WorldWideScience

Sample records for refinery unit operations

  1. Kvanefjeld refinery pilot plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Damien; Furfaro, Domenic

    2016-01-01

    Greenland Minerals and Energy is a junior project development company which is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (asx:GGG). It is developing the Kvanefjeld rare earth and uranium project located in the southern tip of Greenland. The project has completed a Feasibility Study and is currently in the permitting phase. Last year was a busy time for the company as it completed a Feasibility Study, a mining licence application (draft submitted in December 2015) and pilot plant operations. Beneficiation pilot plant operations were completed at GTK in Finland in April 2015. This pilot plant treated approximately 30 tonnes of ore to producing almost 2 tonnes of rare earth mineral concentrate. Later in the year a hydrometallurgical pilot plant was performed which mimicked the Refinery process. This pilot plant was performed at Outotec’s Pori Research laboratories in Finland from September till October 2015. The pilot plant treated approximately 200 kilograms of concentrate over 4 split operating campaigns. Each campaign was performed to focus on the performance of a specific part of the refinery flowsheet. This allowed for full operating focus on a single unit operation to ensure that it was operating correctly. The pilot plant operations were quite successful with no major issues with the flowsheet identified through continuous operation. Some fine tuning of conditions was required to ensure adequate removal of impurities was performed with recycle streams incorporated. Overall the leach extractions observed in the pilot plant exceeded the design assumptions in the Feasibility Study. These programs were partially funded by the EURARE program. The EURARE program aims to encourage the sustainable development of European based rare earth projects. This has the goal of allowing Europe to become less reliant on importation of these key raw materials. The professionalism and performance of both GTK and Outotec contributed significantly to the success of the pilot plant

  2. SPARO - A system for process analysis of refinery operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.G.; Graham, J.; Weissbrod, J.

    1987-01-01

    SPARO is a customized process simulator for the PC, designed to review as well as to guide operations of hydrocarbon processing units. It can be applied to: gas plants or refinery gas recovery units; crude/vacuum towers with associated heat exchange; light ends units, such as reforming, alkylation and isomerization; fractionation and heat exchange units of Ethylene plants; aromatics and styrene units, and others. The main uses of SPARO are discussed in this paper.

  3. Influence of ownership capital structure of Refinery's operation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhi-Mishev, Dimitar

    1999-01-01

    Refineries are part of the energetic infrastructure of one country. Their significance is dependent on the geographic country position (whether it has sea exit or not), and on structure of primary energy spends in the country. According these facts, country's attitude to the refineries on its territory could be different. The possibility of ownership structure transformation in refineries and necessary legislation in the energetic sector of the state, needed for transformation realization are analyzed in this paper. Essential conditions for transformation fulfilling are protection 'mechanisms for domestic production in crude oil economy, manners of crude oil products price defining, and manners of excise determination and payment. As a function of these conditions, the conditions under which transformation of ownership structure in refineries is possible, as well as their influence on the operation and development of this part of energetic structure in transition country are defined in this paper. (Original)

  4. Operational planning of refineries; Planejamento operacional de refinarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinay, Maria Cristina Fogliatti de [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bueno, Catia [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The activities integration that compose the petroleum logistic chain makes more complex its planning which is normally done in a joined level, using operation research models in order to find optimized solutions. When this integrated planning is repassed to the companies and its constitutes parts (mainly refinery) uncertainness are generated about the solution that will be adopted in case of new restrictions appear. Then, the purpose of this work is propose a procedure that is capable to adequate and specifies optimized solutions presented by corporative model to refinery operations, using 'What-if' and deterministic simulation technique with optimization. To achieve this objective will be analysed typical activities in refineries and basic principles to their operational planning. (author)

  5. Becoming a refinery leader by changing operations to match new product quality regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Maryro P. [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Global environmental concerns have forced the automotive and oil industries to increase efficiency and reduce emissions, which has led to the tightening of fuels specifications around the world. The implementation of ultra-low sulphur transport fuels has become a worldwide trend with growing momentum. Compliance with these standards requires the refiner to make decisions in advance of the implementation date. Therefore, in order to make changes on time, refiners are currently assessing options and changes required to comply with regulations by 2016. Similar regulations have been implemented in Europe already and KBC has the methodology and experience to assess the existing refinery configuration, unit capability and facility infrastructure to provide the basis for decision making. This paper focus on KBC's methodology which looks at the molecular management needed to produce the low levels of sulfur and toxic required in today's refined products. A key element to the study is the use of Petro-SIM for development of a representative detailed non-linear model, of the refinery which has been used to test ideas and configurations and help confirm the Refinery LP development activities. Using a Petro-SIM representation, KBC is able to make an assessment of the impact of imposing Tier 3 gasoline (sulphur to < 10 ppm) on the refinery, examining critical blending constraints, unused stream qualities and quantities and likely type and scale of capital investment that would be required while optimising unit operations and maximising margins. This paper illustrates KBC's current thinking based on studies done to date to review clean fuels and Tier 3 specifications options for specific refinery configurations. (author)

  6. Optimization of operating conditions of distillation columns: an energy saving option in refinery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Fazlali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While energy prices continue to climb, it conservation remains the prime concern for process industries. The daily growth of energy consumption throughout the world and the real necessity of providing it, shows that optimization of energy generation and consumption units is an economical and sometimes vital case. Hence, the optimization of a petroleum refinery is aimed towards great production and an increase in quality. In this research, the atmospheric distillation unit of the Iran-Arak-Shazand petroleum refinery was subject to optimization efforts. It was performed by the means of using a simulator with the aim to earn more overhead products. In the next step the optimization results from the simulators were carried out in the real world, at the above mentioned unit. Results demonstrate that the changes in the real operating conditions increase the overhead products with desirable quality. Finally, a net economical balance between the increments of the overhead products and the energy consumption shows an energy saving in this refinery.

  7. Ashland outlines $261 million in refinery unit construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ashland Petroleum Co. has spelled out $261 million in projects completed, under way, or planned to produce cleaner fuel and further reduce emissions at two U.S. refineries. The company: Started up at $13 million pollution control system at its 213,400 b/cd Catlettsburg, Ky., plant. Started construction on six projects at its 67,100 b/cd St. Paul Park, Minn., refinery that will cost about $114 million and enable the plant to produce cleaner burning diesel fuel and further reduce emissions

  8. Combined analysis of job and task benzene air exposures among workers at four US refinery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Amanda; Shin, Jennifer Mi; Unice, Ken M; Gaffney, Shannon H; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Panko, Julie M

    2017-03-01

    Workplace air samples analyzed for benzene at four US refineries from 1976 to 2007 were pooled into a single dataset to characterize similarities and differences between job titles, tasks and refineries, and to provide a robust dataset for exposure reconstruction. Approximately 12,000 non-task (>180 min) personal samples associated with 50 job titles and 4000 task (job titles and task codes across all four refineries, and (5) our analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the distribution of benzene air concentrations for select jobs/tasks across all four refineries. The jobs and tasks most frequently sampled included those with highest potential contact with refinery product streams containing benzene, which reflected the targeted sampling approach utilized by the facility industrial hygienists. Task and non-task data were analyzed to identify and account for significant differences within job-area, task-job, and task-area categories. This analysis demonstrated that in general, areas with benzene containing process streams were associated with greater benzene air concentrations compared to areas with process streams containing little to no benzene. For several job titles and tasks analyzed, there was a statistically significant decrease in benzene air concentration after 1990. This study provides a job and task-focused analysis of occupational exposure to benzene during refinery operations, and it should be useful for reconstructing refinery workers' exposures to benzene over the past 30 years.

  9. Analysis of the implementation of ergonomic design at the new units of an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passero, Carolina Reich Marcon; Ogasawara, Erika Lye; Baú, Lucy Mara Silva; Buso, Sandro Artur; Bianchi, Marcos Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomic design is the adaptation of working conditions to human limitations and skills in the physical design phase of a new installation, a new working system, or new products or tools. Based on this concept, the purpose of this work was to analyze the implementation of ergonomic design at the new industrial units of an oil refinery, using the method of Ergonomic Workplace Assessment. This study was conducted by a multidisciplinary team composed of operation, maintenance and industrial safety technicians, ergonomists, designers and engineers. The analysis involved 6 production units, 1 industrial wastewater treatment unit, and 3 utilities units, all in the design detailing phase, for which 455 ergonomic requirements were identified. An analysis and characterization of the requirements identified for 5 of the production units, involving a total of 246 items, indicated that 62% were related to difficult access and blockage operations, while 15% were related to difficulties in the circulation of employees inside the units. Based on these data, it was found that the ergonomic requirements identified in the design detailing phase of an industrial unit involve physical ergonomics, and that it is very difficult to identify requirements related to organizational or cognitive ergonomics.

  10. Result of design and test operation of a coal boiler at Hyogo Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yasuhiko; Sato, Noriyuki

    1987-05-01

    This boiler is the first coal boiler for the oil refineries in Japan (Installed in Oct., 1986 at Idemitsu Petrochemical Co.) Causes for using coal as a fuel are a conversion to less expensive fuel and offering a technical service to the users of coal through the combustion of coal and learning of a handling technique. The type of boiler is Babcock single barrel radiant type and has 150 t/d capacity with single fuel combustion of coal. Auxiliary equipments are a pulverizer, a transportation and storage unit, a denitration unit, a dust collector, a desulfurization unit, and an ash disposal unit. Main considerations in the design are measures for the security of finely pulverized coal, clogging prevention for coal and ash. A test operation revealed 7 % of combustible loss and 160 - 250 ppm of NOx content at a charge inlet of denitration unit. Actual operation exhibited no clogging at the denitration unit of troubles due to scaling. Design for raw materials is to blend 4 imported coals (from Australia and Canada, etc) and 3 Japanese ones. (7 figs, 2 tabs)

  11. Refinery scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcus V.; Fraga, Eder T. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Shah, Nilay [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This work addresses the refinery scheduling problem using mathematical programming techniques. The solution adopted was to decompose the entire refinery model into a crude oil scheduling and a product scheduling problem. The envelope for the crude oil scheduling problem is composed of a terminal, a pipeline and the crude area of a refinery, including the crude distillation units. The solution method adopted includes a decomposition technique based on the topology of the system. The envelope for the product scheduling comprises all tanks, process units and products found in a refinery. Once crude scheduling decisions are Also available the product scheduling is solved using a rolling horizon algorithm. All models were tested with real data from PETROBRAS' REFAP refinery, located in Canoas, Southern Brazil. (author)

  12. Petroleum Refineries (Catalytic Cracking, Catalytic Reforming and Sulfur Recovery Units): National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    learn more about the NESHAP for catalytic cracking and reforming units, as well as sulfur recovery units in petroleum refineries by reading the rule history, rule summary, background information documents, and compliance information

  13. Operation : motor city : Michigan's only refinery to handle an increased slate of heavy Canadian crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, D.

    2008-01-01

    A planned $1.9 billion upgrade and expansion will see a Detroit, Michigan refinery producing nearly 100 per cent Canadian crude oil. The upgrade will have important social, economic, and environmental implications for the oil sands industry, and is being seen as an important step for the future of the entire energy industry. The site was selected after a consultation of pipeline routes in North America. The refinery's coking capacity will help to ease the market constraints that Canadian crude is currently facing in the United States. The Midwest downstream oil and gas industry is well-positioned to help maximize the value of Canada's bitumen resources. In addition to expanding processing facilities, the refinery will also add capacity of approximately 15,000 barrels per day, as well as a delayed coker, sulphur recovery complex, ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NO x ) burners, a 33,000 barrel-per-day distillate hydrotreater, and a hydrogen plant. It was concluded that construction of the refinery will be completed by 2010. 2 figs

  14. Implications of environmental regulations on refinery product specification, operation and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1980s, refiners mainly in OECD countries were occupied with improving their refinery configurations for producing high-value light products which would not only satisfy the product demand slate but also meet the increasingly restrictive environmental regulations. In the 1990s refiners will continue to be challenged to improve the world's air quality not only by producing products that minimize emissions of toxic and hazardous hydrocarbons, but also through the refinery operation itself by investment in upgrading the industry and products to cope with the constant flow of new regulations. These investments will not only be limited to consuming centres but will also be extended to cover exporting refineries as well due to competition of acquiring market shares for product exports. The additional cost will be directly related to product quality and site regulations and will vary from one country to the other. This paper deals mainly with the air pollution and the impact of related environmental issues on the refining industry. Environmental regulations for refinery products in the USA and Europe are examined and international regulations for the tanker industry are noted. (author)

  15. A study on the capture of carbon dioxide from a large refinery power station boiler by conversion to oxyfuel operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.B.; Boden, J.C.; Panesar, R.S.; Allam, R.J. [BP Amoco, Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    A detailed feasibility study has been carried out on the conversion of an existing refinery power station boiler, fired with refinery off-gas, to oxyfuel operation with carbon dioxide capture. The conversion was shown to be technically feasible using proven technologies. Boiler output could be maintained without significant pressure-part modifications and there would be no loss of boiler efficiency. It would be possible to retain a capability to operate in conventional air firing mode for start-up and emergency situations. The concept has been developed to a stage where a demonstration plant could be designed. The major elements of the capital costs of conversion are associated with the air separation unit and the carbon dioxide treatment and compression train and the additional operating costs are associated principally with the power consumption of these units. Further optimisation of the oxyfuel combustion system is possible and it is anticipated that the ongoing developments in air separation technology will help to make significant reductions in these costs in the future. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Heavy oil processing impacts refinery and effluent treatment operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornthwaite, P. [Nalco Champion, Northwich, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    Heavy oils are becoming more common in Europe. The processing of heavier (opportunity or challenge) crudes, although financially attractive, introduce additional challenges to the refiner. These challenges are similar whether they come from imported crudes or in the future possibly from shale oils (tight oils). Without a strategy for understanding and mitigating the processing issues associated with these crudes, the profit potential may be eroded by decreased equipment reliability and run length. This paper focuses on the impacts at the desalter and how to manage them effectively while reducing the risks to downstream processes. Desalters have to deal with an increased viscosity, density (lower API gravity), higher solids loading, potential conductivity issues, and asphaltene stability concerns. All these factors can lead to operational problems impacting downstream of the desalter, both on the process and the water side. The other area of focus is the effluent from the desalter which can significantly impact waste water operations. This can take the form of increased oil under-carry, solids and other contaminants originating from the crudes. Nalco Champion has experience in working with these challenging crudes, not only, Azeri, Urals and African crudes, but also the Canadian oil sands, US Shale oil, heavy South American crudes and crudes containing metal naphthenates. Best practices will be shared and an outlook on the effects of Shale oil will be given. (orig.)

  17. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  18. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  19. Decision 99-8 : Shell Canada Limited application to construct and operate an oil sands bitumen upgrader in the Fort Saskatchewan area : Shell Canada Products Limited application to amend refinery approval in the Fort Saskatchewan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board considered an application by Shell Canada Limited to construct and operate an oil sands bitumen upgrader on Shell's property adjoining the existing Scotford refinery in the County of Strathcona. The upgrader would process bitumen from Shell's proposed Muskeg River Mine, located 70 km north of Fort McMurray, and other feedstocks available in the area. The Board also considered an application for an amendment to the existing Scotford refinery approval, Industrial Development Permit 89-10, for the processing of 3.75 million cubic metres per year of sour conversion feedstock. Under a coordinated application process, Shell filed a joint Shell Scotford Upgrader application/Environmental Impact Assessment. Issues considered with respect to these applications were: technology selection, air/health, sulphur recovery, noise/traffic, and land use conflict. Shell stated that its Scotford refinery is the most energy efficient refinery in the Americas and that is has the highest liquid yield per unit volume of crude oil feedstock of any refinery in the world. The refinery's hydrocracking capacity would make it possible to use hydro-conversion technology for its upgrader which is environmentally advantageous. After examining all of the evidence pertaining to the applications, the Board found the projects to be in the public interest and is prepared to approve the Scotford Upgrader and Scotford Refinery modifications assuming that certain prescribed conditions are met

  20. Thermoeconomic and environmental assessment of a crude oil distillation unit of a Nigerian refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, M.A.; Oni, A.O.; Adejuyigbe, S.B.; Adewumi, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    The renovation of refineries should be aimed at achieving the highest possible technical efficiencies at a considerable investment cost and not only at replacing damaged components to attain full capacity utilisation. This study examined a crude distillation unit (CDU) of a Nigerian refinery plant comprising the atmospheric distillation unit (ADU), vacuum distillation unit (VDU), preflash unit (PFU), splitter unit (SPU), stabiliser unit (SBU) and heat exchanger network (HEN) to determine critical areas of inefficiencies as the plant managements plan renovation. Using real plant data, the CDU was simulated with Aspen Hysys ® and the thermoeconomic and environmental analyses were carried out. The results show that the energy and exergy efficiencies of the CDU were 9.0 and 4.0% respectively. The specific CO 2 emission was 3.67 kg CO 2 /bbl. The highly inefficient subunits accounting for 77.4 and 90.0% of the overall energy and exergy losses respectively and 60.3% of the emission released were the PFU, ADU and HEN. The highly inefficient components are the furnaces which accounted for 51.6% of the overall exergy losses. The environmental and economic analysis also indicated that these components are the most potent for improvement. The columns of the PFU and ADU should be revamped to reduce their energy demands and the HEN should be modified to minimise effluent losses. - Highlights: •The assessment of a crude distillation unit (CDU) in Nigeria was carried out. •The assessment considered thermodynamic, thermoeconomic and environment analysis. •The assessment revealed areas with poor performance in the CDU. •Large thermodynamic and economic losses are responsible for the poor performance. •Areas with large losses and emission rate should be targeted for improvement

  1. Thermoeconomic and environmental assessment of a crude oil distillation unit of a Nigerian refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, M. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oni, A.O., E-mail: fem2day@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria); Adejuyigbe, S. B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria); Adewumi, B. A. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria)

    2014-05-01

    The renovation of refineries should be aimed at achieving the highest possible technical efficiencies at a considerable investment cost and not only at replacing damaged components to attain full capacity utilisation. This study examined a crude distillation unit (CDU) of a Nigerian refinery plant comprising the atmospheric distillation unit (ADU), vacuum distillation unit (VDU), preflash unit (PFU), splitter unit (SPU), stabiliser unit (SBU) and heat exchanger network (HEN) to determine critical areas of inefficiencies as the plant managements plan renovation. Using real plant data, the CDU was simulated with Aspen Hysys{sup ®} and the thermoeconomic and environmental analyses were carried out. The results show that the energy and exergy efficiencies of the CDU were 9.0 and 4.0% respectively. The specific CO{sub 2} emission was 3.67 kg CO{sub 2}/bbl. The highly inefficient subunits accounting for 77.4 and 90.0% of the overall energy and exergy losses respectively and 60.3% of the emission released were the PFU, ADU and HEN. The highly inefficient components are the furnaces which accounted for 51.6% of the overall exergy losses. The environmental and economic analysis also indicated that these components are the most potent for improvement. The columns of the PFU and ADU should be revamped to reduce their energy demands and the HEN should be modified to minimise effluent losses. - Highlights: •The assessment of a crude distillation unit (CDU) in Nigeria was carried out. •The assessment considered thermodynamic, thermoeconomic and environment analysis. •The assessment revealed areas with poor performance in the CDU. •Large thermodynamic and economic losses are responsible for the poor performance. •Areas with large losses and emission rate should be targeted for improvement.

  2. Detection of impurities in fluid flowing in refinery pipeline or oil production operations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.; Peelman, H.E.; Langford, O.M.; Paap, H.J.; Sopernaw, I.R.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid in a pipeline or container at a refinery or at any of various petroleum producing operations is bombarded with neutrons and high energy gamma rays resulting from capture of thermal neutrons are detected. The spectra of the detected gamma rays are then analyzed to determine the concentration of the element chlorine, which gives an indication of the presence and concentration of salt water in the fluid. The concentration of sulfur and the percentage gas in the fluid may be determined simultaneously with the concentration of chlorine. (Auth.)

  3. Impact of hydrotreaters ammonium chloride salt deposition of refinery operations; Formacao de depositos de sais de amonio em Unidades de Hidrotramento (HDT'S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Nelmo Furtado; Cunha, Fabiana A.; Alvise, Paulo Pio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Fouling and consequent under deposit corrosion caused by ammonium salts, especially ammonium chloride, have serious impact on the reliability of operation of various process units. In hydrotreating units salt deposition on heat exchanger tubes causes a decrease in heat transfer efficiency, decrease hydrotreating efficiency, increased pressure drops, and corrosion. This paper will discuss the causes of ammonium chloride fouling,methods to help prevent and/or mitigate the fouling, and provide a case history demonstrating the effects of ammonium chloride formations in one refinery operation. (author)

  4. Impact of hydrotreaters ammonium chloride salt deposition of refinery operations; Formacao de depositos de sais de amonio em Unidades de Hidrotramento (HDT'S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Nelmo Furtado; Cunha, Fabiana A; Alvise, Paulo Pio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Fouling and consequent under deposit corrosion caused by ammonium salts, especially ammonium chloride, have serious impact on the reliability of operation of various process units. In hydrotreating units salt deposition on heat exchanger tubes causes a decrease in heat transfer efficiency, decrease hydrotreating efficiency, increased pressure drops, and corrosion. This paper will discuss the causes of ammonium chloride fouling,methods to help prevent and/or mitigate the fouling, and provide a case history demonstrating the effects of ammonium chloride formations in one refinery operation. (author)

  5. Scheduling of Crude Oil Operations in Refinery without Sufficient Charging Tanks Using Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan An

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A short-term schedule for crude oil operations in a refinery should define and sequence the activities in detail. Each activity involves both discrete-event and continuous variables. The combinatorial nature of the scheduling problem makes it difficult to solve. For such a scheduling problem, charging tanks are a type of critical resources. If the number of charging tanks is not sufficient, the scheduling problem is further complicated. This work conducts a study on the scheduling problem of crude oil operations without sufficient charging tanks. In this case, to make a refinery able to operate, a charging tank has to be in simultaneous charging and feeding to a distiller for some time, called simultaneously-charging-and-feeding (SCF mode, leading to disturbance to the oil distillation in distillers. A hybrid Petri net model is developed to describe the behavior of the system. Then, a scheduling method is proposed to find a schedule such that the SCF mode is minimally used. It is computationally efficient. An industrial case study is given to demonstrate the obtained results.

  6. Influence of operating conditions on the air gasification of dry refinery sludge in updraft gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R; Sinnathambi, C M

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, details of the equilibrium modeling of dry refinery sludge (DRS) are presented using ASPEN PLUS Simulator in updraft gasifier. Due to lack of available information in the open journal on refinery sludge gasification using updraft gasifier, an evaluate for its optimum conditions on gasification is presented in this paper. For this purpose a Taguchi Orthogonal array design, statistical software is applied to find optimum conditions for DRS gasification. The goal is to identify the most significant process variable in DRS gasification conditions. The process variables include; oxidation zone temperature, equivalent ratio, operating pressure will be simulated and examined. Attention was focused on the effect of optimum operating conditions on the gas composition of H 2 and CO (desirable) and CO 2 (undesirable) in terms of mass fraction. From our results and finding it can be concluded that the syngas (H 2 and CO) yield in term of mass fraction favors high oxidation zone temperature and at atmospheric pressure while CO 2 acid gas favor at a high level of equivalent ratio as well as air flow rate favoring towards complete combustion.

  7. Maximizing petrochemicals from refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, B.; Foley, T.; Frey, S. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    New fuel quality requirements and high growth rates for petrochemicals are providing both challenges and opportunities for refineries. A key challenge in refineries today is to improve of the value of the products from the FCC unit. In particular, light FCC naphtha and LCO are prime candidates for improved utilization. Processing options have been developed focusing on new opportunities for these traditional fuel components. The Total Petrochemicals/UOP Olefin Cracking Process cracks C4-C8 olefins to produce propylene and ethylene. This process can be integrated into FCC units running at all severity levels to produce valuable light olefins while reducing the olefin content of the light FCC naphtha. Integration of the Olefin Cracking Process with an FCC unit can be accomplished to allow a range of operating modes which can accommodate changing demand for propylene, cracked naphtha and alkylate. Other processes developed by UOP allow for upgrading LCO into a range of products including petrochemical grade xylenes, benzene, high cetane diesel and low sulfur high octane gasoline. Various processing options are available which allow the products from LCO conversion to be adjusted based on the needs and opportunities of an individual refinery, as well as the external petrochemical demand cycles. This presentation will examine recent refining and petrochemical trends and highlight new process technologies that can be used to generate additional revenue from petrochemical production while addressing evolving clean fuel demands. (orig.)

  8. Risk assessment of occupational exposure to benzene using numerical simulation in a complex geometry of a reforming unit of petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayatian, Majid; Ashrafi, Khosro; Azari, Mansour Rezazadeh; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Mehrabi, Yadollah

    2018-04-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the continuous and the sudden release of volatile organic pollutants from petroleum refineries and occupational and environmental exposures. Benzene is one of the most prevalent volatile compounds, and it has been addressed by many authors for its potential toxicity in occupational and environmental settings. Due to the complexities of sampling and analysis of benzene in routine and accidental situations, a reliable estimation of the benzene concentration in the outdoor setting of refinery using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be instrumental for risk assessment of occupational exposure. In the present work, a computational fluid dynamic model was applied for exposure risk assessment with consideration of benzene being released continuously from a reforming unit of a refinery. For simulation of benzene dispersion, GAMBIT, FLUENT, and CFD post software are used as preprocessing, processing, and post-processing, respectively. Computational fluid dynamic validation was carried out by comparing the computed data with the experimental measurements. Eventually, chronic daily intake and lifetime cancer risk for routine operations through the two seasons of a year are estimated through the simulation model. Root mean square errors are 0.19 and 0.17 for wind speed and concentration, respectively. Lifetime risk assessments of workers are 0.4-3.8 and 0.0096-0.25 per 1000 workers in stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, respectively. Exposure risk is unacceptable for the head of shift work, chief engineer, and general workers in 141 days (38.77%) in a year. The results of this study show that computational fluid dynamics is a useful tool for modeling of benzene exposure in a complex geometry and can be used to estimate lifetime risks of occupation groups in a refinery setting.

  9. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  10. Airborne concentrations of metals and total dust during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at a petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Gaffney, Shannon H; Le, Matthew H; Unice, Ken M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2012-09-01

    Workers handle catalysts extensively at petroleum refineries throughout the world each year; however, little information is available regarding the airborne concentrations and plausible exposures during this type of work. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne concentrations of 15 metals and total dust generated during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at one of the largest petroleum refineries in the world using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1989 and 2006. The total dust and metals, which included aluminum, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, silicon, silver, vanadium, and zinc, were evaluated in relation to the handling of four different types of solid catalysts associated with three major types of catalytic processes. Consideration was given to the known components of the solid catalysts and any metals that were likely deposited onto them during use. A total of 180 analytical results were included in this analysis, representing 13 personal and 54 area samples. Of the long-term personal samples, airborne concentrations of metals ranged from refinery and perhaps other modern refineries during the timeframe examined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. An investigation of the air dispersion characteristics of refinery land treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, K.R.; Zaizhong Wang; Lupo, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of air emission and dispersion of volatile organic waste constituents from the land treatment units (LTU's) of four refineries were performed using the ISCST model. Particular attention was given to benzene. In order to realistically model the area pollutant source, each LTU had to be subdivided into smaller cells and the cell concentrations summed. The emission rate of the waste from the LTU's, one of the key inputs to the dispersion model, was periodically adjusted to reflect the rapid decay in rate following waste application. Meteorological conditions were found to be significant in determining boundary concentrations. The specific meteorological conditions most favorable for dispersion were investigated. The results of these simulations showed that mixing height is only minimally important in the dispersion of wastes from LTU's as currently regulated by EPA. Wind speed and variation of wind direction were both more important in atmospheric mixing of the volatile waste. It was found that care should be exercised in attempting to correlate any single meteorological parameter with favorable periods for land treatment. In comparisons of the cases, the results suggest that differences in LTU geometry may also be important in the modeling of long-term pollutant concentrations. Model simulations were performed to ascertain the impact of LTU geometry on boundary concentration

  12. Detection of impurities in fluid flowing in refinery pipeline or oil production operations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Chlorine (from salt water) and sulphur are determined in crude oil in a well head conduit or refined product in a petroleum refinery by bombardment with neutrons and measuring the gamma rays emitted by neutron capture reactions. (U.K.)

  13. Repair procedure used in removing corroded pits in the distillation towers of the Getulio Vargas Refinery Unit 2100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lordelos, H.M.; Santin, J.L.

    1977-07-01

    A description is given of the corrosion pits on ASTM A240, Type 405 steel cladded to carbon steel plates used in Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.'s Getulio Vargas Refinery Unit 2100 distillation towers; the repair procedure used, including sand blasting of the corroded surfaces, grinding of the pits, and welding of those pits whose depth was above a maximum limit, and the use of liquid penetrant to check the repairs made; and hydrostatic testing of the T2201 catalytic cracking unit, which used also cladded metals and on which the pits were much smaller in size and number than those on the distillation units.

  14. Production of advanced biofuels: co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.; de Miguel Mercader, F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end

  15. Pyrolysis oil upgrading for Co-processing in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the route that comprises the upgrading of pyrolysis oil (produced from lingo-cellulosic biomass) and its further co-processing in standard refineries to produce transportation fuels. In the present concept, pyrolysis oil is produced where biomass is available and then

  16. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  17. Analysis of the overall energy intensity of alumina refinery process using unit process energy intensity and product ratio method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liru; Aye, Lu [International Technologies Center (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,The University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Lu, Zhongwu [Institute of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Peihong [Department of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Architecture University, Shenyang 110168 (China)

    2006-07-15

    Alumina refinery is an energy intensive industry. Traditional energy saving methods employed have been single-equipment-orientated. Based on two concepts of 'energy carrier' and 'system', this paper presents a method that analyzes the effects of unit process energy intensity (e) and product ratio (p) on overall energy intensity of alumina. The important conclusion drawn from this method is that it is necessary to decrease both the unit process energy intensity and the product ratios in order to decrease the overall energy intensity of alumina, which may be taken as a future policy for energy saving. As a case study, the overall energy intensity of the Chinese Zhenzhou alumina refinery plant with Bayer-sinter combined method between 1995 and 2000 was analyzed. The result shows that the overall energy intensity of alumina in this plant decreased by 7.36 GJ/t-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} over this period, 49% of total energy saving is due to direct energy saving, and 51% is due to indirect energy saving. The emphasis in this paper is on decreasing product ratios of high-energy consumption unit processes, such as evaporation, slurry sintering, aluminium trihydrate calcining and desilication. Energy savings can be made (1) by increasing the proportion of Bayer and indirect digestion, (2) by increasing the grade of ore by ore dressing or importing some rich gibbsite and (3) by promoting the advancement in technology. (author)

  18. 76 FR 64943 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located in Cascade County, MT AGENCY: Environmental Protection... projected future response costs concerning the ACM Smelter and Refinery NPL Site (Site), Operable Unit 1..., Helena, MT 59626. Mr. Sturn can be reached at (406) 457-5027. Comments should reference the ACM Smelter...

  19. Risk analysis of the sea desalination plant at the 5th refinery of south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, hazards in the desalination unit of a gas refinery in Asaluyeh, south of Iran was evaluated, using the PHA-PRO6 software, for which recommendations were made to avoid potential risks involved. Based on 8-years history of the refinery operation, maintenance records, accidents, safety vulnerabilities of the plant ...

  20. HDS unit revamp and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, J. [Veba Oel Verarbeitungs-GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Balfanz, U. [Aral Forschung, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Dimmig, T. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Ruhr Oel GmbH, a joint venture between BP and PDVSA, operates a HDS unit at its Gelsenkirchen-Scholven site. The unit produces a major blend component for diesel fuel. Driven by ambitious German environmental policy and by an agreement between the German car and oil industries on the one hand and the government on the other, more stringent low sulphur fuel specifications will be enforced in Germany much earlier than in the rest of the European Union. In view of this situation a project was developed to fulfill the new product specifications with minimum investment. In a joint effort involving the refinery, the company research facilities and the catalyst supplier (AKZO NOBEL), pilot plant tests were performed to develop the best catalyst system and the new process conditions. Based on these results, an existing HDS unit was accordingly revamped. After the revamp, the unit produced diesel fuel with 50 ppm sulphur content and furthermore test runs at 10 ppm were carried out successfully. These results are displayed in this article. (orig.)

  1. Petroleum refining. 5, refinery operation and management; Le raffinage du petrole. 5. Exploitation et gestion de la raffinerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favennec, J.P. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    In this volume, the reader will find: an analysis of the refining industry's current environment and economics, including the importance of crude oil, the demand for petroleum products, markets and price setting mechanisms for crude oil and oil products, refining costs and margins, the evolution of the refining capacity and of constraints on the industry; a review of the tools available for optimising and controlling operations; an explanation of material balance management and a description of refinery management and organisation. Contents: I. Background to refining. 1. Oil and Energy. 2. Petroleum products applications, characteristics, markets. 3. International oil markets. 4. Refining: a technical summary investments, margins, costs probable future developments. II. Refining tools. 5. Introduction to linear programming as used in the refining industry. 6. Application of linear programming to refining. 7. Automation, process control and information technology. 8. Applications and their implementation. III. Management and organisation. 9. Management and optimisation of refinery operations. 10. Logistics: transport and dispatch. 11. Functional and organisational analysis. 12. Managerial aspects. Glossary. Index. (author)

  2. Extra heavy oil and refinery residues upgrading through Eni Slurry Technology : first EST commercial unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, G.; Sanfilippo, D.; Amoroso, A [Eni S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    The production of heavy crude oils is projected to continue to grow in the upstream oil industry given that large reserves of unconventional extra heavy crude and bitumen exist in several geographic areas including Canada and Venezuela. As reserves of conventional crude oil continue to decline, these unconventional feedstocks are becoming an opportunity to pursue, but they require effective technologies for upgrading and meeting the growing demand for light and middle distillate fuels. This paper described the proprietary technology that offers a solution to upstream and downstream oil producers for bottom-of-the-barrel upgrading. En i Slurry Technology (EST) is constructing an industrial plant in its Sannazzaro refinery in Italy. The plant is designed to convert 23,000 BPSD of vacuum residue into high quality diesel and other valuable refinery streams such as liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha and jet fuel. EST is an H-addition process characterized by the use of a special homogeneous isothermal intrinsically safe reactor, and of a nano-dispersed non-ageing catalyst. EST converts more than 98 per cent of any type of residues to about 110 per cent volume of light products and distillates or extra heavy oils to high quality bottomless SCO. In typical performance, HDS is greater than 85 per cent, HDM greater than 99 per cent and HDCCR greater than 97 per cent. EST also achieves the target of zero fuel oil - zero coke. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  4. Refinery profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable shutting down of oil refinery capacity in response to the increasing pressures on profitability. This article examines the situation and the industry's response to it, including the drive for mergers, disposal of fuel oil, downsizing of workforces and strategic alliances. Future trends and their implications are also discussed. (UK)

  5. Thermodynamic simulation and evaluation of sugar refinery evaporators using a steady state modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, A.E.; Khodabocus, F.; Dhokun, V.; Khalife, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a sugar refinery, the juice is concentrated through evaporation, with the objective of concentrating the juice to syrup as rapidly as possible. Because the heat of vaporization of water is relatively high, the evaporation process can be highly energy intensive, and therefore the economical use of steam is important in the refinery. This paper reports on the development of a simulation model for the evaporation sections of two Mauritian sugar refineries. The first objective was to use the simulation model to carry out an energy balance over the evaporators in order to assess the economy of steam usage over the refinery. The second objective was to examine to what extent a fundamental steady state model, based on thermodynamics (not kinetics) was capable of predicting the material and energy flows in two operating sugar refineries and thereby to evaluate the applicability of the modelling framework. The simulation model was validated using historical data as well as data from the plant DCS system. The simulation results generally correlated well with the measured values, except for one of the evaporators on one refinery. Some suggestions were made as to the cause of the discrepancy. On balance, it was found that both refineries are extremely efficient in terms of steam and equipment usage and that there is not much scope for energy optimisation within the present configuration - nor for much spare steam capacity for an additional refinery. It was also shown that steady state process simulation, using thermodynamic models, can generate a very useful representation of a working refinery. Besides being able to use the model to 'benchmark' the operation and thus evaluate its performance as a whole as well as across individual units, it could also be used to evaluate refinery performance across refineries, nationally as well as globally.

  6. Taking inventory on VOC releases from Amoco's Yorktown refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.H. Jr.; Schmitt, R.E.; Harrass, M.C.; Podar, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Amoco's Yorktown, Virginia, refinery is a 35-year-old, 53,000 bbl/day facility that manufacturers gasoline, heating oil, liquid petroleum gas, sulfur, and coke. In a cooperative and voluntary effort, Amoco Corporation and the US Environmental Protection Agency conducted a joint project to study pollution prevention opportunities at an operating industrial facility. Source reduction efforts--key to pollution prevention strategies--require knowledge of specific sources of releases. However, data on releases from individual process units are limited in favor of data to monitor existing end-of-pipe pollution control requirements. The study's sampling program sought to portray the distribution of releases within the refinery, their management within the refinery, and ultimate releases leaving the refinery. Subsequent tests of blowdown stack and fugitive emissions further improved total release estimates. The initial study estimated that the refinery generates about 25,000 metric tons (t)/year of potential pollutants. Of these, about half are released from the refinery as airborne, waterborne, or land-disposed releases. Airborne releases comprise the majority of releases by mass, about 12,000 t/year. Most of the airborne releases are volatile organic compound hydrocarbons. The inventory sampling project and subsequent work identified differences with Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) values and standard emission factors (AP-42). The inventory and other data provided an opportunity to consider options for, and limitations of, specific pollution prevention or source reduction strategies

  7. Comparison of Risk Assessment Using HAZOP and ETBA Techniques: Case Study of a Gasoline Refinery Unit in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazeh Arghami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of accidents—a crucial requirement in oil industries—involves hazard recognition, risk assessment, and corrective actions. The purpose of this study was to compare the ETBA and HAZOP techniques for risk assessment in a gasoline refinery unit. Methods: In this case study, data were collected using process flow diagram, walking–talking through method, piping and instrumentation diagram, and direct observations. Worksheets for both techniques were filled on the basis of the risk assessment matrix MIL-STD-882E. Results: The HAZOP method identified 44 deviations attributable to 118 causes. In addition, 11.37% of the identified hazards were associated with unacceptable risk, and 36.36%, with unfavorable risk. The ETBA method detected 10 groups of energy (24 subgroups; 33 hazards were detected, 10.62% of which were associated with unacceptable risk. Conclusion: HAZOP proved to be the more powerful technique for the prediction and identification of hazards. However, ETBA detected certain hazards that were not identifiable using HAZOP. Therefore, a combination of these two methods is desirable for the assessment of hazard risk in process industries.

