 months stability study of freshly produced refined soybean oil revealed that refined soybean oil stored in plastic containers in dark was more hydrolytically and oxidatively stable than that stored in other containers in light condition. There was no significant difference at P < 0.05 in free fatty acids and acid value of oil stored under light and dark conditions in tin and glass containers but there was significant difference at P < 0.05 in peroxide value of oil stored in light and dark conditions in all the storage containers. Light increased the degree of oxidative rancidity of refined soybean oil, the most in tin containers, followed by glass containers and the least in plastic containers. (author)

  4. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10 degrees to 20 degrees API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources

  5. EXPTIME-Completeness of Thorough Refinement on Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS), a specification formalism introduced more than 20 years ago, has recently received a considerable attention in several different areas. Many of the fundamental questions related to MTSs have already been answered. However, the problem of the exact computational...... complexity of thorough refinement checking between two finite MTSs remained unsolved. We settle down this question by showing EXPTIME-completeness of thorough refinement checking on finite MTSs. The upper-bound result relies on a novel algorithm running in single exponential time providing a direct goal...

  6. Demand, deregulation may attract more refiners to Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    As a result of rapidly increasing demand, major oil companies are eyeing Asian oil and gas markets more closely than ever. Higher earnings can be expected there than in the US or Europe, where product markets--especially light products--are expected to tighten long-term. Of the nations with growing requirements for refined products, China and India offer greater opportunity for foreign investors to enter downstream projects. Also offering excellent business prospects are Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The paper discusses oil demand, products, refining capacity, and capacity additions in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and China

  7. Grain size refinement of inconel 718 thermomechanical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okimoto, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Inconel 718 is a Ni-Fe precipitation treated superalloy. It presents good thermal fatigue properties when the material has small grain size. The aim of this work is to study the grain size refinement by thermomechanical processing, through observations of the microstructural evolution and the influence of some of the process variables in the final grain size. The results have shown that this refinement occured by static recrystallization. The presence of precipitates have influenced the final grain size if the deformations are below 60%. For greater deformations the grain size is independent of the precipitate distribution in the matrix and tends to a limit size of 5 μm. (author)

  8. Limit of grain refinement during ECAP process. Temperature influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvil'deev, V.N.; Kopylov, V.I.; Nokhrin, A.V.; Makarov, I.M.; Lopatin, Yu.G.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical study results are reported for the process of deformation grain refinement under severe plastic deformation. A generalization is made for experimental study results on deformation dispersing of unalloyed metals and aluminium and magnesium base alloys. The model is built that allows calculating the value of minimum grain size attained by the method of equal-channel angular pressing. The expressions are derived which describe the dependence of grain refinement limit on the nature of material and the temperature of severe plastic deformation [ru

  9. The limit of grain refinement on equal channel angular deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylov, V.I.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical study results on the process of strain-induced grain refinement under severe plastic deformation are described. A generalization is made for experimental results on deformation dispersing of copper, magnesium and aluminium base alloys as well as unalloyed metals. The model is developed which allows calculating the minimal grain size being able to result from equal channel angular pressing. The expressions describing the dependence of the limit of grain refinement on the nature of the material and severe plastic deformation rate and temperature are obtained [ru

  10. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    OpenAIRE

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its conse...

  11. Industrial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  12. Cooling curve analysis in binary Al-Cu alloys: Part II- Effect of Cooling Rate and Grain Refinement on The Thermal and Thermodynamic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehnavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Cu alloys have been widely used in aerospace, automobile, and airplane applications. Generally Al–Ti and Al–Ti–B master alloys are added to the aluminium alloys for grain refinement. The cooling curve analysis (CCA has been used extensively in metal casting industry to predict microstructure constituents, grain refinement and to calculate the latent heat of solidification. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of cooling rate and grain refinement on the thermal and thermodynamic characteristics of Al-Cu alloys by cooling curve analysis. To do this, Al-Cu alloys containing 3.7, and 4.8 wt.% Cu were melted and solidified with 0.04, 0.19, 0.42, and 1.08 K/s cooling rates. The temperature of the samples was recorded using a K thermocouple and a data acquisition system connected to a PC. Some samples were Grain refined by Al-5Ti-1B to see the effect of grain refinement on the aforementioned properties. The results show that, in a well refined alloy, nucleation will occur in a shorter time, and a undercooling approximately decreases to zero. The other results show that, with considering the cooling rate being around 0.1 °C/s, the Newtonian method is efficient in calculating the latent heat of solidification.

  13. 40 CFR 80.1142 - What are the provisions for small refiners under the RFS program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all of the following criteria: (i) The refiner produced gasoline at its refineries by processing crude... Standard § 80.1142 What are the provisions for small refiners under the RFS program? (a)(1) Gasoline produced by a refiner, or foreign refiner (as defined at § 80.1165(a)), is exempt from the renewable fuel...

