WorldWideScience

Sample records for refinery employees included

  1. 77 FR 44685 - ConocoPhillips Company, Trainer Refinery, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Shrack, Young...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ..., Trainer Refinery, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Shrack, Young, and Associates, Inc., and Project Control Associates, Trainer, PA; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration On April 30, 2012, the... applicable to workers and former workers of ConocoPhillips Company, Trainer Refinery, Trainer, Pennsylvania...

  2. Refinery scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcus V.; Fraga, Eder T. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Shah, Nilay [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This work addresses the refinery scheduling problem using mathematical programming techniques. The solution adopted was to decompose the entire refinery model into a crude oil scheduling and a product scheduling problem. The envelope for the crude oil scheduling problem is composed of a terminal, a pipeline and the crude area of a refinery, including the crude distillation units. The solution method adopted includes a decomposition technique based on the topology of the system. The envelope for the product scheduling comprises all tanks, process units and products found in a refinery. Once crude scheduling decisions are Also available the product scheduling is solved using a rolling horizon algorithm. All models were tested with real data from PETROBRAS' REFAP refinery, located in Canoas, Southern Brazil. (author)

  3. Refinery profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable shutting down of oil refinery capacity in response to the increasing pressures on profitability. This article examines the situation and the industry's response to it, including the drive for mergers, disposal of fuel oil, downsizing of workforces and strategic alliances. Future trends and their implications are also discussed. (UK)

  4. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

  5. Occupational health experience with a contractor uranium refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heatherton, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents information related to the occupational exposure of workers in uranium refinery operations at the Feed Materials Production Center since 1958. Included are: a brief history of the FMPC; a description of the operations and the principal sources of exposure; airborne uranium, urinary excretion, in vivo monitoring and tissue analysis data; and some observations regarding the exposure and health status of employees

  6. Yugoslavian Petroleum Refinery development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocic, Ozren

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the analysis of the world petroleum industry development, being an important factor in planning the development of the Yugoslav petroleum industry and Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, as well. Then Yugoslav petroleum industry development is analysed, including the appropriate balances of crude oil production and crude oil products consumption. The way of realizing the basic targets are also proposed. Likewise, the analysis of the condition within West European refineries has been conducted, from the aspects of technology, energy consumption and environmental protection and the same analysis for Pancevo Petroleum Refinery has been presented, too. The analysis of the condition within the refineries in the European Union countries and comparing it with the condition within Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, makes it mainly possible to recognize the development programmes which should be realized in order that Pancevo Petroleum Refinery could reach the refining level of the EU countries. (Original)

  7. 29 CFR 516.3 - Bona fide executive, administrative, and professional employees (including academic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bona fide executive, administrative, and professional... outside sales employees employed pursuant to section 13(a)(1) of the Act. 516.3 Section 516.3 Labor... professional employees (including academic administrative personnel and teachers in elementary or secondary...

  8. Benchmarking of refinery emissions performance : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    This study was undertaken to collect emissions performance data for Canadian and comparable American refineries. The objective was to examine parameters that affect refinery air emissions performance and develop methods or correlations to normalize emissions performance. Another objective was to correlate and compare the performance of Canadian refineries to comparable American refineries. For the purpose of this study, benchmarking involved the determination of levels of emission performance that are being achieved for generic groups of facilities. A total of 20 facilities were included in the benchmarking analysis, and 74 American refinery emission correlations were developed. The recommended benchmarks, and the application of those correlations for comparison between Canadian and American refinery performance, were discussed. The benchmarks were: sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate, volatile organic compounds, ammonia and benzene. For each refinery in Canada, benchmark emissions were developed. Several factors can explain differences in Canadian and American refinery emission performance. 4 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Investigation of Relationship between Level of Awareness around Health, Safety and Environment Management System and Its Effects on Safety Climate and Risk Perception by Employees in an Iran Oil Refinery, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Special attention of and oil, gas and petrochemical large corporation in the world to the HSE management system is due to its importance in the designing and development of products, services and processes by considering its health, safety and environment requirements. Staff's perception of the existing job risks has a significant impact on their safe behavior at work. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between safety climate and staff's perception of risk with an awareness level among employees of the HSE management system in an oil refinery in Kermanshah. The study population was employees in one of the oil refineries in Iran. After designing and questionnaire psychometric assessment of staff knowledge of HSE management system (Cronbach's alpha was 0.9 and its validity was assessed by certified professionals, Loughborough safety climate questionnaire and Flin risk perception questionnaire were used. Data analysis was performed using SPSS V22 software. Results showed that the relationship between safety climate and awareness level of the HSE management system; also the relationship between safety climate and perception of risk was also getting significant. However, the relationship between perception of risk and awareness level of the HSE management system was not significant. The results of this study showed a moderate awareness of HSE Management System in refinery workers. In this regard, appropriate and proper management policy should be committed to improving the situation. The results of this study is a profile the situation of safety climate in the refinery, which can be used as an indicator for the development of preventive policies and evaluate the performance of the organization's safety and the results of the safety improvement organization.

  10. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  11. 75 FR 43555 - Experian, Global Technology Services, a Subsidiary of Experian, Including a Leased Employee From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Technology Services, a Subsidiary of Experian, Including a Leased Employee From Tapfin Working Off-Site in... Experian, Global Technology Services, a subsidiary of Experian, including on-site leased workers from... control of the Schaumburg, Illinois location of Experian, Global Technology Services, a subsidiary of...

  12. Maximizing petrochemicals from refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, B.; Foley, T.; Frey, S. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    New fuel quality requirements and high growth rates for petrochemicals are providing both challenges and opportunities for refineries. A key challenge in refineries today is to improve of the value of the products from the FCC unit. In particular, light FCC naphtha and LCO are prime candidates for improved utilization. Processing options have been developed focusing on new opportunities for these traditional fuel components. The Total Petrochemicals/UOP Olefin Cracking Process cracks C4-C8 olefins to produce propylene and ethylene. This process can be integrated into FCC units running at all severity levels to produce valuable light olefins while reducing the olefin content of the light FCC naphtha. Integration of the Olefin Cracking Process with an FCC unit can be accomplished to allow a range of operating modes which can accommodate changing demand for propylene, cracked naphtha and alkylate. Other processes developed by UOP allow for upgrading LCO into a range of products including petrochemical grade xylenes, benzene, high cetane diesel and low sulfur high octane gasoline. Various processing options are available which allow the products from LCO conversion to be adjusted based on the needs and opportunities of an individual refinery, as well as the external petrochemical demand cycles. This presentation will examine recent refining and petrochemical trends and highlight new process technologies that can be used to generate additional revenue from petrochemical production while addressing evolving clean fuel demands. (orig.)

  13. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  14. Energy use in petroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, V.O.

    1976-09-01

    Refining petroleum accounts for about 4 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States and about 15 percent of all industrial consumption. The kinds of energy used and the manner in which energy is used are discussed on a process-by-process basis. Emphasis is placed on existing processes to identify and quantify process and equipment substitutions which might significantly conserve energy. General industry and process information is given and estimates of potential savings are made. A few research and development opportunities are identified and nontechnical factors are discussed. Nearly one-half the energy consumed by refineries is obtained from by-product refinery gas and coke, and about one-third is supplied by natural gas. On a regional basis, refineries were found to vary by a factor of two in the amount of energy used to refine a unit of crude oil. Refineries in regions traditionally abundant in inexpensive natural gas were found to use relatively more natural gas and energy. About 36 percent of the energy used by petroleum refineries is consumed in the distillation units to separate the refinery streams into their basic components. Including energy for manufacturing hydrogen, about 24 percent of the total is used for cracking of the heavier components. Most of the remainder is used for reforming, hydrogen treating, and alkylation, distributed about 11, 17, and 6 percent respectively. Potential energy savings discussed in this report total 61 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/yr based on 1974 capacities, a figure which represents about 20 percent of the energy consumed to refine petroleum.

  15. 29 CFR 471.2 - What employee notice clause must be included in Government contracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS OBLIGATIONS OF FEDERAL CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS; NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS Definitions..., clarification of existing law by the courts or the National Labor Relations Board, or other circumstances make...

  16. Employees on the rebound: Extending the careers literature to include boomerang employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider, Brian W; Liu, Joseph T; Harris, T Brad; Gardner, Richard G

    2017-06-01

    As employee careers have evolved from linear trajectories confined within 1 organization to more dynamic and boundaryless paths, organizations and individuals alike have increasingly considered reestablishing prior employment relationships. These "boomerang employees" follow career paths that feature 2 or more temporally separated tenures in particular organizations ("boomerang organizations"). Yet, research to date is mute on how or to what extent differences across boomerang employees' career experiences, and the learning and knowledge developed at and away from boomerang organizations, meaningfully impact their performance following their return. Addressing this omission, we extend a careers-based learning perspective to construct a theoretical framework of a parsimonious, yet generalizable, set of factors that influence boomerang employee return performance. Results based on a sample of boomerang employees and employers in the same industry (professional basketball) indicate that intra- and extraorganizational knowledge construction and disruptions, as well as transition events, are significantly predictive of boomerangs' return performance. Comparisons with 2 matched samples of nonboomerang employees likewise suggest distinctive patterns in the performance of boomerang employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Current situation of oil refinery in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershkova, Elena; Petkova, Petinka; Grinkevich, Anastasia

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with the classification approach for oil refineries in international practices. Criteria of refinery estimation group, including its financial status estimation, have been investigated. The analysis object is “Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas” AD (LNCHB) activity. This company is a leading enterprise in Bulgaria. The analysis of LNCHB operating: energy intensity index; index of operating costs and return on investment index have been performed.

  18. 76 FR 29797 - Westpoint Home, Inc., New York Corporate Sales Office, New York, NY, Including Employees Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Home, Inc., New York Corporate Sales Office, working off-site in Illinois, Georgia, Minnesota, Indiana...,218B, TA-W-74,218C, TA-W-74,218D] Westpoint Home, Inc., New York Corporate Sales Office, New York, NY, Including Employees Working Off-Site in Illinois, Georgia, Minnesota, Indiana, North Carolina; Westpoint...

  19. Refinery siting workbook: appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop and provide basic refinery-related information for use by state and local government officials as a basis for establishing responsible refinery siting requirements and policies consistent with the federal clean air and water standards and socio-economic concerns. The report will be organized into two volumes. The main text comprises the basic topics of physical concerns, regulatory requirements, and permitting activities, while the second volume includes the detailed appendix materials such as the applicable laws, and the necessary permits, as available and a glossary of pertinent terms. As a means to this objective, three refinery sizes, 200,000, 100,000 and 30,000 barrels per day crude charge will be discussed in technical terms. Process unit configuration will be presented which will maximize either gasoline or heating oil production with either sweet or sour crude oil feedstocks. The major issues affecting the socio-economic impact of siting the refinery in a given locale will be presented. These data will review the factors affecting the human environment and the issues that must be addressed to assess the impact that a refinery will have on a community. The key federal registrations which impact upon a refinery siting decision shall be reviewed. Summaries of these regulations and a simplified decision diagram for the air and water acts shall be presented to assist both government and refinery officials in understanding the scope of regulatory impact. All pertinent procedures required for refinery permitting shall be reviewed under the generalized headings of air, water, health and safety, land use, and miscellaneous permits. This categorization at the federal, state and local levels of government shall be used as a basis for establishing degrees of emphasis.

  20. Joint refinery selenium treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, C.L.; Folwarkow, S.

    1993-01-01

    The San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board recently established mass limits on discharges of selenium to the San Francisco Bay from several petroleum refineries. The refineries had been working independently to develop control strategies, including both source control and treatment options, for removal of selenium from their discharges. By January 1992, over fifty different combinations of treatment technologies, wastewater streams, and pretreatment steps had been investigated to determine their effectiveness and feasibility as selenium removal processes. No treatment process studied could achieve the required mass limits without serious negative environmental consequences, such as generation of large amounts of hazardous sludge. To better facilitate the development of a feasible selenium treatment process, the six Bay Area refineries shared results of their studies and identified several technologies that, with further work, could be developed further. This additional work is currently being carried out as part of a joint selenium treatability study sponsored by the Western States Petroleum Association. A review of the previous source control and treatment studies, along with a description of the current treatability studies will be discussed

  1. The miraculously saved refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, D.

    2005-01-01

    During 20 years, refining has been the weak link of the petroleum industry. This sector has always suffered from a chronical overcapacity. Today, on the contrary, there is a lack of facilities and shortage is threatening. The Reichstett refinery (Alsace, France) is the smallest French refinery. It has been several times threatened with closure but today, thanks to the increasing demand, it works at full capacity. This short paper summarizes the history of this facility and its social and environmental impact in the region. (J.S.)

  2. Refinery siting workbook: appendices C to O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Applicable laws and permits available for the selection and building of petroleum refineries are enclosed. A glossary of pertinent terms is also included. References related to the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Toxic Substance Control Act, and Wetlands and Coastal Zone are included. Permit information is also presented. (DC)

  3. Employee benefits under IAS/IFRS and the Czech accounting legislation, the tax point of view including

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Otavová; Jana Gláserová

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of employee benefit is limited in the Czech Accounting Legislation. There are only short-term employee benefits – wages, salaries, when employees has rendered services to an entity during a period – month. Entities could create funds from a net profit –fund for social and cultural benefits which could serve as source of social services financing for employees. There are employee benefits defined very extensive in IAS/IFRS. It is IAS 19 – Employee Benefits which defines four Gro...

  4. Benzene exposure in a Japanese petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T; Yamaoka, K; Uchida, Y; Ikeda, M

    1990-07-01

    Time-weighted average (TWA) intensity of exposure of workers to benzene vapor during a shift was monitored by diffusive sampling technique in a Japanese petroleum refinery. The subjects monitored (83 in total) included refinery operators, laboratory personnel and tanker-loading workers. The results showed that the time-weighted average exposures are well below 1 ppm in most cases. The highest exposure was recorded in 1 case involved in bulk loading of tanker ships, in which exposure of over 1 ppm might take place depending on operational conditions. The observation was generally in agreement with levels previously reported.

  5. Employee benefits under IAS/IFRS and the Czech accounting legislation, the tax point of view including

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of employee benefit is limited in the Czech Accounting Legislation. There are only short-term employee benefits – wages, salaries, when employees has rendered services to an entity during a period – month. Entities could create funds from a net profit –fund for social and cultural benefits which could serve as source of social services financing for employees. There are employee benefits defined very extensive in IAS/IFRS. It is IAS 19 – Employee Benefits which defines four Gross of employee benefits: short-term employee benefits, post employment benefits, other long –term employee benefits and termination benefits. There are defined all conditions for employee benefits re­co­gni­tion and treatments for recording and reporting in IAS 19.The paper is concerned with the employee benefits evaluation. The impact on the tax base is eva­lua­ted. There are the most significant types of employee benefits surveyed. They are divided into five groups with the respect to their impact on the tax base. The impact of these benefits is described from their impact on social insurance and health insurance calculation base point of view, as well.

  6. Amoco/Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown refinery. Refinery release inventory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Kizier, G.J.; Baloo, S.; Hockman, E.L.; Couzens-Roberts, C.

    1992-07-01

    The report volume summarizes physical data obtained during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A multi-media sampling program was used to identify potential pollution sources within the Refinery. Sampling and analysis included air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste data. Public perceptions about environmental issues of concern in the vicinity of the Refinery were also surveyed. The inventory showed that nearly 99 percent of the releases were airborne at the facility. Most of the remainder involved land disposal of solid wastes. Specific sources of major pollutants are identified

  7. Oil refining in a CO2 constrained world: Effects of carbon pricing on refineries globally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.; Arfaj, Abdullah; Babiker, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Six aggregated refinery linear programming (LP) models were developed to represent actual refineries in North America, Latin America, Europe (including the CIS), Middle East, Asia (excluding China) and China. The models were used to conduct regional comparative assessments and to evaluate the effects of carbon pricing on refinery operations globally. We found that the average refinery energy efficiencies for the regions were estimated to range from 92.2% to 95.2%. The well-to-refinery gate carbon intensities for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels were estimated to be 17.1 (16.4–19.4), 13.3 (12.5–14.2) and 10.1 (9.6–10.8) gCO2eq/MJ, respectively. If refineries are forced to at least meet the 2014 regional volume demands for oil products, pricing CO 2 would not have an impact on either refinery productions, efficiency or emissions. If refineries are allowed to re-optimize production slates to reduce CO 2 emissions, refineries would opt to increase gasoline yield at the expense of diesel. This is counter intuitive since gasoline has a higher carbon intensity than diesel. The refinery bias against dieselization creates a supply preference toward a less efficient transportation end use. Here, we argue that if carbon pricing is not administered properly, this can lead to emissions leakage from refineries to the road transport sector. - Highlights: • Investigate actual refinery productions in 6 regions globally. • Refineries already operate at the most efficient levels. • Complex refineries tolerate higher CO 2 prices better. • Carbon pricing induces bias against dieselization. • Identify potential emissions leakage.

  8. Evaluation of treatment efficiency of processes for petroleum refinery`s wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, Kean Chin [National Univ. of Singapore, Kent Ridge (Singapore). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    Processes used in the treatment of a petroleum refinery wastewater included initial API oil separator to be followed by dissolved air flotation and extended aeration system. The use of extended aeration biological system proved to be an improvement but not a solution yet in such kind of treatment. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of treatment efficiency of processes for petroleum refinery`s wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, Kean Chin [National Univ. of Singapore, Kent Ridge (Singapore). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Processes used in the treatment of a petroleum refinery wastewater included initial API oil separator to be followed by dissolved air flotation and extended aeration system. The use of extended aeration biological system proved to be an improvement but not a solution yet in such kind of treatment. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Integrated refinery waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Y -S [ETG Environmental, Inc., Blue Bell, PA (US); Sheehan, W J [Separation and Recovery Systems, Inc., Irvine, CA (US)

    1992-01-01

    In response to the RCRA land ban regulations and TC rule promulgated by the U.S. Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1988-1990, an Integrated Refinery Waste Management (IRWM) program has been developed to provide cost-effective solutions to petroleum industry customers. The goal of IRWM is to provide technology based remediation treatment services to manage sludges and wastewaters generated from the oil refining processes, soils contaminated with petroleum distillates and groundwater contaminated with fuels. Resource recovery, volume reduction and waste minimization are the primary choices to mitigate environmental problems. Oil recovery has been performed through phase separation (such as centrifugation and filtration) and heating of heavy oils. Volume reduction is achieved by dewatering systems such as centrifuges and filter presses, and low temperature thermal treatment. Waste minimization can be accomplished by bioremediation and resource recovery through a cement kiln. (Author).

  11. Effects of work-related stress on work ability index among refinery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Dehghan, Habibollah; Safari, Shahram; Mahaki, Behzad; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Work-related stress is one of the basic problems in industrial also top 10 work-related health problems and it is increasingly implicated in the development a number of problems such as cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal diseases, early retirement to employees. On the other hand, early retirement to employees from the workplace has increased on the problems of today's industries. Hereof, improving work ability is one of the most effective ways to enhance the ability and preventing disability and early retirement. The aim of This study is determine the relationship between job stress score and work ability index (WAI) at the refinery workers. This is a cross-sectional study in which 171 workers from a refinery in isfahan in 2012 who were working in different occupational groups participated. Based on appropriate assignment sampling, 33 office workers, 69 operational workers, and 69 maintenance workers, respectively, were invited to participate in this study. Two questionnaires including work related-stress and WAI were filled in. Finally, the information was analyzed using the SPSS-20 and statistic tests namely, analysis of covariance Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson correlation coefficient, ANOVA and t-test. Data analysis revealed that 86% and 14% of participants had moderate and severe stress respectively. Average score of stress and standard deviation was 158.7 ± 17.3 that was in extreme stress range. Average score and standard deviation of WAI questionnaire were 37.18 and 3.86 respectively. That placed in a good range. Pearson correlation coefficient showed that WAI score had significant reversed relationship with a score of stress. According to the results, mean stress score among refinery worker was high and one fator that affect work abiity was high stress, hence training on communication skills and safe working environment in order to decreses stress, enhance the work ability of workers.

  12. Ranking environmental liabilities at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new computer model is available to allow the management of a petroleum refinery to prioritize environmental action and construct a holistic approach to remediation. A large refinery may have numerous solid waste management units regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as well as process units that emit hazardous chemicals into the environment. These sources can impact several environmental media, potentially including the air, the soil, the groundwater, the unsaturated zone water, and surface water. The number of chemicals of concern may be large. The new model is able to rank the sources by considering the impact of each chemical in each medium from each source in terms of concentration, release rate, and a weighted index based on toxicity. In addition to environmental impact, the sources can be ranked in three other ways: (1) by cost to remediate, (2) by environmental risk reduction caused by the remediation in terms of the decreases in release rate, concentration, and weighted index, and (3) by cost-benefit, which is the environmental risk reduction for each source divided by the cost of the remedy. Ranking each unit in the refinery allows management to use its limited environmental resources in a pro-active strategic manner that produces long-term results, rather than in reactive, narrowly focused, costly, regulatory-driven campaigns that produce only short-term results

  13. Economic forces push down selling prices of U.S. refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Recent data on US refinery sales reveal that selling prices have continued to decline in the 1990s. Reasons for this decrease include increased plant investments to meet regulatory requirements, excess refining capacity, increased imports of refined products, and reduced margins. While these expenditures enable a refinery to continue operating, they do not make the refinery more profitable or valuable. Other factors contributing to reduced selling prices of US refineries are: declining local crude production; unstable crude costs; increased energy conservation; growing competition from alternative fuels

  14. Catalytic hydrotreatment of refinery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The object of the project is to produce liquid hydrocarbons by the catalytic hydroprocessing of solid refinery wastes (hard pitches) in order to improve the profitability of deep conversion processes and reduce the excess production of heavy fuels. The project was mostly carried out on the ASVAHL demonstration platform site, at Solaize, and hard pitches were produced primarily by deasphalting of atmospheric or vacuum distillation residues. The project includes two experimental phases and an economic evaluation study phase. In phase 1, two granular catalysts were used to transform pitch into standard low sulphur fuel oil: a continuously moving bed, with demetallation and conversion catalyst; a fixed bed, with hydrorefining catalyst. In phase 2 of the project, it was proven that a hydrotreatment process using a finely dispersed catalyst in the feedstock, can, under realistic operating conditions, transform with goods yields hard pitch into distillates that can be refined through standard methods. In phase 3 of the project, it was shown that the economics of such processes are tightly linked to the price differential between white and black oil products, which is expected to increase in the future. Furthermore, the evolution of environmental constraints will impel the use of such methods, thus avoiding the coproduction of polluting solid residues.

  15. 40 CFR 73.90 - Allowance allocations for small diesel refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... refineries. 73.90 Section 73.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Small Diesel Refineries § 73.90 Allowance allocations... application for certification, submitted to the address in § 73.13 of this chapter, shall include the...

  16. Refineries in Europe under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdershoven, C.

    2008-01-01

    Current oil price developments and the economic and financial crisis are leading to a negative situation for the European refining sector. Analysts expect that a number of European oil refineries will lower their production in the coming months as a result of decreased petrol demand. [mk] [nl

  17. Fitting partially upgraded oils into pipelines and refinery markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaherty, G.

    2000-01-01

    The logistics of transporting partially upgraded crudes in feeder and trunk pipeline systems is discussed. Logistic alternatives are evaluated against economic drivers for partial upgrading, and the impact of crude transportation logistics on the quality of crude that reaches refinery gates is assessed. The potential advantages of partial upgrading in the field are reviewed (including reduction of diluent required to meet pipeline density and viscosity specifications, cost and availability of diluent, limitations in diluent transportation infrastructure, increased chemical stability, increased attractiveness to refineries, shortage of refinery coking capacity, higher market value). The pros and cons of various upgrading processes, and the implications of each for producers and refiners are explained. The advantages of moving to large common streams, as opposed to the concept of 'boutique' crudes, are stressed as the surest way for producers to realize the maximum value of partially upgraded crudes

  18. Environmental nickel exposure from oil refinery emissions: a case study in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raúl; Harari, Florencia; Forastiere, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Nickel is a strong skin and respiratory sensitizer and a recognized carcinogen. Oil refineries are important sources of atmospheric emissions of toxic pollutants, including nickel. Populations residing close to oil refineries are at potential risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to nickel in a population living close to the largest oil refinery in Ecuador, located in the city of Esmeraldas. We recruited 47 workers from the oil refinery as well as 195 students from 4 different schools close to the plant and 94 students from another school 25 km far from the industry. Urinary nickel concentrations were used to assess the exposure to nickel. Students from the school next to the oil refinery showed the highest urinary nickel concentrations while workers from the refinery showed the lowest concentrations. Median nickel concentrations were > 2µg/L in all study groups. The populations living close to the oil refineries are potentially exposed to nickel from atmospheric emissions. Further studies investigating nickel-related health effects in the population residing close to the refinery of Esmeralda are needed.

  19. Retrofitting refinery and petrochemical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.G.

    1988-06-01

    This article focuses on process improvements as the best way to reduce plant energy use. The emphasis on process revamp is well justified, as an energy profile for a typical refinery shows. The diagram shows that 60% of the total heat losses are in water and air cooling. Most of this heat loss results from condensing and cooling in fractionators and recycle systems, intermediate product cooling, and condensing of turbine steam. These losses, of mostly low-level heat, are tied to the basic approach previously used for the process design of existing refineries. Despite the progress to date, there is growing evidence that these heat losses can be further reduced economically by about 20-30% in most refineries and petrochemical plants. One way to reduce the losses is to increase recovery of low-level heat by improved heat exchange, which has been the subject of most publications on plant energy conservation. A better way, presented here, is to develop new process schemes that require less air/water cooling. One useful concept in developing new schemes is to concentrate on heat losses, rather than heat input, as an easier measure of proposed improvements. By an overall heat balance, eliminating a unit of energy loss is equivalent to saving a unit of heat input somewhere in the plant.

  20. The prospects for refinery profitability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weale, G. [European Energy Services, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-05-01

    The outlook for the European refining industry is assessed. The conclusion reached is that the industry is struggling for its existence. Over time, an unsatisfactory balance has grown between refinery capacity and market volumes. High exit barriers have prevented capacity being considerably lower than it is. In the future, a typical integrated oil company might be content to confine itself to retailing oil products without having to refine them. Given the reduction in gasoline demand in particular, it can be expected that 20-25% of capacity will be sold off in the next 15 years and much of it will be closed. (Author)

  1. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  2. Aspects of petrochemistry in a fuels refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, J.; Mielicke, C.J.; Maier, T. [MIRO - Mineraloelraffinerie Oberrhein GmbH und Co. KG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Classical links between refinery and petrochemical downstream operations are light naphtha, C2-C4-Olefins and various aromatic compounds. Additionally long chain paraffines from dewaxing or even heavy residues can be interesting starting materials for petrochemistry. Some aspects of these links between refining and petrochemistry as well as their impact on refinery operation and product pools are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Sinclair Refinery, Allegany County, Wellsville, NY. (Second remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Sinclair Refinery site is a former refinery in Wellsville, Allegany County, New York. The site is composed of a 90-acre refinery area, 10-acre landfill area, and 14-acre offsite tank farm. From 1901 to 1958, the site was used to process Pennsylvania grade crude oil until a fire in 1958 halted operations. Currently, some private companies and the State University of New York occupy the site. A 1981 site inspection revealed that debris from the eroding landfill area has washed into and contaminated the Genesee River. The ROD addresses OU2, remediation of the remaining contaminated areas at the site located within the 90-acre refinery area and the offsite tank farm including the contaminated ground water beneath the refinery. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including benzene and xylenes, semi-volatile compounds including naphthalene and nitrobenzene, and metals including arsenic and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  4. Combined analysis of job and task benzene air exposures among workers at four US refinery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Amanda; Shin, Jennifer Mi; Unice, Ken M; Gaffney, Shannon H; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Panko, Julie M

    2017-03-01

    Workplace air samples analyzed for benzene at four US refineries from 1976 to 2007 were pooled into a single dataset to characterize similarities and differences between job titles, tasks and refineries, and to provide a robust dataset for exposure reconstruction. Approximately 12,000 non-task (>180 min) personal samples associated with 50 job titles and 4000 task (job titles and task codes across all four refineries, and (5) our analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the distribution of benzene air concentrations for select jobs/tasks across all four refineries. The jobs and tasks most frequently sampled included those with highest potential contact with refinery product streams containing benzene, which reflected the targeted sampling approach utilized by the facility industrial hygienists. Task and non-task data were analyzed to identify and account for significant differences within job-area, task-job, and task-area categories. This analysis demonstrated that in general, areas with benzene containing process streams were associated with greater benzene air concentrations compared to areas with process streams containing little to no benzene. For several job titles and tasks analyzed, there was a statistically significant decrease in benzene air concentration after 1990. This study provides a job and task-focused analysis of occupational exposure to benzene during refinery operations, and it should be useful for reconstructing refinery workers' exposures to benzene over the past 30 years.

  5. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans

  6. Kvanefjeld refinery pilot plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Damien; Furfaro, Domenic

    2016-01-01

    Greenland Minerals and Energy is a junior project development company which is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (asx:GGG). It is developing the Kvanefjeld rare earth and uranium project located in the southern tip of Greenland. The project has completed a Feasibility Study and is currently in the permitting phase. Last year was a busy time for the company as it completed a Feasibility Study, a mining licence application (draft submitted in December 2015) and pilot plant operations. Beneficiation pilot plant operations were completed at GTK in Finland in April 2015. This pilot plant treated approximately 30 tonnes of ore to producing almost 2 tonnes of rare earth mineral concentrate. Later in the year a hydrometallurgical pilot plant was performed which mimicked the Refinery process. This pilot plant was performed at Outotec’s Pori Research laboratories in Finland from September till October 2015. The pilot plant treated approximately 200 kilograms of concentrate over 4 split operating campaigns. Each campaign was performed to focus on the performance of a specific part of the refinery flowsheet. This allowed for full operating focus on a single unit operation to ensure that it was operating correctly. The pilot plant operations were quite successful with no major issues with the flowsheet identified through continuous operation. Some fine tuning of conditions was required to ensure adequate removal of impurities was performed with recycle streams incorporated. Overall the leach extractions observed in the pilot plant exceeded the design assumptions in the Feasibility Study. These programs were partially funded by the EURARE program. The EURARE program aims to encourage the sustainable development of European based rare earth projects. This has the goal of allowing Europe to become less reliant on importation of these key raw materials. The professionalism and performance of both GTK and Outotec contributed significantly to the success of the pilot plant

  7. Evaluation of wastewater treatment plant at Khartoum refinery company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnour, Y. A. M.

    2010-03-01

    A wastewater treatment plant has been established in Khartoum Refinery Company in order to treat 1800 meters cubic per day, and to meet the increase in the number of employees and the continued expansion of the company. The study aims to evaluate the performance of the station after a three years period of work, and calculate the efficiency of the station through the following variables: average removal of the biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and oils, by taking water samples before and after treatment, every week for two month, analysis of samples were conducted in the central laboratory at KRC. The determination of the station efficiency revealed that the station is working well. Treated water characteristics are in conformity with the specifications set by the world Organization Health. It is also proved to be suitable for use in irrigation the amount of water entering to treatment is very large (1500 cubic meters), which lead to dilution of the BOD, COD, SS and oils concentrations. The reason being misuse of water by employees in addition to the large number of damage in the water pipes. The station must be re-evaluated after a certain (5 years) period to determine the impact of future increases of employees, and it is effect on the efficiency of the station. It is recommended to improve the behaviour of employees regarding the use of water, so as to reduce the dilution. (Author)

  8. A Novel Transporting System Model for Oil Refinery

    OpenAIRE

    Razman M. Tahar; Waleed K. Abduljabbar

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Oil refineries are widely used to store various liquids and gases. Petroleum products are in high demand. Oil companies have abundant resources of petroleum products in pipelines and storage tanks. Approach: Included are storage tanks at retail gasoline station, home heating oil tanks, lubricant storage at automotive service facilities, propane tanks in all sorts of application, and oil company terminals across the world. The aim of this study is to present a model by which...

  9. Mazeikiai refinery woes deepen on all fronts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Leedu rahandusminister teatas, et riigieelarvet mõjutavad probleemid Mazeikiai tehasega, mis on Leedu suurim maksumaksja. Lisa: Russian oil company to build refinery. Surgutneftegaz teatas plaanist ehitada naftatöötlustehas Peterburi lähedale

  10. The refinery industry within the Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    During the period 1997-1998 Ome (Observatorie Mediterraneen de l'Energie) within a working group which was formed by the experts among the associated companies, has carried on an analysis on the prospects of refinery industry in the Mediterranean area in view of 2010. The aim of this study was to make clear, to the different operators, the consequences of the political choices in investments on refinery industry in the context of the progressive liberalization of the sector [it

  11. Improving profitability in a grassroots refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T. [Star Petroleum Refining Co. Ltd. (Thailand); Kennedy, P.; Bhargava, S. [KBC Process Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    Actions taken to maximise profit at the Star Refinery in Thailand are described. The company made good use of the Profit Improvement Programme (PIP) (which specialises in refinery economics) and the way in which PIP addressed the problem and the benefits derived therefrom is the nub of this paper. The efforts appear to have been more than satisfactory from the aspect of increasing profit margins. (UK)

  12. Complexity index indicates refinery capability, value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, D.

    1996-01-01

    Refinery size usually is measured in terms of distillation capacity. Relative size, however, can be measured using refinery complexity--a concept developed by W.L. Nelson in the 1960s. Nelson developed the complexity index to quantify the relative cost of components that make up a refinery. It is a pure cost index that provides a relative measure of the construction costs of a particular refinery based on its crude and upgrading capacity. The Nelson index compares the costs of various upgrading units--such as a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit or a catalytic reformer--to the cost of a crude distillation unit. Computation of the index is an attempt to quantify the relative cost of a refinery based on the added cost of various upgrading units and the relative upgrading capacity. A review of complexity calculations, and an explanation of how indices have changed, provide a simple means of determining the complexity of single refineries or refining regions. The impact of complexity on product slate is also examined in this paper

  13. The rise and fall of refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper described the rise and fall of refineries in Montreal. Well before Calgary, Montreal was the hub of activity for oil refineries because Montreal was the principle consuming market for petroleum products in Canada. The location was good, particularly since the soil was clay which helped prevent soil infiltration of petroleum. The first refinery in Montreal was constructed in 1916 by Esso, followed by Texaco in 1921 and Gulf in 1931. Initially oil was shipped by boat to the Port of Montreal from Saudi Arabia. Later, the petroleum came mostly from Venezuela. At the beginning of the 1980s many refineries were closed because they became obsolete and upgrading them would have been too costly. Only 3 refineries remain in Quebec, of which 2 are in Montreal. They are owned by Shell and PetroCanada. The third refinery in Quebec is in St-Romuald and is owned by UltraMar. One of the major contributing factors to the decline of the refining industry in Montreal was the decision in 1984 by former Prime Minister Trudeau to force Canadian provinces to purchase their petroleum from Alberta. This caused the petrochemical industry to locate in Sarnia in Ontario, leaving the Montreal refining centre to become obsolete. 3 figs

  14. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  15. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  16. Bioremediation at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, A.W.; Jarvis, J.; Richardson, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of three projects at the Mobil Refinery in Torrance, California where bioremediation technologies were successfully employed for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The three projects represent variations of implementation of bioremediation, both in-situ and ex-situ. Soil from all of the projects was considered non-hazardous designated waste under the California Code of Regulations, Title 23, section 2522. The projects were permitted and cleanup requirements were defined with the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board. In all of the projects, different methods were used for supplying water, oxygen, and nutrients to the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria to stimulate growth. The Stormwater Retention Basin Project utilized in-situ mechanical mixing of soils to supply solid nutrients and oxygen, and a self-propelled irrigation system to supply water. The Tank Farm Lake project used an in-situ active bioventing technology to introduce oxygen, moisture, and vapor phase nutrients. The Tank 1340X247 project was an ex-situ bioventing remediation project using a drip irrigation system to supply water and dissolved nutrients, and a vapor extraction system to provide oxygen

  17. Refinery boom in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruson, J.F.; Virondaud, C.

    1996-01-01

    The Asia demand for oil is increasing dramatically, particularly in the non OECD countries, which represent, today more than 15 % of the world oil market. The expected economic growth in these areas should contribute to a rise in oil demand by about 5.4 per year and hence to a significant increase of this share to 25 % in 2010; virtually a large part of this evolution will come from the transportation sector. The proceeding investments of the regional, refining industry are very high (some evaluations come to around 140 billion of dollars), all the more the protection of the environment takes an increasing significant place. Accordingly the most important challenge to be taken up by these countries will be to mobilize long term fundings to develop and adapt the capabilities of the refineries to meet the growth of gasoline and gas oil demand. The contribution of private operators or capital will be necessary, but will depend strongly on refining margin improvement and on progress of free market areas announced by several countries. (authors)

  18. Continues treatment of oily sludge at Colombian refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, Victor; Monsalve, Gladys; Vidales, Humberto

    2002-01-01

    The Colombian Petroleum institute - ICP, the research and development branch of Ecopetrol has developed a unique technological package used to treat oily sludge in a continuous way. The sludge comes from a refinery with 220000 barrels of crude per day load, located in the Middle Madgalena River Valley in Colombia. The technological package allows for a) the recovery of the hydrocarbon contained in oily wastes (up to 50%) b) the elimination of the oil contained in solid using a biodegradation process and, c) the availability economically and technically feasible solution to handle oily sludge generated in the refinery. The oily treated in this process come from maintenance of refinery's equipment and also from the physical chemical separation process at the industrial wastewater treatment plant. Oily sludge is a complex system where light and heavy oils, contaminated water and contaminated solids coexist in the form of direct, inverse and multiple emulsions. The comprehensive technological package allows the treatment of oily sludge in a cost effective way. ICP technological package developed includes technologies combining mechanical, thermal, chemical and electrostatic dehydration techniques and stimulated and intensive bioremediation to decontamination of solids saturated with residual oil. This technological package brings a solution to old environmental problem caused by the inappropriate final disposal of oily wastes such as storage in ponds, marshes and open pits: Nowadays wastes generated are treated in a continuous process that is environmentally friendly and economically profitable

  19. Analysis of Employee Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Burešová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The target of this bachelor thesis is to analyze employee benefits from the perspective of employees and to employers suggest possible ideas to improve their provision. The work is divided into two parts: theoretical and practical. The theoretical part describes the overal remuneration of employees, payroll system and employee benefits. Benefits are included in the remuneration system, broken and some of them are defined. The practical part presents a survey among employees in the Czech Repub...

  20. Eldorado Port Hope refinery - uranium production (1933-1951)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of pitchblende in 1930 by Gilbert LaBine at Great Bear Lake (GBL), North West Territories, uranium has played a central role in the growth of the Canadian mining sector and it in turn has propelled the country into it's present position as the world's top uranium producer. The rich ore mined there was used originally by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited to build a business based on the extraction of radium, which was selling at $70,000 a gram at the time, and silver which was present in the ore in commercial amounts. The mine site on GBL became known as Port Radium. In 1933 Eldorado brought a refinery on-line at Port Hope, Ontario nearly 4,000 miles away from the mine, and began to produce radium, silver and uranium products. Initially uranium played a minor role in the business and the products were sold into the ceramics industry to manufacture a variety of crockery with long-lasting colours. In addition, there were sales and loans of uranium products to research laboratories that were exploring nuclear energy for possible use in weapons and power generation, as the potential for this was clearly understood from 1939 onwards. These laboratories included the National Research Council (George Laurence), Columbia University (Enrico Fermi) and International Chemical Industries (J.P. Baxter). With the beginning of World War II the radium business suffered from poor sales and by 1940 the mine was closed but the refinery continued operation, using accumulated stockpiles. By 1942 uranium had become a strategic material, the mine was reopened, and the refinery began to produce large quantities of uranium oxide destined for The Manhattan Project. As events unfolded Eldorado was unable to produce sufficient ore from GBL so that a large quantity of ore from the Belgian Congo was also processed at Port Hope. Ultimately, as a result of the efforts of this enterprise, World War II was finally ended by use of atomic weapons. After World War II the refinery

  1. Eldorado Port Hope refinery - uranium production (1933-1951)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E

    2008-03-15

    Since the discovery of pitchblende in 1930 by Gilbert LaBine at Great Bear Lake (GBL), North West Territories, uranium has played a central role in the growth of the Canadian mining sector and it in turn has propelled the country into it's present position as the world's top uranium producer. The rich ore mined there was used originally by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited to build a business based on the extraction of radium, which was selling at $70,000 a gram at the time, and silver which was present in the ore in commercial amounts. The mine site on GBL became known as Port Radium. In 1933 Eldorado brought a refinery on-line at Port Hope, Ontario nearly 4,000 miles away from the mine, and began to produce radium, silver and uranium products. Initially uranium played a minor role in the business and the products were sold into the ceramics industry to manufacture a variety of crockery with long-lasting colours. In addition, there were sales and loans of uranium products to research laboratories that were exploring nuclear energy for possible use in weapons and power generation, as the potential for this was clearly understood from 1939 onwards. These laboratories included the National Research Council (George Laurence), Columbia University (Enrico Fermi) and International Chemical Industries (J.P. Baxter). With the beginning of World War II the radium business suffered from poor sales and by 1940 the mine was closed but the refinery continued operation, using accumulated stockpiles. By 1942 uranium had become a strategic material, the mine was reopened, and the refinery began to produce large quantities of uranium oxide destined for The Manhattan Project. As events unfolded Eldorado was unable to produce sufficient ore from GBL so that a large quantity of ore from the Belgian Congo was also processed at Port Hope. Ultimately, as a result of the efforts of this enterprise, World War II was finally ended by use of atomic weapons. After World War II the

  2. South Africa's refineries: waiting for Maduna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A definitive energy policy from the new Energy Minister, Penuell Maduna, is awaited by the petroleum industry in South Africa. Some of the complexities of the South African oil market and past legacies which make the task of producing a policy difficult, are examined here. They include the allegations made initially in 1994 that oil refineries are illegally repatriating profits by paying too much for imported products. Accusations of this transfer pricing have resurfaced in the light of recent figures published by the South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA) which show that the oil industry's profitability is not as high as some had presumed. However, compelling evidence for the allegations has not appeared and it is unlikely that the foreign investors in SAPIA would endanger their operations in this way. SAPIA members are key investors in the national infrastructure and make large tax contributions much needed by the treasury. In its turn, SAPIA is unhappy about the continuation of the payment of large taxpayer funded subsidies to the privatised Sasol, the South African synthetic fuel company, seeing as anti-competitive and having negative implications for the national economy. For its part Sasol argues its entitlement to the same tariff protection enjoyed by 80% of local manufacturing industries in South Africa. Some government action has been taken to reduce the subsidies though. The oil companies in SAPIA require clarity on future energy policy and deregulation before committing themselves to further heavy capital investment and Sasol also requires an end to the present uncertainties. (UK)

  3. Catalytic hydrotreatment of refinery waste: Demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The object of this project and report is to produce liquid hydrocarbons by the catalytic hydroprocessing of solid refinery wastes (hard pitches) in order to improve the profitability of deep conversion processes and reduce the excess production of heavy fuels. The project was mostly carried out on the ASVAHL demonstration platform site, at Solaize, and hard pitches were produced primarily by deasphalting of atmospheric or vacuum distillation residues. The project includes two experimental phases and an economic evaluation study phase. In Phase 1, two granular catalysts were used to transform pitch into standard low sulfur fuel oil: a continuously moving bed, with demetallation and conversion catalyst; a fixed bed, with hydrorefining catalyst. In Phase 2 of the project, it was proven that a hydrotreatment process using a finely dispersed catalyst in the feedstock, can, under realistic operating conditions, transform with good yields hard pitch into distillates that can be refined through standard methods. In Phase 3 of the project, it was shown that the economics of such processes are tightly linked to the price differential between white'' and black'' oil products, which is expected to increase in the future. Furthermore, the evolution of environmental constraints will impel the use of such methods, thus avoiding the coproduction of polluting solid residues. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. U.S. Refinery compliance costs - the elements of and estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, J.G.; Swain, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    A recent National Petroleum Council study identified the environmental costs facing the refining industry from 1995 through 2010. Four broad areas were identified: air pollution control, wastewater treatment, solid and hazardous waste treatment, and occupational health and safety. This paper will present the technical issues and engineering information required to produce an estimate of cost impact. For each of the four areas of impact, the kinds of information required of the refinery manager in order to build an estimate will be tabulated and discussed. For air pollution control, issues will include size and type of unit, product mix of output, and the impact of facility location relative to non-attainment issues. For wastewater, issues will include stormwater segregation, benzene NESHAP, and other treatment system requirements. For hazardous waste treatment, issues will include groundwater protection and leak detection and contaminated soil segregation. For occupational health and safety, issues will include process changes required and worker training required. For all issues, the major dollar factors will be identified as a function of the technical data available. The refinery costs in each areas were estimated for seven groups of refinery sizes. The presentation will conclude with tabulation of cost estimates for each area of investigation and each refinery group. The total costs for each refinery group over the fifteen-year period will also be presented

  5. Assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically-based effect methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Within the EU it is apparent that the regulatory focus on the use of biologically-based effects methods in the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters has increased in the past decade. This has been reflected in a recent refinery survey which revealed an increased use of such methods for assessing the quality of refinery effluents and their receiving waters. This report provides an overview of recent techniques used for this purpose. Several case studies provided by CONCAWE member companies describe the application of biological methods to effluent discharge assessment and surface water monitoring. The case studies show that when biological methods are applied to refinery effluents and receiving waters they raise different questions compared with those obtained using physical and chemical methods. Although direct measurement of the toxicity of effluent and receiving to aquatic organisms is the most cited technique, more recent efforts include tests that also address the persistence of effluent toxicity once discharged into the receiving water. Similarly, ecological monitoring of receiving waters can identify effects of effluent inputs arising from species interactions and other secondary effects that would not always be apparent from the results of biological tests conducted on single aquatic organisms. In light of recent and proposed regulatory developments the objectives of this report are therefore to: Discuss the application of biologically-based effects methods (including ecological monitoring) to refinery discharges and receiving waters; Assess the implications of such methods for future regulation of refinery discharges; and Provide guidance on good practice that can be used by refineries and the downstream oil industry to carry out and interpret data obtained using biologically-based effects methods. While the emphasis is on the toxic effects of effluents, other properties will also be covered because of their interdependency in determining

  6. Assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically-based effect methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Within the EU it is apparent that the regulatory focus on the use of biologically-based effects methods in the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters has increased in the past decade. This has been reflected in a recent refinery survey which revealed an increased use of such methods for assessing the quality of refinery effluents and their receiving waters. This report provides an overview of recent techniques used for this purpose. Several case studies provided by CONCAWE member companies describe the application of biological methods to effluent discharge assessment and surface water monitoring. The case studies show that when biological methods are applied to refinery effluents and receiving waters they raise different questions compared with those obtained using physical and chemical methods. Although direct measurement of the toxicity of effluent and receiving to aquatic organisms is the most cited technique, more recent efforts include tests that also address the persistence of effluent toxicity once discharged into the receiving water. Similarly, ecological monitoring of receiving waters can identify effects of effluent inputs arising from species interactions and other secondary effects that would not always be apparent from the results of biological tests conducted on single aquatic organisms. In light of recent and proposed regulatory developments the objectives of this report are therefore to: Discuss the application of biologically-based effects methods (including ecological monitoring) to refinery discharges and receiving waters; Assess the implications of such methods for future regulation of refinery discharges; and Provide guidance on good practice that can be used by refineries and the downstream oil industry to carry out and interpret data obtained using biologically-based effects methods. While the emphasis is on the toxic effects of effluents, other properties will also be covered because of their interdependency in determining

  7. [Factors of work environment and employment of workers in production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotarev, P A; Kharlashova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Factors of the industrial environment and labor activity of workers of manufacture propellants and solvents at the oil refining enterprise. Working conditions of workers at all installations of manufacture No 1 JSC "Naftan" of Novopolotsk of Byelorussia (production of fuels and solvents). Hygienic evaluation of working conditions of persons working in the production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery. Sanitary description of the production with hygienic analysis of project design and technological documentation, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of conventional methods in the work environment and working process of employees in the workplace for the main modes of operation of the equipment. The working environment of refineries is influenced by a number of simultaneously acting factors, which have different material nature and characteristics of the action on the human body, the workers in production of fuels and solvents at the refinery, are exposed to a variety of hazardous and dangerous factors of production, a chemical factor is prevalent, of course.