  8. How to perform Energy Trace & BarrierAnalysis (ETBA in industries? Acase study in Isomax Unit of Tehran refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Adl

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: People, equipments and properties are continuously exposed tonumerous hazards while technology develops. The global increasing rate of accidents and workrelatedinjuries, especially in Iran, is an evidence for these hazards. There are numerous methodsfor hazard analysis such as the Energy Trace & Barrier Analysis (ETBA, which is a process ofanalysis based on system safety for detecting and definition of hazards and also risks that maycause system damage.Method: This is a case study in the Isomax unit of Tehran refinery and allied section. Datecollection and completion of the ETBAsheets were conducted through observation and interviewmethod with experts, walking - talking through method, investigation of technical and operativedocuments.Results: Twelve different kinds of energy and 28 subgroups were investigated. The types ofenergies, existence barriers, vulnerable targets, risk assessment code, and adequacy of barriers aswell as recommendations for decreasing risk level through tolerable risk were identified.Conclusion: The results of this study show potential application of ETBA in different industries,especially chemical industry, which is a method for identification hazards and prevention ofwork-related injuries.

  9. Simulation of the Stabilization Unit Refinery “Hermanos Díaz” Using Aspen Hysys 8.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayset Mariño-Peacok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a study of the production of liquefied petroleum gas is carried out in the Stabilization Unit refinery “Hermanos Díaz”. Implementation of this process was conducted in the simulator Aspen Hysys 8.0 with the aim of developing a simulation that would increase the efficiency of this plant. Different alternatives are evaluated using the simulator tool Databook, as were the analysis of the temperature and pressure and its influence on the flow of the compounds of interest in the separators; the number of trays and the feed tray to the distillation column and its influence on the energy of the condenser and reboiler. It was determined that at 44°C and 160 kPa in the separator D-120 and at 34,5 °C and 738.8 kPa in the separator D-109 ensures good performance of the process. In addition it was found that with 50 trays and a feed tray 27 in the distillation tower T-104 guarantee lower consumption of energy (1,4*10 7 kJ/kmol and 1,5*107 kJ/kmol for the condenser and reboiler respectively. It was shown that an increased flow of unstabilized light naphtha fed to the plant, leads to increased efficiency of the unit. The simulation of the process led to raise the efficiency of the plant because the flow of liquefied petroleum gas increased in 11.79% to quality established.

  10. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  11. Modeling of crude oil fouling in preheat exchangers of refinery distillation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari Nasr, Mohammad Reza; Majidi Givi, Mehdi [National Petrochemical Research and Technology Company (NPC-RT), P.O. Box 14385, Tehran (Iran)

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new model for crude oil fouling in preheat exchangers of crude distillation units. The experimental results of Australian light crude oil with the tube side surface temperature between 200 and 260{sup o}C and fluid velocity ranged 0.25-0.4m/s were used [Z. Saleh, R. Sheikholeslami, A.P. Watkinson, Heat exchanger fouling by a light australian crude oil, in: Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning Fundamentals and Applications, Santa Fe, 2003]. The amount of activation energy depends on the surface temperature has been calculated. A new model including a term for fouling formation and a term for fouling removal due to chemical and tube wall shear stress was proposed, respectively. The main superiority of the model are independent to Pr number, thermal fouling removal and determination of {beta} based on experimental tests. Finally using the proposed model the fouling rate of Australian light crude oil has been calculated and the threshold curves to identify fouling and no fouling formation zones have been drawn. (author)

  12. Electron beam application for regeneration of catalysts used in refinery cracking units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Fernando Mantovani; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Calvo, Wilson Aparecido Parejo

    2013-01-01

    A catalyst is a substance that alters the rate of a reaction. The process of catalysis is essential to the modern day manufacturing industry, mainly in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process (FCC) units. However, long-term exploitation of oil and gas processing catalysts leads to formation of carbon-and sulfur-containing structures of coke and dense products on the catalyst surface. They block reactive catalyst sites and reduce the catalytic activity. The main advantage of radiation processing by electron beam (EB) and gamma rays is chain cracking reaction in crude oil. Otherwise, under exposure to ionic radiation, considerable structure modification of equilibrium silica-alumina catalyst from FCC process may occur, in addition to the removal of impurities. The conditions applied in the irradiation range (20-150 kGy) of gamma rays and electron beam were not sufficient to alter the structure of the catalyst, whether for removal of the contaminant nickel, a major contaminant of the FCC catalyst, either to rupture of the crystalline structure either for the future reutilization of chemical elements. Attenuated Total Reflectance - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRFS) analysis were used to characterize and evaluate effects of radiation processing on equilibrium catalysts purification. To evaluate and comprehend the reactive catalyst sites, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and particle size distribution analyses were carried out. (author)

  13. Aspects of petrochemistry in a fuels refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, J.; Mielicke, C.J.; Maier, T. [MIRO - Mineraloelraffinerie Oberrhein GmbH und Co. KG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Classical links between refinery and petrochemical downstream operations are light naphtha, C2-C4-Olefins and various aromatic compounds. Additionally long chain paraffines from dewaxing or even heavy residues can be interesting starting materials for petrochemistry. Some aspects of these links between refining and petrochemistry as well as their impact on refinery operation and product pools are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Computer model for refinery operations with emphasis on jet fuel production. Volume 3: Detailed systems and programming documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, D. N.; Tunnah, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The FORTRAN computing program predicts flow streams and material, energy, and economic balances of a typical petroleum refinery, with particular emphasis on production of aviation turbine fuels of varying end point and hydrogen content specifications. The program has a provision for shale oil and coal oil in addition to petroleum crudes. A case study feature permits dependent cases to be run for parametric or optimization studies by input of only the variables which are changed from the base case.

  15. Energy use in petroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, V.O.

    1976-09-01

    Refining petroleum accounts for about 4 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States and about 15 percent of all industrial consumption. The kinds of energy used and the manner in which energy is used are discussed on a process-by-process basis. Emphasis is placed on existing processes to identify and quantify process and equipment substitutions which might significantly conserve energy. General industry and process information is given and estimates of potential savings are made. A few research and development opportunities are identified and nontechnical factors are discussed. Nearly one-half the energy consumed by refineries is obtained from by-product refinery gas and coke, and about one-third is supplied by natural gas. On a regional basis, refineries were found to vary by a factor of two in the amount of energy used to refine a unit of crude oil. Refineries in regions traditionally abundant in inexpensive natural gas were found to use relatively more natural gas and energy. About 36 percent of the energy used by petroleum refineries is consumed in the distillation units to separate the refinery streams into their basic components. Including energy for manufacturing hydrogen, about 24 percent of the total is used for cracking of the heavier components. Most of the remainder is used for reforming, hydrogen treating, and alkylation, distributed about 11, 17, and 6 percent respectively. Potential energy savings discussed in this report total 61 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/yr based on 1974 capacities, a figure which represents about 20 percent of the energy consumed to refine petroleum.

  16. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko

    2012-01-01

    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  17. Proposal of a procedure of the operative program optimization of production in the petroleum refinery of PCK / Oder, Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Maily

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The blended of raw petroleum is an operation that can be optimized and it is based on a great quantity of knowledge and experience. The planning of these operations consists in obtaining a mixture of components with different properties and specification as octane, flow, level of sulfur etc., besides keeping in mind the existent capacities and the demand. This is considered important in this type of industries, since their profitability depends on finding the good mixture, due to the variability of the prices in the final products. The objective of this paper is to determine the good variant of production of the refinery PCK/Oder, Federal Republic of Germany that achieves the maximum of utilities, by means of the Parametric Lineal Programming. The preliminary validation, presents advantages in the utilities of until 4 %, in comparison with the use of the current method.

  18. Current situation of oil refinery in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershkova, Elena; Petkova, Petinka; Grinkevich, Anastasia

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with the classification approach for oil refineries in international practices. Criteria of refinery estimation group, including its financial status estimation, have been investigated. The analysis object is “Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas” AD (LNCHB) activity. This company is a leading enterprise in Bulgaria. The analysis of LNCHB operating: energy intensity index; index of operating costs and return on investment index have been performed.

  19. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  20. Feasibility study on the modernization and expansion of the Tema Oil Refinery. Executive Summary. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-04-01

    The Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), which was commissioned in 1963, is a simple hydro-skimming plant which processes crude oil into LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gasoil, and fuel oil. It is the only petroleum refinery in Ghana. Over the years some of the equipment in the refinery has deteriorated or become obsolete necessitating major rehabilitation. A study of the refinery expansion project takes into consideration earlier studies and, equally important, recognizes the extensive work done by TOR in rehabilitating the refinery. The program, carried out in phases because of funding limitations, has addressed the critical repairs and replacements in the process units and utilities necessary to prolong the life of the refinery and assure reliability and safe operation. It undertook the task of investigating the feasibility of modernizing and expanding the refinery at Tema, Ghana to meet projected market demands until the year 2005. A process planning study was conducted to select the optimal process and utility configuration which would result in economic benefits to Ghana

  1. Complexity index indicates refinery capability, value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, D.

    1996-01-01

    Refinery size usually is measured in terms of distillation capacity. Relative size, however, can be measured using refinery complexity--a concept developed by W.L. Nelson in the 1960s. Nelson developed the complexity index to quantify the relative cost of components that make up a refinery. It is a pure cost index that provides a relative measure of the construction costs of a particular refinery based on its crude and upgrading capacity. The Nelson index compares the costs of various upgrading units--such as a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit or a catalytic reformer--to the cost of a crude distillation unit. Computation of the index is an attempt to quantify the relative cost of a refinery based on the added cost of various upgrading units and the relative upgrading capacity. A review of complexity calculations, and an explanation of how indices have changed, provide a simple means of determining the complexity of single refineries or refining regions. The impact of complexity on product slate is also examined in this paper

  2. The life and times of a western refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    1998-01-01

    An historical account is given of the discovery of oil by Imperial Oil Ltd., at Leduc in 1947, and the opening of a refinery in Edmonton in 1948. The discovery at Leduc was the first major strike to be made in western Canada, but Imperial Oil did not have a refinery at the site to process the new found crude. Given the economic constraints of the postwar era, Imperial Oil decided to dismantle and move an idle and virtually brand-new refinery located at Whitehorse, Yukon. It took 10 months to reassemble the refinery at its newly prepared site at Edmonton. Regular expansions and improvements helped to ensure that the refinery kept up with the advances in technology and market demand. By the early 1970s, small refineries were becoming uneconomical as distribution of products by pipelines became possible. In 1976 Imperial Oil spent more than $300 million to consolidate its four Prairie refineries, those in Calgary, Winnipeg, Regina and Edmonton, into one large facility at the Edmonton site. The role that the refinery plays in today's community and the effort that Imperial Oil makes to comply with stringent environmental regulations were described. Today, the refinery is producing 165,000 barrels a day of fuels and lubricants and another 20,000 barrels of asphalt. The refinery supplies more than 200 different products to customers across Canada, with unit costs which are amongst the lowest of North American refineries. figs

  3. Dunkerque`s refinery. Mobil-BP-Elf: matrimonial triangle with background anxiety; Raffinerie de Dunkerque. Mobil-BP-Elf: menage a trois sur fond d`inquietude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogue, A. de

    1997-08-01

    The annual production of the Dunkerque`s refinery (France) represents 330000 t of lubricants, 16000 t of paraffins, 17000 t of wax, 34000 t of extracts, 304000 t of diesel fuel and 300000 t of bitumens. From the legal aspect, Mobil is operator of the unit which belongs to an independent company held by BP (60%) and Elf (40%). After the BP-Mobil agreement was signed, the Dunkerque`s refinery entered into new Mobil`s network of 6 lubricants refineries which represent an overall over-capacity of 400000 t/year. This over-capacity is a consequence of export limitations due to profits reduction. (J.S.)

  4. The refinery industry within the Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    During the period 1997-1998 Ome (Observatorie Mediterraneen de l'Energie) within a working group which was formed by the experts among the associated companies, has carried on an analysis on the prospects of refinery industry in the Mediterranean area in view of 2010. The aim of this study was to make clear, to the different operators, the consequences of the political choices in investments on refinery industry in the context of the progressive liberalization of the sector [it

  5. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2012-01-17

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  6. Physical protection of nuclear operational units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The general principles of and basic requirements for the physical protection of operational units in the nuclear field are established. They concern the operational units whose activities are related with production, utilization, processing, reprocessing, handling, transport or storage of materials of interest for the Brazilian Nuclear Program. (I.C.R.) [pt

  7. Junior Leader Training Development in Operational Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    UNITS Successful operational units do not arise without tough, realistic, and challenging training. Field Manual (FM) 7-0, Training Units and D...operations. The manual provides junior leaders with guidance on how to conduct training and training management. Of particular importance is the definition...1 Relation htp between ADDIE and the Anny Training Management Model. The Army Training Management Model and ADDIE process appear in TRADOC PAM 350

  8. Retrofitting refinery and petrochemical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.G.

    1988-06-01

    This article focuses on process improvements as the best way to reduce plant energy use. The emphasis on process revamp is well justified, as an energy profile for a typical refinery shows. The diagram shows that 60% of the total heat losses are in water and air cooling. Most of this heat loss results from condensing and cooling in fractionators and recycle systems, intermediate product cooling, and condensing of turbine steam. These losses, of mostly low-level heat, are tied to the basic approach previously used for the process design of existing refineries. Despite the progress to date, there is growing evidence that these heat losses can be further reduced economically by about 20-30% in most refineries and petrochemical plants. One way to reduce the losses is to increase recovery of low-level heat by improved heat exchange, which has been the subject of most publications on plant energy conservation. A better way, presented here, is to develop new process schemes that require less air/water cooling. One useful concept in developing new schemes is to concentrate on heat losses, rather than heat input, as an easier measure of proposed improvements. By an overall heat balance, eliminating a unit of energy loss is equivalent to saving a unit of heat input somewhere in the plant.

  9. Refinery siting workbook: appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop and provide basic refinery-related information for use by state and local government officials as a basis for establishing responsible refinery siting requirements and policies consistent with the federal clean air and water standards and socio-economic concerns. The report will be organized into two volumes. The main text comprises the basic topics of physical concerns, regulatory requirements, and permitting activities, while the second volume includes the detailed appendix materials such as the applicable laws, and the necessary permits, as available and a glossary of pertinent terms. As a means to this objective, three refinery sizes, 200,000, 100,000 and 30,000 barrels per day crude charge will be discussed in technical terms. Process unit configuration will be presented which will maximize either gasoline or heating oil production with either sweet or sour crude oil feedstocks. The major issues affecting the socio-economic impact of siting the refinery in a given locale will be presented. These data will review the factors affecting the human environment and the issues that must be addressed to assess the impact that a refinery will have on a community. The key federal registrations which impact upon a refinery siting decision shall be reviewed. Summaries of these regulations and a simplified decision diagram for the air and water acts shall be presented to assist both government and refinery officials in understanding the scope of regulatory impact. All pertinent procedures required for refinery permitting shall be reviewed under the generalized headings of air, water, health and safety, land use, and miscellaneous permits. This categorization at the federal, state and local levels of government shall be used as a basis for establishing degrees of emphasis.

  10. Challenges and technological opportunities for the oil refining industry: A Brazilian refinery case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelo Branco, David A.; Gomes, Gabriel L.; Szklo, Alexandre S.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide oil refining industry currently faces strong challenges related to uncertainties about future feedstock and characteristics of oil products. These challenges favor two main strategies for the sector: the first strategy is increasing refinery complexity and versatility; the second is integrating the refining and petrochemical industries, adding value to the crude oil while guaranteeing market share to premium oil products. Both strategies aim at increasing production of highly specified oil products, simultaneously reducing the environmental impacts of the refining industry. This paper analyses the case of a Brazilian refinery, Gabriel Passos Refinery (REGAP), by proposing additional investments to alter and/or expand its current production scheme. All the proposed options present relatively low investment rates of return. However, investments in a hydrocracking based configuration with a gasification unit providing hydrogen and power can further improve the operational profitability, due to reduced natural gas consumption.

  11. Analysis of hydrodynamic regimes of operation of a gas pipeline from the Samotlor field to the Nizhnevartovsk gas refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al' tshular, S A; Bragunov, N I; Ivanov, V N; Izmaylov, I Ye; Koroleva, L N

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented from studying the hydraulic losses of a gas-transport system. Oil gas in the first stage of separation of the Samotlor field according to the plan is transported on two gas pipelines to the Nizhnevartovsk and Belozersk gas refinery. On the route of the first gas pipeline in order to remove the released condensate, 12 gas-separator and condensate-settling tanks are installed. The second gas pipeline in the beginning, middle and end has asemblies for additional separation (separation (separator, drop-separator, condensate-collector). The studied material is presented in the form of the dependence of actual calculatedcoefficients of hydraulic resistance on the rate of gas supply in the range 80,000-230,000 m/sup 3//h (Re-(0.82.0) X 10/sup -6/. It has been established that with Re=1.6 X 10/sup -6/ the calculated and actual coeffic-ients of resistance become the same, while with smaller values of Re, the actual values exceed the calculated by 20-40%. In the opinion of the authors this difference is due to the effect of the liquid phase with low velocities of gas and the formation of stable foam. As a result of transillumination it was also established that the regime of flow on the ascending part is dispersion-ring and dispersion-semiring, and on the descending part stratified. Analysis of the transport of the gas-condensate stream with ring regime of flow permitted the authors to hypothesize transporting of gas without removal of the condensate. A certain increase in the coefficients of resistance for the case where the condensate is not removed from the gas pipeline is noted with experimental realization of the proposed variant. It is explained by the low velocities of gas in the beginning of the gas pipeline. It is stressed that the actual and calculated pressure differentials are distinguished less than the calculated and actual coefficients of resistance and that this indicates the practical preservation of the throughput of the gas pipeline.

  12. Nuclear units operating improvement by using operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Bilegan, I.C.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents how the information experience can be used to improve the operation of nuclear units. This areas include the following items: conservative decision making; supervisory oversight; teamwork; control room distraction; communications; expectations and standards; operator training and fundamental knowledge, procedure quality and adherence; plant status awareness. For each of these topics, the information illustrate which are the principles, the lessons learned from operating experience and the most appropriate exemplifying documents. (authors)

  13. Integrated pollution control for oil refinery complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiperstok, A. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Sharratt, P.N. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1993-12-31

    Improving environmental performance of oil refineries is a complex task. Emission limits, operating constraints, available technologies, operating techniques, and local environment sensitivity must all be considered. This work describes efforts to build an interactive software to deal with this problem. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Integrated pollution control for oil refinery complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiperstok, A [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Sharratt, P N [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1994-12-31

    Improving environmental performance of oil refineries is a complex task. Emission limits, operating constraints, available technologies, operating techniques, and local environment sensitivity must all be considered. This work describes efforts to build an interactive software to deal with this problem. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Benzene exposure in a Japanese petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T; Yamaoka, K; Uchida, Y; Ikeda, M

    1990-07-01

    Time-weighted average (TWA) intensity of exposure of workers to benzene vapor during a shift was monitored by diffusive sampling technique in a Japanese petroleum refinery. The subjects monitored (83 in total) included refinery operators, laboratory personnel and tanker-loading workers. The results showed that the time-weighted average exposures are well below 1 ppm in most cases. The highest exposure was recorded in 1 case involved in bulk loading of tanker ships, in which exposure of over 1 ppm might take place depending on operational conditions. The observation was generally in agreement with levels previously reported.

  16. Simulation of Concentrations and Dispersion of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S Due to Incinerators of Sulfur Recovery Units in a Gas Refinery in Asaluyeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Minabi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the variations of measured concentrations were consistent with those of simulated ones. Meanwhile, the contribution of neighbor industries was determined. Comparision of 8-h H2S concentrations with OSHA and NIOSH standard limits indicated that there was no significant health risk in this refinery.

  17. Unpacking Referent Units in Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Randolph A.; Hawthorne, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Although fraction operations are procedurally straightforward, they are complex, because they require learners to conceptualize different units and view quantities in multiple ways. Prospective secondary school teachers sometimes provide an algebraic explanation for inverting and multiplying when dividing fractions. That authors of this article…

  18. Preparing nuclear power plant units for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudcovic, R.; Telgarsky, K.; Kmosena, J.

    1984-01-01

    The factors are listed which have to be taken into consideration for planning the unit operation, i.e., the implementation of planned repairs, checks of equipment and refuellings. All basic input data were evaluated as the basic for drawing up the schedule of routine repairs and overhauls for the coming period. (E.S.)

  19. The miraculously saved refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, D.

    2005-01-01

    During 20 years, refining has been the weak link of the petroleum industry. This sector has always suffered from a chronical overcapacity. Today, on the contrary, there is a lack of facilities and shortage is threatening. The Reichstett refinery (Alsace, France) is the smallest French refinery. It has been several times threatened with closure but today, thanks to the increasing demand, it works at full capacity. This short paper summarizes the history of this facility and its social and environmental impact in the region. (J.S.)

  20. Operating performance of LWR nuclear generating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pia, S.

    1984-01-01

    This work aims at reviewing, on the basis of historical data, the operational problem areas which explain the degree of availability and productivity achieved up to now by nuclear power plants in commercial operation in the world. The operating performance data of nuclear power plants area analysed with respect to plant type, size and other significant reference parameters and they are evaluated also by comparison with fossil generating unit data. Major performance indices data are presented for both nuclear and fossil units type and distribution of outage causes. Unplanned full outages caused by nuclear power plant equipment and components failure are particulary emphasized. The trend for unplanned full outages due to the failure of components shows decreasing numerical values in 1981 with respect to the previous years. But this result should be weighed with the increasing plant unavailability hours needed for maintenance and repair action (chiefly preventive maintenance on critical components). This means that the number and downtime of forced outage must be drastically reduced for economic reasons (production losses and problems associated with the unavailable unit unplanned replacement) as well as for plant safe and reliable operation (sudden unavailability of key components and frequency of transients associated with plant shutdown and routine startup operation)

  1. Two refineries running crude; third to restart by September

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippee, B.

    1993-01-01

    Kuwait's downstream oil and gas industry, which sustained less damage than the country's oil field infrastructure during the Iraqi occupation of the 1990-91, has nearly completed reconstruction. Two of three refineries have resumed operations, one of them at reduced crude distillation rates. And state-owned Kuwait National Petroleum Co. hopes to put the other refinery, Shuaiba, back on stream in September, although not at preinvasion throughput rates. Major reconstruction will be complete by year end, with crude oil distillation capacity at 650,000 b/sd. Preinvasion crude capacities of Kuwait's refineries totaled 840,000 b/d. The article describes an overview of the recovery; the status of the Mina Abdulla processing plant, the Mina Al-Ahmadi refinery, and the Shuaiba refinery; modernization plans, and plans for petrochemicals

  2. 200-UP-2 operable unit radiological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes and documents the results of the radiological surveys conducted from August 17 through December 16, 1993 over a partial area of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, 200-W Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. In addition, this report explains the survey methodology of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-II) and the Ultra Sonic Ranging And Data System (USRADS). The radiological survey of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit was conducted by the Site Investigative Surveys/Environmental Restoration Health Physics Organization of the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The survey methodology for the majority of area was based on utilization of the MSCM-II or the USRADS for automated recording of the gross beta/gamma radiation levels at or near six (6) inches from the surface soil

  3. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Jan.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  4. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-07-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis.

  5. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-06-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  6. Optimization of refinery operations when uncertainty exists: Algeria's case; Optimisation des operations du raffinage en presence d'incertitudes: Cas de l'Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyoucef, Abderrezak; Lantz, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this article is to analyze the development of Algeria refinery industry when uncertainty exists, from a dynamic linear programming model. Because of the different market conditions volatility, many parameters must be able to be considered as uncertain. In our study, we treat mainly uncertainties of petroleum products demand. The model gives production levels, the units market rate and the exterior exchange of products at horizons 2030. It allows to appreciate the impact of volatility on this industry's development. [French] L'objectif de cet article est d'analyser le developpement de l'industrie algerienne du raffinage en presence d'incertitudes, a partir d'un modele de programmation lineaire dynamique. En raison de la volatilite des differentes conditions du marche, de nombreux parametres doivent pouvoir etre consideres comme incertains. Dans notre etude, nous traitons en particulier des incertitudes sur la demande des produits petroliers. Le modele fournit les niveaux de production, le taux de marche des unites et les echanges exterieurs de produits a l'horizon 2030. Il permet ainsi d'apprecier l'impact de la volatilite sur le developpement de cette industrie.

  7. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Api Energia IGCC plant is fully integrated with refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bravo, R. [api Energia, Rome (Italy); Trifilo, R. [ABB Sadelmi, Milan (Italy); Chiantore, P.V. [api anonima petroli Italiania Spa, Rome (Italy); Starace, F. [ABB Power Generation, Baden (Switzerland); O`Keefe, L.F. [Texico, White Plains (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The api Energia integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant being built at Falconara Marittima, on Italy`s Adriatic coast, is one of the three IGCC plants under construction in Italy following the liberalization of the electricity production sector. The plant will take 59.2 t/h of high sulphur heavy oil produced by the Falconara refinery, convert it to syngas and use the gas to generate 280 MW of electricity, plus steam and other gases for use in the refinery. The IGCC plant will be highly integrated into the refining process, with a large number of interchanges between the IGCC unit and the rest of the refinery. (author)

  9. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Valve automation in Indian refinery; Armaturenautomatisierung in indischer Raffinerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbstritt, M. [AUMA Riester GmbH und Co. KG, Muellheim (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    The Mahul refinery near Mumbai is the third largest site of its kind in India. It is operated by BPCL, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. During the last few months, the refinery was extended. A plant for manufacturing motor lubricants was built, together with a tank farm for the products (LOBS = lube oil base stock). In April 2006 the new plant sections were put into operation. This article deals with the valve automation for this project. (orig.)

  11. Amoco/Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown refinery. Refinery release inventory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Kizier, G.J.; Baloo, S.; Hockman, E.L.; Couzens-Roberts, C.

    1992-07-01

    The report volume summarizes physical data obtained during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A multi-media sampling program was used to identify potential pollution sources within the Refinery. Sampling and analysis included air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste data. Public perceptions about environmental issues of concern in the vicinity of the Refinery were also surveyed. The inventory showed that nearly 99 percent of the releases were airborne at the facility. Most of the remainder involved land disposal of solid wastes. Specific sources of major pollutants are identified

  12. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  13. Yugoslavian Petroleum Refinery development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocic, Ozren

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the analysis of the world petroleum industry development, being an important factor in planning the development of the Yugoslav petroleum industry and Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, as well. Then Yugoslav petroleum industry development is analysed, including the appropriate balances of crude oil production and crude oil products consumption. The way of realizing the basic targets are also proposed. Likewise, the analysis of the condition within West European refineries has been conducted, from the aspects of technology, energy consumption and environmental protection and the same analysis for Pancevo Petroleum Refinery has been presented, too. The analysis of the condition within the refineries in the European Union countries and comparing it with the condition within Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, makes it mainly possible to recognize the development programmes which should be realized in order that Pancevo Petroleum Refinery could reach the refining level of the EU countries. (Original)

  14. Oil refining in a CO2 constrained world: Effects of carbon pricing on refineries globally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.; Arfaj, Abdullah; Babiker, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Six aggregated refinery linear programming (LP) models were developed to represent actual refineries in North America, Latin America, Europe (including the CIS), Middle East, Asia (excluding China) and China. The models were used to conduct regional comparative assessments and to evaluate the effects of carbon pricing on refinery operations globally. We found that the average refinery energy efficiencies for the regions were estimated to range from 92.2% to 95.2%. The well-to-refinery gate carbon intensities for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels were estimated to be 17.1 (16.4–19.4), 13.3 (12.5–14.2) and 10.1 (9.6–10.8) gCO2eq/MJ, respectively. If refineries are forced to at least meet the 2014 regional volume demands for oil products, pricing CO 2 would not have an impact on either refinery productions, efficiency or emissions. If refineries are allowed to re-optimize production slates to reduce CO 2 emissions, refineries would opt to increase gasoline yield at the expense of diesel. This is counter intuitive since gasoline has a higher carbon intensity than diesel. The refinery bias against dieselization creates a supply preference toward a less efficient transportation end use. Here, we argue that if carbon pricing is not administered properly, this can lead to emissions leakage from refineries to the road transport sector. - Highlights: • Investigate actual refinery productions in 6 regions globally. • Refineries already operate at the most efficient levels. • Complex refineries tolerate higher CO 2 prices better. • Carbon pricing induces bias against dieselization. • Identify potential emissions leakage.

  15. Refinery evaluation of optical imaging to locate fugitive emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Donald R; Luke-Boone, Ronke; Aggarwal, Vineet; Harris, Buzz; Anderson, Eric; Ranum, David; Kulp, Thomas J; Armstrong, Karla; Sommers, Ricky; McRae, Thomas G; Ritter, Karin; Siegell, Jeffrey H; Van Pelt, Doug; Smylie, Mike

    2007-07-01

    Fugitive emissions account for approximately 50% of total hydrocarbon emissions from process plants. Federal and state regulations aiming at controlling these emissions require refineries and petrochemical plants in the United States to implement a Leak Detection and Repair Program (LDAR). The current regulatory work practice, U.S. Environment Protection Agency Method 21, requires designated components to be monitored individually at regular intervals. The annual costs of these LDAR programs in a typical refinery can exceed US$1,000,000. Previous studies have shown that a majority of controllable fugitive emissions come from a very small fraction of components. The Smart LDAR program aims to find cost-effective methods to monitor and reduce emissions from these large leakers. Optical gas imaging has been identified as one such technology that can help achieve this objective. This paper discusses a refinery evaluation of an instrument based on backscatter absorption gas imaging technology. This portable camera allows an operator to scan components more quickly and image gas leaks in real time. During the evaluation, the instrument was able to identify leaking components that were the source of 97% of the total mass emissions from leaks detected. More than 27,000 components were monitored. This was achieved in far less time than it would have taken using Method 21. In addition, the instrument was able to find leaks from components that are not required to be monitored by the current LDAR regulations. The technology principles and the parameters that affect instrument performance are also discussed in the paper.

  16. Refinery Upgrading of Hydropyrolysis Oil From Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Swanson, Dan [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); McLeod, Celeste [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Del Paggio, Alan [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Urade, Vikrant [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Rao, Madhusudhan [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Narasimhan, Laxmi [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Gephart, John [Johnson Timber, Hayward, WI (United States); Starr, Jack [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Hahn, John [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Stover, Daniel [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Parrish, Martin [Valero, San Antonio, TX (United States); Maxey, Carl [Valero, San Antonio, TX (United States); Shonnard, David [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Handler, Robert [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Fan, Jiquig [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2015-08-31

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be converted to bio-oils containing less than 10% oxygen by a hydropyrolysis process. Hydropyrolysis is the first step in Gas Technology Institute’s (GTI) integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion IH2®. These intermediate bio-oils can then be converted to drop-in hydrocarbon fuels using existing refinery hydrotreating equipment to make hydrocarbon blending components, which are fully compatible with existing fuels. Alternatively, cellulosic or woody biomass can directly be converted into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels containing less than 0.4% oxygen using the IH2 process located adjacent to a refinery or ethanol production facility. Many US oil refineries are actually located near biomass resources and are a logical location for a biomass to transportation fuel conversion process. The goal of this project was to work directly with an oil refinery partner, to determine the most attractive route and location for conversion of biorenewables to drop in fuels in their refinery and ethanol production network. Valero Energy Company, through its subsidiaries, has 12 US oil refineries and 11 ethanol production facilities, making them an ideal partner for this analysis. Valero is also part of a 50- 50 joint venture with Darling Ingredients called Diamond Green Diesel. Diamond Green Diesel’s production capacity is approximately 11,000 barrels per day of renewable diesel. The plant is located adjacent to Valero’s St Charles, Louisiana Refinery and converts recycled animal fats, used cooking oil, and waste corn oil into renewable diesel. This is the largest renewable diesel plant in the U.S. and has successfully operated for over 2 years For this project, 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oil from wood and 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oils from corn stover were produced. The hydropyrolysis oil produced had 4-10% oxygen. Metallurgical testing of hydropyrolysis liquids was completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratories (Oak Ridge) and showed the

  17. Ranking environmental liabilities at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new computer model is available to allow the management of a petroleum refinery to prioritize environmental action and construct a holistic approach to remediation. A large refinery may have numerous solid waste management units regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as well as process units that emit hazardous chemicals into the environment. These sources can impact several environmental media, potentially including the air, the soil, the groundwater, the unsaturated zone water, and surface water. The number of chemicals of concern may be large. The new model is able to rank the sources by considering the impact of each chemical in each medium from each source in terms of concentration, release rate, and a weighted index based on toxicity. In addition to environmental impact, the sources can be ranked in three other ways: (1) by cost to remediate, (2) by environmental risk reduction caused by the remediation in terms of the decreases in release rate, concentration, and weighted index, and (3) by cost-benefit, which is the environmental risk reduction for each source divided by the cost of the remedy. Ranking each unit in the refinery allows management to use its limited environmental resources in a pro-active strategic manner that produces long-term results, rather than in reactive, narrowly focused, costly, regulatory-driven campaigns that produce only short-term results

  18. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

  19. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  20. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites

  1. Integrated refinery waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Y -S [ETG Environmental, Inc., Blue Bell, PA (US); Sheehan, W J [Separation and Recovery Systems, Inc., Irvine, CA (US)

    1992-01-01

    In response to the RCRA land ban regulations and TC rule promulgated by the U.S. Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1988-1990, an Integrated Refinery Waste Management (IRWM) program has been developed to provide cost-effective solutions to petroleum industry customers. The goal of IRWM is to provide technology based remediation treatment services to manage sludges and wastewaters generated from the oil refining processes, soils contaminated with petroleum distillates and groundwater contaminated with fuels. Resource recovery, volume reduction and waste minimization are the primary choices to mitigate environmental problems. Oil recovery has been performed through phase separation (such as centrifugation and filtration) and heating of heavy oils. Volume reduction is achieved by dewatering systems such as centrifuges and filter presses, and low temperature thermal treatment. Waste minimization can be accomplished by bioremediation and resource recovery through a cement kiln. (Author).

  2. Economic forces push down selling prices of U.S. refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Recent data on US refinery sales reveal that selling prices have continued to decline in the 1990s. Reasons for this decrease include increased plant investments to meet regulatory requirements, excess refining capacity, increased imports of refined products, and reduced margins. While these expenditures enable a refinery to continue operating, they do not make the refinery more profitable or valuable. Other factors contributing to reduced selling prices of US refineries are: declining local crude production; unstable crude costs; increased energy conservation; growing competition from alternative fuels

  3. Industrial application of gasoline aromatization and desulfurization technology in Hohhot refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zixia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasoline aromatization and desulfurization (GARDES technology is extensively used in refineries of Petrochina, aiming to produce high quality ultraclean fluid catalytic cracking (FCC gasoline. This article introduces the industrial application results on the hydrodesulfurization unit of the Hohhot refinery, which plays an important role in guiding next round gasoline upgrading. The characteristics and the principle of GARDES technology were elaborated by analyzing the distribution of sulfur and hydrocarbon compounds in the feed and product. The analysis results proved that the presence of broad ranged sulfur types in the feed can be removed at different stages. Olefin can be decreased by saturation and conversion into i-paraffins and aromatics. The sulfur content of the blend product can be limited under 10 mg/kg, showing GARDES technology has excellent sulfur removal ability. The olefin reduction can also satisfy the ever-increasing severe requirement about the olefin limitation, while the loss of research octane number (RON can be minimized to an acceptable level. Furthermore, according to the demand of gasoline upgrading, GARDES technology has great flexibility by adjusting operation condition without any further investment, which brings more economic benefits for refinery.

  4. 2014 Highlights of Ferry Operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Based on information provided by operators who responded to the 2014 National Census of Ferry Operators (NCFO), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) conservatively estimates that ferries in the United States carried just over 115 million pas...

  5. Catalytic hydrotreatment of refinery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The object of the project is to produce liquid hydrocarbons by the catalytic hydroprocessing of solid refinery wastes (hard pitches) in order to improve the profitability of deep conversion processes and reduce the excess production of heavy fuels. The project was mostly carried out on the ASVAHL demonstration platform site, at Solaize, and hard pitches were produced primarily by deasphalting of atmospheric or vacuum distillation residues. The project includes two experimental phases and an economic evaluation study phase. In phase 1, two granular catalysts were used to transform pitch into standard low sulphur fuel oil: a continuously moving bed, with demetallation and conversion catalyst; a fixed bed, with hydrorefining catalyst. In phase 2 of the project, it was proven that a hydrotreatment process using a finely dispersed catalyst in the feedstock, can, under realistic operating conditions, transform with goods yields hard pitch into distillates that can be refined through standard methods. In phase 3 of the project, it was shown that the economics of such processes are tightly linked to the price differential between white and black oil products, which is expected to increase in the future. Furthermore, the evolution of environmental constraints will impel the use of such methods, thus avoiding the coproduction of polluting solid residues.

  6. Refinery boom in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruson, J.F.; Virondaud, C.

    1996-01-01

    The Asia demand for oil is increasing dramatically, particularly in the non OECD countries, which represent, today more than 15 % of the world oil market. The expected economic growth in these areas should contribute to a rise in oil demand by about 5.4 per year and hence to a significant increase of this share to 25 % in 2010; virtually a large part of this evolution will come from the transportation sector. The proceeding investments of the regional, refining industry are very high (some evaluations come to around 140 billion of dollars), all the more the protection of the environment takes an increasing significant place. Accordingly the most important challenge to be taken up by these countries will be to mobilize long term fundings to develop and adapt the capabilities of the refineries to meet the growth of gasoline and gas oil demand. The contribution of private operators or capital will be necessary, but will depend strongly on refining margin improvement and on progress of free market areas announced by several countries. (authors)

  7. Occupational health experience with a contractor uranium refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heatherton, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents information related to the occupational exposure of workers in uranium refinery operations at the Feed Materials Production Center since 1958. Included are: a brief history of the FMPC; a description of the operations and the principal sources of exposure; airborne uranium, urinary excretion, in vivo monitoring and tissue analysis data; and some observations regarding the exposure and health status of employees

  8. Analysis of Serbian Military Riverine Units Capability for Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Radojevic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses required personnel, training capacities and equipment for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations with the riverine elements. In order to meet necessary capabilities for engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations, Serbian military riverine units have to be compatible with the issued UN requirements. Serbian Armed Forces have the potential to reach such requirements with the River Flotilla as a pivot for the participation in UN missions. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational and training program in accordance with the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses. Serbian Military Academy has opportunities for education and training military riverine units for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations. Moreover, Serbia has Multinational Operations Training Center and Peacekeeping Operations Center certified to provide selection, training, equipping and preparations of individuals and units to the United Nations multinational operations.

  9. UNITED STATES SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES IN AFRICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    hundreds of traditional African religions associated with the plethora of tribal groups as well as large populations of Muslims, primarily in the...engagement, and the complexities of the African continent, Special Operations Forces (SOF) are uniquely suited to further those interests. Additionally...protecting access to abundant strategic resources, fostering integration into the global economy, and empowering Africans and their partners to deal

  10. Benchmarking of refinery emissions performance : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    This study was undertaken to collect emissions performance data for Canadian and comparable American refineries. The objective was to examine parameters that affect refinery air emissions performance and develop methods or correlations to normalize emissions performance. Another objective was to correlate and compare the performance of Canadian refineries to comparable American refineries. For the purpose of this study, benchmarking involved the determination of levels of emission performance that are being achieved for generic groups of facilities. A total of 20 facilities were included in the benchmarking analysis, and 74 American refinery emission correlations were developed. The recommended benchmarks, and the application of those correlations for comparison between Canadian and American refinery performance, were discussed. The benchmarks were: sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate, volatile organic compounds, ammonia and benzene. For each refinery in Canada, benchmark emissions were developed. Several factors can explain differences in Canadian and American refinery emission performance. 4 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Operational experience in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronow, W.S.