  14. Industrial practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Torrez, Patricia Irma

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the industrial practices carried out by the author viewing the requirements fulfilled for obtention the academic degree in chemical engineering of the San Andres University - Bolivia

  15. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ginter, Michael J; Andersen, James L; Becker, John A; Belliveau, Gerald E; Eppich, Frank J; Awai, Herman T; Hanko, David J; Hughes, Bob; Jones, Douglas; Larson, Kelly J

    2007-01-01

    .... area, New York State, Silicon Valley (California), Taiwan, and China. This approach provides a wide range of perspectives from which to examine the selected industry's current condition, outlook, and challenges...

  16. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasan, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, and 0.26 ± 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands of the refined sunflower oil and two brands of hazelnut oil contained no measurable amounts of total trans C18:3 acids. The total trans C18:2 acid was the predominant trans FA found in the refined sunflower and corn oils, while trans polyunsaturated FAs for the refined soybean oils were found at high levels. However, total trans C18:1 acid was the major trans FA for refined hazelnut oils. The commercially refined vegetable oils with a relatively high total polyunsaturated FA contained considerable amounts of trans polyunsaturated isomers. This study indicates that it is necessary to optimize industrial deodorization, especially the time and temperature, for each different FA composition of oil used.

    Cuatro aceites vegetales refinados comerciales diferentes fueron analizados por cromatografía de gases para determinar el contenido en ácidos grasos trans. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el contenido total de los FA trans de aceites refinados de girasol, maíz, soja y avellana fueron 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, y 0.26 ± 0.07% de FA totales, respetivamente. Los ácidos grasos totales trans comprenden a isómeros de FA C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3. Cinco marcas de aceites de girasol refinado y dos marcas de aceite de avellana contenían cantidades no medibles de ácidos trans C18:3 totales. Los ácidos C18:2 trans totales fueron los FA trans predominantes en el aceite de girasol y ma

  17. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Health and Safety Executive Information Sheet on industrial radiography aims to inform directors and managers of industrial radiography companies on the safety precautions necessary to ensure that their personnel do not exceed dose guidelines for exposure to ionizing radiation. The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85) require that exposure doses for radiographers are kept as low reasonably practicable. Equipment maintenance, and the employment of proper emergency procedures will help to ensure personnel safety. (UK)

  18. Industrial ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengelle, Ch.

    1999-04-01

    After having given the definition of the term 'ceramics', the author describes the different manufacturing processes of these compounds. These materials are particularly used in the fields of 1)petroleum industry (in primary and secondary reforming units, in carbon black reactors and ethylene furnaces). 2)nuclear industry (for instance UO 2 and PuO 2 as fuels; SiC for encapsulation; boron carbides for control systems..)

  19. The EU's roadmap for moving to a low-carbon economy. Aspirations and reality for refiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtscheidl, J.; Buchsbaum, A.; Bachmann, G. [OMV Refining and Marketing GesmbH, Wien (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    Europe's refining industry is facing huge challenges. About 20% of the capacity should be reduced as soon as possible. And more capacities will become idle after 2020. About 35 % of the refineries changed their ownership, were sold or closed during the last four years. The EU has set up a roadmap to move to a low-carbon economy. The Renewable Energy Directive asks for a share of energy from renewable sources in all forms of transport of at least 10 % in 2020. The Fuel Quality Directive requests a mandatory 6% reduction of CO{sub 2} in energy equivalent content of transport fuels by 2020. And the EU Emission-Trading-System for CO{sub 2} sets a reduction target of 21% for refining which is part of the ETS sectors for the next trading period 2013-2020. This target has to be calculated on best available technology which means that for less efficient refiners the target will be significantly higher. New emission targets for refineries will be fixed by the Industrial Emission Directive and the revised BAT document soon. A European Tax Directive is being prepared which will base the tax on the energy content and CO{sub 2} footprint of the fuels. And a new Energy Efficiency Directive will ask for substantial reductions in the energy demand. Their impact on refineries can hardly be estimated today. While the targets are set the roadmap to fulfil all these remains misty. Other than purchasing biofuels from the market, buying CO{sub 2} credits and trying to compensate these additional costs with even tougher cost cutting measures, are there other options the refining industry can do? This paper will try to show possible options which are investigated for OMV refineries such as: - Improve significantly the efficiency of the power production; - Use existing units for co-processing bio components; - Reconfigure the waste heat recovery system, and - equally important -; - Rate high key performance indicators for energy demand. These measures have to be fully compatible with

  20. BioDegradation of Refined Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil | Obire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon-dioxide production and hydrocarbon degradation of refined petroleum hydrocarbon in soils treated with 5% gasoline, kerosene and diesel oil were investigated. Soil for study was bulked from around a car park in Port Harcourt. Soil samples were collected at weekly intervals for four weeks and subsequently at ...