  8. Reducing refinery CO2 emissions through amine solvent upgrade and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Thiago V.; Valenzuela, Michelle [The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Regional initiatives are underway to reduce and limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. With CO2 emissions making up over 80% of the greenhouse gases, cap-and-trade programs will focus on those industries that consume the most energy. Refineries are among the top energy consumers and are seeking opportunities to reduce usage. With tightening margins, energy management programs will not only help refineries meet CO{sub 2} emission regulations, but can also provide a competitive advantage. With the trend towards heavier and higher sulfur containing crudes, refineries are increasing processing capabilities, which can include capital-intensive projects and additional energy consumption. Energy conservation plans should include optimization of these processes. One area to consider includes the acid gas removal systems in refineries. Through the selection and use of optimal solvents and implementation of energy efficiency techniques, which require minimal capital investment and expenditures, refineries can reduce energy usage, overall CO{sub 2} emissions, and total cost in acid gas systems. This paper will discuss these approaches and share case studies detailing the implementation and results. (author)

  9. Cancer incidence and mortality among temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Chung, Eun-Kyo; Jang, Jae-Kil; Lee, Hye-Eun; Ryu, Hyang-Woo; Yoo, Kye-Mook; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Kyoo-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petrochemical plant maintenance workers are exposed to various carcinogens such as benzene and metal fumes. In Korea, maintenance operations in petrochemical plants are typically performed by temporary employees hired as contract workers. Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate cancer risk in temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea. Methods: Subjects consisted of 14 698 male workers registered in a regional petrochemical plant maintenance workers union during 2002–2007. Cancer mortality and incidence were identified by linking with the nationwide death and cancer registries during 2002–2007 and 2002–2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each cancer. Results: Increased SMR 3.61 (six cases, 95% CI: 1.32–7.87) and SIR 3.18 (five cases, 95% CI: 1.03–7.42) were observed in oral and pharyngeal cancers. Conclusion: Our findings may suggest a potential association between oral and pharyngeal cancers and temporary maintenance jobs in the petrochemical industry. Future studies should include a longer follow-up period and a quantitative exposure assessment. PMID:24999849

  10. Health implications of petroleum refinery air emissions: Part I main report : Final : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    This report provides a review of recent public health risk assessments performed in the field of petroleum refineries, and epidemiological or community health studies of populations residing close to petroleum refineries. The objective was to identify and access information concerning possible health impacts specific to this industry. The small number of studies performed on the topic as well as shortcomings in study design, concomitant exposure to other industrial sources and somewhat inconsistent findings make the data difficult to interpret. Potential concerns include short-term respiratory effects from exposure to sulphur dioxide and other substances, and cancer risks from benzene and other substances. There was very limited support for these findings in epidemiology studies of populations in the vicinity of petroleum refineries. This review provides additional support concerning cardiac and respiratory effects of air pollution including particulate matter (PM) and ground level ozone

  11. Integrated pollution control for oil refinery complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiperstok, A. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Sharratt, P.N. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1993-12-31

    Improving environmental performance of oil refineries is a complex task. Emission limits, operating constraints, available technologies, operating techniques, and local environment sensitivity must all be considered. This work describes efforts to build an interactive software to deal with this problem. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Integrated pollution control for oil refinery complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiperstok, A [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Sharratt, P N [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1994-12-31

    Improving environmental performance of oil refineries is a complex task. Emission limits, operating constraints, available technologies, operating techniques, and local environment sensitivity must all be considered. This work describes efforts to build an interactive software to deal with this problem. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Predicting refinery effluent toxicity on the basis of hydrocarbon composition determined by GCxGC analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whale, G. [and others

    2013-04-15

    A high resolution analytical method for determining hydrocarbon blocks in petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) was used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from refinery effluents. From 105 CONCAWE refineries in Europe 111 refinery effluents were collected in the period June 2008 to March 2009 (CONCAWE, 2010). The effluents were analysed for metals, standard effluent parameters (including Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), oil in water (OiW), GCxGC speciated hydrocarbons, BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) and volatile organic compounds. This report describes the subsequent analysis of the GCxGC data, as described in hydrocarbon blocks, and uses the PETROTOX model, to predict the environmental toxicity (i.e. ecotoxicity) of the discharged effluents. A further analysis was undertaken to address the potential environmental impact of these predicted effects initially using default dilution factors and then,when necessary site specific factors. The report describes all the methods used to arrive at the predictions, and shows that for the majority of refinery effluents direct toxicity effects in the effluents are not anticipated. Furthermore, when applying either the EU Risk Assessment Technical Guidance Document (TGD) default dilution factors or site specific dilution factors, none of the refineries are predicted to exerting either acute or chronic toxicity to organisms in the receiving aquatic environment, based on their hydrocarbon composition present in the effluent samples.

  14. Refinery Upgrading of Hydropyrolysis Oil From Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Swanson, Dan [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); McLeod, Celeste [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Del Paggio, Alan [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Urade, Vikrant [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Rao, Madhusudhan [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Narasimhan, Laxmi [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Gephart, John [Johnson Timber, Hayward, WI (United States); Starr, Jack [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Hahn, John [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Stover, Daniel [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Parrish, Martin [Valero, San Antonio, TX (United States); Maxey, Carl [Valero, San Antonio, TX (United States); Shonnard, David [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Handler, Robert [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Fan, Jiquig [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2015-08-31

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be converted to bio-oils containing less than 10% oxygen by a hydropyrolysis process. Hydropyrolysis is the first step in Gas Technology Institute’s (GTI) integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion IH2®. These intermediate bio-oils can then be converted to drop-in hydrocarbon fuels using existing refinery hydrotreating equipment to make hydrocarbon blending components, which are fully compatible with existing fuels. Alternatively, cellulosic or woody biomass can directly be converted into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels containing less than 0.4% oxygen using the IH2 process located adjacent to a refinery or ethanol production facility. Many US oil refineries are actually located near biomass resources and are a logical location for a biomass to transportation fuel conversion process. The goal of this project was to work directly with an oil refinery partner, to determine the most attractive route and location for conversion of biorenewables to drop in fuels in their refinery and ethanol production network. Valero Energy Company, through its subsidiaries, has 12 US oil refineries and 11 ethanol production facilities, making them an ideal partner for this analysis. Valero is also part of a 50- 50 joint venture with Darling Ingredients called Diamond Green Diesel. Diamond Green Diesel’s production capacity is approximately 11,000 barrels per day of renewable diesel. The plant is located adjacent to Valero’s St Charles, Louisiana Refinery and converts recycled animal fats, used cooking oil, and waste corn oil into renewable diesel. This is the largest renewable diesel plant in the U.S. and has successfully operated for over 2 years For this project, 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oil from wood and 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oils from corn stover were produced. The hydropyrolysis oil produced had 4-10% oxygen. Metallurgical testing of hydropyrolysis liquids was completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratories (Oak Ridge) and showed the

  15. The life and times of a western refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    1998-01-01

    An historical account is given of the discovery of oil by Imperial Oil Ltd., at Leduc in 1947, and the opening of a refinery in Edmonton in 1948. The discovery at Leduc was the first major strike to be made in western Canada, but Imperial Oil did not have a refinery at the site to process the new found crude. Given the economic constraints of the postwar era, Imperial Oil decided to dismantle and move an idle and virtually brand-new refinery located at Whitehorse, Yukon. It took 10 months to reassemble the refinery at its newly prepared site at Edmonton. Regular expansions and improvements helped to ensure that the refinery kept up with the advances in technology and market demand. By the early 1970s, small refineries were becoming uneconomical as distribution of products by pipelines became possible. In 1976 Imperial Oil spent more than $300 million to consolidate its four Prairie refineries, those in Calgary, Winnipeg, Regina and Edmonton, into one large facility at the Edmonton site. The role that the refinery plays in today's community and the effort that Imperial Oil makes to comply with stringent environmental regulations were described. Today, the refinery is producing 165,000 barrels a day of fuels and lubricants and another 20,000 barrels of asphalt. The refinery supplies more than 200 different products to customers across Canada, with unit costs which are amongst the lowest of North American refineries. figs

  16. Employee Care

    OpenAIRE

    Zavadilová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The theme of the bachelor's thesis is the issue of employee care and related provision of employee benefits. The main objective is to analyze the effective legislation and characterize the basic areas of employee care. First of all, the thesis focuses on the matter of employee care and related legislation analyzing the working conditions, professional growth of the employees, catering of employees and special conditions for some employees. Furthermore, the special attention is paid to the vol...

  17. Microbial enhanced separation of oil from a petroleum refinery sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, P J; Joseph, Ammini

    2009-01-15

    Petroleum refineries around the world have adopted different technological options to manage the solid wastes generated during the refining process and stocking of crude oil. These include physical, chemical and biological treatment methods. In this investigation bacterial mediated oil separation is effected. Two strains of Bacillus were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils, and inoculated into slurry of sludge, and sludge-sand combinations. The bacteria could effect the separation of oil so as to form a floating scum within 48h with an efficiency of 97% at < or =5% level of sludge in the sludge-sand mixture. The activity was traced to the production of biosurfactants by bacteria.

  18. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Jan.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  19. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-07-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis.

  20. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-06-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  1. Employee Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Madelyn

    2008-09-05

    Welcome to Berkeley Lab. You are joining or are already a part of a laboratory with a sterling tradition of scientific achievement, including eleven Nobel Laureates and thirteen National Medal of Science winners. No matter what job you do, you make Berkeley Lab the outstanding organization that it is. Without your hard work and dedication, we could not achieve all that we have. We value you and thank you for choosing to be part of our community. This Employee Handbook is designed to help you navigate the Lab. With over 3,000 employees, an additional 3,000 guests visiting from countries around the world, a 200-acre campus and many policies and procedures, learning all the ins and outs may seem overwhelming, especially if you're a new employee. However, even if you have been here for a while, this Handbook should be a useful reference tool. It is meant to serve as a guide, highlighting and summarizing what you need to know and informing you where you can go for more detailed information. The general information provided in this Handbook serves only as a brief description of many of the Lab's policies. Policies, procedures and information are found in the Lab's Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM), Summary Plan Descriptions, University of California policies, and provisions of Contract 31 between the Regents of the University and the U.S. Department of Energy. In addition, specific terms and conditions for represented employees are found in applicable collective bargaining agreements. Nothing in this Handbook is intended to supplant, change or conflict with the previously mentioned documents. In addition, the information in this Handbook does not constitute a contract or a promise of continued employment and may be changed at any time by the Lab. We believe employees are happier and more productive if they know what they can expect from their organization and what their organization expects from them. The Handbook will familiarize you with the

  2. Allocating the CO2 emissions of an oil refinery with Aumann-Shapley prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, A.

    2005-06-01

    Linear programming is widely used by multi-product oil-refining firms, which minimize a refinery's variable cost under a set of constraints. In addition to operating costs, this variable cost can include the cost associated with the refinery's CO 2 emissions. We suggest a quite general approach combining use of Aumann-Shapley cost-sharing method and breakdown of the objective function of the linear program. This approach determines an appropriate rule for the allocation of the refinery's CO 2 emissions (or, in general, variable costs) among the various finished products, which can be used for purposes of Life Cycle Assessment. A numerical application to a simplified refining model is presented. (author)

  3. Current status of vegetation of six PETROBRAS refineries; Status dos fragmentos de vegetacao em seis refinarias da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos Andre; Bonafini, Fabio Loureiro; Porciano, Patricia Pereira [SEEBLA, Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Torggler, Bianca Felippe; Fernandes, Renato [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia; Vieira, Elisa Diniz Reis [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Most of refineries from PETROBRAS have significant vegetation areas within their limits. The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary assessment study of the vegetation fragments on six refineries, including the quantification of permanent preservation areas (Brazilian environmental law requirement). Besides that, the authors propose potential recovery areas and some reforestation techniques. The methodology was based on Rapid Ecological Assessment, that consists on the selection of target areas by image analysis (satellite or aerial photos) and expedite fieldwork - three days on each refinery. The main features of vegetation, like phytophysiognomy and successional stage were obtained, and registered on a specific form developed to be used at fieldwork. The results achieved show that 44,7% of the areas from these six refineries were occupied by vegetation. The most representative categories of vegetation were Atlantic forest fragments and mangroves, as well as to permanent preservation areas. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 80.94 - Requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection or audit if a baseline petition has not been approved, and any work papers related to refinery... foreign refineries. 80.94 Section 80.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... for gasoline produced at foreign refineries. (a) Definitions. (1) A foreign refinery is a refinery...

  5. Biodegradation of oil refinery wastes under OPA and CERCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banipal, B.S.; Myers, J.M.; Fisher, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    Land treatment of oil refinery wastes has been used as a disposal method for decades. More recently, numerous laboratory studies have been performed attempting to quantify degradation rates of more toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This paper discusses the results of the full-scale aerobic biodegradation operations using land treatment at the Macmillan Ring-Free Oil refining facility. The tiered feasibility approach in the evaluation of using biodegradation as a treatment method to achieve site-specific clean-up including pilot scale biodegradation operations is included in an earlier paper. Analytical results of biodegradation indicate that degradation rates observed in the laboratory can be met and exceeded under field conditions and that the site-specific cleanup criteria can be attained within a proposed project time. Also presented are degradation rates and half-lives for PAHs for which cleanup criteria has been established. PAH degradation rates and half-life values are determined and compared with the laboratory degradation rates and half-life values which used similar oil refinery wastes by other investigators (API 1987)

  6. The acid refinery wastes in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Ladomersky, J.; Hroncova, E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of our paper is to assign ways and means of the pollution extension from the old landfills of the petrochemical sludges. In the past the sludges were deposited in sludge landfills. Nowadays remediation of the landfills is a key problem. We analyse condition of the refinery sludges latching. We found out the meaning influences of leachate time, temperature, concentration and liquid kind. (authors)

  7. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

  8. Metal leaching from refinery waste hydroprocessing catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafi, Meena; Rana, Mohan S

    2018-05-18

    The present study aims to develop an eco-friendly methodology for the recovery of nickel (Ni), molybdenum (Mo), and vanadium (V) from the refinery waste spent hydroprocessing catalyst. The proposed process has two stages: the first stage is to separate alumina, while the second stage involves the separation of metal compounds. The effectiveness of leaching agents, such as NH 4 OH, (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 , and (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 , for the extraction of Mo, V, Ni, and Al from the refinery spent catalyst has been reported as a function of reagent concentration (0.5 to 2.0 molar), leaching time (1 to 6 h), and temperature (35 to 60°C). The optimal leaching conditions were achieved to obtain the maximum recovery of Mo, Ni, and V metals. The effect of the mixture of multi-ammonium salts on the metal extraction was also studied, which showed an adverse effect for Ni and V, while marginal improvement was observed for Mo leaching. The ammonium salts can form soluble metal complexes, in which stability or solubility depends on the nature of ammonium salt and the reaction conditions. The extracted metals and support can be reused to synthesize a fresh hydroprocessing catalyst. The process will reduce the refinery waste and recover the expensive metals. Therefore, the process is not only important from an environmental point of view but also vital from an economic perspective.

  9. First refinery opened in Kyrgyz Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The first oil refinery in the Kyrgyz Republic was opened on 5 October 1996 in Jalalabad in a ceremony attended by the President of the Central Asian country, Askar Akaev. The 10,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) modular refinery has been financed by the Canadian oil junior, Kyrgoil Corporation, which has also formed a joint venture with the national oil company, Kyrgyzneft, to redevelop where viable the 628 underperforming oil wells in the Kyrgyz Republic sector of the Fergana Basin. The opening is the first significant milestone in a programme initiated by Akaev to develop the oil production industry in the Kyrgyz Republic. Currently the country imports more than 50,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day, mostly from Kazakhstan. In the year ending March 1996, 110 million was spent on imports of fuel products, an amount that exceeds the trade deficit over the same period. Built in only eight months, the Pound 12 million refinery will gradually be brought to full capacity. By January, it is expected that more than 5,000 barrels of gasoline, diesel and fuel oil will be produced every day. Although there is some crude oil in storage, the ramping of production is tied into the programme of workovers of the existing wells. There are no current plans to import crude, although most of the infrastructure is in place should it become necessary. (author)

  10. Toward effective ecological risk-management of refinery corrective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, B.H.; Rury, P.M.; Turton, D.; Archibald, B.; Clark, J.; Cura, J.

    1995-01-01

    Cleanup of complex industrial sites, such as refineries, requires risk-based decision tools to ensure that environmentally protective remediation is consistent with current and future land use. However, conventional ecological risk assessment approaches are not well suited for complex industrial sites. Site risk assessments focus on hypothetical chemical risk assuming diverse and undisturbed ecosystems, rather than industrial and disturbed area conditions. In addition, they offer little guidance as to how to make timely and effective risk management decisions. An innovative methodology is proposed to assist industry and regulatory risk managers with rapid EcoRisk reconnaissance and cost-effective remedial decision-making at complex industrial sites. Phase 1 comprises a three-step risk screening of areas of ecological concern at the site, which integrates habitat quality characteristics and potential chemical hazards. It yields an ordering of areas as follows: areas of no significant risk; areas of potentially significant risk; and areas of likely significant risk. A decision rule is then applied to determine appropriate risk management action, including: no action; additional study; and remedial or management action. In Phase 2, additional study is conducted for areas that exhibit potentially significant risk so as to facilitate risk management. This methodology is currently being applied at the 1,300 acre, former Exxon Bayway Refinery in New Jersey

  11. Cathodic Protection Design Algorithms for Refineries Aboveground Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosay Abdul sattar Majbor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Storage tanks condition and integrity is maintained by joint application of coating and cathodic protection. Iraq southern region rich in oil and petroleum product refineries need and use plenty of aboveground storage tanks. Iraq went through conflicts over the past thirty five years resulting in holding the oil industry infrastructure behind regarding maintenance and modernization. The primary concern in this work is the design and implementation of cathodic protection systems for the aboveground storage tanks farm in the oil industry. Storage tank external base area and tank internal surface area are to be protected against corrosion using impressed current and sacrificial anode cathodic protection systems. Interactive versatile computer programs are developed to provide the necessary system parameters data including the anode requirements, composition, rating, configuration, etc. Microsoft-Excel datasheet and Visual Basic.Net developed software were used throughout the study in the design of both cathodic protection systems. The case study considered in this work is the eleven aboveground storage tanks farm situated in al-Shauiba refinery in southern IRAQ. The designed cathodic protection systems are to be installed and monitored realistically in the near future. Both systems were designed for a life span of (15-30 years, and all their parameters were within the internationally accepted standards.

  12. Biodegradation of oil refinery wastes under OPA and CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamblin, W.W.; Banipal, B.S.; Myers, J.M. [Ecology and Environment, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Land treatment of oil refinery wastes has been used as a disposal method for decades. More recently, numerous laboratory studies have been performed attempting to quantify degradation rates of more toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This paper discusses the results of the fullscale aerobic biodegradation operations using land treatment at the Macmillan Ring-Free Oil refining facility. The tiered feasibility approach of evaluating biodegradation as a treatment method to achieve site-specific cleanup criteria, including pilot biodegradation operations, is discussed in an earlier paper. Analytical results of biodegradation indicate that degradation rates observed in the laboratory can be met and exceeded under field conditions and that site-specific cleanup criteria can be attained within a proposed project time. Also prevented are degradation rates and half-lives for PAHs for which cleanup criteria have been established. PAH degradation rates and half-life values are determined and compared with the laboratory degradation rates and half-life values which used similar oil refinery wastes by other in investigators (API 1987).

  13. Profitability diagnosis of refinery and improvement proposal; Seiyusho no shueki shindan to kaizen teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, H.

    2000-07-01

    Based on consulting service RPS-J under joint operation of Nikki, UOP LLC of U.S.A. and Nikki Universal, approaching ways applied for profitability improvement and improvement proposal for refineries and analyzing techniques used for resolution of process bottlenecks were described. In RPS-J, themes of (1) energy saving, (2) quality upgrading, (3) improvement of disintegrating ratio, (4) reduction of give-away, (5) improvement of equipment operation ratio, (6) reduction of maintenance cost, (7) effective utilization of catalysts, are considered for profitability improvement fields. Procedures from idea excavation for profitability improvement to realization of profitability improvement are carried out in the order of, (1) Grasping of the present state, (2) Excavation of improving items and selection, (3) Quantitative evaluation of draft profitability improvement plan and focusing, (4) Profitability improvement by operation improvement, (5) Profitability improvement by minor improvement, (6) Profitability improvement in middle- and long-term vision, (7) Final focusing by feasibility study. Afterwards, examination to economically solve bottlenecks of critical facilities, examination on bottlenecks of distillation tower and refining tower and utility analysis are carried out. RPS-J was already applied to 4 refineries including Muroran Refinery and Negishi Refinery of Nisseki Mitsubishi, and profitability improvement themes were found to improve profitability of 50 to 150 cents per barrel. (NEDO)

  14. Monitoring coastal pollution associated with the largest oil refinery complex of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Croquer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated pollution levels in water and sediments of Península de Paraguaná and related these levels with benthic macrofauna along a coastal area where the largest Venezuelan oil refineries have operated over the past 60 years. For this, the concentration of heavy metals, of hydrocarbon compounds and the community structure of the macrobenthos were examined at 20 sites distributed along 40 km of coastline for six consecutive years, which included windy and calm seasons. The spatial variability of organic and inorganic compounds showed considerably high coastal pollution along the study area, across both years and seasons. The southern sites, closest to the refineries, had consistently higher concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds in water and sediments when compared to those in the north. The benthic community was dominated by polychaetes at all sites, seasons and years, and their abundance and distribution were significantly correlated with physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Sites close to the oil refineries were consistently dominated by families known to tolerate xenobiotics, such as Capitellidae and Spionidae. The results from this study highlight the importance of continuing long-term environmental monitoring programs to assess the impact of effluent discharge and spill events from the oil refineries that operate in the western coast of Paraguaná, Venezuela.

  15. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern

  16. Valero Refinery Oxygen Enrichment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. The employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhrmannová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's study is to describe and analyze the employee motivation and benefits in the payroll system and human recources field. Theoretical part attends to general terms as the employee motivation, the theory of the motivation,the types of the employee benefits, the influence of benefits to the employee's working performance. The practial part focuses on Elanor company, includes introduction of the company, it's history and the present, the offer of the employee benefits. Ne...

  18. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Attachment 3: Data set for Craney Island oil refinery installation experiment. [air pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, A.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.; Adams, D.; Maier, G.

    1975-01-01

    Data tables and maps are presented which include background information and experimental data on the Craney Island oil refinery installation experiment. The experiment was to investigate air pollution effects.

  19. 40 CFR 80.1141 - Small refinery exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a)(1) Gasoline produced at a refinery by a refiner, or foreign refiner (as defined at § 80.1165(a... effective beginning on January 1 of the following calendar year, at which point the gasoline produced at... from the calculation of its Renewable Volume Obligation (under § 80.1107(a)) gasoline from any refinery...

  20. environmental impact of illegal refineries on the vegetation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. O. M. Adesope

    impact of illegal oil refineries in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, the floristic composition of the fresh water swamp forest at refining sites in two river systems and a brackish ... ecosystem of Rivers State, five species of Mangroves and two species of ... Visual observation was made along the Rivers to identify illegal refinery stations.

  1. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoucheng, Wen [Yangtze Univ., HuBei Jingzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%.

  2. Two refineries running crude; third to restart by September

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippee, B.

    1993-01-01

    Kuwait's downstream oil and gas industry, which sustained less damage than the country's oil field infrastructure during the Iraqi occupation of the 1990-91, has nearly completed reconstruction. Two of three refineries have resumed operations, one of them at reduced crude distillation rates. And state-owned Kuwait National Petroleum Co. hopes to put the other refinery, Shuaiba, back on stream in September, although not at preinvasion throughput rates. Major reconstruction will be complete by year end, with crude oil distillation capacity at 650,000 b/sd. Preinvasion crude capacities of Kuwait's refineries totaled 840,000 b/d. The article describes an overview of the recovery; the status of the Mina Abdulla processing plant, the Mina Al-Ahmadi refinery, and the Shuaiba refinery; modernization plans, and plans for petrochemicals

  3. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoucheng, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%

  4. Employees development

    OpenAIRE

    Kilijánová, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Employees development is one of the main activities of human resources management. It is connected with other activites, such as training of employees, career development and performance management. In the recent days there is an increased importance put on employees development, although the current economic crisis still has some consequences, such as reduced development budget of many organizations. The thesis mentiones employees development in the first place in the context of management o...

  5. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region

  6. Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Tien, A.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Worsztynowicz, A.; Ulfig, K. [Inst. for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland)

    1997-05-10

    The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH`s, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass.

  7. Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Tien, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH's, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass

  8. CARBON ACCOUNTING INITIATIVES: CASE STUDY OF A PETROLEUM REFINERY IN MALAYSIA TO PREPARE FOR FUTURE CARBON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA H.L. CHEE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum refining process produces a large amount of atmospheric pollutants including greenhouse gases which are attributed to global warming. The international community inevitably addressed the global warming issue by introducing a market-based mechanism known as Emission Trading Systems (ETS under the Kyoto Protocol which imposes binding limits to developed nations using three flexibility mechanisms, including the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. This case study was carried out in a petroleum refinery in Malaysia to explore the possibility for the refinery to participate in CDM. Information was collected through observatory field survey at the refinery and documentation review. Results show that the current monitoring tool using indirect calculation of fuel consumption provides a comprehensive coverage of emission sources but the reporting frequency should be increased for data accuracy. An accounting system was then created to predict the emissions gap of the refinery with reference to the baseline-year set by the Kyoto Protocol. It was concluded that the refinery showed promising potential to participate in CDM to benefit from technology transfer by selling their ‘credits’ to Annex I countries despite the uncertainty on the impact of the carbon market in a Non-Annex I country.

  9. Broadening Your Employee Benefit Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaski, Nancy J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Cost increases and realization of the diverse needs of employees have prompted organizations to review the cost and value of employee benefits. Examines alternatives including "cafeteria plans," managed care programs, and disability income plans. (MLF)

  10. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Api Energia IGCC plant is fully integrated with refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bravo, R. [api Energia, Rome (Italy); Trifilo, R. [ABB Sadelmi, Milan (Italy); Chiantore, P.V. [api anonima petroli Italiania Spa, Rome (Italy); Starace, F. [ABB Power Generation, Baden (Switzerland); O`Keefe, L.F. [Texico, White Plains (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The api Energia integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant being built at Falconara Marittima, on Italy`s Adriatic coast, is one of the three IGCC plants under construction in Italy following the liberalization of the electricity production sector. The plant will take 59.2 t/h of high sulphur heavy oil produced by the Falconara refinery, convert it to syngas and use the gas to generate 280 MW of electricity, plus steam and other gases for use in the refinery. The IGCC plant will be highly integrated into the refining process, with a large number of interchanges between the IGCC unit and the rest of the refinery. (author)

  12. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Refinery expansion and upgrading: Trends and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Much of the world's reserves of heavy, high sulfur crude oil are located in the western hemisphere. One may look from north to south and find these types of crudes. in Canada, there are the vast deposits of tar sands and other heavy oils. In the United States we find heavy, high sulfur crude in California's San joaquin Valley, the Rockies' shale oil deposits and in other areas. Moving south, Mexico's Maya crude is well known to refiners, as are the heavy crudes of Venezuela's Orinoco Belt. On the other hand, many refineries outside the United States are limited in their ability to handle heavy, high sulfur crudes either because of metallurgy or processing configurations

  14. Energy saving in refineries and petrochemical complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, L

    1975-01-01

    Possible measures applicable in the design of refineries and petrochemical complexes, to effect energy savings were investigated. This was not limited to the single process unit problems, on the contrary the attention is mainly addressed to the identification of the interrelations between different units, emphasizing possible integrations. Particularly, the optimization of the pressure levels and number of the utility networks for steam distribution inside plant facilities, is considered, in order to maximize heat recovery in the process units, and electric power production in the central steampower generation plant. A computer program of general application, based on profitability evaluation at various fuel oil prices and different project configurations, has been developed for these purposes. The general measures applicable within certain limits are then briefly examined. The task of the process engineer is discussed in the perspective of the ''energy saving'' goal.

  15. Electrometallurgy of copper refinery anode slimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. D.

    1990-08-01

    High-selenium copper refinery anode slimes form two separate and dynamically evolving series of compounds with increasing electrolysis time. In one, silver is progressively added to non-stoichiometric copper selenides, both those originally present in the anode and those formed subsequently in the slime layer, and in the other, silver-poor copper selenides undergo a dis-continuous crystallographic sequence of anodic-oxidative transformations. The silver-to-selenium molar ratio in the as-cast anode and the current density of electrorefining can be used to construct predominance diagrams for both series and, thus, to predict the final bulk “mineralogy” of the slimes. Although totally incorrect in detail, these bulk data are sufficiently accurate to provide explanations for several processing problems which have been experienced by Kidd Creek Division, Falconbridge Ltd., in its commercial tankhouse. They form the basis for a computer model which predicts final cathode quality from chemical analyses of smelter feed.

  16. Data on evolutionary relationships between hearing reduction with history of disease and injuries among workers in Abadan Petroleum Refinery, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Ghazlavi, Ebtesam; Gamizji, Samira Rashidi; Sharifi, Hajar; Gamizji, Fereshteh Rashidi; Zahedi, Atefeh; Geravandi, Sahar; Tahery, Noorollah; Yari, Ahmad Reza; Momtazan, Mahboobeh

    2018-02-01

    The present work examined data obtained during the analysis of Hearing Reduction (HR) of Abadan Petroleum Refinery (Abadan PR) workers of Iran with a history of disease and injuries. To this end, all workers in the refinery were chosen. In this research, the effects of history of disease and injury including trauma, electric shock, meningitis-typhoid disease and genetic illness as well as contact with lead, mercury, CO 2 and alcohol consumption were evaluated (Lie, et al., 2016) [1]. After the completion of the questionnaires by workers, the coded data were fed into EXCELL. Statistical analysis of data was carried out, using SPSS 16.

  17. Integration : OPEC is now in 35 foreign refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzian, P.

    1994-01-01

    Seven countries from OPEC own now share holdings in 35 foreign refineries. By this process of downstream reintegration, these countries hope to reach a better stability of crude oil prices. (Author). 3 tabs

  18. Influence of ownership capital structure of Refinery's operation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhi-Mishev, Dimitar

    1999-01-01

    Refineries are part of the energetic infrastructure of one country. Their significance is dependent on the geographic country position (whether it has sea exit or not), and on structure of primary energy spends in the country. According these facts, country's attitude to the refineries on its territory could be different. The possibility of ownership structure transformation in refineries and necessary legislation in the energetic sector of the state, needed for transformation realization are analyzed in this paper. Essential conditions for transformation fulfilling are protection 'mechanisms for domestic production in crude oil economy, manners of crude oil products price defining, and manners of excise determination and payment. As a function of these conditions, the conditions under which transformation of ownership structure in refineries is possible, as well as their influence on the operation and development of this part of energetic structure in transition country are defined in this paper. (Original)

  19. Assessment of the effect of effluent discharge from coffee refineries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2Department of Environmental Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. ... cherries, transport them hydraulically through the pulping ..... Table 2. Interaction effects of effluent discharges by coffee refineries on physical characteristics between.

  20. Valve automation in Indian refinery; Armaturenautomatisierung in indischer Raffinerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbstritt, M. [AUMA Riester GmbH und Co. KG, Muellheim (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    The Mahul refinery near Mumbai is the third largest site of its kind in India. It is operated by BPCL, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. During the last few months, the refinery was extended. A plant for manufacturing motor lubricants was built, together with a tank farm for the products (LOBS = lube oil base stock). In April 2006 the new plant sections were put into operation. This article deals with the valve automation for this project. (orig.)

  1. Assessment and the feasibility of improving the artificial lighting system in technical services workshop located in the Fourth South Pars Gas Refinery

    OpenAIRE

    masoud shafiee motlagh; Mohsen Aliabadi; Reza Shahidi; Amin Kahani

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Desirable and ergonomic lighting in the workplaces has a significant impact on the visual effects and improve the efficiency and productivity of employees. This study aims to evaluate the lighting system and feasibility of improving the artificial lighting system for comfort lighting in the workshop of the Fourth South Pars Gas Refinery. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the environmental conditions of the studied workshop were evaluated and the illum...

  2. Assessing refinery capacity and readiness to take Canadian product : is Canadian crude pushing or pulling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesner, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation addressed some of the challenges facing oil sands production in Canada. Refinery products and refining investments were discussed, as was the impact of alternative crude supply on the markets and pricing of oil sands. The oils sands products discussed include various qualities of sweet synthetic crude oil produced via upgraders; virgin and cracked intermediate products from oil sands upgraders; mined or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) produced bitumen blended products; and synthetic heavy crude produced via hydrocracking. Products were listed in terms of ease of production, and a rationale for generic ranking was provided. A chart of 2003 characteristics of non-Canadian imports to the mid-west United States was provided. Various marketing strategies for different oil sands products were discussed, as well as issues concerning logistics. Strategies for the development of a bigger market include producer investment in refining capability; the acquisition of refining assets; investment in refiners' upgrading capability; and securing a long term supply deal. Core and extended markets for Western Canadian oil sands products were reviewed. A chart of North American refining capacity was presented. Details of a refinery with both coking and cracking capacity were examined. An increase in hydro processing capacity and expanded coking capacity, as well as an upgrade of metallurgy were suggested as possible upgrading options. Various refinery configurations were discussed in relation to lower cost feedstocks and clean fuels specifications. Issues concerning crude supply were examined with reference to pricing parity points and declines in traditional crude production. Specific supply issues concerning oil sands production were discussed, including transportation costs; adequate refining capacity; and availability of supply. Various logistic investments were considered. A map of BP's 5 U.S. refineries was presented. A forecast of expected changes in

  3. Refinery plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude : understanding and preventing the problem through new oil gellant chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Cheng, A.; Tamayo, C.; Funkhouser, G.P. [Halliburton, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemieux, A. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Phosphate ester oil gellants are the most prevalent oil gellant technology in use by service companies. However, in 1995, they were found to be responsible for plugging distillation trays at 3 refineries across Canada including Imperial Oil's Strathcona refinery in Edmonton, Petro-Canada's refinery in Oakville, Ontario and Chevron's refinery in Burnaby, British Columbia. Since 1998, additional fouling has occurred in Canada, and in 2002, fouling was detected at a refinery in Pennsylvania while processing Canadian sweet, light crude. Since refiners pay a high cost for unscheduled refinery shutdowns, much effort has gone into solving this problem and to maintain the value of Canadian sweet, light crude. Studies by the Canadian Crude Quality Technical Association (CCQTA) have shown that phosphate esters begin to decompose through hydrolysis of the ester linkage at approximately 240 degrees. Gases cool as they move up the tower through distillation trays. Trays in the temperature range of 230 to 290 degrees C produce most of the volatile phosphorous compounds that condense out of the gas phase and cause plugging, thereby reducing the efficiency of distillation. Phosphate esters are often used with a metal crosslinker such as ferric iron or aluminium to gel hydrocarbons for use as a fracturing fluid. This paper described the advantages of existing ferric iron-crosslinked phosphate ester oil gels over the older, alternative oil gellant chemistries. Carbon dioxide-miscible, gelled hydrocarbon fracturing fluids provide better well stimulation by avoiding capillary pressure effects associated with water-based fluids. The fluid properties of the new phosphonate ester system were compared to those of a conventional phosphate ester system. Field tests from two fracturing treatments were also presented. Plugging did not occur with the new phosphonate ester treatment. 6 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  4. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  5. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  6. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Yorktown refinery project workplan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, L.; Grieves, C.; Browning, R.; Hanlon, D.; Crane, C.

    1990-09-01

    The report provides a detailed workplan for obtaining data and analyzing results for a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study include (1) a multi-media inventory of all releases entering the environment from the Refinery, (2) development of possible engineering options to reduce the releases, (3) analysis of each option in terms of release reduction potential, impact on human health risk, ecological impact, changes in future liability, etc. and (4) identification of obstacles and incentives for implementation of any of the options considered

  7. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  8. Taking inventory on VOC releases from Amoco's Yorktown refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.H. Jr.; Schmitt, R.E.; Harrass, M.C.; Podar, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Amoco's Yorktown, Virginia, refinery is a 35-year-old, 53,000 bbl/day facility that manufacturers gasoline, heating oil, liquid petroleum gas, sulfur, and coke. In a cooperative and voluntary effort, Amoco Corporation and the US Environmental Protection Agency conducted a joint project to study pollution prevention opportunities at an operating industrial facility. Source reduction efforts--key to pollution prevention strategies--require knowledge of specific sources of releases. However, data on releases from individual process units are limited in favor of data to monitor existing end-of-pipe pollution control requirements. The study's sampling program sought to portray the distribution of releases within the refinery, their management within the refinery, and ultimate releases leaving the refinery. Subsequent tests of blowdown stack and fugitive emissions further improved total release estimates. The initial study estimated that the refinery generates about 25,000 metric tons (t)/year of potential pollutants. Of these, about half are released from the refinery as airborne, waterborne, or land-disposed releases. Airborne releases comprise the majority of releases by mass, about 12,000 t/year. Most of the airborne releases are volatile organic compound hydrocarbons. The inventory sampling project and subsequent work identified differences with Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) values and standard emission factors (AP-42). The inventory and other data provided an opportunity to consider options for, and limitations of, specific pollution prevention or source reduction strategies

  9. Assessment of Petroleum Leakage in Groundwater of the Abadan Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Shadizadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of petroleum leakage at oil refineries is vital for environmental study of water and soil pollution. Abadan Refinery is located between the Arvandrud and Bahmanshir rivers in the highly populated area of Abadan city. These rivers supply domestic, industrial, and agricultural water toAbadancity. During the war betweenIranandIraq, enormous volumes of oil and petroleum products leaked from storage tanks and pipelines at Abadan Refinery into the surrounding environment. The resulting pollution is a serious threat and a growing environmental concern for the region. In this work, twenty boreholes were dug to investigate petroleum leaks into the surrounding area both during and after the war. The thickness of petroleum floating on underground waters at the refinery was measured by sampling underground water over a period of one year along with measuring the piezometric heads of groundwater monitoring wells. Also, groundwater movement pattern at Abadan Refinery was determined by measuring the water table in each well over the same period. The results of sampling indicate that oil leaks were observed in just two wells; namely, wells No.3 and No.11. The results also show that the greatest portion of the oil spill in underground layers at Abadan Refinery was absorbed into clay soil.

  10. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; DiVita, Vincent [Jacobs Consultancy Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    volume achievable by the cracking refinery configuration. To be able to satisfy large market demands of E10 HOF, that study arbitrarily relaxed the RVP requirements by replacing reformulated gasoline (RFG) RVP requirement of 7 psi in summer with conventional gasoline (CG) RVP requirement of 9 psi in summer. To examine the response by all refineries in major refinery regions, this phase II of the HOF WTW analysis employed regionally aggregated refinery models for the following six regions: PADDs 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 excluding California (CA) and CA separately. Using aggregate refinery models, this phase II study examined the impacts of ethanol blending and HOF market shares on the refinery operations in these six regions. Also, this study included refinery expansion to produce a pre-determined HOF volume with 10% ethanol blending. In particular, this study examined several refinery expansion options using refinery configuration models to investigate a practical refinery response to the increase in E10 HOF market demand.