    1977-01-01

    In the UK there are 26 Magnox reactors and 4 AGRs operating on 11 licensed sites; a further 6 AGRs are under construction on 2 additional and one of the existing sites. The arrangements by which the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive, carries out its regulatory functions at operating nuclear power plants are described. The range of activities undertaken is described with special reference being made to the biennial shutdowns for approved maintenance and inspections which are required by conditions attached to the site licence. The other means by which the continuing safety of these power reactors is assured are explained and include the relationship with the licensee's own Nuclear Safety Committee, approved arrangements for modifications to plant systems or components which have importance for safety and long term reviews of safety aspects. (author)

  12. Planning and scheduling for petroleum refineries using mathematical programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the development and solution of nonlinear and mixed-integer (MIP optimization models for real-world planning and scheduling problems in petroleum refineries. Firstly, we present a nonlinear planning model that represents a general refinery topology and allows implementation of nonlinear process models as well as blending relations. The optimization model is able to define new operating points, thus increasing the production of the more valuable products and simultaneously satisfying all specification constraints. The second part addresses scheduling problems in oil refineries, which are formulated as MIP optimization models and rely on both continuous and discrete time representations. Three practical applications closely related to the current refinery scenario are presented. The first one addresses the problem of crude oil inventory management of a refinery that receives several types of crude oil delivered exclusively by a single oil pipeline. Subsequently, two optimization models intended to define the optimal production policy, inventory control and distribution are proposed and solved for the fuel oil and asphalt plant. Finally, the planning model of Moro et al. (1998 is extended in order to sequence decisions at the scheduling level in the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG area for maximization of the production of petrochemical-grade propane and product delivery.

  13. Energy saving in refineries and petrochemical complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, L

    1975-01-01

    Possible measures applicable in the design of refineries and petrochemical complexes, to effect energy savings were investigated. This was not limited to the single process unit problems, on the contrary the attention is mainly addressed to the identification of the interrelations between different units, emphasizing possible integrations. Particularly, the optimization of the pressure levels and number of the utility networks for steam distribution inside plant facilities, is considered, in order to maximize heat recovery in the process units, and electric power production in the central steampower generation plant. A computer program of general application, based on profitability evaluation at various fuel oil prices and different project configurations, has been developed for these purposes. The general measures applicable within certain limits are then briefly examined. The task of the process engineer is discussed in the perspective of the ''energy saving'' goal.

  14. Fiscal 1999 feasibility study on energy conservation at Novo-oil refinery in Ufa City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-31

    An energy conservation plan was examined for Novo oil refinery of Bashneftechim Company in Ufa City, Bashkortstan, Russia for the purpose of making the plan tied to the COP3 joint implementation. The objective units in the study include an atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit with throughput of 7.8 million tons/year, a visbreaker and a vacuum gas oil hydrodesulfurization unit (for feedstock of FCC in Lenin Refinery), and a catalytic cracking unit, for example. Energy conservation measures are improvement and revamping of heating furnace to control excess air ratio in furnace, installation of air pre-heater or heat recovery boiler to recover heat from exhaust gas of heating furnace, additional installation of heat exchangers to recover heat from product oils, and efficiency improvement of overall operation by modernization of instrumentation and controlling equipment. The policy is not complete rebuilding of the facilities but utilizing the existing facilities by improving energy efficiency as far as possible. The study shows that investment for energy saving will be recovered within 3-6 years in many cases while total investment is estimated to be 1.5-3.0 billion yen. Total reduction of fuel consumption will be 500-800 million yen. Yearly reduction of CO2 emission will amount to 0.29 million tons (23%). (NEDO)

  15. Unit costs of waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics

  16. Fast reactor operation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.R.; Cissel, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    Of the many American facilities dedicated to fast reactor technology, six qualify as liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors. All of these satisfy the following criteria: an unmoderated neutron spectrum, highly enriched fuel material, substantial heat production, and the use of a liquid metal coolant. These include the following: EBR-I Clementine, LAMPRE, EBR-II, EFFBR, and SEFOR. Collectively, these facilities encompassed all of the more important features of liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor technology. Coolant types ranged from mercury in Clementine, to NaK in EBR-I, and sodium in the others. Fuels included enriched-uranium metallic alloys in EBR-I, EBR-II, and EFFBR; metallic plutonium in Clementine; molten plutonium alloy in LAMPRE; and a mixed UO 2 -PuO 2 ceramic in SEFOR. Heat removal techniques ranged from air-blast cooling in LAMPRE and SEFOR; steam-electrical generation in EBR-I, EBR-II, and EFFBR; to a mercury-to-water heat dump in Clementine. Operational experience with such diverse systems has contributed heavily to the U.S. Each of the six systems is described from the viewpoints of purpose, history, design, and operation. Attempts are made to limit descriptive material to the most important features and to refer the reader to a few select references if additional information is needed

  17. Solid waste management : a case study of National Refinery Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, A.H.; Syed, Z.R. [National Refinery Ltd., Karachi (Pakistan); NED Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2000-07-01

    A study was conducted to quantify and classify the waste generated at the National Refinery Limited (NRL). This refinery, located in Karachi, Pakistan, produces naphtha, motor gasoline, diesel, kerosene and lubricating oils and much more. Various units such as crude oil storage, thermal cracking, catalytic cracking and others were surveyed to assess the source and nature of the pollution. It was found that the major contributor to air pollution was the sulfur released through the burning of fuel oil during day-to-day operations. It was determined that approximately 2000 metric tons of solid waste were produced each day, along with 0.55 million gallons of waste water. In addition, sulfur, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were also released in the atmosphere. The solid waste was composed of municipal waste, sludges from the API and other discarded materials. The authors then proceeded to determine the heavy metals contents in samples obtained from combined sludge dumping areas on the premises. The sludges contained sulfur (0-1.26 wt per cent), lead (0-0.156 wt per cent), iron (0.01-3.4 wt per cent), chromium (0-0.159 per cent), copper (0-0.05 wt per cent), cadmium (0-0.0034 wt per cent), nickel (0-0.168 wt per cent), and manganese (0.0015-0.0776 wt per cent). It was recommended that hazardous and non-hazardous wastes be segregated, that a separate feasibility study be undertaken to determine the best possible course of action to dispose of solid waste, and that government guidelines be established on the same topic. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Analysis of operating reliability of WWER-1000 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortlik, J.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear power unit was divided into 33 technological units. Input data for reliability analysis were surveys of operating results obtained from the IAEA information system and certain indexes of the reliability of technological equipment determined using the Bayes formula. The missing reliability data for technological equipment were used from the basic variant. The fault tree of the WWER-1000 unit was determined for the peak event defined as the impossibility of reaching 100%, 75% and 50% of rated power. The period was observed of the nuclear power plant operation with reduced output owing to defect and the respective time needed for a repair of the equipment. The calculation of the availability of the WWER-1000 unit was made for different variant situations. Certain indexes of the operating reliability of the WWER-1000 unit which are the result of a detailed reliability analysis are tabulated for selected variants. (E.S.)

  19. An Appraisal Of The Operation And Management Of Unit Trust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Appraisal Of The Operation And Management Of Unit Trust Schemes In Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... instead of being invested in shares or in money market instruments as a result of widespread financial illiteracy.

  20. Refineries in Europe under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdershoven, C.

    2008-01-01

    Current oil price developments and the economic and financial crisis are leading to a negative situation for the European refining sector. Analysts expect that a number of European oil refineries will lower their production in the coming months as a result of decreased petrol demand. [mk] [nl

  1. Initial startup and operations of Yonggwang Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, T.J.; Chari, D.R.; Kiraly, F.

    1996-01-01

    A significant milestone in the nuclear power industry was achieved in 1995, when Yonggwang (YGN) Units 3 and 4 were accepted into in commercial operation by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). YGN Unit 3 was accepted into commercial operation on March 31, 1995, the original date established during project initiation. YGN Unit 4 was accepted into operation on January 1, 1996, 3 months ahead of schedule. Each YGN unit produces approximately 1,050 Mwe and supplies approximately ten percent of the total electric power demand in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The overall plant efficiency is approximately 37% which is at least 1% higher than most nuclear units. Since achieving commercial operation, YGN Unit 3 has operated at essentially full power which has resulted in an annual performance rate in excess of 85%. YGN Unit 3 is the first of six pressurized water reactors which are currently under design and construction in the ROK and serves as the reference design for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant program. Both YGN Units 3 and 4 include a System 800 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS). The NSSS is rated at 2,815 Mwth and is the ABB-CE standard design. The design includes numerous advanced design features which enhance plant safety, performance and operability. A well executed startup test program was successfully completed on both units prior to commercial operation. A summary of the YGN NSSS design features, the startup test program and selected test results demonstrating the performance of those features are presented in this paper

  2. Stability Analysis for Operation of DG Units in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mehrasa, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multifunction control strategy for the stable operation of Distributed Generation (DG) units during grid integration. The proposed control model is based on Direct Lyapunov Control (DLC) theory and provides a stable region for the appropriate operation of DG units during grid....... Application of this concept can guarantee to reduce the stress on the grid during the energy demand peak. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and performance of the proposed DLC technique in DG technology....

  3. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  4. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  5. Refinery expansion and upgrading: Trends and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Much of the world's reserves of heavy, high sulfur crude oil are located in the western hemisphere. One may look from north to south and find these types of crudes. in Canada, there are the vast deposits of tar sands and other heavy oils. In the United States we find heavy, high sulfur crude in California's San joaquin Valley, the Rockies' shale oil deposits and in other areas. Moving south, Mexico's Maya crude is well known to refiners, as are the heavy crudes of Venezuela's Orinoco Belt. On the other hand, many refineries outside the United States are limited in their ability to handle heavy, high sulfur crudes either because of metallurgy or processing configurations

  6. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9x10 -5

  7. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study (FS) examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred altemative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965-1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-:levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228 and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9 x 10 5

  8. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9{times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  9. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units Testing Plans and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert G.; Notardonato, William U.; Currin, Kelly M.; Orozco-Smith, Evelyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant loading operations with their associated flight and ground systems are some of the most complex, critical activities in launch operations. Consequently, these systems and operations account for a sizeable portion of the life cycle costs of any launch program. NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite advances in cryogenics, system health management and command and control technologies. This project was developed to mature, integrate and demonstrate advancement in the current state of the art in these areas using two distinct integrated ground operations demonstration units (GODU): GODU Integrated Refrigeration and Storage (IRAS) and GODU Autonomous Control

  10. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region

  11. 200-UP-2 Operable Unit technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deford, D.H.

    1991-02-01

    This report is prepared in support of the development of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit by EBASCO Environmental, Incorporated. It provides a technical baseline of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit and results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Technical Baseline Report is based on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, Hanford Site drawings and photographs and is supplemented with Hanford Site inspections and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted. Each waste site in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit consists of liquid-waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, U Plant operations in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The ''U Plant'' refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separations facility constructed during World War 2. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO 3 ) Plant, which was constructed at the same time and, like the 221-U Process Canyon Building, was later converted for other missions. Waste sites in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit are associated with the U Plant Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission that occurred between 1952 and 1958 and the UO 3 Plant's ongoing uranium oxide mission and include one or more cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, waste vaults, and the lines and encasements that connect them. 11 refs., 1 tab

  12. Operation and Maintenance Plan for the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, K.M.

    1996-09-01

    This document is the operation and maintenance plan for the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit. The purpose of this plan is to identify tasks necessary to verify the effectiveness of the selected alternative. This plan also describes the monitoring program and administrative tasks that will be used as the preferred alternative for the remediation of groundwater in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit. The preferred alternative selected for remediation of groundwater consists of institutional controls

  13. Identification and Assessment of Human Error Due to design in damagingto the Sour Water Equipment and SRP Unit of Control Room in A Refinery Plant using SHERPA Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: To prevent and control occurring each of the identified errors and to limit the consequences of them, appropriate counter measures such as proper control measures in the form of changes in design, including install the appropriate colored tag, digital indicator and warning lights which must be used base on the kind of system consequently, of this study showed that SHEPA can be an efficientmethod to study humanness in operational site.

  14. Joint refinery selenium treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, C.L.; Folwarkow, S.

    1993-01-01

    The San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board recently established mass limits on discharges of selenium to the San Francisco Bay from several petroleum refineries. The refineries had been working independently to develop control strategies, including both source control and treatment options, for removal of selenium from their discharges. By January 1992, over fifty different combinations of treatment technologies, wastewater streams, and pretreatment steps had been investigated to determine their effectiveness and feasibility as selenium removal processes. No treatment process studied could achieve the required mass limits without serious negative environmental consequences, such as generation of large amounts of hazardous sludge. To better facilitate the development of a feasible selenium treatment process, the six Bay Area refineries shared results of their studies and identified several technologies that, with further work, could be developed further. This additional work is currently being carried out as part of a joint selenium treatability study sponsored by the Western States Petroleum Association. A review of the previous source control and treatment studies, along with a description of the current treatability studies will be discussed

  15. Analysis on Isolation Condenser Operation by Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident resulted in the core damage in three reactors and the release of considerable amount of radioactive material to the environment, not to mention significant social impact and anti-nuclear atmosphere all around the world. This paper provides a review of the findings related to shift operators' operation of the isolation condenser in Unit 1 to examine shift operators' response to the situation. Based on the review of the findings, a situation assessment model was developed to analyze shift operators' understanding on whether core cooling was successfully performed in Unit 1 through the operation of isolation condenser. It was found that lack of information could be one of the main causes for the failure in core cooling by the IC in Unit 1. It is also recommended that the differences in the mathematical model for the situation assessment and that of the real operator need to be further investigated

  16. Analysis on Isolation Condenser Operation by Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident resulted in the core damage in three reactors and the release of considerable amount of radioactive material to the environment, not to mention significant social impact and anti-nuclear atmosphere all around the world. This paper provides a review of the findings related to shift operators' operation of the isolation condenser in Unit 1 to examine shift operators' response to the situation. Based on the review of the findings, a situation assessment model was developed to analyze shift operators' understanding on whether core cooling was successfully performed in Unit 1 through the operation of isolation condenser. It was found that lack of information could be one of the main causes for the failure in core cooling by the IC in Unit 1. It is also recommended that the differences in the mathematical model for the situation assessment and that of the real operator need to be further investigated.

  17. Operational behaviour of WWER nuclear power units after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milivojevic, S.; Spasojevic, D.

    2000-01-01

    The indicators of effectiveness of WWER operation, in 1987-1998 were analyzed. For three groups of nuclear units (WWER, NPP Kozloduy, NPP Paks), the trends of Indicators flow were established. The comparative analysis of forced outage rate, and load factor of WWERs and nuclear units all in the world was carried out; it gives the general picture of accident influence on the states and the relations of these indicators in considered period (author)

  18. On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    to retain operational context. Moreover, times noted in the text have been adjusted from Greenwich Mean Time (“ Zulu ”) to local Kuwait time (+ 3...TF 1-64 AR unit history is composed of short narratives for each subordinate unit. Most cite times in zulu . 34. Ibid. 35. Ibid. Numbers of enemy...places in the world. Inside the city cemetery is the Tomb of Ali, son-in-law and cousin to Mohammed and founder of the Shiite sect. Coalition leaders

  19. Large scale and long term application of bioslurping: the case of a Greek petroleum refinery site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, E; Aivalioti, M

    2007-11-19

    This paper presents the course and the remediation results of a 4-year application of bioslurping technology on the subsurface of a Greek petroleum refinery, which is still under full operation and has important and complicated subsurface contamination problems, mainly due to the presence of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL). About 55 wells are connected to the central bioslurping unit, while a mobile bioslurping unit is also used whenever and wherever is necessary. Moreover, there are about 120 additional wells for the monitoring of the subsurface of the facilities that cover a total area of 1,000,000 m(2). An integrated monitoring program has also been developed and applied on the site, including frequent LNAPL layer depth and thickness measurements, conduction of bail-down and recovery tests, sampling and chemical analysis of the free oil phase, etc., so as to evaluate the remediation technique's efficiency and ensure a prompt tracing of any new potential leak. Despite the occurrence of new leaks within the last 4 years and the observed entrapment of LNAPL in the vadoze zone, bioslurping has managed to greatly restrict the original plume within certain and relatively small parts of the refinery facilities.

  20. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Technologies to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions at North American Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motazedi, Kavan; Abella, Jessica P; Bergerson, Joule A

    2017-02-07

    A petroleum refinery model, Petroleum Refinery Life-cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM), that estimates energy use and CO 2 emissions was modified to evaluate the environmental and economic performance of a set of technologies to reduce CO 2 emissions at refineries. Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), carbon capture at fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) units, and alternative hydrogen production technologies were considered in the analysis. The results indicate that a 3-44% reduction in total annual refinery CO 2 emissions (2-24% reductions in the CO 2 emissions on a per barrel of crude oil processed) can be achieved in a medium conversion refinery that processes a typical U.S. crude slate obtained by using the technologies considered. A sensitivity analysis of the quality of input crude to a refinery, refinery configuration, and prices of natural gas and electricity revealed how the magnitude of possible CO 2 emissions reductions and the economic performance of the mitigation technologies can vary under different conditions. The analysis can help inform decision making related to investment decisions and CO 2 emissions policy in the refining sector.

  1. 200-BP-5 operable unit Technical Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, I.D.; Kent, S.K.

    1991-10-01

    This report supports development of a remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The report summarizes baseline information for waste sites and unplanned release sites located in the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The sites were investigated by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The investigation consisted of review and evaluation of current and historical Hanford Site reports, drawings, and photographs, and was supplemented with recent inspections of the Hanford Site and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted

  2. Implementation of Active Learning Method in Unit Operations II Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'mun, Sholeh

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Active Learning Method which requires students to take an active role in the process of learning in the classroom has been applied in Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia for Unit Operations II subject in the Even Semester of Academic Year 2015/2016. The purpose of implementation of the learning method is to assist students in achieving competencies associated with the Unit Operations II subject and to help in creating...

  3. Treatment and disposal of refinery sludges: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, J K; Shekdar, A V

    2003-06-01

    Crude oil is a major source of energy and feedstock for petrochemicals. Oily sludge, bio-sludge and chemical sludge are the major sludges generated from the processes and effluent treatment plants of the refineries engaged in crude oil refining operations. Refineries in India generate about 28,220 tons of sludge per annum. Various types of pollutants like phenols, heavy metals, etc. are present in the sludges and they are treated as hazardous waste. Oily sludge, which is generated in much higher amount compared to other sludges, contains phenol (90-100 mg/kg), nickel (17-25 mg/kg), chromium (27-80 mg/kg), zinc (7-80 mg/kg), manganese (19-24 mg/kg), cadmium (0.8-2 mg/kg), copper (32-120 mg/kg) and lead (0.001-0.12 mg/ kg). Uncontrolled disposal practices of sludges in India cause degradation of environmental and depreciation of aesthetic quality. Environmental impact due to improper sludge management has also been identified. Salient features of various treatment and disposal practices have been discussed. Findings of a case study undertaken by the authors for Numaligarh Refinery in India have been presented. Various system alternatives have been identified for waste management in Numaligarh Refinery. A ranking exercise has been carried out to evaluate the alternatives and select the appropriate one. A detailed design of the selected waste management system has been presented.

  4. Operational safety experience reporting in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfield, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Licensees of nuclear power plants in the United States have many reporting requirements included in their technical specifications and the code of federal regulations, title 10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commisson receives these reports and utilizes them in its regulatory program. Part of this usage includes collecting and publishing this operating experience data in various reports and storing information in various data systems. This paper will discuss the data systems and reports on operating experience published and used by the NRC. In addition, some observations on operating experience will be made. Subjects included will be the Licensee Event Report (LER) Data File, the Operating Unit Status Report (Gray Book), Radiation Exposure Reports, Effluents Reports, the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, Current Events, Bulletin Wrapups and Annual Summaries. Some of the uses of the reports and systems will be discussed. The Abnormal Occurence Report to the US Congress will also be described and discussed. (author)

  5. Hydroprocessing and premium II refinery: a new refining philosophy for an era of clean fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgaudio, Caio Veiga Penna; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a brief history of Brazilian's emission and fuel specifications, since the appearance of PROCONVE until the late stages of the program for vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel. The development of the Brazilian refining is analyzed taking into account the emission and specification evolutions, and it can be perceived that the system's complexity increases while new constraints are imposed by the regulator. This aspect is even more apparent when the detailed scheme of the Premium II refinery and its main unit, the catalytic hydrocracker (HCC, which has not yet been part of PETROBRAS' refining park and will appear in three of the four new refineries of the company) is described. The new projects represent the culmination of the intensive use of energy and raw material for obtaining the products with the new specifications. There is a price for this development, both in investments and increased operating costs due to greater complexity of the system. To adapt to the era of clean fuels, refiners will present a series of challenges that will lead them to seek for more efficient processes and operational excellence (and ongoing efforts to reduce their emissions) in order to ensure positive refining margins. (author)

  6. Real-time ambient air monitoring adjacent to the Houston ship channel for volatile organic compounds associated with the refinery operations using the trace atmospheric gas analyzer (TAGA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickunas, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    An Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to help evaluate the potential toxic air pollution in urban areas. The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) was used to monitor the ambient air for target compounds associated with industrial, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources in areas adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel in Texas. In this study, the TAGA used triple quadrupole technology to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses for benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, methyl tert-butyl ether, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The concentrations for the various ion pairs of the target compounds were updated approximately every 2 seconds. The information was incorporated into the geographic information system (GIS) along with the global positioning system (GPS) information for the TAGA location, aerial views of the monitoring area, and meteorological data for the associated region. The information is used to isolate the emission sources and help reduce air pollution. The GPS output helps determine a path-averaged concentration along various routes. Combined with meteorological data, this information can be used in risk assessment to calculate downwind impacts associated with the target compounds under other meteorological conditions and to determine health impacts. It was concluded that the TAGA can provide rapid, accurate and reliable analytical information for monitoring ambient air. 2 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  7. Real-time ambient air monitoring adjacent to the Houston ship channel for volatile organic compounds associated with the refinery operations using the trace atmospheric gas analyzer (TAGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickunas, D.B. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Environmental Response Team; Wood, J.; Weeks, W. [Lockheed Martin Response Engineering and Analytical Contract, Edison, NJ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    An Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to help evaluate the potential toxic air pollution in urban areas. The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) was used to monitor the ambient air for target compounds associated with industrial, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources in areas adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel in Texas. In this study, the TAGA used triple quadrupole technology to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses for benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, methyl tert-butyl ether, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The concentrations for the various ion pairs of the target compounds were updated approximately every 2 seconds. The information was incorporated into the geographic information system (GIS) along with the global positioning system (GPS) information for the TAGA location, aerial views of the monitoring area, and meteorological data for the associated region. The information is used to isolate the emission sources and help reduce air pollution. The GPS output helps determine a path-averaged concentration along various routes. Combined with meteorological data, this information can be used in risk assessment to calculate downwind impacts associated with the target compounds under other meteorological conditions and to determine health impacts. It was concluded that the TAGA can provide rapid, accurate and reliable analytical information for monitoring ambient air. 2 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  8. Future fuels: Canada's coast-to-coast network of refineries is emerging from a $3-billion-plus spending binge to take the lead in producing low sulphur gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2004-01-01

    A series of investments to convert Canada's 22 operating refineries to produce low-sulphur gasoline are discussed. The investment involves more than $3-billion that will transform Canada's portfolio of aging refineries into one of the most efficient in the western world, and in the process reduce sulphur content in Canadian gasoline to 30 ppm. In some cases the refitting will be completed years ahead of the required 2005 deadline. Total refining capacity in Canada is about 2.5 million barrels per day of crude oil, which includes 580,000 barrels per day of capacity that is dedicated to upgrading bitumen into synthetic crude oil. The initiative to update the refineries was led by Irving Oil, which launched a one billion dollar refit of its 250,000 barrels per day Saint John refinery in the year 2000. Irving Oil's efforts were driven by the company's marketing program in the United States where regional fuel quality standards are higher than national standards either in Canada or the United States. Shell Canada and Imperial Oil are also on track to meet the 30 ppm sulphur level ahead of schedule. For example, Shell Canada is cooperating with Suncor Energy Products in the construction of a hydrotreater at Suncor's Sarnia refinery which will be used to reduce sulphur content of diesel from both the Shell and Suncor refineries, while Imperial Oil is investing over $520 million to refit its refineries in Alberta, Ontario and Nova Scotia. Petro-Canada too, has embarked on a $450 million capital program late in 2003 to introduce low sulphur gasoline; this was in addition to the $1.2 billion program to integrate its bitumen production, upgrading and refining operations. Ultramar launched its $300 million desulphurization program in late 2002; the project is now nearing completion. Refit of Ultramar's Jean Gaulin refinery on Quebec's South Shore will also include a 30,000 barrels per day continuous regeneration platformer to provide a second hydrogen source for the

  9. Adaptation of Professional Skills in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Deniz; Rende, Sevinc; Baysal, Nihat

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the design of three consecutive unit operations laboratory (UOL) courses that retain the academic rigor of the course while incorporating skills essential for professional careers, such as ability to propose ideas, develop practical solutions, participate in teamwork, meet deadlines, establish communication between technical support…

  10. Pressure Swing Adsorption in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Jason

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a student laboratory in the Unit Operations Laboratory at the Colorado School of Mines: air separation by pressure swing adsorption. The flexibility of the system enables students to study the production of enriched nitrogen or oxygen streams. Automatic data acquisition permits the study of cycle steps and performance.…

  11. POSSIBILITIES OF CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION BY MICROALGAE IN REFINERY

    OpenAIRE

    Šingliar, Michal; Mikulec, Jozef; Kušnir, Patrik; Polakovičova, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide is one of the most critical challenges today for businesses and governments worldwide. Thousands of emitting power plants and industries worldwide face this costly challenge – reduce the CO2 emissions or pay penalties. One possibility for carbon dioxide sequestration is its fixation in microalgae. Microalgae can sequester CO2 from flue gases emitted from fossil fuel-fired refinery plants and units, thereby reducing emissions of a major greenhouse ga...

  12. Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit. Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    units would be reused in the remedy. Contingency measures to be included in the remedy are potential metals removal prior to water end use, potential...onbase reuse of a portion of the water, and wellhead treatment on offbase supply wells. The contingency measures will only be implemented if necessary...94 LEGEND Ouatmar aluvi dposts agua Frmaion(cosoldatd aluval epoits W iead rdetilnsMhte omtin(neitccnlmeae ansoe9ndkeca F 70 Quvatei-lernayalvu e pk

  13. Assessment and control design for steam vent noise in an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Nourollahi, Maryam; Momen Bellah Fard, Samaneh

    2011-06-13

    Noise is one of the most important harmful agents in work environment. Noise pollution in oil refinery industries is related to workers' health. This study aimed to determine the overall noise pollution of an oil refinery operation and its frequency analysis to determine the control plan for a vent noise in these industries. This experimental study performed in control unit of Tehran Oil Refinery in 2008. To determine the noise distributions, environmental noise measurements were carried out by lattice method according to basic information and technical process. The sound pressure level and frequency distribution was measured for each study sources subject separately was performed individually. According to the vent's specification, the measured steam noise characteristics reviewed and compared to the theoretical results of steam noise estimation. Eventually, a double expansion muffler was designed. Data analysis and graphical design were carried out using Excel software. The results of environmental noise measurements indicated that the level of sound pressure was above the national permitted level (85 dB (A)). The Mean level of sound pressure of the studied steam jet was 90.3 dB (L). The results of noise frequency analysis for the steam vents showed that the dominant frequency was 4000 Hz. To obtain 17 dB noise reductions, a double chamber aluminum muffler with 500 mm length and 200 mm diameter consisting pipe drilled was designed. The characteristics of steam vent noise were separated from other sources, a double expansion muffler was designed using a new method based on the level of steam noise, and principle sound frequency, a double expansion muffler was designed.

  14. Thunderstorm Algorithm for Determining Unit Commitment in Power System Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nur Afandi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Solving the unit commitment problem is an important task in power system operation for deciding a balanced power production between various types of generating units under technical constraints and environmental limitations. This paper presents a new intelligent computation method, called the Thunderstorm Algorithm (TA, for searching the optimal solution of the integrated economic and emission dispatch (IEED problem as the operational assessment for determining unit commitment. A simulation using the IEEE-62 bus system showed that TA has smooth convergence and is applicable for solving the IEED problem. The IEED’s solution is associated with the total fuel consumption and pollutant emission. The proposed TA method seems to be a viable new approach for finding the optimal solution of the IEED problem.

  15. Optimal operation of cogeneration units. State of art and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polimeni, S.

    2001-01-01

    Optimal operation of cogeneration plants and of power plant fueling waste products is a complex challenge as they have to fulfill, beyond the contractual obligation of electric power supply, the constraints of supplying the required thermal energy to the user (for cogeneration units) or to burn completely the by-products of the industrial complex where they are integrated. Electrical power market evolution is pushing such units to a more and more volatile operation caused by uncertain selling price levels. This work intends to pinpoint the state of art in the optimization of these units outlining the important differences among the different size and cycles. The effect of the market liberalization on the automation systems and the optimization algorithms will be discussed [it

  16. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-07

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  17. Multi objective multi refinery optimization with environmental and catastrophic failure effects objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khogeer, Ahmed Sirag

    2005-11-01

    Petroleum refining is a capital-intensive business. With stringent environmental regulations on the processing industry and declining refining margins, political instability, increased risk of war and terrorist attacks in which refineries and fuel transportation grids may be targeted, higher pressures are exerted on refiners to optimize performance and find the best combination of feed and processes to produce salable products that meet stricter product specifications, while at the same time meeting refinery supply commitments and of course making profit. This is done through multi objective optimization. For corporate refining companies and at the national level, Intea-Refinery and Inter-Refinery optimization is the second step in optimizing the operation of the whole refining chain as a single system. Most refinery-wide optimization methods do not cover multiple objectives such as minimizing environmental impact, avoiding catastrophic failures, or enhancing product spec upgrade effects. This work starts by carrying out a refinery-wide, single objective optimization, and then moves to multi objective-single refinery optimization. The last step is multi objective-multi refinery optimization, the objectives of which are analysis of the effects of economic, environmental, product spec, strategic, and catastrophic failure. Simulation runs were carried out using both MATLAB and ASPEN PIMS utilizing nonlinear techniques to solve the optimization problem. The results addressed the need to debottleneck some refineries or transportation media in order to meet the demand for essential products under partial or total failure scenarios. They also addressed how importing some high spec products can help recover some of the losses and what is needed in order to accomplish this. In addition, the results showed nonlinear relations among local and global objectives for some refineries. The results demonstrate that refineries can have a local multi objective optimum that does not

  18. Control system design for the deethanizer absorber tower pressure in the light end unit of the Nico Lopez refinery; Diseno del sistema de control para la presion en la torre absorvedora deetanizadora de la unidad de finales ligeros de la refineria Nico Lopez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Corral, Camilo [Refineria Nico Lopez, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: Camilo.morales@refhab.cupet.cu; Pedre Mendoza, Isabel [DAISA, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: Isabel@daisa.copextel.com.cu; Garcini Leal, Hector J. [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose A. Echeverria, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: garcini,novi@electrica.cujae.edu.cu; Fernandez, Luis M. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: luis@icmf.inf.cu; Benitez Gonzalez, Ivon Oristela [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose A. Echeverria, La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-11-15

    This paper is about pressure feed forward control. It is for an absorber tower of the Light End Unit. This one is in the Havana Oil Refinery. Control loop was designed using identification technic and simulation software. Moreover the design control loop has been validated and his quality has been determined. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se aborda un control anticipatorio de presion. Fue desarrollado para la torre absorvedora de la Unidad de Finales Ligeros. La cual pertenece a la refineria de La Habana. Fue disenado un lazo de control empleando tecnicas de identificacion y programas de simulacion. Ademas el lazo disenado es validado y se determina su calidad.

  19. Expert system for operational personnel support during power unit operation control in regulation range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanitskij, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    The problems met when developing the systems for NPP operator support in the process of power unit operation are considered. The expert system for NPP personnel intelligent support combining the properties belonging to the artificial intelligence systems including selection of the analysis method taking into account the concrete technological situation and capability of application of algothmic calculations of the equipment characteristics using the information accumulated during the system development, erection and operation is described

  20. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  1. Application of PIMS Software in Monthly Planning of Refinery Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of the PIMS software in formulating monthly refining production plan. Application of the PIMS software can help to solve a series of problems related with monthly plan of refining production such as optimized selection of crude and feedstocks, optimized selection of production scale and processing scheme, identification of bottlenecks and their mitigation,optimized selection of turnaround time and optimized selection of operating regime, which have increased the economic benefits of refining enterprises. With the further development and improvement of models the PIMS software will play an increasingly important role in formulating monthly plans of refining operations and production management at refineries. This article also explores the problems existing in refinery monthly planning, and has made recommendations on developing and improving models and reporting system, enhancement of basic data acquisition, model maintenance personnel and staff training.

  2. The prospects for refinery profitability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weale, G. [European Energy Services, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-05-01

    The outlook for the European refining industry is assessed. The conclusion reached is that the industry is struggling for its existence. Over time, an unsatisfactory balance has grown between refinery capacity and market volumes. High exit barriers have prevented capacity being considerably lower than it is. In the future, a typical integrated oil company might be content to confine itself to retailing oil products without having to refine them. Given the reduction in gasoline demand in particular, it can be expected that 20-25% of capacity will be sold off in the next 15 years and much of it will be closed. (Author)

  3. The energy efficiency of crude oil refining in Brazil: A Brazilian refinery plant case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Romulo S. de; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates energy efficiency in Brazilian crude oil refining in comparison with the crude oil refining in the United States between 1930 and 2008. It aims to show that increased refinery complexity reduces the energy consumption of products of high value added. Moreover, the article shows that improvements in energy efficiency result in higher quality products and increased processing of oil. A Brazilian refinery with a capacity of 157,000 barrels per day (kbpd) was modernized in 2008 at a cost of US $1.3 billion. As a result, its capacity increased by 17%, from 157 to 189 kbpd. Its complexity index also rose from 3.2 to 6.8, allowing an improvement in the EII (energy intensity index) from 110% to 93%. In relation to the crude oil processed before being modernized, energy consumption fell from 0.75 to 0.52 MBtu (million British thermal units) per barrel processed. These proceedings show that increases in complexity reduce the energy consumed in the production of final products with high value added, such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. -- Highlights: → Increased refinery complexity reduces the energy consumption of products of high value added. → Improvements in refinery energy efficiency result in higher quality products and increased processing of oil. → Brazilian refineries were not affected significantly in the 2008 crisis, such as the US refineries, due to many factors. → The EII of Brazilian refining presents real opportunities for gains through changes in the profile of energy consumed.

  4. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  5. Radioisotope techniques for problem-solving on refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.; Webb, M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, refineries worldwide are recognizing the value of radioisotope technology in studying the operation of on-line plant. Using case studies, this paper illustrates the versatility of radioisotope techniques in a wide range of investigations: the density-profiling of distillation columns; the investigation of leaks on feed/effluent exchangers; on-line flowrate measurement; underground leakage detection. The economic benefits deriving from radioisotope applications are indicated

  6. Radioactive acid digestion test unit nonradioactive startup operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Cowan, R.G.; Crippen, M.D.; Divine, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) will process 5 kg/hour of combustible solid waste and is designed to handle almost all solid combustible waste found in plutonium processing with plutonium contamination levels up to scrap. The RADTU is designed with special safety features to safely contain high masses of fissile materials and to safely handle unusual materials and reactive chemicals which may find their way into the waste. Nonradioactive operating experience to date has been very satisfactory. RADTU has been operated for extended runs on both a 24-hour per day basis as well as on a one shift per day basis. Some minor operating problems have been encountered as expected in a shakedown operation. In general, solutions to these have been readily found. 12 figures

  7. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  8. Energy markets : refinery outages can have varying gasoline price impacts, but gaps in federal data limit understanding of impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    In 2008, GAO reported that, with : the exception of the period : following Hurricanes Katrina and : Rita, refinery outages in the United : States did not show discernible : trends in reduced production : capacity, frequency, and location : from 2002 ...

  9. Pemex to acquire interest in Shell Texas refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos Mexicanos and Shell Oil Co. have signed a memorandum of understanding to form a joint refining venture involving Shell's 225,000 b/d Deer Park, Tex., refinery. Under the agreement, Mexico's state owned oil company is to purchase a 50% interest in the refinery, and Shell is to sell Pemex unleaded gasoline on a long term basis. Under the venture, Shell and Pemex plan to add undisclosed conversion and upgrading units tailored to process heavy Mexican crude. The revamp will allow Pemex to place more than 100,000 b/d of Mayan heavy crude on the U.S. market. Mayan accounts for 70% of Mexico's crude oil exports. In turn, Shell will sell Pemex as much as 45,000 b/d of unleaded gasoline to help meet Mexico's rapidly growing demand

  10. Feasibility study on energy saving and reduction of CO2 emissions at Pertamina's Cilacap Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  11. SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-01-01

    This scoping summary supports development of the combined Remedial Investigation (RI)/Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA)/Feasibility Study (FS) for the P-Area Operable Unit (PAOU), or Combined document, which will be submitted on or before 09/28/2007. The objective of this Feasibility Study scoping summary meeting is to agree on the likely response actions to be evaluated and developed as alternatives in the combined document and agree on the uncertainties identified and whether they have been adequately managed

  12. SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-05-22

    This scoping summary supports development of the combined Remedial Investigation (RI)/Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA)/Feasibility Study (FS) for the P-Area Operable Unit (PAOU), or Combined document, which will be submitted on or before 09/28/2007. The objective of this Feasibility Study scoping summary meeting is to agree on the likely response actions to be evaluated and developed as alternatives in the combined document and agree on the uncertainties identified and whether they have been adequately managed.

  13. 100-KR-1 Operable Unit focused feasibility study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Feasibility Study (FS) includes development and screening of alternatives and the detailed analysis of alternatives. This focused feasibility study (FFS) was conducted for the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The objective of this operable unit-specific FFS is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures (IRM) for the five sites (116-K-1 crib, 116-K-2 trench, 116-KE-4 and 116-KW-3 retention basins, and process effluent pipelines) associated with the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit. The IRM candidate waste sites are determined in the limited field investigation. Site profiles are developed for each of these waste site. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented

  14. Licensed operating reactors. Operating units status report, data as of 2-28-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices and IE Headquarters; and the third section is an appendix containing comparative statistics of U.S. nuclear/fossil capacity, identification of nuclear power plants within regional Electric Reliability Councils, the relative status of U.S. nuclear electric production to all U.S. electric production by state, and selected Edison Electric Institute operating statistics. Throughout the report, statistical factors for periods greater than a report month, or for more than one unit, are computed as the arithmetic average of each unit's individual operating statistics. The statistical factors for each unit for the report month are computed from actual power production for the month. The factors for the life-span of each unit (the ''Cumulative'' column) are reported by the utility and are not entirely re-computed by NRC. Utility power production data is checked for consistency with previously submitted statistics

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Sinclair Refinery, Allegany County, Wellsville, NY. (Second remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Sinclair Refinery site is a former refinery in Wellsville, Allegany County, New York. The site is composed of a 90-acre refinery area, 10-acre landfill area, and 14-acre offsite tank farm. From 1901 to 1958, the site was used to process Pennsylvania grade crude oil until a fire in 1958 halted operations. Currently, some private companies and the State University of New York occupy the site. A 1981 site inspection revealed that debris from the eroding landfill area has washed into and contaminated the Genesee River. The ROD addresses OU2, remediation of the remaining contaminated areas at the site located within the 90-acre refinery area and the offsite tank farm including the contaminated ground water beneath the refinery. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including benzene and xylenes, semi-volatile compounds including naphthalene and nitrobenzene, and metals including arsenic and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  16. Treatability test plan for the 200-ZP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. The primary contaminants of concern are carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE). The pilot-scale treatability testing has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants present in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume. The overall scope of this test plan includes: description of the pump and treat system to be tested, as well as the test performance objectives and data quality objectives (DQOs) that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the pilot-scale treatment system; discussion of the treatment technology to be tested and supporting development activities, including process flow and conceptual design descriptions and equipment, fabrication, utility, and system startup needs; description of pilot-scale treatment system performance, operating procedures, and operational controls, as well as anticipated monitoring activities, analytes, parameters, analytical procedures, and quality assurance protocols; summaries of other related treatability testing elements, including personnel and environmental health and safety controls, process and secondary waste management and disposition, schedule, and program organization

  17. Heat recovery unit operation of HVAC system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, S. R.; Oh, Y. W.; Song, E. S.; Park, D. K.; Joo, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    HVAC system including a supply and exhaust air system in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) is an essential facility for preventing a leakage of radioactive materials and for a preservation of a working environment. It costs a lot to operate the HVAC system in IMEF because our ventilation type is once-through system, and an air flow is maintained from low level contamination area to high level and maintained high turns of ventilation air under certain conditions. As HRU(Heat Recovery Unit) at HVAC system based on PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) operation experiences is designed and adopted, it prevents from a heating coil freezing destruction in winter and makes much energy saving etc.. Heat pipe type HRU is adopted in IMEF, and a construction and operation result of HRU is examined

  18. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans

  19. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  20. The quality of operative notes at a general surgery unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A; Bunting, M; Atherstone, A

    2008-09-01

    With the increasingly litigious nature of medical practice, accurate documentation is critical. This is particularly true for operative procedures, and medical councils have identified this and published guidelines to aid surgeons. However, these remain a frequently cited weakness in their defence in medico-legal cases. This study assessed the accuracy of operative notes in a general surgery unit in order to improve our practice. An audit of 100 consecutive operative notes was performed, and notes were assessed using the Royal College of Surgeons guidelines. The quality of note-taking of trainees was compared with that of consultant surgeons. A series of operation note pro formas was designed in response to the findings. Of the notes, 66% were completed by trainees. The vast majority of notes had no diagram to demonstrate the surgical findings or illustrate the actions. Specialist surgeons were more likely to describe the actions accurately, but less likely to describe wound closure methods or dressings used. They were also less likely to complete adequate postoperative orders. This study identifies key areas of weakness in our operative note-keeping. Pro formas should be introduced and made available for commonly performed procedures, and diagrams should be used wherever possible.

  1. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP

  2. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP. This volume contains appendices A--E

  3. Analysis and control of odors from petroleum refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.A.; Duffee, R.A.; Ostojic, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a proven approach used to effectively solve odor problems associated with atmospheric emissions from petroleum refineries. A systematic evaluation is first conducted to identify all emissions with the potential for off-site odor impacts. Sampling is then conducted and dynamic dilution olfactometry is used to quantify the odor emission rates of each source. Community odor surveys are performed simultaneously with the source sampling to quantitatively document the downwind odor impacts. Atmospheric dispersion modeling specifically designed for odor is then used to predict instantaneous odor occurrences at various receptor sites under meteorological conditions not actually encountered during the field study. The findings make it possible to rank sources by their odor emission rates and potential for odor impacts in the community. It is then possible to determine how much odor reduction is required to bring the present odor impacts of the individual sources to an acceptable level under worst-case meteorological conditions. Once the degree of control required is determined, control alternatives are selected and evaluated. Case histories have been selected to illustrate the application of this approach at petroleum refineries. They provide descriptions of odor assessment and abatement studies conducted specifically for refinery effluent treatment plant sources as well as process unit emission sources. The sources identified as needing control and the odor abatement measures taken are discussed

  4. Hydrogen management in the MiRO refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, G. [Mineraloelraffinerie Oberrhein GmbH und Co. KG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The importance of hydrogen in refineries has increased over the last 20 years as new regulations affecting gasoline and diesel composition have been implemented throughout Europe and in an environment of increasingly stringent clean fuel regulations, decreasing heavy fuel oil demand and increasing heavy more sour crude supply. In Germany, the introduction of sulphur free gasoline and diesel with less than 10ppm sulphur(Auto Oil Program) and light home fuel oil with less than 50ppm this year were the last link in a long chain of environmental regulations, which had a considerable effect on the hydrogen demand in refineries. In the complex MiRO-refinery with a large FCC- and Coker-Unit for atmospheric residue conversion and a total throughput of more than 15 Mio.T/ a and more than 14 Mio.T/a crude oils of different origin from high sulphur, bituminous crudes to medium, low sulphur crudes for calcinate-production from green coke the only source of hydrogen for a long time was catalytic reforming. The only chance of balancing the hydrogen production and consumption was to improve the existing catalytic reforming and the optimisation of hydrogen recovery from waste or purge streams and the hydrogen network of the refinery. In 2007 a new hydrogen plant via steam reforming of natural gas went on stream. The main reason for this step was the shrinking market for gasoline in the last ten years and the blending of bio-ethanol into the gasoline pool, which released reforming capacities and the demand for octane. Another important issue is the production planning taking into account the potentials of hydrogen production via catalytic and steam reforming and the hydrogen consumption via desulphurisation and the saturation of olefins and (poly-)aromatics of the main product streams, gasoline, diesel and light home fuel oil. (orig.)

  5. Training operators of VVER-1000 units in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, X.; Nabet, E.; Hauesberger, P.

    1996-01-01

    The VVER 1000 is the most recent nuclear reactor designed in the former Soviet Union. Its design and operation principles are close to Western four-loop reactors in the 1000- to 1500-MW class; therefore, the Western simulation technology is usually directly applicable to the simulation of these units. Moreover, the current number of state-of-the-art training simulators in operation is very limited. A total of 19 units are in operation, while only 2 modern simulators are available (full-scope type) in Balakovo and Zaporozhe. Access to these simulators is practically limited to the respective plants' trainees, which means that the other units have to be satisfied with hands-on training. Facing this situation and taking into account the predicted lifetime of these plants (15 to 25 yr to go, maybe more), a lot of effort has been made in recent years to provide the plants with modern simulators. The major hurdles to this action were obviously financial and technical (availability of codes, computers, software tools). Today, one full-scope project (Kalinin) is almost complete, and three have been announced (Novovoronezh, Khmelnitsky, Kozloduy). Full-scope simulators are clearly the ultimate target of a concerned power plants. However, all users do realize the advantages of the complementary approach with compact simulators: 1. They can be available quickly for starting the training process. 2. They cover a training field that is not (or partly) addressed by full-scope simulators, i.e., the demonstration of physical phenomena in normal and accidental situations

  6. The role of heat pipes in intensified unit operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reay, David; Harvey, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Heat pipes are heat transfer devices that rely, most commonly, on the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid contained within them, with passive pumping of the condensate back to the evaporator. They are sometimes referred to as ‘thermal superconductors’ because of their exceptionally high effective thermal conductivity (substantially higher than any metal). This, together with several other characteristics make them attractive to a range of intensified unit operations, particularly reactors. The majority of modern computers deploy heat pipes for cooling of the CPU. The application areas of heat pipes come within a number of broad groups, each of which describes a property of the heat pipe. The ones particularly relevant to chemical reactors are: i. Separation of heat source and sink. ii. Temperature flattening, or isothermalisation. iii. Temperature control. Chemical reactors, as a heat pipe application area, highlight the benefits of the heat pipe based on isothermalisation/temperature flattening device and on being a highly effective heat transfer unit. Temperature control, done passively, is also of relevance. Heat pipe technology offers a number of potential benefits to reactor performance and operation. The aim of increased yield of high purity, high added value chemicals means less waste and higher profitability. Other intensified unit operations, such as those employing sorption processes, can also profit from heat pipe technology. This paper describes several variants of heat pipe and the opportunities for their use in intensified plant, and will give some current examples. -- Highlights: ► Heat pipes – thermal superconductors – can lead to improved chemical reactor performance. ► Isothermalisation within a reactor vessel is an ideal application. ► The variable conductance heat pipe can control reaction temperatures within close limits. ► Heat pipes can be beneficial in intensified reactors

  7. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Jean Holdren Thomas E. Bechtold Brian D. Preussner

    2007-01-01

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision

  8. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jean Holdren

    2007-05-29

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision.

  9. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  10. Optimization of the fluid catalytic cracking unit performance by application of a high motor Octane catalyst and reduction of gasoline vapour pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavdarov, I.; Stratiev, D.; Shishkova, I.; Dinkov, R.; Petkov, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline is the main contributor to the refinery gasoline pool in the LUKOIL Neftohim Burgas (LNB) refinery. Next in quantity contributor in the refinery gasoline pool is the reformate. The FCC gasoline sensitivity (MON-RON) is about 12 points. The reformer gasoline sensitivity is 11 points. The high sensitivity of the main contributors to the LNB refinery gasoline pool leads to a shortage in the motor octane number. For that reason a selection of an FCC catalyst that is capable of increasing the motor octane number of the FCC gasoline was performed. The application of this catalyst in the LNB FCC unit has led to an increase of the motor octane number of the FCC gasoline by 0.5 points, which enabled the refinery to increase the production of automotive gasolines by 1.3 % and to increase the share of premium automotive gasoline by 5 %. This had an effect of improvement of the refinery economics by a six figure number of US $ per year. The optimization of the FCC gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) during the winter season, consisting in a reduction of the RVP from 60 to 50 kPa and an increase of the FCC C 4 olefins yield, has led to an augmentation of high motor octane number alkylate production. As a result the refinery economics was improved by a five figure number of US $ per year. key words: FCC gasoline motor octane number, gasoline RVP, FCC operation profitability

  11. Risk-based decision analysis for groundwater operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document proposes a streamlined approach and methodology for performing risk assessment in support of interim remedial measure (IRM) decisions involving the remediation of contaminated groundwater on the Hanford Site. This methodology, referred to as ''risk-based decision analysis,'' also supports the specification of target cleanup volumes and provides a basis for design and operation of the groundwater remedies. The risk-based decision analysis can be completed within a short time frame and concisely documented. The risk-based decision analysis is more versatile than the qualitative risk assessment (QRA), because it not only supports the need for IRMs, but also provides criteria for defining the success of the IRMs and provides the risk-basis for decisions on final remedies. For these reasons, it is proposed that, for groundwater operable units, the risk-based decision analysis should replace the more elaborate, costly, and time-consuming QRA

  12. Operational benchmark for VVER-1000, unit 6, Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolov, T.; Petrov, B.

    1999-01-01

    Benchmark calculations have been carried out using the 3D nodal code TRAPEZ. Global neutron-physics characteristics of the VVER-1000 core, Kozloduy NPP Unit 6, have been determined taking into account the real loading patterns and operational history of the first three cycles. The code TRLOAD has been used to perform the fuel reloading between any two cycles. The reactor and components descriptions as well as material compositions are given. The results presented include the critical boric acid concentration, the radial power distribution, the axial power distribution for the maximum overload assembly, and the burnup distribution at three different moments during each cycle. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. It is shown that the results obtained by the TRAPEZ code are in good agreement with the experimental data. The information presented could serve as a test case for validation of code packages designed for analyzing the steady-state operation of VVERs. (author)

  13. Operational aerial snow surveying in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, E L; Carroll, T R; Vandemark, S C

    1980-03-01

    An airborne gamma radiation detector and data acquisition system has been designed for rapid measurement of the snow cover water equivalent over large open areas. Research and field tests conducted prior to the implementation of an operational snow measurement system in the United States are reviewed. Extensive research test flights were conducted over large river basins of the north-central plains and in the high mountain valleys of the inter-mountain West. Problems encountered during development include: (1) error in the gross gamma flux produced by atmospheric radon gas daughters; (2) spatial and temporal variability in soil moisture; and (3) errors in gamma radiation count rate introduced by aircraft and cosmic background radiation. Network design of operational flight line and ground observation data used in a river forecasting system are discussed. 22 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Mazeikiai refinery woes deepen on all fronts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Leedu rahandusminister teatas, et riigieelarvet mõjutavad probleemid Mazeikiai tehasega, mis on Leedu suurim maksumaksja. Lisa: Russian oil company to build refinery. Surgutneftegaz teatas plaanist ehitada naftatöötlustehas Peterburi lähedale

  15. Improving profitability in a grassroots refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T. [Star Petroleum Refining Co. Ltd. (Thailand); Kennedy, P.; Bhargava, S. [KBC Process Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    Actions taken to maximise profit at the Star Refinery in Thailand are described. The company made good use of the Profit Improvement Programme (PIP) (which specialises in refinery economics) and the way in which PIP addressed the problem and the benefits derived therefrom is the nub of this paper. The efforts appear to have been more than satisfactory from the aspect of increasing profit margins. (UK)

  16. 100-BC-1 Operable Unit focused feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study includes development and screening of alternatives (Phases 1 and 2) and the detailed analysis of alternatives (Phase 3). This focused feasibility study constitutes the Phase 3 portion of the feasibility study process for the remedial alternatives initially developed and screened in the 100 Area Feasibility Study Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1993a). The focused feasibility study process is conducted in two stages, a Process Document (DOE-RL 1994a) and an operable unit-specific focused feasibility study document, such as this one. The focused feasibility study process is performed by implementing a ''plug-in'' style approach; as defined in greater detail in the Process Document, which is a companion to this document. The objective of this focused feasibility study is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures for candidate waste sites associated with the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit which is located in the north-central part of the Hanford Site. The interim remedial measure candidate waste sites are determined in the Limited Field Investigation (DOE-RL 1993b). Site profiles are developed for each of these waste sites. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented

  17. The rise and fall of refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper described the rise and fall of refineries in Montreal. Well before Calgary, Montreal was the hub of activity for oil refineries because Montreal was the principle consuming market for petroleum products in Canada. The location was good, particularly since the soil was clay which helped prevent soil infiltration of petroleum. The first refinery in Montreal was constructed in 1916 by Esso, followed by Texaco in 1921 and Gulf in 1931. Initially oil was shipped by boat to the Port of Montreal from Saudi Arabia. Later, the petroleum came mostly from Venezuela. At the beginning of the 1980s many refineries were closed because they became obsolete and upgrading them would have been too costly. Only 3 refineries remain in Quebec, of which 2 are in Montreal. They are owned by Shell and PetroCanada. The third refinery in Quebec is in St-Romuald and is owned by UltraMar. One of the major contributing factors to the decline of the refining industry in Montreal was the decision in 1984 by former Prime Minister Trudeau to force Canadian provinces to purchase their petroleum from Alberta. This caused the petrochemical industry to locate in Sarnia in Ontario, leaving the Montreal refining centre to become obsolete. 3 figs

  18. A Steam Utility Network Model for the Evaluation of Heat Integration Retrofits – A Case Study of an Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Marton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real industrial example in which the steam utility network of a refinery is modelled in order to evaluate potential Heat Integration retrofits proposed for the site. A refinery, typically, has flexibility to optimize the operating strategy for the steam system depending on the operation of the main processes. This paper presents a few examples of Heat Integration retrofit measures from a case study of a large oil refinery. In order to evaluate expected changes in fuel and electricity imports to the refinery after implementation of the proposed retrofits, a steam system model has been developed. The steam system model has been tested and validated with steady state data from three different operating scenarios and can be used to evaluate how changes to steam balances at different pressure levels would affect overall steam balances, generation of shaft power in turbines, and the consumption of fuel gas.

  19. High temperature degradation in power plants and refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado Heloisa Cunha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants and refineries around the world share many of the same problems, namely aging equipment, high costs of replacement, and the need to produce more efficiently while being increasingly concerned with issues of safety and reliability. For equipment operating at high temperature, there are many different mechanisms of degradation, some of which interact, and the rate of accumulation of damage is not simple to predict. The paper discusses the mechanisms of degradation at high temperature and methods of assessment of such damage and of the remaining safe life for operation.

  20. Capital vs. service contract at Conoco Humber Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threlfall, Peter; Sperring, Simon

    1999-01-01

    The value of outsourcing for water treatment is illustrated through experience at the Conoco Humber refinery. A point was reached where the quality of water at the plant was so poor that demineralized water was brought to the site by tanker. The paper describes how and why it was decided to design, build, operate and maintain an outsourced system. It points out how the newer technologies can be environmentally friendly and, at the same time, reduce operating and maintenance costs, optimise manpower and cut management costs. (UK)

  1. Eldorado Port Hope refinery - uranium production (1933-1951)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of pitchblende in 1930 by Gilbert LaBine at Great Bear Lake (GBL), North West Territories, uranium has played a central role in the growth of the Canadian mining sector and it in turn has propelled the country into it's present position as the world's top uranium producer. The rich ore mined there was used originally by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited to build a business based on the extraction of radium, which was selling at $70,000 a gram at the time, and silver which was present in the ore in commercial amounts. The mine site on GBL became known as Port Radium. In 1933 Eldorado brought a refinery on-line at Port Hope, Ontario nearly 4,000 miles away from the mine, and began to produce radium, silver and uranium products. Initially uranium played a minor role in the business and the products were sold into the ceramics industry to manufacture a variety of crockery with long-lasting colours. In addition, there were sales and loans of uranium products to research laboratories that were exploring nuclear energy for possible use in weapons and power generation, as the potential for this was clearly understood from 1939 onwards. These laboratories included the National Research Council (George Laurence), Columbia University (Enrico Fermi) and International Chemical Industries (J.P. Baxter). With the beginning of World War II the radium business suffered from poor sales and by 1940 the mine was closed but the refinery continued operation, using accumulated stockpiles. By 1942 uranium had become a strategic material, the mine was reopened, and the refinery began to produce large quantities of uranium oxide destined for The Manhattan Project. As events unfolded Eldorado was unable to produce sufficient ore from GBL so that a large quantity of ore from the Belgian Congo was also processed at Port Hope. Ultimately, as a result of the efforts of this enterprise, World War II was finally ended by use of atomic weapons. After World War II the refinery

  2. Eldorado Port Hope refinery - uranium production (1933-1951)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E

    2008-03-15

    Since the discovery of pitchblende in 1930 by Gilbert LaBine at Great Bear Lake (GBL), North West Territories, uranium has played a central role in the growth of the Canadian mining sector and it in turn has propelled the country into it's present position as the world's top uranium producer. The rich ore mined there was used originally by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited to build a business based on the extraction of radium, which was selling at $70,000 a gram at the time, and silver which was present in the ore in commercial amounts. The mine site on GBL became known as Port Radium. In 1933 Eldorado brought a refinery on-line at Port Hope, Ontario nearly 4,000 miles away from the mine, and began to produce radium, silver and uranium products. Initially uranium played a minor role in the business and the products were sold into the ceramics industry to manufacture a variety of crockery with long-lasting colours. In addition, there were sales and loans of uranium products to research laboratories that were exploring nuclear energy for possible use in weapons and power generation, as the potential for this was clearly understood from 1939 onwards. These laboratories included the National Research Council (George Laurence), Columbia University (Enrico Fermi) and International Chemical Industries (J.P. Baxter). With the beginning of World War II the radium business suffered from poor sales and by 1940 the mine was closed but the refinery continued operation, using accumulated stockpiles. By 1942 uranium had become a strategic material, the mine was reopened, and the refinery began to produce large quantities of uranium oxide destined for The Manhattan Project. As events unfolded Eldorado was unable to produce sufficient ore from GBL so that a large quantity of ore from the Belgian Congo was also processed at Port Hope. Ultimately, as a result of the efforts of this enterprise, World War II was finally ended by use of atomic weapons. After World War II the

  3. South Africa's refineries: waiting for Maduna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A definitive energy policy from the new Energy Minister, Penuell Maduna, is awaited by the petroleum industry in South Africa. Some of the complexities of the South African oil market and past legacies which make the task of producing a policy difficult, are examined here. They include the allegations made initially in 1994 that oil refineries are illegally repatriating profits by paying too much for imported products. Accusations of this transfer pricing have resurfaced in the light of recent figures published by the South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA) which show that the oil industry's profitability is not as high as some had presumed. However, compelling evidence for the allegations has not appeared and it is unlikely that the foreign investors in SAPIA would endanger their operations in this way. SAPIA members are key investors in the national infrastructure and make large tax contributions much needed by the treasury. In its turn, SAPIA is unhappy about the continuation of the payment of large taxpayer funded subsidies to the privatised Sasol, the South African synthetic fuel company, seeing as anti-competitive and having negative implications for the national economy. For its part Sasol argues its entitlement to the same tariff protection enjoyed by 80% of local manufacturing industries in South Africa. Some government action has been taken to reduce the subsidies though. The oil companies in SAPIA require clarity on future energy policy and deregulation before committing themselves to further heavy capital investment and Sasol also requires an end to the present uncertainties. (UK)

  4. Catalytic hydrotreatment of refinery waste: Demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The object of this project and report is to produce liquid hydrocarbons by the catalytic hydroprocessing of solid refinery wastes (hard pitches) in order to improve the profitability of deep conversion processes and reduce the excess production of heavy fuels. The project was mostly carried out on the ASVAHL demonstration platform site, at Solaize, and hard pitches were produced primarily by deasphalting of atmospheric or vacuum distillation residues. The project includes two experimental phases and an economic evaluation study phase. In Phase 1, two granular catalysts were used to transform pitch into standard low sulfur fuel oil: a continuously moving bed, with demetallation and conversion catalyst; a fixed bed, with hydrorefining catalyst. In Phase 2 of the project, it was proven that a hydrotreatment process using a finely dispersed catalyst in the feedstock, can, under realistic operating conditions, transform with good yields hard pitch into distillates that can be refined through standard methods. In Phase 3 of the project, it was shown that the economics of such processes are tightly linked to the price differential between white'' and black'' oil products, which is expected to increase in the future. Furthermore, the evolution of environmental constraints will impel the use of such methods, thus avoiding the coproduction of polluting solid residues. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Bioremediation at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, A.W.; Jarvis, J.; Richardson, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of three projects at the Mobil Refinery in Torrance, California where bioremediation technologies were successfully employed for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The three projects represent variations of implementation of bioremediation, both in-situ and ex-situ. Soil from all of the projects was considered non-hazardous designated waste under the California Code of Regulations, Title 23, section 2522. The projects were permitted and cleanup requirements were defined with the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board. In all of the projects, different methods were used for supplying water, oxygen, and nutrients to the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria to stimulate growth. The Stormwater Retention Basin Project utilized in-situ mechanical mixing of soils to supply solid nutrients and oxygen, and a self-propelled irrigation system to supply water. The Tank Farm Lake project used an in-situ active bioventing technology to introduce oxygen, moisture, and vapor phase nutrients. The Tank 1340X247 project was an ex-situ bioventing remediation project using a drip irrigation system to supply water and dissolved nutrients, and a vapor extraction system to provide oxygen

  6. Explanation of significant differences for the TNX groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1997-01-01

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) is being issued by the Department of Energy (DOE), the lead agency for the Savannah River Site (SRS), with concurrence by the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV (EPA) and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to announce changes in the interim remediation strategy selected for the TNX Groundwater Operable Unit. The TNX Area is located adjacent to the Savannah River in the southwestern portion of SRS. The remedy selected in the Interim Record of Decision (IROD) to achieve the interim action goals was the Hybrid Groundwater Corrective Action (HGCA). The HGCA consisted of a recirculation well system and an air stripper with a series of groundwater extraction wells. The original remediation strategy needs to be modified because the recirculation well system was determined to be ineffective in this area due to geological factors and the nature of the contamination

  7. Environmental Control Plan for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action Project. The purpose of this plan is to identify environmental requirements for the 300-FF-1 operable unit Remedial Action/Waste Disposal Project

  8. Operation of the radioactive acid digestion test unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasewitz, A.G.; Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Ely, P.C.; Richardson, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to demonstrate the application of the Acid Digestion Process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. The RADTU with its original tray digestion vessel has recently completed a six-month campaign processing potentially contaminated nonglovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During this campaign, it processed 2100 kg of largely cellulosic wastes at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h as limited by the water boiloff rate from the acid feeds. The on-line operating efficiency was nearly 50% on a twelve hour/day, five day/week basis. Following this campaign, a new annular high rate digester has been installed for testing. In preliminary tests with simulated wastes, the new digester demonstrated a sustained capacity of 10 kg/h with greatly improved intimacy of contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new design also doubles the heat transfer surface, which with reduced heat loss area, is expected to provide at least three times the water boiloff rate of the previous tray digester design. Following shakedown testing with simulated and low-level wastes, the new unit will be used to process combustible plutonium scrap and waste from Hanford plutonium facilities for the purposes of volume reduction, plutonium recovery, and stabilization of the final waste form

  9. Pursuing the pre-combustion CCS route in oil refineries – The impact on fired heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weydahl, Torleif; Jamaluddin, Jamal; Seljeskog, Morten; Anantharaman, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The aim is to approach Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) to refinery fired heaters. ► An identical simplified burner configuration is applied where refinery fuel is replaced with hydrogen. ► Initial simulations indicate that hydrogen replacement do not alter heater operation in a negative way. ► Despite the higher flame temperature in the hydrogen case, the NO x emissions are not higher. ► The prompt-NO mechanism contributes significantly in the refinery fuel case. -- Abstract: The work presented in this paper investigates the effect of replacing refinery fuel gas in the radiant section burners of a fired heater with hydrogen. The aim is to approach pre-combustion CCS to refinery fired heaters by identifying the impact on heat-, flow- and radiation distribution in the lower radiant section of the fired heater when simply switching refinery gas with hydrogen at equivalent power using the same burner geometrics. Additionally the formation of NO x is considered. The investigations are performed using a conventional Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS), Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach using detailed reaction kinetics consisting of 325 elementary reactions and 53 species. Simplified and generalized furnace and burner geometries are used in the present work. The results show that approximately the same average wall heat flux density is achieved when the refinery fuel is replaced by hydrogen. However, the distribution of heat on the inner surfaces changes. The hydrogen case has, as expected, a higher flame temperature than the base case, nevertheless, the nitric oxide (NO x ) emissions are comparable to base case emissions. Several indications point in the direction of a significant contribution to the base case emissions from the less temperature dependent prompt-NO mechanism, which obviously is not contributing to the hydrogen case emissions.

  10. 77 FR 62247 - Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units Operating on the U.S. Outer... ``Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Dynamic Positioning Guidance''. The notice recommended owners and operators of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) follow Marine Technology Society (MTS) Dynamic Positioning...

  11. Feasibility of flare gas reformation to practical energy in Farashband gas refinery: no gas flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Mohammad Reaza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2012-03-30

    A suggested method for controlling the level of hazardous materials in the atmosphere is prevention of combustion in flare. In this work, three methods are proposed to recover flare gas instead of conventional gas-burning in flare at the Farashband gas refinery. These methods aim to minimize environmental and economical disadvantages of burning flare gas. The proposed methods are: (1) gas to liquid (GTL) production, (2) electricity generation with a gas turbine and, (3) compression and injection into the refinery pipelines. To find the most suitable method, the refinery units that send gas to the flare as well as the required equipment for the three aforementioned methods are simulated. These simulations determine the amount of flare gas, the number of GTL barrels, the power generated by the gas turbine and the required compression horsepower. The results of simulation show that 563 barrels/day of valuable GTL products is produced by the first method. The second method provides 25 MW electricity and the third method provides a compressed natural gas with 129 bar pressure for injection to the refinery pipelines. In addition, the economics of flare gas recovery methods are studied and compared. The results show that for the 4.176MMSCFD of gas flared from the Farashband gas refinery, the electricity production gives the highest rate of return (ROR), the lowest payback period, the highest annual profit and mild capital investment. Therefore, the electricity production is the superior method economically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. U.S. Refinery compliance costs - the elements of and estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, J.G.; Swain, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    A recent National Petroleum Council study identified the environmental costs facing the refining industry from 1995 through 2010. Four broad areas were identified: air pollution control, wastewater treatment, solid and hazardous waste treatment, and occupational health and safety. This paper will present the technical issues and engineering information required to produce an estimate of cost impact. For each of the four areas of impact, the kinds of information required of the refinery manager in order to build an estimate will be tabulated and discussed. For air pollution control, issues will include size and type of unit, product mix of output, and the impact of facility location relative to non-attainment issues. For wastewater, issues will include stormwater segregation, benzene NESHAP, and other treatment system requirements. For hazardous waste treatment, issues will include groundwater protection and leak detection and contaminated soil segregation. For occupational health and safety, issues will include process changes required and worker training required. For all issues, the major dollar factors will be identified as a function of the technical data available. The refinery costs in each areas were estimated for seven groups of refinery sizes. The presentation will conclude with tabulation of cost estimates for each area of investigation and each refinery group. The total costs for each refinery group over the fifteen-year period will also be presented

  13. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, John D.

    2004-01-01

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production

  14. An overview of US refinery configurations and operations (within western Canada supply orbit) : Who currently uses bitumen and SCO? Just how much heavy oil/bitumen is it possible to accept?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, L.

    1997-01-01

    A list of US refiners, names and locations that take relatively major heavy crude oil and synthetic crude oil (SCO) volumes from Western Canada was provided. It was suggested that in the near future, production of Canadian heavy crude will not be constrained by supply limits but rather by refinery process capabilities. An overview of refining capacity and heavy oil processing capacity by PADD in kbpsd was presented. The Northern Tier US States (PADD II, PADD IV and Washington/Oregon in PADD V) constitute a total of 4.4 million bpcd refining capacity at 95 per cent utilization. Of this, about 3.4 million bpcd is in PADD II. Montana in PADD IV is the only area dependent solely on Canadian heavy crude supplies. Main competition for Canadian heavy crude comes from Alaska, Mexico, and Venezuela. 1 tab., 2 figs

  15. Prospective techno-economic and environmental assessment of carbon capture at a refinery and CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Dacosta, C.; Van Der Spek, Mijndert; Hung, Christine Roxanne; Oregionni, Gabriel David; Skagestad, Ragnhild; Parihar, Prashant; Gokak, D. T.; Strømman, Anders Hammer; Ramirez Ramirez, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    CO2 utilisation is gaining interest as a potential element towards a sustainable economy. CO2 can be used as feedstock in the synthesis of fuels, chemicals and polymers. This study presents a prospective assessment of carbon capture from a hydrogen unit at a refinery, where

  16. Aquifer test plan for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.C.; Hartman, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This test plan directs hydrologic testing activities planned at three existing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) wells in the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site. Three additional wells will be installed near these existing wells and used as additional testing arid observation points during the field activities. Figure 1 shows the locations of the three test sites. A primary objective of the testing program is to provide more detailed hydraulic characterization information for the unconfined aquifer and targeted test sites than provided by the initial reconnaissance-level slug testing of Vukelich. A second objective is to evaluate the applicability of slug interference and dipole flow tests for detailed hydraulic characterization in an unconfined aquifer. This aquifer testing program will also be useful for substantiating hydraulic conductivities reported from previous slug tests and evaluating the effects of filter pack volume/configuration on slug test data. Vukelich recommended additional testing to address the latter two issues

  17. The regulation of uranium refineries and conversion facilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, J.P.

    1986-04-01

    The nuclear regulatory process as it applies to uranium refineries and conversion facilities in Canada is reviewed. In the early 1980s, Eldorado Resources Limited proposed to construct and operate new facilities for refining yellowcake and for the production of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). These projects were subject to regulation by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). A description of the AECB's comprehensive licensing process covering all stages of siting, construction, operation and eventual decommissioning of nuclear facilities is traced as it was applied to the Eldorado projects. The AECB's concern with occupational health and safety, with public health and safety and with the protection of the environment in so far as it affects public health and safety is emphasized. Some regulatory difficulties encountered during the project's development which led to opening up the licensing process to public input and closer coordination of regulatory activities with other provincial and federal regulatory agencies are described. The Board's regulatory operational compliance program for uranium refineries and conversion facilities is summarized

  18. Allocating the CO2 emissions of an oil refinery with Aumann-Shapley prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, A.

    2005-06-01

    Linear programming is widely used by multi-product oil-refining firms, which minimize a refinery's variable cost under a set of constraints. In addition to operating costs, this variable cost can include the cost associated with the refinery's CO 2 emissions. We suggest a quite general approach combining use of Aumann-Shapley cost-sharing method and breakdown of the objective function of the linear program. This approach determines an appropriate rule for the allocation of the refinery's CO 2 emissions (or, in general, variable costs) among the various finished products, which can be used for purposes of Life Cycle Assessment. A numerical application to a simplified refining model is presented. (author)

  19. Impact of Energy Production on Respiratory Outcomes: Evidence from the Flandres Refinery in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaine, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of sulphur dioxide (SO_2) concentration on respiratory admissions in the north of France at municipal level from 2007 to 2011. The Flandres refinery closure in the north of France, in September 2009, is used as a natural experiment. First, this study shows that the halt in the refinery's operations, followed by its closure in 2010, reduces SO_2 concentration. We then use this exogenous shock to analyse the health impact of the high SO_2 concentration generated by energy production. Our estimates highlight that the reduction in SO_2 concentration has significantly reduced the severity of respiratory outcomes. Additionally, the refinery closure has had statistically significant effects on the revenue of municipalities in the area

  20. Feasibility study on energy saving and reduction of CO2 emissions at Pertamina's Cilacap Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  1. Integrating planning and scheduling in an oil refinery with a rolling horizon approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, E.; Kaland, M.; van Elzakker, M.A.H.; Fransoo, J.C.; Meuldijk, J.; Klemes, J.J.; Varbanov, P.S.; Liew, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Decisions in an oil refinery are made at three levels: planning, scheduling and control. Existing facilities have to be operated close to their maximum capacity, while continuously responding to cost fluctuations. In many of the currently reported planning models each decision level has its own

  2. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Hoffmann, Jessica; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study on hydrotreatment of ligno-cellulosic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) bio-crude to achieve a bio-feed compatible for co-processing at a refinery was made to investigate the effect of operating temperature, pressure and hydrogen to oil ratio. Using a conventional NiMo/Al2O3 h...

  3. 40 CFR 63.7886 - What are the general standards I must meet for my affected remediation material management units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... refinery) is no longer subject to this subpart. (3) If the remediation material management unit is also... emissions limitations and work practice standards under the other subpart (e.g., you install and operate the required air pollution controls or have implemented the required work practice to reduce HAP emissions to...

  4. 100-HR-2 Operable Unit Focused Feasibility study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) Feasibility Study (FS) includes development and screening of alternatives (Phases 1 and 2) and the detailed analysis of alternatives (Phase 3). This focused feasibility study (FFS) was conducted for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. This FFS constitutes the Phase 3 portion of the FS process for the remedial alternatives initially developed and screened in the 100 Area Feasibility Study Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1993a). The objective of this OU-specific FFS is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures (IRM) for the seven IRM candidate sites associated with the 100-HR-2 OU. The IRM candidate waste sites identified in Table ES-1 are determined in the limited field investigation (DOE-RL 1994b). Site profiles are developed for each of these waste sites. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented. A summary for the 100-HR-2 IRM candidate waste site is as follows: none of the waste sites require additional alternative development. six of the seven waste sites directly plug into the waste site group alternatives. The site-specific detailed analysis is conducted, referencing the waste site group analysis as appropriate. A waste site detailed analysis summary is presented in Table ES-1.A comparative analysis of remedial alternatives is presented for each waste site. A summary of the comparative analysis is presented in Table ES-2

  5. Biodegradation of oil refinery wastes under OPA and CERCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banipal, B.S.; Myers, J.M.; Fisher, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    Land treatment of oil refinery wastes has been used as a disposal method for decades. More recently, numerous laboratory studies have been performed attempting to quantify degradation rates of more toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This paper discusses the results of the full-scale aerobic biodegradation operations using land treatment at the Macmillan Ring-Free Oil refining facility. The tiered feasibility approach in the evaluation of using biodegradation as a treatment method to achieve site-specific clean-up including pilot scale biodegradation operations is included in an earlier paper. Analytical results of biodegradation indicate that degradation rates observed in the laboratory can be met and exceeded under field conditions and that the site-specific cleanup criteria can be attained within a proposed project time. Also presented are degradation rates and half-lives for PAHs for which cleanup criteria has been established. PAH degradation rates and half-life values are determined and compared with the laboratory degradation rates and half-life values which used similar oil refinery wastes by other investigators (API 1987)

  6. Improving secondary clarifier performance at the Oakville Oil Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, S.M.; Bagley, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the relationship between settleability and the physical properties of activated sludge, to correlate settleability and key operational parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration at the aeration basin inlet and to determine potential operational improvements to the Oakville Oil Refinery Wastewater Treatment Plant. Nine separate sets of stirred sludge-settling tests were conducted over a six-month period to measure settleability. The stirred sludge volume index (SSVI), the zone settling constants, and the Zheng-Bagley compression constants were determined. State point analyses were conducted to determine the maximum solids flux of the clarifiers. The concentrations of Al, Mn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, and K were determined to identify potential correlations to settling characteristics. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted from the sludge and analyzed for the same reason. The performance of the clarifiers was highly variable during the period examined. As the refinery process flows and effluent streams changed, influent COD increased, from an average of 180mg/L to 600mg/L. Concurrently the settleability of the sludge decreased from excellent (SSVI = 68mL/g) to very poor (150mL/g), perhaps as the result of under aeration. State point analyses indicated that the clarifiers are under-sized for process upsets of this magnitude. (author)

  7. Improving secondary clarifier performance at the Oakville Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, S.M.; Bagley, D.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the relationship between settleability and the physical properties of activated sludge, to correlate settleability and key operational parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration at the aeration basin inlet and to determine potential operational improvements to the Oakville Oil Refinery Wastewater Treatment Plant. Nine separate sets of stirred sludge-settling tests were conducted over a six-month period to measure settleability. The stirred sludge volume index (SSVI), the zone settling constants, and the Zheng-Bagley compression constants were determined. State point analyses were conducted to determine the maximum solids flux of the clarifiers. The concentrations of Al, Mn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, and K were determined to identify potential correlations to settling characteristics. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted from the sludge and analyzed for the same reason. The performance of the clarifiers was highly variable during the period examined. As the refinery process flows and effluent streams changed, influent COD increased, from an average of 180mg/L to 600mg/L. Concurrently the settleability of the sludge decreased from excellent (SSVI = 68mL/g) to very poor (150mL/g), perhaps as the result of under aeration. State point analyses indicated that the clarifiers are under-sized for process upsets of this magnitude. (author)

  8. [Occupational accidents in an oil refinery in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carlos Augusto Vaz de; Freitas, Carlos Machado de

    2002-10-01

    Work in oil refineries involves the risk of minor to major accidents. National data show the impact of accidents on this industry. A study was carried out to describe accident profile and evaluate the adequacy of accident reporting system. Data on all accidents reported in an oil refinery in the state of Rio de Janeiro for the year 1997 were organized and analyzed. The study population consisted of 153 injury cases, 83 hired and 69 contracted workers. The variables were: type of accident, operation mode and position of the worker injured. Among hired workers, minor accidents predominated (54.2%) and they occurred during regular operation activities (62.9%). Among contracted workers, there also predominated minor accidents (75.5%) in a higher percentage, but they occurred mainly during maintenance activities (96.8%). The study results showed that there is a predominance of accidents in lower hierarchy workers, and these accidents occur mainly during maintenance activities. There is a need to improve the company's accident reporting system and accident investigation procedures.