  11. Allegheny County Employee Salaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Employee salaries are a regular Right to Know request the County receives. Here is the disclaimer language that is included with the dataset from the Open Records...

  12. Costs of employee turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish a general methodology for calculating the costs incurred by employee turnover. This paper deals with identification of costs incurred by the departure of an employee, and does not deal with the cost of recruitment of a new employee. Economic calculations are adjusted to the tax policy in the Czech Republic. The costs of employee turnover (according to Bliss, 2012 include the costs of substitution of the unoccupied position, costs of conducting the exit interview and termination of the contract. The cost of an executive’s time to understand the causes of leaving and costs of the leaving employee’s training were also determined. Important factors in the costs of employee turnover also include the loss of knowledge and possibly also a loss of customers. Costs of lost employee and department productiveness represent an important part of the costs of employee turnover, as well. For all of these costs there have been proposed general calculations formulas.

  13. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  14. Toxicity identification evaluation methods for identification of toxicants in refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barten, K.A.; Mount, D.R.; Hackett, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    During the last five years, the authors have used Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods to characterize and identify the source(s) of toxicity in effluents from dozens of municipal and industrial facilities. In most cases, specific chemicals responsible for toxicity have been identified. Although generally successful, the initial experience was that for several refinery effluents, they were able only to qualitatively characterize the presence of organic toxicants; standard toxicant identification procedures were not able to isolate specific organic chemicals. They believe that organic toxicity in these refinery effluents is caused by multiple organic compounds rather than by just a few; evidence for this includes an inability to isolate toxicity in a small number of fractions using liquid chromatography and the presence of very large numbers of compounds in isolated fractions. There is also evidence that the toxicant(s) may be ionic, in that the toxicity of whole effluent and isolated fractions often show increasing toxicity with decreasing pH. Finally, positive-pressure filtration has also reduced toxicity in some samples. In this presentation the authors summarize their experiences with refinery effluents, focusing on typical patterns they have observed and alternative procedures they have used to better understand the nature of these toxicants

  15. Preliminary life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, J.J.; Rogers, S.; Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The US by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass, have only considered the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified and factored into these estimates until recently. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO 2 -capping on the US refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO 2 emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmentally and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. These biomass-derived products include power, fuel gas, hydrogen for refinery processing, and Fischer-Tropsch liquids for upgrading and blending into finished transportation fuels

  16. Employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has produced a new guideline looking at improving the health and wellbeing of employees, with a particular focus on organisational culture and context, and the role of line managers.

  17. Airborne concentrations of metals and total dust during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at a petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Gaffney, Shannon H; Le, Matthew H; Unice, Ken M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2012-09-01

    Workers handle catalysts extensively at petroleum refineries throughout the world each year; however, little information is available regarding the airborne concentrations and plausible exposures during this type of work. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne concentrations of 15 metals and total dust generated during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at one of the largest petroleum refineries in the world using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1989 and 2006. The total dust and metals, which included aluminum, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, silicon, silver, vanadium, and zinc, were evaluated in relation to the handling of four different types of solid catalysts associated with three major types of catalytic processes. Consideration was given to the known components of the solid catalysts and any metals that were likely deposited onto them during use. A total of 180 analytical results were included in this analysis, representing 13 personal and 54 area samples. Of the long-term personal samples, airborne concentrations of metals ranged from refinery and perhaps other modern refineries during the timeframe examined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Employers meet employees

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    "Leaping into the future of labor economics: the research potential of linking employer and employee data" is the title of a paper by Daniel S Hammermesh published in Labour Economics in 1999. I quote it here, since it captures much of my motivation for the work included in this thesis. Considering applied micro econometrics and labor economics my main elds of interest, the development of linked employer-employee data that took place in Denmark around the time of the new mille...

  19. Planning and scheduling for petroleum refineries using mathematical programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the development and solution of nonlinear and mixed-integer (MIP optimization models for real-world planning and scheduling problems in petroleum refineries. Firstly, we present a nonlinear planning model that represents a general refinery topology and allows implementation of nonlinear process models as well as blending relations. The optimization model is able to define new operating points, thus increasing the production of the more valuable products and simultaneously satisfying all specification constraints. The second part addresses scheduling problems in oil refineries, which are formulated as MIP optimization models and rely on both continuous and discrete time representations. Three practical applications closely related to the current refinery scenario are presented. The first one addresses the problem of crude oil inventory management of a refinery that receives several types of crude oil delivered exclusively by a single oil pipeline. Subsequently, two optimization models intended to define the optimal production policy, inventory control and distribution are proposed and solved for the fuel oil and asphalt plant. Finally, the planning model of Moro et al. (1998 is extended in order to sequence decisions at the scheduling level in the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG area for maximization of the production of petrochemical-grade propane and product delivery.

  20. Transformation of the Czech refinery and petrochemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junek, V.

    1995-01-01

    The petrochemical and chemical industries in former Czechoslovakia in the period after World War II was built up with a purpose to create a complex whose individual subjects would be closely interlinked from the point of view of their production programmes. The separation of Slovakia as an independent state has disrupted some of these links. In spite of that the petrochemical and chemical industries are nowadays the most prosperous branches of economy of the Czech Republic. The governmental proposal for the reorganizing of the refinery and petrochemical complex elaborated in connection with the resolution of the Governmental Privatization Commission of November 6 1994 proposed the formation of a holding company Unipetrol in the way of merging Chemopetrol and Kaucuk with a new joint stock company Unipetrol established for this purpose by the National Property Fund. The updated proposal offers formation of the holding organization Unipetrol in a substantially simpler, from the point of view of time, organization and financing less demanding manner. This proposal is based on the following principles: respecting the approved privatization projects, the solution must not have influence on the rights and position of natural and juristic persons who became shareholders in accordance with the privatization projects already approved, the influence of the state on decisions of the holding and its daughter companies will be maintained with regard to the security of the state and supplying the strategically important subjects with fuels in situation of a crisis, the share of the business subjects in the shares of the holding will be such that it would enable them from the very beginning to participate effectively and not only formally in the decisions. 2 figs

  1. Enterprise Integration of Management and Automation in a Refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengen

    Traditionally, problems in a petroleum refinery were separately modeled and solved with respect to disciplines. The segregated implementations of various disciplinary technologies resulted in considerable barriers impeding the pursuit of global optimal performance. It is recognized that enterprise-wide integration of the managerial and automation systems is of fundamental significance for refineries to promptly respond to global market requirements. In this paper, the technical implementations are disciplinarily categorized into managerial and automatic systems. Then, typical managerial and automatic implementations in a refinery are depicted to give an insight perception of the heterogeneous data sources manipulated by these systems. Finally, an integration approach based on data reconciliation techniques is proposed to link up the heterogeneous data sources.

  2. Operational planning of refineries; Planejamento operacional de refinarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinay, Maria Cristina Fogliatti de [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bueno, Catia [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The activities integration that compose the petroleum logistic chain makes more complex its planning which is normally done in a joined level, using operation research models in order to find optimized solutions. When this integrated planning is repassed to the companies and its constitutes parts (mainly refinery) uncertainness are generated about the solution that will be adopted in case of new restrictions appear. Then, the purpose of this work is propose a procedure that is capable to adequate and specifies optimized solutions presented by corporative model to refinery operations, using 'What-if' and deterministic simulation technique with optimization. To achieve this objective will be analysed typical activities in refineries and basic principles to their operational planning. (author)

  3. Ashland outlines $261 million in refinery unit construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ashland Petroleum Co. has spelled out $261 million in projects completed, under way, or planned to produce cleaner fuel and further reduce emissions at two U.S. refineries. The company: Started up at $13 million pollution control system at its 213,400 b/cd Catlettsburg, Ky., plant. Started construction on six projects at its 67,100 b/cd St. Paul Park, Minn., refinery that will cost about $114 million and enable the plant to produce cleaner burning diesel fuel and further reduce emissions

  4. 40 CFR 80.1238 - How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration determined? (a) The average benzene concentration of gasoline produced at a refinery or imported... percent benzene). i = Individual batch of gasoline produced at the refinery or imported during the applicable averaging period. n = Total number of batches of gasoline produced at the refinery or imported...

  5. 40 CFR 80.596 - How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel... Requirements § 80.596 How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a refinery's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline is calculated using the...

  6. 77 FR 56421 - Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Parts 9 and 60 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...-9672-3] RIN 2060-AN72 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 14, 2007...

  7. Inhalation exposures at a thorium refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausner, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    There is a current interest in the metabolism and health effects of thorium due to its potential use in the 232 Th - 233 U nuclear fuel cycle. The airborne concentrations of thorium, thoron daughters and rare earths in a plant which produced thorium and rare earth chemicals from 1932 to 1973 were calculated from past records of alpha counting and air filter samples. This analysis showed that high airborne concentrations of 232 Th, 220 Rn, 212 Pb, 212 Bi and rare earth elements were sometimes reached during plant operations. Limited measurements on autopsy samples of former employees of the plant showed increased tissue concentrations of thorium and rare earths. (U.K.)

  8. Delivering ideal employee experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marjorie D; Tyink, Steve; Kubiak, Curt

    2009-05-01

    Employee-centric strategies have moved from employee satisfaction and brand awareness to employee "affinity" or "attachment." In today's marketplace, occupational health nurses understand that differentiation (i.e., the perception of uniqueness) is the direct result of superior employee interactions, which lead to better employee care, enduring employee relationships, loyal employees, and satisfied employers. What drives employees to occupational health nurse attachment? The answer is a passion for rising above the competition to create ideal employee experiences.

  9. Recruitment and selection of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Čermochová, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part includes concepts that are important for understanding of issues of the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The practical part is divided into three chapters. The first chapter briefly describes the company xxx. Next two chapters deal with the process of recruitment and selection of employees in the company. The ...

  10. HERA an HTR for use in a refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubernard, P.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that it was technically possible to use a High Temperature Reactor to provide a large part of the energy (process heat, steam, electricity) consumed in a refinery. Nevertheless, economic calculations have lead to a prime cost of spared crude oil twice the existing price

  11. Study theorizes use of geothermal sources for energy in refineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Beintema, K.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal sources for direct heating can theoretically serve as an alternative source of high-temperature heat in processing plants. Cutting CO2 emissions from a refinery requires reducing the amount of fuel burned. Heat obtained from geothermal energy is more efficiently used for directly powering

  12. A strategic review of the petroleum refinery industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The report studies the environmental performance of the U.K. petroleum refinery industry sector with reference to world-wide best practice and describes the five most practical strategic options for emission reduction in the context of projected technology, cost, demand, capacity and legislation. (author)

  13. Treatment and disposal of refinery sludges: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, J K; Shekdar, A V

    2003-06-01

    Crude oil is a major source of energy and feedstock for petrochemicals. Oily sludge, bio-sludge and chemical sludge are the major sludges generated from the processes and effluent treatment plants of the refineries engaged in crude oil refining operations. Refineries in India generate about 28,220 tons of sludge per annum. Various types of pollutants like phenols, heavy metals, etc. are present in the sludges and they are treated as hazardous waste. Oily sludge, which is generated in much higher amount compared to other sludges, contains phenol (90-100 mg/kg), nickel (17-25 mg/kg), chromium (27-80 mg/kg), zinc (7-80 mg/kg), manganese (19-24 mg/kg), cadmium (0.8-2 mg/kg), copper (32-120 mg/kg) and lead (0.001-0.12 mg/ kg). Uncontrolled disposal practices of sludges in India cause degradation of environmental and depreciation of aesthetic quality. Environmental impact due to improper sludge management has also been identified. Salient features of various treatment and disposal practices have been discussed. Findings of a case study undertaken by the authors for Numaligarh Refinery in India have been presented. Various system alternatives have been identified for waste management in Numaligarh Refinery. A ranking exercise has been carried out to evaluate the alternatives and select the appropriate one. A detailed design of the selected waste management system has been presented.

  14. Assessment of the effect of effluent discharge from coffee refineries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecohydrological quality of water resource of Ethiopia is declining at an alarming rate, resulting in severe environmental degradation. This study finds out the effects of effluent discharge from intensive coffee refineries on river water quality based on physicochemical parameters and benthos assemblages as biological ...

  15. Environmental impact of illegal refineries on the vegetation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... aesthetic scenery of the forest, regeneration of plant species and destruction of wildlife habitat, disruption of water cycle and loss of medicinal plant species. Youth empowerment, through vocational training and environmental education can ameliorate the situation. Keywords: Environmental degradation, Illegal Refineries, ...

  16. A cross-cultural study of organizational factors on safety: Japanese vs. Taiwanese oil refinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Lee, Chun-Chia; Wu, Muh-Cherng; Takano, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to identify idiosyncrasies of organizational factors on safety and their influence mechanisms in Taiwan and Japan. Data were collected from employees of Taiwanese and Japanese oil refinery plants. Results show that organizational factors on safety differ in the two countries. Organizational characteristics in Taiwanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of management commitment to safety, harmonious interpersonal relationship, more emphasis on safety activities, higher devotion to supervision, and higher safety self-efficacy, as well as high quality of safety performance. Organizational characteristics in Japanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of employee empowerment and attitude towards continuous improvement, more emphasis on systematic safety management approach, efficient reporting system and teamwork, and high quality of safety performance. The casual relationships between organizational factors and workers' safety performance were investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicate that the influence mechanisms of organizational factors in Taiwan and Japan are different. These findings provide insights into areas of safety improvement in emerging countries and developed countries respectively.

  17. Evaluating the performance of an integrated CALPUFF-MM5 modeling system for predicting SO{sub 2} emission from a refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah Ahmed [Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Ali, Sappurd [National Engineering and Scientific Commission (NESCOM), Islamabad (Pakistan); Sardar, Sabir; Irfan, Naseem [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Al-Damkhi, Ali [Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PAAET), Department of Environmental Sciences College of Health Sciences, Salmiyah (Kuwait)

    2011-12-15

    Oil refineries are one of the proven sources of environmental pollution as they emit more than 100 chemicals into the atmosphere including sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). The dispersion patterns of SO{sub 2} from emissions of Sohar refinery was simulated by employing California Puff (CALPUFF) model integrated with state of the art meteorological Mesoscale Model (MM5). The results of this simulation were used to quantify the ground level concentrations of SO{sub 2} in and around the refinery. The evaluation of the CALPUFF and MM5 modeling system was carried out by comparing the estimated results with that of observed data of the same area. The predicted concentrations of SO{sub 2} agreed well with the observed data, with minor differences in magnitudes. In addition, the ambient air quality of the area was checked by comparing the model results with the regulatory limits for SO{sub 2} set by the Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs (MECA) in Oman. From the analysis of results, it was found that the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the nearby communities of Sohar refinery is well within the regulatory limits specified by MECA. Based on these results, it was concluded that no health risk, due to SO{sub 2} emissions, is present in areas adjacent to the refinery. (orig.)

  18. Market survey on products from the Tema Oil Refinery carried out as part of the feasibility study on the Tema Oil Refinery expansion project. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-10-01

    The Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), which was commissioned in 1963, is a simple hydroskimming plant which processes crude oil into LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gasoil, and fuel oil. It is the only petroleum refinery in Ghana. Over the years some of the equipment in the refinery has deteriorated or become obsolete necessitating major rehabilitation. A feasibility study is investigating the modernization and expansion of the refinery to meet projected market demands until the year 2005. The report presents the results of a market survey done on products from TOR

  19. Motivation of employees and employee benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Haninger, David

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis examines the subject of employee motivation and employee benefits. The basic terms and theories needed to comprehend the subject are explained in the theoretical part of the work. The theoretical part of the work also focuses on employee benefits, mainly the goal of employee benefits and listing of currently available employee benefits. In the practical part of the work is an analysis and comparison of employee benefits used in two companies that are representing privat...

  20. Oil refinery dusts: morphological and size analysis by TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielicki, Przemysław; Janik, Helena; Guzman, Agnieszka; Broniszewski, Mieczysław; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop a means of sampling atmospheric dusts on the premises of an oil refinery for electron microscopic study to carry out preliminary morphological analyses and to compare these dusts with those collected at sites beyond the refinery limits. Carbon and collodion membranes were used as a support for collection of dust particles straight on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. Micrographs of the dust particles were taken at magnifications from ×4,000 to ×80,000 with a Tesla BS500 transmission electron microscope. Four parameters were defined on the basis of the micrographs: surface area, Feret diameter, circumference, and shape coefficient. The micrographs and literature data were used to classify the atmospheric dusts into six groups: particles with an irregular shape and rounded edges; particles with an irregular shape and sharp edges; soot and its aggregates; spherical particles; singly occurring, ultrafine dust particles; and particles not allocated to any of the previous five groups. The types of dusts found in all the samples were similar, although differences did exist between the various morphological parameters. Dust particles with the largest Feret diameter were present in sample 3 (mean, 0.739 μm)-these were collected near the refinery's effluent treatment plant. The particles with the smallest diameter were found in the sample that had been intended to be a reference sample for the remaining results (mean, 0.326 μm). The dust particles collected in the refinery had larger mean Feret diameters, even 100% larger, than those collected beyond it. Particles with diameters from 0.1 to 0.2 μm made up the most numerous group in all the samples collected in the refinery.

  1. Oil refinery dusts: morphological and size analysis by TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sielicki, Przemyslaw; Janik, Helena; Guzman, Agnieszka [Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Polymer Technology, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk (Poland); Broniszewski, Mieczyslaw [Environmental Protection Office, Lotos Group, Gdansk (Poland); Namiesnik, Jacek [Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-03-15

    The objectives of this work were to develop a means of sampling atmospheric dusts on the premises of an oil refinery for electron microscopic study to carry out preliminary morphological analyses and to compare these dusts with those collected at sites beyond the refinery limits. Carbon and collodion membranes were used as a support for collection of dust particles straight on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. Micrographs of the dust particles were taken at magnifications from x 4,000 to x 80,000 with a Tesla BS500 transmission electron microscope. Four parameters were defined on the basis of the micrographs: surface area, Feret diameter, circumference, and shape coefficient. The micrographs and literature data were used to classify the atmospheric dusts into six groups: particles with an irregular shape and rounded edges; particles with an irregular shape and sharp edges; soot and its aggregates; spherical particles; singly occurring, ultrafine dust particles; and particles not allocated to any of the previous five groups. The types of dusts found in all the samples were similar, although differences did exist between the various morphological parameters. Dust particles with the largest Feret diameter were present in sample 3 (mean, 0.739 {mu}m) - these were collected near the refinery's effluent treatment plant. The particles with the smallest diameter were found in the sample that had been intended to be a reference sample for the remaining results (mean, 0.326 {mu}m). The dust particles collected in the refinery had larger mean Feret diameters, even 100% larger, than those collected beyond it. Particles with diameters from 0.1 to 0.2 {mu}m made up the most numerous group in all the samples collected in the refinery. (orig.)

  2. Employee benefits in terms of accounting and taxation system

    OpenAIRE

    ŠÍMA, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    The theme of this bachelor thesis is Employee benefits in terms of accounting and taxation system. Some companies also include non-monetary bonuses as a way of rewarding their employees. Employee benefits substantially affect satisfaction, loyalty and motivation of all employees. The popularity of employee benefits is also supported by the effort of the companies to optimise taxes, which is the outcome of employee benefits. The main goal was to characterise employee benefits and to explain it...

  3. Employee recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaugh, James A

    2013-01-01

    The way an organization recruits can influence the type of employees it hires, how they perform, and their retention rate. This article provides a selective review of research that has addressed recruitment targeting, recruitment methods, the recruitment message, recruiters, the organizational site visit, the job offer, and the timing of recruitment actions. These and other topics (e.g., the job applicant's perspective) are discussed in terms of their potential influence on prehire (e.g., the quality of job applicants) and posthire (e.g., new employee retention) recruitment outcomes. In reviewing research, attention is given to the current state of scientific knowledge, limitations of previous research, and important issues meriting future investigation.

  4. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  5. Preserving Employee Privacy in Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2017-07-01

    The proposed "Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act" states that the collection of information about the manifested disease or disorder of a family member shall not be considered an unlawful acquisition of genetic information. The bill recognizes employee privacy protections that are already in place and includes specific language relating to nondiscrimination based on illness. Why did legislation expressly intending to "preserve wellness programs" generate such antipathy about wellness among journalists? This article argues that those who are committed to preserving employee wellness must be equally committed to preserving employee privacy. Related to this, we should better parse between discussions and rules about commonplace health screenings versus much less common genetic testing.

  6. Employee motivation and employee benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Limburská, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to get acquainted with the issue of employee motivation from a theoretical perspective, and then analyze the incentive system in a selected company - Sellier & Bellot. In conclusion, I would like to evaluate the lessons learned and propose some changes and recommendations for improving motivation in the analyzed company. The work is divided into four parts. The first three are rather theoretical. The first part deals with the explanation of the concept of motivation...

  7. Counseling Employees: A Multifaceted Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daya Singh, Ed.

    This book is divided into five major sections that focus on the various perspectives, needs, and concerns of employees in the workplace. Chapters include: (1) Work: Meaning, Mattering, and Job Satisfaction (K. M. Connolly); (2) Spirituality in the Workplace: An Overview (E. J. Looby and D. S. Sandhu); (3) Developing the Whole Employee: Some…

  8. Employee Sabbaticals: Who Benefits and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Edmund L.; Connor, Joan M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses benefits of employee sabbaticals including (1) continuing employee education; (2) avoiding technical obsolescence; (3) reducing job-related stress and burnout; (4) creating a more productive work force; and (5) stemming the tide of early retirement. (JOW)

  9. Fuzzy-based Prioritization of Health, Safety, and Environmental Risks: The Case of a Large Gas Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auob Mirsaeidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a fuzzy–based framework for the prioritization of health, safety and environment related risks posed against employees, working conditions, and process equipment in large gas refineries. The First Refinery at Pars Special Economic Energy Zone in South of Iran was taken as a case study. For this purpose, health, safety and environment related risks were determined based on the three criteria of impact severity, occurrence probability, and detect-ability using a questionnaire of 33 identified failures. The values obtained were processed by a so-called ‘contribution coefficient’. The results were then subjected to fuzzification and fuzzy rules were defined to calculate the risk level indices as the model outputs, which was then employed to facilitate the management decision-making process by prioritizing the management options. The prioritization values were then classified in six categories in the order of risk severity. Results revealed that failure in a combustion furnace had the highest rank while failure in the slug catcher ranked the lowest among the risk sources. It was also found that about 0.4% of the identified risks prioritized as “intolerable”, 79% as “major”, 20% as “tolerable”, and 0.7% as “minor”. Thus, most of the risks (more than 79% associated with the refinery has the potential of significant risks. The results indicated that the risk of the pollutant emissions from the combustion furnaces is the highest. Exposures to harmful physical, chemical, psychological, and ergonomic substances are the other risks, respectively.

  10. How to Motivate Employees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.

  11. 10 CFR 707.6 - Employee assistance, education, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....6 Employee assistance, education, and training. Contractor programs shall include the following or appropriate alternatives: (a) Employee assistance programs emphasizing preventive services, education, short... provided by the contractor's employee assistance program, except as provided for in the contractor's...

  12. Key outcomes from risk based assessment of pressure equipment in refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, D.; Lichti, K.; Hill, T.; Thomas, C.; Widrig, J.; Simmonds, G.; Karstensen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Risk based assessment (RBA) has become the best industry practice for management of pressure equipment reliability. Application of RBA programs significantly reduces risk and gives opportunity to optimize inspection programs and produce long term financial benefits. Quest Integrity Group have implemented risk based inspection programs n a variety of industries including ammonia, methanol, geothermal power, :combined cycle power, gas turbines, gas production facilities and refineries. This paper outlines the semi quantitative RBA procedures that have been followed and lists some of the specific technical outcomes. Advanced inspection and life assessment methods used in support of RBI in refineries ire discussed. Piping in refineries is a key risk issue and it is not uncommon for piping failures to result in major incidents. Specific inspection programs are available to monitor differing damage processes such as flow assisted corrosion, hydrogen damage and corrosion under insulation. During assessment it s often found that numerous pipes have never been inspected especially underground smaller diameter pipes which are frequently considered to be un-piggable using conventional technologies and difficult to inspect. Advanced high accuracy flexible miniaturized ultrasonic intelligent pigging combined with fitness for service assessment such as Invista TM is recommended for inspection of critical pipelines which previously have been un-piggable. The processing of crude oil from a range of sources can result in significant variations in the levels of contaminants such as chlorides and sulfides. Major failures have occurred as a result of very rapid increases in corrosion rates in hydrotreating processes due to rapid changes in chemistry. The outcome of the assessment of plants that have potentially high and variable levels of contaminants often results in a review the process chemistry, how it is monitored and development of a detailed corrosion monitoring program. Fired

  13. Employee benefits or wage increase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comes from a survey done during the years 2007–2009. It focused on employee satisfaction with the provision of employee benefits. The research included 21 companies, 7 companies were from the engineering sector, 7 companies from the food industry, 3 companies represented the budgetary sphere, 3 companies the services sector and one company operates in pharmaceutical industry.The questionnaire survey consisted of 14 questions, including 5 identification-questions. The paper presents results of the questions on dealing with employees’ awareness of employee benefits and on choosing between employees’ preferences of wage increase or increase in value of benefits provided.Employees are informed about all options of providing employee benefits. Only in 3 cases employees stated dissatisfaction with information. This answer was related with the responses to the second monitored question. Employees of these companies preferred pay increases before benefits’ increases. There was no effect of gender of the respondents, neither the influence of the sector of operation, in the preference of increases in wages or in benefits. Exceptions were the employees of companies operating in the financial sector, who preferred employee benefits before a wage increase. It was found that employees of companies who participated in research in 2009, preferred wage increases before the extension of employee benefits, although the value of the net wage increase is lower than the monetary value of benefits increase.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan MSM 6215648904 The Czech economy in the process of integration and globalization, and the development of agricultural sector and the sector of services under the new conditions of the integrated European market.

  14. Bio-refinery approach for spent coffee grounds valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Teresa M; Martins, António A; Caetano, Nídia S

    2018-01-01

    Although normally seen as a problem, current policies and strategic plans concur that if adequately managed, waste can be a source of the most interesting and valuable products, among which metals, oils and fats, lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, tannins, antioxidants, caffeine, polyphenols, pigments, flavonoids, through recycling, compound recovery or energy valorization, following the waste hierarchy. Besides contributing to more sustainable and circular economies, those products also have high commercial value when compared to the ones obtained by currently used waste treatment methods. In this paper, it is shown how the bio-refinery framework can be used to obtain high value products from organic waste. With spent coffee grounds as a case study, a sequential process is used to obtain first the most valuable, and then other products, allowing proper valorization of residues and increased sustainability of the whole process. Challenges facing full development and implementation of waste based bio-refineries are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pemex to acquire interest in Shell Texas refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos Mexicanos and Shell Oil Co. have signed a memorandum of understanding to form a joint refining venture involving Shell's 225,000 b/d Deer Park, Tex., refinery. Under the agreement, Mexico's state owned oil company is to purchase a 50% interest in the refinery, and Shell is to sell Pemex unleaded gasoline on a long term basis. Under the venture, Shell and Pemex plan to add undisclosed conversion and upgrading units tailored to process heavy Mexican crude. The revamp will allow Pemex to place more than 100,000 b/d of Mayan heavy crude on the U.S. market. Mayan accounts for 70% of Mexico's crude oil exports. In turn, Shell will sell Pemex as much as 45,000 b/d of unleaded gasoline to help meet Mexico's rapidly growing demand

  16. Refinery production planning and scheduling: the refining core business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent production planning and scheduling are of paramount importance to ensure refinery profitability, logistic reliability and safety at the local and corporate levels. In Brazil, such activities play a particularly critical role, since the Brazilian downstream model is moving towards a demand-driven model rather than a supply-driven one. Moreover, new and specialized non-linear constraints are continuously being incorporated into these large-scale problems: increases in oil prices implying the need for processing poor quality crudes, increasing demand and new demand patterns for petroleum products, new stringent environmental regulations related to clean fuels and start-up of new production technologies embedded into more complex refining schemes. This paper aims at clarifying the central role of refinery planning and scheduling activities in the Petrobras refining business. Major past and present results are outlined and corporate long-term strategies to deal with present and future challenges are presented.

  17. Application of PIMS Software in Monthly Planning of Refinery Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of the PIMS software in formulating monthly refining production plan. Application of the PIMS software can help to solve a series of problems related with monthly plan of refining production such as optimized selection of crude and feedstocks, optimized selection of production scale and processing scheme, identification of bottlenecks and their mitigation,optimized selection of turnaround time and optimized selection of operating regime, which have increased the economic benefits of refining enterprises. With the further development and improvement of models the PIMS software will play an increasingly important role in formulating monthly plans of refining operations and production management at refineries. This article also explores the problems existing in refinery monthly planning, and has made recommendations on developing and improving models and reporting system, enhancement of basic data acquisition, model maintenance personnel and staff training.

  18. Radioisotope techniques for problem-solving on refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.; Webb, M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, refineries worldwide are recognizing the value of radioisotope technology in studying the operation of on-line plant. Using case studies, this paper illustrates the versatility of radioisotope techniques in a wide range of investigations: the density-profiling of distillation columns; the investigation of leaks on feed/effluent exchangers; on-line flowrate measurement; underground leakage detection. The economic benefits deriving from radioisotope applications are indicated

  19. Legitimacy in Green: Pollution vs. Profit in Canadian Oil Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Magness

    2007-06-01

    light of changing societal expectations have created an external environment that encourages the development of new technologies that promote cost efficiencies and good environmental performance simultaneously.  Russo and Fouts (1997 argued that industries subject to rapid technological advance are well suited to respond to these changes in the external environment. The findings of this paper suggest that the petroleum refinery sector of the oil and gas industry may be meeting the challenge of the environmental movement.

  20. SPARO - A system for process analysis of refinery operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.G.; Graham, J.; Weissbrod, J.

    1987-01-01

    SPARO is a customized process simulator for the PC, designed to review as well as to guide operations of hydrocarbon processing units. It can be applied to: gas plants or refinery gas recovery units; crude/vacuum towers with associated heat exchange; light ends units, such as reforming, alkylation and isomerization; fractionation and heat exchange units of Ethylene plants; aromatics and styrene units, and others. The main uses of SPARO are discussed in this paper.

  1. POSSIBILITIES OF CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION BY MICROALGAE IN REFINERY

    OpenAIRE

    Šingliar, Michal; Mikulec, Jozef; Kušnir, Patrik; Polakovičova, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide is one of the most critical challenges today for businesses and governments worldwide. Thousands of emitting power plants and industries worldwide face this costly challenge – reduce the CO2 emissions or pay penalties. One possibility for carbon dioxide sequestration is its fixation in microalgae. Microalgae can sequester CO2 from flue gases emitted from fossil fuel-fired refinery plants and units, thereby reducing emissions of a major greenhouse ga...

  2. Hydrogen management in the MiRO refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, G. [Mineraloelraffinerie Oberrhein GmbH und Co. KG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The importance of hydrogen in refineries has increased over the last 20 years as new regulations affecting gasoline and diesel composition have been implemented throughout Europe and in an environment of increasingly stringent clean fuel regulations, decreasing heavy fuel oil demand and increasing heavy more sour crude supply. In Germany, the introduction of sulphur free gasoline and diesel with less than 10ppm sulphur(Auto Oil Program) and light home fuel oil with less than 50ppm this year were the last link in a long chain of environmental regulations, which had a considerable effect on the hydrogen demand in refineries. In the complex MiRO-refinery with a large FCC- and Coker-Unit for atmospheric residue conversion and a total throughput of more than 15 Mio.T/ a and more than 14 Mio.T/a crude oils of different origin from high sulphur, bituminous crudes to medium, low sulphur crudes for calcinate-production from green coke the only source of hydrogen for a long time was catalytic reforming. The only chance of balancing the hydrogen production and consumption was to improve the existing catalytic reforming and the optimisation of hydrogen recovery from waste or purge streams and the hydrogen network of the refinery. In 2007 a new hydrogen plant via steam reforming of natural gas went on stream. The main reason for this step was the shrinking market for gasoline in the last ten years and the blending of bio-ethanol into the gasoline pool, which released reforming capacities and the demand for octane. Another important issue is the production planning taking into account the potentials of hydrogen production via catalytic and steam reforming and the hydrogen consumption via desulphurisation and the saturation of olefins and (poly-)aromatics of the main product streams, gasoline, diesel and light home fuel oil. (orig.)

  3. Global Warming Potential Of A Waste Refinery Using Enzymatic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    and fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to the residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which is typically incinerated or landfilled. In this paper the energy and Global Warming performance of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic...... plants and utilization of the liquid fraction for biogas production turned out to be the best options with respect to energy and Global Warming performance....

  4. US refineries lament lack of final CAA rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Bush administration spokesman appeared unconvinced about the extent of the U.S. refining industry's problems at a Senate energy committee hearing. This paper reports that the oversight hearing examined various challenges facing refiners. Roger Beach, president of Unocal Refining and Marketing Division, testified for the National Petroleum Refiners Association, of which he is chairman. Beach the refineries still do not know what final Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments regulations will be, and state rules are changing, too

  5. Industrial waste management - a case study at Attock oil refinery Ltd., Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramay, M.I.; Hussain, S.; Tanveer, A.; Jabeen, Z.; Ehsann, S.

    2009-01-01

    As far as waste is concerned, industry has a two fold position: on the one hand industry produces waste during the production processes and on the other hand most of the industrial products become waste after being used. From environment perspective waste management and minimization at the source has become important issue all over the world. Waste minimization leading to cleaner production is the process and the policy of reducing the amount of waste produced by Industry at the source and remaining should be managed.The core objective of this research paper is to examine the impact of waste minimization, waste management and the planning of effective waste utilization that increases organizations profitability and green image. The case study will present the Recycle, Reuse, Reduce strategy that waste management is not only necessary to keep the environment healthy but it also brings the financial savings to the organization. It is obvious that there is significant relationship between waste management and profitability. Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) has done significant work in the field of industrial waste management. The stratified sampling has also used during a survey to gather primary data i.e. congregated by administering questionnaires to employees of different departments that shows positive attitude towards waste minimization and management. The interventions regarding industrial waste management are in full practice at ARL to meet the National Environmental Quality Standards. In 1993, prominent step has been taken to address the environmental issues and waste management. After carrying out the detailed survey of effluent waste water system during 1995-1996, Effluent Treatment Plants were installed to meet the NEQS. Keeping the continuity of efforts 'Zero Discharge' of effluent waste from the refinery was targeted. This project is recycling the waste water resulting environment conservation and saving money that was being spent for water pumping from

  6. Advanced purification of petroleum refinery wastewater by catalytic vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo; Mao, Wei; Chen, Yashao

    2010-06-15

    In our work, a new process, catalytic vacuum distillation (CVD) was utilized for purification of petroleum refinery wastewater that was characteristic of high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity. Moreover, various common promoters, like FeCl(3), kaolin, H(2)SO(4) and NaOH were investigated to improve the purification efficiency of CVD. Here, the purification efficiency was estimated by COD testing, electrolytic conductivity, UV-vis spectrum, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and pH value. The results showed that NaOH promoted CVD displayed higher efficiency in purification of refinery wastewater than other systems, where the pellucid effluents with low salinity and high COD removal efficiency (99%) were obtained after treatment, and the corresponding pH values of effluents varied from 7 to 9. Furthermore, environment estimation was also tested and the results showed that the effluent had no influence on plant growth. Thus, based on satisfied removal efficiency of COD and salinity achieved simultaneously, NaOH promoted CVD process is an effective approach to purify petroleum refinery wastewater. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Economics and the refinery's CO2 emissions allocation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, A.

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of a market for CO 2 emission rights in Europe leads oil-refining companies to add a cost associated with carbon emissions to the objective function of linear programming models used to manage refineries. These models may be used to compute the marginal contribution of each finished product to the CO 2 emissions of the refinery. Babusiaux (Oil. Gas Sci. Technol., 58, 2003, 685-692) has shown that, under some conditions, this marginal contribution is a relevant means of allocating the carbon emissions of the refinery. Thus, it can be used in a well-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment. In fact, this result holds if the demand equations are the only binding constraints with a non-zero right-hand side coefficient. This is not the case for short-run models with fixed capacity. Then, allocating CO 2 emissions on a marginal basis tends to over-value (or undervalue) the total volume of emissions. In order to extend the existing methodology, we discuss two distinct solutions to this problem, inspired by economic theory: adapting either the Aumann-Shapley cost sharing method (Values of non-atomic games, 1974, Princeton University Press) or the Ramsey pricing formula (Econ. J., 37, 1927, 47-61; J. Econ. Theory, 3, 1971, 219-240). We compare these two solutions, with a strong argument in favour of Ramsey prices, based on the determination of the optimal environmental tax rate to which imported finished products should be subject. (author)

  8. Analysis and control of odors from petroleum refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.A.; Duffee, R.A.; Ostojic, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a proven approach used to effectively solve odor problems associated with atmospheric emissions from petroleum refineries. A systematic evaluation is first conducted to identify all emissions with the potential for off-site odor impacts. Sampling is then conducted and dynamic dilution olfactometry is used to quantify the odor emission rates of each source. Community odor surveys are performed simultaneously with the source sampling to quantitatively document the downwind odor impacts. Atmospheric dispersion modeling specifically designed for odor is then used to predict instantaneous odor occurrences at various receptor sites under meteorological conditions not actually encountered during the field study. The findings make it possible to rank sources by their odor emission rates and potential for odor impacts in the community. It is then possible to determine how much odor reduction is required to bring the present odor impacts of the individual sources to an acceptable level under worst-case meteorological conditions. Once the degree of control required is determined, control alternatives are selected and evaluated. Case histories have been selected to illustrate the application of this approach at petroleum refineries. They provide descriptions of odor assessment and abatement studies conducted specifically for refinery effluent treatment plant sources as well as process unit emission sources. The sources identified as needing control and the odor abatement measures taken are discussed

  9. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  10. Treatment of Refinery Waste Water Using Environmental Friendly Adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. Geetha; Al-Moshrafi, Samira Mohammed Khamis; Al Hudaifi, Alaa; Al Aisari, Buthaina Hamood

    2017-12-01

    This research evaluates the effectiveness of activated carbon prepared from walnut shell in the removal of pollutants from refinery waste water by adsorption technique. A series of batch experiments were carried out by varying the effluent solution pH, stirring time, stirring speed and adsorbent dosage in the reduction of pollutants from refinery effluent. Characterization of the adsorbent was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer Emmett and Teller (BET) isotherm and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The best quality activated carbon was obtained with a particle size of 0.75 µm, activation temperature of 800 °C and activation time 24 h. The maximum BET surface area obtained was 165.2653 m2/g. The experimental results demonstrates that the highest percentage reduction in COD was 79%, using 0.6 g walnut shell powder at an optimum stirring speed of 100 rpm, at pH 6 and 120 min of contact time. The outcome of the result shows that walnut shell carbon is a potentially useful adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from refinery waste water.

  11. Assessment of accidental refinery wastewater discharge: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amitava [University of Calcutta, Department of Chemical Engineering, Kolkata (India)

    2011-04-15

    The physicochemical qualities of an accidental discharge of refinery liquid waste, water, and soil sediment of that effluent-receiving water body (canal) were investigated. Analyses of the discharge, qualities of water, and sediment of the canal showed high parametric concentrations. Investigations revealed that the discharge took place form the spent caustic that was generated from the caustic wash tower of Fluidized Catalytic Cracker of the refinery. A simple but realistic model was suggested for the remediation of sediments of the canal with an estimated cost of about US $1.86 million. Recommendations were made to prevent such discharges and to revise thoroughly the Indian effluent discharge standards in force for petroleum oil refinery. Subsequently, revised standards were notified under Indian guidelines. Interestingly, cyanide besides many other parameters was introduced into these standards. Furthermore, Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) was also stipulated as an emission parameter from the waste water treatment plants. Concentration- and mass-based standards thus promulgated were stricter than the existing standards. (orig.)

  12. Employee Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2016-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which reward structure should be utilized to motivate employees to a continuous search......This article investigates the factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay...... for smarter working procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effects or other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives...

  13. Treatment of Mineral Oil Refinery Wastewater in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Ionic Liquid Based Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Addi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are an environmentally friendly technology that can recover electricity directly from several wastes at ambient temperatures. This work explores the use of mineral oil refinery wastewater as feedstock in single-chamber air-cathode MFC devices. A polymer inclusion membrane based on the ionic liquid methyltrioctylammonium chloride, [MTOA+][Cl−], at a concentration of 70% w/w, was used as separator, showing a good efficiency in power production and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal. The power and the chemical oxygen demand removal reached values of 45 mW/m3 and over 80%, respectively. The evolution of other parameters of the wastewater including nitrites, phosphates and sulphates were also studied. Kjeldahl nitrogen and sulphates were significantly reduced during MFC operation. The results show that mineral oil refinery wastewater can be used as feedstock in air breathing cathode-microbial fuel cells based on polymer ionic liquid inclusion membranes. This configuration could represent a good alternative for wastewater depuration while producing energy during the process.

  14. Determination of levels nd interfaces in oil refinery fractioning towers, with neutron retrodispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, F; Henriquez, P; Vega, P

    2003-01-01

    In the petrochemical industry and, especially, in oil refineries measurement and the control of levels and interfaces in tanks, fractioning towers and processing equipment, in general, are extremely important for managing and knowing about the different fluids that are processed in the plants. Usually there is on-line instrumentation at the plant's critical points, like floaters, external glass columns and, even, gamma radiation sources through the transmission system. A problem arises with the need for a system that can rapidly and non destructively measure levels and interfaces, outside the system to be inspected and verify the functioning of the on-line instrumentation and in places where there is no instrumentation. This work presents a methodology based on the retrodispersion of neutrons that have been used in 3 breakdown towers at the Petrox Oil Refinery, Region VIII in Chile, to identify levels and interfaces in different points in order to verify the functioning of a gamma level meter, glass column meters and to observe on site and in real time the variations in level and interfaces when carrying out different operations that will modify the values in the towers. The set of instruments used include a 1010 GBq Americium-Beryllium source and a measuring system consisting of a BF 3 (boron trifluoride) detector and its electronically related Model 2241 from Ludlum Instruments. The set is placed in a geometry that permits precise measurements (Cw)

  15. Influence of operating conditions on the air gasification of dry refinery sludge in updraft gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R; Sinnathambi, C M

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, details of the equilibrium modeling of dry refinery sludge (DRS) are presented using ASPEN PLUS Simulator in updraft gasifier. Due to lack of available information in the open journal on refinery sludge gasification using updraft gasifier, an evaluate for its optimum conditions on gasification is presented in this paper. For this purpose a Taguchi Orthogonal array design, statistical software is applied to find optimum conditions for DRS gasification. The goal is to identify the most significant process variable in DRS gasification conditions. The process variables include; oxidation zone temperature, equivalent ratio, operating pressure will be simulated and examined. Attention was focused on the effect of optimum operating conditions on the gas composition of H 2 and CO (desirable) and CO 2 (undesirable) in terms of mass fraction. From our results and finding it can be concluded that the syngas (H 2 and CO) yield in term of mass fraction favors high oxidation zone temperature and at atmospheric pressure while CO 2 acid gas favor at a high level of equivalent ratio as well as air flow rate favoring towards complete combustion.

  16. Extra heavy oil and refinery residues upgrading through Eni Slurry Technology : first EST commercial unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, G.; Sanfilippo, D.; Amoroso, A [Eni S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    The production of heavy crude oils is projected to continue to grow in the upstream oil industry given that large reserves of unconventional extra heavy crude and bitumen exist in several geographic areas including Canada and Venezuela. As reserves of conventional crude oil continue to decline, these unconventional feedstocks are becoming an opportunity to pursue, but they require effective technologies for upgrading and meeting the growing demand for light and middle distillate fuels. This paper described the proprietary technology that offers a solution to upstream and downstream oil producers for bottom-of-the-barrel upgrading. En i Slurry Technology (EST) is constructing an industrial plant in its Sannazzaro refinery in Italy. The plant is designed to convert 23,000 BPSD of vacuum residue into high quality diesel and other valuable refinery streams such as liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha and jet fuel. EST is an H-addition process characterized by the use of a special homogeneous isothermal intrinsically safe reactor, and of a nano-dispersed non-ageing catalyst. EST converts more than 98 per cent of any type of residues to about 110 per cent volume of light products and distillates or extra heavy oils to high quality bottomless SCO. In typical performance, HDS is greater than 85 per cent, HDM greater than 99 per cent and HDCCR greater than 97 per cent. EST also achieves the target of zero fuel oil - zero coke. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Optimization of petroleum refinery effluent treatment in a UASB reactor using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegar, S.O.; Mousavi, S.M.; Shojaosadati, S.A.; Sheibani, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► A UASB was successfully used for treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. ► Response surface methodology was applied to design and analysis of experiments. ► System was modeled between efficient factors include HRT, influent COD and V up . ► UASB was able to remove about 76.3% influent COD at optimum conditions. - Abstract: An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor was successfully used for the treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. Before optimization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 81% at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.4 kg/m 3 d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h. The rate of biogas production was 559 mL/h at an HRT of 40 h and an influent COD of 1000 mg/L. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to predict the behaviors of influent COD, upflow velocity (V up ) and HRT in the bioreactor. RSM showed that the best models for COD removal and biogas production rate were the reduced quadratic and cubic models, respectively. The optimum region, identified based on two critical responses, was an influent COD of 630 mg/L, a V up of 0.27 m/h, and an HRT of 21.4 h. This resulted in a 76.3% COD removal efficiency and a 0.25 L biogas/L feed d biogas production rate.

  18. Fiscal 1999 feasibility study on energy conservation at Novo-oil refinery in Ufa City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-31

    An energy conservation plan was examined for Novo oil refinery of Bashneftechim Company in Ufa City, Bashkortstan, Russia for the purpose of making the plan tied to the COP3 joint implementation. The objective units in the study include an atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit with throughput of 7.8 million tons/year, a visbreaker and a vacuum gas oil hydrodesulfurization unit (for feedstock of FCC in Lenin Refinery), and a catalytic cracking unit, for example. Energy conservation measures are improvement and revamping of heating furnace to control excess air ratio in furnace, installation of air pre-heater or heat recovery boiler to recover heat from exhaust gas of heating furnace, additional installation of heat exchangers to recover heat from product oils, and efficiency improvement of overall operation by modernization of instrumentation and controlling equipment. The policy is not complete rebuilding of the facilities but utilizing the existing facilities by improving energy efficiency as far as possible. The study shows that investment for energy saving will be recovered within 3-6 years in many cases while total investment is estimated to be 1.5-3.0 billion yen. Total reduction of fuel consumption will be 500-800 million yen. Yearly reduction of CO2 emission will amount to 0.29 million tons (23%). (NEDO)

  19. Large scale and long term application of bioslurping: the case of a Greek petroleum refinery site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, E; Aivalioti, M

    2007-11-19

    This paper presents the course and the remediation results of a 4-year application of bioslurping technology on the subsurface of a Greek petroleum refinery, which is still under full operation and has important and complicated subsurface contamination problems, mainly due to the presence of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL). About 55 wells are connected to the central bioslurping unit, while a mobile bioslurping unit is also used whenever and wherever is necessary. Moreover, there are about 120 additional wells for the monitoring of the subsurface of the facilities that cover a total area of 1,000,000 m(2). An integrated monitoring program has also been developed and applied on the site, including frequent LNAPL layer depth and thickness measurements, conduction of bail-down and recovery tests, sampling and chemical analysis of the free oil phase, etc., so as to evaluate the remediation technique's efficiency and ensure a prompt tracing of any new potential leak. Despite the occurrence of new leaks within the last 4 years and the observed entrapment of LNAPL in the vadoze zone, bioslurping has managed to greatly restrict the original plume within certain and relatively small parts of the refinery facilities.

  20. An estimation of cogeneration potential by using refinery residuals in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Sanchez, J.E.; Rodriguez-Toral, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Electric power generation in Mexico is mainly based on fossil fuels, specifically heavy fuel oil, although the use of natural gas combined cycles (NGCC) is becoming increasingly important. This is the main destination that has promoted growing imports of natural gas, currently accounting for about 20% of the total national annual consumption. Available crude oil is becoming heavier; thus refineries should be able to process it, and to handle greater quantities of refinery residuals. If all refinery residuals are used in cogeneration plants serving petroleum refineries, the high heat/power ratio of refinery needs, leads to the availability of appreciable quantities of electricity that can be exported to the public utility. Thus, in a global perspective, Mexican imports of natural gas may be reduced by cogeneration using refinery residuals. This is not the authors' idea; in fact, PEMEX, the national oil company, has been entitled by the Mexican congress to sell its power leftovers to The Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) in order to use cogeneration in the way described for the years to come. A systematic way of determining the cogeneration potential by using refinery residuals from Mexican refineries is presented here, taking into account residual quantities and composition, from a national perspective, considering expected scenarios for Maya crude content going to local refineries in the years to come. Among different available technologies for cogeneration using refinery residuals, it is believed that the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) would be the best option. Thus, considering IGCC plants supplying heat and power to refineries where it is projected to have refinery residuals for cogeneration, the expected electric power that can be sent to the public utility is quantified, along with the natural gas imports mitigation that may be attained. This in turn would contribute to a necessary fuel diversification policy balancing energy, economy and

  1. Added Value of Employee Financial Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, F.; Kaarsemaker, E.C.A.; Andresen, M.; Nowak, C.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter broadens our understanding of the added value of employee financial participation. Financial participation is a generic term for the participation of employees in profit and enterprise results including equity of their employing firm. In general, there are two forms of employee

  2. Why Employees Act the Way They Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Dora

    1995-01-01

    Offers advice for administrators on how six laws of human behavior affect employees. Laws discussed include: how employees recreate familial roles in the workplace, how persons constantly seek to gain or maintain control of their lives, how change in a person's environment can cause changes in behavior, and how employees covet tokens of approval.…

  3. The effects of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera and alum in wastewater treatment at the Bandar Abbas Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dehghani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The refining process generates large volumes of wastewater containing a variety of chemical contaminants. The use of natural substitutes in treating wastewater which have fewer harmful effects is considered an effective step towards protecting the environment and sustaining the development of these industries. This study focused on the use of Moringa oleifera and alum at the Wastewater Unit at Bandar Abbas Refinery. Methods: This study was performed in 2014 in a laboratory using jar apparatus. These experiments were conducted in batch system and effective parameters including pH, coagulant dose and contact time were investigated on the wastewater obtained from Bandar Abbas Oil Refinery. Results: The jar test experiment showed that M. oleifera at 70 mg/L, optimum temperature, pH, and mixing speed could remove 38.60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD, 63.70% of turbidity, and 62.05% of total suspended solids (TSS. Also, alum at 40 mg/L removed COD, turbidity, and TSS by 51.72%, 92.16%, and 85.26% respectively from the refinery wastewater. Moreover, when M. oleifera and alum was used together with a 2:1 dosage ratio (alum at 80 mg/L and M. oleifera at 70 mg/L, they will remove COD, turbidity, and TSS by up to 50.41%, 86.14%, and 81.52% respectively. Conclusion: The use of M. oleifera as a natural coagulant is important in treating refinery wastewater not only from an environmental but also an economic point of view.

  4. WPC (Madrid): Block Downstream and Petrochemicals - Best Practices session: novel approaches to improve energy efficiency at refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This session: 'Novel approaches to improve energy efficiency at refineries', includes two key-note addresses. During the first one, entitled 'refinery energy efficiency today', Zoran Milosevic (KBC) has reported a survey of the current situation and of the improvements margins for the future. Hereafter, this work takes again in developing them, the main messages of the address of Jean-Bernard Sigaud, whose aim was to attract attention on the requirement of a rigorous methodological approach in order to avoid that the decisions taken to abate the energy consumption or the CO 2 releases at the local level, result in fine to the inverse result of those of the world level. This work shows particularly why the traditional perception of a refinery energy balance, which consists to assimilate the fuel consumption to an energy consumption, can lead to deep misinterpretations. It shows too in what the hydrogen transfer amounts to de-localize the energy consumption (which occurs essentially where the hydrogen is consumed) compared to the corresponding CO 2 releases which are produced where hydrogen is produced. At last, a comparison between the different channels for the electric power production and the synthesized fuels, illustrates the crucial importance to use each technology deliberately, while underlining the character sometimes under-intuitive of the good decision. (O.M.)

  5. A METHODOLOGY BASED ON AN ECOLOGICAL ECONOMY APPROACH FOR THE INTEGRATING MANAGEMENT OF THE SULPHUROUS WATER IN AN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orlando Lobelles Sardiñas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the current highly stringent international standards regulating the contaminating emissions to the environment, the Oil refinery of Cienfuegos is still generating liquid and gaseous emissions contaminating the environment. The construction of new units as part of the Refinery expansion leads to an increase of these emissions due to the lack of technologies for the reutilization of the sulphurous water. The objective of this paper is to propose a methodology for the integral management of the sulphurous residual water in the oil refining process, including the evaluation and selection of the most feasible technological variant to minimize the sulphur contamination of water and the resulting emissions during the process. The methodology is based on the ecological economy tools, allowing a comprehensible evaluation of six technological variants at the refinery of Cienfuegos. The Life Cycle Assessment was applied (ACV by its Spanish acronym, by means of the software SimaPro 7.1. It was evaluated through the Eco Speed Method, to minimize the possible uncertainty. An economic evaluation was performed, taking into account the external costs for a more comprehensive analysis, enabling, along with the ecological indicators, the selection of the best technological variant, achieving a methodology based on a comprehensive evaluation, and as a positive impact, the implementation of the chosen variant (V5, 98.27% of the process water was recovered, as well as the sulphur that recovered from 94 to 99.8 %, reducing the emissions from 12 200 to 120 mg/Nm3 as SO2.

  6. A cohort study of employees of Eldorado Resources Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.; Abbatt, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This study has determined the mortality experience of Eldorado Resources Limited employees between 1950 and 1980. This crown corporation is involved in the mining and processing of uranium products. An initial analysis shows significant excesses of lung cancer deaths at Port Raduim and Beaverlodge mines and a smaller, nonsignificant excess at the Port Hope refinery. The lung-cancer mortality has been analyzed as a function of radon-daughter exposure. This initial analysis is currently being refined to further develop estimates of excess risk

  7. Analysis of the implementation of ergonomic design at the new units of an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passero, Carolina Reich Marcon; Ogasawara, Erika Lye; Baú, Lucy Mara Silva; Buso, Sandro Artur; Bianchi, Marcos Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomic design is the adaptation of working conditions to human limitations and skills in the physical design phase of a new installation, a new working system, or new products or tools. Based on this concept, the purpose of this work was to analyze the implementation of ergonomic design at the new industrial units of an oil refinery, using the method of Ergonomic Workplace Assessment. This study was conducted by a multidisciplinary team composed of operation, maintenance and industrial safety technicians, ergonomists, designers and engineers. The analysis involved 6 production units, 1 industrial wastewater treatment unit, and 3 utilities units, all in the design detailing phase, for which 455 ergonomic requirements were identified. An analysis and characterization of the requirements identified for 5 of the production units, involving a total of 246 items, indicated that 62% were related to difficult access and blockage operations, while 15% were related to difficulties in the circulation of employees inside the units. Based on these data, it was found that the ergonomic requirements identified in the design detailing phase of an industrial unit involve physical ergonomics, and that it is very difficult to identify requirements related to organizational or cognitive ergonomics.

  8. Thermodynamic simulation and evaluation of sugar refinery evaporators using a steady state modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, A.E.; Khodabocus, F.; Dhokun, V.; Khalife, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a sugar refinery, the juice is concentrated through evaporation, with the objective of concentrating the juice to syrup as rapidly as possible. Because the heat of vaporization of water is relatively high, the evaporation process can be highly energy intensive, and therefore the economical use of steam is important in the refinery. This paper reports on the development of a simulation model for the evaporation sections of two Mauritian sugar refineries. The first objective was to use the simulation model to carry out an energy balance over the evaporators in order to assess the economy of steam usage over the refinery. The second objective was to examine to what extent a fundamental steady state model, based on thermodynamics (not kinetics) was capable of predicting the material and energy flows in two operating sugar refineries and thereby to evaluate the applicability of the modelling framework. The simulation model was validated using historical data as well as data from the plant DCS system. The simulation results generally correlated well with the measured values, except for one of the evaporators on one refinery. Some suggestions were made as to the cause of the discrepancy. On balance, it was found that both refineries are extremely efficient in terms of steam and equipment usage and that there is not much scope for energy optimisation within the present configuration - nor for much spare steam capacity for an additional refinery. It was also shown that steady state process simulation, using thermodynamic models, can generate a very useful representation of a working refinery. Besides being able to use the model to 'benchmark' the operation and thus evaluate its performance as a whole as well as across individual units, it could also be used to evaluate refinery performance across refineries, nationally as well as globally.

  9. Deactivation and regeneration of refinery catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1979-08-01

    A discussion covers the mechanisms of catalyst aging, poisoning, coke deposition, and metals deposition; feedstock pretreatment to extend catalyst life; the effects of operating conditions; the effects of catalyst composition and structure on its stability; nonchemical deactivation processes; and methods of catalyst regeneration, including coke burn-off and solvent extraction.

  10. Does an employee assistance programme benefit employers and employees alike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAlister, E

    1999-09-01

    EAPs are not a psychological sticking plaster. They are a clinically and corporately balanced service which benefits the employee, via the direct services and the employer, via the feedback in the form of usage statistics derived from the continuous tracking of the account through which organizational and employment issues are identified. Well positioned EAPs offer employees confidential counselling, and information services including legal, financial and child-based issues and are able to offer employers tailored training and consultancy.

  11. Refinery evaluation of optical imaging to locate fugitive emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Donald R; Luke-Boone, Ronke; Aggarwal, Vineet; Harris, Buzz; Anderson, Eric; Ranum, David; Kulp, Thomas J; Armstrong, Karla; Sommers, Ricky; McRae, Thomas G; Ritter, Karin; Siegell, Jeffrey H; Van Pelt, Doug; Smylie, Mike

    2007-07-01

    Fugitive emissions account for approximately 50% of total hydrocarbon emissions from process plants. Federal and state regulations aiming at controlling these emissions require refineries and petrochemical plants in the United States to implement a Leak Detection and Repair Program (LDAR). The current regulatory work practice, U.S. Environment Protection Agency Method 21, requires designated components to be monitored individually at regular intervals. The annual costs of these LDAR programs in a typical refinery can exceed US$1,000,000. Previous studies have shown that a majority of controllable fugitive emissions come from a very small fraction of components. The Smart LDAR program aims to find cost-effective methods to monitor and reduce emissions from these large leakers. Optical gas imaging has been identified as one such technology that can help achieve this objective. This paper discusses a refinery evaluation of an instrument based on backscatter absorption gas imaging technology. This portable camera allows an operator to scan components more quickly and image gas leaks in real time. During the evaluation, the instrument was able to identify leaking components that were the source of 97% of the total mass emissions from leaks detected. More than 27,000 components were monitored. This was achieved in far less time than it would have taken using Method 21. In addition, the instrument was able to find leaks from components that are not required to be monitored by the current LDAR regulations. The technology principles and the parameters that affect instrument performance are also discussed in the paper.

  12. High temperature degradation in power plants and refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado Heloisa Cunha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants and refineries around the world share many of the same problems, namely aging equipment, high costs of replacement, and the need to produce more efficiently while being increasingly concerned with issues of safety and reliability. For equipment operating at high temperature, there are many different mechanisms of degradation, some of which interact, and the rate of accumulation of damage is not simple to predict. The paper discusses the mechanisms of degradation at high temperature and methods of assessment of such damage and of the remaining safe life for operation.

  13. Yearly refinery construction indexes listed for 68 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.

    1996-01-01

    Yearly values are presented for the Nelson-Farrar refinery inflation cost index since 1926. They are based on 1946 as 100, since that was the date of index inception. Values from 1926 to 1945 were back calculated. Data are presented on indexed cost of materials, labor, and miscellaneous equipment for 1926 through 1994. A second table of itemized refining cost indexes for the years 1954, 1972, 1992--1994, and the first eight months of 1995 is also presented. This table subdivides materials, labor, and equipment into component costs

  14. Capital vs. service contract at Conoco Humber Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threlfall, Peter; Sperring, Simon

    1999-01-01

    The value of outsourcing for water treatment is illustrated through experience at the Conoco Humber refinery. A point was reached where the quality of water at the plant was so poor that demineralized water was brought to the site by tanker. The paper describes how and why it was decided to design, build, operate and maintain an outsourced system. It points out how the newer technologies can be environmentally friendly and, at the same time, reduce operating and maintenance costs, optimise manpower and cut management costs. (UK)

  15. 40 CFR 80.1280 - How are refinery benzene baselines calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... benzene). i = Individual batch of gasoline produced at the refinery from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2005. n = Total number of batches of gasoline produced at the refinery from January 1, 2004... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading...

  16. Sounding pollution and the refinery environmental risks; A poluicao sonora e os riscos ambientais das refinarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This chapter gives a general overview on the effects of the sound pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the sound waves emissions, the minimization actions, the risk concepts and evaluation, the risk perception and the accidents in refineries.

  17. 76 FR 64943 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located in Cascade County, MT AGENCY: Environmental Protection... projected future response costs concerning the ACM Smelter and Refinery NPL Site (Site), Operable Unit 1..., Helena, MT 59626. Mr. Sturn can be reached at (406) 457-5027. Comments should reference the ACM Smelter...

  18. Risk analysis of the sea desalination plant at the 5th refinery of south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, hazards in the desalination unit of a gas refinery in Asaluyeh, south of Iran was evaluated, using the PHA-PRO6 software, for which recommendations were made to avoid potential risks involved. Based on 8-years history of the refinery operation, maintenance records, accidents, safety vulnerabilities of the plant ...

  19. 76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ...-AO55 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY... the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now... signed a final rule amending the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum...

  20. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  1. Managing Exposure to Benzene and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Two Oil Refineries 1977-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Tapani; Veijalainen, Henna; Santonen, Tiina

    2018-01-24

    Air concentrations of and inhalation exposure to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and benzene was monitored separately at two oil refineries from 1977 to 2014. Prevention policies and control measures that may explain changes were surveyed. The aim was to evaluate how the application of of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS 18001.04 principles as well as Environmental protection Agency EPA and European Oil Company Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety CONCAWE practices have influenced air concentrations. Benzene air concentrations declined in 11 of 17 units, six of which were associated with declining exposures. Benzene air concentrations declined across all units on average by 46%. This amounts to an average yearly decline of 1.7%. TPH air concentrations declined in 10 of 17 units, seven of which were associated with declining exposures. The average decline in TPH air concentrations was 49%, corresponding to 1.3% per year. As a result, average working day exposure in 10 of 17 units have declined significantly and today, benzene and TPH exposure in most units are well below 10% of the current Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL 8h :s). A decline in air concentrations have coincided with consistent implementation of control measures. Such measures include on-line monitoring of leaks; benzene recovery; floating container roofs; improved valves and seals; hermetic pumps; recovery of loading gases and instalment of torches in terminals; cutback in coke combustion; a new production line spanning directly from the dock to aromatics production; and recovery of loading gases in the doc. Other tools in exposure management include personal leak monitors, on-line measurements, monitoring campaigns, risk assessment, and availability and user training of protective equipment. However, improvements are still needed. Hydrocarbon or benzene air concentrations have not declined in 8 of 17 units, in some of which concentrations exceed 10% of the relevant

  2. Managing Exposure to Benzene and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Two Oil Refineries 1977–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Tapani; Veijalainen, Henna; Santonen, Tiina

    2018-01-01

    Air concentrations of and inhalation exposure to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and benzene was monitored separately at two oil refineries from 1977 to 2014. Prevention policies and control measures that may explain changes were surveyed. The aim was to evaluate how the application of of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS 18001.04 principles as well as Environmental protection Agency EPA and European Oil Company Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety CONCAWE practices have influenced air concentrations. Benzene air concentrations declined in 11 of 17 units, six of which were associated with declining exposures. Benzene air concentrations declined across all units on average by 46%. This amounts to an average yearly decline of 1.7%. TPH air concentrations declined in 10 of 17 units, seven of which were associated with declining exposures. The average decline in TPH air concentrations was 49%, corresponding to 1.3% per year. As a result, average working day exposure in 10 of 17 units have declined significantly and today, benzene and TPH exposure in most units are well below 10% of the current Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL8h:s). A decline in air concentrations have coincided with consistent implementation of control measures. Such measures include on-line monitoring of leaks; benzene recovery; floating container roofs; improved valves and seals; hermetic pumps; recovery of loading gases and instalment of torches in terminals; cutback in coke combustion; a new production line spanning directly from the dock to aromatics production; and recovery of loading gases in the doc. Other tools in exposure management include personal leak monitors, on-line measurements, monitoring campaigns, risk assessment, and availability and user training of protective equipment. However, improvements are still needed. Hydrocarbon or benzene air concentrations have not declined in 8 of 17 units, in some of which concentrations exceed 10% of the relevant

  3. Conservation and reuse of water in Brazilian petroleum refineries; Conservacao e reuso de agua em refinarias de petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pombo, Felipe Ramalho; Magrini, Alessandra; Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: frpombo@ppe.ufrj.br, ale@ppe.ufrj.br, szklo@ppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper views to present the main technologies for effluent treatment of petroleum refineries having as target the reuse. An analysis of international and Brazilian experiences of water reuse in petroleum refineries is performed viewing to support the proposition of recommendations for Brazilian refineries.

  4. Process-optimization in Europe's largest refinery; Prozessoptimierung in Europas groesster Raffinerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbstritt, M. [AUMA Riester GmbH und Co. KG, Muellheim (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    More than 1000 valves are to be replaced, with new actuator systems, in the context of the PROMS (''Profitable Oil Movement Systems'') project at the Nerefco refinery in Rotterdam. The requirements for this project include redundant data transmission, facilities for scanning of all actuator parameters and states from the control room, and the ability to record torque curves for the valves, in order to permit deductions concerning valve condition. Explosion-safety and high resistance to corrosion are, of course, basic preconditions. Finally, conversion to the new valve and actuator systems is to be accomplished without interruption to plant operation. A single manufacturer, who thus simultaneously plays the role of a system integrator, has been able to meet all these demands. (orig.)

  5. New Sustainable Model of Biorefineries: Biofactories and Challenges of Integrating Bio- and Solar Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Salvatore; Lanzafame, Paola; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2015-09-07

    The new scenario for sustainable (low-carbon) chemical and energy production drives the development of new biorefinery concepts (indicated as biofactories) with chemical production at the core, but flexible and small-scale production. An important element is also the integration of solar energy and CO2 use within biobased production. This concept paper, after shortly introducing the motivation and recent trends in this area, particularly at the industrial scale, and some of the possible models (olefin and intermediate/high-added-value chemicals production), discusses the opportunities and needs for research to address the challenge of integrating bio- and solar refineries. Aspects discussed regard the use of microalgae and CO2 valorization in biorefineries/biofactories by chemo- or biocatalysis, including possibilities for their synergetic cooperation and symbiosis, as well as integration within the agroenergy value chain. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Oil-refinery and automotive emissions of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, M.E.; Gordon, G.E.; Anderson, D.L.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration pattern of rare-earth elements (REEs) in emissions from oil refineries and newer-model automobiles shows a distortion from the crustal abundance pattern. The REEs arise from the zeolite cracking catalysts used in petroleum refining and emission-control substrates used in automobile catalytic converters, respectively. Ten petroleum cracking catalysts from four countries and 12 catalytic converters from five automobile manufacturers were characterized for their REE content. The cracking catalysts are highly enriched in light REEs, whereas the automobile catalysts are enriched primarily in Ce. Incorporation of zeolite catalysts into refined oil provides new atmospheric elemental signatures for tracing emissions from refineries and oil-fired power plants on a regional scale. Though both have enhanced La/REE ratios, emissions from these two sources can be distinguished by their La/V ratios. Although REE demand by the petroleum industry has dropped considerably in recent years, automobile catalytic converters containing REEs are expected to increase dramatically as more stringent emission regulations are adopted in Europe, Japan and the US

  7. Effect of adoption of gas turbine in oil refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Hiroto

    1988-08-01

    With progress in energy saving, and increase in automation in facilities, the dependence on electric power increases relative steam power. Further in order to reduce the production cost, the adoption of gas turbine combined cycle system, mainly aimed at power generation, is considered to be most suitable. This adoption, accompanied with the utilization of refinery offgas, dresults in a reduction in unit power generation cost, by increasing the ratio of domestic power generation. The gas turbine using deethanizing tower offgas as main fuel and butane as auxillary fuel, the combined cycle system, where steam produced from the turbine waste heat boiler drives the existing back pressure turbine, was constituted. The generator is 118 kVA in capacity. Against the maximum power demand being 16,500 kWh in the oil refinery, the obtainment of 11,000 kWh by the gas turbine and 2,500 kWh by the back pressure turbine was assured, with a considerable lowering in power to be purchased. (7 figs, 1 tab, 1 ref)

  8. Application of Ozone MBBR Process in Refinery Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2018-01-01

    Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) is a kind of sewage treatment technology based on fluidized bed. At the same time, it can also be regarded as an efficient new reactor between active sludge method and the biological membrane method. The application of ozone MBBR process in refinery wastewater treatment is mainly studied. The key point is to design the ozone +MBBR combined process based on MBBR process. The ozone +MBBR process is used to analyze the treatment of concentrated water COD discharged from the refinery wastewater treatment plant. The experimental results show that the average removal rate of COD is 46.0%~67.3% in the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrated water by ozone MBBR process, and the effluent can meet the relevant standard requirements. Compared with the traditional process, the ozone MBBR process is more flexible. The investment of this process is mainly ozone generator, blower and so on. The prices of these items are relatively inexpensive, and these costs can be offset by the excess investment in traditional activated sludge processes. At the same time, ozone MBBR process has obvious advantages in water quality, stability and other aspects.

  9. The regulation of uranium refineries and conversion facilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, J.P.

    1986-04-01

    The nuclear regulatory process as it applies to uranium refineries and conversion facilities in Canada is reviewed. In the early 1980s, Eldorado Resources Limited proposed to construct and operate new facilities for refining yellowcake and for the production of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). These projects were subject to regulation by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). A description of the AECB's comprehensive licensing process covering all stages of siting, construction, operation and eventual decommissioning of nuclear facilities is traced as it was applied to the Eldorado projects. The AECB's concern with occupational health and safety, with public health and safety and with the protection of the environment in so far as it affects public health and safety is emphasized. Some regulatory difficulties encountered during the project's development which led to opening up the licensing process to public input and closer coordination of regulatory activities with other provincial and federal regulatory agencies are described. The Board's regulatory operational compliance program for uranium refineries and conversion facilities is summarized

  10. Improving secondary clarifier performance at the Oakville Oil Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, S.M.; Bagley, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the relationship between settleability and the physical properties of activated sludge, to correlate settleability and key operational parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration at the aeration basin inlet and to determine potential operational improvements to the Oakville Oil Refinery Wastewater Treatment Plant. Nine separate sets of stirred sludge-settling tests were conducted over a six-month period to measure settleability. The stirred sludge volume index (SSVI), the zone settling constants, and the Zheng-Bagley compression constants were determined. State point analyses were conducted to determine the maximum solids flux of the clarifiers. The concentrations of Al, Mn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, and K were determined to identify potential correlations to settling characteristics. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted from the sludge and analyzed for the same reason. The performance of the clarifiers was highly variable during the period examined. As the refinery process flows and effluent streams changed, influent COD increased, from an average of 180mg/L to 600mg/L. Concurrently the settleability of the sludge decreased from excellent (SSVI = 68mL/g) to very poor (150mL/g), perhaps as the result of under aeration. State point analyses indicated that the clarifiers are under-sized for process upsets of this magnitude. (author)

  11. Improving secondary clarifier performance at the Oakville Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, S.M.; Bagley, D.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the relationship between settleability and the physical properties of activated sludge, to correlate settleability and key operational parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration at the aeration basin inlet and to determine potential operational improvements to the Oakville Oil Refinery Wastewater Treatment Plant. Nine separate sets of stirred sludge-settling tests were conducted over a six-month period to measure settleability. The stirred sludge volume index (SSVI), the zone settling constants, and the Zheng-Bagley compression constants were determined. State point analyses were conducted to determine the maximum solids flux of the clarifiers. The concentrations of Al, Mn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, and K were determined to identify potential correlations to settling characteristics. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted from the sludge and analyzed for the same reason. The performance of the clarifiers was highly variable during the period examined. As the refinery process flows and effluent streams changed, influent COD increased, from an average of 180mg/L to 600mg/L. Concurrently the settleability of the sludge decreased from excellent (SSVI = 68mL/g) to very poor (150mL/g), perhaps as the result of under aeration. State point analyses indicated that the clarifiers are under-sized for process upsets of this magnitude. (author)

  12. Electrochemical removal of phenol from oil refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, O; Amin, N K; El-Ashtoukhy, E-S Z

    2009-04-30

    This study explores the possibility of using electrocoagulation to remove phenol from oil refinery waste effluent using a cell with horizontally oriented aluminum cathode and a horizontal aluminum screen anode. The removal of phenol was investigated in terms of various parameters namely: pH, operating time, current density, initial phenol concentration and addition of NaCl. Removal of phenol during electrocoagulation was due to combined effect of sweep coagulation and adsorption. The results showed that, at high current density and solution pH 7, remarkable removal of 97% of phenol after 2h can be achieved. The rate of electrocoagulation was observed to increase as the phenol concentration decreases; the maximum removal rate was attained at 30 mg L(-1) phenol concentration. For a given current density using an array of closely packed Al screens as anode was found to be more effective than single screen anode, the percentage phenol removal was found to increase with increasing the number of screens per array. After 2h of electrocoagulation, 94.5% of initial phenol concentration was removed from the petroleum refinery wastewater. Energy consumption and aluminum Electrode consumption were calculated per gram of phenol removed. The present study shows that, electrocoagulation of phenol using aluminum electrodes is a promising process.

  13. [Occupational accidents in an oil refinery in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carlos Augusto Vaz de; Freitas, Carlos Machado de

    2002-10-01

    Work in oil refineries involves the risk of minor to major accidents. National data show the impact of accidents on this industry. A study was carried out to describe accident profile and evaluate the adequacy of accident reporting system. Data on all accidents reported in an oil refinery in the state of Rio de Janeiro for the year 1997 were organized and analyzed. The study population consisted of 153 injury cases, 83 hired and 69 contracted workers. The variables were: type of accident, operation mode and position of the worker injured. Among hired workers, minor accidents predominated (54.2%) and they occurred during regular operation activities (62.9%). Among contracted workers, there also predominated minor accidents (75.5%) in a higher percentage, but they occurred mainly during maintenance activities (96.8%). The study results showed that there is a predominance of accidents in lower hierarchy workers, and these accidents occur mainly during maintenance activities. There is a need to improve the company's accident reporting system and accident investigation procedures.

  14. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  15. Determinants of employee punctuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Koslowsky, Meni

    2002-12-01

    Although researchers have studied employee lateness empirically (e.g., S. Adler & J. Golan, 1981; C. W. Clegg, 1983), few have attempted to describe the punctual employee. In the present study, results of a discriminant analysis on employees in Israel indicated that a personality characteristic, time urgency, a subcomponent of Type A behavioral pattern, distinguished between punctual and late employees. Organizational commitment and age of employee's youngest child also distinguished between the groups.

  16. Employees' Perceptions of Their Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović-Stojanović Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research about employees and the leaders who are included in leading the organization, as an important segment of the modern business. The aim of this research is to show the real picture about presence new strategies of leaders in the organizations, as well as the analysis of the perception of employees about their leaders. The research in business organizations conducted on the sample of leaders and employees. The construction of high-quality questionnaire represents the important segment of modern statistical and business researches. The issues in questionnaire construction are very complex and they are in the focus of all statistical and research methodologies. It was conducted on the sample of at least 250 examinees (employees in bigger companies in Serbia. Research results showed that understanding communication satisfaction, with its link to job satisfaction, should provide an ability to better target resources to improve communication satisfaction issues.

  17. Strategy Innovation with Employee Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate how employees can be involved in strategy innovation processes and how new strategy practices (new tools and procedures) are used to change strategy praxis in order to sustain value creation. In the strategizing actions, we found that even...... if the managers still dominate, some processes of direct involvement of employees occur, in particular when employees are asked to supplement overall strategic goals and when they directly shape several sub-strategies. Strategy practices found include strategy planning, an open space workshop and organised...... strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case, however, also exhibits enterprise-situated praxises related to unplanned events, like the mitigation of taboos....

  18. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.; Reyna, Silvia; Sánchez-Salas, José Luis; Lozada, J. Daniel; Quiroz, Marco A.; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the wastewater under the best working conditions (6.5 V, 0.1 M NaCl, 4 electrodes without initial pH adjustment) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal slightly higher than 80%. Aluminum release from the electrodes to the wastewater was found an important factor for the EC efficiency and closely related with several operational factors. Application of EC allowed to increase the biodegradability of the sample from 0.015, rated as non-biodegradable, up to 0.5 widely considered as biodegradable. The effluent was further treated using an aerobic biofilter inoculated with a bacterial consortium including gram positive and gram negative strains and tested for COD and TPH removal from the EC treated effluent during 30 days. Cell count showed the typical bacteria growth starting at day three and increasing up to a maximum after eight days. After day eight, cell growth showed a plateau which agreed with the highest decrease on contaminant concentration. Final TPHs concentration was found about 600 mgL-1 after 30 days whereas COD concentration after biological treatment was as low as 933 mgL-1. The coupled EC-aerobic biofilter was capable to remove up to 98% of the total TPH amount and over 95% of the COD load in the oil refinery wastewater.

  19. Identification of genes and pathways related to phenol degradation in metagenomic libraries from petroleum refinery wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia C Silva

    Full Text Available Two fosmid libraries, totaling 13,200 clones, were obtained from bioreactor sludge of petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system. The library screening based on PCR and biological activity assays revealed more than 400 positive clones for phenol degradation. From these, 100 clones were randomly selected for pyrosequencing in order to evaluate the genetic potential of the microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plant for biodegradation, focusing mainly on novel genes and pathways of phenol and aromatic compound degradation. The sequence analysis of selected clones yielded 129,635 reads at an estimated 17-fold coverage. The phylogenetic analysis showed Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the most abundant orders among the selected fosmid clones. The MG-RAST analysis revealed a broad metabolic profile with important functions for wastewater treatment, including metabolism of aromatic compounds, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. The predicted 2,276 proteins included phenol hydroxylases and cathecol 2,3- dioxygenases, involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, such as phenol, byphenol, benzoate and phenylpropanoid. The sequencing of one fosmid insert of 33 kb unraveled the gene that permitted the host, Escherichia coli EPI300, to grow in the presence of aromatic compounds. Additionally, the comparison of the whole fosmid sequence against bacterial genomes deposited in GenBank showed that about 90% of sequence showed no identity to known sequences of Proteobacteria deposited in the NCBI database. This study surveyed the functional potential of fosmid clones for aromatic compound degradation and contributed to our knowledge of the biodegradative capacity and pathways of microbial assemblages present in refinery wastewater treatment system.

  20. Contribution of Tula Refinery flaring emissions to the Mexico megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Victor; Molina, Luisa; Sosa, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Flaring is an important source of greenhouse gases, particulate matter and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in both upstream and downstream operations in the oil and gas industry. In 2010 Mexico was the eleventh emitting country with 2.5 billion cubic meters of gas flared (World Bank, 2012). Black carbon (a component of soot) emissions from flaring facilities are of particular interest because soot is considered a short-lived climate forcer (SLCF) (UNEP, 2011). In 2011 there were 23 megacities of at least 10 million inhabitants. It is expected that this number increase to 37 by 2025, which will include one more in Northern America (NA) and two more in Latin America (UN, 2012). International collaborative projects like MILAGRO in NA and MEGAPOLI/CityZen in Europe, have been conducted to assess the impact of megacities air pollution at several scales. The former focused on the air pollution plume of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), the largest megacity in NA. This work studies the contribution of flaring emissions from Tula Refinery to regional air quality. This is accomplished in two steps. First, the flame of a representative sour gas flare is modeled with a CFD combustion code in order to estimate emission rates of combustion by-products of interest for air quality. Mass flow rates of acetylene, ethylene, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, soot and sulfur dioxide are obtained. The emission rates of NO2 and SO2 are compared with measurements obtained at Tula as part of MILAGRO field campaign. The rates of soot, VOCs and CO emissions are compared with estimates obtained by Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (IMP). The second stage takes the flaring emission rates of the aforementioned species as inputs to WRF-Chem in order to simulate the chemical transport of the plume from 22 March to 27 March of 2006. The air quality model presented reliable performance of the resolved meteorology, with respect to the Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE

  1. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for

  2. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  3. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to

  4. Bio-Refineries Bioprocess Technologies for Waste-Water Treatment, Energy and Product Valorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Cowan, A.

    2010-04-01

    Increasing pressure is being exerted on communities and nations to source energy from forms other than fossil fuels. Also, potable water is becoming a scarce resource in many parts of the world, and there remains a large divide in the demand and utilization of plant products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The most extensive user and manager of terrestrial ecosystems is agriculture which is also the de facto steward of natural resources. As stated by Miller (2008) no other industry or institution comes close to the comparative advantage held for this vital responsibility while simultaneously providing food, fiber, and other biology-based products, including energy. Since modern commercial agriculture is transitioning from the production of bulk commodities to the provision of standardized products and specific-attribute raw materials for differentiated markets, we can argue that processes such as mass cultivation of microalgae and the concept of bio-refineries be seen as part of a `new' agronomy. EBRU is currently exploring the integration of bioprocess technologies using microalgae as biocatalysts to achieve waste-water treatment, water polishing and endocrine disruptor (EDC) removal, sustainable energy production, and exploitation of the resultant biomass in agriculture as foliar fertilizer and seed coatings, and for commercial extraction of bulk commodities such as bio-oils and lecithin. This presentation will address efforts to establish a fully operational solar-driven microalgae bio-refinery for use not only in waste remediation but to transform waste and biomass to energy, fuels, and other useful materials (valorisation), with particular focus on environmental quality and sustainability goals.

  5. Characterizing exposures to airborne metals and nanoparticle emissions in a refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela L; Hintz, Patrick; Habjan, Matt

    2010-07-01

    An air quality survey was conducted at a precious metals refinery in order to evaluate worker exposures to airborne metals and to provide detailed characterization of the aerosols. Two areas within the refinery were characterized: a furnace room and an electro-refining area. In line with standard survey practices, both personal and area air filter samples were collected on 37-mm filters and analyzed for metals by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. In addition to the standard sampling, measurements were conducted using other tools, designed to provide enhanced characterization of the workplace aerosols. The number concentration and number-weighted particle size distribution of airborne particles were measured with a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). Custom-designed software was used to correlate particle concentration data with spatial location data to generate contour maps of particle number concentrations in the work areas. Short-term samples were collected in areas of localized high concentrations and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine particle morphology and elemental chemistry. Analysis of filter samples indicated that all of the workers were exposed to levels of silver above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 0.01 mg m(-3) even though the localized ventilation was functioning. Measurements with the FMPS indicated that particle number concentrations near the furnace increased up to 1000-fold above the baseline during the pouring of molten metal. Spatial mapping revealed localized elevated particle concentrations near the furnaces and plumes of particles rising into the stairwells and traveling to the upper work areas. Results of TEM/EDS analyses confirmed the high number of nanoparticles measured by the FMPS and indicated the aerosols were rich in metals including silver, lead, antimony, selenium, and zinc. Results of

  6. Optimization of petroleum refinery effluent treatment in a UASB reactor using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastegar, S.O. [Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S.M., E-mail: mousavi_m@modares.ac.ir [Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojaosadati, S.A. [Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheibani, S. [R and T Management Department, National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A UASB was successfully used for treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Response surface methodology was applied to design and analysis of experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System was modeled between efficient factors include HRT, influent COD and V{sub up}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UASB was able to remove about 76.3% influent COD at optimum conditions. - Abstract: An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor was successfully used for the treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. Before optimization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 81% at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.4 kg/m{sup 3} d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h. The rate of biogas production was 559 mL/h at an HRT of 40 h and an influent COD of 1000 mg/L. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to predict the behaviors of influent COD, upflow velocity (V{sub up}) and HRT in the bioreactor. RSM showed that the best models for COD removal and biogas production rate were the reduced quadratic and cubic models, respectively. The optimum region, identified based on two critical responses, was an influent COD of 630 mg/L, a V{sub up} of 0.27 m/h, and an HRT of 21.4 h. This resulted in a 76.3% COD removal efficiency and a 0.25 L biogas/L feed d biogas production rate.

  7. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Technologies to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions at North American Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motazedi, Kavan; Abella, Jessica P; Bergerson, Joule A

    2017-02-07

    A petroleum refinery model, Petroleum Refinery Life-cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM), that estimates energy use and CO 2 emissions was modified to evaluate the environmental and economic performance of a set of technologies to reduce CO 2 emissions at refineries. Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), carbon capture at fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) units, and alternative hydrogen production technologies were considered in the analysis. The results indicate that a 3-44% reduction in total annual refinery CO 2 emissions (2-24% reductions in the CO 2 emissions on a per barrel of crude oil processed) can be achieved in a medium conversion refinery that processes a typical U.S. crude slate obtained by using the technologies considered. A sensitivity analysis of the quality of input crude to a refinery, refinery configuration, and prices of natural gas and electricity revealed how the magnitude of possible CO 2 emissions reductions and the economic performance of the mitigation technologies can vary under different conditions. The analysis can help inform decision making related to investment decisions and CO 2 emissions policy in the refining sector.

  8. Strategies for improving employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

    2007-03-28

    This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined.

  9. Repair procedure used in removing corroded pits in the distillation towers of the Getulio Vargas Refinery Unit 2100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lordelos, H.M.; Santin, J.L.

    1977-07-01

    A description is given of the corrosion pits on ASTM A240, Type 405 steel cladded to carbon steel plates used in Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.'s Getulio Vargas Refinery Unit 2100 distillation towers; the repair procedure used, including sand blasting of the corroded surfaces, grinding of the pits, and welding of those pits whose depth was above a maximum limit, and the use of liquid penetrant to check the repairs made; and hydrostatic testing of the T2201 catalytic cracking unit, which used also cladded metals and on which the pits were much smaller in size and number than those on the distillation units.

  10. Allowance Allocation and CO2 intensity of the EU15 and Norwegian refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Kristina; Zetterberg, Lars; Aahman, Markus

    2005-02-01

    On 1 January 2005, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) was launched. The launch has been preceded by an allocation process in each of the Member States. The main objective of this study was to analyse the allocation in relation to CO 2 efficiency for the mineral oil refining sector. A CO 2 intensity index for mineral oil refineries has been defined and calculated for the refineries within the EU15 and Norway. The IVL CO 2 intensity index is based both on the Solomon Energy Intensity Index (EII), an assumed fuel mix, and process-specific emissions. Due to uncertainties in input data, the determined values for the individual refineries are quite uncertain. However, the regional values can be used to identify trends. It was concluded that there are substantial differences in the CO 2 intensity between refineries within different regions/countries in the EU and these differences have not been considered in the allocation process. Only a few countries have mentioned energy efficiency or reduction potential due to CO 2 intensity of fuels used. Only one country (Denmark) has explicitly given a benchmark that will be used for allocation to new mineral oil refineries. The allocation has generally been based on historic emissions, which will result in refineries with historically higher emissions being allocated larger amounts than refineries with historically lower emissions. This might be favourable for refineries that recently have performed emission-reducing measures but might be less favourable for refineries that during a long time period have implemented emission-reducing measures

  11. Allowance Allocation and CO{sub 2} intensity of the EU15 and Norwegian refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Kristina; Zetterberg, Lars; Aahman, Markus

    2005-02-01

    On 1 January 2005, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) was launched. The launch has been preceded by an allocation process in each of the Member States. The main objective of this study was to analyse the allocation in relation to CO{sub 2} efficiency for the mineral oil refining sector. A CO{sub 2} intensity index for mineral oil refineries has been defined and calculated for the refineries within the EU15 and Norway. The IVL CO{sub 2} intensity index is based both on the Solomon Energy Intensity Index (EII), an assumed fuel mix, and process-specific emissions. Due to uncertainties in input data, the determined values for the individual refineries are quite uncertain. However, the regional values can be used to identify trends. It was concluded that there are substantial differences in the CO{sub 2} intensity between refineries within different regions/countries in the EU and these differences have not been considered in the allocation process. Only a few countries have mentioned energy efficiency or reduction potential due to CO{sub 2} intensity of fuels used. Only one country (Denmark) has explicitly given a benchmark that will be used for allocation to new mineral oil refineries. The allocation has generally been based on historic emissions, which will result in refineries with historically higher emissions being allocated larger amounts than refineries with historically lower emissions. This might be favourable for refineries that recently have performed emission-reducing measures but might be less favourable for refineries that during a long time period have implemented emission-reducing measures.