  9. Biodegradation of oil refinery wastes under OPA and CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamblin, W.W.; Banipal, B.S.; Myers, J.M. [Ecology and Environment, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Land treatment of oil refinery wastes has been used as a disposal method for decades. More recently, numerous laboratory studies have been performed attempting to quantify degradation rates of more toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This paper discusses the results of the fullscale aerobic biodegradation operations using land treatment at the Macmillan Ring-Free Oil refining facility. The tiered feasibility approach of evaluating biodegradation as a treatment method to achieve site-specific cleanup criteria, including pilot biodegradation operations, is discussed in an earlier paper. Analytical results of biodegradation indicate that degradation rates observed in the laboratory can be met and exceeded under field conditions and that site-specific cleanup criteria can be attained within a proposed project time. Also prevented are degradation rates and half-lives for PAHs for which cleanup criteria have been established. PAH degradation rates and half-life values are determined and compared with the laboratory degradation rates and half-life values which used similar oil refinery wastes by other in investigators (API 1987).

  10. Refinery siting workbook: appendices C to O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Applicable laws and permits available for the selection and building of petroleum refineries are enclosed. A glossary of pertinent terms is also included. References related to the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Toxic Substance Control Act, and Wetlands and Coastal Zone are included. Permit information is also presented. (DC)

  11. Operator support system for power unit control in abnormal modes of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurka, J.

    1993-01-01

    I and C system technology, partly Soviet and partly Czechoslovakian, used on the NPP Dukovany units represents the control technology standard of late 70-ties and it becomes the weak part of the whole system. The modernization of the system, therefore, is necessary and it is already in preparation. The specification of both the scope and the depth of upgrading/replacement is being carried out within the framework of the PHARE program. The second phase of the program aimed at the final specifications of requirements on new I and C system is in progress. The output will serve as detailed specification for bid invitation for control system supplier. Parallely, the preparation of specification for WWER-440 full-scope plant simulator for operator training is in progress as well. In the case of two units with WWER-1000 MW reactors, the completion of construction of which was even threaten for a certain period of time, essential changes have taken place in the design of both the I and C systems and the reactor core. 7 figs

  12. 40 CFR 60.105a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units. (iii) The owner or operator shall install, operate... for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). 60.105a Section 60.105a... and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). (a) FCCU and...

  13. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to provide an evaluation of the... License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites (Package). ML112630039 Federal...

  14. 2016 Highlights of Ferry Operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This publication highlights data collected by the 2016 NCFO. The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) conducted the NCFO from April through November 2016, collecting the operational characteristics of the 2015 calendar year ferry operations.

  15. Profitability diagnosis of refinery and improvement proposal; Seiyusho no shueki shindan to kaizen teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, H.

    2000-07-01

    Based on consulting service RPS-J under joint operation of Nikki, UOP LLC of U.S.A. and Nikki Universal, approaching ways applied for profitability improvement and improvement proposal for refineries and analyzing techniques used for resolution of process bottlenecks were described. In RPS-J, themes of (1) energy saving, (2) quality upgrading, (3) improvement of disintegrating ratio, (4) reduction of give-away, (5) improvement of equipment operation ratio, (6) reduction of maintenance cost, (7) effective utilization of catalysts, are considered for profitability improvement fields. Procedures from idea excavation for profitability improvement to realization of profitability improvement are carried out in the order of, (1) Grasping of the present state, (2) Excavation of improving items and selection, (3) Quantitative evaluation of draft profitability improvement plan and focusing, (4) Profitability improvement by operation improvement, (5) Profitability improvement by minor improvement, (6) Profitability improvement in middle- and long-term vision, (7) Final focusing by feasibility study. Afterwards, examination to economically solve bottlenecks of critical facilities, examination on bottlenecks of distillation tower and refining tower and utility analysis are carried out. RPS-J was already applied to 4 refineries including Muroran Refinery and Negishi Refinery of Nisseki Mitsubishi, and profitability improvement themes were found to improve profitability of 50 to 150 cents per barrel. (NEDO)

  16. Unit information system operational displays for VVER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikanov, S.S.; Carrera, J.P.; Gordon, P.

    1997-01-01

    The role of high level operational displays is explained as well as the principles of the design of such displays. The tasks of WWER operating personnel are described and the support provided by operational displays is highlighted. The architecture of the displays is also dealt with. (A.K.)

  17. Carbon flow analysis and Carbon emission reduction of FCC in Chinese oil refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fengrui; Wei, Na; Ma, Danzhu; Liu, Guangxin; Wu, Ming; Yue, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The major problem of the energy production in oil refineries is the high emission of CO2 in China. The fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCC) is the key source of carbon emission in the oil refineries. According to the statistical data, the carbon emission of FCC unit accounts for more than 31% for the typical oil refineries. The carbon flow of FCC in the typical Chinese oil refineries were evaluated and analysed, which aimed at the solution of CO2 emission reduction. The method of substances flow analysis (SFA) and the mathematical programming were used to evaluate the carbon metabolism and optimize the carbon emission. The results indicated that the combustion emission of the reaction-regeneration subsystem (RRS) was the major source of FCC. The quantity of CO2 emission of RSS was more than 90%. The combustion efficiency and the amount of residual oil affected the carbon emission of RRS most according to the optimized analysis of carbon emission reduction. Moreover, the fractionation subsystem (TFS) had the highest environmental efficiency and the absorption-stabilization subsystem (ASS) had the highest resource efficiency (approximately to 1) of carbon.

  18. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  19. Operative training in otolaryngology in the United Kingdom: a specialist registrar survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgalas, Christos; Hadjihannas, Edward; Ghufoor, Khalid; Pracy, Paul; Papesch, Michael

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the current status of operative training for otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Web-based questionnaire survey. PARTICIPANTS: All otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The overall satisfaction with

  20. Effect of adoption of gas turbine in oil refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Hiroto

    1988-08-01

    With progress in energy saving, and increase in automation in facilities, the dependence on electric power increases relative steam power. Further in order to reduce the production cost, the adoption of gas turbine combined cycle system, mainly aimed at power generation, is considered to be most suitable. This adoption, accompanied with the utilization of refinery offgas, dresults in a reduction in unit power generation cost, by increasing the ratio of domestic power generation. The gas turbine using deethanizing tower offgas as main fuel and butane as auxillary fuel, the combined cycle system, where steam produced from the turbine waste heat boiler drives the existing back pressure turbine, was constituted. The generator is 118 kVA in capacity. Against the maximum power demand being 16,500 kWh in the oil refinery, the obtainment of 11,000 kWh by the gas turbine and 2,500 kWh by the back pressure turbine was assured, with a considerable lowering in power to be purchased. (7 figs, 1 tab, 1 ref)

  1. How Can the United States Army Improve Human Intelligence in Peace Operations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, David

    2003-01-01

    .... These secondary collectors, such as the Military Police, Psychological Operations, Civil Affairs and Line Units conduct liaison with international and local police forces, host-government official...

  2. USE OF ELECTRONIC CASE HISTORIES IN OPERATION OF MEDICAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Boltenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of electronic case histories to medical units including TB units is one of the factors allowing enhancing quality of medical care provision. Use of the electronic case histories provides conditions for information transparency improvement in a medical unit: financial, statistic and medico-technological. Information contained in the electronic case history is important and required both for internal and external use. Use of electronic case histories contributes to reduction of labor costs of workers in medical units, provides fast access of medical personnel to information, formalizes data, provides preservation, invariance and reliability of the information entered into electronic case history during the whole period of storage, regulates the access rights and confidentiality, personifies data and allows unifying health data of all Russian population into one pool.

  3. Design and operation of gas-heated thermal pumping units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostek, H A [Ruhrgas A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-03-01

    The first gas heat pump systems have been operated since spring 1977. These are applied in living houses, school, swimming pools, and sport places and administration buildings. The heating performance of these systems is 150-3800 kW. Two of these systems, one in a swimming pool and one in a house for several families are operating, each of them for one heating period. The operational experiences with these gas heat pumps are reported on, basing on measurement results. The experience gathered from the operation of gas heat pumps systems is applied to the planning of other plants. The development of a standardized gas heat pump-series is emphasized.

  4. Electrochemical removal of phenol from oil refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, O; Amin, N K; El-Ashtoukhy, E-S Z

    2009-04-30

    This study explores the possibility of using electrocoagulation to remove phenol from oil refinery waste effluent using a cell with horizontally oriented aluminum cathode and a horizontal aluminum screen anode. The removal of phenol was investigated in terms of various parameters namely: pH, operating time, current density, initial phenol concentration and addition of NaCl. Removal of phenol during electrocoagulation was due to combined effect of sweep coagulation and adsorption. The results showed that, at high current density and solution pH 7, remarkable removal of 97% of phenol after 2h can be achieved. The rate of electrocoagulation was observed to increase as the phenol concentration decreases; the maximum removal rate was attained at 30 mg L(-1) phenol concentration. For a given current density using an array of closely packed Al screens as anode was found to be more effective than single screen anode, the percentage phenol removal was found to increase with increasing the number of screens per array. After 2h of electrocoagulation, 94.5% of initial phenol concentration was removed from the petroleum refinery wastewater. Energy consumption and aluminum Electrode consumption were calculated per gram of phenol removed. The present study shows that, electrocoagulation of phenol using aluminum electrodes is a promising process.

  5. Monitoring coastal pollution associated with the largest oil refinery complex of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Croquer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated pollution levels in water and sediments of Península de Paraguaná and related these levels with benthic macrofauna along a coastal area where the largest Venezuelan oil refineries have operated over the past 60 years. For this, the concentration of heavy metals, of hydrocarbon compounds and the community structure of the macrobenthos were examined at 20 sites distributed along 40 km of coastline for six consecutive years, which included windy and calm seasons. The spatial variability of organic and inorganic compounds showed considerably high coastal pollution along the study area, across both years and seasons. The southern sites, closest to the refineries, had consistently higher concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds in water and sediments when compared to those in the north. The benthic community was dominated by polychaetes at all sites, seasons and years, and their abundance and distribution were significantly correlated with physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Sites close to the oil refineries were consistently dominated by families known to tolerate xenobiotics, such as Capitellidae and Spionidae. The results from this study highlight the importance of continuing long-term environmental monitoring programs to assess the impact of effluent discharge and spill events from the oil refineries that operate in the western coast of Paraguaná, Venezuela.

  6. Operational test procedure for SY tank farm replacement exhauster unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.

    1995-01-01

    This operational test procedure will verify that the remaining functions not tested per WHC-SD-WM-ATP-080, or components disturbed during final installation, as well as interfaces with other tank farm equipment and remote monitoring stations are operating correctly

  7. BN-600 power unit 15-year operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraev, O.M.; Oshkanov, N.N.; Vylomov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Comprehensive experience has been gained with the operating fast reactor BN-600 with a power out of 600 MWe. This paper includes important performance results and gives also an overview of the experience gained from BN-600 NPP commercial operation during 15 years. (author). 2 figs, 1 tab

  8. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement.

  9. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement

  10. 40 CFR 80.94 - Requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection or audit if a baseline petition has not been approved, and any work papers related to refinery... foreign refineries. 80.94 Section 80.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... for gasoline produced at foreign refineries. (a) Definitions. (1) A foreign refinery is a refinery...

  11. Information Operations: Countering the Asymmetric Threat to the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKeown, Wendell

    1999-01-01

    .... The cornerstone of Joint Vision 2010 is information superiority. Every facet of future military operations will be critically linked to an aggregate cyber network that relies on critical national infrastructures to provide for information superiority...

  12. An Examination of the United States Air Service's Logistics Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    This historical study details the U.S. Air Service's logistics operations at home and abroad in an attempt to determine the relationship between the process and more recently established logistic principles...

  13. The impact of CO2 taxation on the configuration of new refineries: An application to Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Gabriel Lourenco; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates the impact of pricing CO 2 emissions over the configuration of new refinery complexes in their conceptual phase. Two refineries' schemes were simulated through a linear programming optimization model in order to compare the optimum configuration obtained before and after the input of different CO 2 prices. The cases analyzed represent refining projects to be located in Brazil, a growing market for fuels and petrochemical feedstocks, as well as an oil producing country with rising crude exports. After 2012, emerging countries, such as Brazil, may adopt carbon emission reduction targets. Therefore, it is worth analyzing the impact of pricing CO 2 emissions in these countries, where the majority of new refining projects will be located. Our findings indicate that the initial refinery configurations proposed are quite rigid technologically for CO 2 prices up to US$ 100/t CO 2 . For CO 2 prices higher than US$ 100/t CO 2 , refineries reduced their emissions by increasing the consumption of natural gas used to produce hydrogen, and through changes in the original configurations towards less-energy consuming process units. Promising technological advances, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), can also diminish the rigidity of the model and facilitate actions to curb carbon emissions.

  14. 7 CFR 631.22 - Access to operating unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 631.22... unit for the purpose of ascertaining the accuracy of any representations made in a contract or leading up to a contract, and as to the performance of the terms and conditions of the contract. Access shall...

  15. The acid refinery wastes in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Ladomersky, J.; Hroncova, E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of our paper is to assign ways and means of the pollution extension from the old landfills of the petrochemical sludges. In the past the sludges were deposited in sludge landfills. Nowadays remediation of the landfills is a key problem. We analyse condition of the refinery sludges latching. We found out the meaning influences of leachate time, temperature, concentration and liquid kind. (authors)

  16. Interim remedial measures proposed plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this interim remedial measures (IRM) proposed plan is to present and solicit public comments on the IRM planned for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Washington state. The 200-ZP-1 is one of two operable units that envelop the groundwater beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  17. Survey method for radiological surveys of 300 FF-1 Operable Unit soil and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greif, A.A.

    1997-06-01

    This technical basis document is to be used to survey soils at the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit during remediation of the site. Its purpose is to provide a basis for the survey methods to be employed by the Radiological Control Technician to determine if excavated areas require continued remediation in accordance with the Record of Decision for the operable unit

  18. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Net electrical energy generated by Unit 1 was 30,399 MWH with the generator on line 334.5 hrs. Unit 2 generated 2,481,014 MWH with the generator on line 4,915.53 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns and power reductions, maintenance, power generation, modifications, changes to operational procedures, radiation exposures, and leak rate testing

  19. Increasing the flexibility of base-load generating units in operation on fossil fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girshfel' d, V Ya; Khanaev, V A; Volkova, E D; Gorelov, V A; Gershenkroi, M L

    1979-01-01

    Increasing the flexibility of base-load generating units operating on fossil fuel by modifying them is a necessary measure. The highest economic effect is attained with modification of gas- and oil-fired generating units in the Western United Power Systems of the European part of the SPSS. On the basis of available experience, 150- and 200-MW units can be extensively used to regulate the power in the European part of the SPSS through putting them into reserve for the hours of the load dip at night. The change under favorable conditions of 150- and 200-MW units operating on coal to a district-heating operating mode does not reduce the possibilities for flexible operation of these units because it is possible greatly to unload the turbines while the minimum load level of the pulverized fuel fired boiler is retained through transferring a part of the heat load to the desuperheater. It is necessary to accumulate and analyze experience with operation of generating units (especially of supercritical units) with regular shutdowns and starts of groups of units and to solve the problems of modification of generating units, with differentiation with respect to types of fuel and to the united power supply system.

  20. Metal leaching from refinery waste hydroprocessing catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafi, Meena; Rana, Mohan S

    2018-05-18

    The present study aims to develop an eco-friendly methodology for the recovery of nickel (Ni), molybdenum (Mo), and vanadium (V) from the refinery waste spent hydroprocessing catalyst. The proposed process has two stages: the first stage is to separate alumina, while the second stage involves the separation of metal compounds. The effectiveness of leaching agents, such as NH 4 OH, (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 , and (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 , for the extraction of Mo, V, Ni, and Al from the refinery spent catalyst has been reported as a function of reagent concentration (0.5 to 2.0 molar), leaching time (1 to 6 h), and temperature (35 to 60°C). The optimal leaching conditions were achieved to obtain the maximum recovery of Mo, Ni, and V metals. The effect of the mixture of multi-ammonium salts on the metal extraction was also studied, which showed an adverse effect for Ni and V, while marginal improvement was observed for Mo leaching. The ammonium salts can form soluble metal complexes, in which stability or solubility depends on the nature of ammonium salt and the reaction conditions. The extracted metals and support can be reused to synthesize a fresh hydroprocessing catalyst. The process will reduce the refinery waste and recover the expensive metals. Therefore, the process is not only important from an environmental point of view but also vital from an economic perspective.

  1. First refinery opened in Kyrgyz Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The first oil refinery in the Kyrgyz Republic was opened on 5 October 1996 in Jalalabad in a ceremony attended by the President of the Central Asian country, Askar Akaev. The 10,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) modular refinery has been financed by the Canadian oil junior, Kyrgoil Corporation, which has also formed a joint venture with the national oil company, Kyrgyzneft, to redevelop where viable the 628 underperforming oil wells in the Kyrgyz Republic sector of the Fergana Basin. The opening is the first significant milestone in a programme initiated by Akaev to develop the oil production industry in the Kyrgyz Republic. Currently the country imports more than 50,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day, mostly from Kazakhstan. In the year ending March 1996, 110 million was spent on imports of fuel products, an amount that exceeds the trade deficit over the same period. Built in only eight months, the Pound 12 million refinery will gradually be brought to full capacity. By January, it is expected that more than 5,000 barrels of gasoline, diesel and fuel oil will be produced every day. Although there is some crude oil in storage, the ramping of production is tied into the programme of workovers of the existing wells. There are no current plans to import crude, although most of the infrastructure is in place should it become necessary. (author)

  2. An Approximation Solution to Refinery Crude Oil Scheduling Problem with Demand Uncertainty Using Joint Constrained Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Genke; Xu, Guanglin; Pan, Changchun

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand unc...

  3. Twenty years of operation of WWER 440/230 units in Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    1998-01-01

    It is twenty years this year since the first unit WWER 440 of Slovak Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice was commissioned. There are four units WWER 440 in operation Jaslovske Bohunice site. First two units of older soviet PWR design V-230 (also known as V-1) and other two units of newer V-213 type (also known as V-2). The goal of this presentation is to summarize and evaluate the operation of Unit 1 and 2 for this period of time and mainly to describe what has been done and what is planned to be done to increase the nuclear safety and operational reliability of both units. The operating organization and regulatory authority assume that an internationally acceptable level of safety will be reached by accomplishing of the upgrading program.(author)

  4. AN OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR A COAL MINING PRODUCTION UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Visser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The coal mining industry faces increased pressure for higher quality coal at lower cost and increased volumes. To satisfy these requirements the industry needs technically skilled first line supervisors with operational management skills. Most first line supervisors possess the necessary technical, but not the required operational management skills. Various operational management philosophies, describing world-class operational management practices exist; however, it is not possible to implement these philosophies as-is in a mining environment due to the various differences between manufacturing and mining. The solution is to provide an operational management model, adapted from these philosophies, to first line supervisors in the coal mining industry.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die steenkoolmynbedryf ervaar groeiende druk van die mark vir hoër gehalte steenkool, laer koste en verhoogde volumes. Om hierdie behoefte te bevredig benodig die myn tegniesgeskoolde eerstelyntoesighouers met bedryfsbestuursvaardighede. Ongelukkig beskik die meeste toesighouers wel oor die nodige tegniese kennis, maar nie die nodige bedryfsbestuursvaardighede nie. Daar bestaan verskeie bedryfsbestuursfilosofieë wat wêreldklas bedryfsbestuurspraktyke omskryf. Dit is egter nie moontlik om die filisofieë net so in die mynbedryf te implimenteer nie a.g.v. die verskille tussen vervaardiging en mynbou. Die oplossing is om ‘n bedryfsbestuurmodel wat op hierdie filosofieë geskoei is, aan eerstelyntoesighouers in die steenkoolbedryf te verskaf.

  5. Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Unit 1 successfully completed its first core cycle with unit availability of 95.2 percent. Saltwater leakage into the condenser continues to be a problem. Unit 2 achieved initial criticality November 30 and was initially paralleled to the Baltimore system on December 7. Information is presented concerning operations, specifications, maintenance, shutdowns and power reduction, and personnel exposures

  6. Occupational exposure to benzene at the ExxonMobil refinery in Baytown, TX (1978-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Shannon H; Panko, Julie M; Unice, Ken M; Burns, Amanda M; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Booher, Lindsay E; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2011-01-01

    Although occupational benzene exposure of refinery workers has been studied for decades, no extensive analysis of historical industrial hygiene data has been performed focusing on airborne concentrations at specific refineries and tasks. This study characterizes benzene exposures at the ExxonMobil Baytown, TX, refinery from 1978 to 2006 to understand the variability in workers' exposures over time and during different job tasks. Exposures were grouped by operational status, job title, and tasks. More than 9000 industrial hygiene air samples were evaluated; approximately 4000 non-task (> 3 h) and 1000 task-related (work areas, and 16 task bins (when applicable). Process technicians were sampled most frequently, resulting in the following mean benzene concentrations by area: hydrofiner (n=245, mean=1.3 p.p.m.), oil movements (n=286, mean=0.23 p.p.m.), reformer (n=575, mean=0.10 p.p.m.), tank farm (n=9, mean=0.65 p.p.m.), waste treatment (n=446, mean=0.13 p.p.m.), and other areas (n=460, mean=0.062 p.p.m.). The most frequently sampled task was sample collection (n=218, mean=0.40 p.p.m.). Job title and area did not significantly impact task-related exposures. Airborne concentrations were significantly lower after 1990 than before 1990. Results of this task-focused study may be useful when analyzing benzene exposures at other refineries.

  7. Operational challenges and opportunities in pastured poultry operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoraibi, C; Pitesky, M; Dailey, N; Niemeier, D

    2017-06-01

    As pastured poultry production has gained increased popularity in the United States in recent years, there is a growing need for research and outreach efforts aimed at this sector of poultry production. In order to get familiarized with American pastured poultry producers, we conducted an online questionnaire aimed primarily at evaluating what operational challenges are faced by producers and what educational opportunities should be initiated by researchers. Results showed that pastured poultry farms largely vary in total number of acres farmed and total number of birds kept. The vast majority of farms (96%) rotate their flocks on pasture and include livestock species (78%) in their rotation systems. Mobile coops are the preferred housing option provided by producers (88%). The most common source of mortality listed by respondents was predation (52%), followed by "other" (32%). However, predation was not selected as the most important challenge by the majority of respondents. Sixty-four percent of participants instead mentioned providing adequate feed at reasonable cost as the major challenge in raising poultry on pasture, followed again by "other" (52%) and lack of processing facilities for small numbers of birds (40%). Finally, the topics considered by respondents as the most helpful to learn more about were how to improve egg production rate and/or feed conversion ratio (67%), followed by how to improve pasture condition and optimum vegetative cover all year round (62%). Despite its small sample size, this study's results provide some valuable insights of challenges encountered and information needed on pastured poultry farms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Net electric power generated in 1975 was 1,074,401 MW(e) with the generator on line 4,680.7 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, radioactive effluents and waste shipments, health physics, shutdowns, and personnel exposures

  9. Startup operation of Browns Ferry's 1152-MW nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calhoun, J.R.; Green, H.J.; Beers, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of startup operation for the Browns Ferry-1 reactor, and comparisons are made with the startup of Browns Ferry-2. Included are comments on the selection of the BWR type steam supply system, reactor fueling, problems encountered, and plant availability

  10. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Initial criticality occurred in March and start-up testing continued for most of the year. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns, maintenance, design changes, personnel radiation exposures, thermal transients, safety/relief valve malfunctions, condenser tube leaks, and recirculation pump seal failures

  11. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Net electrical power generated was 2,587,248 MWH(e) with the reactor on line 6,242.4 hr. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, and reportable occurrences

  12. Fiscal 1998 joint promotion basic research report. Energy saving project for Achinsk refinery in Russia; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Roshia Achinsuku seiyujo shoene project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For prevention of global warming by greenhouse effect gas, study was made on energy saving measures for Achinsk refinery in Russia. Achinsk refinery is a relatively new plant put into operation in 1983, however, because of no various equipment for use combustion heat effectively, its average thermal efficiency is as low as 60%-70%, resulting in fuel consumption more than necessary one. Based on the study result, the following remodeling designs were made: Improvement of a heat exchange efficiency by relocation of heat exchangers to reduce fuel consumption of a heating furnace as much as possible, conversion of an existing heating furnace based on an old design concept to an advanced one, installation of a waste heat recovery system including a preheating convection unit and air preheater, reinforcement of heating furnace wall insulator, installation of an optimum control system for furnace operation, and improvement of a fuel supply system efficiency. This design showed possible reduction of heating furnace load, and possible furnace thermal efficiency of 90%. (NEDO)

  13. Cognitive model of the power unit operator activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chachko, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Basic notions making it possible to study and simulate the peculiarities of man-operator activity, in particular his way of thiking, are considered. Special attention is paid to cognitive models based on concept of decisive role of knowledge (its acquisition, storage and application) in the man mental processes and activity. The models are based on three basic notions, which are the professional world image, activity strategy and spontaneous decisions

  14. Operations Research and the US (United States) Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-07

    technology "developed more rapidly than it could be absorbed effectively into military tactics and strategy." 4 World War II is usually identified as...Corporation, was formed by the Air Force as a non-profit organization to provide technological advice. 7 By the early 1950’s the public recognized operations... enlight - ening. He recognized the important and clearly distinguishable roles played by the technical analyst and the military decision maker. The systems

  15. Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis of Aiternative Force Structures for Fulfillment of the United States Marine Corps Operational Support Airlift and Search and Rescue Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chase, Eric

    2000-01-01

    This thesis provides a preliminary cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative force structures for the United States Marine Corps operational support airlift and search and rescue missions...

  16. Experimental determinations of the turbine condenser operation at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romascu, Gabriel; Dragusin, Dumitru; Rogociu, Ioan; Macodean, Luminita; Marciulescu, George

    1999-01-01

    The condenser system represents one of the most important BOP (balance of plant) systems of the CANDU 700 MW Unit at Cernavoda NPP. The paper presents theoretical calculation elements, mathematical model for simulation of condenser operation and the results obtained by model implementation as compared to operation data. The model could be adapted to other turbine and operation regime types. (authors)

  17. 14 CFR 375.41 - Agricultural and industrial operations within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural and industrial operations... Agricultural and industrial operations within the United States. Foreign civil aircraft shall not be used for such commercial air operations as crop dusting, pest control, pipeline patrol, mapping, surveying...

  18. Biota of the 300-FF-1 operable unit. [Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Fitzner, R.E.; Brandt, C.A.

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes Task 5a-2 of the Phase I Remedial Investigation -- Operable Unit Characterization of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The ultimate goal of Phase I is to determine the nature and extent of the threat to public health and the environment from releases of hazardous substances from the operable unit. The purpose of Task 5a-2 was to determine what species inhabit the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit and how they use the unit. The focus is on those species listed as endangered or threatened, those that are economically important, or those that constitute significant components of the human food chain. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Operation of the radioactive acid-digestion test unit (RADTU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasewitz, A.G.; Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Ely, P.C.; Richardson, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    At the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, research and development work concerned with the acid digestion of combustible waste with high plutonium content is being carried out. The main objectives are the reduction of the waste volume, the recovery of the plutonium and the transformation of the process residues into a product suitable for final disposal. For this purpose an inactive demonstration plant with a throughput of 1.5 kg/h has been constructed. In the first version, the reactor of this plant was a tray reactor of the HEDL type. During test operations the sedimentation of a residue was observed on the tray. The density of this residue was higher than that of the residue suspended in the reaction acid. Experiments using tantalum oxide (D=8.4 g/cm 3 ) to simulate the plutonium oxide (D=11.5 g/cm 3 ) have verified this observation. This means that in active operation a sedimentation of plutonium oxide on the tray is to be expected. With respect to these results a new reactor was developed where the settling of the residue is avoided by appropriate design and high circulation velocity of the reaction acid. The reactor consists of a tube 50-80 mm in diameter, which is curved to form a closed loop with an arm length of about 1x1 m. Since October 1979 this ring reactor has been under inactive test operation. Its behaviour is very stable. The velocity of the reaction acid in the heater is 0.5-1 m/s. A settling of residues or tantalum oxide has not been observed. The throughput attained is comparable to that of the tray reactor but the space requirement is three times smaller, and the volume of the reaction acid four times smaller. (author)

  20. Radioprotection in the operation of accelerator and plasma units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, K.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively great problems of radioprotection can be caused by accelerator units, above all in the field of science, because all kinds of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances can be produced in all stages of aggregation. Furthermore, activities with relatively long half-lifes are induced by high particle streams with energies beyond the thresholds of many nuclear reations, to that the conditions of a control zone, even of a prohibited zone exist at many points after having switched off the accelerator. Not all of these radioprotective problems can be solved by constructive or technical measures. A sufficient skill of the persons responsible for radioprotection is very important in this connection. Efficient radioprotective measures are only possible by a close cooperation between the radiation protection officer, the competent authority, and the expert. (orig.) [de

  1. United Kingdom: Procurement Related Nuclear Experience (Operating Experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Procurement of nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom is subject to nuclear site licence conditions issued by the Government through the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR). Each nuclear facility in the United Kingdom must have a nuclear site licence and must comply with the 36 general conditions that are set out in the Licence Condition Handbook (October 2014). In addition, the ONR has published a technical assessment guide for the procurement of nuclear safety related items or services; a guide on intelligent customers and a guide on records management also apply to the procurement phase, and ONR interventions look across all three of these documents. Procurement governance arrangements need to be developed (including a policy, manual, procedures and template documents) and approved within the utility company. The ONR monitors the arrangements via interventions and deems the arrangements to be ‘adequate’. Some procurement contracts become lifetime records for nuclear safety related systems and need to be retained while the plant is in place. A formal record retention schedule needs to be created and managed by the procurement organization. The utility company may elect to set hold points during the various procurement stages and, importantly, obtain approval for the contract and its content from all technical stakeholders (with particular emphasis on the engineering, project management and design authority quality functions before contract award). For contracts with high nuclear safety significance, the ONR may enforce additional hold points before and/or after contract award. There is a general requirement that the utility puts in place adequate arrangements to ensure that suitably qualified and experienced personnel are employed to implement adequate management arrangements and to act as an intelligent customer. This includes being able to demonstrate that any contractor or supplier is suitable, capable and experienced, and has the necessary processes and

  2. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra; Kumar, Ravi; Mehlman, Stewart

    2010-06-21

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities

  3. Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen Initial Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  4. Standard formatted data units-control authority operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to illustrate a Control Authority's (CA) possible operation. The document is an interpretation and expansion of the concept found in the CA Procedures Recommendation. The CA is described in terms of the functions it performs for the management and control of data descriptions (metadata). Functions pertaining to the organization of Member Agency Control Authority Offices (MACAOs) (e.g., creating and disbanding) are not discussed. The document also provides an illustrative operational view of a CA through scenarios describing interaction between those roles involved in collecting, controlling, and accessing registered metadata. The roles interacting with the CA are identified by their actions in requesting and responding to requests for metadata, and by the type of information exchanged. The scenarios and examples presented in this document are illustrative only. They represent possible interactions supported by either a manual or automated system. These scenarios identify requirements for an automated system. These requirements are expressed by identifying the information to be exchanged and the services that may be provided by a CA for that exchange.

  5. Preparation status for continuous operation of Kori unit 1 NPP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.H. . E-mail : chechee@khnp.co.kr

    2005-01-01

    Kori unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant is the first commercial operation plant in Korea. In Korea, the life extension of NPP beyond design lifetime reached practically application stage. Preparations status for continuous operation of Kori unit 1, Many researches have demonstrated that life extension beyond design lifetime is possible in terms of technology. This paper is to introduce and to share the continuous operation preparations status and schedule for Kori unit 1 License Renewal Process an additional every 10 years beyond the design life 30 years term. (author)

  6. Evaluation of treatment efficiency of processes for petroleum refinery`s wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, Kean Chin [National Univ. of Singapore, Kent Ridge (Singapore). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    Processes used in the treatment of a petroleum refinery wastewater included initial API oil separator to be followed by dissolved air flotation and extended aeration system. The use of extended aeration biological system proved to be an improvement but not a solution yet in such kind of treatment. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of treatment efficiency of processes for petroleum refinery`s wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, Kean Chin [National Univ. of Singapore, Kent Ridge (Singapore). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Processes used in the treatment of a petroleum refinery wastewater included initial API oil separator to be followed by dissolved air flotation and extended aeration system. The use of extended aeration biological system proved to be an improvement but not a solution yet in such kind of treatment. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Hospital markup and operation outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Faiz; Ejaz, Aslam; Makary, Martin A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-07-01

    Although the price hospitals charge for operations has broad financial implications, hospital pricing is not subject to regulation. We sought to characterize national variation in hospital price markup for major cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal operations and to evaluate perioperative outcomes of hospitals relative to hospital price markup. All hospitals in which a patient underwent a cardiothoracic or gastrointestinal procedure were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2012. Markup ratios (ratio of charges to costs) for the total cost of hospitalization were compared across hospitals. Risk-adjusted morbidity, failure-to-rescue, and mortality were calculated using multivariable, hierarchical logistic regression. Among the 3,498 hospitals identified, markup ratios ranged from 0.5-12.2, with a median markup ratio of 2.8 (interquartile range 2.7-3.9). For the 888 hospitals with extreme markup (greatest markup ratio quartile: markup ratio >3.9), the median markup ratio was 4.9 (interquartile range 4.3-6.0), with 10% of these hospitals billing more than 7 times the Medicare-allowable costs (markup ratio ≥7.25). Extreme markup hospitals were more often large (46.3% vs 33.8%, P markup ratio compared with 19.3% (n = 452) and 6.8% (n = 35) of nonprofit and government hospitals, respectively. Perioperative morbidity (32.7% vs 26.4%, P markup hospitals. There is wide variation in hospital markup for cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal procedures, with approximately a quarter of hospital charges being 4 times greater than the actual cost of hospitalization. Hospitals with an extreme markup had greater perioperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Material Balance And Reaction Kinetics Modeling For Penex Isomerization Process In Daura Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamadi Adel Sharif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penex Deisohexanizer isomerization of light straight run naphtha is a significant process for petroleum refining and proved to be effective technology to produce gasoline components with a high octane number. Modeling of the chemical kinetic reactions is an important tool because it is a better tool for optimization of the experimental data into parameters used for industrial reactors. The present study deals on the isomerization process in Daura refinery. Material balance calculations were done mathematically on the unit for the kinetics prediction purpose. A kinetic mathematical model was derived for the prediction rate constants K1 and K2 and activation energy Ea at operating temperatures range 120-180°C. According to the model, the results show that with increasing of temperature leads to increased K1 directly, where the K2 values proportional inversely. The activation energy results show that Ea1(nC6

  10. Reuse of refinery's tertiary-treated wastewater in cooling towers: microbiological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Vera Lúcia; Veiga, Andréa Azevedo; Mendonça, Rafael Silva; Alves, Andrea Lima; Pagnin, Sérgio; Santiago, Vânia M J

    2015-02-01

    The study was planned to quantify the distribution of bacteria between bulk water and biofilm formed on different materials in an industrial scale cooling tower system of an oil refinery operating with clarified and chlorinated freshwater (CCW) or chlorinated tertiary effluent (TRW) as makeup water. The sessile and planktonic heterotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa densities were significantly higher in the cooling tower supplied with clarified and chlorinated freshwater (CTCW) (p towers, the biofilm density was higher on the surface of glass slides and stainless steel coupons than on the surface of carbon steel coupons. The average corrosion rates of carbon steel coupons (0.4-0.8 millimeters per year (mpy)) and densities of sessile (12-1.47 × 10(3) colony-forming unit (CFU) cm(-1)) and planktonic (0-2.36 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) microbiota remained below of the maximum values of reference used by water treatment companies as indicative of efficient microbial control. These data indicate that the strategies of the water treatment station (WTS) (free chlorine) and industrial wastewater treatment station (IWTS) followed by reverse electrodialysis system (RES) (free chlorine plus chloramine) were effective for the microbiological control of the two makeup water sources.

  11. Prospective techno-economic and environmental assessment of carbon capture at a refinery and CO2 utilisation in polyol synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Dacosta, Cora; Van Der Spek, Mijndert; Hung, Christine Roxanne; Oregionni, Gabriel David; Skagestad, Ragnhild; Parihar, Prashant; Gokak, D. T.; Strømman, Anders Hammer; Ramirez, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    CO2 utilisation is gaining interest as a potential element towards a sustainable economy. CO2 can be used as feedstock in the synthesis of fuels, chemicals and polymers. This study presents a prospective assessment of carbon capture from a hydrogen unit at a refinery, where the CO2 is either stored,

  12. The chemical energy unit partial oxidation reactor operation simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrakin, A. N.; Selivanov, A. A.; Batrakov, P. A.; Sotnikov, D. G.

    2018-01-01

    The chemical energy unit scheme for synthesis gas, electric and heat energy production which is possible to be used both for the chemical industry on-site facilities and under field conditions is represented in the paper. The partial oxidation reactor gasification process mathematical model is described and reaction products composition and temperature determining algorithm flow diagram is shown. The developed software product verification showed good convergence of the experimental values and calculations according to the other programmes: the temperature determining relative discrepancy amounted from 4 to 5 %, while the absolute composition discrepancy ranged from 1 to 3%. The synthesis gas composition was found out practically not to depend on the supplied into the partial oxidation reactor (POR) water vapour enthalpy and compressor air pressure increase ratio. Moreover, air consumption coefficient α increase from 0.7 to 0.9 was found out to decrease synthesis gas target components (carbon and hydrogen oxides) specific yield by nearly 2 times and synthesis gas target components required ratio was revealed to be seen in the water vapour specific consumption area (from 5 to 6 kg/kg of fuel).

  13. Nurse managers' decision-making in daily unit operation in peri-operative settings: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirala, Eriikka; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Lundgrén-Laine, Heljä; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina

    2016-09-01

    To describe the tactical and the operational decisions made by nurse managers when managing the daily unit operation in peri-operative settings. Management is challenging as situations change rapidly and decisions are constantly made. Understanding decision-making in this complex environment helps to develop decision support systems to support nurse managers' operative and tactical decision-making. Descriptive cross-sectional design. Data were collected from 20 nurse managers with the think-aloud method during the busiest working hours and analysed using thematic content analysis. Nurse managers made over 700 decisions; either ad hoc (n = 289), near future (n = 268) or long-term (n = 187) by nature. Decisions were often made simultaneously with many interruptions. Ad hoc decisions covered staff allocation, ensuring adequate staff, rescheduling surgical procedures, confirmation tangible resources and following-up the daily unit operation. Decisions in the near future were: planning of surgical procedures and tangible resources, and planning staff allocation. Long-term decisions were: human recourses, nursing development, supplies and equipment, and finances in the unit. Decision-making was vulnerable to interruptions, which sometimes complicated the managing tasks. The results can be used when planning decision support systems and when defining the nurse managers' tasks in peri-operative settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Female Participation in Formed Police Units: A Report on the Integration of Women in Formed Police Units of Peacekeeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    of Peacekeeping Operations in accor- dance with the principles of United Nations (UN) Res- olution 1325. To address this topic the study (1) briefly...that the eligibility criteria was revised to include women who played support roles to the combatants, as cooks, por- ters, sex slaves or spies

  15. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern

  16. 40 CFR 80.1141 - Small refinery exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a)(1) Gasoline produced at a refinery by a refiner, or foreign refiner (as defined at § 80.1165(a... effective beginning on January 1 of the following calendar year, at which point the gasoline produced at... from the calculation of its Renewable Volume Obligation (under § 80.1107(a)) gasoline from any refinery...