  12. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  13. General employee training: Initial needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.; Copenhaver, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    US Department of Energy Orders, including those for Emergency Preparedness, require that DOE facility employees receive a preparatory course on certain basic work practices and employee responsibilities before receiving any job-specific training. Most of this general information is required for employees to either prevent or to handle emergency situations that may arise in the workplace. While the categories are general, the information should be given at both Laboratory and individual-site levels, if possible. A simple checklist developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory proved beneficial when assessing its general employee orientation compliance status. The checklist includes subject areas covered, organizational identities and responsibilities, and documentation needs

  14. Corrosion resistance of high performance stainless steels in cooling water and other refinery environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, C.W.; Redmerski, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    The recent successful introduction of high performance stainless steels as tubing for seawater cooled electric utility condensers suggests that these alloys can also provide useful service in refinery heat exchanger applications. Since many of these applications involve higher temperature exposure than steam condensers, a study was conducted to evaluate crevice corrsion resistance over a range of cooling water temperature and chloride concentrations, and also to evaluate general corrosion resistance in some strong chemical and refinery environments. These stainless steels display excellent crevice corrosion resistance as well as good resistance to a variety of chemical environments that may be encountered in refinery, petrochemical and chemical plant service

  15. Multi objective multi refinery optimization with environmental and catastrophic failure effects objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khogeer, Ahmed Sirag

    2005-11-01

    Petroleum refining is a capital-intensive business. With stringent environmental regulations on the processing industry and declining refining margins, political instability, increased risk of war and terrorist attacks in which refineries and fuel transportation grids may be targeted, higher pressures are exerted on refiners to optimize performance and find the best combination of feed and processes to produce salable products that meet stricter product specifications, while at the same time meeting refinery supply commitments and of course making profit. This is done through multi objective optimization. For corporate refining companies and at the national level, Intea-Refinery and Inter-Refinery optimization is the second step in optimizing the operation of the whole refining chain as a single system. Most refinery-wide optimization methods do not cover multiple objectives such as minimizing environmental impact, avoiding catastrophic failures, or enhancing product spec upgrade effects. This work starts by carrying out a refinery-wide, single objective optimization, and then moves to multi objective-single refinery optimization. The last step is multi objective-multi refinery optimization, the objectives of which are analysis of the effects of economic, environmental, product spec, strategic, and catastrophic failure. Simulation runs were carried out using both MATLAB and ASPEN PIMS utilizing nonlinear techniques to solve the optimization problem. The results addressed the need to debottleneck some refineries or transportation media in order to meet the demand for essential products under partial or total failure scenarios. They also addressed how importing some high spec products can help recover some of the losses and what is needed in order to accomplish this. In addition, the results showed nonlinear relations among local and global objectives for some refineries. The results demonstrate that refineries can have a local multi objective optimum that does not

  16. Aerobic degradation of petroleum refinery wastewater in sequential batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Chandrakant; Srivastava, Vimal C; Mall, Indra D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of various parameters affecting the treatment of raw petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) having chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 350 mg L(-1) and total organic carbon (TOC) of 70 mg L(-1) in sequential batch reactor (SBR). Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) was studied in instantaneous fill condition. Maximum COD and TOC removal efficiencies were found to be 80% and 84%, respectively, for fill phase of 2 h and react phase of 2 h with fraction of SBR being filled with raw PRW in each cycle being 0.4. Effect of parameters was studied in terms of settling characteristic of treated slurry. Kinetics of treatment process has been studied. FTIR and UV-visible analysis of PRW before and after treatment have been performed so as to understand the degradation mechanism.

  17. Phenol oxidation of petrol refinery wastewater catalyzed by Laccase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Maria Carolina; Ramirez, Nubia E.

    2002-01-01

    Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid-state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 u/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 u/ml) was achieved in a submerged system, containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The Laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of Laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant

  18. Cleaning up gasoline will increase refinery hydrogen demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretorius, E.B.; Muan, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that hydrogen needs will increase two to five times as the world turns its attention to cleaning up engine exhaust. The subject of fuel trends and hydrogen needs at Foster Wheeler USA Corp.'s Hydrogen Plant Conference, June 2--4, in Orlando was addressed. The conference was attended by more than 100 people from 12 different countries. Drawing on knowledge from over 1 billion scfd of total installed hydrogen plant capacity, Foster Wheeler experts presented papers in the fields of steam reforming, partial oxidation (with all feedstocks, from natural gas to resids and coal), and steam reformer design. Other industry specialists gave papers on refinery balances, markets, coal feedstocks, utility systems, and components for hydrogen plants

  19. BTEX biodegradation by bacteria from effluents of petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Levy, Carlos Emílio; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2010-09-15

    Groundwater contamination with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) has been increasing, thus requiring an urgent development of methodologies that are able to remove or minimize the damages these compounds can cause to the environment. The biodegradation process using microorganisms has been regarded as an efficient technology to treat places contaminated with hydrocarbons, since they are able to biotransform and/or biodegrade target pollutants. To prove the efficiency of this process, besides chemical analysis, the use of biological assessments has been indicated. This work identified and selected BTEX-biodegrading microorganisms present in effluents from petroleum refinery, and evaluated the efficiency of microorganism biodegradation process for reducing genotoxic and mutagenic BTEX damage through two test-systems: Allium cepa and hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells. Five different non-biodegraded BTEX concentrations were evaluated in relation to biodegraded concentrations. The biodegradation process was performed in a BOD Trak Apparatus (HACH) for 20 days, using microorganisms pre-selected through enrichment. Although the biodegradation usually occurs by a consortium of different microorganisms, the consortium in this study was composed exclusively of five bacteria species and the bacteria Pseudomonas putida was held responsible for the BTEX biodegradation. The chemical analyses showed that BTEX was reduced in the biodegraded concentrations. The results obtained with genotoxicity assays, carried out with both A. cepa and HTC cells, showed that the biodegradation process was able to decrease the genotoxic damages of BTEX. By mutagenic tests, we observed a decrease in damage only to the A. cepa organism. Although no decrease in mutagenicity was observed for HTC cells, no increase of this effect after the biodegradation process was observed either. The application of pre-selected bacteria in biodegradation processes can represent a reliable and

  20. Solid waste management : a case study of National Refinery Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, A.H.; Syed, Z.R. [National Refinery Ltd., Karachi (Pakistan); NED Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2000-07-01

    A study was conducted to quantify and classify the waste generated at the National Refinery Limited (NRL). This refinery, located in Karachi, Pakistan, produces naphtha, motor gasoline, diesel, kerosene and lubricating oils and much more. Various units such as crude oil storage, thermal cracking, catalytic cracking and others were surveyed to assess the source and nature of the pollution. It was found that the major contributor to air pollution was the sulfur released through the burning of fuel oil during day-to-day operations. It was determined that approximately 2000 metric tons of solid waste were produced each day, along with 0.55 million gallons of waste water. In addition, sulfur, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were also released in the atmosphere. The solid waste was composed of municipal waste, sludges from the API and other discarded materials. The authors then proceeded to determine the heavy metals contents in samples obtained from combined sludge dumping areas on the premises. The sludges contained sulfur (0-1.26 wt per cent), lead (0-0.156 wt per cent), iron (0.01-3.4 wt per cent), chromium (0-0.159 per cent), copper (0-0.05 wt per cent), cadmium (0-0.0034 wt per cent), nickel (0-0.168 wt per cent), and manganese (0.0015-0.0776 wt per cent). It was recommended that hazardous and non-hazardous wastes be segregated, that a separate feasibility study be undertaken to determine the best possible course of action to dispose of solid waste, and that government guidelines be established on the same topic. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Sim, Malcolm R; Del Monaco, Anthony; MacFarlane, Ewan; McKenzie, Dean; Benke, Geza; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-08-15

    Bauxite is a reddish clay that is refined to produce alumina, which is then reduced to aluminium. There have been studies examining the health of workers in aluminium smelters, but not workers in bauxite mining and alumina refining. A cohort of employees of 1 large aluminium company since 1983 was assembled (n = 6,485, 5,828 men). Deaths and incident cancers to 2002 were ascertained by linkage to national and state cancer and death registries. SIRs and SMRs were calculated compared to national rates standardizing for calendar year, sex and 5-year age group. The mortality from all causes (SMR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.60-0.77), and from circulatory and respiratory diseases, all cancers combined and injury in the male cohort were lower than in the Australian male population and were similar across work groups and with duration of employment. The only significant increased mortality risk was from pleural mesothelioma. The incidence of all cancers combined was similar to the Australian rate. The cohort had a lower risk of incident lymphohaematopoietic cancer (SIR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.88) and a higher risk of melanoma (SIR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.00-1.69) although no dose-responses were seen. There was also an increased risk of mesothelioma (SIR 3.49, 95% CI: 1.82-6.71), which was associated with exposures outside the aluminium industry. This study is the first to examine cancer and mortality amongst workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries and found little evidence for increased cancer incidence or mortality in these workers. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. GDOT employee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    The research team worked in collaboration with GDOT to conduct the 2016 GDOT Employee Survey. This research study aimed to increase the response rate and the usefulness of the feedback from the GDOT employee survey to support organizational decisions...

  3. Employee wellness program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Well-designed wellness programs can keep healthy employees healthy, support employees with : health risks to improve their health behaviors, and facilitate organizational efforts to achieve : workforce performance goals. : Productivity lost through a...

  4. Employees with Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome was often 10-15 minutes late for work every day due to amount and quality of sleep. The employer provided this employee with a half an hour flexible start time. Depending on when the employee arrived, ...

  5. Employees with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at work. Allow employee to remain on the job after a seizure when possible Provide flexible schedule Modify an attendance policy Provide leave while the employee is adjusting to medications Work a straight shift instead of rotating shifts Personal ...

  6. Family employees and absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Goerke; Jörn Block; Jose Maria Millan; Concepcion Roman

    2014-01-01

    Work effort varies greatly across employees, as evidenced by substantial differences in absence rates. Moreover, absenteeism causes sizeable output losses. Using data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), this paper investigates absence behavior of family employees, i.e. workers who are employed in enterprises owned by a relative. Our estimates indicate that being a family employee instead of a regular employee in the private sector significantly reduces both the probability and...

  7. Documenting Employee Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jason

    2009-01-01

    One of the best ways for a child care program to lose an employment-related lawsuit is failure to document the performance of its employees. Documentation of an employee's performance can provide evidence of an employment-related decision such as discipline, promotion, or discharge. When properly implemented, documentation of employee performance…

  8. Environmental performance of an innovative waste refinery based on enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    for virgin material and saving fossil resources. In this paper a life-cycle assessment of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials......Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and global warming mitigation has become increasingly important issues during the last decades. With respect to waste management higher recycling rates for valuable materials as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting......) from the waste. The waste refinery was compared to alternative treatments such as incineration, bioreactor landfill and mechanical-biological treatment followed by utilization of the RDF (refuse-derived fuel) for energy. The performance of the waste refinery turned out to be comparable...

  9. More evidence of unpublished industry studies of lead smelter/refinery workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Lead smelter/refinery workers in the US have had significant exposure to lead and are an important occupational group to study to understand the health effects of chronic lead exposure in adults. Recent research found evidence that studies of lead smelter/refinery workers have been conducted but not published. This paper presents further evidence for this contention. Objectives To present further evidence of industry conducted, unpublished epidemiologic studies of lead smelter/refinery workers and health outcomes. Methods Historical research relying on primary sources such as internal industry documents and published studies. Results ASARCO smelter/refinery workers were studied in the early 1980s and found to have increased risk of lung cancer and stroke in one study, but not in another. Conclusions Because occupational lead exposure is an on-going concern for US and overseas workers, all epidemiologic studies should be made available to evaluate and update occupational health and safety standards. PMID:26070220

  10. Inefficiency of Malaysian palm oil refineries and the impact of different factors on its inefficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahverdi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze changes in the inefficiency of Malaysian palm oil refineries using DEA window analysis method over the period 1996 to 2009. We investigated the effects of different factors on inefficiency of Malaysian palm oil refineries. Based on empirical results, the effect of all factors such as vertical integration, types of ownership, foreign investment, location, experience, and liberalization on inefficiency of refineries was significant. Experience, liberalization, and joint venture between private and public sectors showed an increase in efficiency, while joint venture between local and foreign investment and vertical integration increased refineries’ inefficiency. However, palm oil refineries which were located in the states of Sabah and Sarawak were less technically inefficient than those located in peninsular Malaysia.

  11. Implication of coastal refineries to the ecology of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Anand, N.M.

    bank of the Gulf of Kachchh. An assessment of probable impact of establishment of these refineries to the rich biodiversity of the Gulf and suggestions to minimise these impacts have been made in this paper....

  12. Detection of impurities in fluid flowing in refinery pipeline or oil production operations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Chlorine (from salt water) and sulphur are determined in crude oil in a well head conduit or refined product in a petroleum refinery by bombardment with neutrons and measuring the gamma rays emitted by neutron capture reactions. (U.K.)

  13. Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced electrode configurations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang; Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of refinery wastewater (RW) treatment using air-cathode, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined relative to previous tests based on completely anaerobic microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). MFCs were configured with separator

  14. Meteorologically estimated exposure but not distance predicts asthma symptoms in schoolchildren in the environs of a petrochemical refinery: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Wesley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community concern about asthma prompted an epidemiological study of children living near a petrochemical refinery in Cape Town, South Africa. Because of resource constraints and the complexity of refinery emissions, neither direct environmental measurements nor modelling of airborne pollutants was possible. Instead a meteorologically derived exposure metric was calculated with the refinery as the putative point source. The study aimed to determine whether (1 asthma symptom prevalences were elevated compared to comparable areas in Cape Town and (2 whether there was an association between asthma symptom prevalences and the derived exposure metric. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out of all consenting school children aged 11 to 14 years attending schools in a defined area, utilizing the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC written and video questionnaires. Information was collected on potential confounders, e.g. parental history of atopic disease, active and passive smoking by the participant, birth order, number of children in the home and distance from a major road. The exposure metric combined residential distance of each child from the refinery with a wind vector in the form of wind speed, wind direction and proportion of the year blown. Results A total of 2,361 children from 17 schools met the criteria for inclusion. In multivariate analysis, meteorologically estimated exposure (MEE, but not simple distance from the refinery, was positively associated with having to take an inhaler to school [odds ratio per interquartile range (OR 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.06-1.40], and with a number of video elicited asthma symptoms, including recent waking with wheezing (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.06-1.66 and frequent wheezing at rest (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.54. Symptom prevalences were higher than in other areas of the city, with frequent waking with wheezing being in great excess (OR 8.92, 95% CI

  15. Financial Participation of Employees in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauberg, Theis; Muravska, Tatyana; Mygind, Niels

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines main trends in employees' financial participation in Latvia including historical, socioeconomic and legal background. A special emphasis is placed on privatization during the transition period which shaped an environment for employees' financial participation and influenced...... the current state of employee share ownership and profit-sharing. Attitudes of social partners and the government will be addressed. The report will show why the transition process lead to a low level of employees' financial participation and the indifference and ignorance of policy makers concerning...... the development of financial participation....

  16. Zn isotope study of atmospheric emissions and dry depositions within a 5 km radius of a Pb-Zn refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattielli, Nadine; Petit, Jérôme C. J.; Deboudt, Karine; Flament, Pascal; Perdrix, Esperanza; Taillez, Aurélien; Rimetz-Planchon, Juliette; Weis, Dominique

    The present paper examines the use of zinc isotopes as tracers of atmospheric sources and focuses on the potential fractionation of Zn isotopes through anthropogenic processes. In order to do so, Zn isotopic ratios are measured in enriched ores and airborne particles associated with pyrometallurgical activities of one of the major Pb-Zn refineries in France. Supporting the isotopic investigation, this paper also compares morphological and chemical characteristics of Zn particles collected on dry deposition plates ("environmental samples") placed within a 5 km radius of the smelter, with those of Zn particles collected inside the plant ("process samples"), i.e. dust collected from the main exhaust system of the plant. To ensure a constant isotopic "supply", the refinery processed a specific set of ores during the sampling campaigns, as agreed with the executive staff of the plant. Enriched ores and dust produced by the successive Zn extraction steps show strong isotope fractionation (from -0.66 to +0.22‰) mainly related to evaporation processes within the blast furnaces. Dust from the main chimney displays a δ 66Zn value of -0.67‰. Application of the Rayleigh equation to evaluate the fractionation factor associated with the Zn vapor produced after a free evaporation gives a range of αore/vapor from 1.0004 to 1.0008. The dry deposits, collected on plates downwind of the refinery, display δ 66Zn variations of up to +0.7‰. However, it is to be noted that between 190 and 1250 m from the main chimney of the refinery, the dry deposits show a high level of large (>10 μm) Zn, S, Fe and O bearing aggregates characterized by positive δ 66Zn values (+0.02 to +0.19‰). These airborne particles probably derive from the re-suspension of slag heaps and local emissions from the working-units. In contrast, from 1720 to 4560 m, the dry deposits are comprised of small (PM10) particles, including spherical Zn-bearing aggregates, showing negative δ 66Zn values (-0.52 to -0

  17. Chemical composition of individual aerosol particles from working areas in a nickel refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflich, B L; Wentzel, M; Ortner, H M; Weinbruch, S; Skogstad, A; Hetland, S; Thomassen, Y; Chaschin, V P; Nieboer, E

    2000-06-01

    Individual aerosol particles (n = 1170) collected at work stations in a nickel refinery were analyzed by wavelength-dispersive electron-probe microanalysis. By placing arbitrary restrictions on the contents of sulfur and silicon, the particles could be divided into four main groups. Scanning electron images indicated that most of the particles examined were relatively small (refinery intermediates. The implications of the findings for aerosol speciation measurements, toxicological studies and interpretation of adverse health effects are explored.

  18. Analysis of standard and innovative methods for allocating upstream and refinery GHG emissions to oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, Christian; Moro, Alberto; Edwards, Robert; Rocco, Matteo Vincenzo; Colombo, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Traditional and innovative methods for allocating emissions at refinery level are reviewed. •Added value has been introduced as a novel allocation method. •Hydrogen-based consistency test has been introduced to validate the allocation methods. •Consistent allocation methods assign negative refinery emissions to heavy products. -- Abstract: Alternative fuel policies need accurate and transparent methods to find the embedded carbon intensity of individual refinery products. This study investigates different ways of allocating greenhouse gases emissions deriving from refining and upstream crude oil supply. Allocation methods based on mass, energy content, economic value and, innovatively, added-value, are compared with the marginal refining emissions calculated by CONCAWE’s linear-programming model to the average EU refinery, which has been adopted as reference in EU legislation. Beside the most important transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, kerosene/jet fuel and heavy fuel oil), the analysis extends to petroleum coke and refinery hydrogen. Moreover, novel criteria, based on the implications due to hydrogen usage by each fuel pathway, have been introduced to test the consistency of the analyzed approaches. It is found that only two economic-based allocation methods are consistent with the introduced criteria. These two methods also give negative refinery emissions for heavy products, which is coherent with the marginal emissions calculated through the CONCAWE refinery model. The recommended allocation methods are transparent and use only publicly available statistical data, so they may be useful not only for future EU legislation, but also in jurisdictions where a representative refinery model is not available.

  19. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance....... Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by...

  20. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Meng, Jiajia [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Larson, Eric [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Environmental Inst.; Mastro, Kelly [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  1. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector......, who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front...

  2. The energy efficiency of crude oil refining in Brazil: A Brazilian refinery plant case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Romulo S. de; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates energy efficiency in Brazilian crude oil refining in comparison with the crude oil refining in the United States between 1930 and 2008. It aims to show that increased refinery complexity reduces the energy consumption of products of high value added. Moreover, the article shows that improvements in energy efficiency result in higher quality products and increased processing of oil. A Brazilian refinery with a capacity of 157,000 barrels per day (kbpd) was modernized in 2008 at a cost of US $1.3 billion. As a result, its capacity increased by 17%, from 157 to 189 kbpd. Its complexity index also rose from 3.2 to 6.8, allowing an improvement in the EII (energy intensity index) from 110% to 93%. In relation to the crude oil processed before being modernized, energy consumption fell from 0.75 to 0.52 MBtu (million British thermal units) per barrel processed. These proceedings show that increases in complexity reduce the energy consumed in the production of final products with high value added, such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. -- Highlights: → Increased refinery complexity reduces the energy consumption of products of high value added. → Improvements in refinery energy efficiency result in higher quality products and increased processing of oil. → Brazilian refineries were not affected significantly in the 2008 crisis, such as the US refineries, due to many factors. → The EII of Brazilian refining presents real opportunities for gains through changes in the profile of energy consumed.

  3. Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery. The BASF perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankertz, H.J. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the BASF perspective according to opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery. This contribution is divided into the following chapters: (a) Overview BASF-Group; (b) Overview BASF Petrochemicals; (c) The refinery-chemistry interface; (d) Main focus refineries; (e) Interface challenges and opportunities; (f) What can BASF do for refineries. BASF employs the Verbund concept, a system that combines production with energy needs in an intelligent way. The idea is to reduce of primary energy carriers both in terms of raw materials and for power and steam generation. The authors describes the petrochemicals of BASF AG (Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany), the raw material development, evolution of thermal steamcracking and crackerproducts. Major feedstock source of the European petrochemical industry are streams out of refineries which can't be used for transportation fuels. The gap between propylene demand and production out of steam crackers has to be closed by propylene out for FCC's. Demand for aromatics (xylenes and benzene, and to a lesser extent toluene) needs to be filled in by aromatics out of refineries. Market drivers for the refining industry are lowering crude costs, growing clean products, increasing capacity and enhancing E and P integration. BASF has various business with the oil und refining industry and provides solutions for oil field chemicals, process chemicals and performance additives. The author explains which kind of products and services BASF provides for refiners.

  4. Future fuels: Canada's coast-to-coast network of refineries is emerging from a $3-billion-plus spending binge to take the lead in producing low sulphur gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2004-01-01

    A series of investments to convert Canada's 22 operating refineries to produce low-sulphur gasoline are discussed. The investment involves more than $3-billion that will transform Canada's portfolio of aging refineries into one of the most efficient in the western world, and in the process reduce sulphur content in Canadian gasoline to 30 ppm. In some cases the refitting will be completed years ahead of the required 2005 deadline. Total refining capacity in Canada is about 2.5 million barrels per day of crude oil, which includes 580,000 barrels per day of capacity that is dedicated to upgrading bitumen into synthetic crude oil. The initiative to update the refineries was led by Irving Oil, which launched a one billion dollar refit of its 250,000 barrels per day Saint John refinery in the year 2000. Irving Oil's efforts were driven by the company's marketing program in the United States where regional fuel quality standards are higher than national standards either in Canada or the United States. Shell Canada and Imperial Oil are also on track to meet the 30 ppm sulphur level ahead of schedule. For example, Shell Canada is cooperating with Suncor Energy Products in the construction of a hydrotreater at Suncor's Sarnia refinery which will be used to reduce sulphur content of diesel from both the Shell and Suncor refineries, while Imperial Oil is investing over $520 million to refit its refineries in Alberta, Ontario and Nova Scotia. Petro-Canada too, has embarked on a $450 million capital program late in 2003 to introduce low sulphur gasoline; this was in addition to the $1.2 billion program to integrate its bitumen production, upgrading and refining operations. Ultramar launched its $300 million desulphurization program in late 2002; the project is now nearing completion. Refit of Ultramar's Jean Gaulin refinery on Quebec's South Shore will also include a 30,000 barrels per day continuous regeneration platformer to provide a second hydrogen source for the

  5. Strategic Employee Development (SED) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Johnny; Guevara (Castano), Nathalie; Thorpe, Barbara; Barnett, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    As with many other U.S. agencies, succession planning is becoming a critical need for NASA. The primary drivers include (a) NASAs higher-than-average aged workforce with approximately 50 of employees eligible for retirement within 5 years; and (b) employees who need better developmental conversations to increase morale and retention. This problem is particularly concerning for Safety Mission Assurance (SMA) organizations since they traditionally rely on more experienced engineers and specialists to perform their organizations functions.In response to this challenge, the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) SMA organization created the Strategic Employee Development (SED) program. The SED programs goal is to provide a proactive method to counter the primary drivers by creating a deeper bench strength and providing a more comprehensive developmental feedback experience for the employee. The SED is a new succession planning framework that enables customization to any organization, and in this case, specifically for an SMA organization. This is accomplished via the identification of key positions, the corresponding critical competencies, and a process to help managers have relevant and meaningful development conversations with the workforce. As a result of the SED, several tools and products were created that allows management to make better strategic workforce decisions. Although there are opportunities for improvement for the SED program, the most important impact has been on the quality of developmental discussions for employees.

  6. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  7. Effective Retention Strategies for Diverse Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Linda R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses methods to determine why employees leave or stay, based on experiences at Pennsylvania State University libraries. Considers retention tools that work best to retain diverse employees, including mentoring, networking, career and learning opportunities, balance between work and home life, a welcoming climate, and support for research.…

  8. Petroleum refining. 5, refinery operation and management; Le raffinage du petrole. 5. Exploitation et gestion de la raffinerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favennec, J.P. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    In this volume, the reader will find: an analysis of the refining industry's current environment and economics, including the importance of crude oil, the demand for petroleum products, markets and price setting mechanisms for crude oil and oil products, refining costs and margins, the evolution of the refining capacity and of constraints on the industry; a review of the tools available for optimising and controlling operations; an explanation of material balance management and a description of refinery management and organisation. Contents: I. Background to refining. 1. Oil and Energy. 2. Petroleum products applications, characteristics, markets. 3. International oil markets. 4. Refining: a technical summary investments, margins, costs probable future developments. II. Refining tools. 5. Introduction to linear programming as used in the refining industry. 6. Application of linear programming to refining. 7. Automation, process control and information technology. 8. Applications and their implementation. III. Management and organisation. 9. Management and optimisation of refinery operations. 10. Logistics: transport and dispatch. 11. Functional and organisational analysis. 12. Managerial aspects. Glossary. Index. (author)

  9. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of metagenomic libraries of phenol degrading sludge from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cynthia C; Hayden, Helen; Sawbridge, Tim; Mele, Pauline; Kruger, Ricardo H; Rodrigues, Marili Vn; Costa, Gustavo Gl; Vidal, Ramon O; Sousa, Maíra P; Torres, Ana Paula R; Santiago, Vânia Mj; Oliveira, Valéria M

    2012-03-27

    In petrochemical refinery wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), different concentrations of pollutant compounds are received daily in the influent stream, including significant amounts of phenolic compounds, creating propitious conditions for the development of particular microorganisms that can rapidly adapt to such environment. In the present work, the microbial sludge from a refinery WWTP was enriched for phenol, cloned into fosmid vectors and pyrosequenced. The fosmid libraries yielded 13,200 clones and a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the sequence data set revealed a complex and diverse bacterial community in the phenol degrading sludge. The phylogenetic analyses using MEGAN in combination with RDP classifier showed a massive predominance of Proteobacteria, represented mostly by the genera Diaphorobacter, Pseudomonas, Thauera and Comamonas. The functional classification of phenol degrading sludge sequence data set generated by MG-RAST showed the wide metabolic diversity of the microbial sludge, with a high percentage of genes involved in the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of phenol and derivatives. In addition, genes related to the metabolism of many other organic and xenobiotic compounds, such as toluene, biphenyl, naphthalene and benzoate, were found. Results gathered herein demonstrated that the phenol degrading sludge has complex phylogenetic and functional diversities, showing the potential of such community to degrade several pollutant compounds. This microbiota is likely to represent a rich resource of versatile and unknown enzymes which may be exploited for biotechnological processes such as bioremediation.

  10. Prevention of refinery tower plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude : pilot plant evaluation of alternative oil gellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Fyten, G.C.; Tamayo, C.; Funkhouser, G.P. [Haliburton, Houston, TX (United States); Lemieux, A.; Blackmore, T. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Previous studies have described refinery plugging caused by volatile phosphorus components originating from phosphate ester oil gellants as well as two successful field trials of new phosphonate ester oil gellants, which were demonstrated to address this problem. Additional field testing of phosphonate ester gellants directed at optimization of cost and performance has also been previously studied. This paper presented the results of a follow-up study to these previous investigations, as new modified phosphate ester systems were expected to become commercial that would reduce volatile phosphorus. Several questions that required further investigation were discussed in this paper. These included the comparative ability of phosphonate and modified phosphate esters to control volatile phosphorus; tower fouling at higher temperatures in the presence of steam; and, organic halide formations under distillation tower conditions. The paper presented the results of full-scale pilot plant testing that was performed over several days with flowback captured after actual fracturing treatments in order to serve as a guide to the selection of oil gellant systems for reduction of refinery tower and heat exchanger fouling. The study measured fouling of a tray inserted in the pilot plant distillation tower as well as fouling of the packing material. Any changes in operating parameters such as rate, temperature, or pressure over the time of each test were also noted, as these could also be indicative of fouling. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs.

  11. ANTESEDEN EMPLOYEE TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryadi Fardilah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is concerning the effect of workplace environment, job satisfaction, and  job performance on employee turnover, and the background is to get the convenience of employees condition, the satisfaction of job results, maximum performance, and keep and reduce in and out employees. The purpose of this research is to see how far the influence of workplace environment, job satisfaction, and job performance on employee turnover. Planning of this research uses primary data that is got by handing over questioners to 200 employees in Telecommunication company in East Jakarta. The analysis method which is used is double regresi.  Results of  this  research give conclusion that there's a positive and significant influence of workplace environment, job satisfaction, and job performance on employee turnover.

  12. Yields from pyrolysis of refinery residue using a batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prithiraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch pyrolysis was a valuable process of assessing the potential of recovering and characterising products from hazardous waste materials. This research explored the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-rich refinery residue, from crude oil processes, in a 1200 L electrically-heated batch retort. Furthermore, the off-gases produced were easily processed in compliance with existing regulatory emission standards. The methodology offers a novel, cost-effective and environmentally compliant method of assessing recovery potential of valuable products. The pyrolysis experiments yielded significant oil (70% with high calorific value (40 MJ/kg, char (14% with carbon content over 80% and non-condensable gas (6% with significant calorific value (240 kJ/mol. The final gas stream was subjected to an oxidative clean-up process with continuous on-line monitoring demonstrating compliance with South African emission standards. The gas treatment was overall economically optimal as only a smaller portion of the original residue was subjected to emission-controlling steps. Keywords: Batch pyrolysis, Volatiles, Oil yields, Char, Emissions, Oil recovery

  13. Optimization of refinery product blending by using linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristikj, Julija; Tripcheva-Trajkovska, Loreta; Rikaloski, Ice; Markovska, Liljana

    1999-01-01

    The product slate of a simple refinery consists mainly of liquefied petroleum gas, leaded and unleaded gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, extra light heating oil and fuel oil. The quality of the oil products (fuels) for sale has to comply with the adopted standards for liquid fuels, and the produced quantities have to be comply with the market needs. The oil products are manufactured by blending two or more different fractions which quantities and physical-chemical properties depend on the crude oil type, the way and conditions of processing, and at the same time the fractions are used to blend one or more products. It is in producer's interest to do the blending in an optimal way, namely, to satisfy the requirements for the oil products quality and quantity with a maximal usage of the available fractions and, of course, with a maximal profit out of the sold products. This could be accomplished by applying linear programming, that is by using a linear model for oil products blending optimization. (Author)

  14. Purification and detoxification of petroleum refinery wastewater by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousmi, N; Sahmi, A; Li, H Z; Poncin, S; Djebbar, R; Bensadok, K

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of synthetic oily wastewater having the characteristics of a typical petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) by electrocoagulation (EC) using iron and aluminum electrodes was conducted in an electrolytic reactor equipped with fluid recirculation. During the treatment, the emulsion stability was followed by the measurement of Zeta potential and particle sizes. Effects of some operating conditions such as electrodes material, current density and electrolysis time on removal efficiencies of turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were investigated in detail. The PRW purification by the EC process was found to be the most effective using aluminum as the anode and cathode, current density of 60 A/m(2) and 30 min of electrolysis time. Under these conditions, the process efficiencies were 83.52% and 99.94%, respectively, for COD and turbidity removals which correspond to final values of 96 mg O2/L and 0.5 NTU. A moderate energy consumption (0.341 kWh) was needed to treat 1 m(3) of PRW. Besides, the ecotoxicity test proved that toxic substances presented in the PRW, and those inhibiting the germination growth of whet, were eliminated by the EC technique.

  15. Commissioning and startup of the Blind River uranium refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schisler, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the last five years Eldorado Resources Ltd. (ERL) has undergone a major expansion and modernization of its uranium refining and conversion plants. A new refinery for processing yellow cake to UO/sub 3/ was constructed at Blind River in northern Ontario and started up in 1983. Its rated capacity is 18,000 t/a uranium as UO/sub 3/. At Port Hope, Ontario, ERL's new UF/sub 6/ conversion plant has been constructed. This plant started up in 1984. It utilizes the novel, wet-way process to produce UF/sub 4/ and gives the company a UF/sub 6/ production capacity of 14,500 t/a U. Also at Port Hope is Eldorado's ceramic UO/sub 2/ powder production facility, commissioned in late 1980. It has a capacity of 1700 t/a uranium as UO/sub 2/. With the completion of these capital projects, Eldorado has the largest and most up-to-date refining and conversion facilities in the western world. This paper reviews the refining process and process design. The methodology used to start up the Blind River plant is described as are some startup difficulties, solutions that were developed, and the resultant current operation

  16. Regeneration and reuse waste from an edible oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerroui, Abdelhamid; Belhocine, Lydia; Ferroudj, Sonia

    2017-08-21

    A spent bleaching earth (SBE) from an edible oil refinery has been regenerated by thermal processing in oven, followed by washing with a cold solution of hydrochloric acid (1M). Optimal regeneration conditions have been controlled by decolorization tests of degummed and neutralized soybean oil. Optimal values of treatment (temperature 350°C, carbonization time 01 h, and HCl concentration 1M) gave a very efficient material. After bleaching oil by regenerated spent bleaching earth (RSBE), the chlorophyll-a and β-carotenes contained in crude edible oil and observed respectively at 430, 454, and 483 nm, value of λ max , are very much decreased. The results obtained after decolorization of edible oil by RSBE material indicate, that, during the process, the bleaching oil did not undergo any changes in the free fatty acid content. The peroxide value (PV) was reduced from 4.2 to 1.8 meq O 2 /kg, and the color has been improved (Lovibond color yellow/red: from 50/0.5 to 2.7/0.3, respectively). The RSBE material obtained was characterized by several techniques (FTIR, SEM). The results show that the heat treatment did not affect the mineral structure of RSBE, and the regenerated material recovered its porous structure.

  17. Treatment of petroleum refinery sourwater by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Alessandra; Castro, Antonio V.; Dezotti, Marcia; Sant'Anna, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of several oxidation processes to remove organic pollutants from sourwater was investigated. Sourwater is a specific stream of petroleum refineries, which contains slowly biodegradable compounds and toxic substances that impair the industrial biological wastewater treatment system. Preliminary experiments were conducted, using the following processes: H 2 O 2 , H 2 O 2 /UV, UV, photocatalysis, ozonation, Fenton and photo-Fenton. All processes, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not lead to satisfactory results, reducing at most 35% of the sourwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Thus, further experiments were performed with these two techniques to evaluate process conditions and organic matter removal kinetics. Batch experiments revealed that the Fenton reaction is very fast and reaches, in a few minutes, an ultimate DOC removal of 13-27%, due to the formation of iron complexes. Radiation for an additional period of 60 min can increase DOC removal up to 87%. Experiments were also conducted in a continuous mode, operating one 0.4 L Fenton stirred reactor and one 1.6 L photo-Fenton reactor in series. DOC removals above 75% were reached, when the reaction system was operated with hydraulic retention times (HRT) higher than 85 min. An empirical mathematical model was proposed to represent the DOC removal kinetics, allowing predicting process performance quite satisfactorily

  18. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  19. Comparative study of Fischer–Tropsch production and post-combustion CO2 capture at an oil refinery: Economic evaluation and GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Daniella; Franck, Per-Åke; Pettersson, Karin; Berntsson, Thore

    2013-01-01

    The impact on CO 2 emissions of integrating new technologies (a biomass-to-Fischer–Tropsch fuel plant and a post-combustion CO 2 capture plant) with a complex refinery has previously been investigated separately by the authors. In the present study these designs are integrated with a refinery and evaluated from the point-of-view of economics and GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) emissions and are compared to a reference refinery. Stand-alone Fischer–Tropsch fuel production is included for comparison. To account for uncertainties in the future energy market, the assessment has been conducted for different future energy market conditions. For the post-combustion CO 2 capture process to be profitable, the present study stresses the importance of a high charge for CO 2 emission. A policy support for biofuels is essential for the biomass-to-Fischer–Tropsch fuel production to be profitable. The level of the support, however, differs depending on scenario. In general, a high charge for CO 2 economically favours Fischer–Tropsch fuel production, while a low charge for CO 2 economically favours Fischer–Tropsch fuel production. Integrated Fischer–Tropsch fuel production is most profitable in scenarios with a low wood fuel price. The stand-alone alternative shows no profitability in any of the studied scenarios. Moreover, the high investment costs make all the studied cases sensitive to variations in capital costs. - Highlights: • Comparison of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) fuel production and CO 2 capture at a refinery. • Subsidies for renewable fuels are essential for FT fuel production to be profitable. • A high charge for CO 2 is essential for post-combustion CO 2 capture to be profitable. • A low charge for CO 2 economically favours FT fuel production. • Of the studied cases, CO 2 capture shows the greatest reduction in GHG emissions

  20. Towards effective waste management. Knowledge centre Waste Refinery Activity Report 2007-2009; Mot effektivare avfallshantering. Kunskapscentrum Waste Refinery Verksamhetsrapport 2007-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This report aims to provide a comprehensive picture of the areas that have been discussed and developed during the knowledge centre Waste Refinery first three years. Details and depth analyzes of each area are contained in project reports, which can be downloaded free of charge through our website www.wasterefinery.se

  1. [Employee assistance program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Satoru; Tanaka, Katsutoshi; Ohba, Sayo

    2002-03-01

    Recently the EAP has received much attention in Japan. The first EAP service in the US was conducted by employees who had recovered from alcohol problems. In the early days EAP providers focused on addiction, but mainly after 1980 they expanded their service areas to include mental health, marital problems, legal problems and financial problems. In Japan the EAP was first received attention as a counseling resource outside the workplace where employees could seek professional help confidentially, but the main reasons why this system now interests employers are as a risk-management tool and an outsourcing of mental health services, since the growing number of mental health cases in the workplace has been a big issue for employers. Two movements have also contributed to more recognition of the EAP: one is guidelines on compensation for mental health cases in the workplace and the other is guidelines on mental health promotion in the workplace. There are four types of EAP systems: internal EAP, external EAP, combination EAP, and consortium EAP. EAP core technology consists of 8 functions including problem identification, Crisis intervention, Short-term intervention, Consultation with work organization leader. The literature on cost-benefit analysis of the EAP is very limited. Although the available data suggest that the EAP is highly cost-effective, further studies are needed with the sufficient statistical quality. In Japan the most important issues in the EAP are the standardization and quality assurance of EAP services. For this purpose development of a good educational system for EAP professionals is needed.

  2. Pursuing the pre-combustion CCS route in oil refineries – The impact on fired heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weydahl, Torleif; Jamaluddin, Jamal; Seljeskog, Morten; Anantharaman, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The aim is to approach Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) to refinery fired heaters. ► An identical simplified burner configuration is applied where refinery fuel is replaced with hydrogen. ► Initial simulations indicate that hydrogen replacement do not alter heater operation in a negative way. ► Despite the higher flame temperature in the hydrogen case, the NO x emissions are not higher. ► The prompt-NO mechanism contributes significantly in the refinery fuel case. -- Abstract: The work presented in this paper investigates the effect of replacing refinery fuel gas in the radiant section burners of a fired heater with hydrogen. The aim is to approach pre-combustion CCS to refinery fired heaters by identifying the impact on heat-, flow- and radiation distribution in the lower radiant section of the fired heater when simply switching refinery gas with hydrogen at equivalent power using the same burner geometrics. Additionally the formation of NO x is considered. The investigations are performed using a conventional Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS), Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach using detailed reaction kinetics consisting of 325 elementary reactions and 53 species. Simplified and generalized furnace and burner geometries are used in the present work. The results show that approximately the same average wall heat flux density is achieved when the refinery fuel is replaced by hydrogen. However, the distribution of heat on the inner surfaces changes. The hydrogen case has, as expected, a higher flame temperature than the base case, nevertheless, the nitric oxide (NO x ) emissions are comparable to base case emissions. Several indications point in the direction of a significant contribution to the base case emissions from the less temperature dependent prompt-NO mechanism, which obviously is not contributing to the hydrogen case emissions.

  3. Urinary excretion of platinum from South African precious metals refinery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Stephanus J L; Franken, Anja; du Plessis, Johannes L

    2018-03-30

    Urinary platinum (Pt) excretion is a reliable biomarker for occupational Pt exposure and has been previously reported for precious metals refinery workers in Europe but not for South Africa, the world's largest producer of Pt. This study aimed to quantify the urinary Pt excretion of South African precious metals refinery workers. Spot urine samples were collected from 40 workers (directly and indirectly exposed to Pt) at two South African precious metals refineries on three consecutive mornings prior to their shifts. Urine samples were analysed for Pt using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and were corrected for creatinine content. The urinary Pt excretion of workers did not differ significantly between sampling days. Urinary Pt excretions ranged from work area (P=0.0006; η 2 =0.567) and the number of years workers were employed at the refineries (P=0.003; η 2 =0.261) influenced their urinary Pt excretion according to effect size analyses. Directly exposed workers had significantly higher urinary Pt excretion compared with indirectly exposed workers (P=0.007). The urinary Pt excretion of South African precious metals refinery workers reported in this study is comparable with that of seven other studies conducted in precious metals refineries and automotive catalyst plants in Europe. The Pt body burden of workers is predominantly determined by their work area, years of employment in the refineries and whether they are directly or indirectly exposed to Pt. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra; Kumar, Ravi; Mehlman, Stewart

    2010-06-21

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities

  5. Industrial wastewater reuse in petroleum refinery using the WSD for regeneration systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Yokoyama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater reuse practices in the industry require an adequate understanding of the characteristics of the manufacture processes, to minimize the water consumption and the generation of effluent. The objective of this work was to apply the WSD method, used to defining the target of minimum process water consumption in a case study of oil refinery, by means of the reuse and recycling operations, including regeneration processes. The importance and influence of the wastewater treatment plant in the regeneration quality, including intermediate process streams, for the reuse and the recycling operations, were evaluated. Furthermore, centralized and distributed treatment flowsheet configurations were tested. Thus, this work presented the solution of a case study with three contaminants in water streams processes, different interconnections approaches, used to illustrate the application of this procedure showing the reduction of water flow rate and total costs compared to the original flowsheet. The scenarios revealed to be greatly promising, and flowsheet configurations were reached with higher than 4 % and 20 % of reduction in the water flow rate consumption and the total costs, respectively. Regarding the ecoefficiency processes, the results demonstrate that the applied technique is successful when the minimum water consumption is the main goal in the industry.

  6. Optimisation of petroleum refinery water network systems retrofit incorporating reuse, regeneration and recycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khor, Cheng Seong; Shah, Nilay [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Mahadzir, Shuhaimi [Universiti Teknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Elkamel, Ali [University of Waterloo (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Increasingly strict environmental regulations have given rise to higher requirements for operating efficiency and optimization and water has become a vital resource in the refining process and allied industries. Due to this high demand for water, plants may be exposed to supply interruptions and shortages in the future. Major concerns in the petroleum refining industry are the scarcity of fresh water supply and increasingly rigid rules on wastewater discharge, which have resulted from concerns over the environmental impact. This paper presents the efforts made to develop an optimization framework for design of petroleum refinery water network systems and retrofitting that incorporates reuse, regeneration, and recycling strategies. This framework includes the complementary advantage of water pinch analysis (WPA). Water minimization strategies were incorporated as first postulates in a superstructural representation that includes all feasible flow-sheet options for taking advantage of water reuse, regeneration and recycling opportunities. Additionally, a post-optimization analysis was carried out to evaluate the repeated treatment processes required to identify the most efficient retrofit option.

  7. Employees as Customers: Exploring Service Climate, Employee Patronage, and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abston, Kristie A.; Kupritz, Virginia W.

    2011-01-01

    The role of retail employees as customers was explored by quantitatively examining the influence of service climate and employee patronage on employee turnover intentions. Employees representing all shifts in two stores of a national retailer participated. Results indicated that employee patronage partially mediates the effects of service climate…

  8. Analysis of accidents in nine Iranian gas refineries: 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, R; Bolouri, A; Shakibmanesh, A R

    2013-10-01

    Occupational accidents are one of the major health hazards in industries and associated with high mortality, morbidity, spiritual damage and economic losses in the world. To determine the incidence of occupational accidents in 9 Iranian gas refineries between March 2007 and February 2011. Data on all occupational accidents occurred between March 2007 and February 2011, as well as other possible associated variables including time of accident, whether the accident was due to a personal or systemic fault, type of accident and its outcomes, age and gender of the victim, the injured parts of the body, job experience, and type of employment, were extracted from HSE reports and notes of health care services. Based on these data, we calculated the incidence rate of accidents and assessed the associated factors. During the 5 studied years, 1129 accidents have been recorded. The incidence of fatal accidents was 1.64 per 100 000 and of nonfatal accidents was 1857 per 100 000 workers per year. 99.4% of injured workers were male. The mean±SD age of injured people was 29.6±7.3 years. Almost 70% of injured workers aged under 30 years. The mean±SD job experience was 5.3±5.3 years. Accidents occurred more commonly around 10:00. More than 60% of accidents happened between 8:00 and 15:00. July had the highest incidence rate. The most common type of accident was being struck by an object (48%). More than 94% of accidents are caused by personal rather than systemic faults. Hands and wrists were the most common injured parts and involved in more than one-third of accidents. 70% of injured workers needed medical treatment and returned to work after primary treatment. The pattern of occupational accidents in Iranian gas refineries is similar to other previous reports in many ways. The incidence did not change significantly over the study period. Establishment of an online network for precise registration, notification and meticulous data collection seems necessary.

  9. Employee responses to health insurance premium increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana P; Leibowitz, Arleen A; Robalino, David A

    2004-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity of employees' health insurance decisions--including the decision to not choose health maintenance organization or fee-for-service coverage--during periods of rapidly escalating healthcare costs. A retrospective cohort study of employee plan choices at a single large firm with a "cafeteria-style" benefits plan wherein employees paid all the additional cost of purchasing more generous insurance. We modeled the probability that an employee would drop coverage or switch plans in response to employee premium increases using data from a single large US company with employees across 47 states during the 3-year period of 1989 through 1991, a time of large premium increases within and across plans. Premium increases induced substantial plan switching. Single employees were more likely to respond to premium increases by dropping coverage, whereas families tended to switch to another plan. Premium increases of 10% induced 7% of single employees to drop or severely cut back on coverage; 13% to switch to another plan; and 80% to remain in their existing plan. Similar figures for those with family coverage were 11%, 12%, and 77%, respectively. Simulation results that control for known covariates show similar increases. When faced with a dramatic increase in premiums--on the order of 20%--nearly one fifth of the single employees dropped coverage compared with 10% of those with family coverage. Employee coverage decisions are sensitive to rapidly increasing premiums, and single employees may be likely to drop coverage. This finding suggests that sustained premium increases could induce substantial increases in the number of uninsured individuals.

  10. 20 CFR 336.5 - Notice to employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.5 Notice to employee. The Board will notify... will be exhausted. Such notice will include information about the availability of extended benefits... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to employee. 336.5 Section 336.5...

  11. 20 CFR 203.7 - Local lodge employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local lodge employee. 203.7 Section 203.7... THE ACT § 203.7 Local lodge employee. An individual who, prior to January 1, 1937, shall have rendered service to a local lodge or division of a railway labor organization included as an employer under section...

  12. 29 CFR 825.209 - Maintenance of employee benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...” shall not include an insurance program providing health coverage under which employees purchase... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical... maintain the employee's coverage under any group health plan (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code of...

  13. The role of managers in addressing employees with musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Konring; Falkenstrøm, Signe; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates management awareness of employee musculoskeletal pain and conditions that shape managers’ handling of employees with pain. Methods We used a mixed methods design including data from a questionnaire survey and focus group sessions. All employees and managers from...

  14. Fuel specification, energy consumption and CO2 emission in oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The more stringent environmental quality specifications for oil products worldwide are tending to step up energy use and, consequently, CO 2 emissions at refineries. In Brazil, for example, the stipulated reduction in the sulfur content of diesel and gasoline between 2002 and 2009 should increase the energy use of Brazil's refining industry by around 30%, with effects on its CO 2 emissions. Thus, the world refining industry must deal with trade-offs between emissions of pollutants with local impacts (due to fuel specifications) and emissions of pollutants with global impacts (due to the increased energy use at refineries to remove contaminants from oil products). Two promising technology options for refineries could ease this clash in the near-to-mid term: the reduction per se of the energy use at the refinery; and the development of treatment processes using non-hydrogen consuming techniques. For instance, in Brazilian refineries, the expanded energy use resulting from severe hydrotreatment to comply with the more stringent specifications of oil products may be almost completely offset by energy saving options and alternative desulfurization techniques, if barriers to invest in technological innovations are overcome. (author)

  15. Feasibility of flare gas reformation to practical energy in Farashband gas refinery: no gas flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Mohammad Reaza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2012-03-30

    A suggested method for controlling the level of hazardous materials in the atmosphere is prevention of combustion in flare. In this work, three methods are proposed to recover flare gas instead of conventional gas-burning in flare at the Farashband gas refinery. These methods aim to minimize environmental and economical disadvantages of burning flare gas. The proposed methods are: (1) gas to liquid (GTL) production, (2) electricity generation with a gas turbine and, (3) compression and injection into the refinery pipelines. To find the most suitable method, the refinery units that send gas to the flare as well as the required equipment for the three aforementioned methods are simulated. These simulations determine the amount of flare gas, the number of GTL barrels, the power generated by the gas turbine and the required compression horsepower. The results of simulation show that 563 barrels/day of valuable GTL products is produced by the first method. The second method provides 25 MW electricity and the third method provides a compressed natural gas with 129 bar pressure for injection to the refinery pipelines. In addition, the economics of flare gas recovery methods are studied and compared. The results show that for the 4.176MMSCFD of gas flared from the Farashband gas refinery, the electricity production gives the highest rate of return (ROR), the lowest payback period, the highest annual profit and mild capital investment. Therefore, the electricity production is the superior method economically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy demand analysis of Port-Harcourt refinery, Nigeria and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesuleye, O.A.; Siyanbola, W.O.; Sanni, S.A.; Ilori, M.O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses energy demand of Port-Harcourt refinery, Nigeria, based on information obtained from its annual publications, backed-up by spot interviews. The analytical approach adopted for the study involves the calculation of energy intensities to determine the refinery's annual energy demand for various energy types considered from 1989 to 2004. The results showed that the actual energy demand per year for processing crude oil into refined products, exceeded, in varying degrees the stipulated refinery standard of 4 barrels of oil equivalent (BOE) per 100 BOE. It varied from 4.28-8.58 BOE per 100 BOE. In terms of energy demand efficiency, this implies very poor performance of the refinery during the 16-year period under investigation. The excess demand which translates to an average daily wastage of about 2005 BOE is estimated to be $56,196 (US Dollars) based on the 2003 OPEC basket price of $28.0213 per barrel. Lack of optimal fuel utilization-mix and non-compliance with the Turn-Around-Maintenance schedules were attributed to the refinery's inefficient energy demand pattern

  17. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, John D.

    2004-01-01

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production

  18. Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Hermine Zagat

    1985-01-01

    The author reports company responses to a questionnaire concerning employee assistance programs (EAP). Answers concern EAP structure, staff training, use of outside consultant, services provided by EAPs, program administration, employee confidence in EAPs, advertising the program, program philosophy, problems encountered by EAP users, coverage and…

  19. Employees as social intrapreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    2016-01-01

    Employees form an important but less explored and utilized resource in social innovation in social welfare organisations it the third and public sectors. The employees have important knowledge of the everyday challenges of the organisations, the wishes and needs of their users and customers......, and of the local communities which can inspire and refine innovations. They are active, albeit not always consciously so and potential social intrapreneurs. Although wider international research exists the Nordic research seems to dominate the field. The aim of this chapter is to contribute to the existing...... research on employees as social intrapreneurs (the fields of employee-driven innovation and social intrapreneurship) by conceptualizing active employee participation in social innovation and elucidate the potential and multiplicity of the phenomenon. The chapter is theoretical explorative....

  20. DEVELOP CREATIVE EMPLOYEES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    THAT SOME MANAGERS MUST BE ABLE TO HELP EMPLOYEES DEVELOP OR APPLY CREATIVITY. IN THIS CONFERENCE PAPER WE WILL ANALYSE A CASE STUDY IN ORDER TO PRODUCE A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR IDENTIFYING WHEN AND HOW EMPLOYEES BECOME CREATIVE AT WORK. AN ESSENTIAL ASPECT OF THIS CONFERENCE PAPER WILL BE ANALYZING......PREVIOUS STUDIES (e.g. Hertel, 2015) HAS SHOWN THAT SOME CLEANING INDUSTRIES ARE ACTUALLY REQUIRING CREATIVE EMPLOYEES. HUMAN BEINGS ARE (c.f. Richards, 2010) BY DEFINITION CREATIVE BUT NOT ALL EMPLOYEES ARE USED TO OR ACTUALLY ALLOWED TO APPLY CREATIVITY IN EVERYDAY ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE. THIS MEANS...... THE CREATIVITY PRODUCED BY EMPLOEES. ANALYZING THE CREATIVITY PRODUCED WILL HELP US DEVELOP A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING HOW CREATIVE THE EMPLOYEES ACTUALLY BECOMES....

  1. Characteristics and Pay of Federal Civilian Employees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...) examined the attributes of a subset of the government's civilian workforce: the roughly 1.4 million salaried workers not including employees of the Postal Service who fill full-time permanent positions in the executive branch...

  2. Biorefineries: Relocating Biomass Refineries to the Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Papendiek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The field for application of biomass is rising. The demand for food and feeding stuff rises while at the same time energy, chemicals and other materials also need to be produced from biomass because of decreasing fossil resources. However, the biorefinery ideas and concepts can help to use the limited renewable raw materials more efficiently than today. With biorefineries, valuable products, such as platform chemicals, can be produced from agricultural feedstock, which can subsequently be further processed into a variety of substances by the chemical industry. Due to the role they play as producers of biomass, rural areas will grow in importance in the decades to come. Parts of the biorefinery process can be relocated to the rural areas to bring a high added value to these regions. By refining biomass at the place of production, new economic opportunities may arise for agriculturists, and the industry gets high-grade pre-products. Additionally, an on-farm refining can increase the quality of the products because of the instant processing. To reduce competition with the food production and to find new possibilities of utilisation for these habitats, the focus for new agricultural biomass should be on grasslands. But also croplands can provide more renewable raw materials without endangering a sustainable agriculture, e.g. by implementing legumes in the crop rotation. To decide if a region can provide adequate amounts of raw material for a biorefinery, new raw material assessment procedures have to be developed. In doing so, involvement of farmers is inevitable to generate a reliable study of the biomass refinery potentials.

  3. Characterization of oily sludge from a Tehran oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Nima; Gitipour, Saeid; Abdoli, Mohammad Ali

    2010-10-01

    In this study, oily sludge samples generated from a Tehran oil refinery (Pond I) were evaluated for their contamination levels and to propose an adequate remediation technique for the wastes. A simple, random, sampling method was used to collect the samples. The samples were analyzed to measure Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metal concentrations in the sludge. Statistical analysis showed that seven samples were adequate to assess the sludge with respect to TPH analyses. The mean concentration of TPHs in the samples was 265,600 mg kg⁻¹. A composite sample prepared from a mix of the seven samples was used to determine the sludge's additional characteristics. Composite sample analysis showed that there were no detectable amounts of PAHs in the sludge. In addition, mean concentrations of the selected heavy metals Ni, Pb, Cd and Zn were 2700, 850, 100, 6100 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. To assess the sludge contamination level, the results from the analysis above were compared with soil clean-up levels. Due to a lack of national standards for soil clean-up levels in Iran, sludge pollutant concentrations were compared with standards set in developed countries. According to these standards, the sludge was highly polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. The results indicated that incineration, biological treatment and solidification/stabilization treatments would be the most appropriate methods for treatment of the sludges. In the case of solidification/stabilization, due to the high organic content of the sludge, it is recommended to use organophilic clays prior to treatment of the wastes.

  4. Sensitivity of screening-level toxicity tests using soils from a former petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, S.; Bureau, J.; Roy, Y.; Allen, B.; Robidoux, P.Y.; Soucy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors tested five composite soil samples from a former refinery. The samples included a reference soil (Mineral Oil and Grease, MO and G < 40 ppm), thermally-treated soil, biotreated soil, and two untreated soils. They evaluated toxicity using the earthworm E. foetida, lettuce, cress, barley, Microtox, green algae, fathead minnow, and D. magna. The endpoints measured were lethality, seed germination, root elongation, growth, and bioluminescence. Toxicity, as measured by the number of positive responses, increased as follows: biotreated soil < untreated soil No. 1 < reference soil < thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2. The biotreated soil generated only one positive response, whereas the thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2 generated five positive responses. The most sensitive and discriminant terrestrial endpoint was lettuce root elongation which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was barley seed germination for which no toxicity was detected. The most sensitive and discriminant aquatic endpoint was green algae growth which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was D. magna for which no toxicity was detected. Overall, soil and aqueous extract toxicity was spotty and no consistent patterns emerged to differentiate the five soils. Biotreatment significantly reduced the effects of the contamination. Aqueous toxicity was measured in the reference soil, probably because of the presence of unknown dissolved compounds in the aqueous extract. Finally, clear differences in sensitivity existed among the test species

  5. Gasification of refinery sludge in an updraft reactor for syngas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Reem; Eldmerdash, Usama [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Sinnathambi, Chandra M., E-mail: chandro@petronas.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    The study probes into the investigation on gasification of dry refinery sludge. The details of the study includes; influence of operation time, oxidation temperature and equivalence ratios on carbon gas conversion rate, gasification efficiency, heating value and fuel gas yield are presented. The results show that, the oxidation temperature increased sharply up to 858°C as the operating time increased up to 36 min then bridging occurred at 39 min which cause drop in reaction temperature up to 819 °C. This bridging was found to affect also the syngas compositions, meanwhile as the temperature decreased the CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} compositions are also found to be decreases. Higher temperature catalyzed the reduction reaction (CO{sub 2}+C = 450 2CO), and accelerated the carbon conversion and gasification efficiencies, resulted in more solid fuel is converted to a high heating value gas fuel. The equivalence ratio of 0.195 was found to be the optimum value for carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies, high heating value of gas, and fuel gas yield to reach their maximum values of 96.1 % and 53.7 %, 5.42 MJ Nm{sup −3} of, and 2.5 Nm{sup 3} kg{sup −1} respectively.

  6. Feasibility study on an energy conservation project at Tabriz Refinery in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a feasibility study has been executed to discuss applicable measures on oil refining facilities in Tabriz Oil Refinery in Islamic Republic of Iran. The discussion objects are the ten devices related to atmospheric and reduced pressure distillation, visbreaker, naphtha hydrogenating desulfurization, naphtha contact reforming, reduced pressure hydro-cracking of light oil, hydrogen manufacturing, amine rinsing, asphalt manufacturing, and boilers. Major improvement items include: modification of the excessive air ratio control facility, installation of a superheating furnace waste gas recovering device, additional installation of heat exchangers in the raw material oil preheating system, and increased heat recovery by improving distribution of distillation column reflux. As a result of the feasibility study, the investment recovery performance was anticipated to be contained within about five years, with consideration on procurement of some of the devices in Iran. The approximate investment amount would be 2 billion yen, the annual fuel saving amount would be about 660 million yen, and the energy saving ratio would be 13.5%. The carbon dioxide emission quantity would be reduced annually by about 155.8 tons, as contrasted to the annual emission of 1,158,000 tons from the existing facilities. (NEDO)

  7. Multivariate approach to assessing ecotoxicity on abandoned oil refinery environments: Study site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochmiller, R.L.; Yates, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecology risk assessment requires a clear understanding of how complex mixtures of environmental contaminants impact terrestrial ecosystems. This assessment process could be more universally applied to terrestrial ecosystems with better defined assay systems for evaluating impacts of exposure on organisms, populations, and communities. The authors objective was to define and assess the efficacy of a battery of assays incorporating both standard biological toxicity test and in situ biomonitors for evaluating ecological risks on terrestrial environments contaminated with complex mixtures of petrochemicals on a 160 acre abandoned oil refinery in central Oklahoma. Three suspected contaminated and three uncontaminated reference sites were selected for intensive study. Habitat on each study site is representative of disturbed tall-grass prairie and supports dense, diverse small mammal communities. Soil samples were subjected to aqueous extraction and resulting leachates analyzed for heavy metals, selected ions, and organics. Analytical results support their initial assessment that toxic study sites were contaminated with complex mixtures including lead, zinc, arsenic, chloride, sulfate, potassium, and complex mixtures of polar and non-polar organics

  8. Population and community profiles of small mammals inhabiting an abandoned oil refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurry, S.T.; Lochmiller, R.L.; McBee, K.; Burks, S.L.; Quails, C.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques were used to assess population and community dynamics of resident small mammals on three contaminated and three reference sites located on or near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma. Contaminated sites included areas adjacent to oil sludge containment and sedimentation pits and a land farm for treating oily sludges. Reference sites were selected based on their ecological similarity to contaminated sites. Small mammals were trapped from January 1991 to August 1992 at eight week intervals except during summer and winter during which traps were checked at 3 week intervals. Diversity was typically highest on toxic sites due primarily to the presence of house mice (Mus musculus). Similarity in small mammal community composition between sites differed most in summer. Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were the most abundant species on all sites. Reproductive activity of adult female cotton rats and survival of trappable cotton rats did not differ between sites. However, minimum number known alive and recruitment of juveniles was highest on references sites, indicating that in-utero and neonatal survival may differ between reference and contaminated sites

  9. Bioremediation of wastewater from edible oil refinery factory using oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Cho Cho; Fan, Yong; Li, Fu-Li; Hu, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Edible oil industry produced massive wastewater, which requires extensive treatment to remove pungent smell, high phosphate, carbon oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions prior to discharge. Traditional anaerobic and aerobic digestion could mainly reduce COD of the wastewater from oil refinery factories (WEORF). In this study, a robust oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 was adapted to grow in WEORF. The biomass and lipid content of Desmodesmus sp. S1 cultivated in the WEORF supplemented with sodium nitrate were 5.62 g·L(-1) and 14.49%, whereas those in the WEORF without adding nitrate were 2.98 g·L(-1) and 21.95%. More than 82% of the COD and 53% of total phosphorous were removed by Desmodesmus sp. S1. In addition, metal ions, including ferric, aluminum, manganese and zinc were also diminished significantly in the WEORF after microalgal growth, and pungent smell vanished as well. In comparison with the cells grown in BG-11 medium, the cilia-like bulges and wrinkles on the cell surface of Desmodesmus sp. S1 grown in WEORF became out of order, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected due to stress derived from the wastewater. The study suggests that growing microalgae in WEORF can be applied for the dual roles of nutrient removal and biofuel feedstock production.

  10. Gasification of refinery sludge in an updraft reactor for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Reem; Eldmerdash, Usama; Sinnathambi, Chandra M.

    2014-01-01

    The study probes into the investigation on gasification of dry refinery sludge. The details of the study includes; influence of operation time, oxidation temperature and equivalence ratios on carbon gas conversion rate, gasification efficiency, heating value and fuel gas yield are presented. The results show that, the oxidation temperature increased sharply up to 858°C as the operating time increased up to 36 min then bridging occurred at 39 min which cause drop in reaction temperature up to 819 °C. This bridging was found to affect also the syngas compositions, meanwhile as the temperature decreased the CO, H 2 , CH 4 compositions are also found to be decreases. Higher temperature catalyzed the reduction reaction (CO 2 +C = 450 2CO), and accelerated the carbon conversion and gasification efficiencies, resulted in more solid fuel is converted to a high heating value gas fuel. The equivalence ratio of 0.195 was found to be the optimum value for carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies, high heating value of gas, and fuel gas yield to reach their maximum values of 96.1 % and 53.7 %, 5.42 MJ Nm −3 of, and 2.5 Nm 3 kg −1 respectively

  11. Meteorologically estimated exposure but not distance predicts asthma symptoms in schoolchildren in the environs of a petrochemical refinery: a cross-sectional study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    White, N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Community concern about asthma prompted an epidemiological study of children living near a petrochemical refinery in Cape Town, South Africa. Because of resource constraints and the complexity of refinery emissions, neither direct environmental...

  12. Benefits for employees with children with ADHD: findings from the Collaborative Employee Benefit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, James M; Fluet, Chris; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Anderson, Betsy; Wells, Nora; Epstein, Susan; Allen, Debby; Tobias, Carol

    2005-02-01

    Parents of most children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are employed. Employers have interest in decreasing employee absenteeism and improving workplace productivity, partly through employee benefits. The authors interviewed employers to (1) determine how they view the needs of employees with children with ADHD and (2) identify benefits that might help employees with children with ADHD. The authors carried out a systematic interview study of mainly family-friendly, large employers in four U.S. urban markets (Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle). Multidisciplinary interview teams used a protocol to gather basic company information, benefit philosophy, current insurance and other employee benefits, and knowledge of ADHD and its impacts on employees. Initially, the interview team and then the larger project team reviewed all protocols for common themes. The authors interviewed staff of 41 employers (human resource managers, work/life program directors, benefits directors). Only 15 of 41 interviewees knew about ADHD, its prevalence, or its effects on parents. They had little knowledge of how differences in managed behavioral health may affect families' access to diagnostic and treatment services for ADHD, although most had experience with primary care management of depression among employees. Employers offer a variety of other benefits, including work/life and employee assistance programs, occasionally providing employees help with caring for a child with a mental health condition, on-site parent training programs, or assistance with child care. Other potentially useful employee benefits include flexible work and leave policies and information and referral services that can link parents with community programs. Although employers have limited awareness of ADHD and its potential effect on employees' work, this study identified opportunities to improve both health insurance and other benefits for employees with children with ADHD.

  13. Air Pollution Dispersion Modeling of Abadan oil Refinery Using SCREEN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati Rad, F.; Salman-Mahini, A.; Mirkarimi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major problem that has been recognized throughout the world. Refineriers normally create environmental pollution through emissions of pollutants gaseous from a variety of sources. Analysing air pollution distribution and dispersion can help in reducing the negative effects. In this study NO_X and SO_2 emissions and distributions were investigated for Abadan oil refinery using SCREEN3 software. In this softweare, wind speed and direction, air temperature, location and physical characteristics of chimnies and atmospheric stability were taken into consideration.The concentration of pollutants in different distances from the stacks in the range 25 km were predicted and mapped in Idrisi software. The output from software SCREEN3 for emissions from stacks were also examined and compared with the standard output of the refineries. According to our results, the concentration of pollutants in summer and autumn seasons exceeds of the environmental standards.

  14. Emergency Response Program Designing Based On Case Study ERP Regulations In Ilam Gas Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tahmasbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of Emergency response plan designing is one of the most important prevention approaches in crisis management. This study aims to design emergency response plan based on case study ERP regulations in Ilam gas refinery. On the basis of risk assessment and identification techniques such as HAZOP and FMEA in Ilam gas refinery the risks have been prioritized and then according to this prioritization the design of possible scenarios which have the highest rate of occurrence and the highest level of damage has been separated. Possible scenarios were simulated with PHAST software. Then emergency response program has been designed for the special mode or similar cases. According to the internal emergency response plan for Ilam gas refinery and predictable conditions of the process special instructions should be considered at the time of the incident to suffer the least damage on people and environment in the shortest time possible.

  15. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Ivanov, Ivan; Pisciotta, John M.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs for Refinery Wastewater Treatment Contains High Phenol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Alif Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum Refinery wastewater is characterized by a high phenol content. Phenol is toxic and resistant to biological processes for treatment of the petroleum refinery wastewater. The combination of an AOP and a biological process can be used for treatment of the refinery wastewater. It is necessary to conduct a study to determine the appropriate condition of AOP to meet the phenol removal level. Two AOP configurations were investigated: H2O2 / UV and H2O2 / UV / O3. From each process samples, COD, phenol and pH were measured. The oxidation was carried out until the targeted phenol concentration of treated effluent were obtained. The better result obtained by using process H2O2 / UV / O3 with the H2O2 concentration 1000 ppm. After 120 minutes, the final target has been achieved in which phenol concentration of 37.5 mg/L or phenol degradation of 93.75%.

  17. Challenges and technological opportunities for the oil refining industry: A Brazilian refinery case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelo Branco, David A.; Gomes, Gabriel L.; Szklo, Alexandre S.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide oil refining industry currently faces strong challenges related to uncertainties about future feedstock and characteristics of oil products. These challenges favor two main strategies for the sector: the first strategy is increasing refinery complexity and versatility; the second is integrating the refining and petrochemical industries, adding value to the crude oil while guaranteeing market share to premium oil products. Both strategies aim at increasing production of highly specified oil products, simultaneously reducing the environmental impacts of the refining industry. This paper analyses the case of a Brazilian refinery, Gabriel Passos Refinery (REGAP), by proposing additional investments to alter and/or expand its current production scheme. All the proposed options present relatively low investment rates of return. However, investments in a hydrocracking based configuration with a gasification unit providing hydrogen and power can further improve the operational profitability, due to reduced natural gas consumption.

  18. Environmental monitoring near urban lead refineries by photon and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paciga, J.J.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Jervis, R.E.

    1974-01-01

    Photon activation has been used in conjunction with neutron activation for multielement determinations in airborne particulates, soil, and hair samples collected near two secondary lead refineries in Metropolitan Toronto. Particle size distributions of suspended particulates collected with a high volume Andersen sampler are reported for Al, Sb, As, Br, Cl, Mn, Na, Pb, Ti and V. Increases in the concentrations of Pb, As and Sb associated with particles >3.3 μm diameter on certain days near the refineries has resulted in localized contamination as reflected in higher concentrations of these elements in soil. To assess Pb accumulation in local residents compared with control groups, approximately 250 hair samples were analyzed for Pb by photon activation analysis. Children living close to the refineries, especially boys, exhibit the most elevated levels: up to 20 times urban control values in some cases

  19. Assessment of the estrogenic potency of effluents from petrochemical facilities and a petroleum refinery in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, J.P.; Trepanier, T.; Tinson, C.; Munro, S.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have shown that wastewater from refineries could induce vitellogenin (Vg) in juvenile rainbow trout. Vg is a biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. This study reassessed the estrogenic potency of the wastewater from an Ontario refinery and assessed the estrogenicity of wastewater from 3 petrochemical facilities. A 21 day static renewal test was conducted to test the effluents and in which a competitive binding ELISA detected induced Vg. Statistical testing for tank effects was performed in a replicated tank design and the St. Clair River water from upstream industrial facilities was used as a negative reference. The positive control treatment was waterborne 17β-estradiol. Wastewater from the petroleum refinery induced Vg in the treated fish, but wastewater from the petrochemical effluents did not induce detectable levels of Vg in treated trout. The information obtained through this study will be used to determine the potential for responses in feral fish

  20. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao

    2013-05-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Impact of Energy Production on Respiratory Outcomes: Evidence from the Flandres Refinery in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaine, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of sulphur dioxide (SO_2) concentration on respiratory admissions in the north of France at municipal level from 2007 to 2011. The Flandres refinery closure in the north of France, in September 2009, is used as a natural experiment. First, this study shows that the halt in the refinery's operations, followed by its closure in 2010, reduces SO_2 concentration. We then use this exogenous shock to analyse the health impact of the high SO_2 concentration generated by energy production. Our estimates highlight that the reduction in SO_2 concentration has significantly reduced the severity of respiratory outcomes. Additionally, the refinery closure has had statistically significant effects on the revenue of municipalities in the area

  2. 40 CFR 80.410 - What are the additional requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inspections and audits of the foreign refinery. (i) Inspections and audits may be either announced in advance... prohibitions in this section and § 80.385; and (vi) The independent audit requirements under § 80.415... of the refinery at which the gasoline was produced, assurance that the gasoline remained segregated...

  3. Cleaner shipping. Trade off between air pollution, costs and refinery CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P.

    2008-05-01

    Still subject to final approval in October 2008, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) agreed on a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% for shipping fuels in 2020. This target will induce major changes in the global refinery industry. We have estimated the impact on the Dutch refinery industry, which annually produces about 8 million tons of heavy fuel oil for sea shipping, with refinery residues as main component. It is technically possible to convert all residues, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 4 million tons. The investment costs for these major changes in the Dutch refinery industry are estimated at about 1.5 tot 2 billion euros. The recent IMO agreement enables a gradual introduction of cleaner shipping fuels, which will reduce market disruptions and peak prices. Nevertheless, Rotterdam may not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of future low sulphur fuels, compared to its present strong position in the market of heavy marine bunkers. Extrapolation of our national study to the global scale suggests that the deep conversion of 350 million tons of heavy fuel oil for shipping would require refinery investments in the order of 70-100 billion euros. The associated CO2 emissions would amount up to 175 Mton. The net additional CO2 emission, however, would be smaller since lighter shipping fuels result in less CO2 emissions at sea. On balance, we expect that the improvements in fuel economy, driven by the expensive low-carbon shipping fuels, will decrease CO2 emissions more than the increase in CO2 emissions from additional desulphurization in the refineries. Nevertheless CO2 emissions from sea shipping will continue to increase since marine transport is rapidly growing

  4. 76 FR 45208 - Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... included within the employee's ``family'' for purposes of access to alcohol and drug abuse programs. These... dependent and family member relationships, including domestic partners. We are also proposing to change OPM... relationships to either an employee, the employee's spouse, or the employee's domestic partner: (1) A biological...

  5. Essays on Employee Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faigen, Benjamin

    This thesis examines ownership of the firm by its employees, of varying stakes. It begins by identifying the existence of employee ownership in a Chinese context, presented in the form of a general analytical discussion which is informed by a review of the available evidence on the subject...... of this phenomenon. Employee ownership is found to have played a role in Chinese economic transition as a transitory phase before non-state enterprises were afforded official recognition in a context of publicly-owned enterprise privatisation. Senior managers became the key beneficiaries in firm sales and most...

  6. Development of a health effects based priority ranking system for air emissions reductions from oil refineries in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, S.; Gower, S.; Hicks, J.; Shortreed, J.; Craig, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and methodologies behind the development of a health effects priority ranking tool for the reduction of air emissions from oil refineries. The Health Effects Indicators Decision Index- Versions 2 (Heidi II) was designed to assist policy makers in prioritizing air emissions reductions on the basis of estimated risk to human health. Inputs include facility level rankings of potential health impacts associated with carcinogenic air toxics, non-carcinogenic air toxics and criteria air contaminants for each of the 20 refineries in Canada. Rankings of estimated health impacts are presented on predicted incidence of health effects. Heidi II considers site-specific annual pollutant emission data, ambient air concentrations associated with releases and concentration response functions for various types of health effects. Additional data includes location specific background air concentrations, site-specific population densities, and the baseline incidence of different health effects endpoints, such as cancer, non-cancer illnesses and cardiorespiratory illnesses and death. Air pollutants include the 29 air toxics reported annually in Environment Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory. Three health impact ranking outputs are provided for each facility: ranking of pollutants based on predicted number of annual cases of health effects; ranking of pollutants based on simplified Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); and ranking of pollutants based on more complex DALYs that consider types of cancer, systemic disease or types of cardiopulmonary health effects. Rankings rely on rough statistical estimates of predicted incidence rates for health endpoints. The models used to calculate rankings can provide useful guidance by comparing estimated health impacts. Heidi II has demonstrated that it is possible to develop a consistent and objective approach for ranking priority reductions of air emissions. Heidi II requires numerous types and

  7. The cure for employee malaise--motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K M; Dawson, S N

    1991-01-01

    Although working conditions, hours, pay, and advancement opportunities are better now than in the 1950s--the "golden age" of American business--today's workers are significantly less satisfied. Why? The authors believe the cause of this malaise is lack of motivation. This article examines several techniques to cure employee malaise and discusses the long-term benefits of these techniques, which include empowerment, recognition, career development, the Pygmalion effect, incentives, and rewards. By making a commitment to these motivational techniques, managers will boost the morale and enthusiasm of their employees and their organization. This motivational process is not quick and easy; developing your employees is an ongoing process.

  8. Recent developments in employee benefits law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jonathan G; Adler, Adam

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this article highlights important judicial developments involving employee benefits and the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 ("ERISA"), as amended, during the latter part of 2003 and the first part of 2004, including the most significant U.S. Supreme Court and federal circuit court decisions. The second part covers recent legislative and regulatory developments in employee benefits law. This article is not meant to be exhaustive, but discusses the more important developments during 2003-2004, with particular focus on issues of concern to the insurance industry.

  9. New developments in employee assistance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R K; McDuff, D R; Schwartz, R P; Tiegel, S A; Judge, C P

    1996-04-01

    Employee assistance programs have developed from alcoholism assessment and referral centers to specialized behavioral health programs. Comprehensive employee assistance programs are defined by six major components: identification of problems based on job performance, consultation with supervisors, constructive confrontation, evaluation and referral, liaison with treatment providers, and substance abuse expertise. Other services have been added as enhancements to the basic model and include managed behavioral health activities and professional assistance committees, which provide services for impaired professionals and executives. Recent developments in the field are illustrated through examples from the experience of the employee assistance program at the University of Maryland Medical System in Baltimore.

  10. Employee assistance programs: history and program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B

    1994-10-01

    1. The history and development of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) can be traced back to the 1800s. There are currently over 10,000 EAPs in the United States. 2. Standards for program accreditation and counselor certification have been established for EAPs. The "core technology of Employee Assistance Programs" includes identification of behavioural problems based on job performance issues, expert consultation with supervisors, appropriate use of constructive confrontation, microlinkages with treatment providers and resources, macrolinkages between providers, resources, and work organizations, focus on substance abuse, and evaluation of employee success based on job performance. 3. Some EAPs take a broad brush approach, and incorporate health promotion and managed care functions.

  11. A review of the nature of naphthenic acid occurrence, toxicity, and fate in refinery and oil sands extraction wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhoff [Maxxam, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation evaluated the occurrence, toxicity and fate of naphthenic acids (NA) in refinery and oil sands extraction waste waters. The chemistry of NA was reviewed. Factors affecting the aquatic toxicity of NA were discussed, and modes of toxicity were outlined. NA residues in fish were evaluated. Issues concerning the biodegradation, photolysis, and phytodegradation of NA were reviewed. Various phytoremediation techniques were presented. Results of the study indicated that acute toxicity to aquatic organisms was caused by narcosis. Sublethal impacts of NA included changes to growth, fertilization, reproduction, development, and hormone modifications. Varying rates of toxicity were observed in different NA, based on their size and molecular structure. While biodegradation can reduce the toxicity of NA, higher molecular weight NA can resist degradation and cause toxicity. tabs., figs.

  12. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  13. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  14. Hiring the right employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigle, Dale A

    2014-01-01

    Current employees provide the best examples of the type of aptitude, attitude, motivation, and fit we are looking for, or not looking for, in new employees. All four of these attributes are present in star employees. Using what we know about our best and worst employees can assist us in developing questions and scoring templates that will help us categorize current applicants. Hiring managers should formulate questions in a way that elicits informative responses from candidates about past performance in situations similar to those they will face on the job. Nonverbal clues can help provide insight beyond the simple verbal answer given by candidates. Practice, critique, and critical review of the outcomes of our hiring decisions improve our ability to become good hiring managers.

  15. Ombuds’ corner: Employee silence

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    Although around a hundred cases a year are reported to the Ombuds, several issues may still not be disclosed due to employee silence*. The deliberate withholding of concerns, escalating misunderstandings or genuine conflicts can impede the global process of learning and development of a better respectful organizational workplace environment, and prevent the detection and correction of acts violating the CERN Code of Conduct.   For the employee him/herself, such silence can lead to feelings of anger, resentment, helplessness and humiliation. These feelings will inevitably contaminate personal and interpersonal relations, and poison creativity and effectiveness. Employee silence can be explained by many factors; sometimes it is connected to organizational forces. In their published paper*, authors Michael Knoll and Rolf van Dick found four forms of employee silence. People may stay silent if they feel that their opinion is neither welcomed nor valued by their management. They have gi...

  16. Employee, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Resources Division of Corporations, Business & Professional Licensing Dept. of Commerce Benefits Resources State Employee Directory State Calendar State Training: LearnAlaska State Travel Manager) Web Mail (Outlook) Login Who to Call Health Insurance Insurance Benefits Health and Optional

  17. Acknowledging and Accounting for Employee Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina MOISESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Employee benefits are all forms of counter services granted by anentity in return to services given by the employees. This category includes onlythe benefits covered by the entity, not those from the state or the employee onthe payroll. The employer counting and presenting all the benefits of theemployees, including those provided on the basis of official programs or otherofficial contracts between the entity and the individual employees, groups ofemployees or their representatives, those established on the basis of legalprovisions or by contracts at the level of activity sector, through which theentities are required to contribute to national programs, as well as thoseresulting from unofficial practices give rise to an implicit obligation.Acknowledging and especially assessing these benefits are issues demandingspecial attention.

  18. Oil spill prevention: Regulatory trends and compliance at existing storage terminals and refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janisz, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1973, the Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) regulations were promulgated. The objective of the regulations was to prevent oil spills. However, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, several catastrophic spills of oils led to review of oil spill prevention regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Coast Guard, and the Department of the Interior's Minerals Management Service. The reviews led to promulgation of various acts and regulations including the proposed revisions to the SPCC regulations, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90), and others. Numerous facilities within the petroleum and chemical industry were or will be affected by these regulations. This paper discusses regulatory trends for spill planning and prevention in general, but principally concentrates on above ground storage tanks at facilities storing or refining petroleum products. The paper includes discussions of bills on above ground storage tanks and proposed national standards, as well as regulatory trends in various states. Proposed SPCC regulations and their effects on the industry are also discussed, including requirements for impermeable surfaces and increasing secondary containment capacity. Management strategies to review facility operations and prepare for upgrades are outlined. The paper discusses the types of upgrades typically necessary at existing storage terminals and refineries and discusses information necessary to prepare conceptual designs and cost estimates. Cost estimates for typical upgrades, such as raising earthen berms and installing isolation valves, are presented. Facilities in the state of New Jersey are used as examples, because regulations in New Jersey are similar to the proposed federal regulations

  19. Employee Selection Process: Integrating Employee Needs and Employer Motivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Brian J.

    1989-01-01

    Offers suggestions for managers relative to the employee selection process, focusing on the identification of a potential employee's needs and the employer's motivators that affect employee productivity. Discusses the use of a preemployment survey and offers a questionnaire that allows matching of the employee's needs with employment…

  20. Employee Benefit Status from E-Employee Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Semseddin; Çoklar, Ahmet Naci

    2017-01-01

    The internet is the one of the most important global network and information source in information age. The internet has changed employee's life enormously. The purpose of this study is to clarify the benefitting situations of employees from e-employee services. For this purpose, a 20-item data collection tool, based on the e-employee services put…

  1. Fostering employee involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, G P

    1997-11-01

    Every year, the ODA's Economics of Practice Committee, with the help of an independent consulting firm, carries out the Cost of Practice Monitor which tracks the various costs of running a dental practice in Ontario. This article is the result of a joint ODA-Arthur Andersen initiative to provide members with detailed information from the Monitor. Over the next year, there will be a series of articles published under the heading "Best practises for Ontario's Dental Practices." The article featured in this issue focuses on wage expenses in dental practices and how to foster employee involvement as a means of addressing cost-productivity issues. Furthermore, information relating to wage expenses may be used by practitioners to benchmark their practice against the average Ontario dental practice. Appendix C was developed for this purpose. Through benchmarking, the practitioner may gain insight into ways of evaluating their practice and in addressing issues that could improve the management of the practice. For a long time, concepts of best business practises were applied only to manufacturing organizations or large multi-national corporations but experience has demonstrated that these activities are universal to all organizations, including service companies, schools, government and not-for-profit organizations.

  2. Employee retention tools: looking beyond radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snuttjer, D

    2001-01-01

    In an era of low unemployment rates, companies are not only struggling to recruit talented employees, but they are straining to keep the ones they have. The purpose of this literature review is to look at companies, including many outside of the healthcare industry, and learn how they use incentives to retain employees. A review of a recently published book lists the following reasons why people stay with companies: Career growth, learning and development, exciting work challenges Meaningful work, making a difference and a contribution Great people Being part of a team Good boss, inspiring leadership Recognition for a job well done Fun on the job Autonomy, a sense of control over work and job security Flexibility Fair pay and benefits Great work environment and location Pride in the organization, it's mission and quality of product Family friendly Companies have to change with the times to retain a good work force. To survive, companies should ask employees what would keep them committed, look at all the possibilities, and then create an environment that makes employees want to stay because it provides the life balance they are looking for. There is risk in asking employees what would keep them from looking elsewhere. Employers need to weigh the risk of losing employees with the possibility of raising expectations by asking employees directly what they want. In the current climate, that may be a necessary risk.

  3. Employee Responses to Health Insurance Premium Increases

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Dana; Leibowitz, Arleen; Robalino, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the sensitivity of employees’ health insurance decisions—including the decision to not choose health maintenance organization or fee-for-service coverage—during periods of rapidly escalating healthcare costs. Study Design: A retrospective cohort study of employee plan choices at a single large firm with a “cafeteria-style” benefits plan wherein employees paid all the additional cost of purchasing more generous insurance. Methods: We modeled the probabil...

  4. Service orientation of the restaurant employees

    OpenAIRE

    Gagić, Snježana; Vuković-Jovičić, Ana; Petrović, Marko D.

    2017-01-01

    The service orientation program developed for restaurant employees can be a competitive advantage for a restaurant operation. Service orientation has been characterized as the disposition of employees to be helpful, thoughtful, considerate, and co-operative towards customers. Customer-oriented behaviors include: helping customers; helping customers to assess their needs; offering service that will satisfy those needs; describing services accurately; avoiding deceptive manipulations; and avoid...