  17. environmental impact of illegal refineries on the vegetation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. O. M. Adesope

    impact of illegal oil refineries in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, the floristic composition of the fresh water swamp forest at refining sites in two river systems and a brackish ... ecosystem of Rivers State, five species of Mangroves and two species of ... Visual observation was made along the Rivers to identify illegal refinery stations.

  18. Analysis of Fukushima unit 2 accident considering the operating conditions of RCIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il, E-mail: sikim@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song-Won; Song, JinHo

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6. • RCIC operating conditions were assumed and best case was selected. • Effect of RCIC operating condition on accident scenario was found. - Abstract: A severe accident in Fukushima occurred on March 11, 2011 and units 1, 2 and 3 were damaged severely. A tsunami following an earthquake made the supply of electricity power stop, and the safety systems, which use AC or DC power in plants could not operate properly. It is supposed that the degree of core degradation of unit 2 is less serious than in the other plants, and it was estimated that the operation of reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at the initial stage of the accident minimized the core damage through decay heat removal. Although the operating conditions of the RCIC system are not known clearly, it can be important to analyze the accident scenario of unit 2. In this study, best case of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was presented considering the operating conditions of the RCIC system. The effects of operating condition on core degradation and fission product release rate to environment were also examined. In addition, importance of torus room flooding level in the accident analysis was discussed. MELCOR 1.8.6 was used in this research, and the geometries of plant and operating conditions of safety system were obtained from TEPCO through OECD/NEA BSAF Project.

  19. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29

    sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid from the extract. When operating the facility will produce 1.5 million gallons per year of butanol and create 16 new “green collar” jobs. Previously, a spare pulp digester was converted to a new extractor, and in 2009 it was demonstrated that a good hemicellulose extract could be produced, while simultaneously producing market pulp. Since then more than 250 hours of operational experience has been acquired by the mill generating a hemicellulose extract while simultaneously producing market pulp at a scale of 1000 tonnes (OD)/day of mixed northern hardwood chips.

  20. Explicit isospectral flows for the AKNS operator on the unit interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, L

    2009-01-01

    We consider the AKNS operator on the unit interval. The boundary conditions are self-adjoint separated boundary conditions. For fixed boundary conditions, we make the formulae for flows induced by general tangent vector fields on isospectral sets explicit

  1. Analysis of the Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) in Small Unit Urban Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cason, Roman

    2004-01-01

    ...) to replace the aging Pioneer Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system. This thesis examines the critical elements this platform must possess to effectively support small units operating in urban environments...

  2. Start-up and commercial operation of the Laguna Verde power plants, unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres R, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The main features of the unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Power Plant is presented as well as the phases of the start-up process. The process includes various steps and tests up to start the commercial operation. (author)

  3. Description of work for 100-DR-2 Operable Unit Vadose Drilling/test pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiknimbalkar, N.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the scope of work for the boreholes/test pits of the 100-DR-2 Operable Unit. Sampling and field activities include: Soil screening; geologic sampling; soil sampling (physical property); analytical sampling and depths; and geophysical logging

  4. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net electrical power generated was 2,415,511 MWH with the generator on line 5,333.6 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, procedure changes, tests, experiments, maintenance, unit shutdowns and power reductions, and radiation doses to personnel

  5. Proposed plan for remedial action at the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contamination present in various components of the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) of the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The QROU consists of (1) residual waste at the quarry proper; (2) the Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of the slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of the evaluations for this operable unit. Remedial activities for the QROU will be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required for the QROU under CERCLA, three major evaluation documents have been prepared to support cleanup decisions for this operable unit. decisions for this operable unit

  6. Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Initial reactor criticality was achieved 12/11/76 and power generation began 12/25/76. Information is presented concerning operation, maintenance, procedure and specification changes, power generation, unit shutdowns and forced power reductions, testing, and personnel radiation exposures

  7. Assegurando o alinhamento estratégico da tecnologia de informação e comunicação: o caso das unidades de refino da Petrobras Ensuring the strategic fit of information and communication technology: the case of Petrobras' oil refinery units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Villas

    2006-02-01

    strategy and the company's strategy, with a view to enhancing organizational effectiveness, became all the more important after the opening of Brazil's oil market in January 2002 and the ensuing increased competition in the oil sector in this country. The objectives of this article are to share the results of a multiple case study of the oil refinery units of Petrobras, and to propose a conceptual framework to help ICT management guarantee strategic fit between its actions and the units' business strategies, in order to optimize ICT's contribution to their performance. The study's results, in keeping with the perceptions of managers from different business areas at Petrobras, showed that there is merely a partial fit between ICT strategies and the business strategy of the oil refinery units at issue. As an additional contribution, the study suggests that the ICT strategic fit be promoted within the context of the evolutionary cycle of the "balanced scorecard" performance appraisal and the strategic management methodology that is being implemented throughout the company.

  8. Management of waste generation in the oil refining industry. The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lage Refinery experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J.I.; Machado, J.B.; Linhares, C.A.; Mazarino, P.R. [PETROBRAS, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). REVAP. Refinaria Henrique Lage

    1993-12-31

    The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lages Refinery - located in Sao Paulo State (Southeast Brazil), has been developing for many years a systematic program for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generation reduction. The waste minimization management program success has been built due to the structure behavioural modifications due to the new environment protection and quality politics; the training and equipment investments, and operational procedures changes. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Management of waste generation in the oil refining industry. The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lage Refinery experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J I; Machado, J B; Linhares, C A; Mazarino, P R [PETROBRAS, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). REVAP. Refinaria Henrique Lage

    1994-12-31

    The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lages Refinery - located in Sao Paulo State (Southeast Brazil), has been developing for many years a systematic program for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generation reduction. The waste minimization management program success has been built due to the structure behavioural modifications due to the new environment protection and quality politics; the training and equipment investments, and operational procedures changes. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Record of Decision for the Ford Building Waste Unit (643-11G) Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.

    2002-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial for the Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU), in Aiken, South Carolina, which was chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by SARA, and, to the extent practical, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA site

  11. An operating nuclear utility's experience with the ALARA design of a new nuclear unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    This talk presents a review of how operating experience at Northeast Utilities has been factored into the design of a new nuclear unit and the development and management of the radiation protection program. Their operational experience has indicated that there are two facets to keeping radiation exposures ALARA. The first is the proper ALARA design of the unit. The other facet is the design of a comprehensive radiation protection program. The author discusses these facets in some detail

  12. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoucheng, Wen [Yangtze Univ., HuBei Jingzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%.

  13. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoucheng, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%

  14. Quad-Cities Station, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Unit 1 generated 2,024,125 net electrical MWH and the generator was on line 3162.6 hours. Unit 2 generated 746,184 net electrical MWH and was on line 1475.3 hrs. Data is included concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, and tests. (FS)

  15. H. B. Robinson Plant, Unit 2. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The unit achieved a good performance record through the year, experiencing only short duration shutdowns or power reductions. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, shutdowns, and occupational radiation exposures. In November there was a scheduled refueling lasting 40 days. After a start-up physics test program, the unit achieved 100 percent power on December 22, 1976

  16. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  17. Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report: January thru December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Net electrical energy generated by Unit 1 was 953,015.5 MWH with the generator on line 7,399.37 hrs. Unit 2 generated 4,371,553.689 MWH with the generator on line 6,664.58 hrs while Unit 3 generated 4,034,251 MWH with the generator on line 7,234.86 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, and shutdowns

  18. Fiscal 1999 basic survey report for promotion of joint implementation. Study on energy saving and CO2 reduction at Balikpapan refinery; 1999 nendo Balikpapan seiyusho ni okeru shoene CO{sub 2} sakugen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Concerning the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the embodiment of clean development mechanisms (CDMs) in Indonesia, a survey is conducted about energy saving and CO2 reduction at its Balikpapan refinery. At the refinery, a crude-oil atmospheric distillation unit operates at 200,000 BPSD (barrels per stream day) and a vacuum distillation unit at 81,000 BPSD, with the fuel consumed by the two units discharging approximately 470,000 tons/year of CO2. The result of the survey discloses that there is need for some improvement in relation with heat recovery and that the great distance between the two distillation units presents a problem in relation with heat efficiency. To settle the problems, heat recovery will be enhanced and the fuel to be burned in the heating furnace will be reduced. A plan to modify the heat exchanger system is worked out using JGC Corporation's energy-saving technology, and a rough design is drafted for the modification. When the modification is carried out, there will be a CO2 reduction of 18,636-61,597 tons/year. The Pertamina also wants the plan to be realized, wishing that technical and financial aids will be available. The plan when realized will serve as a stimulus to the local community and to the industry as a whole. (NEDO)

  19. [Factors of work environment and employment of workers in production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotarev, P A; Kharlashova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Factors of the industrial environment and labor activity of workers of manufacture propellants and solvents at the oil refining enterprise. Working conditions of workers at all installations of manufacture No 1 JSC "Naftan" of Novopolotsk of Byelorussia (production of fuels and solvents). Hygienic evaluation of working conditions of persons working in the production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery. Sanitary description of the production with hygienic analysis of project design and technological documentation, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of conventional methods in the work environment and working process of employees in the workplace for the main modes of operation of the equipment. The working environment of refineries is influenced by a number of simultaneously acting factors, which have different material nature and characteristics of the action on the human body, the workers in production of fuels and solvents at the refinery, are exposed to a variety of hazardous and dangerous factors of production, a chemical factor is prevalent, of course.

  20. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; DiVita, Vincent [Jacobs Consultancy Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Higher-octane gasoline can enable increases in an internal combustion engine’s energy efficiency and a vehicle’s fuel economy by allowing an increase in the engine compression ratio and/or by enabling downspeeding and downsizing. Producing high-octane fuel (HOF) with the current level of ethanol blending (E10) could increase the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of the fuel product from refinery operations. Alternatively, increasing the ethanol blending level in final gasoline products could be a promising solution to HOF production because of the high octane rating and potentially low blended Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of ethanol at 25% and higher of the ethanol blending level by volume. In our previous HOF well-to-wheels (WTW) report (the so-called phase I report of the HOF WTW analysis), we conducted WTW analysis of HOF with different ethanol blending levels (i.e., E10, E25, and E40) and a range of vehicle efficiency gains with detailed petroleum refinery linear programming (LP) modeling by Jacobs Consultancy and showed that the overall WTW GHG emission changes associated with HOFVs were dominated by the positive impact associated with vehicle efficiency gains and ethanol blending levels, while the refining operations to produce gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) for various HOF blend levels had a much smaller impact on WTW GHG emissions (Han et al. 2015). The scope of the previous phase I study, however, was limited to evaluating PADDs 2 and 3 operation changes with various HOF market share scenarios and ethanol blending levels. Also, the study used three typical configuration models of refineries (cracking, light coking, and heavy coking) in each PADD, which may not be representative of the aggregate response of all refineries in each PADD to various ethanol blending levels and HOF market scenarios. Lastly, the phase I study assumed no new refinery expansion in the existing refineries, which limited E10 HOF production to the

  1. 2006 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2007-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report covers the time period from January 1 through December 31, 2006, and describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action (DOE/ID-10660) as described in the Group 1 Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOE/ID-10772)

  2. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003

  3. Effect of oil spills on coastal power plants, refineries, and desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, C.; Mussali, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Major oil spills such as those experienced in the Gulf War, in Alaska, and in the Gulf of Mexico have raised concern for the protection of coastal facilities which use seawater for cooling or process purposes such as power stations, refineries, and desalination plants. Because of the availability of large quantities of cooling water, many power stations and refineries are located along the coastline in the United States and throughout the world. In addition, many countries in the Middle East, the Caribbean, and other areas of the world depend on desalination plants located along the coast for the vital supply of drinking water. The objective of this paper is to determine the levels of oil contamination which will adversely affect plant performance or result in damage to specific plant equipment such as condensers, heat exchangers, pumps, screens, water treatment equipment, and other vital water handling mechanisms

  4. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Yorktown refinery project workplan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, L.; Grieves, C.; Browning, R.; Hanlon, D.; Crane, C.

    1990-09-01

    The report provides a detailed workplan for obtaining data and analyzing results for a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study include (1) a multi-media inventory of all releases entering the environment from the Refinery, (2) development of possible engineering options to reduce the releases, (3) analysis of each option in terms of release reduction potential, impact on human health risk, ecological impact, changes in future liability, etc. and (4) identification of obstacles and incentives for implementation of any of the options considered

  5. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of Investigation To Terminate Certification of Eligibility Pursuant to... Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation...

  6. Operating experience with unit for sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutane by butylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagavov, I.T.; Sumanov, V.T.; Khadzhiev, S.N.

    1988-09-01

    The operation of units for the sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutanes by butylenes have been performed. The reaction was carried out in a KSG-3 horizontal sulfuric acid contractor. A butane-butylene fraction from catalytic cracking and an isobutane fraction from the central gas fractionating unit were used as a feedstock. The studies have shown that the unit will give a high-quality product under various conditions of operation. The specific consumption of sulfuric acid in processing different types of feed remains within acceptable limits.

  7. Decommissioning strategy of the operating WWER type units in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinsky, L.L.; Lobach, Yu.N.; Skripov, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    At present in Ukraine, 13 WWER type units are in operation and two other ones are in the final stage of construction. Decommissioning of these units is expected after the year 2010. General planning of their decommissioning is developed in the framework of the decommissioning strategy of operating WWER type units. The strategy contains the objectives, principles and main tasks of the decommissioning as well as the activities at each phase of decommissioning. It is considered a broad range of factors important for the planning and implementation of decommissioning. (author)

  8. OPERATING OF MOBILE MACHINE UNITS SYSTEM USING THE MODEL OF MULTICOMPONENT COMPLEX MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lebedev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  9. Operating of mobile machine units system using the model of multicomponent complex movement

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lebedev; R. Kaidalov; N. Artiomov; M. Shulyak; M. Podrigalo; D. Abramov; D. Klets

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite) movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  10. Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented concerning operations, performance characteristics, changes, tests, inspections, containment leak tests, maintenance, primary coolant chemistry, station staff changes, reservoir investigations, plume mapping, and operational environmental radioactivity monitoring data for oconee Units 1, 2, and 3. The non-radiological environmental surveillance program is also described. (FS)

  11. Effect of RCIC Operating Conditions on the Accident Scenario in Fukushima Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Il; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted by using MELCOR 1.8.6. Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR in this study, and best estimate scenario with considering RCIC operating conditions was presented. Researches on the boiling water reactor (BWR) plant with reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system have been conducted. Research on the RCIC operation in Fukushima unit 2 was also conducted by Sandia National Laboratory. MELCOR analysis of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was conducted in the report and energy balance in wetwell was described by considering RCIC operation. However, the effect of RCIC operation condition on the accident scenario has not been studied. The operating conditions of RCIC system affect the pressures in wetwell and drywell, and the high pressure can make leakage path of fission product from PCV to reactor building. Thus it can be directly related with the amount of fission product which released to environment. In this study, severe accident on Fukushima unit 2 was analyzed considering the operating condition of RCIC system, and best estimated scenario was presented. In addition, the effect of RCIC turbine efficiency on the accident progression was examined. Energy balance in suppression chamber was also considered with discussion on the effect of torus room flooding level. It was found that the operating condition of RCIC turbine not only affects the variation of drywell pressure but also the amount of released fission products to environment. It was also confirmed that the RCIC turbine efficiency in the accident would be less than normal operating condition

  12. Optimal Renewable Energy Integration into Refinery with CO2 Emissions Consideration: An Economic Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnifro, M.; Taqvi, S. T.; Ahmad, M. S.; Bensaida, K.; Elkamel, A.

    2017-08-01

    With increasing global energy demand and declining energy return on energy invested (EROEI) of crude oil, global energy consumption by the O&G industry has increased drastically over the past few years. In addition, this energy increase has led to an increase GHG emissions, resulting in adverse environmental effects. On the other hand, electricity generation through renewable resources have become relatively cost competitive to fossil based energy sources in a much ‘cleaner’ way. In this study, renewable energy is integrated optimally into a refinery considering costs and CO2 emissions. Using Aspen HYSYS, a refinery in the Middle East was simulated to estimate the energy demand by different processing units. An LP problem was formulated based on existing solar energy systems and wind potential in the region. The multi-objective function, minimizing cost as well as CO2 emissions, was solved using GAMS to determine optimal energy distribution from each energy source to units within the refinery. Additionally, an economic feasibility study was carried out to determine the viability of renewable energy technology project implementation to overcome energy requirement of the refinery. Electricity generation through all renewable energy sources considered (i.e. solar PV, solar CSP and wind) were found feasible based on their low levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The payback period for a Solar CSP project, with an annual capacity of about 411 GWh and a lifetime of 30 years, was found to be 10 years. In contrast, the payback period for Solar PV and Wind were calculated to be 7 and 6 years, respectively. This opens up possibilities for integrating renewables into the refining sector as well as optimizing multiple energy carrier systems within the crude oil industry

  13. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsch Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  14. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992.

  15. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992

  16. Use of Special Operations Forces in United Nations Missions: a Method to Resolve Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    physical stamina and psychological stability, followed by a rigorous training program are the imperatives to create SOF soldiers.42 Mark Bowden in...recommendation is that the United Nations should establish a Special Operations planning cell within the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. As of...now, the cell is nonexistent. This cell should be able to facilitate the integration of SOF into the overall peace operations concept. Finally, the

  17. Indian Point Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Unit 1 remained in a shutdown condition pending a decision by the Company on the installation of an ECCS as required by NRC. Net electrical power generated by Unit 2 was 2,267,654 MWH with the unit on line 3,056.45 hrs. Unit 3 generated 1,872,947 MWH and was on line 2,286.01 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, reportable events, corrective maintenance, fuel performance, radioactivity releases, shutdowns, primary coolant chemistry, and occupational radiation exposures

  18. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity

  19. An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management ______________________________________ By...Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management 6...Level Training; United States Marine Corps; Operations Management ; Supply Chain Management; Process Analysis 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  20. Implementation of NOx control technologies in petroleum refining applications, Mobil Torrance Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Existing NO x technologies implemented by the Mobil Torrance refinery have been reviewed. Technologies utilized are Lo-NO x burners, Ultra-Lo-NO x burners and selective catalytic reduction in boilers and process heaters, as well as selective non-catalytic reduction in fluid catalytic cracker/CO boiler applications. With the implementation of the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM), research at Mobil is directed towards reducing operational costs and improving efficiency in selective catalytic reduction with high and low temperature catalysts. Research is also directed at improved selective non-catalytic reduction efficiency in CO boiler applications and at further NO x reduction in fluid catalytic cracker regenerator offgases. The implementation of proven and enhanced technology is expected to reduce refinery NO x emissions from 1734 metric tons per yr to 487 metric tons per yr by the year 2003. 4 refs., 7 figs

  1. Reconstruction of refinery industry in Chechen Republic on the resource- and energy-saving basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geieva, L.A.; Meshalkin, V.P.; Sarkissov, P.D. [Mendeleev Univ. of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation); Hadzhiev, S.N. [Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis of Russian Academy of Sciences after A.V. Topchiev (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    In 2000, the Russian Federation implemented measures to increase oil production in the Chechen Republic from 73 thousand metric tons to 1.5 million metric tons by 2002. As a result, the oil refining industry in the Chechen Republic is currently in a state of crisis. More advanced and effective refining processes are required along with a reduction in production costs. The reconstruction program for refineries in Grozny requires new process system designs that can handle the appropriate petroleum products in the correct quantities and required qualities. There is also a need to balance the use of natural resources with fixed facilities and operating costs. The challenge to design optimal process systems for refineries in Grozny is both multicriterial and complex. The design will have to consider the use of various crudes and petroleum products. Advances in refining capability and resource conservation technologies would lead to greater energy consumption resulting from additional petroleum production.

  2. 100 Area source operable unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS), a focused feasibility study (FFS) is performed for those waste sites which have been identified as candidates for interim remedial measures (IRM) based on information contained in applicable work plans and limited field investigations (LFI). The FFS process for the 100 Area source operable units will be conducted in two stages. This report, hereafter referred to as the Process Document, documents the first stage of the process. In this stage, IRM alternatives are developed and analyzed on the basis of waste site groups associated with the 100 Area source operable units. The second stage, site-specific evaluation of the IRM alternatives presented in this Process Document, is documented in a series of operable unit-specific reports. The objective of the FFS (this Process Document and subsequent operable unit-specific reports) is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of IRM for sites associated with the 100 Area source operable units. Accordingly, the following information is presented: a presentation of remedial action objectives; a description of 100 Area waste site groups and associated group profiles; a description of IRM alternatives; and detailed and comparative analyses of the IRM alternatives

  3. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  4. Multipurpose units: combining of technological operations of a soil cultivating and seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Petukhov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern domestic market of technique for grain crops seeding differs variety of machines brands and types. The intensive type technologies combining technological operations of a soil cultivating and grain crops seeding in one pass are more widely used. The authors have established that one-operational units in new machine park have to be replaced multipurpose, universal and combined machines. Such approach will reduce number of machines in grain production from 20-30 to 5-6 name titles. Possibilities of multipurpose sowing units for simultaneous fertilizers application, soil cultivating and weeds destruction were analyzed. It was specified that nowadays there are several technologies types with two, four or six operations overlapping. Operational performance, technological and economical efficiency of the best multipurpose and also efficiency of technological operations overlapping at grain crops cultivating in the conditions of their real operation and at a trial establishment in the Kuban research institute of information and technical and economic studies of agro-industrial complex engineering and technical services were studied. Tit was defined that use of multipurpose sowing units and also studied efficiency of decreases operational costs by 48-71 percent, fuel consumption - by 41-76 percent and reduces labor input by 72-80 percent. Thus grain crops seeding is possible in optimal agrotime because of 4-6 technological operations overlapping in one pass.

  5. Personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene during petroleum refinery turnarounds and work in the oil harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, M; Almerud, P; Andersson, E M; Strandberg, B; Sallsten, G

    2016-11-01

    Petroleum refinery workers' exposure to the carcinogens benzene and 1,3-butadiene has decreased during normal operations. However, certain occupational groups or events at the refineries still involve a risk of higher exposures. The aim of this study was to examine the personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene at refinery turnarounds and during work in the oil harbour. Personal exposure measurements of benzene and 1,3-butadiene were taken during work shifts, with a priori assumed higher benzene exposure, using PerkinElmer diffusive samplers filled with Carbopack X. Mean exposure levels were calculated, and repeated exposure measurements, when available, were assessed using mixed effect models. Group and individual compliance with the Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) was tested for the different exposure groups. Mean benzene exposure levels for refinery workers during the three measured turnarounds were 150, 610 and 960 µg/m 3 , and mean exposures for oil harbour workers and sewage tanker drivers were 310 and 360 µg/m 3 , respectively. Higher exposures were associated with handling benzene-rich products. Most occupational groups did not comply with the Swedish OEL for benzene nor did the individuals within the groups. The exposure to 1,3-butadiene was very low, between Work within the petroleum refinery industry, with potential exposure to open product streams containing higher fractions of benzene, pose a risk of personal benzene exposures exceeding the OEL. Refinery workers performing these work tasks frequently, such as contractors, sewage tanker drivers and oil harbour workers, need to be identified and protected.

  6. Electrometallurgy of copper refinery anode slimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. D.

    1990-08-01

    High-selenium copper refinery anode slimes form two separate and dynamically evolving series of compounds with increasing electrolysis time. In one, silver is progressively added to non-stoichiometric copper selenides, both those originally present in the anode and those formed subsequently in the slime layer, and in the other, silver-poor copper selenides undergo a dis-continuous crystallographic sequence of anodic-oxidative transformations. The silver-to-selenium molar ratio in the as-cast anode and the current density of electrorefining can be used to construct predominance diagrams for both series and, thus, to predict the final bulk “mineralogy” of the slimes. Although totally incorrect in detail, these bulk data are sufficiently accurate to provide explanations for several processing problems which have been experienced by Kidd Creek Division, Falconbridge Ltd., in its commercial tankhouse. They form the basis for a computer model which predicts final cathode quality from chemical analyses of smelter feed.

  7. Exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a petroleum refinery utilities plant using the condensing to power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes da Silva, Julio Augusto; Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Oliveira Junior, Silvio [Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jams@usp.br, luiz.pellegrini@usp.br, soj@usp.br; Plaza, Claudio; Rucker, Claudio [Petrobras - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: claudioplaza@petrobras.com.br, rucker@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a brief description of the main processes present in a modern high capacity refinery is done. The methodology used to evaluate, through exergy analysis, the performance of the refinery's utilities plant since it is responsible for a very considerable amount of the total exergy destruction in a refinery is presented. The utilities plant products: steam, electricity, shaft power and high pressure water had their exergy unit cost determined using exergoeconomic approach. A simple and effective method called condensing to power was used to define the product of the condensers in exergy basis. Using this method it is possible to define the product of the condenser without the use of negentropy concept nor the aggregation of condensers to the steam turbines. By using this new approach, the costs obtained for the plant's products are exactly the same costs obtained when the condenser is aggregated to the steam turbine but with the advantage that the information about the stream between condenser and the steam turbine is not lost and the condenser can be evaluated singly. The analysis shows that the equipment where attention and resources should be focused are the boilers followed by the gas turbine, that together, are responsible for 80% of total exergy destruction in the utilities plant. The total exergy efficiency found for the utilities plant studied is 35% while more than 280 MW of exergy is destroyed in the utilities processes. (author)

  8. Preliminary life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, J.J.; Rogers, S.; Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The US by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass, have only considered the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified and factored into these estimates until recently. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO 2 -capping on the US refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO 2 emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmentally and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. These biomass-derived products include power, fuel gas, hydrogen for refinery processing, and Fischer-Tropsch liquids for upgrading and blending into finished transportation fuels

  9. WATER PINCH TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION TO MINIMIZE SULPHUROUS WASTEWATER IN AN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orlando Lobelles Sardiñas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil refining industries there is a high water consumption, which influences the high production costs and impacts the environment due to the discharge of their wastes. It is known that there are no technological conditions for the reuse of industrial water at the oil refineries, based on hydroskimming processes. The objective of this study is to implement the process integration methodology, Water Pinch, to a sour water stripper unit, as a unitary process of an oil refinery, to minimize the amount of sulphurous waste water and reduce contamination of the bay that receives these wastes. The technology is applied to evaluate the volume of sulphurous wastewater generated in the Cienfuegos oil refinery. This technology allows identifying opportunities for recovery and reuse of water, based on concentration ranges of contaminants. To achieve this purpose, a sour water stripper tower was assessed with the help of Water Pinch software, which provided an optimized distribution network, as a proposed technological improvement. This facilitated to recover and reuse 667 757, 28 m3 of water per year, and 1 035 023, 78 CUC were saved, at the same time the amount of polluting effluents decreased in approximately 2 % of non-reusable treated water.

  10. Multi-media pollution prevention: A case study of a refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.E.; Podar, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1989, Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency began a voluntary, joint project to study pollution prevention opportunities at an industrial facility. Amoco proposed use of its refinery at Yorktown, Virginia, to conduct a multi-media assessment of releases to the environment, then to develop and evaluate options to reduce these releases. A Workgroup composed of state, federal, and Amoco representatives provided oversight to the Project. Monthly Workgroup meetings provided Project oversight, a forum for presentations on different Project components, and an opportunity for informal discussion of different viewpoints about environmental management. The Workgroup identified four objectives for this study: (1) Inventory refinery releases to the environment to define their chemical type, quantity, source, and medium of release; (2) develop options to reduce selected releases identified, as well as rank and prioritize the options based on a variety of criteria and perspectives; (3) identify and evaluate factors as technical, legislative, regulatory, institutional, permitting, and economic, that impede or encourage pollution prevention; and (4) enhance participates' knowledge of refinery and regulatory systems

  11. Compex system for teaching and training operators for TPP and NPP power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiptsyura, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Requirements, taken as a principle for constructing the system for operator teaching and training (OTT), have been formulated on the basis of investigation of operators' work at TPP and NPP power units. Functional structure and a structural block-diagram for OTT are built. As a criterion, which determines the structure of any trainers, being a part of OTT a requirement has been chosen satisfying the correspondence beetween habits developed with the help of trainers and habits of real operators' work. Results of analysis permit to confirm that refusal or under statement of the role of any stage of operator training leads to reduction of quality of his training

  12. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    The NRC plan defines the functional role of the NRC in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 to assure that agency regulatory responsibilities and objectives will be fulfilled. The plan outlines NRC functions in TMI-2 cleanup operations in the following areas: (1) the functional relationship of NRC to other government agencies, the public, and the licensee to coordinate activities, (2) the functional roles of these organizations in cleanup operations, (3) the NRC review and decision-making procedure for the licensee's proposed cleanup operation, (4) the NRC/licensee estimated schedule of major actions, and (5) NRC's functional role in overseeing implementation of approved licensee activities

  13. Assessing refinery capacity and readiness to take Canadian product : is Canadian crude pushing or pulling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesner, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation addressed some of the challenges facing oil sands production in Canada. Refinery products and refining investments were discussed, as was the impact of alternative crude supply on the markets and pricing of oil sands. The oils sands products discussed include various qualities of sweet synthetic crude oil produced via upgraders; virgin and cracked intermediate products from oil sands upgraders; mined or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) produced bitumen blended products; and synthetic heavy crude produced via hydrocracking. Products were listed in terms of ease of production, and a rationale for generic ranking was provided. A chart of 2003 characteristics of non-Canadian imports to the mid-west United States was provided. Various marketing strategies for different oil sands products were discussed, as well as issues concerning logistics. Strategies for the development of a bigger market include producer investment in refining capability; the acquisition of refining assets; investment in refiners' upgrading capability; and securing a long term supply deal. Core and extended markets for Western Canadian oil sands products were reviewed. A chart of North American refining capacity was presented. Details of a refinery with both coking and cracking capacity were examined. An increase in hydro processing capacity and expanded coking capacity, as well as an upgrade of metallurgy were suggested as possible upgrading options. Various refinery configurations were discussed in relation to lower cost feedstocks and clean fuels specifications. Issues concerning crude supply were examined with reference to pricing parity points and declines in traditional crude production. Specific supply issues concerning oil sands production were discussed, including transportation costs; adequate refining capacity; and availability of supply. Various logistic investments were considered. A map of BP's 5 U.S. refineries was presented. A forecast of expected changes in

  14. Study of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, A.P.; Lacroix, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study is performed of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions. This unit is employed to maintain the temperature inside the refrigerated compartment of a truck below 265 K. The system consists of parallel plates filled with a phase change material (PCM) that absorbs heat from the flow of warm moist air. A mathematical model for the system is first presented and, next, validated with numerical and experimental data. It is then exploited to assess the effects of design parameters and operating conditions on the performance of the system. The recommended thickness and distance separating the PCM plates are found to be 50x10 -3 and 30x10 -3 m, respectively. The results indicate that the performance of the unit is enhanced by turbulent air flow in spite of the increased pressure loss and accentuated frost growth. The unit also performs well even when the surrounding relative humidity is 100%

  15. Barriers to high conversion operations in an ebullated bed unit -- Relationship between sedimentation and operability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, D. [Criterion Catalysts Company L.P., Houston, TX (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Ebullated-Bed (EB) catalytic processes are high temperature, high pressure residue hydrocrackers, which transform sour feeds into light, sweet products. EB processes typically involve one or more trains, with one, two, or three EB reactors in series. The key to operating any EB process is to control the 'sediment' which tends to increase with increasing level of conversion. Sediment problems are generally attributed to the catalyst. While this is true in some cases, there are certain problems that occur regardless of the catalyst used, whereas in some situations sediments from the EB process can actually be controlled by the catalyst. This paper describes two typical sedimentation patterns; one in which the sediment increases, and another in which sediment decreases as the EB products move through the recovery section. The benefits of sediment control are illustrated for the latter sedimentation pattern.

  16. Estimation of the optimal operating conditions for a radiation chemical neutralization unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putilov, A.V.; Kamenetskaya, S.A.; Pshezhetskii, S.Ya.; Kazakov, M.S.; Kudryavtsev, S.L.; Petrukhin, N.V.; Misharin, B.A.; Koneev, V.Z.

    1985-01-01

    An estimate is made of the effect of the hydrodynamic conditions on the efficiency of foam units for the radiation chemical neutralization of impurities, taking into account the penetrating power of accelerated electrons having various energies. Expressions are obtained for calculating the efficiency of such units with sectionized operation of the chamber and taking account of the effect of incomplete mixing of the products of radiolysis through the height of the foam layer

  17. Design and operational parameters of transportable supercritical water oxidation waste destruction unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, R.D.; Brewer, G.R.; Rofer, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is the destruction of hazardous waste by oxidation in the presence of water at temperatures and pressures above its critical point. A 1 gal/h SCWO waste destruction unit (WDU) has been designed, built, and operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This unit is transportable and is intended to demonstrate the SCWO technology on wastes at Department of Energy sites. This report describes the design of the WDU and the preliminary testing phase leading to demonstration

  18. Control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units within a microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrasa, Majid; Pouresmaeil, Edris; Mehrjerdi, Hasan; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Catalão, João P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units is proposed. • Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors. • The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components is considered. • Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid. - Abstract: This paper describes a control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation (DG) units based on renewable energy sources, during islanding and grid-connected modes. The Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of DG units during integration and power sharing with loads and/or power grid, which is an appropriate tool to analyze and define a stable operating condition for DG units in microgrid technology. The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components of DG units in ac-side, and dc-link voltage variations in dc-side of interfaced converters, are considered properly in the control loop of DG units, which is the main contribution and novelty of this control technique over other control strategies. By using the proposed control technique, DG units can provide the continuous injection of active power from DG sources to the local loads and/or utility grid. Moreover, by setting appropriate reference current components in the control loop of DG units, reactive power and harmonic current components of loads can be supplied during the islanding and grid-connected modes with a fast dynamic response. Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid during dynamic and steady-state operating conditions

  19. Turkey Point Plant, Units 3 and 4. Semiannual operating report No. 7, July--December 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Unit 3 generated 1,968,074 MWh(e) net electric power and the generator was on line 2,802.9 hrs. Unit 4 generated 2,560,476 MWh(e) and was on line 3,944.8 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, radioactive effluent releases, radiological environmental monitoring, and occupational personnel radiation monitoring

  20. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit

  1. Reservoir release patterns for hydropower operations at the Aspinall Unit on the Gunnison River, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, S.C.L.; Sedlacek, J.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the development of reservoir release patterns for the Aspinall Unit, which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal Reservoirs on the Gunnison River in Colorado. Release patterns were assessed for two hydropower operational scenarios--seasonally adjusted steady flows and seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flows--and three representative hydrologic years--moderate (1987), dry (1989), and wet (1983). The release patterns for the operational scenarios were developed with the aid of monthly, daily, and hourly reservoir operational models, which simulate the linked operation of the three Aspinall Unit reservoirs. Also presented are reservoir fluctuations and downstream water surface elevations corresponding to the reservoir release patterns. Both of the hydropower operational scenarios evaluated are based on the ecological research flows proposed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service for the Aspinall Unit. The first operational scenario allows only seasonally adjusted steady flows (no hourly fluctuations at any dam within one day), whereas the second scenario permits high fluctuating flows from Blue Mesa and Morrow Point Reservoirs during certain times of the year. Crystal Reservoir would release a steady flow within each day under both operational scenarios

  2. Treatment of petroleum refinery sourwater by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Alessandra; Castro, Antonio V.; Dezotti, Marcia; Sant'Anna, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of several oxidation processes to remove organic pollutants from sourwater was investigated. Sourwater is a specific stream of petroleum refineries, which contains slowly biodegradable compounds and toxic substances that impair the industrial biological wastewater treatment system. Preliminary experiments were conducted, using the following processes: H 2 O 2 , H 2 O 2 /UV, UV, photocatalysis, ozonation, Fenton and photo-Fenton. All processes, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not lead to satisfactory results, reducing at most 35% of the sourwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Thus, further experiments were performed with these two techniques to evaluate process conditions and organic matter removal kinetics. Batch experiments revealed that the Fenton reaction is very fast and reaches, in a few minutes, an ultimate DOC removal of 13-27%, due to the formation of iron complexes. Radiation for an additional period of 60 min can increase DOC removal up to 87%. Experiments were also conducted in a continuous mode, operating one 0.4 L Fenton stirred reactor and one 1.6 L photo-Fenton reactor in series. DOC removals above 75% were reached, when the reaction system was operated with hydraulic retention times (HRT) higher than 85 min. An empirical mathematical model was proposed to represent the DOC removal kinetics, allowing predicting process performance quite satisfactorily

  3. Prospects and requirements for an operational modelling unit in flood crisis situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dike failure events pose severe flood crisis situations on areas in the hinterland of dikes. In recent decades the importance of being prepared for dike breaches has been increasingly recognized. However, the pre-assessment of inundation resulting from dike breaches is possible only based on scenarios, which might not reflect the situation of a real event. This paper presents a setup and workflow that allows to model dike breachinduced inundation operationally, i.e. when an event is imminent or occurring. A comprehensive system setup of an operational modelling unit has been developed and implemented in the frame of a federal project in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The modelling unit setup comprises a powerful methodology of flood modelling and elaborated operational guidelines for crisis situations. Nevertheless, it is of fundamental importance that the modelling unit is instated prior to flood events as a permanent system. Moreover the unit needs to be fully integrated in flood crisis management. If these crucial requirements are met, a modelling unit is capable of fundamentally supporting flood management with operational prognoses of adequate quality even in the limited timeframe of crisis situations.

  4. Biblis 1,300 MW unit B in operation for thirty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, H.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, unit B of the Biblis nuclear power station has contributed towards safe, reliable and non-polluting electricity generation. Unit B was the first 1,300 MW unit in the world confirming the good experience accumulated in the construction and operation of plants this size. It laid the foundation for the advanced development of nuclear power plants up to the convoy line. The good availability this plant has achieved in its operating cycles proves the mature state of technology and the high level of qualification and motivation of the power plant staff and the personnel of external firms contracted to work for Biblis. Biblis B has served as a reference plant in German nuclear safety research, demonstrating that units this size can be operated safely. Unit B is also living proof of the possibility to raise nuclear power plants built in the seventies to the current state of the art by implementing the appropriate backfitting and modernization measures. Today, Biblis B is operated at a safety level clearly higher than that to be achieved for new plants internationally. This is also evident from comparison with the guiding values for the safety of new facilities as published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  5. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  6. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  7. Engineering evaluation/conceptual plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater operable unit interim remedial measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.; Swanson, L.C.; Weeks, R.S.; Giacinto, J.; Gustafson, F.W.; Ford, B.H.; Wittreich, C.; Parnell, S.; Green, J.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents an engineering evaluation and conceptual plan for an interim remedial measure (ERM) to address a uranium and technetium-99 groundwater plume and an associated nitrate contamination plume in the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This report provides information regarding the need and potentially achievable objectives and goals for an IRM and evaluates alternatives to contain elevated concentrations of uranium, technetium-99, nitrate, and carbon tetrachloride and to obtain information necessary to develop final remedial actions for the operable unit

  8. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment

  9. RCRA facility investigation report for the 200-PO-1 operable unit. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) report is prepared in support of the RFI/corrective measures study process for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report summarizes existing information on this operable unit presented in the 200 East and PUREX Aggregate Area Management Study Reports, contaminant specific studies, available modeling data, and groundwater monitoring data summary reports. Existing contaminant data are screened against current regulatory limits to determine contaminants of potential concern (COPC). Each identified COPC is evaluated using well-specific and plume trend analyses

  10. Survey Method for Radiological Surveys of 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Soils and Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    This technical basis is to be used to survey soils at the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit during remediation of the site. Its purpose is to provide a basis for the survey methods to be employed by radiological control technician (RCTs) to guide the excavation effort in accordance with the 300-FF-1 waste site Record of Decision (ROD). The ROD for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit requires selective excavation, removal, and disposal of contaminated soil above 350 pCi/g total uranium activity. Soil above this level will be disposed of as radioactive waste. The remaining soil will remain onsite

  11. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit.