  5. Employee motivation development opportunities seeking to reduce employee turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Pilukienė, Laura; Kšivickaitė, Gertūda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyse one of the main nowadays human resources problem – growing employee turnover. Employee motivation process is analysed as a key competitive advantage in employee retention that leads to the growth of the business company’s productivity and competitive stability. The main goal of the article is to analyse the employee motivation and employee turnover relationship and its development possibilities in Lithuania’s business sector.

  6. Operation : motor city : Michigan's only refinery to handle an increased slate of heavy Canadian crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, D.

    2008-01-01

    A planned $1.9 billion upgrade and expansion will see a Detroit, Michigan refinery producing nearly 100 per cent Canadian crude oil. The upgrade will have important social, economic, and environmental implications for the oil sands industry, and is being seen as an important step for the future of the entire energy industry. The site was selected after a consultation of pipeline routes in North America. The refinery's coking capacity will help to ease the market constraints that Canadian crude is currently facing in the United States. The Midwest downstream oil and gas industry is well-positioned to help maximize the value of Canada's bitumen resources. In addition to expanding processing facilities, the refinery will also add capacity of approximately 15,000 barrels per day, as well as a delayed coker, sulphur recovery complex, ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NO x ) burners, a 33,000 barrel-per-day distillate hydrotreater, and a hydrogen plant. It was concluded that construction of the refinery will be completed by 2010. 2 figs

  7. 40 CFR 80.295 - How is a refinery sulfur baseline determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of gasoline batch i. n = Total number of batches of gasoline produced during January 1, 1997 through... refinery, the total number of batches of gasoline produced and imported into the U.S. during January 1, 1997 through December 31, 1998, or, the total number of batches of gasoline produced and imported into...

  8. Production of advanced biofuels: co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.; de Miguel Mercader, F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end

  9. Occupational exposure to benzene at the ExxonMobil refinery in Baytown, TX (1978-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Shannon H; Panko, Julie M; Unice, Ken M; Burns, Amanda M; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Booher, Lindsay E; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2011-01-01

    Although occupational benzene exposure of refinery workers has been studied for decades, no extensive analysis of historical industrial hygiene data has been performed focusing on airborne concentrations at specific refineries and tasks. This study characterizes benzene exposures at the ExxonMobil Baytown, TX, refinery from 1978 to 2006 to understand the variability in workers' exposures over time and during different job tasks. Exposures were grouped by operational status, job title, and tasks. More than 9000 industrial hygiene air samples were evaluated; approximately 4000 non-task (> 3 h) and 1000 task-related (work areas, and 16 task bins (when applicable). Process technicians were sampled most frequently, resulting in the following mean benzene concentrations by area: hydrofiner (n=245, mean=1.3 p.p.m.), oil movements (n=286, mean=0.23 p.p.m.), reformer (n=575, mean=0.10 p.p.m.), tank farm (n=9, mean=0.65 p.p.m.), waste treatment (n=446, mean=0.13 p.p.m.), and other areas (n=460, mean=0.062 p.p.m.). The most frequently sampled task was sample collection (n=218, mean=0.40 p.p.m.). Job title and area did not significantly impact task-related exposures. Airborne concentrations were significantly lower after 1990 than before 1990. Results of this task-focused study may be useful when analyzing benzene exposures at other refineries.

  10. Prospective techno-economic and environmental assessment of carbon capture at a refinery and CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Dacosta, C.; Van Der Spek, Mijndert; Hung, Christine Roxanne; Oregionni, Gabriel David; Skagestad, Ragnhild; Parihar, Prashant; Gokak, D. T.; Strømman, Anders Hammer; Ramirez Ramirez, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    CO2 utilisation is gaining interest as a potential element towards a sustainable economy. CO2 can be used as feedstock in the synthesis of fuels, chemicals and polymers. This study presents a prospective assessment of carbon capture from a hydrogen unit at a refinery, where

  11. Semipermeable membrane devices concentrate mixed function oxygenase inducers from oil sands and refinery wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.L.; Hewitt, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    The health of fish in the Athabasca River was examined to determine the effects of both natural and anthropogenic oil sands exposure on liver mixed function oxygenase (MFO) enzymes. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) were used to concentrate bioavailable compounds that may result in MFO induction. The SPMDs were used for a period of 2 weeks in the Steepbank River as well as in oil refinery wastewater and intake ponds. They were then tested to see if they induced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in hepatoma cells, a cell line derived from a liver cancer of a small fish. SPMDs from the wastewater pond contained potent EROD inducers in fish liver cells. SPMDs from the Athabasca River exhibited some EROD inducers, but they were 1/100 as potent as those of the refinery wastewater. The characteristics of MFO inducers from refinery wastewater were different from natural inducers from the oil sands in the Athabasca and Steepbank Rivers. For instance, log Kow was less than 5 for refinery wastewater, but it was greater than 5 for Athabasca River wastewater and from natural oil sands exposure. In the case of the Steepbank River, the pattern of MFO induction was similar to the MFO induction seen in wild fish.The highest MFO inducers were found to be in the area of the mine, suggesting and anthropogenic pollution source. The less potent inducers were in the area of the natural and undisturbed oil sands. Very few inducers were found outside of the oil sands formation

  12. U.S. petroleum refining: Meeting requirements for cleaner fuels and refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warden, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    A review is presented of a study carried out by the National Petroleum Council that assessed the ability of the U.S. oil industry to manufacture and supply the quantity and quality of products required in the 1990s and beyond. The competitiveness of domestic supply vs product imports was analyzed and the investment requirements and other costs associated with meeting new environmental legislation and regulations on petroleum products and refineries were addressed. In particular, the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and other environmental, health, and safety initiatives, both current and prospective, were evaluated. Refineries and the logistics system were studied but not crude oil supply or service stations. The costs of stationary source health, safety and environmental regulations and requirements were evaluated for the years 1995, 2000 and 2010, and sources of U.S. light products and U.S. refinery utilization were modelled for these years. Three demand scenarios were considered: growth, no-growth, and decline. Annual expenditures for health, safety and environment programs inside refineries are expected to double in the 1990s. Expenditures of $106 billion are projected over the period 1990-2010 for new facilities and programs necessary for current and anticipated stationary source regulations. Refining and logistics costs will increase substantially. Other conclusions related to capital expenditures, refining capability, product compatibility, oxygenates and foreign product supply cost are drawn. 26 figs

  13. Integrating planning and scheduling in an oil refinery with a rolling horizon approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, E.; Kaland, M.; van Elzakker, M.A.H.; Fransoo, J.C.; Meuldijk, J.; Klemes, J.J.; Varbanov, P.S.; Liew, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Decisions in an oil refinery are made at three levels: planning, scheduling and control. Existing facilities have to be operated close to their maximum capacity, while continuously responding to cost fluctuations. In many of the currently reported planning models each decision level has its own

  14. Environmental and economic sustainability of integrated production in bio-refineries : The thistle case in Sardinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazan, Devrim; Mandras, Giovanni; Garau, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the environmental and economic sustainability of bio-refineries that produce multiple products through their supply chains (SCs). A physical enterprise input-output (EIO) model is used to quantify the material/energy/waste flows and integrated to the monetary EIO model

  15. Evaluation of the impact of Kaduna refinery effluent on river Romi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continuous global quest for management of the scarce water resources to make available to the human populace, portable water for drinking has necessitated this study. River Romi is the effluent discharge point of Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company Limited where the refinery waste water is disposed after ...

  16. The impact of CO2 taxation on the configuration of new refineries: An application to Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Gabriel Lourenco; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates the impact of pricing CO 2 emissions over the configuration of new refinery complexes in their conceptual phase. Two refineries' schemes were simulated through a linear programming optimization model in order to compare the optimum configuration obtained before and after the input of different CO 2 prices. The cases analyzed represent refining projects to be located in Brazil, a growing market for fuels and petrochemical feedstocks, as well as an oil producing country with rising crude exports. After 2012, emerging countries, such as Brazil, may adopt carbon emission reduction targets. Therefore, it is worth analyzing the impact of pricing CO 2 emissions in these countries, where the majority of new refining projects will be located. Our findings indicate that the initial refinery configurations proposed are quite rigid technologically for CO 2 prices up to US$ 100/t CO 2 . For CO 2 prices higher than US$ 100/t CO 2 , refineries reduced their emissions by increasing the consumption of natural gas used to produce hydrogen, and through changes in the original configurations towards less-energy consuming process units. Promising technological advances, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), can also diminish the rigidity of the model and facilitate actions to curb carbon emissions.

  17. Carbon flow analysis and Carbon emission reduction of FCC in Chinese oil refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fengrui; Wei, Na; Ma, Danzhu; Liu, Guangxin; Wu, Ming; Yue, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The major problem of the energy production in oil refineries is the high emission of CO2 in China. The fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCC) is the key source of carbon emission in the oil refineries. According to the statistical data, the carbon emission of FCC unit accounts for more than 31% for the typical oil refineries. The carbon flow of FCC in the typical Chinese oil refineries were evaluated and analysed, which aimed at the solution of CO2 emission reduction. The method of substances flow analysis (SFA) and the mathematical programming were used to evaluate the carbon metabolism and optimize the carbon emission. The results indicated that the combustion emission of the reaction-regeneration subsystem (RRS) was the major source of FCC. The quantity of CO2 emission of RSS was more than 90%. The combustion efficiency and the amount of residual oil affected the carbon emission of RRS most according to the optimized analysis of carbon emission reduction. Moreover, the fractionation subsystem (TFS) had the highest environmental efficiency and the absorption-stabilization subsystem (ASS) had the highest resource efficiency (approximately to 1) of carbon.

  18. Implications of environmental regulations on refinery product specification, operation and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1980s, refiners mainly in OECD countries were occupied with improving their refinery configurations for producing high-value light products which would not only satisfy the product demand slate but also meet the increasingly restrictive environmental regulations. In the 1990s refiners will continue to be challenged to improve the world's air quality not only by producing products that minimize emissions of toxic and hazardous hydrocarbons, but also through the refinery operation itself by investment in upgrading the industry and products to cope with the constant flow of new regulations. These investments will not only be limited to consuming centres but will also be extended to cover exporting refineries as well due to competition of acquiring market shares for product exports. The additional cost will be directly related to product quality and site regulations and will vary from one country to the other. This paper deals mainly with the air pollution and the impact of related environmental issues on the refining industry. Environmental regulations for refinery products in the USA and Europe are examined and international regulations for the tanker industry are noted. (author)

  19. REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

  20. Development of optimum conditions for modification of Kpautagi clay for application in petroleum refinery wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. ONU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kautagi clay is a kaolin type deposit that is abundantly available in Niger State, Nigeria with potential for application in pollution control such as wastewater treatment. This study investigates the optimum conditions for modification of Kpautagi clay for application in refinery wastewater treatment. Sulphuric acid was used in the modification of the clay and the modification variables considered were acid concentration, activation time and temperature. To develop the optimum conditions for the modification variables, the sulphuric acid modified Kpautagi clay was applied in the treatment of refinery wastewater in column mode at a fixed flow rate and mass of adsorbent. The results obtained indicate that the optimum conditions for modification of Kpautagi clay for application in the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater are: acid concentration of 4M; activation time of 120min and activation temperature of 100°C. Therefore, the optimum conditions developed in this study for modification of Kpautagi clay could be applied for improved performance in the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater.

  1. Allocating the CO2 emissions of an oil refinery with Aumann-Shapley prices. Comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani Nejad Moghaddam, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of CO 2 emissions of petroleum refineries to their oil products is a necessary step in the retrospective Well-to-Tank (WTT) analysis. These allocated emissions are used to evaluate the environmental impacts of automotive fuels' production within the refinery. Oil refining is a complex joint production system and there exists no simple and unique answer to this allocation question. Recently, Pierru proposed adapting the Aumann-Shapley cost sharing method to deal with this issue. Our paper aims at describing the conceptual and technical difficulties of this adaptation to the WTT context. Moreover, we show that this approach, as proposed by Pierru, is not applicable to any real-type refinery model. Different suggestions are provided to improve its applicability (when it is possible) in real situations. A simple numerical example as well as a real-type refinery case study is provided for illustrations. Finally, we discuss an alternative allocation approach which we believe more adapted to the WTT context. (author)

  2. Lymphohematopoietic Cancer Mortality and Morbidity of Workers in a Refinery/Petrochemical Complex in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee Koh

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: The results showed a potential relationship between leukemia and lymphohematopoietic cancers and exposure to benzene in refinery/petrochemical complex workers. This study yielded limited results due to a short observational period; therefore, a follow-up study must be performed to elucidate the relationship between petrochemical exposure and cancer rates.

  3. Pyrolysis oil upgrading for Co-processing in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the route that comprises the upgrading of pyrolysis oil (produced from lingo-cellulosic biomass) and its further co-processing in standard refineries to produce transportation fuels. In the present concept, pyrolysis oil is produced where biomass is available and then

  4. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Hoffmann, Jessica; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study on hydrotreatment of ligno-cellulosic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) bio-crude to achieve a bio-feed compatible for co-processing at a refinery was made to investigate the effect of operating temperature, pressure and hydrogen to oil ratio. Using a conventional NiMo/Al2O3 h...

  5. 77 FR 16761 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Department of Housing and Urban...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ...-Federal activity or business relationship, including self-employment, that involves the provision of..., or sibling of the employee; (D) The employee's, or the employee's spouse or minor child's, rental...

  6. Utilization of the BR-SIPP systems (Integrated Refinery Scheduling System) at the PETROBRAS Capuava refinery; Utilizacao do sistema BR-SIPP - Sistema Integrado de Programacao de Producao PETROBRAS na refinaria de Capuava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, Marcel [PETROBRAS, Maua, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Capuava (RECAP). Gerencia de Otimizacao]. E-mail: joly@petrobras.com.br; Hassimotto, Marcelo Kenji [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Solucoes de Negocios de Logistica e Planejamento]. E-mail: kenji@petrobras.com.br; Magalhaes, Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Otimizacao]. E-mail: vinicius@petrobras.com.br

    2007-04-15

    The BR-SIPP is a production scheduling decision support tool for refineries. It is integrated into the Corporate Inventory, Movements and Quality Data Base and is based on events simulation technology for the elaboration and analysis of scheduling scenarios. Its utilization at the Capuava Refinery allows the production programming team to analyze and anticipate difficulties and opportunities, thereby being able to make viable a potential integration of management and people directly involved with the refinery scheduling information, such as planning, logistics and commercial areas. (author)

  7. Feasibility study on the modernization and expansion of the Tema Oil Refinery. Executive Summary. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-04-01

    The Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), which was commissioned in 1963, is a simple hydro-skimming plant which processes crude oil into LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gasoil, and fuel oil. It is the only petroleum refinery in Ghana. Over the years some of the equipment in the refinery has deteriorated or become obsolete necessitating major rehabilitation. A study of the refinery expansion project takes into consideration earlier studies and, equally important, recognizes the extensive work done by TOR in rehabilitating the refinery. The program, carried out in phases because of funding limitations, has addressed the critical repairs and replacements in the process units and utilities necessary to prolong the life of the refinery and assure reliability and safe operation. It undertook the task of investigating the feasibility of modernizing and expanding the refinery at Tema, Ghana to meet projected market demands until the year 2005. A process planning study was conducted to select the optimal process and utility configuration which would result in economic benefits to Ghana

  8. 49 CFR 805.735-26 - Employee's complaint on filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-26 Employee's complaint on filing requirements. An employee who believes that his position has been improperly included... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employee's complaint on filing requirements. 805...

  9. Health Inequalities Among Korean Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsuk Choi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social status might be a determinant of occupational health inequalities. This study analyzed the effects of social status on both work environments and health outcomes. Methods: The study sample consisted of 27,598 wage employees aged 15 years and older from among the Korean Working Condition Survey participants in 2011. Work environments included atypical work, physical risks, ergonomic risks, work demands, work autonomy, social supports, and job rewards. Health outcomes comprised general health, health and safety at risk because of work, the World Health Organization-5 Well-being Index, work-related musculoskeletal disease, and work-related injury. Multivariable logistic-regression models were used to identify the associations between social status and work environments and health outcomes. Results: Employees in the demographically vulnerable group had lower occupational status compared with their counterparts. Low social status was largely related to adverse work environments. Especially, precarious employment and manual labor occupation were associated with both adverse work environments and poor health outcomes. Conclusion: Precarious and manual workers should take precedence in occupational health equity policies and interventions. Their cumulative vulnerability, which is connected to demographics, occupational status, adverse work environments, or poor health outcomes, can be improved through a multilevel approach such as labor market, organizations, and individual goals. Keywords: employee health, health equity, social status

  10. Internal communications : transforming employees into brand ambassadors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C [Bruce Power Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Bruce Power Inc.'s internal communications policy was outlined in this presentation. The policy is intended to develop and align employee communication strategies and tactics with overall corporate communication strategies. The importance of all employees contributing to the company business plan was emphasized, as well as the importance of involving senior managers to support and lead initiatives. The company's use of different media to communicate with a variety of audiences include intranet; newsletters; employee information boards; meetings; voice messages; videos; electronic signage; billboards; and training. The importance of safety days and safety meetings was emphasized, as well as ensuring that employees understand current issues and are able to contribute positively to change. In addition, it was suggested that there are significant benefits in informing and educating staff on the potential impact of government regulations as well as the policies, objectives and culture of the organization. Issues concerning the evaluation procedures of internal communications were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Removal of hydrocarbon from refinery tank bottom sludge employing microbial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Deka, Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Accumulation of oily sludge is becoming a serious environmental threat, and there has not been much work reported for the removal of hydrocarbon from refinery tank bottom sludge. Effort has been made in this study to investigate the removal of hydrocarbon from refinery sludge by isolated biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS29 strain and explore the biosurfactant for its composition and stability. Laboratory investigation was carried out with this strain to observe its efficacy of removing hydrocarbon from refinery sludge employing whole bacterial culture and culture supernatant to various concentrations of sand-sludge mixture. Removal of hydrocarbon was recorded after 20 days. Analysis of the produced biosurfactant was carried out to get the idea about its stability and composition. The strain could remove up to 85 ± 3 and 55 ± 4.5 % of hydrocarbon from refinery sludge when whole bacterial culture and culture supernatant were used, respectively. Maximum surface tension reduction (26.3 mN m(-1)) was achieved with the strain in just 24 h of time. Emulsification index (E24) was recorded as 100 and 80 % with crude oil and n-hexadecane, respectively. The biosurfactant was confirmed as rhamnolipid containing C8 and C10 fatty acid components and having more mono-rhamnolipid congeners than the di-rhamnolipid ones. The biosurfactant was stable up to 121 °C, pH 2-10, and up to a salinity value of 2-10 % w/v. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the potentiality of a native strain from the northeast region of India for the efficient removal of hydrocarbon from refinery sludge.

  12. Atmospheric BTEX concentrations in the vicinity of the crude oil refinery of the Baltic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Baltrėnaitė, Edita; Serevičienė, Vaida; Pereira, Paulo

    2011-11-01

    Among chemical industries, petroleum refineries have been identified as large emitters of a wide variety of pollutants. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) form an important group of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) because of their role in the troposphere chemistry and the risk posed to human health. A very large crude oil refinery of the Baltic States (200,000 bbl/day) is situated in the northern, rural part of Lithuania, 10 km from the town of Mažeikiai (Lithuania). The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine of atmospheric levels of BTEX in the region rural and urban parts at the vicinity of the crude oil refinery; and (2) to investigate the effect of meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure, humidity) on the concentrations measured. The averaged concentration of benzene varied from 2.12 ppbv in the rural areas to 2.75 ppbv in the urban areas where the traffic was determined to be a dominant source of BTEX emissions. Our study showed that concentration of benzene, as strictly regulated air pollutant by EU Directive 2008/50/EC, did not exceed the limit of 5 ppbv in the region in the vicinity of the crude oil refinery during the investigated period. No significant change in air quality in the vicinity of the oil refinery was discovered, however, an impact of the industry on the background air quality was detected. The T/B ratio (0.50-0.81) that was much lower than 2.0, identified other sources of pollution than traffic.

  13. Becoming a refinery leader by changing operations to match new product quality regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Maryro P. [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Global environmental concerns have forced the automotive and oil industries to increase efficiency and reduce emissions, which has led to the tightening of fuels specifications around the world. The implementation of ultra-low sulphur transport fuels has become a worldwide trend with growing momentum. Compliance with these standards requires the refiner to make decisions in advance of the implementation date. Therefore, in order to make changes on time, refiners are currently assessing options and changes required to comply with regulations by 2016. Similar regulations have been implemented in Europe already and KBC has the methodology and experience to assess the existing refinery configuration, unit capability and facility infrastructure to provide the basis for decision making. This paper focus on KBC's methodology which looks at the molecular management needed to produce the low levels of sulfur and toxic required in today's refined products. A key element to the study is the use of Petro-SIM for development of a representative detailed non-linear model, of the refinery which has been used to test ideas and configurations and help confirm the Refinery LP development activities. Using a Petro-SIM representation, KBC is able to make an assessment of the impact of imposing Tier 3 gasoline (sulphur to < 10 ppm) on the refinery, examining critical blending constraints, unused stream qualities and quantities and likely type and scale of capital investment that would be required while optimising unit operations and maximising margins. This paper illustrates KBC's current thinking based on studies done to date to review clean fuels and Tier 3 specifications options for specific refinery configurations. (author)

  14. Reexamining the Impact of Employee Relocation Assistance on Housing Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus T. Allen; Ronald C. Rutherford; Thomas M. Springer

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we reexamine the issue of whether corporate relocation assistance programs for transferred employees significantly affect sale prices of single-family homes. We estimate a hedonic price equation that includes physical housing characteristics, location factors, occupancy status, and type of seller for a sample of 2,441 transactions. Seller types include (a) transferred employees who were given direct relocation assistance, (b) transferred employees who were not given direct relo...

  15. Employee-driven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline the “grand structure” of the phenomenon in order to identify both the underlying processes and core drivers of employee-driven innovation (EDI). Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper. It particularly applies the insights...... of contemporary research on routine and organizational decision making to the specific case of EDI. Findings – The main result of the paper is that, from a theoretical point of view, it makes perfect sense to involve ordinary employees in innovation decisions. However, it is also outlined that naıve or ungoverned...... participation is counterproductive, and that it is quite difficult to realize the hidden potential in a supportive way. Research limitations/implications – The main implication is that basic mechanisms for employee participation also apply to innovation decisions, although often in a different way. However...

  16. Employee assistance program evaluation. Employee perceptions, awareness, and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T

    1989-12-01

    Periodic evaluation is necessary to maintain a quality employee assistance program. This survey was undertaken to determine employee awareness of the existing EAP and their satisfaction with the program. Likewise, the survey allowed for employee input on areas of the program they had concerns with that may have caused hesitancy in further use of the program. The survey not only documents to management that the program is of value to employees and identifies areas where changes may be focused in the future to meet employee needs, but actually serves as a communication tool in itself as a reminder of the availability of the Employee Assistance Program.

  17. Obese Employee Participation Patterns in a Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Jennifer T; Smith, David R; Singh, Maharaj; Ihrke, Doug M; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to retrospectively examine whether demographic differences exist between those who participated in an employee wellness program and those who did not, and to identify the selection of employees' choice in weight management activities. A nonequivalent, 2-group retrospective design was used. This study involved employees at a large, not-for-profit integrated health system. Of the total organization employee pool (29,194), 19,771 (68%) employees volunteered to be weighed (mean body mass index [BMI]=28.9) as part of an employee wellness program. Weight management activities available included: (1) Self-directed 5% total body weight loss; (2) Healthy Solutions at home; (3) Weight Watchers group meetings; (4) Weight Watchers online; and (5) Employee Assistance Program (EAP)-directed healthy weight coaching. Measures were participation rate and available weight management activity participation rate among obese employees across demographic variables, including sex, age, race, job type, and job location. The analysis included chi-square tests for all categorical variables; odds ratios were calculated to examine factors predictive of participation. Of the total 19,771 employees weighed, 6375 (32%) employees were obese (defined as BMI ≥30); of those, 3094 (49%) participated in available weight management activities. Participation was higher among females, whites, those ages >50 years, and non-nursing staff. In conclusion, participation rate varied significantly based on demographic variables. Self-directed 5% weight loss was the most popular weight management activity selected. (Population Health Management 2016;19:132-135).

  18. Employees on the Move!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sarah

    This paper describes a method for designing, implementing, and evaluating a work-site physical activity campaign aimed at employees who are currently sedentary in their leisure time. Inactivity is a major but modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease. Increasing the activity levels of underactive adults would have a positive impact on…

  19. Managing Employee Assistance Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidenberg, Olive C.; Cordery, John L.

    1990-01-01

    Interviews with 20 branch managers and 20 accountants in an Australian bank determined factors influencing the success of an employee assistance program (EAP). It was found that policies requiring supervisors to act against normal managerial practice doom EAPs to failure. Organizational analysis to integrate the EAP within existing organizational…

  20. 20 CFR 439.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee. 439.640 Section 439.640 Employees... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a recipient directly engaged in the performance of work under the award, including— (1) All direct charge employees; (2) All...

  1. Energy markets : refinery outages can have varying gasoline price impacts, but gaps in federal data limit understanding of impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    In 2008, GAO reported that, with : the exception of the period : following Hurricanes Katrina and : Rita, refinery outages in the United : States did not show discernible : trends in reduced production : capacity, frequency, and location : from 2002 ...

  2. A Steam Utility Network Model for the Evaluation of Heat Integration Retrofits – A Case Study of an Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Marton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real industrial example in which the steam utility network of a refinery is modelled in order to evaluate potential Heat Integration retrofits proposed for the site. A refinery, typically, has flexibility to optimize the operating strategy for the steam system depending on the operation of the main processes. This paper presents a few examples of Heat Integration retrofit measures from a case study of a large oil refinery. In order to evaluate expected changes in fuel and electricity imports to the refinery after implementation of the proposed retrofits, a steam system model has been developed. The steam system model has been tested and validated with steady state data from three different operating scenarios and can be used to evaluate how changes to steam balances at different pressure levels would affect overall steam balances, generation of shaft power in turbines, and the consumption of fuel gas.

  3. Petroleum Refineries (Catalytic Cracking, Catalytic Reforming and Sulfur Recovery Units): National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    learn more about the NESHAP for catalytic cracking and reforming units, as well as sulfur recovery units in petroleum refineries by reading the rule history, rule summary, background information documents, and compliance information

  4. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  5. Analysis Of Employee Engagement And Company Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mekel, Peggy A.; Saerang, David P.E.; Silalahi, Immanuel Maradopan

    2014-01-01

    Employee could be a competitive advantage of a company if company manages its employees well. The success of a company could be seen from how a company manages their employees and engages their employees. Most of big companies put their employees in top priority in order to keep their top performance. These big companies manage their employees and try to engage their employees so that their employees could generate high performance. In this study, employee engagement is the factor to examine ...

  6. LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMPLOYEES' INTRINSIC JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the impact of leadership style on employees' intrinsic ... of many factors including motivation, leadership, job satisfaction, workers' alienation and ... Factors associated with job satisfaction include incentive to work, reward of ... advancement/promotion, recognition and self-actualization cannot be met ...

  7. Employee Attitudes toward an Internal Employee Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Kirk C.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys employees (N=16,603) who had used a large multinational company's employee assistance program (EAP), adult dependents who had used the EAP, employees who had not used the EAP, and adult dependents who had not used the EAP. Findings indicate that EAP users viewed the EAP more positively than nonusers. (Author/MKA)

  8. 2003 Employee Attitude Survey: Analysis of Employee Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    171 --- Reporting Allegations Abuse of MWE Complaint Process (Excessive Complaints) 191 --- Satisfaction with Employee Assistance Program ( EAP ) 251...Satisfaction with Employee Assistance Program ( EAP ) --------------------------------------- General Comments about FAA Policies, Practices, and...contracting; understaffing; FAA policies, practices, and programs ; encouraging hard work; management concern for employees ; promotion equity; comments

  9. Employee Assistance Programs: Effective Tools for Counseling Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Ed

    1991-01-01

    College employee assistance program designs demonstrate the varied needs of a workforce. Whatever the model, the helping approach remains to (1) identify problem employees through performance-related issues; (2) refer them to the assistance program for further intervention; and (3) follow up with employee and supervisor to ensure a successful…

  10. Organizational Hierarchy, Employee Status, and Use of Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Lawrence; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined role of organizational hierarchy and staff status in number of Employee Assistance Program (EAP) referrals made by potential helpers and relationship of these variables to personal EAP use among 157 supervisors and 232 employees. Supervisors suggested more EAP referrals than did employees. Middle level staff received EAP services more…

  11. Employee Information Management System (EIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The EIMS is the Office of Human Resources' web-based employee information system. Direct-hire employees can access and review their USAID personnel information, such...

  12. Bereaved Employee: Returning to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Work Working Through Grief About Us The Bereaved Employee: Returning to Work By Helen Fitzgerald, CT After ... One employer called a grief therapist to help employees after a co-worker reported the death of ...

  13. Employee guide to respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    This employee guide discusses use of respiratory protective equipment for particulates, gases, vapors, supplied air, and self-contained breathing apparatus. It also covers equipment selection medical factors, fitting criteria; care; and employee responsibilities

  14. Improving retention of older employees through training and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourigny, Louise; Pulich, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the needs and interests of older employees in training and development efforts which can result in higher retention rates. Managers may be reluctant to train workers close to retirement age for various reasons. Managers also use certain practices to avoid training older employees. When training is offered, accurate performance feedback is essential for desired training outcomes to occur. Finally, areas are proposed which are more appropriate to include in training and development endeavors for older employees versus younger ones.

  15. Motivation and satisfaction of employees in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Rožman, Maja; Treven, Sonja; Čančer, Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aging of the European population is a demographic trend reflected in the ever-growing number of older employees. This paper introduces the importance of motivation and satisfaction in the workplace among age diverse employees in Slovenian companies. Objectives: The goal is to investigate the differences between the motivation and satisfaction of employees from different age groups in the workplace. Methods/Approach: The paper is based on research including a survey of two age ...

  16. Motivational drives of employees at an investment bank

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what the motivational drives are for employees working in an investment bank and whether money plays a roll in motivating employees working for an investment bank. The target group for this study was all the employees who have been in the employment of the target organisation for one year and longer. This group was divided into subgroups of specialist transactors and specialist support personnel. The profile of these two subgroups included a variety ...

  17. Stereotypes of older employees compared to younger employees in Slovenian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Rožman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management has an important impact on age diversity in companies. Age diversity in the workplace is growing and older employees are staying longer in the workforce, therefore it is important that employers can create a positive environment for age diverse employees. This paper introduces the difference in stereotypes in the workplace between older and younger employees in Slovenian companies. The main goal of this paper is to present the importance of age diversity and their age difference in stereotypes in the workplace. The paper is based on a research including a survey between two age groups of employees. We classified younger employees in the group of under 50 years of age and older employees in the group of above 50 years of age. For data analysis we used the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test to verify the differences in stereotypes in the workplace between two groups. Results show that there are significant differences in all of the variables describing stereotypes in the workplace between younger and older employees in Slovenian companies.

  18. Employees' motivation and emloyees' benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Nedzelská, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is analysing methods how to stimulate and motivate employees. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the concept of motivation, concepts close to motivation and selected existing theories of motivation. It also deals with employee benefits, function, division and benefits which are frequently offered to employees. The practical part of the thesis, mainly based on written and online questionnaires, concentrates on motivation of employees at Nedcon Boh...

  19. Employee Engagement: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmendra MEHTA; Naveen K. MEHTA

    2013-01-01

    Motivated and engaged employees tend to contribute more in terms of organizational productivity and support in maintaining a higher commitment level leading to the higher customer satisfaction. Employees Engagement permeates across the employee-customer boundary, where revenue, corporate goodwill, brand image are also at stake. This paper makes an attempt to study the different dimensions of employee engagement with the help of review of literature. This can be used to provide an overview and...

  20. Assessing the effects of employee assistance programs: a review of employee assistance program evaluations.

    OpenAIRE

    Colantonio, A.

    1989-01-01

    Employee assistance programs have grown at a dramatic rate, yet the effectiveness of these programs has been called into question. The purpose of this paper was to assess the effectiveness of employee assistance programs (EAPs) by reviewing recently published EAP evaluations. All studies evaluating EAPs published since 1975 from peer-reviewed journals in the English language were included in this analysis. Each of the articles was assessed in the following areas: (a) program description (subj...

  1. The changing refinery/vendor relationship: One tool for increased competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, C.J.; Swett, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The historic relationship between many petroleum refineries and vendors was adversarial. However, during the past 10 years, many industrial firms have found that working together with vendors is critical to reducing costs and improving quality--the two key elements required to maintain a competitive position. As refiners have begun working with their vendors more like partners, numerous benefits have accrued to the refining industry. This paper analyzes how the refiner-vendor relationship has changed. Specifically, the authors address the following issues: the competitive threat that has forced a different approach to contracting services and goods; how right-sizing and capacity creep have contributed to the need to re-examine historic practices; key elements in a successful refinery/vendor relationship; how does it work in real life; and implementing a partnering program

  2. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Postalli Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa and mammal (HTC cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  3. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando Postalli; Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa; Jordão, Berenice Quinzani

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  4. Effect of oil spills on coastal power plants, refineries, and desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, C.; Mussali, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Major oil spills such as those experienced in the Gulf War, in Alaska, and in the Gulf of Mexico have raised concern for the protection of coastal facilities which use seawater for cooling or process purposes such as power stations, refineries, and desalination plants. Because of the availability of large quantities of cooling water, many power stations and refineries are located along the coastline in the United States and throughout the world. In addition, many countries in the Middle East, the Caribbean, and other areas of the world depend on desalination plants located along the coast for the vital supply of drinking water. The objective of this paper is to determine the levels of oil contamination which will adversely affect plant performance or result in damage to specific plant equipment such as condensers, heat exchangers, pumps, screens, water treatment equipment, and other vital water handling mechanisms

  5. Radiation doses and hazards from processing of crude oil at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E. O.; Kpeglo, D. O.; Akaho, E. H. K.; Schandorf, C.; Adu, P. A. S.; Faanu, A.; Abankwah, E.; Lawluvi, H.; Awudu, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Processing of crude oil has been carried out in Ghana for more than four decades without measures to assess the hazards associated with the naturally occurring radionuclides in the raw and processed materials. This study investigates the exposure of the public to 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in crude oil, petroleum products and wastes at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana using gamma-ray spectrometry. The study shows higher activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the wastes than the crude oil and the products with estimated hazard indices less than unity. The values obtained in the study are within recommended limits for public exposure indicating that radiation exposure from processing of the crude oil at the refinery does not pose any significant radiological hazard but may require monitoring to establish long-term effect on both public and workers. (authors)

  6. Radiation doses and hazards from processing of crude oil at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, E O; Kpeglo, D O; Akaho, E H K; Schandorf, C; Adu, P A S; Faanu, A; Abankwah, E; Lawluvi, H; Awudu, A R

    2012-02-01

    Processing of crude oil has been carried out in Ghana for more than four decades without measures to assess the hazards associated with the naturally occurring radionuclides in the raw and processed materials. This study investigates the exposure of the public to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in crude oil, petroleum products and wastes at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana using gamma-ray spectrometry. The study shows higher activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the wastes than the crude oil and the products with estimated hazard indices less than unity. The values obtained in the study are within recommended limits for public exposure indicating that radiation exposure from processing of the crude oil at the refinery does not pose any significant radiological hazard but may require monitoring to establish long-term effect on both public and workers.

  7. Upgrading refineries performance: a necessity at the time of lean kine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing problem of petroleum refining in Europe and France has been debated during a seminar organized by the ENSPM (Ecole Nationale Superieure des Petroles et Moteurs) Formation Industrie at Rueil-Malmaison (France) on June 15, 1995. For a new modern refinery, the processing cost for one ton of crude oil can reach 40 US $ and exceeds the refining gross profit. Introduction of unleaded gasoline and the forthcoming 0.05% sulfur gas oil represent additional investments of about 20 US $/t. The increasing production of lighter crude oils, which represent 2/3 of worldwide supplies, has increased the gas oil and fuel price difference. A better equilibrium between supply and demand and significant improvements of refineries performances are required to reduce processing costs. New methods and computerized systems have been developed in this way and presented during this seminar. (J.S.). 1 fig

  8. Implementation of NOx control technologies in petroleum refining applications, Mobil Torrance Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Existing NO x technologies implemented by the Mobil Torrance refinery have been reviewed. Technologies utilized are Lo-NO x burners, Ultra-Lo-NO x burners and selective catalytic reduction in boilers and process heaters, as well as selective non-catalytic reduction in fluid catalytic cracker/CO boiler applications. With the implementation of the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM), research at Mobil is directed towards reducing operational costs and improving efficiency in selective catalytic reduction with high and low temperature catalysts. Research is also directed at improved selective non-catalytic reduction efficiency in CO boiler applications and at further NO x reduction in fluid catalytic cracker regenerator offgases. The implementation of proven and enhanced technology is expected to reduce refinery NO x emissions from 1734 metric tons per yr to 487 metric tons per yr by the year 2003. 4 refs., 7 figs

  9. Psidium guajava as a bioaccumulator of nickel around an oil refinery, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade Perry, Carolina; Divan, Armando Molina; Raya Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Lúcia Atz, Vera

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the potential of Psidium guajava as a biological accumulator of air pollutants, saplings were exposed at nine sites receiving atmospheric emissions from an oil refinery (five within, four outside the industrial area) and another reference site located at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 27 km from the refinery. Exposures lasted about 3 months each, coincided with the seasons, and totaled five exposures between 2005 and 2006. The following parameters were evaluated: dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots, leaf area, rate of relative height increase, Ni and S contents, maximum assimilation rate, and carboxylation efficiency invivo. P. guajava was found to be an efficient accumulator of Ni, since highly significant differences were observed (Pguajava is a good bioaccumulator for Ni. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co......Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material...... production and saving fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which in Denmark is typically incinerated. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment and energy balance of a pilot-scale waste refinery...

  11. Reconstruction of refinery industry in Chechen Republic on the resource- and energy-saving basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geieva, L.A.; Meshalkin, V.P.; Sarkissov, P.D. [Mendeleev Univ. of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation); Hadzhiev, S.N. [Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis of Russian Academy of Sciences after A.V. Topchiev (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    In 2000, the Russian Federation implemented measures to increase oil production in the Chechen Republic from 73 thousand metric tons to 1.5 million metric tons by 2002. As a result, the oil refining industry in the Chechen Republic is currently in a state of crisis. More advanced and effective refining processes are required along with a reduction in production costs. The reconstruction program for refineries in Grozny requires new process system designs that can handle the appropriate petroleum products in the correct quantities and required qualities. There is also a need to balance the use of natural resources with fixed facilities and operating costs. The challenge to design optimal process systems for refineries in Grozny is both multicriterial and complex. The design will have to consider the use of various crudes and petroleum products. Advances in refining capability and resource conservation technologies would lead to greater energy consumption resulting from additional petroleum production.

  12. Materials And Carbon Flow In A Waste Refinery Process Using Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Woods, M.; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of resources from mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a crucial aspect of waste management practices. In this paper the materials and carbon flows of an innovative waste refinery process using enzymes are presented. Through enzymatic treatment the process produces two main streams from...... the initial mixed MSW: a bioslurry (liquefied paper and organics) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials). The discussion is based on the performance of the process in separating recyclables and recovery Cbiogenic as well as nutrients from the input MSW. The results of MFA and SFA illustrate...... that the waste refinery has great potential for resource recovery: about 100% of the Cbiogenic and up to 90% of N and P can potentially be recovered in the bioslurry and returned to land after anaerobic digestion. Recovery of ferrous and non-ferrous material is estimated double compared to recovering the same...

  13. Employee motivation in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosak-Szyrocka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Employees of any organization are the most central part so they need to be influenced and persuaded towards task fulfillment. Examinations connected with medical services were carried out using the Servqual method. It was stated that care of employees and their motivation to work is a very important factor regarding employee engagement but also about the overall success of an organization.

  14. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  15. Electroacoustic isoelectric point determinations of bauxite refinery residues: different neutralization techniques and minor mineral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Tiago S S; Clark, Malcolm W; Comarmond, M Josick; Payne, Timothy E; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Thorogood, Gordon J

    2012-08-14

    Bauxite refinery residue (BRR) is a highly caustic, iron hydroxide-rich byproduct from alumina production. Some chemical treatments of BRR reduce soluble alkalinity and lower residue pH (to values work shows that minor mineral components in complex mineral systems may have a disproportionate effect on the observable bulk IEP. Furthermore, this work shows the appropriateness of electroacoustic techniques in investigating samples with significant soluble mineral components (e.g., ANC).

  16. An Approximation Solution to Refinery Crude Oil Scheduling Problem with Demand Uncertainty Using Joint Constrained Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Genke; Xu, Guanglin; Pan, Changchun

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand unc...

  17. Lymphohematopoietic cancer mortality and morbidity of workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Woo; Yoon, Yong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung-Seok; Yoo, Seung-Won

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between exposure of Korean workers to petrochemicals in the refinery/petrochemical industry and lymphohematopoietic cancers. The cohort consisted of 8,866 male workers who had worked from the 1960s to 2007 at one refinery and six petrochemical companies located in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea that produce benzene or use benzene as a raw material. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for 1992-2007 and 1997-2005 based on the death rate and cancer incidence rate of the Korean male population according to job title (production, maintenance, laboratory, and office workers). The overall mortality and most cause-specific mortalities were lower among these workers than those of the general Korean population. Increased SMRs were observed for leukemia (4/1.45; SMR 2.77, 95% CI: 0.75-7.09) and lymphohematopoietic cancers (5/2.51; SMR 2, 95% CI: 0.65-4.66) in production workers, and increased SIRs were also observed in leukemia (3/1.34; SIR 2.24, 95% CI: 0.46-6.54) and lymphohematopoietic cancers (5/3.39; SIR 1.47, 95% CI: 0.48-3.44) in production workers, but the results were not statistically significant. The results showed a potential relationship between leukemia and lymphohematopoietic cancers and exposure to benzene in refinery/petrochemical complex workers. This study yielded limited results due to a short observational period; therefore, a follow-up study must be performed to elucidate the relationship between petrochemical exposure and cancer rates.

  18. Management of waste generation in the oil refining industry. The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lage Refinery experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J.I.; Machado, J.B.; Linhares, C.A.; Mazarino, P.R. [PETROBRAS, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). REVAP. Refinaria Henrique Lage

    1993-12-31

    The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lages Refinery - located in Sao Paulo State (Southeast Brazil), has been developing for many years a systematic program for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generation reduction. The waste minimization management program success has been built due to the structure behavioural modifications due to the new environment protection and quality politics; the training and equipment investments, and operational procedures changes. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in petroleum refinery wastewater bacteria by phenolic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gideon C. Okpokwasili; Christian Okechukwu Nweke

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity of phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol on Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Escherichia species isolated from petroleum refinery wastewater was assessed via inhibition of dehydrogenase enzyme activity. At low concentrations, 2-nitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol stimulated dehydrogenase activity and at sufficient concentrations, phenolic compounds inhibi...

  20. Optimal Renewable Energy Integration into Refinery with CO2 Emissions Consideration: An Economic Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnifro, M.; Taqvi, S. T.; Ahmad, M. S.; Bensaida, K.; Elkamel, A.

    2017-08-01

    With increasing global energy demand and declining energy return on energy invested (EROEI) of crude oil, global energy consumption by the O&G industry has increased drastically over the past few years. In addition, this energy increase has led to an increase GHG emissions, resulting in adverse environmental effects. On the other hand, electricity generation through renewable resources have become relatively cost competitive to fossil based energy sources in a much ‘cleaner’ way. In this study, renewable energy is integrated optimally into a refinery considering costs and CO2 emissions. Using Aspen HYSYS, a refinery in the Middle East was simulated to estimate the energy demand by different processing units. An LP problem was formulated based on existing solar energy systems and wind potential in the region. The multi-objective function, minimizing cost as well as CO2 emissions, was solved using GAMS to determine optimal energy distribution from each energy source to units within the refinery. Additionally, an economic feasibility study was carried out to determine the viability of renewable energy technology project implementation to overcome energy requirement of the refinery. Electricity generation through all renewable energy sources considered (i.e. solar PV, solar CSP and wind) were found feasible based on their low levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The payback period for a Solar CSP project, with an annual capacity of about 411 GWh and a lifetime of 30 years, was found to be 10 years. In contrast, the payback period for Solar PV and Wind were calculated to be 7 and 6 years, respectively. This opens up possibilities for integrating renewables into the refining sector as well as optimizing multiple energy carrier systems within the crude oil industry

  1. Separation and Molecular Identification of Resistant Bacteria to Lead from Behbahan Bidboland Gas Refinery Wastewater (Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Mehrbakhsh; Monir Doudi; Hossein Motamedi

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals are one of the pollution sources in environment. The pollution due to these metals is the problem that could have negative impact on water. Human is faced with these poisons effects due to occupational reasons. The lead is regarded as heavy metal whose industrial applications cause environmental pollution in high rate.The aim of this project was Separation and Molecular Identification of Resistant Bacteria to Lead from Behbahan Bidboland Gas Refinery Wastewater (Iran). For thi...

  2. Management of waste generation in the oil refining industry. The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lage Refinery experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J I; Machado, J B; Linhares, C A; Mazarino, P R [PETROBRAS, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). REVAP. Refinaria Henrique Lage

    1994-12-31

    The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lages Refinery - located in Sao Paulo State (Southeast Brazil), has been developing for many years a systematic program for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generation reduction. The waste minimization management program success has been built due to the structure behavioural modifications due to the new environment protection and quality politics; the training and equipment investments, and operational procedures changes. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Multiplex network analysis of employee performance and employee social relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Ying; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-01-01

    In human resource management, employee performance is strongly affected by both formal and informal employee networks. Most previous research on employee performance has focused on monolayer networks that can represent only single categories of employee social relationships. We study employee performance by taking into account the entire multiplex structure of underlying employee social networks. We collect three datasets consisting of five different employee relationship categories in three firms, and predict employee performance using degree centrality and eigenvector centrality in a superimposed multiplex network (SMN) and an unfolded multiplex network (UMN). We use a quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) analysis and a regression analysis to demonstrate that the different categories of relationship are mutually embedded and that the strength of their impact on employee performance differs. We also use weighted/unweighted SMN/UMN to measure the predictive accuracy of this approach and find that employees with high centrality in a weighted UMN are more likely to perform well. Our results shed new light on how social structures affect employee performance.

  4. Effect of Novi Sad oil refinery bombardment and fires on soil properties in Vojvodina province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekulic, P.; Ralev, J.; Zeremski-Skoric, T.

    2002-01-01

    The bombing of the Novi Sad Oil Refinery in 1999 has lead to soil pollution by the products of burning oil and oil derivatives. These products were first carried by winds to the Rimski Sancevi Experiment Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops (located in the vicinity of the Novi Sad Oil Refinery), where they entered the soil via precipitation. Later, they spread to the city of Novi Sad, its vicinity, and the whole of the Vojvodina province, contaminating the soil. In the present study, we examined the extent to which this soil had been polluted. In 1999, we began to study the level of soil contamination at the Institute's Experiment Field at Rimski Sancevi. In 2000, we carried out the same kind of study in and around the city of Novi Sad, while in 2001 we expanded the study to the whole of Vojvodina. The studies' findings show that the soil reaction has not changed and that the levels of heavy metals in the soil have not exceeded the maximum tolerable concentration (MTC). The presence of PAHs at various concentrations was detected, however. This presence is a result of the fires at the Novi Sad Oil Refinery. (author)

  5. Exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a petroleum refinery utilities plant using the condensing to power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes da Silva, Julio Augusto; Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Oliveira Junior, Silvio [Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jams@usp.br, luiz.pellegrini@usp.br, soj@usp.br; Plaza, Claudio; Rucker, Claudio [Petrobras - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: claudioplaza@petrobras.com.br, rucker@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a brief description of the main processes present in a modern high capacity refinery is done. The methodology used to evaluate, through exergy analysis, the performance of the refinery's utilities plant since it is responsible for a very considerable amount of the total exergy destruction in a refinery is presented. The utilities plant products: steam, electricity, shaft power and high pressure water had their exergy unit cost determined using exergoeconomic approach. A simple and effective method called condensing to power was used to define the product of the condensers in exergy basis. Using this method it is possible to define the product of the condenser without the use of negentropy concept nor the aggregation of condensers to the steam turbines. By using this new approach, the costs obtained for the plant's products are exactly the same costs obtained when the condenser is aggregated to the steam turbine but with the advantage that the information about the stream between condenser and the steam turbine is not lost and the condenser can be evaluated singly. The analysis shows that the equipment where attention and resources should be focused are the boilers followed by the gas turbine, that together, are responsible for 80% of total exergy destruction in the utilities plant. The total exergy efficiency found for the utilities plant studied is 35% while more than 280 MW of exergy is destroyed in the utilities processes. (author)

  6. Optimization of operating conditions of distillation columns: an energy saving option in refinery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Fazlali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While energy prices continue to climb, it conservation remains the prime concern for process industries. The daily growth of energy consumption throughout the world and the real necessity of providing it, shows that optimization of energy generation and consumption units is an economical and sometimes vital case. Hence, the optimization of a petroleum refinery is aimed towards great production and an increase in quality. In this research, the atmospheric distillation unit of the Iran-Arak-Shazand petroleum refinery was subject to optimization efforts. It was performed by the means of using a simulator with the aim to earn more overhead products. In the next step the optimization results from the simulators were carried out in the real world, at the above mentioned unit. Results demonstrate that the changes in the real operating conditions increase the overhead products with desirable quality. Finally, a net economical balance between the increments of the overhead products and the energy consumption shows an energy saving in this refinery.

  7. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  8. Identifying ideology: media representations of the Irving Oil Refinery strike, 1994-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuter, E.C.

    1998-07-01

    Media coverage of a strike at the Irving Oil Refinery in Saint John, New Brunswick which began in 1994 and lasted until 1996 is used as a background for the examination of ideology, used here in the more inclusive sense, one in which the term suggests a frame of mind without the coherence and easily recognized label usually associated with political ideology. Central issues such as monopoly ownership of the New Brunswick media by the Irving Group of Companies (also owners of the refinery) , the ideological presentation of strikes in general, and the representation of changing labour relations in a post-industrial, globally-oriented society are analyzed to show how these issues influenced media coverage. Four New Brunswick dailies as well as selected English-language dailies from other parts of Canada have been scrutinized in an effort to determine their ideological stand. It was found that restrictive ideologies such as liberalism or conservatism are on the decline; instead, more inclusive ideologies like defeatism and individualism were prominently featured especially by the St. John Telegraph-Journal in New Brunswick and other papers outside the province. The most striking finding was that if the media coverage of the Irving Refinery strike is representative of public opinion, the current organization of the provincial political economy is accepted as 'natural' by a majority of New Brunswickers.

  9. Industrial application of gasoline aromatization and desulfurization technology in Hohhot refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zixia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasoline aromatization and desulfurization (GARDES technology is extensively used in refineries of Petrochina, aiming to produce high quality ultraclean fluid catalytic cracking (FCC gasoline. This article introduces the industrial application results on the hydrodesulfurization unit of the Hohhot refinery, which plays an important role in guiding next round gasoline upgrading. The characteristics and the principle of GARDES technology were elaborated by analyzing the distribution of sulfur and hydrocarbon compounds in the feed and product. The analysis results proved that the presence of broad ranged sulfur types in the feed can be removed at different stages. Olefin can be decreased by saturation and conversion into i-paraffins and aromatics. The sulfur content of the blend product can be limited under 10 mg/kg, showing GARDES technology has excellent sulfur removal ability. The olefin reduction can also satisfy the ever-increasing severe requirement about the olefin limitation, while the loss of research octane number (RON can be minimized to an acceptable level. Furthermore, according to the demand of gasoline upgrading, GARDES technology has great flexibility by adjusting operation condition without any further investment, which brings more economic benefits for refinery.

  10. WATER PINCH TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION TO MINIMIZE SULPHUROUS WASTEWATER IN AN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orlando Lobelles Sardiñas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil refining industries there is a high water consumption, which influences the high production costs and impacts the environment due to the discharge of their wastes. It is known that there are no technological conditions for the reuse of industrial water at the oil refineries, based on hydroskimming processes. The objective of this study is to implement the process integration methodology, Water Pinch, to a sour water stripper unit, as a unitary process of an oil refinery, to minimize the amount of sulphurous waste water and reduce contamination of the bay that receives these wastes. The technology is applied to evaluate the volume of sulphurous wastewater generated in the Cienfuegos oil refinery. This technology allows identifying opportunities for recovery and reuse of water, based on concentration ranges of contaminants. To achieve this purpose, a sour water stripper tower was assessed with the help of Water Pinch software, which provided an optimized distribution network, as a proposed technological improvement. This facilitated to recover and reuse 667 757, 28 m3 of water per year, and 1 035 023, 78 CUC were saved, at the same time the amount of polluting effluents decreased in approximately 2 % of non-reusable treated water.

  11. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using physicochemical, Fenton and Photo-Fenton oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony, Maha A; Purcell, Patrick J; Zhao, Yaqian

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with hydrocarbon oil. Three different oil-contaminated wastewaters were examined and compared: (i) a 'real' hydrocarbon wastewater collected from an oil refinery (Conoco-Phillips Whitegate refinery, County Cork, Ireland); (ii) a 'real' hydrocarbon wastewater collected from a car-wash facility located at a petroleum filling station; and (iii) a 'synthetic' hydrocarbon wastewater generated by emulsifying diesel oil and water. The AOPs investigated were Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) (Fenton's reagent), Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV (Photo-Fenton's reagent) which may be used as an alternative to, or in conjunction with, conventional treatment techniques. Laboratory-scale batch and continuous-flow experiments were undertaken. The photo-Fenton parametric concentrations to maximize COD removal were optimized: pH = 3, H(2)O(2) = 400 mg/L, and Fe(2+) = 40 mg/L. In the case of the oil-refinery wastewater, photo-Fenton treatment achieved approximately 50% COD removal and, when preceded by physicochemical treatment, the percentage removal increased to approximately 75%.

  12. Multi-media pollution prevention: A case study of a refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.E.; Podar, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1989, Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency began a voluntary, joint project to study pollution prevention opportunities at an industrial facility. Amoco proposed use of its refinery at Yorktown, Virginia, to conduct a multi-media assessment of releases to the environment, then to develop and evaluate options to reduce these releases. A Workgroup composed of state, federal, and Amoco representatives provided oversight to the Project. Monthly Workgroup meetings provided Project oversight, a forum for presentations on different Project components, and an opportunity for informal discussion of different viewpoints about environmental management. The Workgroup identified four objectives for this study: (1) Inventory refinery releases to the environment to define their chemical type, quantity, source, and medium of release; (2) develop options to reduce selected releases identified, as well as rank and prioritize the options based on a variety of criteria and perspectives; (3) identify and evaluate factors as technical, legislative, regulatory, institutional, permitting, and economic, that impede or encourage pollution prevention; and (4) enhance participates' knowledge of refinery and regulatory systems

  13. Evaluating an employee wellness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Wendel, Jeanne

    2013-12-01

    What criteria should be used to evaluate the impact of a new employee wellness program when the initial vendor contract expires? Published academic literature focuses on return-on-investment as the gold standard for wellness program evaluation, and a recent meta-analysis concludes that wellness programs can generate net savings after one or two years. In contrast, surveys indicate that fewer than half of these programs report net savings, and actuarial analysts argue that return-on-investment is an unrealistic metric for evaluating new programs. These analysts argue that evaluation of new programs should focus on contract management issues, such as the vendor's ability to: (i) recruit employees to participate and (ii) induce behavior change. We compute difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimates of the impact of a wellness program implemented by a mid-sized employer. The analysis includes one year of pre-implementation data and three years of post-implementation data. We find that the program successfully recruited a broad spectrum of employees to participate, and it successfully induced short-term behavior change, as manifested by increased preventive screening. However, the effects on health care expenditures are positive (but insignificant). If it is unrealistic to expect new programs to significantly reduce healthcare costs in a few years, then focusing on return-on-investment as the gold standard metric may lead to early termination of potentially useful wellness programs. Focusing short-term analysis of new programs on short-term measures may provide a more realistic evaluation strategy.

  14. Employee-driven Innovation in Welfare Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wihlman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in both employee-driven innovation (EDI and innovation in welfare services, but a lack of empirical studies addressing innovation from the employee perspective. Accordingly, this study was designed to contribute with well-grounded empirical knowledge, aiming to explore the barriers to and opportunities for participation in innovation experienced by employees of the Swedish welfare services. In order to reach the aim, a qualitative thematic analysis of 27 semi-structured interviews with employees in four municipalities was performed. The study identified three main themes, with a great impact on the innovative performance of the studied organizations: support, including leadership and innovation processes; development, including creativity and learning; and organizational culture, which includes attitudes and communication, all essential ingredients in EDI. Experienced barriers for innovation were unclear or non-existing innovation processes with ambiguous goals, insufficient learning, and deficient organizational slack, thus creating a tension between day-to-day work and innovation and hindering reflection and exploration. Attitudes of colleagues and lack of communication were also barriers to implementing innovation, suggesting the need for better management support for a communicative and open culture. Opportunities were found, including commitment to innovation and willingness to try new ideas, but the employees must be given the mandate and sufficient time to develop the potential that emerges from continuous learning, time for reflection, and user dialogue. The conclusion was that incremental innovations existed, but the full potential of these did not benefit the entire organization due to inadequate communication and lack of innovation processes. The study improves our understanding of how employees regard their involvement in innovation. It also discusses how to make better use of employees’ resources in

  15. Education of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Malachová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The thesis aims to assess the functioning of educational methods that is being used by LEGO Group and propose appropriate measures or recommendations for future development. The conclusion of this work is evaluating the results of the investigation and provides recommendations counter measures to improve the current situation. The theoretical part describes principles of systematic employee training, forms and methods of education, also it further defines the learning organization. Part of th...

  16. Managing problem employees: a model program and practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a model program for managing problem employees that includes a description ofthe basic types of problem employees and employee problems, as well as practical recommendations for. (1) selection and screening, (2) education and training, (3) coaching and counseling, (4) discipline, (5) psychological fitness-for-duty evaluations, (6) mental health services, (7) termination, and (8) leadership and administrative strategies. Throughout, the emphasis on balancing the need for order and productivity in the workplace with fairness and concern for employee health and well-being.

  17. Employee Engagement: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated and engaged employees tend to contribute more in terms of organizational productivity and support in maintaining a higher commitment level leading to the higher customer satisfaction. Employees Engagement permeates across the employee-customer boundary, where revenue, corporate goodwill, brand image are also at stake. This paper makes an attempt to study the different dimensions of employee engagement with the help of review of literature. This can be used to provide an overview and references on some of the conceptual and practical work undertaken in the area of the employee engagement practices.

  18. A Research on Employee Ethnocentrism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptekin Sökmen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify ethnocentric behavior tendencies of 129 boundary spanning role employees, who works in 5 star hotels of Ankara, using Employee Ethnocentrism Survey. Also in this study, independent t-test and analysis of variance tests were used to investigate differences, among respondents’ demographic variables. The results demonstrated that, boundary spanning role employees of 5 star hotels in Ankara have moderately ethnocentric tendency, and several significant differences in terms of respondents’ age and gender. Male employees, 39 age and elders, and high school graduates show a higher ethnocentric tendency among the hotel employees.

  19. The Survey and Measurement of Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd and V Content in Green Vegetables of South Area of Tehran Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemzadeh Khoyi, J.; Noori, A. S.; Pourang, N.; Alizadeh, M.; Ghoreishi, H.; Padash, A.

    2013-01-01

    Oil pollution is one of the most critical soil and water pollutant. Areas which are subjected to oil industry may have this kind of pollution by different ways such as extraction, transformation and refining. The example of these areas is south east of Tehran refinery which is surrounded by agricultural fields and are subjected by pollution via Tehran refinery, oil transforming lines, waste water and industrial activities. Since the crops from this area is providing the needs of neighbor cities like Tehran, to realize their oil pollution, the content of some heavy metals like Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Mn has been measured. The results analyzed by analytical method include SPSS and MVSP. Finally the relation between elements and pollution has been recognized. The result of this survey showed the high heavy metal content in most plants which were higher than similar research. Onion had the highest amount of most heavy metals. Ni and Pd content were high in plants which are indicator of oil pollution.

  20. Fiscal 1998 joint promotion basic research report. Energy saving project for Achinsk refinery in Russia; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Roshia Achinsuku seiyujo shoene project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For prevention of global warming by greenhouse effect gas, study was made on energy saving measures for Achinsk refinery in Russia. Achinsk refinery is a relatively new plant put into operation in 1983, however, because of no various equipment for use combustion heat effectively, its average thermal efficiency is as low as 60%-70%, resulting in fuel consumption more than necessary one. Based on the study result, the following remodeling designs were made: Improvement of a heat exchange efficiency by relocation of heat exchangers to reduce fuel consumption of a heating furnace as much as possible, conversion of an existing heating furnace based on an old design concept to an advanced one, installation of a waste heat recovery system including a preheating convection unit and air preheater, reinforcement of heating furnace wall insulator, installation of an optimum control system for furnace operation, and improvement of a fuel supply system efficiency. This design showed possible reduction of heating furnace load, and possible furnace thermal efficiency of 90%. (NEDO)

  1. Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

  2. Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery. Preprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Leitner, W.; Lercher, J.A.; Nees, F.; Perego, C.; Rupp, M.; Santacesaria. E. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    Within the DGMK/SCI-Conference 'Opportunities and Challenges at the Interface between Petrochemistry and refinery' between 10th and 12th October, 2007, in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Maximizing petrochemicals from refineries (B. Glover, T. Foley, S. Frey); (b) Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery - the OMV view (J. Lichtscheidl); (c) Aspects of petrochemistry in a fuels refinery (J. Essler, J. Mielicke, T. Maier); (d) Enhanced propylene production in FCC by novel catalytic materials (C.P. Kelkar, D. Harris, M. Xu, J. Fu); (e) Retrofit of an MTBE-unit to ETBE (A. Rix, U. Peters); (f) Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery - The BASF perspectives (H.-J. Blankertz); (g) Light olefins - challenges from new production routes? (H. Zimmermann); (h) Conversion of heavy aromatic hydrocarbons to valuable synthetic feed for steamcrackers (A. Cesana, L. Dalloro, F. Rivetti, R. Buzzoni, R. Bignazzi); (i) C{sub 4} olefin/paraffin separation over the metal organic framework material Cu{sub 3}BTC{sub 2} (S. Kunz, O. Tangermann, M. Hartmann); (j) Glycerol tertiary butyl ethers via etherification of glycerol with isobutene (A. Behr); (k) Biorefineries: From concepts to reality? (K. Wagemann); (l) Modern concepts in reactor and separation technologies (D. Agar); (m) Innovative reactive distillation process for the production of the MTBE substitute isooctane from isobutene (M. Chalakova, R. Kaur, H. Freund, S. Mahajani, K. Sundmacher); (n) Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) systems - novel fixed bed reactor concepts for homogeneous catalysis (A. Riisager, R. Fehrmann, M. Haumann, M. Jakuttis, J. Joni, P. Wasserscheid); (o) Selective oxidations to industrial intermediates (S. Schunck); (p) Perspectives of industrial realization for propane oxidative dehydrogenation over chromium oxide catalysts (A.L. Lapidus, N.A. Gaidai, Yu. A. Agafonov, M

  3. Smart microgrids in refineries, Mexico case; Microrredes inteligentes en refinerias, caso Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Garcia, Javier Alejandro; Linan Garcia, Roberto; Picasso Blanquel, Cuitlahuac; Silva Farias, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we present the technological trends on smart microgrids for refineries, case Mexico. Distributed generation on refineries is a model of microgrid with great challenges to solve, considering renewable energy. Also it discusses the scenario in bidirectional connection from refineries to the utility supergrid Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE by its acronym in Spanish) and how to reach the development of a smart microgrid. We look different scenarios in power systems refineries, and the feasibility to achieve and develop the technology concepts in smart grid, such as: demand response in real time, exchange of energy between microgrid with supergrid-CFE and viceversa, energy efficiency, microgrid automation, selfhealing/real time autorecovery fault in power systems, storage energy and its application on power systems blackout in refineries. Finally we discussed the concepts that represent the greatest challenges to be solved on the smart microgrids and consider obtaining alternatives solution in medium or long term. [Spanish] En este documento se presentan las tendencias tecnologicas en micro redes inteligentes para refinerias, en el caso de Mexico. La generacion distribuida en refinerias es un modelo de micro red con grandes desafios por resolver, considerando la energia renovable. Se analiza tambien el escenario en conexion bidireccional de refinerias a la super red de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), la empresa electrica mexicana, y como lograr el desarrollo de una micro red inteligente. Se consideran diferentes escenarios en refinerias de sistemas de potencia, y la factibilidad de alcanzar y desarrollar los conceptos de tecnologia en una red inteligente, tales como: respuesta de demanda en tiempo real, intercambio de energia entre la micro red con la super red de la CFE y viceversa, eficiencia de energia, automatizacion de micro redes, autorrecuperacion de fallas en autoarreglo/tiempo real. En sistemas de potencia, almacenamiento de

  4. Particulate matters modelling: Participation to Eurodelta and application at a refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffort, Valentin

    2017-01-01

    the month of April 2013, in the vicinity of the Total refinery of Grandpuits, Seine-et-Marne. Model performance is evaluated at the regional scale, with the refinery sources treated with the Plume-in-Grid representation. The refinery contribution to local inhalable particle concentrations, in interaction with local sources, is analyzed. Next, the model is applied to two measurement campaigns of the TEMMAS project ('Tele-detection, Measure, Modeling of Atmospheric pollutants on industrial sites'), conducted in the vicinity of the Total refinery at La Mede, Bouches-du-Rhone, in September 2015 and February 2016. The performance of the Polyphemus Plume-in-Grid model is evaluated with intensive measurements of mass concentrations, number concentrations, and chemical composition of particles in the vicinity of the refinery. (author) [fr

  5. Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, James K; Schmidt, Frank L; Hayes, Theodore L

    2002-04-01

    Based on 7,939 business units in 36 companies, this study used meta-analysis to examine the relationship at the business-unit level between employee satisfaction-engagement and the business-unit outcomes of customer satisfaction, productivity, profit, employee turnover, and accidents. Generalizable relationships large enough to have substantial practical value were found between unit-level employee satisfaction-engagement and these business-unit outcomes. One implication is that changes in management practices that increase employee satisfaction may increase business-unit outcomes, including profit.

  6. The Optimal Performance of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pureber

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Revoz company set itself the following task: we will enable also our blue colllar workers to improve their ski lls and be promoted. So we started implementing a project of step-by-step education, The Optimal Performance of Employees. Improving the workers' knowledges and skills guarantees higher independence, responsibility, faster development of organisation structure and more trust between the employees because of better communication in bas ic working units. The Optimal Performance program offers blue collar workers a possibility to  improve their professional skills, to adapt themselves to changes in managing, organisation, technology and new approaches to their tasks. The program is based on the following principles: • voluntariness-every worker can participate; • adapted pedagogical approach - based on routine workers' activities, the rhythm of education is adapted to their abilities of absorbing new knowledges; • including of managerial structure - before, du ring and after education; • connection with working environment - the contents of education are linked to a specific working environment.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of gallbladder polypoid lesions in Chinese petrochemical employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu-Shan; Mai, Yi-Feng; Li, Fu-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Hu, Ke-Min; Hong, Zhong-Li; Zhu, Zhong-Wei

    2013-07-21

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLGs) in petrochemical employees in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. All active and retired employees aged 20-90 years (n = 11098) of a refinery and chemical plant in eastern China were requested to participate in a health survey. The participants were subjected to interview, physical examination, laboratory assessments and ultrasonography. All the participants were invited to have a physical examination after a face-to-face interview. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein, and the samples were used for the analysis of biochemical values. Abdominal ultrasonography was conducted. A total of 10461 (7331 men and 3130 women) current and former petrochemical employees attended for screening. The overall prevalence of post-cholecystectomy, gallstones and PLGs was 0.9%, 5.2% and 7.4%, respectively. Compared with the increased prevalence of either gallstones or post-cholecystectomy in older persons, PLGs were more common in the middle-aged, peaking in those aged 40-59 years. Excluding the patients with gallstones, gallstones mixed with PLGs, or those who had undergone cholecystectomy, in the remaining 9828 participants, the prevalence of PLGs in men (8.9%) was significantly higher than that in women (5.5%, P employees. Male gender, HBsAg positivity, and middle age are risk factors for developing PLGs.

  8. Disordered gambling among Chinese casino employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Wong, Eva M W

    2008-06-01

    A previous study suggests that casino employees are at higher risk for disordered gambling than non-casino employees. The present study examined the cognitive correlates of the gambling involvement of Chinese casino employees. These potential cognitive correlates included attitudes toward the gaming industry and gambling activities, perceived job meaningfulness, and job stress. One hundred and nineteen Chinese respondents (M = 57; F = 62) working as dealers in Macao casinos were recruited through convenience sampling to fill out a questionnaire. The results revealed that about 7% of the respondents scored 10 or more on the South Oaks Gambling Screen and engaged in disordered gambling. Path analysis showed that attitude toward the gaming industry had a positive impact on job meaningfulness, which largely explained variances of job stress among casino employees. Job stress had a significant, but weak, direct impact on disordered gambling. Though causality between variables cannot be confirmed, this study provided insights into the impacts of cognitive factors on gambling involvement among Chinese front-line employees in the gaming industry. Implications of the findings were also discussed.

  9. 31 CFR 20.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee. 20.640 Section 20.640 Money...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of... charge employees; (2) All indirect charge employees, unless their impact or involvement in the...

  10. 43 CFR 43.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employee. 43.640 Section 43.640 Public... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a... employees; (2) All indirect charge employees, unless their impact or involvement in the performance of work...

  11. 7 CFR 3021.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee. 3021.640 Section 3021.640 Agriculture... Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a recipient directly engaged in the performance of work under the award, including— (1) All direct charge employees; (2) All indirect charge employees, unless their...

  12. 14 CFR 1267.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee. 1267.640 Section 1267.640... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a... employees; (2) All indirect charge employees, unless their impact or involvement in the performance of work...

  13. 15 CFR 29.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee. 29.640 Section 29.640... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a... employees; (2) All indirect charge employees, unless their impact or involvement in the performance of work...

  14. Navigating Change: Employee Communication in Times of Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFrene, Debbie D.; Lehman, Carol M.

    2014-01-01

    Employees often perceive periods of change--no matter how warranted or beneficial--as crises, exhibiting both cognitive and emotional reactions including feelings of insecurity and uncertainty, even fear, chaos, stress, betrayal, grief, and anger. Management must have a clear strategy for communicating with employees through change, as employee…

  15. The Management of NASA Employee Health Problem; Status 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldi, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A system for assessing employee health problems is introduced. The automated billing system is based on an input format including cost of medical services by user and measures in dollars, that portion of resources spent on preventive techniques versus therapeutic techniques. The system is capable of printing long term medical histories of any employee.

  16. 29 CFR 784.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 784.18 Section 784.18... Exemptions Provisions of the Act § 784.18 Commerce activities of employees. The Fair Labor Standards Act has... foreign commerce or (b) in the production of goods for such commerce, which is defined to include any...

  17. Beyond Your Paycheck: An Employee Benefits Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Discusses fringe benefits and points out that employee benefits in medium and large firms account for more than 27 percent of total compensation. Differentiates among statutory (required by law), compensatory (wages paid for time not worked such as vacation and sick leave), and supplementary (including insurance and pension plans) benefits and…

  18. Enhance Your Employee Benefits Package with a 529 College Savings Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Gregory D.

    2003-01-01

    Recommends the establishment of a 529 college-savings program as part of a school district employee-benefits package. Includes how it works, the benefits to employees, the advantages to school districts, and how to get started. (PKP)

  19. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities

  20. Employee recruitment: using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K

    2007-01-01

    The labor shortage of skilled health care professionals continues to make employee recruitment and retention a challenge for health care managers. Greater accountability is being placed on health care managers to retain their employees. The urgency to retain health care professionals is largely an issue that should be considered during the initial recruitment of potential employees. Health care managers should analyze candidates rigorously to ensure that appropriate hiring decisions are made. Behavioral assessments can be used as a useful employee selection tool to assist managers in the appropriate placement and training of potential new employees. When administered appropriately, these tools can provide managers with a variety of useful information. This information can assist health care managers in demystifying the hiring process. Although there are varying organizational concerns to address when using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool, the potential return on investment is worth the effort.

  1. Environmental degradation as the result of NATO air-raids against Pancevo chemical plants - oil refinery/petrochemical plant/azotara fertilizer plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogojevic, S.; Mirkov, Lj.; Stoimirovic, N.; Pajevic, V.; Krasulja, S.; Spasojevic, N.

    2002-01-01

    The long period of sanctions followed by the NATO air raids against the chemical plants of Pancevo caused ecological disaster of enormous proportions in the district, leaving the consequences to the population of the region,making it a transboundary issue of utmost urgency and importance. Due to the impossibility to organize the running under normal conditions during a decade of sanctions imposed on our country, the mentioned companies were constantly facing difficulties concerning the purchasing of the raw materials, devices and equipment since the export to FRY was banned. Thus the companies have been prevented from the realization of the environmental programs and plans including the introduction and implementation of new technologies having as the objectives the remediation of the already existing environmental problems, instead the environmental degradation was increased. During the period from 4th April-7th June 1999, Pancevo was targeted by the NATO on seven occasions. The area where the chemical plants are located was targeted with 35 missiles causing not only the damages but also endangered the environment of Pancevo and the consequences remain to be monitored in the coming years. Three employees of the Oil Refinery were killed at work while more than 50 were injured. Approximately 58.500 tons of crude oil, oil derivates, vinylchloride monomer and other petrochemical products and components were burnt in fire. Serious spills of approximately 5.000 tons of crude oil, oil derivates, 23.000 tons of 1,2 dichloroethane (EDC), 600 tons of HCl, 8 tons of mercury, 3000 tons of NaOH, 230 tons of ammonia water and ammonia and large quantities of other toxic substances contaminated the surrounding soil, ground water, the waste water canal and the river Danube.The sewerage systems were seriously damaged and blocked. A considerable damage was caused to the wastewater treatment facilities resulting in pollution of HIP-Azotara wastewater canal and the river Danube. The

  2. Evaluation of safety climate and employee injury rates in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jacqueline M; Slade, Martin D; Cantley, Linda F; Sakr, Carine J

    2016-09-01

    Safety climates that support safety-related behaviour are associated with fewer work-related injuries, and prior research in industry suggests that safety knowledge and motivation are strongly related to safety performance behaviours; this relationship is not well studied in healthcare settings. We performed analyses of survey results from a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Safety Barometer employee perception survey, conducted among VHA employees in 2012. The employee perception survey assessed 6 safety programme categories, including management participation, supervisor participation, employee participation, safety support activities, safety support climate and organisational climate. We examined the relationship between safety climate from the survey results on VHA employee injury and illness rates. Among VHA facilities in the VA New England Healthcare System, work-related injury rate was significantly and inversely related to overall employee perception of safety climate, and all 6 safety programme categories, including employee perception of employee participation, management participation, organisational climate, supervisor participation, safety support activities and safety support climate. Positive employee perceptions of safety climate in VHA facilities are associated with lower work-related injury and illness rates. Employee perception of employee participation, management participation, organisational climate, supervisor participation, safety support activities and safety support climate were all associated with lower work-related injury rates. Future implications include fostering a robust safety climate for patients and healthcare workers to reduce healthcare worker injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. License agreement, employee work

    OpenAIRE

    Poncová, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    The rigorous thesis is focused on license agreement and employee work. The aim of the thesis is not only an analysis of the use of a copyrighted work by a person different from the author of the work, but also an analysis of the performance of copyright by a person different from the author of the work. The thesis consists of five chapters. The opening chapter provides a summary of the notion of copyright, its sources at the national and international levels, but also the European Union legis...

  4. Re-thinking employee recognition: understanding employee experiences of recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread acceptance of the importance of employee recognition for both individuals and organisations and evidence of its increasing use in organisations, employee recognition has received relatively little focused attention from academic researchers. Particularly lacking is research exploring the lived experience of employee recognition and the interpretations and meanings which individuals give to these experiences. Drawing on qualitative interviews conducted as part of my PhD rese...

  5. Employees' Willingness to Participate in Work-Related Learning: A Multilevel Analysis of Employees' Learning Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Onghena, Patrick; Smet, Kelly; Dochy, Filip

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on employees' learning intentions, or the willingness to undertake formal work-related learning. This cross-sectional survey study included a sample of 1,243 employees that are nested within 21 organisations. The results of the multilevel analysis show that self-directedness in career processes, time management,…

  6. Employee satisfaction and employee retention: catalysts to patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kevin S; Collins, Sandra K; McKinnies, Richard; Jensen, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, most health care facilities have become intensely aware of the need to increase patient satisfaction. However, with today's more consumer-driven market, this can be a daunting task for even the most experienced health care manager. Recent studies indicate that focusing on employee satisfaction and subsequent employee retention may be strong catalysts to patient satisfaction. This study offers a review of how employee satisfaction and retention correlate with patient satisfaction and also examines the current ways health care organizations are focusing on employee satisfaction and retention.

  7. Employee stress management: An examination of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies on employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, M Kim; Barry, Adam E; Chaney, J Don

    2015-01-01

    Employees commonly report feeling stressed at work. Examine how employees cope with work and personal stress, whether their coping strategies are adaptive (protective to health) or maladaptive (detrimental to health), and if the manner in which employees cope with stress influences perceived stress management. In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 2,500 full-time university non-student employees (i.e. faculty, salaried professionals, and hourly non-professionals) were surveyed on health related behaviors including stress and coping. Approximately 1,277 completed the survey (51% ). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the ability of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies to predict self-reported stress management, while controlling for multiple demographic variables. Over half of employees surveyed reported effective stress management. Most frequently used adaptive coping strategies were communication with friend/family member and exercise, while most frequently used maladaptive coping strategies were drinking alcohol and eating more than usual. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies made significant (p stress management. Only adaptive coping strategies (B = 0.265) predicted whether someone would self-identify as effectively managing stress. Use of maladaptive coping strategies decreased likelihood of self-reporting effective stress management. Actual coping strategies employed may influence employees' perceived stress management. Adaptive coping strategies may be more influential than maladaptive coping strategies on perceived stress management. Results illustrate themes for effective workplace stress management programs. Stress management programs focused on increasing use of adaptive coping may have a greater impact on employee stress management than those focused on decreasing use of maladaptive coping. Coping is not only a reaction to stressful experiences but also a consequence of coping resources. Thereby increasing the

  8. New views on the hypothesis of respiratory cancer risk from soluble nickel exposure; and reconsideration of this risk's historical sources in nickel refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller James G

    2009-08-01

    electrolysis department that were previously overlooked in favour of only soluble nickel exposure; and the absence of comparable insoluble nickel exposures in PCNR's tankhouse, a finding that is consistent with the absence of respiratory cancer risk there. The most recent KNR evidence linking soluble nickel with lung cancer risk arose in a reconfiguration of KNR's historical exposures. But the resulting job exposure matrix lacks an objective, protocol-driven rationale that could provide a valid and reliable basis for analyzing the relationship of KNR lung cancer risk with any nickel species. Evidence of significant arsenic exposure during the processing step in the Clydach refinery's hydrometallurgy department in the 1902–1934 time period likely accounts for most of the elevated respiratory cancer risk observed at that time. An understanding of the mechanism for nickel carcinogenicity remains an elusive goal of toxicological research; as does its capacity to confirm the human health evidence on this subject with animal studies. Concluding remarks Epidemiological methods have failed to accurately identify the source(s of observed lung cancer risk in at least one nickel refinery (KNR. This failure, together with the negative long-term animal inhalation studies on soluble nickel and other toxicological evidence, strongly suggest that the designation of soluble nickel as carcinogenic should be reconsidered, and that the true causes of historical lung cancer risk at certain nickel refineries lie in other exposures, including insoluble nickel compounds, arsenic, sulphuric acid mists and smoking.

  9. 20 CFR 404.1013 - Included-excluded rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... least one-half of your time in the pay period is in covered work. If you spend most of your time in a... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Included-excluded rule. 404.1013 Section 404.1013 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...

  10. The gift of employee dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Roberta M

    2002-01-01

    Through an employee survey administered at Kaweah Delta Health Care District (KDHCD) in Visalia, Calif., several sources of dissatisfaction were noted, including communication, equipment, staffing and rapid growth. Perceiving no real movement toward resolving these issues, employees vented their frustrations to administration. As director of imaging services, I enlisted the help of two inside consultants, KDHCD's director of education and the director of the Employee Assistance Program (EAP). We initiated a process that is ongoing, to move the department toward working together as a team to solve problems within their control. We three directors decided to work with a leadership group to: assess the history of the department clarify the current reality create a vision of the future learn the Covey Habit 4, "Think Win-Win" capture agreements that lead staff and managers to work in self-motivated, self-directed work teams have the director of education present the work to the staff at large, and encourage the leadership team to continue to learn tools that would help the group to improve. The two inside consultants held a series of training meetings with the leadership group of 15, which included a staff member from each modality, site and support service. Participation was optional, and all who were asked agreed to participate. The meetings were held weekly for four weeks for two hours before regular work hours. At the conclusion of the training, the group agreed to continue to meet weekly. After the first four meetings, a summary of the training was presented at a meeting of the full imaging staff plus the vice president of professional services at KDHCD. Through this program, imaging services staff members at KDHCD have achieved an increased sense of cohesion in the group, learned that we have control over some things and not others, and are learning to hold each other accountable with kindness. We are giving each other the benefit of the doubt. We have not

  11. Decreasing Physical Inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration Employee Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Tamara M; Schmunk, Sandra K; Awosika, Ebi R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee population. The approach included (1) initiatives to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace; (2) two operational surveys to assess system-wide service provision; and (3) two national employee surveys. From 2010 to 2012, 86 employee fitness centers were completed in VA medical centers. A grants program (2010 to 2015) funded smaller projects designed to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace. Projects involved the provision of equipment to decrease sedentary behaviors, including stability balls, treadmill and sit-to-stand desks, stairwell projects, and funding for on-site fitness classes, bicycle racks, and outdoor par courses and walking paths among others. A comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in VHA employees was successful. Overall, self-reported, age-adjusted physical inactivity in VHA employees decreased from 25.3% in 2010 to 16.1% in 2015.

  12. 76 FR 52556 - Election To Expense Certain Refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... original Federal income tax return for the taxable year to which the cooperative taxpayer's election under... taxpayer in its trade or business (or for the production of income) is considered to be manufactured... the due date (including extensions) for filing the original Federal income tax return for the taxable...

  13. Fire precautions at petroleum refineries and bulk storage installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Topics covered in this Code of Practice include petroleum products and combustion, site evaluation for fire defence, and fire prevention, protection, detection, systems, fighting, and fire fighting facilities in storage areas. Appendices cover legal requirements and enforcement arrangements, application rates for fire water and foam, codes of practice, flammable limits of petroleum compounds, flash points and spontaneous ignition temperatures and classification of fires. (UK)

  14. Organisational Stress and Employee Dissatisfaction at Work: A Case Study to Boost Employee Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Upma Goel

    2014-01-01

    Employee satisfaction is the terminology used to describe whether employees are happy and comfortable and fulfilling their desires and needs at work. Many measures purport that employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation, employee goal achievement, and positive employee morale in the workplace.Employee satisfaction, while generally a positive in your organization, can also be a downer if mediocre employees stay because they are satisfied with your work environment.Employee satisf...

  15. Work environments for employee creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Dul, Jan; Ceylan, Canan

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInnovative organisations need creative employees who generate new ideas for product or process innovation. This paper presents a conceptual framework for the effect of personal, social-organisational and physical factors on employee creativity. Based on this framework an instrument to analyse the extent to which the work environment enhances creativity is developed. We apply this instrument to a sample of 409 employees and find support for the hypothesis that a creative work envir...

  16. Employee Motivation at IKEA Espoo

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Kumar; Adhikari, Devendra

    2013-01-01

    How to motivate employees and the factors affecting motivation have been subjects of concern for many researchers and practitioners for decades. Until recently employees were primarily regarded as a factor of production (i.e. labor), and not, as in the current view, as an integral part of all businesses. Therefore, motivating employees has become essential in order to achieve the strategic goals of any company. However, due to the current state of competition in the job markets it has increas...

  17. Employee Screening : Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Fali Huang; Peter Cappelli

    2007-01-01

    Arguably the fundamental problem faced by employers is how to elicit effort from employees. Most models suggest that employers meet this challenge by monitoring employees carefully to prevent shirking. But there is another option that relies on heterogeneity across employees, and that is to screen job candidates to find workers with a stronger work ethic who require less monitoring. This should be especially useful in work systems where monitoring by supervisors is more difficult, such as tea...

  18. Employee Referrals and Efficiency Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, Adriana D.

    2002-01-01

    Many workers believe that personal contacts are crucial for obtaining jobs in high-wage sectors. On the other hand, firms in high-wage sectors report using employee referrals because they help provide screening and monitoring of new employees. This Paper develops a matching model that can explain the link between inter-industry wage differentials and the use of employee referrals. Referrals lower monitoring costs because high-effort referees can exert peer pressure on co-workers, allowing fir...

  19. Multidimensional structure of employee motivation - Clustering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsior, Marcin; Skowron, Łukasz; Sak-Skowron, Monika

    2014-12-01

    Employees' motivation along with their satisfaction with work is one of the most significant factors determining functioning and the success of an organization on the market. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that motivation to work is a phenomenon whose nature is different among subsequent employees not only in terms of its general level, but also internal structure, and checking whether among various possible structures of motivation there is repeatability which could prove the existence of specific regularities and enabling possible classification of employees. Reasoning with regard to internal structure of motivation was conducted on the basis of the designated 14 variables expressing it, which included both internal factors (feelings) and external (actions), both positive and negative in its meaning. The conducted research consisted in segmentation of the surveyed employees using the generalized method of k-means, in order to separate groups with the same subsequent intensity profiles, so designated variables. By way of research, five various groups of employees were found. Each has a unique, different profile of motivation, at the same time, in each of them a different satisfaction level of the employed was observed. The analysis leads to a conclusion that the motivation profile itself is not completely connected with the perceived satisfaction with work. While signs of motivation positive in nature are usually stronger among satisfied employees, and the weaker - among dissatisfied ones, we cannot speak about a similar regularity when it comes to factors of negative nature. Furthermore, the presented research shows that within negative factors, larger intensification can be observed among ones of internal nature, while among these of external nature - it is smaller.

  20. Evaluation of Coordination of Emergency Response Team through the Social Network Analysis. Case Study: Oil and Gas Refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Bastani, Susan; Esaghi, Mahbobeh; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Saee, Ali

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cohesions status of the coordination within response teams in the emergency response team (ERT) in a refinery. For this study, cohesion indicators of social network analysis (SNA; density, degree centrality, reciprocity, and transitivity) were utilized to examine the coordination of the response teams as a whole network. The ERT of this research, which was a case study, included seven teams consisting of 152 members. The required data were collected through structured interviews and were analyzed using the UCINET 6.0 Social Network Analysis Program. The results reported a relatively low number of triple connections, poor coordination with key members, and a high level of mutual relations in the network with low density, all implying that there were low cohesions of coordination in the ERT. The results showed that SNA provided a quantitative and logical approach for the examination of the coordination status among response teams and it also provided a main opportunity for managers and planners to have a clear understanding of the presented status. The research concluded that fundamental efforts were needed to improve the presented situations.