  12. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit

  13. Integration : OPEC is now in 35 foreign refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzian, P.

    1994-01-01

    Seven countries from OPEC own now share holdings in 35 foreign refineries. By this process of downstream reintegration, these countries hope to reach a better stability of crude oil prices. (Author). 3 tabs

  14. Assessment of the effect of effluent discharge from coffee refineries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2Department of Environmental Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. ... cherries, transport them hydraulically through the pulping ..... Table 2. Interaction effects of effluent discharges by coffee refineries on physical characteristics between.

  15. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H F

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state. (paper)

  16. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Unit 2 experienced 11 forced outages, 5 power reductions, and one major refueling outage which lasted about 3 months during which time the feedwater spargers were replaced. Net electrical power generated was 5,569,633 MWH with the generator on line 5,998 hrs. Unit 3 experienced 17 forced outages, 11 power reductions and 2 major outages. The first refueling outage began 12/24/77. Net electrical power generated was 6,049,644 MWH with the unit on line 6,829 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, personnel exposures, radioactive releases, maintenance, and irradiated fuel examination

  17. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to permit inventory estimation in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH's purpose is to provide steady-state composition estimates for material residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimation, the results are determined for and cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent material collected in applicable vessels-including consideration for material previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple material balance models to estimate material holdups and distribution within unit operations. During simulated run testing, NUMATH-estimated inventories typically produced material balances within 7% of the associated measured material balances for uranium and within 16% of the associated, measured material balance for thorium during steady-state process operation

  18. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  19. Categorization of safety related motor operated valve safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.

    2002-03-01

    We performed a categorization of safety related Motor Operated Valve (MOV) safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3. The safety evaluation of MOV of domestic nuclear power plants affects the generic data used for the quantification of MOV common cause failure ( CCF) events in Ulchin Units 3 PSA. Therefore, in this study, we re-estimated the MGL(Multiple Greek Letter) parameter used for the evaluation of MOV CCF probabilities in Ulchin Units 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and performed a classification of the MOV safety significance. The re-estimation results of the MGL parameter show that its value is decreased by 30% compared with the current value in Ulchin Unit 3 PSA. The categorization results of MOV safety significance using the changed value of MGL parameter shows that the number of HSSCs(High Safety Significant Components) is decreased by 54.5% compared with those using the current value of it in Ulchin Units 3 PSA

  20. ENHANCEMENT OF PHENOL REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN DORA REFINERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah F. Sharif

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the sanctions imposed on Iraq by the United Nations, programmed maintenance and wearing parts replacement has not been performed according to schedules in DORA Refinery Wastewater Unit, which resulted in higher phenol content and BOD5 in effluents disposed to river. The investigations showed that two main reasons were behind this problem: Firstly, increased emissions of hydrocarbons in the complexity of refinery equipment and Secondly, the decreased efficiency of the aerators in the biological. During the last few months, phenol average concentration in the effluent, after biological treatment was found to be between 0.06-0.13 mg/L, while COD was exceeding 110 mg/L after treatment in the same period. Considerable enhancement, has been indicated recently, after the following performances: First: Recycling wastewater from some heat exchangers, and the segregation of low and high strength of wastewaters, Second: Minimizing emissions of hydrocarbons from fluid catalytic cracking and steam cracking, Third: Replacement of driving motors of the aerators in the biological treatment unit. After replacement of these units, a significant decrease in phenol concentration was obtained in purified water (0.03-0.05 mg/L and COD of 60 mg/L before the tertiary treatment. It is concluded that a better quality of effluents has been obtained after a series of emissions control and wastewater treatment unit equipment maintenance performances.

  1. Assessment of Petroleum Leakage in Groundwater of the Abadan Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Shadizadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of petroleum leakage at oil refineries is vital for environmental study of water and soil pollution. Abadan Refinery is located between the Arvandrud and Bahmanshir rivers in the highly populated area of Abadan city. These rivers supply domestic, industrial, and agricultural water toAbadancity. During the war betweenIranandIraq, enormous volumes of oil and petroleum products leaked from storage tanks and pipelines at Abadan Refinery into the surrounding environment. The resulting pollution is a serious threat and a growing environmental concern for the region. In this work, twenty boreholes were dug to investigate petroleum leaks into the surrounding area both during and after the war. The thickness of petroleum floating on underground waters at the refinery was measured by sampling underground water over a period of one year along with measuring the piezometric heads of groundwater monitoring wells. Also, groundwater movement pattern at Abadan Refinery was determined by measuring the water table in each well over the same period. The results of sampling indicate that oil leaks were observed in just two wells; namely, wells No.3 and No.11. The results also show that the greatest portion of the oil spill in underground layers at Abadan Refinery was absorbed into clay soil.

  2. Denver Radium Site -- Operable Unit I closeout report for the US Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Denver Radium Site consists of properties in the Denver, Colorado, area having radioactive contamination left from radium processing in the early 1900s. The properties are divided into 11 gaps or operable units to facilitate remedial action of the Site. Operable Unit I is an 8-acre block bounded by Quivas Street to the east, Shoshone Street to the west, West 12th Avenue to the south, and West 13th Avenue to the north. The primary focus of interest concerning investigations of radiological contamination was a radium, vanadium, and uranium processing facility at 1201 Quivas Street owned by the Pittsburgh Radium Company (PRC) from 1925 until 1926. The Radium Ores Company, which was associated with PRC, operated the facility until 1927. A Remedial investigation (RI) of Operable Unit I was prepared by Jacobs Engineering Group and CH 2 M Hill on behalf of EPA in April 1986. The draft Feasibility Study (FS), prepared by Jacobs Engineering Group and CH 2 M Hill, was issued in July 1987 (the final FS is the Community Relations Responsiveness Summary with an errata to the draft, issued September 1987). The RI focused on radium uranium processing residues discarded in the early 1900s. These residues contained uranium, radium, and thorium. EPA s Community Relations Plan involved the community in the decision-making process relating to the remedy to be implemented at Operable Unit X, and promoted communications among interested parties throughout the course of the project. The remedial action alternative preferred by EPA for Operable Unit I was Off-Site Permanent Disposal. Because a permanent disposal facility was not available at the time the Record of Decision was issued in September 1987, EPA selected the On-Site Temporary Containment (capping) with the Off-Site Permanent Disposal alternative

  3. 40 CFR 60.2989 - Does this subpart directly affect incineration unit owners and operators in my State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incineration unit owners and operators in my State? 60.2989 Section 60.2989 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced... incineration unit owners and operators in my State? (a) No, this subpart does not directly affect incineration...

  4. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 62.15145 What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) You...

  5. Gasification in petroleum refinery of 21. century; La gazeification dans la raffinerie du petrole du 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The worldwide trends in the crude oil supply indicate a continuous increase of the heavy crudes. The increase in the yield of distillation residues is complemented by an increase in their sulfur content. Additional distillates are produced by upgrading the residues. The upgrading step generates final residues, such as visbreaking tar, coke and asphalt which are produced by visbreaking, coking and de-asphalting, respectively. The final residues can be converted to usable products such as hydrogen, steam, electricity, ammonia and chemicals. For this purpose, gasification has emerged as the technology of choice because of its superior environmental performance when compared with the competing means for residue utilization. Also, refinery sludges can be co-gasified with the final residues and as such, be converted to usable products. If integrated with the petroleum refinery, gasification can diminish any environmental problems associated with residue and sludge disposal. The economic indicators of the refinery can improve as well. The trends in deregulation of the power market enable petroleum refineries to enter this lucrative market either alone or in a partnership with the utilities. The potential of co-production of chemicals and steam with electricity offers the flexibility to respond to market demands. Gasification technology is commercially proven. Among several types, entrained bed gasifiers are the gasifiers of choice. A number of commercial projects in Europe, Asia and United States use a gasifier employing either a slurry feeding system or a dry feeding system. (author)

  6. RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study work plan for the 100-HR-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) for the 100-HR-1 source operable unit. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination. The 100-HR-3 operable unit underlies the D/DR and H Areas, the 600 Area between them, and the six source operable units these areas contain. The 100-HR-3 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water within its boundary. Separate work plans have been initiated for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit (DOE-RL 1992a) and the 100-DR-1 (DOE-RL 1992b) source operable units

  7. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  8. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  9. Ambiguity in Units and the Referents: Two Cases in Rational Number Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    I explore the impact of ambiguous referral to the unit on understanding of decimal and fraction operations during episodes in two different mathematics courses for pre-service teachers (PSTs). In one classroom, the instructor introduces a rectangular area diagram to help the PSTs visualize decimal multiplication. A transcript from this classroom…

  10. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This qualitative risk assessment provides information about the 100- NR-2 Groundwater Operable Unit of the Hanford reservation. Topics discussed in this report are: data evaluation; human health risk assessment overview; ecological evaluations; summary of uncertainty; results of both the ecological and human health evaluations; toxicity assessment; risk characterization; and a summary of contaminants of potential concern

  11. Limited field investigation report for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to optimize the use of interim remedial measures (IRM) for expediting clean up while maintaining a technically sound and cost-effective program. The 100-KR-4 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 K Area. Operable units KR-1, KR-2 and KR-3 address contaminant sources while 100-KR-4 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The IRM decision process for groundwater operable units is based on three aspects: (1) Is the concentration greater than Hanford background? (2) Does the concentration present a medium or high human-health risk? (3) Does the concentration exceed an ecologically based applicable, relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR) or present an environmental hazard quotient > I? The primary methods of investigation used during this LFI were the installation of monitoring wells and sampling of groundwater. The samples collected from the groundwater and soils were submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the location and degree of contamination. All soil samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all first round and a minimum of 10% of subsequent round data were validated

  12. Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The unit was paralleled to the grid 83.1 percent of the time and 7,073,200 MWH gross was generated. There were six scheduled outages and 14 forced outages/load reductions. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns, power reductions, inservice maintenance, personnel radiation exposures, fuel history, and facility changes

  13. Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit

  14. A Moveable Feast--A Progressive Approach to the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Wm. Curtis, Jr.; Hammond, Karl D.; Laurence, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe an alternative format for the senior laboratory in which students are allowed--indeed, expected--to communicate with previous groups and build on their results. The effect is a unit operations laboratory in which students are empowered to propose the experiments they wish to do and in which the cumulative experience of the…

  15. Interim Action Proposed Plan for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) is to describe the preferred interim remedial action for addressing the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  16. Limited field investigation report for the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-DR-1 Source Operable Unite LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 D/DR Area at the Hanford Site. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit encompasses approximately 1.5 km 2 (0.59 mi 2 ) and is located immediately adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. In general, it contains waste facilities associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support D Reactor facilities, as well as cooling water retention basin systems for both D and DR Reactors. The 100-DR-1 LFI began the investigative phase of the remedial investigation for a select number of high-priority sites. The LFI was performed to provide additional data needed to support selection, design and implementation of IRM, if needed. The LFI included data compilation, nonintrusive investigations, intrusive investigations, summarization of 100 Area aggregate studies, and data evaluation

  17. NSSS design and cycle 1 operating history data for Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, P.A.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains design and cycle 1 operating data for the Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2 nuclear steam supply system. The design data include descriptions of the reactor core, reactor coolant system, and control systems which are a part of the nuclear steam supply system. Operating history data are provided for the period of December 1978 through January 1980. The most important operating history data provided include reactor power, cumulative fuel burnup, control rod position, primary coolant temperature, and a series of power distribution state points

  18. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelich, S.E. [Golder Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  19. Remedial investigation for the 200-BP-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, contains over 1500 identified waste sites that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. In support of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order,'' the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 RI is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of the site characterization is oriented toward determining the nature and extent of any contamination present in the vicinity of the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The major focus of the Phase I RI is the drilling and sampling of 10 inactive waste disposal units which received low level radioactive liquid waste

  20. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River

  1. Operating experience gained during the copper oxide plugging incident in Koeberg unit 1 generator stator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor, S.P.; Matthee, F.W. [ESKOM, Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (South Africa)

    2002-07-01

    In June 1999 Koeberg's unit 1 started to experience adverse operating conditions which were later ascribed to blockages in the hollow conductors of the generator stator. These blockages were attributed to copper oxide plugs which developed progressively during the following year and culminated in reduced power operation. Many attempts were made to address the plugging by implementing various off-line and on-line cleaning processes. Subsequent to a successful on-line cleaning operation, the unit was returned to full power and the chemistry regime for the stator cooling water system was changed to allow for operation at an elevated pH. This paper discusses Koeberg's experience with copper oxide blockages, describes the initial indications of the problem and the impact on the operating parameters. The remainder of the paper focuses on the actions taken to address the deteriorating situation and the different cleaning methods implemented to remove the copper oxide deposits. The paper concludes with the current status of the unit 1 generator stator and the lessons learned during the resolution of this problem. (authors)

  2. Operating experience gained during the copper oxide plugging incident in Koeberg unit 1 generator stator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, S.P.; Matthee, F.W.

    2002-01-01

    In June 1999 Koeberg's unit 1 started to experience adverse operating conditions which were later ascribed to blockages in the hollow conductors of the generator stator. These blockages were attributed to copper oxide plugs which developed progressively during the following year and culminated in reduced power operation. Many attempts were made to address the plugging by implementing various off-line and on-line cleaning processes. Subsequent to a successful on-line cleaning operation, the unit was returned to full power and the chemistry regime for the stator cooling water system was changed to allow for operation at an elevated pH. This paper discusses Koeberg's experience with copper oxide blockages, describes the initial indications of the problem and the impact on the operating parameters. The remainder of the paper focuses on the actions taken to address the deteriorating situation and the different cleaning methods implemented to remove the copper oxide deposits. The paper concludes with the current status of the unit 1 generator stator and the lessons learned during the resolution of this problem. (authors)

  3. Level 1 shutdown and low power operation of Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halada, P.; Cillik, I.; Stojka, T.; Kuzma, M.; Prochaska, J.; Vrtik, L.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents general approach, used methods and form of documentation of the results that have been applied within the shutdown and low power PSA (SPSA) study for Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia. The SPSA project was realized by VUJE Trnava Inc., Slovakia in 2001-2002 years. The Level 1 SPSA study for Mochovce NPP Unit 1 covers internal events as well as internal (fires, floods and heavy load drop) and external (aircraft crash, extreme meteorological conditions, seismic event and influence of surrounding industry) hazards. Mochovce NPP consists of two operating units equipped with VVER 440/V213 reactors safety upgraded before construction finishing and operation start. 87 safety measures based on VVER 440 operational experience and international mission insights were implemented to enhance its operational and nuclear safety. The SPSA relates to full power PSA (FPSA) as a continuation of the effort to create a harmonized level 1 PSA model for all operational modes of the plant with the goal to use it for further purposes as follows: Real Time Risk Monitor, Maintenance Optimization, Technical Specifications Optimization, Living PSA. (author)

  4. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume

  5. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are 99 Tc and 60 Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and 90 Sr, 239/240 Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes

  6. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit is comprised of three subareas; the 100 D Area, the 100 H Area and those portions of the 600 Area between the two reactor areas. The operable unit is one of seven operable units associated with the 100 D and H Areas. Operable units 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, 100-DR-3, 100-HR-1, 100-HR-2 and 100-IU-4 address contaminant sources while 100-HR-3 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of field investigation used during this LFI was the installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils, and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all round one, two and three and a minimum of 10% of round four data associated with the LFI were validated. A screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration, constituents that were below background. Constituents which are considered non-toxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Data consistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were then evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). A human health QRA was performed using conservative (maximum equilibrated contaminant levels from the LFI) analyses

  7. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA). The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, bum pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy [DOE], the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], and Washington Department of Ecology [Ecology]) during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit work plan (DOE/RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure (IRM) as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) (DOE/RL 1991) and negotiations with DOE, EPA, and Ecology. An IRM is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The investigative phase was conducted in accordance with the RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit (DOE/RL 1993f). The QRA was performed in accordance with the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology (DOE/RL 1993b) and the recommendations incorporate the strategies of the HPPS. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and (4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  8. Purification and detoxification of petroleum refinery wastewater by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousmi, N; Sahmi, A; Li, H Z; Poncin, S; Djebbar, R; Bensadok, K

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of synthetic oily wastewater having the characteristics of a typical petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) by electrocoagulation (EC) using iron and aluminum electrodes was conducted in an electrolytic reactor equipped with fluid recirculation. During the treatment, the emulsion stability was followed by the measurement of Zeta potential and particle sizes. Effects of some operating conditions such as electrodes material, current density and electrolysis time on removal efficiencies of turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were investigated in detail. The PRW purification by the EC process was found to be the most effective using aluminum as the anode and cathode, current density of 60 A/m(2) and 30 min of electrolysis time. Under these conditions, the process efficiencies were 83.52% and 99.94%, respectively, for COD and turbidity removals which correspond to final values of 96 mg O2/L and 0.5 NTU. A moderate energy consumption (0.341 kWh) was needed to treat 1 m(3) of PRW. Besides, the ecotoxicity test proved that toxic substances presented in the PRW, and those inhibiting the germination growth of whet, were eliminated by the EC technique.

  9. Commissioning and startup of the Blind River uranium refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schisler, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the last five years Eldorado Resources Ltd. (ERL) has undergone a major expansion and modernization of its uranium refining and conversion plants. A new refinery for processing yellow cake to UO/sub 3/ was constructed at Blind River in northern Ontario and started up in 1983. Its rated capacity is 18,000 t/a uranium as UO/sub 3/. At Port Hope, Ontario, ERL's new UF/sub 6/ conversion plant has been constructed. This plant started up in 1984. It utilizes the novel, wet-way process to produce UF/sub 4/ and gives the company a UF/sub 6/ production capacity of 14,500 t/a U. Also at Port Hope is Eldorado's ceramic UO/sub 2/ powder production facility, commissioned in late 1980. It has a capacity of 1700 t/a uranium as UO/sub 2/. With the completion of these capital projects, Eldorado has the largest and most up-to-date refining and conversion facilities in the western world. This paper reviews the refining process and process design. The methodology used to start up the Blind River plant is described as are some startup difficulties, solutions that were developed, and the resultant current operation

  10. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-10-08

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The {open_quotes}Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,{close_quotes} Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the {open_quotes}300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,{close_quotes} (DOE-RL 1993).

  11. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The open-quotes Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,close quotes Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the open-quotes 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,close quotes (DOE-RL 1993)

  12. Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery. Preprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Leitner, W.; Lercher, J.A.; Nees, F.; Perego, C.; Rupp, M.; Santacesaria. E. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    Within the DGMK/SCI-Conference 'Opportunities and Challenges at the Interface between Petrochemistry and refinery' between 10th and 12th October, 2007, in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Maximizing petrochemicals from refineries (B. Glover, T. Foley, S. Frey); (b) Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery - the OMV view (J. Lichtscheidl); (c) Aspects of petrochemistry in a fuels refinery (J. Essler, J. Mielicke, T. Maier); (d) Enhanced propylene production in FCC by novel catalytic materials (C.P. Kelkar, D. Harris, M. Xu, J. Fu); (e) Retrofit of an MTBE-unit to ETBE (A. Rix, U. Peters); (f) Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery - The BASF perspectives (H.-J. Blankertz); (g) Light olefins - challenges from new production routes? (H. Zimmermann); (h) Conversion of heavy aromatic hydrocarbons to valuable synthetic feed for steamcrackers (A. Cesana, L. Dalloro, F. Rivetti, R. Buzzoni, R. Bignazzi); (i) C{sub 4} olefin/paraffin separation over the metal organic framework material Cu{sub 3}BTC{sub 2} (S. Kunz, O. Tangermann, M. Hartmann); (j) Glycerol tertiary butyl ethers via etherification of glycerol with isobutene (A. Behr); (k) Biorefineries: From concepts to reality? (K. Wagemann); (l) Modern concepts in reactor and separation technologies (D. Agar); (m) Innovative reactive distillation process for the production of the MTBE substitute isooctane from isobutene (M. Chalakova, R. Kaur, H. Freund, S. Mahajani, K. Sundmacher); (n) Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) systems - novel fixed bed reactor concepts for homogeneous catalysis (A. Riisager, R. Fehrmann, M. Haumann, M. Jakuttis, J. Joni, P. Wasserscheid); (o) Selective oxidations to industrial intermediates (S. Schunck); (p) Perspectives of industrial realization for propane oxidative dehydrogenation over chromium oxide catalysts (A.L. Lapidus, N.A. Gaidai, Yu. A. Agafonov, M

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination.

  15. Control of occupational exposure to phenol in industrial wastewater treatment plant of a petroleum refinery in Alexandria, Egypt: An intervention application case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; Ramadan, Alaa El-Din K; Issa, Ahmed I; Nofal, Faten H

    2016-11-01

    Phenol exposure is one of the hazards in the industrial wastewater treatment basin of any refinery. It additively interacts with hydrogen sulfide emitted from the wastewater basin. Consequently, its concentration should be greatly lower than its threshold limit value. The present study aimed at controlling occupational exposure to phenol in the work environment of wastewater treatment plant in a refinery by reducing phenolic compounds in the industrial wastewater basin. This study was conducted on both laboratory and refinery scales. The first was completed by dividing each wastewater sample from the outlets of different refinery units into three portions; the first was analyzed for phenolic compounds. The second and third were for laboratory scale charcoal and bacterial treatments. The two methods were compared regarding their simplicities, design, and removal efficiencies. Accordingly, bacterial treatment by continuous flow of sewage water containing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa was used for refinery scale treatment. Laboratory scale treatment of phenolic compounds revealed higher removal efficiency of charcoal [100.0(0.0) %] than of bacteria [99.9(0.013) %]. The refinery scale bacterial treatment was [99.8(0.013) %] efficient. Consequently, level of phenol in the work environment after refinery-scale treatment [0.069(0.802) mg/m(3)] was much lower than that before [5.700(26.050) mg/m(3)], with removal efficiency of [99.125(2.335) %]. From the present study, we can conclude that bacterial treatment of phenolic compounds in industrial wastewater of the wastewater treatment plant using continuous flow of sewage water containing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa reduces the workers' exposure to phenol.

  16. Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, D.J.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-03-31

    The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU and DOE will provide the basis for international technology transfer of new and innovative remediation technologies that can be applied in Poland and the Eastern European Region as well.

  17. Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report No. 10, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Unit 1 operated at an average capacity factor of 65.2 percent with a net efficiency of 31.41 percent. Unit 2 operted at an average capacity factor of 88.6 lpercent with a net efficiency of 32.28 percent. Unit 1 was essentially base loaded while Unit 2 operated on load follow. Information is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, abnormal occurrences, and environmental monitoring. (FS)

  18. Emergency operating instruction improvements at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station Units 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trillo, M.W.; Smith, B.H.

    1989-01-01

    In late 1987, San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) began an extensive upgrade of the units 2 and 3 emergency operating instructions (EOIs). The original intent of this program was to incorporate revised generic guidance and to correct problems that were identified by operators. While this program was in progress, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted a series of audits of emergency operating procedure (EOP) development and maintenance programs as 16 commercial nuclear facilities in the United States. These audits included four stations with Combustion Engineering-designed nuclear steam supply systems. (One of these audits included a review of preupgrade SONGS units 2 and 3 EOIs.) Significant industrywide comments resulted from these audits. The NRC has stated its intent to continue the review and audit of EOIs and the associated maintenance programs at all US commercial nuclear facilities. The units 2 and 3 EOI upgrade program developed procedural improvements and procedural program maintenance improvements that address many of the existing audit comments that have been received by the industry. Other resulting improvements may be useful in minimizing NRC comments in future such audits. Specific improvements are discussed. The upgrade program resulted in benefits that were not originally anticipated. The results of this program can be of significant use by other utilities in addressing the industrywide concerns that have been raised in recent NRC audits of EOP development and maintenance programs

  19. Report on the degradation of the environment at the site of NIS Novi Sad oil refinery and remediation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, P.; Pavlovic, M.; Ivankovic, M.; Sokolovic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Before the NATO bombing, Refinery had available 149 tanks for the storage of crude oil, intermediate and final products, additives etc. All tanks are placed within the impermeable embankments of concrete or soil and connected to the storm and oil sewerage systems which enables the monitoring and control of of oil leakage and storm waste. During the NATO bombing practically all processing units were either destroyed or damaged. The summary of damages inflicted to the processing units is given. During the NATO bombing campaign over 51% of the available storage capacity was destroyed and over 34% of it was severely damaged. A summary of available, destroyed and damaged tank capacities in the NIS Novi Sad Oil Refinery is given. (author)

  20. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-FR-3 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Figure 1-1 shows the location of these areas. Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990a), signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-FR-3 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-FR-3 groundwater operable unit and two source operable units. The 100-FR-3 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-F Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination. A separate work plan has been initiated for the 100-FR-1 source operable unit (DOE-RL 1992a)

  1. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-FR-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200,300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990a), signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-FR-1 operable unit. The 100-FR-1 source operable unit is one of two source operable units in the 100-F Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. The groundwater affected or potentially affected by the entire 100-F Area is considered as a separate operable unit, the 100-FR-3 groundwater operable unit. A separate work plan has been initiated for the 100-FR-3 operable unit (DOE/RL 1992a)

  2. Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report, July--December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Net electric power generated by Surry Unit 1 was 6,930,353 MWH with the generator on line for 10,417.7 hours. Net electric power generated by Unit 2 was 5,699,299 MWH with the generator on line for 8,384.2 hours. Information is presented concerning operation, radioactive effluent releases, solid radioactive wastes, fuel shipments, occurrences in which temperature limitations on the condenser cooling water discharge were exceeded, changes in station organization, occupational personnel radiation exposure, nonradiological monitoring including thermal, physical, and biological programs, and the radiological environmental monitoring program. (U.S.)

  3. Retrofitting and operation solid radwaste system Dresden Station, Units 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, J.; Homer, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Units 2 and 3 at Dresden Station are twin 794 MW (net) BWR units that became operational in 1970 and 1971. The waste streams are typical of BWR stations, namely, bead resin and filter sludge (powdered resins and diatomaceous earth), evaporator concentrate containing approximately 25% dissolved solids and dry active waste. The original solid radwaste system utilized cement for solidification in open top 55 gallon drums. Remote handling was provided by means of a monorail with moving platforms supporting the drums. A relatively light-weight compactor was used to compact DAW into 55 gallon drums. Difficulties were experienced with this system

  4. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-FR-1 source operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corporation, I.T.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides the Qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the waste sites associated with the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit. The QRA is an evaluation of risk for a predefined set of human and ecological exposure scenarios. It is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment. The QRA is streamlined to consider only two human health scenarios (frequent-and occasional-use) with four exposure pathways (soil ingestion, fugitive dust inhalation, inhalation of volatile organics, and external radiation exposure) and a limited ecological evaluation. The use of these scenarios and pathways was agreed to by the 100 Area Tri-Party unit managers

  5. Indian Point Station, Unit 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report No. 24, July--December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Net electrical power generated by Unit 1 was 519,130 MWH with the reactor critical for 2,400.39 hours and the generator on line for 2,316.14 hours. Unit 2 generated 2,427,828 MWH electrical power, was critical for 3,590.31 hours and the generator was on line for 3,485.41 hours. Operations and maintenance are summarized. Information is presented concerning radioactive effluent releases, occupational personnel radiation protection, primary coolant chemistry, changes, tests, and experiments. Environmental radioactivity is discussed. (U.S.)

  6. Automatic crude oil handling through a pressurized system from the wellhead to the refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.B.; Truman, P.W.; Groeneman, A.R.

    1967-01-01

    Production from 51 wells completed in the 3 unitized formations of the Lost Soldier Field, Sweetwater Co., Wyoming, is brought to a central point through individual flow lines. Here the fluids are directed through separate automatic well testing and oil treating facilities, one for each formation. After separation of oil, gas and water, the oil goes to pressurized surge tanks and then to lease automatic custody transfer units. There is one surge tank and one LACT unit for each formation. The oil is automatically transferred to the Sinclair Pipe Line Co. for delivery to Sinclair's refinery at Sinclair, Wyoming, through a closed pipe line system. A central console provides: (1) supervisory control from the wellheads through the LACT units, (2) well test and production data logging, and (3) monitoring by activating alarms for abnormal conditions of flow, liquid levels, temperatures and pressures.

  7. Commercial operation and outage experience of ABWR at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa units Nos. 6 and 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anahara, N.; Yamada, M.; Kataoka, H.

    2000-01-01

    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Units Nos. 6 and 7, the world's first ABWRs (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor), started commercial operation on November 7, 1996 and July 2, 1997, respectively, and continued their commercial operation with a high capacity factor, low occupational radiation exposure and radioactive waste. Units 6 and 7 were in their 3rd cycle operation until 25th April 1999 and 1st November 1999, respectively. Thermal efficiency was 35.4-35.8% (design thermal efficiency: 34.5%) during these period, demonstrating better performance than that of BWR-5 (design thermal efficiency: 33.4%). Nos. 6 and 7 have experienced 2 annual outages. The first outage of unit No. 6 started on November 20, 1997 and was completed within 61 days (including 6 New Year holidays), and the second outage started on March 13, 1999 and was completed within 44 days. The first annual outage of unit No. 7 started on May 27, 1998, earlier than it would normally have been, to avoid an annual outage during the summer, and was completed within 55 days, and the second outage started on September 18th, 1999 and was completed within 45 days, All annual outages were carried out within a very short time period without any severe malfunctions, including newly designed ABWR systems and equipment. As the first outage in Japan, 55 days is a very short period, despite the fact that the Nos. 6 and 7 are the first ABWRs in the world and the largest capacity units in Japan. The total occupational radiation exposure of No. 6 was 300 man-mSv (1st outage) and 331 man-mSv (2nd outage). That of Unit 7 was 153 man-mSv (1st outage) Those of unit No. 6 were at the same level as those of unit No. 3, which is the latest design 1100MW(e) BWR-5. That of unit No. 7 was the lowest ever at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station. The drums of radioactive waste discharged during the annual outage numbered 54 (1st outage) for No. 6 and 62 (1st outage) for No. 7, which was less than the design target of 100

  8. Automated processing of whole blood units: operational value and in vitro quality of final blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Marisa; Algora, Manuel; Garcia-Sanchez, Félix; Vico, Santiago; Rodriguez, Eva; Perez, Sonia; Barbolla, Luz

    2012-01-01

    The Community Transfusion Centre in Madrid currently processes whole blood using a conventional procedure (Compomat, Fresenius) followed by automated processing of buffy coats with the OrbiSac system (CaridianBCT). The Atreus 3C system (CaridianBCT) automates the production of red blood cells, plasma and an interim platelet unit from a whole blood unit. Interim platelet unit are pooled to produce a transfusable platelet unit. In this study the Atreus 3C system was evaluated and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational value. Over a 5-week period 810 whole blood units were processed using the Atreus 3C system. The attributes of the automated process were compared to those of the routine method by assessing productivity, space, equipment and staffing requirements. The data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate the impact of implementing the Atreus 3C system in the routine setting of the blood centre. Yield and in vitro quality of the final blood components processed with the two systems were evaluated and compared. The Atreus 3C system enabled higher throughput while requiring less space and employee time by decreasing the amount of equipment and processing time per unit of whole blood processed. Whole blood units processed on the Atreus 3C system gave a higher platelet yield, a similar amount of red blood cells and a smaller volume of plasma. These results support the conclusion that the Atreus 3C system produces blood components meeting quality requirements while providing a high operational efficiency. Implementation of the Atreus 3C system could result in a large organisational improvement.

  9. An analysis of post-traumatic stress symptoms in United States Air Force drone operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne; Goodman, Tanya; Reardon, Laura; Thompson, William

    2014-06-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), commonly referred to as "drones," have emerged over the past decade as an innovative warfighting tool. Given there is a paucity of empirical research assessing drone operators, the purpose of this study was to assess for the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among this cohort. Of the 1084 United States Air Force (USAF) drone operators that participated, a total of 4.3% endorsed a pattern of symptoms of moderate to extreme level of severity meeting criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition. The incidence of PTSD among USAF drone operators in this study was lower than rates of PTSD (10-18%) among military personnel returning from deployment but higher than incidence rates (less than 1%) of USAF drone operators reported in electronic medical records. Although low PTSD rates may be promising, limitations to this study are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities

  11. Investigation reactor D-2201 polypropylene production unit using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibisono; Sugiharto; Jefri Simanjuntak

    2016-01-01

    D-2201 reactor is a unit in the polypropylene production process at Pertamina Refinery Unit III Plaju. Reactor with a capacity of 45 kilo liter is not operated in normal operation condition. The validity of liquid level indicator on the unit is doubtful when refers to the production quality. Gamma source of 150 mCi Cobalt-60 and a scintillation detector had been used to scan the outer wall of the reactor to detect the liquid level during operation with a capacity of 40 %. Measurements were made along the reactor walls with 25 mm scan resolution and 5 seconds time sampling. Experiment result shows that the liquid level at the position of 40 % and at normal level position are not observed. Investigation did not find the liquid level above normal. D-2201 is diagnose not normal operating condition diagnosed with liquid abundant passed the recommended limits. Investigation advised to repair or to calibrate the liquid level indicator which is currently installed. (author)

  12. RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study work plan for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit is one of two source operable units at the U Plant Aggregate Area at the Hanford Site. Source operable units include waste management units and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of radioactive and/or hazardous substance contamination. This work plan, while maintaining the title RFI/CMS, presents the background and direction for conducting a limited field investigation in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, which is the first part of the process leading to final remedy selection. This report discusses the background, prior recommendations, goals, organization, and quality assurance for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Work Plan. The discussion begins with a summary of the regulatory framework and the role of the work plan. The specific recommendations leading into the work plan are then addressed. Next, the goals and organization of the report are discussed. Finally, the quality assurance and supporting documentation are presented

  13. Dose rate evaluation of workers on the operation floor in Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kaoru; Kurosawa, Masahiko; Shirai, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Ippei; Mukaida, Naoki

    2017-09-01

    At Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3, installation of a fuel handling machine is planned to support the removal of spent fuel. The dose rates at the workplace were calculated based on the source distribution measured using a collimator in order to confirm that the dose rates on the operation floor were within a manageable range. It was confirmed that the accuracy of the source distribution was C/M = 1.0-2.4. These dose rates were then used to plan the work on the operation floor.

  14. Ageing Management of the reactor internals in Belgian nuclear units in view of Long Term Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.; Bertolis, D.; Vissers, S.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor internals support the reactor core, distribute the coolant flow through the core, and guide and protect the rod control cluster assemblies and in-core instrumentation. Their integrity must be guaranteed in all operating and accident conditions. They are exposed to specific degradation mechanisms linked to the intense neutron irradiation, like Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) or potentially void swelling, in addition to more classical mechanisms like fatigue, wear and stress corrosion cracking. A rigorous follow-up of in-service degradation and an effective ageing management is therefore of crucial importance and contributes to the safe and economical operation of nuclear PWR units. (author)

  15. Development of in-situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit...... operations are highlighted through a case study investigating the asymmetric synthesis of 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine (MPPA) using ω-transaminase, an enzyme in the sub-family of amino transferases (ATAs). An on-line HPLC system was applied to avoid manual sample handling and to semi...

  16. Coordinating bifurcated remediation of soil and groundwater at sites containing multiple operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    On larger and/or more complex sites, remediation of soil and groundwater is sometimes bifurcated. This presents some unique advantages with respect to expedited cleanup of one medium, however, it requires skillful planning and significant forethought to ensure that initial remediation efforts do not preclude some long-term options, and/or unduly influence the subsequent selection of a technology for the other operable units and/or media. this paper examines how the decision to bifurcate should be approached, the various methods of bifurcation, the advantages and disadvantages of bifurcation, and the best methods to build flexibility into the design of initial remediation systems so as to allow for consideration of a fuller range of options for remediation of other operable units and/or media at a later time. Pollutants of concern include: metals; petroleum hydrocarbons; and chlorinated solvents

  17. Steam generator tube integrity requirements and operating experience in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generator tube integrity is important to the safe operation of pressurized-water reactors. For ensuring tube integrity, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses a regulatory framework that is largely performance based. This performance-based framework is supplemented with some prescriptive requirements. The framework recognizes that there are three combinations of tube materials and heat treatments currently used in the United States and that the operating experience depends, in part, on the type of material used. This paper summarizes the regulatory framework for ensuring steam generator tube integrity, it highlights the current status of steam generators, and it highlights some of the steam generator issues and challenges that exist in the United States. (author)

  18. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-01-01

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year

  19. Development of Regulatory Audit Programs for Wolsong Unit 1 Continued Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Key; Nho, Seung Hwan; Song, Myung Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Wolsong Unit 1 (PHWR type) design life expires on November 20, 2010. In relation to it, KHNP submitted its application to get approval of the MEST on December 30, 2009 and KINS is under review to confirm the appropriateness of continued operation. For the comprehensive review of Wolsong Unit 1 continued operation, KINS has developed the review guidelines for PHWR type reactor including a total of 39 aging management program (AMP) items and 7 time limited aging analysis (TLAA) items. Evaluations or calculations to verify the integrity of nuclear components are required for plant specific AMP and TLAA items as well as the ones specified in the guidelines. In this paper, audit calculation programs developed for KINS staff use in reviewing applicant's submitted evaluation results are presented

  20. Computer Drawing Method for Operating Characteristic Curve of PV Power Plant Array Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianbin

    2018-02-01

    According to the engineering design of large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power stations and the research and development of many simulation and analysis systems, it is necessary to draw a good computer graphics of the operating characteristic curves of photovoltaic array elements and to propose a good segmentation non-linear interpolation algorithm. In the calculation method, Component performance parameters as the main design basis, the computer can get 5 PV module performances. At the same time, combined with the PV array series and parallel connection, the computer drawing of the performance curve of the PV array unit can be realized. At the same time, the specific data onto the module of PV development software can be calculated, and the good operation of PV array unit can be improved on practical application.

  1. Transformation of the Czech refinery and petrochemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junek, V.

    1995-01-01

    The petrochemical and chemical industries in former Czechoslovakia in the period after World War II was built up with a purpose to create a complex whose individual subjects would be closely interlinked from the point of view of their production programmes. The separation of Slovakia as an independent state has disrupted some of these links. In spite of that the petrochemical and chemical industries are nowadays the most prosperous branches of economy of the Czech Republic. The governmental proposal for the reorganizing of the refinery and petrochemical complex elaborated in connection with the resolution of the Governmental Privatization Commission of November 6 1994 proposed the formation of a holding company Unipetrol in the way of merging Chemopetrol and Kaucuk with a new joint stock company Unipetrol established for this purpose by the National Property Fund. The updated proposal offers formation of the holding organization Unipetrol in a substantially simpler, from the point of view of time, organization and financing less demanding manner. This proposal is based on the following principles: respecting the approved privatization projects, the solution must not have influence on the rights and position of natural and juristic persons who became shareholders in accordance with the privatization projects already approved, the influence of the state on decisions of the holding and its daughter companies will be maintained with regard to the security of the state and supplying the strategically important subjects with fuels in situation of a crisis, the share of the business subjects in the shares of the holding will be such that it would enable them from the very beginning to participate effectively and not only formally in the decisions. 2 figs

  2. Report on basic survey project for promoting joint implementation in 1999. Feasibility study on energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emission at Balikpapan Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective of implementation as the clean development mechanism (CDM), a survey was performed on energy conservation and CO2 reduction at Balikpapan Refinery in Indonesia with respect to reducing emission of greenhouse effect gases. A crude oil atmospheric distillation unit with a capacity of 200,000 BPSD, and a vacuum distillation unit with a capacity of 81,000 BPSD are in operation, which emit carbon dioxide of about 470,000 tons annually from fuels burned and consumed by these units. The result of the survey revealed that there is a room for improvement in heat recovery, and that these units are separated into two groups located far away with each other in distance, resulting in low thermal efficiency and wastes in fuel. Increase in heat recovery should be achieved, and fuel consumption in the heating furnace should be reduced. Energy saving technologies owned by JGC were applied to establish a modification plan. The plan calls for maximum annual reduction of carbon dioxide of about 61,000 tons at a reduction rate of 13%, and maximum annual fuel conservation of 190 times 10{sup 9} kcal at a saving rate of 13%. PERTAMINA also desires the realization thereof if technical and financial assistance is made available. The project has a significance that it would give a great impetus to the entire regions and industries. (NEDO)

  3. Main problems experienced on diesel generators of French 900 MWe operating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dredemis, Geoffroy; Jude, Francois [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire, Departement d' Analyse de Surete, B.P. No. 6, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1986-02-15

    Each unit of all the French nuclear power plant is equipped with two diesel emergency generator sets., For the totality of standards PWRs of 900 MWe, they are identical. We present in this communication the most significative failures met with diesel engines on operating units, such as rupture of fuel injection pipes, breaking of the connecting rods, and cylinder lubrication failures. All these incidents, which affected the emergency power sources of concerned units, had generic characteristics. In view of their potential consequences, it was proceeded in each case to an immediate control of the components concerned of all PWR 900 MWe diesel engines. At the same time, studies were started as to what modifications would permit to solve rapidly each one of the problems met with. (authors)

  4. Start up and commercial operation of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Ramirez, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Prior to start up of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant preoperational tests and start tests were performed and they are described in its more eminent aspects. In relation to commercial operation of nuclear station a series of indicator were set to which allow the measurement of performance in unit 1, in areas of plant efficiency and personal safety. Antecedents. Laguna Verde station is located in Alto Lucero municipality in Veracruz state, 70 kilometers north-northeast from port of Veracruz and a 290 kilometers east-northeast from Mexico city. The station consist of two units manufactured by General Electric, with a nuclear system of vapor supply also called boiling water (BWR/5), and with a system turbine-generator manufactured by Mitsubishi. Each unit has a nominal power of 1931 MWt and a level design power of 675 Mwe and a net power of 654 Electric Megawatts

  5. 200-ZP-1 operable unit borehole summary report for FY 1995 and FY 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrach, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    This document details the well construction, sampling, analyses, and geologic character of the Ringold Formation fluvial unit E gravels as encountered in 16 boreholes in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. These boreholes were drilled by Water Development Hanford Corporation during fiscal years 1995 and 1996. Two of the sixteen boreholes were abandoned; the remaining 14 boreholes were completed as functioning production and compliance wells. The borehole logs and well summary sheets included as Appendices A and B of this document, respectively, depict and describe the vadose zone stratigraphic units encountered during the course of drilling. Appendix C contains the results of sieve analyses conducted on samples obtained via resonant sonic coring and standard split-spoon methods. The sieve analyses were the driver behind the majority of the well designs. Also, for completeness, Appendices D and E contain the well design calculations and the well development process

  6. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations' suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of 60 Co, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area

  7. Condition based monitoring, diagnosis and maintenance on operating equipments of a hydraulic generator unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X T; Feng, F Z; Si, A W

    2012-01-01

    According to performance characteristics of operating equipments in a hydraulic generator unit (HGU), the relative techniques on condition monitoring and fault diagnosis (CMFD) are introduced in this paper, especially the key technologies are emphasized, such as equipment monitoring, expert system (ES), intelligent diagnosis and condition based maintenance (CBM). Meanwhile, according to the instructor on CBM proposed by State electric power corporation, based on integrated mode, the main steps on implementation of CBM are discussed in this paper.

  8. INEL Operable Unit 7-13 containment and stabilization configuration option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raivo, B.D.; Richardson, J.G.; Nickelson, D.F.

    1993-05-01

    A containment and stabilization configuration option has been developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area Operable Unit 7-13, the transuranic (TRU)-contaminated waste pits and trenches. The configuration option is presented as an end-to-end system block diagram. Functional subelements are separately discussed, and technical background information, assumptions, input, high-level subelement requirements, and output are presented for each option

  9. Baseline groundwater model update for p-area groundwater operable unit, NBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Amidon, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the development of a numerical groundwater flow and transport model of the hydrogeologic system of the P-Area Reactor Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). The P-Area model provides a tool to aid in understanding the hydrologic and geochemical processes that control the development and migration of the current tritium, tetrachloroethene (PCE), and trichloroethene (TCE) plumes in this region.

  10. Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2. Application for construction permits and operating licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An application to construct and operate Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2, is presented. The two BWR type reactors will have a rated core thermal power of 3579 MW(t) and a net electrical power of approximately 1150 MW(e). The facility will be located in Inola Township, 23 miles east of Tulsa on the east side of the Verdigris River in Rogers County, Oklahoma

  11. The new local control systems for operating gaseous diffusion plant units at Pierrelatte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix, C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a local control network for operating gaseous diffusion plant units is presented. The objective of the control system up date was to replace all the information network hardware. The new generation HP1000 calculators and a network architecture were chosen. The validation tests performed in laboratory and in situ, and the management policies towards the personnel during the technical changes are summarized [fr

  12. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment. The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, burn pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit Work Plan (DOE-RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (DOE-RL 1991) and negotiations with the Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology. An interim remedial measure is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and 4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  13. Site-specific waste management instruction for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This site-specific waste management instruction provides guidance for the management of waste generated as a result of groundwater well installations in the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (OU). The well installations are necessary to implement the Remedial Action (RA) option (pump-and-treat using ion exchange) to prevent discharge of hexavalent chromium at levels above those considered protective of aquatic life in the Columbia River and riverbed sediments

  14. Site-specific waste management instruction for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit drilling. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.T.

    1996-08-01

    This site-specific waste management instruction provides guidance for the management of waste generated as a result of groundwater well installations in the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (OU). The well installations are necessary to implement the Remedial Action (RA) option (pump-and-treat using ion exchange) to prevent discharge of hexavalent chromium at levels above those considered protective of aquatic life in the Columbia River and riverbed sediments

  15. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit, fifth round groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    The data from the chemical analysis of 68 samples from the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit Third Quarter 1993 Groundwater Sampling Investigation and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at the site. Sample analysis included inorganics and general chemical parameters. Fifty three samples were validated for radiochemical parameters

  16. Data validation report for the 100-KR-4 operable unit first quarter, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Samples were obtained from the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit first Quarter 1994 Groundwater Sampling event. The data from the chemical analysis of fifty-eight samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported samples results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. Information fro the sampling event and the information validation processes are presented in this document

  17. Data validation report for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit: 100-D ponds sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovich, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that 100 percent of the Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit Sampling Investigation. Therefore the data from the chemical analysis of all 30 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site

  18. Data validation summary report for the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit Round 8 Groundwater Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, A.T.

    1996-03-01

    The information provided in this validation summary report includes data from the chemical analyses of samples from the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit Round 8 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. All of the data from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that the reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. Sample analyses included metals, general chemistry and radiochemistry

  19. Contaminant Attenuation and Transport Characterization of 200-DV-1 Operable Unit Sediment Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moran, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M.V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resch, Charles T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gartman, Brandy N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nims, Megan K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saunders, Danielle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baum, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Christiansen, Beren B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tyrrell, Kimberly J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Striluk, Miranda L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify contaminant attenuation processes and associated contaminant transport parameters that are needed to evaluate transport of contaminants through the vadose zone to the groundwater. The laboratory study information, in conjunction with transport analyses, can be used as input to evaluate the feasibility of Monitored Natural Attenuation and other remedies for the 200-DV-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site.

  20. Initial closed operation of the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, M.; Blackwell, C.; Zografos, A.; Drews, M.; MacElroy, R.; McKenna, R.; Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the NASA Advanced Life Support Flight Program, a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility Engineering Development Unit has been constructed and is undergoing initial operational testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is a tightly closed, stringently controlled, ground-based testbed which provides a broad range of environmental conditions under which a variety of CELSS higher plant crops can be grown. Although the EDU was developed primarily to provide near-term engineering data and a realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary for the fabrication of a comparable flight unit, the EDU has also provided a means to evaluate plant crop productivity and physiology under controlled conditions. This paper describes the initial closed operational testing of the EDU, with emphasis on the hardware performance capabilities. Measured performance data during a 28-day closed operation period are compared with the specified functional requirements, and an example of inferring crop growth parameters from the test data is presented. Plans for future science and technology testing are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  1. Final record of decision for remedial actions at Operable Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 4 of the Fernald Site in Fernald, Ohio. This remedial action was selected in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and to the extent practicable 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 300, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). For Operable Unit 4 at the FEMP, DOE has chosen to complete an integrated CERCLA/NEPA process. This decision was based on the longstanding interest on the part of local stakeholders to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the restoration activities at the FEMP and on the recognition that the draft document was issued and public comments received. Therefore, this single document is intended to serve as DOE's Record of Decision (ROD) for Operable Unit 4 under both CERCLA and NEPA; however, it is not the intent of the DOE to make a statement on the legal applicability of NEPA to CERCLA actions

  2. Enhanced teaching and student learning through a simulator-based course in chemical unit operations design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasem, Nayef

    2016-07-01

    This paper illustrates a teaching technique used in computer applications in chemical engineering employed for designing various unit operation processes, where the students learn about unit operations by designing them. The aim of the course is not to teach design, but rather to teach the fundamentals and the function of unit operation processes through simulators. A case study presenting the teaching method was evaluated using student surveys and faculty assessments, which were designed to measure the quality and effectiveness of the teaching method. The results of the questionnaire conclusively demonstrate that this method is an extremely efficient way of teaching a simulator-based course. In addition to that, this teaching method can easily be generalised and used in other courses. A student's final mark is determined by a combination of in-class assessments conducted based on cooperative and peer learning, progress tests and a final exam. Results revealed that peer learning can improve the overall quality of student learning and enhance student understanding.

  3. 100-HR-1 Operable Unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Feasibility Study (FS) includes development and screening of alternatives (phases 1 and 2) and the detailed analysis of alternatives (phase 3). This focused feasibility study (FFS) constitutes the phase 3 portion of the FS process. The FFS process is conducted in two stages, a Process Document (DOE-RL 1994a) and an operable unit-specific FFS document, such as this one. The FFS process is performed by implementing a ''plug-in'' style approach as defined in great detail in the Process Document. The objective of this operable unit-specific FFS is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures (IRM) for sites associated with the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit. The IRM candidate waste sites are determined in the limited field investigation. Site profiles are developed for each of these waste sites. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented

  4. Enterprise Integration of Management and Automation in a Refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengen

    Traditionally, problems in a petroleum refinery were separately modeled and solved with respect to disciplines. The segregated implementations of various disciplinary technologies resulted in considerable barriers impeding the pursuit of global optimal performance. It is recognized that enterprise-wide integration of the managerial and automation systems is of fundamental significance for refineries to promptly respond to global market requirements. In this paper, the technical implementations are disciplinarily categorized into managerial and automatic systems. Then, typical managerial and automatic implementations in a refinery are depicted to give an insight perception of the heterogeneous data sources manipulated by these systems. Finally, an integration approach based on data reconciliation techniques is proposed to link up the heterogeneous data sources.

  5. Fitting partially upgraded oils into pipelines and refinery markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaherty, G.

    2000-01-01

    The logistics of transporting partially upgraded crudes in feeder and trunk pipeline systems is discussed. Logistic alternatives are evaluated against economic drivers for partial upgrading, and the impact of crude transportation logistics on the quality of crude that reaches refinery gates is assessed. The potential advantages of partial upgrading in the field are reviewed (including reduction of diluent required to meet pipeline density and viscosity specifications, cost and availability of diluent, limitations in diluent transportation infrastructure, increased chemical stability, increased attractiveness to refineries, shortage of refinery coking capacity, higher market value). The pros and cons of various upgrading processes, and the implications of each for producers and refiners are explained. The advantages of moving to large common streams, as opposed to the concept of 'boutique' crudes, are stressed as the surest way for producers to realize the maximum value of partially upgraded crudes

  6. Water level measurements for modeling hydraulic properties in the 300-FF-5 and 100 Aggregate Area Operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.D.; McMahon, W.J.; Simpson, K.R.

    1993-04-01

    Pressure transducers connected to dataloggers were used to measure ground water and Columbia River water elevations simultaneously and hourly at 35 locations in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and 16 locations in the 100 Aggregate Area Operable Unit on the Hanford Site. Water temperatures were also measured at 12 of these locations. This report details the findings of these studies

  7. 40 CFR 60.1200 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1200 Section 60.1200 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1200 What are the operating practice...

  8. Development of a processor embedded timing unit for the synchronized operation in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woongryol, E-mail: wrlee@nfri.re.kr; Lee, Taegu; Hong, Jaesic

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Timing board for the synchronized tokamak operation. • Processor embedded distributed control system. • Single clock source and multiple trigger signal for the plasma diagnostics. • Delay compensation among the distributed timing boards. - Abstract: The Local Timing Unit (LTU) in KSTAR provides a single clock source and multiple trigger signals with flexible configuration. Over the past seven years, the LTU had a mechanical redesign and several firmware updates for the purpose of provision of a robust operation and precision timing signal. Now we have developed a third version of a local timing unit which has a standalone operation capability. The LTU is built in a cabinet mountable 1U PIZZA box and provides twelve signal output ports, a packet mirroring interface, and an LCD interface panel. The core functions of the LTU are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) which has an internal hardcore processor. The internal processor allows the use of Linux Operating System (OS) and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). All user level application functions are controllable through the EPICS, however the time critical internal functions are performed by the FPGA logic blocks same as the previous version. The new LTU provides pluggable output module so that we can easily extend the signal output port. The easy installation and effective replacement reduce the efforts of maintenance. This paper describes design, development, and commissioning results of the new KSTAR LTU.

  9. PREMATH: a Precious-Material Holdup Estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.; Bruns, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program, PREMATH (Precious Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to permit inventory estimation in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. PREMATH's purpose is to provide steady-state composition estimates for material residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimation, the results are determined for and cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent material collected in applicable vessels - including consideration for material previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple material balance models to estimate material holdups and distribution within unit operations. During simulated run testing, PREMATH-estimated inventories typically produced material balances within 7% of the associated measured material balances for uranium and within 16% of the associated, measured material balances for thorium (a less valuable material than uranium) during steady-state process operation

  10. Implementation and Operational Analysis of an Interactive Intensive Care Unit within a Smart Health Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Erik

    2018-01-01

    In the context of hospital management and operation, Intensive Care Units (ICU) are one of the most challenging in terms of time responsiveness and criticality, in which adequate resource management and signal processing play a key role in overall system performance. In this work, a context aware Intensive Care Unit is implemented and analyzed to provide scalable signal acquisition capabilities, as well as to provide tracking and access control. Wireless channel analysis is performed by means of hybrid optimized 3D Ray Launching deterministic simulation to assess potential interference impact as well as to provide required coverage/capacity thresholds for employed transceivers. Wireless system operation within the ICU scenario, considering conventional transceiver operation, is feasible in terms of quality of service for the complete scenario. Extensive measurements of overall interference levels have also been carried out, enabling subsequent adequate coverage/capacity estimations, for a set of Zigbee based nodes. Real system operation has been tested, with ad-hoc designed Zigbee wireless motes, employing lightweight communication protocols to minimize energy and bandwidth usage. An ICU information gathering application and software architecture for Visitor Access Control has been implemented, providing monitoring of the Boxes external doors and the identification of visitors via a RFID system. The results enable a solution to provide ICU access control and tracking capabilities previously not exploited, providing a step forward in the implementation of a Smart Health framework. PMID:29382148

  11. Development of a processor embedded timing unit for the synchronized operation in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Hong, Jaesic

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Timing board for the synchronized tokamak operation. • Processor embedded distributed control system. • Single clock source and multiple trigger signal for the plasma diagnostics. • Delay compensation among the distributed timing boards. - Abstract: The Local Timing Unit (LTU) in KSTAR provides a single clock source and multiple trigger signals with flexible configuration. Over the past seven years, the LTU had a mechanical redesign and several firmware updates for the purpose of provision of a robust operation and precision timing signal. Now we have developed a third version of a local timing unit which has a standalone operation capability. The LTU is built in a cabinet mountable 1U PIZZA box and provides twelve signal output ports, a packet mirroring interface, and an LCD interface panel. The core functions of the LTU are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) which has an internal hardcore processor. The internal processor allows the use of Linux Operating System (OS) and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). All user level application functions are controllable through the EPICS, however the time critical internal functions are performed by the FPGA logic blocks same as the previous version. The new LTU provides pluggable output module so that we can easily extend the signal output port. The easy installation and effective replacement reduce the efforts of maintenance. This paper describes design, development, and commissioning results of the new KSTAR LTU.

  12. Implementation and Operational Analysis of an Interactive Intensive Care Unit within a Smart Health Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of hospital management and operation, Intensive Care Units (ICU are one of the most challenging in terms of time responsiveness and criticality, in which adequate resource management and signal processing play a key role in overall system performance. In this work, a context aware Intensive Care Unit is implemented and analyzed to provide scalable signal acquisition capabilities, as well as to provide tracking and access control. Wireless channel analysis is performed by means of hybrid optimized 3D Ray Launching deterministic simulation to assess potential interference impact as well as to provide required coverage/capacity thresholds for employed transceivers. Wireless system operation within the ICU scenario, considering conventional transceiver operation, is feasible in terms of quality of service for the complete scenario. Extensive measurements of overall interference levels have also been carried out, enabling subsequent adequate coverage/capacity estimations, for a set of Zigbee based nodes. Real system operation has been tested, with ad-hoc designed Zigbee wireless motes, employing lightweight communication protocols to minimize energy and bandwidth usage. An ICU information gathering application and software architecture for Visitor Access Control has been implemented, providing monitoring of the Boxes external doors and the identification of visitors via a RFID system. The results enable a solution to provide ICU access control and tracking capabilities previously not exploited, providing a step forward in the implementation of a Smart Health framework.

  13. Implementation and Operational Analysis of an Interactive Intensive Care Unit within a Smart Health Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Trigo, Jesús Daniel; Astrain, José Javier; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Serrano, Luis; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2018-01-29

    In the context of hospital management and operation, Intensive Care Units (ICU) are one of the most challenging in terms of time responsiveness and criticality, in which adequate resource management and signal processing play a key role in overall system performance. In this work, a context aware Intensive Care Unit is implemented and analyzed to provide scalable signal acquisition capabilities, as well as to provide tracking and access control. Wireless channel analysis is performed by means of hybrid optimized 3D Ray Launching deterministic simulation to assess potential interference impact as well as to provide required coverage/capacity thresholds for employed transceivers. Wireless system operation within the ICU scenario, considering conventional transceiver operation, is feasible in terms of quality of service for the complete scenario. Extensive measurements of overall interference levels have also been carried out, enabling subsequent adequate coverage/capacity estimations, for a set of Zigbee based nodes. Real system operation has been tested, with ad-hoc designed Zigbee wireless motes, employing lightweight communication protocols to minimize energy and bandwidth usage. An ICU information gathering application and software architecture for Visitor Access Control has been implemented, providing monitoring of the Boxes external doors and the identification of visitors via a RFID system. The results enable a solution to provide ICU access control and tracking capabilities previously not exploited, providing a step forward in the implementation of a Smart Health framework.

  14. RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study work plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances. Also included in the Tri-Party Agreement are 55 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities that will be closed or permitted to operate in accordance with RCRA regulations, under the authority of Chapter 173-303 Washington Administrative Code (WAC). Some of the TSD facilities are included in the operable units. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) for the 100-HR-3 operable unit. The 100-HR-3 operable unit underlies the D/DR and H Areas, the 600 Area between them, and the six source operable units these areas contain. The 100-HR-3 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water within its boundary. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination. Separate work plans have been initiated for the 100-DR-1 (DOE-RL 1992a) and 100-HR-1 (DOE-RL 1992b) source operable units

  15. On an Integral-Type Operator Acting between Bloch-Type Spaces on the Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Stević

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Let 𝔹 denote the open unit ball of ℂn. For a holomorphic self-map φ of 𝔹 and a holomorphic function g in 𝔹 with g(0=0, we define the following integral-type operator: Iφgf(z=∫01ℜf(φ(tzg(tz(dt/t, z∈𝔹. Here ℜf denotes the radial derivative of a holomorphic function f in 𝔹. We study the boundedness and compactness of the operator between Bloch-type spaces ℬω and ℬμ, where ω is a normal weight function and μ is a weight function. Also we consider the operator between the little Bloch-type spaces ℬω,0 and ℬμ,0.

  16. Operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2, Docket No. 50-412, Beaver County, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The final environmental impact statement (EPA No. 850438F) assesses the effects of operating a pressurized water reactor in Pennsylvania on the south bank of the Ohio River, which would serve as the final heat sink for the cooling system. Operation of Unit 2 would add 836 MW of capacity and increase system reliability. The plant would employ 465 at an $18 million payroll. Facilities for the plant would take up 56 acres of agricultural land. The operation result in both water and noise pollution. There is only a small probability of impacts due to potential radiation exposure. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations require the impact statement

  17. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.

    1982-02-01

    This NRC Plan, which defines NRC's functional role in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 and outlines NRC's regulatory responsibilities in fulfilling this role, is the first revision to the initial plan issued in July 1980 (NUREG-0698). Since 1980, a number of policy developments have occurred which will have an impact on the course of cleanup operations. This revision reflects these developments in the area of NRC's review and approval process with regard to cleanup operations as well as NRC's interface with the Department of Energy's involvement in the cleanup and waste disposal. This revision is also intended to update the cleanup schedule by presenting the cleanup progress that has taken place and NRC's role in ongoing and future cleanup activities

  18. Regulating manure application discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, Terence J.; Feitshans, Theodore A.

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, reducing pollution from agriculture has received attention due to data suggesting that this is the leading source of impairment of many waterbodies. The federal government revised its regulations governing concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to enhance governmental oversight over sources of pollution. For the application of manure resulting in pollutant discharges, CAFOs need to implement nutrient management plans. A federal court affirmed the ability of the US federal government to oversee the application of manure from CAFOs that have discharges. Simultaneously, owners and operators of CAFOs who have implemented an appropriate nutrient management plan may forgo securing a permit if their discharges qualify under the agricultural stormwater discharge exemption. - New rules applying to the application of manure by large concentrated animal feeding operations should reduce water contamination

  19. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January

  20. Optimization of water network in petroleum refinery; Otimizacao de redes de agua em refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Debora C.; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de; Souza, Antonio A. Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The petroleum refineries have shown high water's consuming that creates high costs and damages the hydric resources. However, the industrial sector, especially the petroleum industry, has been looking for alternatives that minimizing the impact caused by to use these natural resources. Currently, methodologies of controlling the pollution on the source have been appearing how a strong tendency and the reuse and/or recycle of wastewater can be emphasized. The optimization by mathematical programming, together with engineering know-how, is one of the great tendency in process integration technology developed. The present work presents one optimization mathematical model that objectifies to reduce the water's consuming and/or operational costs. The model is based in chemical species and mass conservation equation. This work presents the solution of one case found in literature that broach one petroleum refinery's network of water. This network is composed of six operations and three regenerative processes, and there are four keys contaminants. The water's consuming was minimized first and next the minimum cost in the minimum consume was broached. The results found were enough satisfactory and presented reductions up to 76% in the water consume and approximately 65% in the operational costs. (author)

  1. Management and analysis of data from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D T [Wastewater, Technology Centre, Burlington, ON (Canada); Grammas, J [SOHO, Lima, OH (USA)

    1989-01-01

    Current efforts to monitor trace contaminants in treated oil refinery wastewaters increase the need to implement systematic, clear, and consistent procedures for reporting and presenting all monitoring data. The ability to interpret trace contaminant data which is to be collected by the governments of the U.S. and Canada for regulations development will rely on information about operating procedures and the efficiency of removal of conventional pollutants. An overview is provided of the main issues which must be addressed in managing and analyzing data from wastewater treatment facilities. The objectives of enviromental data management and analysis are discussed from the point of view of both the plant operator or owner and the regulatory authority. Based on the examination of the 1985 records of flow and phenol concentrations from seven Canadian petroleum refineries, recommendations are made for improving existing databases. In analyzing environmental data to transform raw data into information, exploratory data analysis techniques should be used by engineers or operators who do not have formal statistical training. These methods employ simple statistical summaries and graphical data displays. The paper concludes with a brief discussion about future trends in environmental data management and analysis. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 40 CFR 80.1238 - How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration determined? (a) The average benzene concentration of gasoline produced at a refinery or imported... percent benzene). i = Individual batch of gasoline produced at the refinery or imported during the applicable averaging period. n = Total number of batches of gasoline produced at the refinery or imported...

  3. 40 CFR 80.596 - How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel... Requirements § 80.596 How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a refinery's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline is calculated using the...

  4. 77 FR 56421 - Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Parts 9 and 60 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...-9672-3] RIN 2060-AN72 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 14, 2007...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF CO2 EMISSION MITIGATION FOR A BRAZILIAN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. Chan

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently the oil refining sector is responsible for approximately 5% of the total Brazilian energy related CO2 emissions. Possibilities to reduce CO2 emissions and related costs at the largest Brazilian refinery have been estimated. The abatement costs related to energy saving options are negative, meaning that feasibility exists without specific income due to emission reductions. The assessment shows that short-term mitigation options, i.e., fuel substitution and energy efficiency measures, could reduce CO2 emissions by 6% of the total current refinery emissions. It is further shown that carbon capture and storage offers the greatest potential for more significant emission reductions in the longer term (up to 43%, but costs in the range of 64 to162 US$/t CO2, depending on the CO2 emission source (regenerators of FCC units or hydrogen production units and the CO2 capture technology considered (oxyfuel combustion or post-combustion. Effects of uncertainties in key parameters on abatement costs are also evaluated via sensitivity analysis.

  6. Day-Ahead Coordination of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation and Wind Power in Security Constraints Unit Commitment (SCUC)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Abdollahi; Majid Moazzami

    2015-01-01

    In this paper security constraints unit commitment (SCUC) in the presence of wind power resources and electrical vehicles to grid is presented. SCUC operation prepare an optimal time table for generation unit commitment in order to maximize security, minimize operation cost and satisfy the constraints of networks and units in a period of time, as one of the most important research interest in power systems. Today, the relationship between power network and energy storage systems is interested...

  7. Development of in situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf H; Rehn, Gustav; Grey, Carl; Nordblad, Mathias; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Woodley, John M

    2017-03-01

    An experimental platform based on scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner enables easy and highly flexible testing of advanced biocatalytic process options such as in situ product removal (ISPR) process strategies. In such a platform, it is possible to compartmentalize different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit operations are highlighted through a case study investigating the asymmetric synthesis of 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine (MPPA) using ω-transaminase, an enzyme in the sub-family of amino transferases (ATAs). An on-line HPLC system was applied to avoid manual sample handling and to semi-automatically characterize ω-transaminases in a scaled-down packed-bed reactor (PBR) module, showing MPPA as a strong inhibitor. To overcome the inhibition, a two-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) ISPR concept was tested using scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner. Through the tested ISPR concept, it was possible to continuously feed the main substrate benzylacetone (BA) and extract the main product MPPA throughout the reaction, thereby overcoming the challenges of low substrate solubility and product inhibition. The tested ISPR concept achieved a product concentration of 26.5 g MPPA  · L -1 , a purity up to 70% g MPPA  · g tot -1 and a recovery in the range of 80% mol · mol -1 of MPPA in 20 h, with the possibility to increase the concentration, purity, and recovery further. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 600-609. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The nuclear industry's transition to risk-informed regulation and operation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadak, Andrew C.; Matsuo, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study of the transition of the United States nuclear industry from a prescriptive regulatory structure to a more risk informed approach to operations and regulations. The transition occurred over a 20 yr period in which gradual changes were made in the fundamental regulations and to the approach to nuclear safety and operations. While the number of actual regulatory changes were few, they are continuing. The utilities that embraced risk informed operations made dramatic changes in the way they approached operations and outage management. Those utilities that used risk in operations showed dramatic improvement in safety based on Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) performance indicators. It was also shown that the use of risk did not negatively affect safety performance of the plants compared to standard prescriptive approaches. This was despite having greater flexibility in compliance to regulatory standards and the use of the newly instituted risk-informed reactor oversight process. Key factors affecting the successful transition to a more risk-informed approach to regulations and operations are: strong top management support and leadership both at the regulator and the utility; education and training in risk principles and probabilistic risk Assessment tools for engineers, operators and maintenance staff; a slow and steady introduction of risk initiatives in areas that can show value to both the regulator and the industry; a transparent regulatory foundation built around a safety goal policy and the development of a strong safety culture at the utility to allow for more independence in safety compliance and risk management. The experience of the United States shows positive results in both safety and economics. The INPO and NRC metrics presented show that the use of risk information in operations and regulation is marginally better with no degradation in safety when plants that have embraced risk-informed approaches are compared

  9. Managing Exposure to Benzene and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Two Oil Refineries 1977-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Tapani; Veijalainen, Henna; Santonen, Tiina

    2018-01-24

    Air concentrations of and inhalation exposure to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and benzene was monitored separately at two oil refineries from 1977 to 2014. Prevention policies and control measures that may explain changes were surveyed. The aim was to evaluate how the application of of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS 18001.04 principles as well as Environmental protection Agency EPA and European Oil Company Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety CONCAWE practices have influenced air concentrations. Benzene air concentrations declined in 11 of 17 units, six of which were associated with declining exposures. Benzene air concentrations declined across all units on average by 46%. This amounts to an average yearly decline of 1.7%. TPH air concentrations declined in 10 of 17 units, seven of which were associated with declining exposures. The average decline in TPH air concentrations was 49%, corresponding to 1.3% per year. As a result, average working day exposure in 10 of 17 units have declined significantly and today, benzene and TPH exposure in most units are well below 10% of the current Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL 8h :s). A decline in air concentrations have coincided with consistent implementation of control measures. Such measures include on-line monitoring of leaks; benzene recovery; floating container roofs; improved valves and seals; hermetic pumps; recovery of loading gases and instalment of torches in terminals; cutback in coke combustion; a new production line spanning directly from the dock to aromatics production; and recovery of loading gases in the doc. Other tools in exposure management include personal leak monitors, on-line measurements, monitoring campaigns, risk assessment, and availability and user training of protective equipment. However, improvements are still needed. Hydrocarbon or benzene air concentrations have not declined in 8 of 17 units, in some of which concentrations exceed 10% of the relevant

  10. Managing Exposure to Benzene and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Two Oil Refineries 1977–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Tapani; Veijalainen, Henna; Santonen, Tiina

    2018-01-01

    Air concentrations of and inhalation exposure to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and benzene was monitored separately at two oil refineries from 1977 to 2014. Prevention policies and control measures that may explain changes were surveyed. The aim was to evaluate how the application of of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS 18001.04 principles as well as Environmental protection Agency EPA and European Oil Company Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety CONCAWE practices have influenced air concentrations. Benzene air concentrations declined in 11 of 17 units, six of which were associated with declining exposures. Benzene air concentrations declined across all units on average by 46%. This amounts to an average yearly decline of 1.7%. TPH air concentrations declined in 10 of 17 units, seven of which were associated with declining exposures. The average decline in TPH air concentrations was 49%, corresponding to 1.3% per year. As a result, average working day exposure in 10 of 17 units have declined significantly and today, benzene and TPH exposure in most units are well below 10% of the current Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL8h:s). A decline in air concentrations have coincided with consistent implementation of control measures. Such measures include on-line monitoring of leaks; benzene recovery; floating container roofs; improved valves and seals; hermetic pumps; recovery of loading gases and instalment of torches in terminals; cutback in coke combustion; a new production line spanning directly from the dock to aromatics production; and recovery of loading gases in the doc. Other tools in exposure management include personal leak monitors, on-line measurements, monitoring campaigns, risk assessment, and availability and user training of protective equipment. However, improvements are still needed. Hydrocarbon or benzene air concentrations have not declined in 8 of 17 units, in some of which concentrations exceed 10% of the relevant

  11. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Survey on energy saving and CO2 emission reduction in Cilacap Refinery; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Cilacap seiyusho ni okeru shoene CO2 sakugen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  12. Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Semiannual report on operating and maintenance, July--December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Unit 1 generated 388,882 MWH(e) and was on line 3111.2 hours, Unit 2 generated 1,204,106 MWH(e) and was on line 2013.4 hours, and Unit 3 generated 2,250,810 MWH(e) and was on line 3836 hours. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, tests, and experiments for the three units. (U.S.)

  13. Unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of LLW [i.e., Government and commerical (fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle)] that is generated at LWR plants. Many different chemical engineering unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at LWR plants include adsorption, evaporation, calcination, centrifugation, compaction, crystallization, drying, filtration, incineration, reverse osmosis, and solidification of waste residues. The treatment of these various streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described. The various treatment options for concentrates or solid wet wastes, and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting and shredding. Organic materials [liquids (e.g., oils or solvents) and/or solids], could be incinerated in most cases. The filter sludges, spent resins, and concentrated liquids (e.g., evaporator concentrates) are usually solidified in cement, or urea-formaldehyde or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Incinerator ashes can also be incorporated in these binding agents. Asphalt has not yet been used. This paper presents a brief survey of operational experience at LWRs with various unit operations, including a short discussion of problems and some observations on recent trends

  14. Fessenheim 2: ASN's green light for continuing operation - Beginning of the works for unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    Every 10 years a nuclear power plant operator has to make a re-assessment of the nuclear safety standard of his plant. This re-assessment is made of 2 parts: first the review of the safety conformity and secondly a thorough re-examination of the safety that takes into account today's safety standards and feedback experience from similar plants. This detailed assessment of the safety aims at checking that the consequences of the different aging phenomena are well mastered for the next 10 years at least. At the end of this re-assessment, the ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authorities) decide or not the continuation of plant activity or can prescribe safety improvements. In the case of the unit 2 of the Fessenheim plant that has just finished its third decennial safety re-assessment, the ASN has prescribed the same improvements as for the unit 1, that is to say the reinforcement of the resistance to corium of the foundation raft and an improvement on the emergency cooling system. The works on the unit 1 have begun despite contestation from anti-nuclear associations that question the cost of the safety upgrading (20 to 30 millions euros) while the unit is expected to be decommissioned by end 2016. (A.C.)

  15. Scale-up of a mixer-settler extractor using a unit operations approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, D.C.; Bautista, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The results of scale-up studies on a continuous, multistage horizontal mixer-settler extractor are presented. The chemical and mechanical system involves the separation of lanthanum from a mixture of rare earth chlorides using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid as the solvent and dilute HCl as a scrub solution in a bench scale extractor. Each stage has a hold-up of 2.6 l. A single stage unit is utilized for scale-up studies. Results are obtained on four sizes of geometrically similar units, the largest being six times the volume of the original bench size. A unit operations technique is chosen so that mixing and settling can be examined independently. Variables examined include type of continuous phase, flow rate of inlet streams, and power input to the mixer. Inlet flow-rate ratios are kept constant for all tests. Two potential methods of unbaffled pump-mixer scale-up are explored; the maintenance of constant impeller tip speed and constant power input. For the settler, the previously successful method of basing design on constant flow-rate per unit cross-sectional area is used

  16. Multiobjective Optimization of a Counterrotating Type Pump-Turbine Unit Operated at Turbine Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A multiobjective optimization for improving the turbine output and efficiency of a counterrotating type pump-turbine unit operated at turbine mode was carried out in this work. The blade geometry of both the runners was optimized using a hybrid multiobjective evolutionary algorithm coupled with a surrogate model. Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport turbulence model were discretized by finite volume approximations and solved on hexahedral grids to analyze the flow in the pump-turbine unit. As major hydrodynamic performance parameters, the turbine output and efficiency were selected as objective functions with two design variables related to the hub profiles of both the runner blades. These objectives were numerically assessed at twelve design points selected by Latin hypercube sampling in the design space. Response surface approximation models for the objectives were constructed based on the objective function values at the design points. A fast nondominated sorting genetic algorithm for the local search coupled with the response surface approximation models was applied to determine the global Pareto-optimal solutions. The trade-off between the two objectives was determined and described with respect to the Pareto-optimal solutions. The results of this work showed that the turbine outputs and efficiencies of optimized pump-turbine units were simultaneously improved in comparison to the reference unit.

  17. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300 and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Figure 1-1 shows the location of these areas. Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990a), signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste and other CERCLA hazardous substances. Also included in the Tri-Party Agreement are 55 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities that will be closed or permitted to operate in accordance with RCRA regulations, under the authority of Chapter 173-303 Washington Administrative Code (WAC). Some of the TSD facilities are included in the operable units. This work plant and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-5 operable unit. The 100-B/C Area consists of the 100-BC-5 groundwater operable unit and four source operable units. The 100-BC-5 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-B/C Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination

  18. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2010-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards

  19. Rate of generation of tritium during the operation of Tsuruga Power Station Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funamoto, Hisao; Yoshinari, Masaharu; Fukuda, Masayuki; Makino, Shinichi; Watari, Tuneo

    1994-01-01

    Total amount of 3 H activity in primary coolant due to the operation of Tsuruga Power Station Unit No. 2 was estimated. The 3 H inventory was measured for samples from the spent fuel pool, primary coolant and miscellaneous tanks. From the result of the measurement and the data of environmental release of 3 H, the rate of generation of 3 H in the reactor was found to be 25 TBq/GWa. Since Tsuruga Power Station Unit No. 2 is a PWR type reactor, we presume that most of the 3 H in primary coolant is formed by 10 B(n, 2α) 3 H reaction. It is necessary to release about 23 TBq/GWa of 3 H to maintain the station inventory at the present level. (author)

  20. Cooling unit for a superconducting power cable. Two years successful operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Friedhelm [Messer Group GmbH, Krefeld (Germany); Kutz, Thomas [Messer Industriegase GmbH, Bad Soden (Germany); Stemmle, Mark [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Kugel, Torsten [Westnetz GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because nitrogen becomes solid at 63 K (-210 C). To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS power cable. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014.